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Sample records for 24-h lethal concentration

  1. Method of reliable determination of minimal lethal antibiotic concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, R D; Steigbigel, R T; Davis, H T; Chapman, S W

    1980-01-01

    The lack of a standardized, statistically reliable method for in vitro determinations of the minimal lethal or bactericidal concentrations of antibiotics has complicated analyses of isolates of Staphylococcus aureus which appear to be inhibited but not killed by the usual concentrations of cell wall-active antibiotics. We describe a method which identifies some of the covariants involved in determinations of minimal lethal concentrations. Lethality was defined as a 99.9% reduction in the initial inoculum of bacteria after 24 h of incubation. We limited the sample volume to 0.01 ml to minimize the inhibitory effect of antibiotic and corresponding rejection values, which detected lethality with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. When the number of colonies on subculture was equal to or less than the rejection value, the antibiotic was considered lethal for the test organism. Rejection values encompassed initial inocula from 10(5) to 10(7) colony-forming units per ml for single and duplicate samples and allowed for 1 or 5% variability in pipette volumes and errors in initial inoculum determinations. This method was used to determine the minimal lethal concentrations of semi-synthetic penicillins for S. aureau isolates, one of which was tolerant to the killing action of penicillin. Images PMID:7447427

  2. Alterations in amino acid concentrations in the plasma and muscle in human subjects during 24 h of simulated adventure racing.

    PubMed

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Nordin, Marie; Mikael Mattsson, C; Enqvist, Jonas K; Blomstrand, Eva; Ekblom, Björn

    2012-10-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate changes in plasma and muscle levels of free amino acids during an ultra-endurance exercise and following recovery. Nine male ultra-endurance trained athletes participated in a 24-h standardized endurance trial with controlled energy intake. The participants performed 12 sessions of running, kayaking and cycling (4 × each discipline). Blood samples were collected before, during and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken before the test and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. During the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of branched-chain (BCAA), essential amino acids (EAA) and glutamine fell 13, 14 and 19% (P < 0.05), respectively, whereas their concentrations in muscle were unaltered. Simultaneously, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels rose 38 and 50% (P < 0.05) in the plasma and 66 and 46% (P < 0.05) in muscle, respectively. After the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of BCAA were positively correlated with muscle levels of glycogen (r (2) = 0.73, P < 0.05), as was the combined concentrations of muscle tyrosine and phenylalanine with plasma creatine kinase (R (2) = 0.55, P < 0.05). Following 28-h of recovery, plasma and muscle levels of amino acids had either returned to their initial levels or were elevated. In conclusion, ultra-endurance exercise caused significant changes elevations in plasma and muscle levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine, which suggest an increase in net muscle protein breakdown during exercise. There was a reduction in plasma concentrations of EAA and glutamine during exercise, whereas no changes were detected in their muscle concentration after exercise. PMID:22350359

  3. Apparent lethal concentrations of pyrolysis products of some polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Marcussen, W. H.; Furst, A.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-nine samples of polymeric materials were evaluated to determine the apparent lethal concentrations of their pyrolysis products. The materials were compared on the basis of the apparent lethal concentration for 50 percent of the test animals. Relative toxicity rankings based o apparent lethal concentration values can differ significantly depending on whether they are based on weight of sample charged or weight of sample pyrolyzed. The ranking of polyphenylene sulfide is particularly sensitive to this difference.

  4. Isotope concentrations from 24-h urine and 3-h serum samples can be used to measure intestinal magnesium absorption in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karen E; Nabak, Andrea C; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S; Shafer, Martin M; Abrams, Steven A

    2014-04-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ≥6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ∼23 mg of oral ²⁶Mg and ∼11 mg of i.v. ²⁵Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0-24 h urine MgA value alone (ρ = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0-24 h urine and the 3-h (ρ = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (ρ = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (-0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. PMID:24500940

  5. Isotope Concentrations from 24-h Urine and 3-h Serum Samples Can Be Used to Measure Intestinal Magnesium Absorption in Postmenopausal Women123

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Karen E.; Nabak, Andrea C.; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Shafer, Martin M.; Abrams, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ≥6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ∼23 mg of oral 26Mg and ∼11 mg of i.v. 25Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0–24 h urine MgA value alone (ρ = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0–24 h urine and the 3-h (ρ = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (ρ = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (−0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0–24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0–24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01593501. PMID:24500940

  6. Nanoscale probing of the lateral homogeneity of donors concentration in nitridated SiO2/4H-SiC interfaces.

    PubMed

    Fiorenza, Patrick; Di Franco, Salvatore; Giannazzo, Filippo; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, nanoscale resolution scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) and local capacitance-voltage measurements were used to probe the interfacial donor concentration in SiO2/4H-SiC systems annealed in N2O. Such nitrogen-based annealings are commonly employed to passivate SiO2/SiC interface traps, and result both in the incorporation of N-related donors in SiC and in the increase of the mobility in the inversion layer in 4H-SiC MOS-devices. From our SCM measurements, a spatially inhomogeneous donor distribution was observed in the SiO2/4H-SiC system subjected to N2O annealing. Hence, the effect of a phosphorus implantation before the oxide deposition and N2O annealing was also evaluated. In this case, besides an increased average donor concentration, an improvement of the lateral homogeneity of the active doping was also detected. The possible implications of such a pre-implantation doping of the near-interface region on 4H-SiC MOS-devices are discussed. PMID:27324844

  7. Effect of temperature and heating rate on apparent lethal concentrations of pyrolysis products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Solis, A. N.; Marcussen, W. H.; Furst, A.

    1976-01-01

    The apparent lethal concentrations for 50 percent of the test animals of the pyrolysis products from twelve polymeric materials were studied as a function of temperature and heating rate. The materials were polyethylene, nylon 6, ABS, polycarbonate, polyether sulfone, polyaryl sulfone, wool fabric, aromatic polyamide fabric, polychloroprene foam, polyvinyl fluoride film, Douglas fir, and red oak. The apparent lethal concentration values of most materials vary significantly with temperature and heating rate. The apparent lethal concentration values, based on weight of sample charged, appears to effectively integrate the thermophysical, thermochemical, and physiological responses from a known quantity of material under specified imposed conditions.

  8. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on marine benthic invertebrates and fish.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changkeun; Hong, Seongjin; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Jung-Ho; Ryu, Jongseong; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-08-01

    Concern about leakage of carbon dioxide (CO2) from deep-sea storage in geological reservoirs is increasing because of its possible adverse effects on marine organisms locally or at nearby coastal areas both in sediment and water column. In the present study, we examined how elevated CO2 affects various intertidal epibenthic (benthic copepod), intertidal endobenthic (Manila clam and Venus clam), sub-tidal benthic (brittle starfish), and free-living (marine medaka) organisms in areas expected to be impacted by leakage. Acute lethal and sub-lethal effects were detected in the adult stage of all test organisms exposed to varying concentrations of CO2, due to the associated decline in pH (8.3 to 5.2) during 96-h exposure. However, intertidal organisms (such as benthic copepods and clams) showed remarkable resistance to elevated CO2, with the Venus clam being the most tolerant (LpH50 = 5.45). Sub-tidal species (such as brittle starfish [LpH50 = 6.16] and marine medaka [LpH50 = 5.91]) were more sensitive to elevated CO2 compared to intertidal species, possibly because they have fewer defensive capabilities. Of note, the exposure duration might regulate the degree of acute sub-lethal effects, as evidenced by the Venus clam, which showed a time-dependent effect to elevated CO2. Finally, copper was chosen as a model toxic element to find out the synergistic or antagonistic effects between ocean acidification and metal pollution. Combination of CO2 and Cu exposure enhances the adverse effects to organisms, generally supporting a synergistic effect scenario. Overall, the significant variation in the degree to which CO2 adversely affected organisms (viz., working range and strength) was clearly observed, supporting the general concept of species-dependent effects of elevated CO2. PMID:27074931

  9. The Spatial Concentration of Southern Whites and Argument-Based Lethal Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Matthew R.; Shihadeh, Edward S.

    2009-01-01

    This analysis examines how the spatial concentration of Southern whites is associated with white argument-based lethal violence. Using a well-known measure of spatial segregation (V, the adjusted P* index) among Southern-born whites in U.S. counties in 2000, the results reveal that the spatial concentration of Southern-born whites is only…

  10. TRIMMED SPEARMAN-KARBER METHOD FOR ESTIMATING MEDIAN LETHAL CONCENTRATIONS IN TOXICITY BIOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several methods for treatment of data from toxicity tests to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) are discussed. The probit and logit models widely used for these calculations have deficiencies; therefore, a calculational method, named the 'trimmed Spearman-Karber met...

  11. Prothrombin complex concentrate use in coagulopathy of lethal brain injuries increases organ donation.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Bellal; Aziz, Hassan; Pandit, Viraj; Hays, Daniel; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; Wynne, Julie; O' Keeffe, Terence; Green, Donald J; Friese, Randall S; Gruessner, Rainer; Rhee, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Coagulopathy is a defined barrier for organ donation in patients with lethal traumatic brain injuries. The purpose of this study was to document our experience with the use of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) to facilitate organ donation in patients with lethal traumatic brain injuries. We performed a 4-year retrospective analysis of all patients with devastating gunshot wounds to the brain. The data were analyzed for demographics, change in international normalized ratio (INR), and subsequent organ donation. The primary end point was organ donation. Eighty-eight patients with lethal traumatic brain injury were identified from the trauma registry of whom 13 were coagulopathic at the time of admission (mean INR 2.2 ± 0.8). Of these 13 patients, 10 patients received PCC in an effort to reverse their coagulopathy. Mean INR before PCC administration was 2.01 ± 0.7 and 1.1 ± 0.7 after administration (P < 0.006). Correction of coagulopathy was attained in 70 per cent (seven of 10) patients. Of these seven patients, consent for donation was obtained in six patients and resulted in 19 solid organs being procured. The cost of PCC per patient was $1022 ± 544. PCC effectively reveres coagulopathy associated with lethal traumatic brain injury and enabled patients to proceed to organ donation. Although various methodologies exist for the treatment of coagulopathy to facilitate organ donation, PCC provides a rapid and cost-effective therapy for reversal of coagulopathy in patients with lethal traumatic brain injuries. PMID:24887662

  12. Lethal body concentrations of four non-polar narcotic chemicals in larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    SciTech Connect

    Groetsch, K.; Oris, J.T.; Versteeg, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the lethal body concentrations of tetra chloroethane, dichlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene in the larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). The authors exposed similar populations of larval fathead minnows to a range of concentrations of one of four non-polar, narcotic chemicals. Morbid larvae were collected and the time of collection and internal body concentration were recorded. Example results for pentachlorobenzene show that the concentration of chemical in larvae that die in short time intervals were significantly lower than the concentration of chemical in larvae that died later in the test (ANOVA F-Value = 139, P-Value <.0001). Morbidity occurred between 16 and 210 hours of exposure. After 210 hours, exposed individuals had similar rates of morbidity compared to controls. This study corroborates other research that suggests the existence of a threshold body concentration that causes lethality for non-polar narcotic chemicals. However, individual based tolerance appears to contribute significantly to variability in lethal body concentrations.

  13. Lethal body concentrations and accumulation patterns determine time-dependent toxicity of cadmium in soil arthropods

    SciTech Connect

    Crommentuijn, T.; Doodeman, C.J.A.M.; Doornekamp, A.; Pol, J.J.C. van der; Bedaux, J.J.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. van )

    1994-11-01

    Time-dependent toxicity in bioassays is usually explained in terms of uptake and elimination kinetics of the toxicant. By comparing different species with essentially different accumulation kinetics, a firm test of this concept may be made. This article compares the sensitivity of six soil arthropods, the collembolans Orchesella cincta and Tomocerus minor, the oribatid mite Platynothrus peltifer, the isopods Porcellio scaber and Oniscus asellus, and the diplopod Cylindroiulus britannicus, when exposed to cadmium in the food. Survival was determined at various time intervals; accumulation of cadmium in the animals was measured at one time interval. Kinetic-based toxicity models were fitted to the data, and estimates were obtained for lethal body concentration, uptake rate constant, elimination rate constant, and ultimate LC50. Two different accumulation patterns could be discerned; these were correlated with time-survival relationships. One, species that have the possibility to eliminate cadmium will reach an equilibrium for the internal concentration and also an ultimate LC50. Two, species that are unable to eliminate cadmium but store it in the body will have an ultimate LC50 equal to zero. For these species the time in which the lethal body concentration is reached is more important. Taxonomically related species appeared to have comparable accumulation patterns, but lethal body concentrations differed. It is concluded that knowledge of the accumulation pattern is indispensable for the evaluation of species' sensitivities to toxicants.

  14. Growth, photosynthetic and respiratory responses to sub-lethal copper concentrations in Scenedesmus incrassatulus (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; González-Moreno, Sergio; Montes-Horcasitas, Carmen; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2007-05-01

    In the present paper we investigated the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of Cu2+ in the growth and metabolism of Scenedesmus incrassatulus. We found that the effect of Cu2+ on growth, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) and metabolism do not follow the same pattern. Photosynthesis was more sensitive than respiration. The analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transient shows that the effect of sub-lethal Cu2+ concentration in vivo, causes a reduction of the active PSII reaction centers and the primary charge separation, decreasing the quantum yield of PSII, the electron transport rate and the photosynthetic O2 evolution. The order of sensitivity found was: Growth>photosynthetic pigments content=photosynthetic O2 evolution>photosynthetic electron transport>respiration. The uncoupled relationship between growth and metabolism is discussed. PMID:17267014

  15. Interaction of sub-lethal concentrations of mercury(II) with DNA in eukaryotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.; Holliday, J. )

    1991-03-11

    Mercury compounds are used in a variety of industrial and manufacturing processes and it is the major component in certain types of dental amalgams. Thus a large percentage of the populations is a risk to acute and/or chronic exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of mercury. While questions have been raised concerning the possible health risks associated with such exposure, there is virtually nothing known particularly at the molecular level concerning the biological effects of such exposure. The authors studies have demonstrated that while the majority of mercury(II) that is incorporated into cells (human and Chinese hamster ovary) following exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of mercury(II) is bound to cytoplasmic proteins, there is also binding of mercury to the DNA and this occurs in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore they have demonstrated, using the Chinese hamster ovary cell line AS52 which contains a stably integrated single functional copy of the Escherichia coli xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase gene (gpt), that relatively non-lethal concentrations of mercury(II) induced a higher frequency of mutation in the gpt gene when compared to the spontaneous mutation frequency observed in non-treated cells.

  16. Metabolic Response of Escherichia coli upon Treatment with Hypochlorite at Sub-Lethal Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Jeannette; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Hypochlorite is a reactive oxygen species that is worldwide as an antibacterial disinfectant. Hypochlorite exposure is known to cause oxidative damage to DNA and proteins. As a response to these effects, the metabolite profiles of organisms treated with sub-lethal doses of hypochlorite are assumed to be severely modified; however, the nature of these changes is hardly understood. Therefore, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry, we analyzed the time-dependent impact of hypochlorite exposure with a sub-lethal concentration (50 µM) on the metabolite profile of the Escherichia coli strain MG1655. Principle component analysis clearly distinguished between the metabolite profiles of bacteria treated for 0, 5,10, 20, 40, or 60 min. Major changes in the relative amounts of fatty acids, acetic acid, and formic acid occurred within the first 5 min. Comparative gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the amounts of free methionine and alanine were significantly decreased in the treated cells, demonstrating their susceptibility to hypochlorite exposure. The concentrations of succinate, urea, orotic acid, 2-aminobutyric acid, and 2-hydroxybutyric acid were also severely affected, indicating general changes in the metabolic network by hypochlorite. However, most metabolite levels relaxed to the reference values of untreated cells after 40–60 min, reflecting the capability of E. coli to rapidly adapt to environmental stress factors such as the presence of sub-lethal oxidant levels. PMID:25932918

  17. Immobilized Hydrolytic Enzymes Exhibit Antibiofilm Activity Against Escherichia coli at Sub-Lethal Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Villa, Federica; Secundo, Francesco; Polo, Andrea; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2015-07-01

    The effects of two commercially available immobilized enzymes (namely the glycosidase pectinase and the protease subtilisin A) at sub-lethal concentrations were investigated in terms of their influence on biofilm genesis, on the composition of the biofilm matrix, and their antibiotic synergy against Escherichia coli biofilm, used as a model system of bacterial biofilms. The best antibiofilm performance of solid-supported hydrolases was obtained at the surface concentration of 0.022 and 0.095 U/cm(2) with a reduction of 1.2 and 2.3 log CFU/biofilm for pectinase and subtilisin, respectively. At these enzyme surface concentrations, the biocatalysts affected the structural composition of the biofilm matrix, impacting biofilm thickness. Finally, the immobilized hydrolases enhanced biofilm sensitivity to a clinically relevant concentration of the antibiotic ampicillin. At the final antibiotic concentration of 0.1 mg/ml, a reduction of 2 and 3.5 log10 units in presence of 0.022 Upectinase/cm(2) and 0.095 Usubtilisin/cm(2) was obtained, respectively, in comparison the antibiotic alone. Immobilized pectinase and subtilisin at sub-lethal concentrations demonstrated a great potential for antibiofilm applications. PMID:25958074

  18. Listeria monocytogenes' Step-Like Response to Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Nisin.

    PubMed

    Takhistov, Paul; George, Bernice; Chikindas, Michael L

    2009-12-01

    Microbial safety of food products is often accomplished by the formulation of food-grade preservatives into the product. Because of the growing consumer demand for natural substances (including preservatives) in the composition of consumed foods, there is also a growing interest in the natural antimicrobial nisin, which has generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status for certain applications. During the products storage time, concentrations of preservative(s) are decreasing, which may eventually cause a serious problem in the food's microbial safety. Here, for the first time we report on the non-linear response of a foodborne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes, to sub-lethal concentrations of nisin. PMID:26783172

  19. ALC/50/ values for some polymeric materials. [Apparent Lethal Concentration fire toxicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Schneider, J. E.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Apparent lethal concentrations for 50 per cent of the test animals within a 30-min exposure period (ALC/50/) were determined for seventeen samples of polymeric materials, using the screening test method. The materials evaluated included resin-glass composites, film composites, and miscellaneous resins. ALC(50) values, based on weight of original sample charged, ranged from 24 to 110 mg/l. Modified phenolic resins seemed to exhibit less toxicity than the baseline epoxy resins. Among the film composites evaluated, only flame modified polyvinyl fluoride appeared to exhibit less toxicity than the baseline polyvinyl fluoride film.

  20. Effects of sub-lethal and chronic lead concentrations on blood and liver ALA-D activity and hematological parameters in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Carlucio Rocha; Cavalcante, Ana Luiza Michel; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Lopes, Renato Matos; Da Costa Mattos, Rita De Cássia Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    Liver and blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) inhibition by exposure to sub-lethal lead concentrations over time in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were investigated. All three lead concentrations (1mgkg(-1), 10mgkg(-1) and 100mgkg(-1)) significantly inhibited ALA-D activity in blood (319±29.2; 180±14.6 and 172±19µmols(-1)h(-1)L(-1) respectively) and liver (302±5.84; 201±41.4 and 93±22.1µmols(-1)h(-1)L(-1)) 24h after injection relative to controls (blood: 597±37.0µmols(-1)h(-1)L(-1); liver: 376±23.1µmols(-1)h(-1)L(-1)). Blood ALA-D was greatly inhibited in all but the highest lead dose. Fish were then exposed to 1mgkg(-1) lead for 9 days, and presented short-term hyperglycemia, decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit values and time-dependent blood ALA-D activity inhibition, corroborating blood ALA-D activity as being more suitable for investigating lead effects, showing dose and time-dependent ALA-D inhibition after lead exposure. The results of the present study also demonstrated that fish size affects blood ALA-D activity, as fish from the 24-h assay, which were slightly smaller (approximately 200g), showed higher ALA-D inhibition in response to lead exposure when compared to the fish from the 9-day assay (approximately 500g). Thus, fish size should always be taken into account both in the field and in laboratory settings, and efforts should be made to obtain uniform fish size samples for biomarker studies. PMID:27054706

  1. Median lethal concentration of formaldehyde and its genotoxic potential in bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus).

    PubMed

    Santana, Juliana M; Dos Reis, Adriana; Teixeira, Patrícia C; Ferreira, Fábio C; Ferreira, Cláudia M

    2015-01-01

    In order to avoid that contaminated frog farms animals escaping in the environment and become potential vector of emergent diseases, studies with disinfection protocol are strictly necessary. The formaldehyde is one of the compounds tested in fungal disinfection protocols and also used in aquaculture. This study aimed to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50-96h) of formaldehyde in bullfrog tadpoles and to evaluate the possible genotoxic effects in acute exposition. Accordingly, the animals were exposed to formaldehyde in the concentrations of 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 mg L(-1), and after 96 h blood samples were drawn for the micronucleus (MN) test. The LC50-96h was 10.53 mg L(-1), and the MN frequency increased in proportion to the formaldehyde concentrations, with an estimated frequency in the negative control being 1.35 MN/individual. We concluded that formaldehyde is genotoxic to tadpoles of bullfrogs in the tested concentrations, and the choice of this chemical should be contemplated before its use in animals in captivity. PMID:26266476

  2. 24-h Efficacy of Glaucoma Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Konstas, Anastasios G P; Quaranta, Luciano; Bozkurt, Banu; Katsanos, Andreas; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian; Rossetti, Luca; Shaarawy, Tarek; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Miglior, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Current management of glaucoma entails the medical, laser, or surgical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) to a predetermined level of target IOP, which is commensurate with either stability or delayed progression of visual loss. In the published literature, the hypothesis is often made that IOP control implies a single IOP measurement over time. Although the follow-up of glaucoma patients with single IOP measurements is quick and convenient, such measurements often do not adequately reflect the untreated IOP characteristics, or indeed the quality of treated IOP control during the 24-h cycle. Since glaucoma is a 24-h disease and the damaging effect of elevated IOP is continuous, it is logical that we should aim to understand the efficacy of all treatment options throughout the 24-h period. This article first reviews the concept and value of diurnal and 24-h IOP monitoring. It then critically evaluates selected available evidence on the 24-h efficacy of medical, laser and surgical therapy options. During the past decade several controlled trials have significantly enhanced our understanding on the 24-h efficacy of all glaucoma therapy options. Nevertheless, more long-term evidence is needed to better evaluate the 24-h efficacy of glaucoma therapy and the precise impact of IOP characteristics on glaucomatous progression and visual prognosis. PMID:26909513

  3. Effects of DDE on experimentally poisoned free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis): Lethal brain concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Kroll, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Adult female free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and shipped to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Treated mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing 107 ppm DDE were fed to 17 bats; five other bats were fed untreated mealworms. After 40 days on dosage, during which one dosed bat was killed accidentally, four dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 17 were starved to death. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE to lethality and measure these concentrations. After the feeding period, dosed bats weighed less than controls. After starvation, the body condition of dosed bats was poorer than that of controls even though there was no difference in the amounts of carcass fat. During starvation, dosed bats lost weight faster than controls. Also, four dosed bats exhibited the prolonged tremoring that characterizes DDE poisoning. DDE increased in brains of starving bats as fat was metabolized. The estimated mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was 519 ppm with a range of 458-564 ppm. These values resemble diagnostic levels known for two species of passerine birds, but they exceed published levels for two free-tailed bats from Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico.

  4. Histopathological changes in snail, Pomacea canaliculata, exposed to sub-lethal copper sulfate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Dummee, Vipawee; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Damrongphol, Praneet; Pokethitiyook, Prayad

    2015-12-01

    The acute toxicity test of Cu including range-finding and definitive test, was performed on golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of Cu at exposure times of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 330, 223, 177 and 146 µg/L, respectively. P. canaliculata were exposed to Cu at 146 µg/L for 96 h to study bioaccumulation and histopathological alterations in various organs. Snails accumulated elevated levels of Cu in gill, and lesser amounts in the digestive tract, muscle, and digestive gland. Histopathological investigation revealed several alterations in the epithelia of gill, digestive tract (esophagus, intestine, rectum), and digestive gland. The most striking changes were observed in the epithelium of the gill in which there was loss of cilia, an increase in number of mucus cells, and degeneration of columnar cells. Similar changes occurred in digestive tract epithelium. The digestive gland showed moderate alterations, vacuolization and degeneration of cells and an increase in the number of basophilic cells. We concluded that, P. canaliculata has a great potential as a bioindicator for Cu, and a biomarker for monitoring Cu contamination in aquatic environment. PMID:26295753

  5. Prediction of lethal/effective concentration/dose in the presence of multiple auxiliary covariates and components of variance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutreuter, S.; Boogaard, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Predictors of the percentile lethal/effective concentration/dose are commonly used measures of efficacy and toxicity. Typically such quantal-response predictors (e.g., the exposure required to kill 50% of some population) are estimated from simple bioassays wherein organisms are exposed to a gradient of several concentrations of a single agent. The toxicity of an agent may be influenced by auxiliary covariates, however, and more complicated experimental designs may introduce multiple variance components. Prediction methods lag examples of those cases. A conventional two-stage approach consists of multiple bivariate predictions of, say, medial lethal concentration followed by regression of those predictions on the auxiliary covariates. We propose a more effective and parsimonious class of generalized nonlinear mixed-effects models for prediction of lethal/effective dose/concentration from auxiliary covariates. We demonstrate examples using data from a study regarding the effects of pH and additions of variable quantities 2???,5???-dichloro-4???- nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) on the toxicity of 3-trifluoromethyl-4- nitrophenol to larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). The new models yielded unbiased predictions and root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) of prediction for the exposure required to kill 50 and 99.9% of some population that were 29 to 82% smaller, respectively, than those from the conventional two-stage procedure. The model class is flexible and easily implemented using commonly available software. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  6. Long-term sub-lethal effects of low concentration commercial herbicide (glyphosate/pelargonic acid) formulation in Bryophyllum pinnatum.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Lok R; Karsai, Istvan

    2015-12-15

    Potential long-term (~7months) sub-lethal impacts of soil-applied low levels of Roundup herbicide formulation were investigated in a greenhouse environment using the vegetative clones of succulent non-crop plant model, Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken. An eleven day LC50 (concentration that killed 50% of the plants) was found to be 6.25% (~1.25mg glyphosate/mL and 1.25mg pelargonic acid/mL combined), and complete mortality occurred at 12.5%, of the field application rate (i.e., ~20mg glyphosate/mL and 20mg pelargonic acid/mL as active ingredients). While sub-lethal Roundup (1-5%) exposures led to hormesis-characterized by a significant increase in biomass and vegetative reproduction, higher concentrations (≥6.25%) were toxic. A significant interaction between Roundup concentrations and leaf biomass was found to influence the F1 plantlets' biomass. Biomass asymmetry generally increased with increasing Roundup concentrations, indicating that plants were more stressed at higher Roundup treatments but within the low-dose regime (≤5% of the as-supplied formulation). While leaf apex region demonstrated higher reproduction with lower biomass increase, leaf basal area showed lower reproduction with greater biomass increase, in plantlets. The results suggest long-term exposures to drifted low levels of Roundup in soil may promote biomass and reproduction in B. pinnatum. PMID:26311583

  7. Effects of DDE and PCB (Aroclor 1260) on experimentally poisoned little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus): Lethal brain concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Stafford, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Adult female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were collected in a church attic in North East, Cecil County, Md. Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing organochlorine pollutants were fed to the bats as follows: 5 bats were dosed at 480 ppm DDE, 12 at 150 ppm DDE, 5 at 1000 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB; Aroclor 1260), and 12 at 15 ppm PCB. Seven other bats were fed untreated mealworms. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE and PCB to lethality and measure these concentrations. During 40 d of dosage, one DDE-dosed bat and two PCB-dosed bats died after exhibiting the prolonged tremor that characterizes organochlorine poisoning. After dosage, surviving bats were starved to elevate brain levels of toxicants, and three additional DDE-dosed bats had tremors before dying. The mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was estimated as 603 ppm, range 540-670 ppm. This mean is 16-18% higher than means for Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) and common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and may indicate less sensitivity. Lethal brain concentrations of Aroclor 1260 were 1300 and 1500 ppm. Such values appear to be higher than values (Aroclor 1254) for brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). During starvation, DDE-dosed bats lost weight about 24% faster than controls. If smaller amounts of stored DDE cause increases in metabolic rates of nonfeeding bats, as during hibernation or migration, the result could be premature energy depletion and increased mortality.

  8. Effects of lethal and sublethal concentrations of the herbicide, triclopyr butoxyethyl ester, in the diet of zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Holmes, S B; Thompson, D G; Wainio-Keizer, K L; Capell, S S; Staznik, B

    1994-07-01

    Lethal and sublethal effects of dietary triclopyr butoxyethyl ester (TBEE) on zebra finches (Poephila guttata Gould) were determined in laboratory experiments conducted between 8 January and 1 May 1991. The 8-day median lethal dietary concentration, LC50 (95% confidence interval), of TBEE to zebra finches was 1,923 (1,627 to 2,277) mg/kg. In the sublethal effects experiment, when birds were exposed to 500 mg/kg TBEE in the diet for 29 days, food consumption and body weight were significantly depressed (P < 0.05). Similar prolonged exposures to 50 and 150 mg/kg TBEE in the diet had no significant effect on food consumption or body weight (P > 0.05). Perch-hopping activity was depressed relative to controls in the 500 mg/kg group, and elevated in the 150 mg/kg group, but neither of these differences was significantly (P > 0.05). Disappearance of TBEE residues from treated seeds over the 29 day experimental period followed an exponential decay model, with half-lives in the order of 15 to 18 days. On the basis of our observation that TBEE had no significant adverse effects at a concentration greater than the maximum expected environmental concentration, we propose that forestry applications of triclopyr at registered dosage rates pose little risk to wild songbirds. PMID:7933272

  9. Sub-lethal cadmium exposure increases phytochelatin concentrations in the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Sf, Gonçalves; Sk, Davies; Bennett, M; Raab, A; Feldmann, J; Kille, P; Loureiro, S; Dj, Spurgeon; Jg, Bundy

    2016-10-15

    Phytochelatins are metal-binding metabolites found in almost all plant species and some animal groups, including nematodes and annelids, where they can play an important role in detoxifying metals such as cadmium. Species from several other taxa contain a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene orthologue, including molluscs, indicating they may have the potential to synthesize phytochelatins. However, the presence of a gene alone does not demonstrate that it plays a functional role in metal detoxification. In the present study, we show that the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis produced both penta- and heptapeptide phytochelatins (i.e. phytochelatin-2 and phytochelatin-3), and their levels increased in response to sub-lethal levels of cadmium. PMID:27358197

  10. Health in a 24-h society.

    PubMed

    Rajaratnam, S M; Arendt, J

    2001-09-22

    With increasing economic and social demands, we are rapidly evolving into a 24-h society. In any urban economy, about 20% of the population are required to work outside the regular 0800-1700 h working day and this figure is likely to increase. Although the increase in shiftwork has led to greater flexibility in work schedules, the ability to provide goods and services throughout the day and night, and possibly greater employment opportunities, the negative effects of shiftwork and chronic sleep loss on health and productivity are now being appreciated. For example, sleepiness surpasses alcohol and drugs as the greatest identifiable and preventable cause of accidents in all modes of transport. Industrial accidents associated with night work are common, perhaps the most famous being Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and Bhopal. PMID:11583769

  11. Blood concentrations of clobazam and norclobazam in a lethal case involving clobazam, meprobamate and clorazepate.

    PubMed

    Pok, Phak-Rop Pos; Mauras, Michel; De Saint Léger, Marie-Noëlle; Kuhlmann, Erika; Charpenel-Durat, Catherine; Navarette, Claudie; Duval, Marie-Laure; De Meo, Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Clobazam is a benzodiazepine with anti-anxiety and anticonvulsant properties marketed in several countries. Norclobazam, a metabolite of clobazam, has similar pharmacological activity but weaker sedative and tranquilizing effect. The two drugs were detected by GC-MS and determined by HPLC-DAD in the samples from a postmortem case. The femoral blood concentrations of clobazam and norclobazam were 0.72 and 36 μg/mL, respectively. The concentration of the active norclobazam was very high. The sum of both clobazam and norclobazam blood concentration (36.72 μg/mL) was clearly toxic, but was not necessarily fatal. Other associated drugs concentrations were within their therapeutic ranges. Interactions due to drug association were discussed. PMID:20870445

  12. Effects of cadmium at sub-lethal concentration on growth and biochemical parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Heydarnejad, M Saeed; Khosravian-Hemamai, Mozhdeh; Nematollahi, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), as one of heavy metals and an environmental stressor, may alter many physiological processes like growth and serum parameters in fish. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of cadmium at sub-lethal concentrations (1 and 3 μg/l) on growth and serum biochemical parameters including enzymes, i.e. alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and total protein in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were exposed to cadmium, and, at intervals of 1, 15, and 30 days, selected parameters were evaluated. Condition Factor (K), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Body Weight Gain (BWG) consistently decreased, while Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) increased at the end of experiment. Glucose was elevated in trout exposed to both Cd concentrations at day 15 and then returned to levels comparable to control fish. Triglyceride and cholesterol decreased transiently at day 15 and then increased at day 30. Total protein, AST, ALT and ALP increased linearly by time and Cd concentration. This investigation suggests that growth and serum biochemical parameters could be used as important and sensitive biomarkers in ecotoxicological studies concerning the effects of metal contamination and fish health. PMID:23782857

  13. Insecticides applied to a nursery colony of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus): lethal concentrations in brain tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Kunz, T.H.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    -Forty-six Myotis lucifugus were collected in May and June 1974 at a nursery colony in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, that had been sprayed with DDT and chlordane in August and September 1973. When collected, 27 bats were alive, two were convulsing, and 17 were dead. Brains, carcasses, and milk and masticated insects from stomachs were analyzed for organochlorine insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). ...Concentrations of chemical residues in brains of surviving bats were compared with those of dead and convulsing bats. These comparisons indicated that DDT was the cause of death. Lethal brain concentrations of DDT in adult females averaged 24.52 parts per million (ppm) and suggested that adult M. lucifugus are approximately twice as sensitive to DDT as are adult laboratory rats and mice. Juvenile bats were about 1.5 times more sensitive than adult bats....Large chemical residues were present in milk. We found a statistically significant relationship between declines in carcass residues in lactating females and uterine regression for six of 10 toxicants. Among juveniles, there were corresponding, significant increases (for nine of 10 toxicants) in carcass levels of residues correlated with increasing age (growth of forearm).

  14. Sub-lethal concentrations of waterborne copper are toxic to lateral line neuromasts in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Hernández, Pedro P; Moreno, Virginia; Olivari, Francisco A; Allende, Miguel L

    2006-03-01

    In teleosts, the lateral line system is composed of neuromasts containing hair cells that are analogous to those present in the inner ear of all vertebrates. In the zebrafish embryo and early larva, this system is composed of the anterior lateral line (ALL), which covers the head, and the posterior lateral line (PLL), present in the trunk and tail. The mechanosensory hair cells found in neuromasts can be labeled in vivo using fluorescent dyes such as 4-di-2-Asp (DiAsp) or FM1-43. We have studied the effects of water-borne copper exposure on the function of the lateral line system in zebrafish larvae. Our results show that transient incubation of post-hatching larvae for 2h with non-lethal concentrations of copper (1-50 microM CuSO4) induces cellular damage localized to neuromasts, apoptosis, and loss of hair cell markers. This effect is specific to copper, as other metals did not show these effects. Since hair cells in fish can regenerate, we followed the reappearance of viable hair cells in neuromasts after copper removal. In the PLL, we determined that there is a threshold concentration of copper above which regeneration does not occur, whereas, at lower concentrations, the length of time it takes for viable hair cells to reappear is dependent on the amount of copper used during the treatment. The ALL behaves differently though, as regeneration can occur even after treatments with concentrations of copper an order of magnitude higher than the one that irreversibly affects the PLL. Regeneration of hair cells is dependent on cell division within the neuromasts as damage that precludes proliferation prevents reappearance of this cell type. PMID:16386394

  15. Immunomodulation the marine green mussel Perna viridis exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of Cu and Hg.

    PubMed

    Thiagarajan, R; Gopalakrishnan, S; Thilagam, H

    2006-10-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing concern and, more importantly, pollution of the aquatic ecosystem is alarming. Marine pollution may be one of the reasons for disease incidence in marine organisms, which is caused due to adverse effects of pollutants on the immune system. Bivalves are commonly used as bio-indicators of marine pollution, and immunomodulation due to toxicants is one of the important bio-markers used. Perna viridis too have been used as a bio-indicator, but this study is, to our knowledge, a first report on immunomodulation produced by metals, in P. viridis. Animals were exposed to copper and mercury at their sub-lethal concentrations of 20 microg L(-1) and 10 microg L(-1), respectively. Immune parameters including phenoloxidase, reactive oxygen species generation, and phagocytosis were monitored. The study period was for 25 days (chronic long-term exposure) and objectives established whether metals produced immunomodulation and to understand the effects of long-term exposure on immunomodulation. Results showed that both metals adversely affected immune parameters studied and, interestingly, there appears to be some level of recovery (depuration) from the toxic effects of metals. PMID:16823522

  16. Behavioral responses of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis to sub-lethal concentrations of waterborne pollutants.

    PubMed

    Michalec, François-Gaël; Holzner, Markus; Menu, Dominique; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Souissi, Sami

    2013-08-15

    Estuarine waters contain a variety of chemicals which affect to various extents the behavior of aquatic organisms. Little is known, however, on the behavioral response of copepods. The present study shows the results of laboratory experiments investigating the immediate effects of sub-lethal concentrations of three commonly found contaminants on the three-dimensional swimming behavior of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis. Nonylphenol at 2 μg L⁻¹, cadmium at 45 n gL⁻¹ and a mixture of low to medium molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 40 ng L⁻¹ all affected the swimming behavior of E. affinis adults, increasing both swimming speed and activity. In most cases, effects were observable within 30 min of exposure and persisted or faded during a period of depuration in uncontaminated water of similar duration. In ovigerous females exposed to Cd and PAHs, effects appeared to be more pronounced during the depuration period, suggesting that carrying ovisacs may impair recovery. We quantified differences in the distribution of swimming speed values by considering the relative frequencies of periods of break, slow and fast swimming and we observed a trend toward faster movements in the presence of pollutants. The degree of trajectory complexity, estimated through their fractal dimension, was unaffected by pollutants. Since both narcotic and non-narcotic pollutants induced hyperactivity, our results suggest that changes in behavior after a short-term exposure may be independent of the general mode of action of the chemicals. The increase in speed and activity resembles an escape reaction permitting copepods to evade stressful conditions. Overall, these results indicate that environment-relevant concentrations of pollutants can induce rapid changes in copepod behavior. Since behavioral processes represent a fundamental element in the ecology of copepods, our results raise concern about the effects of background levels of pollution on a

  17. Fitness costs to Helicoverpa armigera after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato: Study on F1 generation.

    PubMed

    Jarrahi, Azadeh; Safavi, Seyed Ali

    2016-07-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin is a valuable biocontrol agent attacking larval stages of many lepidopteran pests including Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). Sub-lethal effects of M. anisopliae sensu lato (s.l.) (isolate M14) were investigated on life table parameters of offspring from treated larvae of H. armigera. Duration of different life stages was significantly affected by fungal treatments. Fecundity was decreased in females derived from H. armigera larvae treated with M. anisopliae s.l. Sub-lethal concentrations of the entomopathogen reduced the net reproduction rate (R0) of F1 insects for all treatments compared with the control. Similar reductions were observed for the intrinsic and the finite rates of increase (rm and λ, respectively). The mean generation time (T) and the doubling time (DT) were statistically higher in offspring of individuals exposed to some fungal concentrations than control insects. Our results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the F1 population of H. armigera derived from larvae that were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of M. anisopliae s.l. PMID:27247225

  18. Enhanced vagal baroreflex response during 24 h after acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Adams, W. C.

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated carotid-cardiac baroreflex responses in eight normotensive men (25-41 yr) on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested before and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after graded supine cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, this 24-h protocol was repeated with no exercise (control). Beat-to-beat R-R intervals were measured during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses from 40 to -65 mmHg; changes of R-R intervals were plotted against carotid pressure (systolic pressure minus neck chamber pressure). The maximum slope of the response relationship increased (P less than 0.05) from preexercise to 12 h (3.7 +/- 0.4 to 7.1 +/- 0.7 ms/mmHg) and remained significantly elevated through 24 h. The range of the R-R response was also increased from 217 +/- 24 to 274 +/- 32 ms (P less than 0.05). No significant differences were observed during the control 24-h period. An acute bout of graded exercise designed to elicit exhaustion increases the sensitivity and range of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response for 24 h and enhances its capacity to buffer against hypotension by increasing heart rate. These results may represent an underlying mechanism that contributes to blood pressure stability after intense exercise.

  19. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet.

    PubMed

    Portilla, Maribel; Jones, Walker; Perera, Omaththage; Seiter, Nick; Greene, Jeremy; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-01-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard(®) (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection) were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection) were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 10⁶, n × 10⁷) of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 10⁴, n × 10⁵) were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8) are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98-4.98 viable spores per mm²). PMID:27376335

  20. Identification of 24 h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Lauren A.; Radulović, Željko M.; Kim, Tae K.; Porter, Lindsay M.; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24 h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24 h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24 h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24 h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ~19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ~81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ~18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (~3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (~6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (~31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (~24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24 h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted. PMID:25825233

  1. Selenium concentrations in the razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus): Substitution of non-lethal muscle plugs for muscle tissue in contaminant assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddell, B.; May, T.

    1995-01-01

    A single muscle plug was collected from each of 25 live razorback suckers inhabiting the Colorado River basin and analyzed for selenium by instrumental neutron activation. Eight fish from Ashley Creek and three from Razorback Bar exhibited selenium concentrations exceeding 8 μg/g, a level associated with reproductive failure in fish. Concentrations of selenium in eggs and milt were significantly correlated with selenium concentrations in muscle plugs and together indicate a possible explanation for the decline of this species in the Colorado River basin. Muscle plugs (<50mg) and muscle tissue (20 g) were collected from dorsal, anterior, and posterior areas of common carp, flannelmouth sucker, and an archived razorback sucker and analyzed for selenium. Concentrations of selenium in muscle plugs were significantly correlated with selenium concentrations in muscle tissue from the same location and fish (r=0.97). Coefficients of variation for selenium concentrations in each fish were <6.5% for muscle tissue, but ranged from 1.5 to 32.4% for muscle plugs. Increased variation in muscle plugs was attributed to lower selenium concentrations found in the anterior muscle plugs of flannelmouth suckers. Mean selenium concentrations in muscle plugs and tissue from dorsal and posterior areas and muscle tissue from the anterior area were not significantly different. The non-lethal collection of a muscle plug from dorsal and posterior areas of the razorback sucker and other fish species may provide an accurate assessment of selenium concentrations that exist in adjacent muscle tissue.

  2. Effects of sub-lethal neurite outgrowth inhibitory concentrations of chlorpyrifos oxon on cytoskeletal proteins and acetylcholinesterase in differentiating N2a cells

    SciTech Connect

    Flaskos, J.; Nikolaidis, E.; Harris, W.; Sachana, M.; Hargreaves, A.J.

    2011-11-15

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that sub-lethal concentrations (1-10 {mu}M) of chlorpyrifos (CPF), diazinon (DZ) and diazinon oxon (DZO) inhibit the outgrowth of axon-like neurites in differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells concomitant with altered levels and/or phosphorylation state of axonal cytoskeleton and growth-associated proteins. The aim of the present work was to determine whether chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) was capable of inhibiting N2a cell differentiation in a similar manner. Using experimental conditions similar to our previous work, sub-lethal concentrations (1-10 {mu}M) of CPO were found to inhibit N2a cell differentiation. However, unlike previous studies with DZ and DZO, there was a high level of sustained inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in CPO treated cells. Impairment of neurite outgrowth was also associated with reduced levels of growth associated protein-43 and neurofilament heavy chain (NFH), and the distribution of NFH in cells stained by indirect immunofluorescence was disrupted. However, in contrast to previous findings for DZO, the absolute level of phosphorylated NFH was unaffected by CPO exposure. Taken together, the findings suggest that sub-lethal concentrations of CPO inhibit axon outgrowth in differentiating N2a cells and that this effect involves reduced levels of two proteins that play key roles in axon outgrowth and maintenance. Although the inhibition of neurite outgrowth is unlikely to involve AChE inhibition directly, further work will help to determine whether the persistent inhibition of AChE by CPO can account for the different effects induced by CPO and DZO on the levels of total and phosphorylated NFH. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sub-lethal levels of chlorpyrifos oxon inhibit neurite outgrowth in N2a cells Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylcholinesterase exhibits sustained inhibition throughout exposure Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The levels of neurofilament heavy chain and GAP-43

  3. Biochemical response of the mussel Mytilus coruscus (Mytiloida: Mytilidae) exposed to in vivo sub-lethal copper concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifeng; Gu, Zhongqi; Liu, Hong; Shen, Heding; Yang, Jinglong

    2012-09-01

    Many aquatic organisms are negatively affected by exposure to high copper concentrations. We investigated the biochemical response of the mussel Mytilus coruscus (Mytiloida: Mytilidae) to copper exposure. In vivo bioassays using M. coruscus and different copper concentrations were conducted. The activity of six biomarkers, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were measured. Survival rates decreased with increased copper concentrations and exposure times. The LC50 values at 48, 72, and 96 h exposure were 0.48, 0.37, and 0.32 mg/L, respectively. Within digestive glands, CAT activity increased with increasing Cu concentrations. The activity of AKP showed no significant change, while the remaining four enzymes showed decreasing activity with increasing Cu concentrations. Within the gills, AKP activity increased when the Cu concentration was 0.05 mg/L, but showed no significant changes at higher concentrations. Activity of CAT and ACP within gills tended to decrease with increasing Cu concentration. The activity of SOD and GPT decreased at an exposure concentration of 0.2 mg/L. GOT activity within gills decreased at 0.1 mg/L and increased at an exposure concentration of 0.2 mg/L. Within the adductor muscle, AKP activity increased at 0.05 mg/L but did not change at higher exposure concentrations. ACP activity within adductor muscle tissue showed no change, while activities of CAT, GOT and GPT decreased with increasing Cu concentrations. SOD activity within the adductor muscle tissue significantly decreased at the 0.02, 0.05 and 0.2 mg/L exposure concentrations. Our results show tissue specific differences for the six biomarkers in for M. coruscus. Our findings provide the basis for the establishment of reference activity levels against which biomarker changes can be estimated, and are essential preliminary steps in development

  4. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, P<0.05) with ephedrine than with placebo, but mechanical work was not different between the ephedrine and placebo periods. Noradrenaline excretion was lower with ephedrine (0.032+/-0.011 microg/mg creatinine) compared with placebo (0.044+/-0.012 microg/mg creatinine) (P<0.05). (+/-)Ephedrine is a relatively weak partial agonist of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors, and had no detectable activity at human beta3-adrenoreceptors. Ephedrine (50 mg thrice daily) modestly increases energy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  5. A PUFFERFISH (TETRADON NIGROVIRIDIS) AVAILABLE IN THE COMMON PET TRADE HARBORS LETHAL CONCENTRATIONS OF TETRODOTOXIN: A CASE STUDY OF POISONING IN A CUVIER'S DWARF CAIMAN (PALEOSUCHUS PALPEBROSUS).

    PubMed

    Williams, Becky L; Powers, Lauren V; Garner, Michael M

    2016-06-01

    Many pufferfish possess tetrodotoxin (TTX). Unaware of this fact, the owner of a 3-mo-old pet Cuvier's dwarf caiman ( Paleosuchus palpebrosus ) fed the caiman a green spotted pufferfish ( Tetraodon nigroviridis ), acquired from a local discount department store. The caiman was nonresponsive within an hour of consumption of the fish. The caiman was presented for veterinary evaluation but died despite intensive medical care. High-performance liquid chromatography and a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay were used to determine whether the pufferfish was tetrodotoxic and whether the deceased caiman had TTX in its system. Skin and liver of the pufferfish harbored high concentrations of TTX, and the caiman had TTX in the blood, liver, and kidney. The clinical signs and presence of TTX in the caiman suggest that the caiman succumbed to tetrodotoxicosis. The implication is that lethally poisonous species are available commercially and pose a danger to other pets and possibly small children. PMID:27468050

  6. Assessment of Caudal Fin Clips as a Non-lethal Technique for Predicting Muscle Tissue Mercury Concentrations in Largeouth Bass

    EPA Science Inventory

    The statistical relationship between total mercury (Hg) concentration in clips from the caudal fin and muscle tissue of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 26 freshwater sites in Rhode Island, USA was developed and evaluated to determine the utility of fin clip analysis ...

  7. Four to seven random casual urine specimens are sufficient to estimate 24-h urinary sodium/potassium ratio in individuals with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Iwahori, T; Ueshima, H; Torii, S; Saito, Y; Fujiyoshi, A; Ohkubo, T; Miura, K

    2016-05-01

    This study was done to clarify the optimal number and type of casual urine specimens required to estimate urinary sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio in individuals with high blood pressure. A total of 74 individuals with high blood pressure, 43 treated and 31 untreated, were recruited from the Japanese general population. Urinary sodium, potassium and Na/K ratio were measured in both casual urine samples and 7-day 24-h urine samples and then analyzed by correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. Mean Na/K ratio from random casual urine samples on four or more days strongly correlated with the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.80-0.87), which was similar to the correlation between 1 and 2-day 24-h urine and 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.75-0.89). The agreement quality for Na/K ratio of seven random casual urine for estimating the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine was good (bias: -0.26, limits of agreements: -1.53-1.01), and it was similar to that of 2-day 24-h urine for estimating 7-day 24-h values (bias: 0.07, limits of agreement: -1.03 to 1.18). Stratified analyses comparing individuals using antihypertensive medication and individuals not using antihypertensive medication showed similar results. Correlations of the means of casual urine sodium or potassium concentrations with 7-day 24-h sodium or potassium excretions were relatively weaker than those for Na/K ratio. The mean Na/K ratio of 4-7 random casual urine specimens on different days provides a good substitute for 1-2-day 24-h urinary Na/K ratio for individuals with high blood pressure. PMID:26310187

  8. Nqrs Data for C24H44CuI2N [C24H44N·1/2(Cu2I4)] (Subst. No. 1588)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H44CuI2N [C24H44N·1/2(Cu2I4)] (Subst. No. 1588)

  9. Effects of sub-lethal concentrations of thyme and oregano essential oils, carvacrol, thymol, citral and trans-2-hexenal on membrane fatty acid composition and volatile molecule profile of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Siroli, Lorenzo; Patrignani, Francesca; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the modifications of cell membrane fatty acid composition and volatile molecule profiles of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, during growth in the presence of different sub-lethal concentrations of thyme and oregano essential oils as well as carvacrol, thymol, trans-2-hexenal and citral. The results evidenced that the tested molecules induced noticeable modifications of membrane fatty acid profiles and volatile compounds produced during the growth. Although specific differences in relation to the species considered were identified, the tested compounds induced a marked increase of some membrane associated fatty acids, particularly unsaturated fatty acids, trans-isomers, and specific released free fatty acids. These findings can contribute to the comprehension of the stress response mechanisms used by different pathogenic microorganisms often involved in food-borne diseases in relation to the exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of natural antimicrobials. PMID:25842326

  10. Transient energy deficit induced by exercise increases 24-h fat oxidation in young trained men.

    PubMed

    Iwayama, Kaito; Kawabuchi, Ryosuke; Park, Insung; Kurihara, Reiko; Kobayashi, Masashi; Hibi, Masanobu; Oishi, Sachiko; Yasunaga, Koichi; Ogata, Hitomi; Nabekura, Yoshiharu; Tokuyama, Kumpei

    2015-01-01

    Whole body fat oxidation increases during exercise. However, 24-h fat oxidation on a day with exercise often remains similar to that of sedentary day, when energy intake is increased to achieve an energy-balanced condition. The present study aimed to examine a possibility that time of the day when exercise is performed makes differences in 24-h fat oxidation. As a potential mechanism of exercise affecting 24-h fat oxidation, its relation to exercise-induced transient energy deficit was examined. Nine young male endurance athletes underwent three trials of indirect calorimetry using a metabolic chamber, in which they performed a session of 100 min of exercise before breakfast (AM), after lunch (PM), or two sessions of 50 min of exercise before breakfast and after lunch (AM/PM) at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake. Experimental meals were designed to achieve individual energy balance. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was similar among the trials, but 24-h fat oxidation was 1,142 ± 97, 809 ± 88, and 608 ± 46 kcal/24 h in descending order of its magnitude for AM, AM/PM, and PM, respectively (P < 0.05). Twenty-four-hour carbohydrate oxidation was 2,558 ± 110, 2,374 ± 114, and 2,062 ± 96 kcal/24 h for PM, AM/PM, and AM, respectively. In spite of energy-balanced condition over 24 h, exercise induced a transient energy deficit, the magnitude of which was negatively correlated with 24-h fat oxidation (r = -0.72, P < 0.01). Similarly, transient carbohydrate deficit after exercise was negatively correlated with 24-h fat oxidation (r = -0.40, P < 0.05). The time of the day when exercise is performed affects 24-h fat oxidation, and the transient energy/carbohydrate deficit after exercise is implied as a factor affecting 24-h fat oxidation. PMID:25554797

  11. Environmental impact on crew of armoured vehicles: Effects of 24 h combat exercise in a hot desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. P.; Majumdar, D.; Bhatia, M. R.; Srivastava, K. K.; Selvamurthy, W.

    1995-06-01

    A field study was undertaken to investigate the effects of combined noise, vibration and heat stress on the physiological functions of the crew of armoured vehicles during prolonged combat exercise in a desert. The sound pressure level of noise was measured with a sound level meter and accelerations by vibration analyser. The thermal load on the crew was evaluated by calculating the wet bulb globe temperature index. The physiological responses of the subjects ( n=9), included significant increases in the heart rate, 24 h water intake and urinary catecholamine concentration. A significant decrease was recorded in body mass, peak expiratory flow rate and 24 h urinary output. The high heat load on the crew resulted in a hypohydration of 3% body mass and appeared to be the dominant factor in producing the physiological strain.

  12. Critical analysis of the maximum non inhibitory concentration (MNIC) method in quantifying sub-lethal injury in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exposed to either thermal or pulsed electric field treatments.

    PubMed

    Kethireddy, V; Oey, I; Jowett, Tim; Bremer, P

    2016-09-16

    Sub-lethal injury within a microbial population, due to processing treatments or environmental stress, is often assessed as the difference in the number of cells recovered on non-selective media compared to numbers recovered on a "selective media" containing a predetermined maximum non-inhibitory concentration (MNIC) of a selective agent. However, as knowledge of cell metabolic response to injury, population diversity and dynamics increased, the rationale behind the conventional approach of quantifying sub-lethal injury must be scrutinized further. This study reassessed the methodology used to quantify sub-lethal injury for Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells (≈ 4.75 Log CFU/mL) exposed to either a mild thermal (45°C for 0, 10 and 20min) or a mild pulsed electric field treatment (field strengths of 8.0-9.0kV/cm and energy levels of 8, 14 and 21kJ/kg). Treated cells were plated onto either Yeast Malt agar (YM) or YM containing NaCl, as a selective agent at 5-15% in 1% increments. The impact of sub-lethal stress due to initial processing, the stress due to selective agents in the plating media, and the subsequent variation of inhibition following the treatments was assessed based on the CFU count (cell numbers). ANOVA and a generalised least squares model indicated significant effects of media, treatments, and their interaction effects (P<0.05) on cell numbers. It was shown that the concentration of the selective agent used dictated the extent of sub-lethal injury recorded owing to the interaction effects of the selective component (NaCl) in the recovery media. Our findings highlight a potential common misunderstanding on how culture conditions impact on sub-lethal injury. Interestingly for S. cerevisiae cells the number of cells recovered at different NaCl concentrations in the media appears to provide valuable information about the mode of injury, the comparative efficacy of different processing regimes and the inherent degree of resistance within a population. This

  13. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. PMID:27294952

  14. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11–24 Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N. S.; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J.; Foster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11–24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11–24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. PMID:27294952

  15. Detection of warfare agents in liquid foods using the brine shrimp lethality assay.

    PubMed

    Lumor, Stephen E; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Labuza, Theodore P

    2011-01-01

    The brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA) was used for rapid and non-specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents at concentrations considerably below that which will cause harm to humans. Warfare agents detected include T-2 toxin, trimethylsilyl cyanide, and commercially available pesticides such as dichlorvos, diazinon, dursban, malathion, and parathion. The assay was performed by introducing 50 μL of milk or orange juice contaminated with each analyte into vials containing 10 freshly hatched brine shrimp nauplii in seawater. This was incubated at 28 °C for 24 h, after which mortality was determined. Mortality was converted to probits and the LC(50) was determined for each analyte by plotting probits of mortality against analyte concentration (log(10)). Our findings were the following: (1) the lethal effects of toxins dissolved in milk were observed, with T-2 toxin being the most lethal and malathion being the least, (2) except for parathion, the dosage (based on LC(50)) of analyte in a cup of milk (200 mL) consumed by a 6-y-old (20 kg) was less than the respective published rat LD(50) values, and (3) the BSLA was only suitable for detecting toxins dissolved in orange juice if incubation time was reduced to 6 h. Our results support the application of the BSLA for routine, rapid, and non-specific prescreening of liquid foods for possible sabotage by an employee or an intentional bioterrorist act. Practical Application: The findings of this study strongly indicate that the brine shrimp lethality assay can be adapted for nonspecific detection of warfare agents or toxins in food at any point during food production and distribution. PMID:21535725

  16. Association of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with 24-h aortic ambulatory blood pressure: the SAFAR study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Kollias, G; Argyris, A A; Papaioannou, T G; Tountas, C; Konstantonis, G D; Achimastos, A; Blacher, J; Safar, M E; Sfikakis, P P; Protogerou, A D

    2015-07-01

    Aortic blood pressure (BP) and 24-h ambulatory BP are both better associated with target organ damage than office brachial BP. However, it remains unclear whether a combination of these two techniques would be the optimal methodology to evaluate patients' BP in terms of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) prevention. In 230 participants, office brachial and aortic BPs were measured by a validated BP monitor and a tonometry-based device, respectively. 24-h ambulatory brachial and aortic BPs were measured by a validated ambulatory BP monitor (Mobil-O-Graph, Germany). Systematic assessment of patients' LVDD was performed. After adjustment for age, gender, hypertension and antihypertensive treatment, septum and lateral E/Ea were significantly associated with office aortic systolic BP (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) and 24-h brachial and aortic SBP and PP (P ⩽ 0.04), but not with office brachial BP (P ⩾ 0.09). Similarly, 1 standard deviation in SBP was significantly associated with 97.8 ± 20.9, 86.4 ± 22.9, 74.1 ± 23.3 and 51.3 ± 22.6 in septum E/Ea and 68.6 ± 2 0.1, 54.2 ± 21.9, 37.9 ± 22.4 and 23.1 ± 21.4 in lateral E/Ea, for office and 24-h aortic and brachial SBP, respectively. In qualitative analysis, except for office brachial BP, office aortic and 24-h brachial and aortic BPs were all significantly associated with LVDD (P ⩽ 0.03), with the highest odds ratio in 24-h aortic SBP. Furthermore, aortic BP, no matter in the office or 24-h ambulatory setting, showed the largest area under receiver operating characteristic curves (P ⩽ 0.02). In conclusion, 24-h aortic BP is superior to other BPs in the association with LVDD. PMID:25391758

  17. Interference from ordinarily used solvents in the outcomes of Artemia salina lethality test

    PubMed Central

    Geethaa, Sahgal; Thavamany, Priscilla Jayanthi; Chiew, Siah Poh; Thong, Ong Ming

    2013-01-01

    Methanol, ethanol, Tween 20 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are widely used as dissolving agents in Artemia salina lethality test (aka brine shrimp lethality test [BSLT]) to screen the pharmaceutical properties of natural products. Nevertheless, there is lack of toxicity level of these solvents against brine shrimp. High concentration of these organic solvent might be toxic for this zoology invertebrate and interfere in the experimental outcomes. To avoid this, permissible concentration of the solvents used in BSLT was identified. BSLT was performed to evaluate the toxicity effect of Tween 20, methanol, ethanol and DMSO at 24 h post-treatment time point against A. salina. The suggested maximum working concentration (v/v) for DMSO, methanol, ethanol was found to be 1.25% and that for Tween 20 was 0.16%. LC50 for the solvents were 8.5% (DMSO), 6.4% (methanol), 3.4% (ethanol) and 2.5% (Tween 20). The findings have shown a toxicity level among the solvents in descending order as Tween 20 > ethanol > methanol > DMSO. DMSO is a safer solvent to be used in BSLT compared with other tested solvents, whereas Tween 20 has been shown to be the most stringent solvent among the tested solvents. The findings are resourcefully useful to avoid interference of solvents in the assessment of natural products using BSLT. PMID:24350047

  18. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Kwon; Tirloni, Lucas; Pinto, Antônio F M; Moresco, James; Yates, John R; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick

  19. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Antônio F. M.; Moresco, James; Yates, John R.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick

  20. Postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in rabbits over 24 h.

    PubMed

    Maskell, Peter D; Albeishy, Mohammed; De Paoli, Giorgia; Wilson, Nathan E; Seetohul, L Nitin

    2016-03-01

    The interpretation of postmortem drug levels is complicated by changes in drug blood levels in the postmortem period, a phenomena known as postmortem drug redistribution. We investigated the postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in a rabbit model. Heroin (1 mg/kg) was injected into anesthetised rabbit; after 1 h, an auricular vein blood sample was taken and the rabbit was euthanised. Following death rabbits were placed in a supine position at room temperature and divided into three groups namely (1) immediate autopsy, (2) autopsy after 30 minutes and (3) autopsy 24 h after death. Various samples which included femoral blood, cardiac blood, lung, liver, kidney, vitreous humour, subcutaneous and abdominal fat, liver, bone marrow and skeletal muscle were taken. The samples were analysed with a validated LC-MS/MS method. It was observed that within minutes there was a significant increase in free morphine postmortem femoral blood concentration compared to the antemortem sample (0.01 ± 0.01 to 0.05 ± 0.02 mg/L).Various other changes in free morphine and metabolite concentrations were observed during the course of the experiment in various tissues. Principal component analysis was used to investigate possible correlations between free morphine in the various samples. Some correlations were observed but gave poor predictions (>20 % error) when back calculating. The results suggest that rabbits are a good model for further studies of postmortem redistribution but that further study and understanding of the phenomena is required before accurate predictions of the blood concentration at the time of death are possible. PMID:25863436

  1. Restructuring and redistribution of actinides in Am-MOX fuel during the first 24 h of irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Miwa, Shuhei; Sekine, Shin-ichi; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shin-ichi

    2013-09-01

    In order to confirm the effect of minor actinide additions on the irradiation behavior of MOX fuel pellets, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.% americium-containing MOX (Am-MOX) fuels were irradiated for 10 min at 43 kW/m and for 24 h at 45 kW/m in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. Two nominal values of the fuel pellet oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M), 1.95 and 1.98, were used as a test parameter. Emphasis was placed on the behavior of restructuring and redistribution of actinides which directly affect the fuel performance and the fuel design for fast reactors. Microstructural evolutions in the fuels were observed by optical microscopy and the redistribution of constituent elements was determined by EPMA using false color X-ray mapping and quantitative point analyses. The ceramography results showed that structural changes occurred quickly in the initial stage of irradiation. Restructuring of the fuel from middle to upper axial positions developed and was almost completed after the 24-h irradiation. No sign of fuel melting was found in any of the specimens. The EPMA results revealed that Am as well as Pu migrated radially up the temperature gradient to the center of the fuel pellet. The increase in Am concentration on approaching the edge of the central void and its maximum value were higher than those of Pu after the 10-min irradiation and the difference was more pronounced after the 24-h irradiation. The increment of the Am and Pu concentrations due to redistribution increased with increasing central void size. In all of the specimens examined, the extent of redistribution of Am and Pu was higher in the fuel of O/M ratio of 1.98 than in that of 1.95.

  2. The mitochondria-targeted nitroxide JP4-039 augments potentially lethal irradiation damage repair.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Malolan S; Gupta, Kanika; Epperly, Michael W; Franicola, Darcy; Zhang, Xichen; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Hong; Tyurin, Vladimir A; Pierce, Joshua G; Kagan, Valerian E; Wipf, Peter; Kanai, Anthony J; Greenberger, Joel S

    2009-01-01

    It was unknown if a mitochondria-targeted nitroxide (JP4-039) could augment potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) of cells in quiescence. We evaluated 32D cl 3 murine hematopoietic progenitor cells which were irradiated and then either centrifuged to pellets (to simulate PLDR conditions) or left in exponential growth for 0, 24, 48 or 72 h. Pelleted cells demonstrated cell cycle arrest with a greater percentage in the G(1)-phase than did exponentially growing cells. Irradiation survival curves demonstrated a significant radiation damage mitigation effect of JP4-039 over untreated cells in cells pelleted for 24 h. No significant radiation mitigation was detected if drugs were added 48 or 72 h after irradiation. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated a greater concentration of JP4-039 in mitochondria of 24 h-pelleted cells than in exponentially growing cells. These results establish a potential role of mitochondria-targeted nitroxide drugs as mitigators of radiation damage to quiescent cells including stem cells. PMID:19779106

  3. Parabens in 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Moos, Rebecca K; Koch, Holger M; Angerer, Jürgen; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Brüning, Thomas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care and consumer products, food and pharmaceuticals. Due to their ubiquity, humans are constantly exposed to these chemicals. We assessed exposure to nine parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, n- and iso-propyl-, n- and iso-butyl-, benzyl-, pentyl- and heptyl paraben) in the German population from 1995 to 2012 based on 660 24h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) using on-line HPLC coupled to isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg/L for all parabens. We detected methyl-, ethyl- and n-propyl paraben in 79-99% of samples, followed by n-butyl paraben in 40% of samples. We infrequently detected iso-butyl-, iso-propyl- and benzyl paraben in 24%, 4% and 1.4% of samples, respectively. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 39.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 319 μg/L) followed by n-propyl paraben (4.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 74.0 μg/L) and ethyl paraben (2.1 μg/L; 95th percentile 39.1 μg/L). Women had significantly higher urinary levels for all parabens than men, except for benzyl paraben. Samples from the ESB revealed that over the investigation period of nearly 20 years urinary paraben levels remained surprisingly constant; only methyl paraben had a significant increase, for both men and women. We found strong correlations between methyl- and n-propyl paraben and between n- and iso-butyl paraben. These results indicate that parabens are used in combination and arise from common sources of exposure. Urinary excretion factors are needed to extrapolate from individual urinary concentrations to actual doses. PMID:26253560

  4. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A.; Wright, Janine L.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  5. Does an Adolescent's Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Deborah A; Wright, Janine L; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Boushey, Carol J

    2015-05-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents' accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents' accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  6. Proteomic analysis of differentiating neuroblastoma cells treated with sub-lethal neurite inhibitory concentrations of diazinon: Identification of novel biomarkers of effect

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W.; Sachana, M.; Flaskos, J.; Hargreaves, A.J.

    2009-10-15

    In previous work we showed that sub-lethal levels of diazinon inhibited neurite outgrowth in differentiating N2a neuroblastoma cells. Western blotting analysis targeted at proteins involved in axon growth and stress responses, revealed that such exposure led to a reduction in the levels of neurofilament heavy chain, microtubule associated protein 1 B (MAP 1B) and HSP-70. The aim of this study was to apply the approach of 2 dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify novel biomarkers of effect. A number of proteins were found to be up-regulated compared to the control on silver-stained gels. These were classified in to 3 main groups of proteins: cytosolic factors, chaperones and the actin-binding protein cofilin, all of which are involved in cell differentiation, survival or metabolism. The changes observed for cofilin were further confirmed by quantitative Western blotting analysis with anti-actin and anti-cofilin antibodies. Indirect immunofluorescence staining with the same antibodies indicated that the microfilament network was disrupted in diazinon-treated cells. Our data suggest that microfilament organisation is disrupted by diazinon exposure, which may be related to increased cofilin expression.

  7. [Effect of diurnal distribution of food intake on 24-h profiles of plasma lipoproteins (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schneider, J; Tauber, H

    1981-02-16

    The lipid infiltration theory of atherogenesis accepted, 24 h lipoprotein profiles may be more relevant than preprandial morning samples. Such profiles were performed in 12 metabolically healthy volunteers during two dietetic regimes identical in total food content but differing in the distribution over the day: form A meant an evening meal of 15% of total caloric intake, form B of 40%. After one week of each form, 24 h lipoprotein profiles differed significantly in the time course of triglyceride rich lipoproteins and in the mean values over 24 h in VLDL and LDL phospholipids and HDL cholesterol. These findings are cautiously interpreted as possible signs of differences in the catabolism of triglyceride rich lipoproteins, remnants and intermediate lipoproteins. The difference in HDL cholesterol which was higher in form A is discussed in the context of recent epidemiologic evidence. PMID:7194945

  8. Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory dysregulation over 24 h following acute heat stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Carrie M; Audet, Gerald N; Charkoudian, Nisha; Leon, Lisa R

    2015-08-15

    The influences of severe heat stroke (HS) on cardiovascular function during recovery are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that HS would elicit a heart rate (HR) increase persisting through 24 h of recovery due to hemodynamic, thermoregulatory, and inflammatory events, necessitating tachycardia to support mean arterial pressure (MAP). Core temperature (Tc), HR, and MAP were measured via radiotelemetry in conscious male Fischer 344 rats (n = 22; 282.4 ± 3.5 g) during exposure to 37°C ambient temperature until a maximum Tc of 42.0°C, and during recovery at 20°C ambient temperature through 24 h. Rats were divided into Mild, Moderate, and Severe groups based on pathophysiology. HS rats exhibited hysteresis relative to Tc with HR higher for a given Tc during recovery compared with heating (P < 0.0001). "Reverse" hysteresis occurred in MAP with pressure during cooling lower than heating per degree Tc (P < 0.0001). Mild HS rats showed tachycardia [P < 0.01 vs. control (Con)] through 8 h of recovery, elevated MAP (P < 0.05 vs. Con) for the initial 5 h of recovery, with sustained hyperthermia (P < 0.05 vs. Con) through 24 h. Moderate HS rats showed significant tachycardia (P < 0.01 vs. Con), normal MAP (P > 0.05 vs. Con), and rebound hyperthermia from 4 to 24 h post-HS (P < 0.05 vs. Con). Severe HS rats showed tachycardia (P < 0.05 vs. Con), hypotension (P < 0.01 vs. Con), and hypothermia for 24 h (P < 0.05 vs. Con). Severe HS rats showed 14- and 12-fold increase in heart and liver inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, respectively. Hypotension and hypothermia in Severe HS rats was consistent with inducible nitric oxide synthase-mediated systemic vasodilation. These findings provide mechanistic insight into hemodynamic and thermoregulatory impairments during 24 h of HS recovery. PMID:26071550

  9. NQRS Data for C24H20BCs (Subst. No. 1575)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BCs (Subst. No. 1575)

  10. NQRS Data for C24H20BRb (Subst. No. 1578)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BRb (Subst. No. 1578)

  11. NQRS Data for C24H24BN (Subst. No. 1583)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H24BN (Subst. No. 1583)

  12. A "second window of protection" occurs 24 h after ischemic preconditioning in the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, N; Hoshida, S; Taniguchi, N; Kuzuya, T; Hori, M

    1998-06-01

    We and others found that cardioprotection is acquired not only soon after, but also 24 h after ischemic preconditioning in canine and rabbit myocardial infarction models (second window of protection). However, a second window phenomenon against myocardial infarction was dependent on species limitations and has not been observed in porcine hearts. In this study, we examined whether the "second window of protection" against myocardial infarction is observed in the rat heart. In the ischemic preconditioning (IP) group, the left main coronary artery (LCA) of rats was occluded four times for 3 min. each separated by reperfusion for 10 min. After 0, 3, and 24 h, the rats were subjected to a 20-min LCA occlusion followed by 48-h reperfusion. At 0 and 24 h after IP, infarct size and the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) during ischemia were significantly reduced compared with corresponding sham-operated groups without preconditioning. After 3 h of IP, there were no differences either in the incidence of VF during ischemia or in infarct size. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) content in ischemic (LCA) region of myocardium significantly increased as compared with that of sham-operated rats 24 h after IP. Treatment with N-2-mercaptopropionyl glycine, an antioxidant and a hydroxyl radical scavenger, during IP abolished the early-phase (0 h after IP) and late-phase (24 h after IP) cardioprotection and the corresponding late increase in Mn-SOD content. These results indicate that a "second window of protection" against myocardial infarction also exists in rat hearts and the induction of an intrinsic scavenger, Mn-SOD, via free radical production during IP may be important in the second window of protection. PMID:9689592

  13. High-intensity interval exercise induces 24-h energy expenditure similar to traditional endurance exercise despite reduced time commitment.

    PubMed

    Skelly, Lauren E; Andrews, Patricia C; Gillen, Jenna B; Martin, Brian J; Percival, Michael E; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Subjects performed high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (END) to evaluate 24-h oxygen consumption. Oxygen consumption during HIIT was lower versus END; however, total oxygen consumption over 24 h was similar. These data demonstrate that HIIT and END induce similar 24-h energy expenditure, which may explain the comparable changes in body composition reported despite lower total training volume and time commitment. PMID:24773393

  14. Biochemical response of diverse organs in adult Danio rerio (zebrafish) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of microcystin-LR and microcystin-RR: a balneation study.

    PubMed

    Pavagadhi, Shruti; Gong, Zhiyuan; Hande, M Prakash; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; de la Cruz, Armah A; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2012-03-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the dose-response of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and microcystin-RR (MC-RR) toxicity in adult Danio rerio (zebrafish) under balneation conditions at various time points. The differential responses of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as biomarkers were assessed for oxygen mediated toxicity in liver, gills, intestine and brain tissues of zebrafish exposed to dissolved MC-LR and MC-RR (0.1-10.0 μgl(-1)). To investigate the time related response of biomarkers, fish were sampled after 4, 7 and 15 days of exposure. Responses varied (i) between MC-LR and MC-RR (for certain groups), (ii) for different enzymes at all time points, and (iii) for different tissues. In general, most of the enzymes followed a bell shaped curve, with an abrupt increase in activity at a particular concentration. It was observed that upon exposure to MC-LR and MC-RR, some enzymes showed an adaptive response after the first time point wherein the enzyme activity increased in some tissues. The increase in enzyme activity is suggestive of their cellular and metabolic adaptations to the continued stress and toxin exposure. Enzyme activities in general increased at lower concentrations (≤ 5.0 μgl(-1)) and decreased at higher concentrations (≥ 5.0 μgl(-1)). An abrupt change in enzyme activities was observed at a particular concentration in all the tissue enzymes. For GPx and GR, there was a differential response in the case of fish exposed to MC-LR and MC-RR, which could be due to the difference in toxicity potentials of these cyanotoxins. In general, initial stress conditions were observed in most of the tissue enzymes following the exposure to microcystins (MCs). This observation suggests that MCs found in trace levels are likely to have deleterious effects on aquatic organisms and can trigger a variety of biochemical responses depending on their specific toxicity

  15. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8–53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7–45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885–4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654–4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4–23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1–4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33–1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34–2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49–2.53, P < 0

  16. Nqrs Data for C24H20MnO4P (Subst. No. 1581)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20MnO4P (Subst. No. 1581)

  17. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate with 24-h urinalysis and stone composition.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Daniel M; Friedlander, Justin I; Hartman, Christopher; Gershman, Boris; Smith, Arthur D; Okeke, Zeph

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with 24-h urine analysis and stone composition. We performed a retrospective review of 1060 stone formers with 24-h urinalysis, of which 499 had stone composition analysis available. Comparisons of baseline patient characteristics and urinary abnormalities across eGFR groups (<60, 60-89.9, ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) were performed using Fisher's exact test for categorical data and analysis of variance for continuous variables. Analyses of 24-h urinalysis and stone composition across eGFR groups were performed using linear regression with eGFR groups as a continuous variable to evaluate trends. Of the 1060 patients in the study, 595 (56 %) were males. The mean age was 53.8 years. A total of 38 (4 %), 77 (7 %), and 945 (89 %) patients had eGFR <60, 60-89.9, and ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower body-mass index, and female gender (all P < 0.05). Lower eGFR was also associated with lower urinary volume, calcium, citrate, uric acid, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfate, and creatinine on both univariable and multivariable analyses, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities and medication use (all P < 0.05). The prevalence of hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria was associated with decreased eGFR, while hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and hyperphosphaturia were associated with higher eGFR (all P < 0.05). Stone composition was similar across eGFR groups (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, lower eGFR was associated with lower excretion of urinary elements in a routine 24-h urinalysis, but similar stone composition. PMID:26573808

  18. Ovine platelet function is unaffected by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation within the first 24 h.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Rylan A; Foley, Samuel; Shekar, Kiran; Diab, Sara; Dunster, Kimble R; McDonald, Charles; Fraser, John F

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated platelet dysfunction during short-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and secondarily to determine if hyperoxaemia contributes to this dysfunction. Healthy sheep were anaesthetized and maintained on ECMO for either 2 or 24 h, with or without induction of smoke inhalation acute lung injury. A specialized animal-operating theatre was used to conduct the experimentation. Forty-three healthy female sheep were randomized into either a test or a control group. Following anaesthesia, test groups received ECMO ± smoke inhalation acute lung injury (SALI), whereas control groups were maintained with ventilation only ± SALI. Physiological, biochemical and coagulation data were obtained throughout via continuous monitoring and blood sampling. Platelet function was quantified through whole blood impedance aggregometry using Multiplate. Ovine platelet activity induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen was unaffected during the first 24 h of ECMO. However, progressive divergence of ADP-induced platelet activity was noted at cessation of the experiment. PaO2 was inversely related to ADP-dependent platelet activity in the ECMO groups--a relationship not identified in the control groups. ADP and collagen-dependent platelet activity are not significantly affected within the first 24 h of ECMO in sheep. However, dysfunction in ADP-dependent platelet activity may have continued to develop if observed beyond 24 h. Hyperoxaemia during ECMO does appear to affect how platelets react to ADP and may contribute to this developing dysfunction. Long-term animal models and investigation in clinical animals are warranted to fully investigate platelet function during ECMO. PMID:26196193

  19. Dietary protein distribution positively influences 24-h muscle protein synthesis in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Mamerow, Madonna M; Mettler, Joni A; English, Kirk L; Casperson, Shanon L; Arentson-Lantz, Emily; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Layman, Donald K; Paddon-Jones, Douglas

    2014-06-01

    The RDA for protein describes the quantity that should be consumed daily to meet population needs and to prevent deficiency. Protein consumption in many countries exceeds the RDA; however, intake is often skewed toward the evening meal, whereas breakfast is typically carbohydrate rich and low in protein. We examined the effects of protein distribution on 24-h skeletal muscle protein synthesis in healthy adult men and women (n = 8; age: 36.9 ± 3.1 y; BMI: 25.7 ± 0.8 kg/m2). By using a 7-d crossover feeding design with a 30-d washout period, we measured changes in muscle protein synthesis in response to isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets with protein at breakfast, lunch, and dinner distributed evenly (EVEN; 31.5 ± 1.3, 29.9 ± 1.6, and 32.7 ± 1.6 g protein, respectively) or skewed (SKEW; 10.7 ± 0.8, 16.0 ± 0.5, and 63.4 ± 3.7 g protein, respectively). Over 24-h periods on days 1 and 7, venous blood samples and vastus lateralis muscle biopsy samples were obtained during primed (2.0 μmol/kg) constant infusion [0.06 μmol/(kg⋅min)] of l-[ring-(13)C6]phenylalanine. The 24-h mixed muscle protein fractional synthesis rate was 25% higher in the EVEN (0.075 ± 0.006%/h) vs. the SKEW (0.056 ± 0.006%/h) protein distribution groups (P = 0.003). This pattern was maintained after 7 d of habituation to each diet (EVEN vs. SKEW: 0.077 ± 0.006 vs. 0.056 ± 0.006%/h; P = 0.001). The consumption of a moderate amount of protein at each meal stimulated 24-h muscle protein synthesis more effectively than skewing protein intake toward the evening meal. PMID:24477298

  20. Nqrs Data for C24H42Li2N4 (Subst. No. 1587)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H42Li2N4 (Subst. No. 1587)

  1. Sediment toxicity and lethal body burdens of chlorophenols in an oligochaete worm, Lumbriculus variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kukkonen, J.; Halme, A.; Nikkilae, A.

    1995-12-31

    The toxicokinetics, acute toxicity and lethal body burden of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Lumbriculus variegatus were measured in two different clean sediments. The sediments had an organic carbon content of 0.5% and 6.5%. The uptake rate coefficients (k{sub s}) of TCP at low TCP concentration (0.25 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1}) were 0.67 and 0.13 g dry sed. g{sup {minus}1} org. h{sup {minus}1} in low and high organic carbon content sediments, respectively. Organic carbon normalized uptake rate coefficient (k{sub oc}) was 0.0034 gOC g{sup {minus}1} org. h{sup {minus}1} for the low organic content sediment and 0.0085 gOC g{sup {minus}1} org. h{sup {minus}1} for the high organic content sediment showing that the organic carbon content does not explain all of the difference between the sediments. Similar to that, LC{sub 50} (24h) for the TCP was 37.4 and 121.5 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} dw in low and high organic carbon content sediments, respectively. If organic carbon normalization is done the figures are 7,880 and 1,869 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} OC. However, the lethal body burden of TCP in Lumbriculus variegatus is between 0.5--0.9 {micro}mol g{sup {minus}1} in both sediments. Similar type of results will be shown for PCP and the use of lethal body burden approach in sediment toxicology will be discussed.

  2. Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michelle C.; Albar, Salwa A.; Morris, Michelle A.; Mulla, Umme Z.; Hancock, Neil; Evans, Charlotte E.; Alwan, Nisreen A.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Frost, Gary S.; Wark, Petra A.; Cade, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a food diary), has been developed for use in the UK population. Development of myfood24 was a multi-stage process. Focus groups conducted with three age groups, adolescents (11–18 years) (n = 28), adults (19–64 years) (n = 24) and older adults (≥65 years) (n = 5) informed the development of the tool, and usability testing was conducted with beta (adolescents n = 14, adults n = 8, older adults n = 1) and live (adolescents n = 70, adults n = 20, older adults n = 4) versions. Median system usability scale (SUS) scores (measured on a scale of 0–100) in adolescents and adults were marginal for the beta version (adolescents median SUS = 66, interquartile range (IQR) = 20; adults median SUS = 68, IQR = 40) and good for the live version (adolescents median SUS = 73, IQR = 22; adults median SUS = 80, IQR = 25). Myfood24 is the first online 24-h dietary recall tool for use with different age groups in the UK. Usability testing indicates that myfood24 is suitable for use in UK adolescents and adults. PMID:26024292

  3. Immune cell changes in response to a swimming training session during a 24-h recovery period.

    PubMed

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Joana F; Matias, Catarina; Seixas, Maria T; Alvim, Marta G; Bourbon, Mafalda; Laires, Maria J; Alves, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools. PMID:27028294

  4. Making sense of nickel accumulation and sub-lethal toxic effects in saline waters: Fate and effects of nickel in the green crab, Carcinus maenas.

    PubMed

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Glover, Chris N; Fehsenfeld, Sandra; Lawrence, Michael J; Niyogi, Som; Goss, Greg G; Wood, Chris M

    2015-07-01

    In freshwater, invertebrates nickel (Ni) is considered an ionoregulatory toxicant, but its mechanism of toxicity in marine settings, and how this varies with salinity, is poorly understood. This study investigated Ni accumulation and physiological mechanisms of sub-lethal Ni toxicity in the euryhaline green crab Carcinus maenas. Male crabs were exposed to 8.2μg/L (the US EPA chronic criterion concentration for salt waters) of waterborne Ni (radiolabelled with (63)Ni) at three different salinities, 20%, 60% and 100% SW for 24h. Whole body Ni accumulation in 20% SW was 3-5 fold greater than in 60% or 100% SW, and >80% of accumulated Ni was in the carapace at all salinities. Ni also accumulated in posterior gill 8, which showed a higher accumulation in 20% SW than in other salinities, a pattern also seen at higher exposure concentrations of Ni (500 and 3000μg/L). Gill perfusion experiments revealed that Ni was taken up by both anterior and posterior gills, but in 20% SW the posterior gill 8, which performs ionoregulatory functions, accumulated more Ni than the anterior gill 5, which primarily has a respiratory function. The sub-lethal consequences of Ni exposure were investigated by placing crabs in Ni concentrations of 8.2, 500, and 3000μg/L at 20, 60 or 100% SW for 24h. In 20% SW, haemolymph Ca levels were significantly decreased by exposure to Ni concentrations of 8.2μg/L or higher, whereas Na concentrations were depressed only at 3000μg/L. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was inhibited at both 500 and 3000μg/L in gill 8, but only in 20% SW. Haemolymph K, Mg, and osmolality were unaffected throughout, though all varied with salinity in the expected fashion. These data suggest that Ni impacts ionoregulatory function in the green crab, in a gill- and salinity-dependent manner. PMID:25914092

  5. Lethal levels of selected water quality variables to larval and juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Monda, D.P.; Bellerud, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    Resource managers hypothesize that occasional fish kills during summer-early fall in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, may be linked to unfavorable water quality conditions created by massive algal blooms. In a preliminary effort to address this concern, short-term (96-h-long) laboratory tests were conducted with larval and juvenile Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers to determine the upper median lethal concentrations (LC50s; also referred to as median tolerance limits) for pH, un-ionized ammonia, and water temperature, and the lower LC50s for dissolved oxygen. The mean LC50s varied among species and life stages as follows: for pH, 10.30-10.39; for un-ionized ammonia, 0.48-1.06 mg litre-1; for temperature, 30.35-31.82??C; and for dissolved oxygen, 1.34-2.10 mg litre-1. Comparisons of 95% confidence limits indicated that, on average, the 96-h LC50s were not significantly different from those computed for shorter exposure times (i.e., 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h). According to two-way analysis of variance, LC50s for the four water quality variables did not vary significantly (p > 0.05) between fish species. However, LC50s for pH (exposure times of 24 h and 48 h) and dissolved oxygen (exposure times of 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h) differed significantly (p ??? 0.05) between life stages, whereas LC50s for un-ionized ammonia and water temperature did not exhibit significant differences. In general, larvae were more sensitive than juveniles to high pH and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. When compared to ambient water quality conditions in Upper Klamath Lake, our results strongly suggest that near-anoxic conditions associated with the senescence phase of algal blooms are most likely to cause high mortalities of larval and juvenile suckers.

  6. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): A self-completed 24-h dietary recall for children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4), is a web-based 24-h dietary recall (24 hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24 hdr for adults). The food choices in FIRSSt4 are abbreviated to include only ...

  7. Oxidative fuel selection and shivering thermogenesis during a 12- and 24-h cold-survival simulation.

    PubMed

    Haman, François; Mantha, Olivier L; Cheung, Stephen S; DuCharme, Michel B; Taber, Michael; Blondin, Denis P; McGarr, Gregory W; Hartley, Geoffrey L; Hynes, Zach; Basset, Fabien A

    2016-03-15

    Because the majority of cold exposure studies are constrained to short-term durations of several hours, the long-term metabolic demands of cold exposure, such as during survival situations, remain largely unknown. The present study provides the first estimates of thermogenic rate, oxidative fuel selection, and muscle recruitment during a 24-h cold-survival simulation. Using combined indirect calorimetry and electrophysiological and isotopic methods, changes in muscle glycogen, total carbohydrate, lipid, protein oxidation, muscle recruitment, and whole body thermogenic rate were determined in underfed and noncold-acclimatized men during a simulated accidental exposure to 7.5 °C for 12 to 24 h. In noncold-acclimatized healthy men, cold exposure induced a decrease of ∼0.8 °C in core temperature and a decrease of ∼6.1 °C in mean skin temperature (range, 5.4-6.9 °C). Results showed that total heat production increased by approximately 1.3- to 1.5-fold in the cold and remained constant throughout cold exposure. Interestingly, this constant rise in Ḣprod and shivering intensity was accompanied by a large modification in fuel selection that occurred between 6 and 12 h; total carbohydrate oxidation decreased by 2.4-fold, and lipid oxidation doubled progressively from baseline to 24 h. Clearly, such changes in fuel selection dramatically reduces the utilization of limited muscle glycogen reserves, thus extending the predicted time to muscle glycogen depletion to as much as 15 days rather than the previous estimates of approximately 30-40 h. Further research is needed to determine whether this would also be the case under different nutritional and/or colder conditions. PMID:26718783

  8. A new portable device for recording 24-h indirect blood pressure in hypertensive outpatients.

    PubMed

    Tochikubo, O; Kaneko, Y; Yokoi, H; Yukinari, Y

    1985-12-01

    To simplify 24-h blood pressure (BP) recording in hypertensive outpatients, we devised a new portable, automatic BP recorder and studied its accuracy and usefulness. The fully automatic recorder, measuring 5 x 16 x 18 cm with a cuff of usual size, weighs approximately 1 kg and is driven by a rechargeable battery. The cuff is inflated by a compact CO2 cartridge and two microphones are used to detect differentially the Korotkoff sounds in the upper arm. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) are automatically measured, displayed with the time of measurement, and recorded on a memory card at intervals of 15 min for 24 h. This equipment has high noise immunity and works very quietly. It predicts approximate BP during the period of increasing cuff pressure, and measures BP more quickly than the conventional method (the time required for each measurement was reduced by about half). Afterwards, mean values with standard deviations, trendgrams and histograms of BP and HR over a certain period of time can be displayed and recorded with an accessory analyser. The accuracy of the BP values recorded by this device were compared with those measured by the auscultatory method. The average differences were -0.6 +/- 2.1 (s.d.) mmHg for SBP and 0.2 +/- 3.0 mmHg for DBP (n = 152). The BP values by this method were also compared with those obtained directly from the brachial artery, the differences being -5.8 +/- 5.9/0.3 +/- 6.0 mmHg (n = 85). In 30 ambulatory hypertensive patients, 24-h BP was recorded using this recorder.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2856737

  9. 24h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Subsequent Change in Weight, Waist Circumference and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Heitmann, Berit L.

    2013-01-01

    Background In the same period as the increasing obesity epidemic, there has been an increased consumption of highly processed foods with a high salt content, and a few studies have suggested that a diet with a high salt content may be associated with obesity. Objective To investigate the association between 24 h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), body fat (BF) and fat free mass (FFM) among adults. Design A longitudinal population study based on the Danish part of the MONICA project, with examinations in 1987–1988 and 1993–1994. Complete information on 24 h urinary sodium excretion along with repeated measures of obesity, as well as on potential confounders, was obtained from 215 subjects. Linear regression was used to examine the association between sodium excretion, as a measure of salt consumption, and subsequent changes in BW, WC, BF and FFM, and further evaluated by restricted cubic splines. Stepwise adjustments were made for selected covariates. Results Neither the crude nor the adjusted models showed any statistically significant associations between sodium excretion and change in BW or WC. Likewise, we found no significant association between sodium excretion and change in BF and FFM in the unadjusted models. However, after adjusting for potential baseline confounders and the concurrent BW change, we found a significant increase in BF of 0.24 kg (P = 0.015, CI: 0.05 to 0.43) per 100 mmol increase in 24 h urinary sodium excretion (equivalent to 6 g of salt), during the 6-year study period. Moreover, during the same period, we found a significant association with FFM of −0.21 kg (P = 0.041, CI: −0.40 to −0.01). Conclusions These results suggest that a diet with a high salt content may have a negative influence on development in body composition by expanding BF and reducing FFM. PMID:23936079

  10. Identifying waking time in 24-h accelerometry data in adults using an automated algorithm.

    PubMed

    van der Berg, Julianne D; Willems, Paul J B; van der Velde, Jeroen H P M; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Schaper, Nicolaas C; Schram, Miranda T; Sep, Simone J S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Bosma, Hans; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Koster, Annemarie

    2016-10-01

    As accelerometers are commonly used for 24-h measurements of daily activity, methods for separating waking from sleeping time are necessary for correct estimations of total daily activity levels accumulated during the waking period. Therefore, an algorithm to determine wake and bed times in 24-h accelerometry data was developed and the agreement of this algorithm with self-report was examined. One hundred seventy-seven participants (aged 40-75 years) of The Maastricht Study who completed a diary and who wore the activPAL3™ 24 h/day, on average 6 consecutive days were included. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated and the Bland-Altman method was used to examine associations between the self-reported and algorithm-calculated waking hours. Mean self-reported waking hours was 15.8 h/day, which was significantly correlated with the algorithm-calculated waking hours (15.8 h/day, ICC = 0.79, P = < 0.001). The Bland-Altman plot indicated good agreement in waking hours as the mean difference was 0.02 h (95% limits of agreement (LoA) = -1.1 to 1.2 h). The median of the absolute difference was 15.6 min (Q1-Q3 = 7.6-33.2 min), and 71% of absolute differences was less than 30 min. The newly developed automated algorithm to determine wake and bed times was highly associated with self-reported times, and can therefore be used to identify waking time in 24-h accelerometry data in large-scale epidemiological studies. PMID:26837855

  11. Temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolite levels in bedtime, morning, and 24-h urine samples for 50 adults in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Marsha K; Sobus, Jon R; Barr, Dana Boyd; Croghan, Carry W; Chen, Fu-Lin; Walker, Richard; Alston, Lillian; Andersen, Erik; Clifton, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insects in both agricultural and residential settings worldwide. Few data are available on the temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolites in the urine of non-occupationally exposed adults. In this work, we describe the study design and sampling methodology for the Pilot Study to Estimate Human Exposures to Pyrethroids using an Exposure Reconstruction Approach (Ex-R study). Two major objectives were to quantify the concentrations of several pyrethroid metabolites in bedtime, first morning void (FMV), and 24-h urine samples as concentration (wet weight), specific-gravity (SG) corrected, creatinine (CR) corrected, and excretion rate values for 50 Ex-R adults over a six-week monitoring period and to determine if these correction approaches for urine dilution reduced the variability of the biomarker levels. The Ex-R study was conducted at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Human Studies Facility in Chapel Hill, North Carolina USA and at participants' homes within a 40-mile radius of this facility. Recruitment of participants and field activities occurred between October 2009 and May 2011. Participants, ages 19-50 years old, provided daily food, activity, and pesticide-use diaries and collected their own urine samples (bedtime, FMV, and 24-h) during weeks 1, 2, and 6 of a six-week monitoring period. A total of 2503 urine samples were collected from the study participants. These samples were analyzed for the pyrethroid metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), cis/trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis/trans-DCCA), and 2-methyl-3-phenylbenzoic acid (MPA) using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Only 3-PBA was frequently detected (>50%) in the adult urine samples. Median urinary 3-PBA levels were 0.88 ng/mL, 0.96 ng/mL-SG, 1.04 ng/mg, and 1.04 ng/min for concentration, SG-corrected, CR-corrected, and excretion rate values, respectively

  12. Local 24-h hyperglycemia does not affect endothelium-dependent or -independent vasoreactivity in humans.

    PubMed

    Houben, A J; Schaper, N C; de Haan, C H; Huvers, F C; Slaaf, D W; de Leeuw, P W; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, C

    1996-06-01

    Hyperglycemia induces regional hemodynamic changes, as suggested by animal studies. These hemodynamic changes may play an initiating role in the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute local hyperglycemia for 24 h on basal human forearm muscle and skin blood flow and endothelium-dependent and -independent vasoreactivity. Local hyperglycemia (approximately 15 mM) was induced by infusion of 5% glucose into the brachial artery of the nondominant arm. In control experiments, the same individual amount of glucose was infused intravenously in the dominant arm to correct for possible systemic effects of the infused glucose. Vasoreactivity of the forearm vasculature was evaluated by local infusion of acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), and norepinephrine (NE) into the brachial artery. Regional hemodynamic measurements were performed at baseline and after 6, 12, and 24 h of local hyperglycemia. Median (with interquartile range) basal forearm (muscle) blood flow (FBF) was not influenced by the 24-h local hyperglycemia [infused-to-contralateral arm FBF ratio for glucose 1.32 (1.16-1.64) vs. control 1.54 (1.34-1.69)]. Skin microcirculatory blood flow (laser Doppler flowmetry, LDF) was not influenced by the 24-h local hyperglycemia [LDF ratio for glucose 1.00 (0.62-1.56) vs control 0.80 (0.58-1.14)]. In addition, the vasoreactivity of both muscle and skin (not shown) vasculature to ACh [percent change in FBF ratio for glucose 167% (81-263) vs. control 148% (94-211)], SNP [for glucose 486% (178-586) vs. control 293% (196-454)], L-NMMA [for glucose -36% (-56 to -22) vs. control -41% (-51 to -24)], and NE [for glucose -48% (-72 to -41) vs. control -66% (-79 to -33)] was also not affected by the local hyperglycemia. Thus, in contrast to animal studies, our results suggest that a moderate-to-severe hyperglycemia does not affect the regulation of basal blood flow or

  13. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Chen, Hui; Bo, Jian; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    24-h urinary sodium excretion is the gold standard for evaluating dietary sodium intake, but it is often not feasible in large epidemiological studies due to high participant burden and cost. Three methods-Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka-have been proposed to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these methods have not been validated in the general Chinese population. This aim of this study was to assess the validity of three methods for estimating 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples against measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion in a Chinese sample population. Data are from a substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study that enrolled 120 participants aged 35 to 70 years and collected their morning fasting urine and 24-h urine specimens. Bias calculations (estimated values minus measured values) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity of the three estimation methods. 116 participants were included in the final analysis. Mean bias for the Kawasaki method was -740 mg/day (95% CI: -1219, 262 mg/day), and was the lowest among the three methods. Mean bias for the Tanaka method was -2305 mg/day (95% CI: -2735, 1875 mg/day). Mean bias for the INTERSALT method was -2797 mg/day (95% CI: -3245, 2349 mg/day), and was the highest of the three methods. Bland-Altman plots indicated that all three methods underestimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urines all underestimated true 24-h urinary sodium excretion in this sample of Chinese adults. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was least biased, but was still relatively inaccurate. A more accurate method is needed to estimate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine for assessment of dietary sodium intake in China. PMID:26895296

  14. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Chen, Hui; Bo, Jian; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    24-h urinary sodium excretion is the gold standard for evaluating dietary sodium intake, but it is often not feasible in large epidemiological studies due to high participant burden and cost. Three methods—Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka—have been proposed to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these methods have not been validated in the general Chinese population. This aim of this study was to assess the validity of three methods for estimating 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples against measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion in a Chinese sample population. Data are from a substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study that enrolled 120 participants aged 35 to 70 years and collected their morning fasting urine and 24-h urine specimens. Bias calculations (estimated values minus measured values) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity of the three estimation methods. 116 participants were included in the final analysis. Mean bias for the Kawasaki method was -740 mg/day (95% CI: -1219, 262 mg/day), and was the lowest among the three methods. Mean bias for the Tanaka method was -2305 mg/day (95% CI: -2735, 1875 mg/day). Mean bias for the INTERSALT method was -2797 mg/day (95% CI: -3245, 2349 mg/day), and was the highest of the three methods. Bland-Altman plots indicated that all three methods underestimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urines all underestimated true 24-h urinary sodium excretion in this sample of Chinese adults. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was least biased, but was still relatively inaccurate. A more accurate method is needed to estimate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine for assessment of dietary sodium intake in China. PMID:26895296

  15. Preliminary Estimation of Deoxynivalenol Excretion through a 24 h Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Mañes, Jordi; Berrada, Houda; Font, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    A duplicate diet study was designed to explore the occurrence of 15 Fusarium mycotoxins in the 24 h-diet consumed by one volunteer as well as the levels of mycotoxins in his 24 h-collected urine. The employed methodology involved solvent extraction at high ionic strength followed by dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography determination coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem. Satisfactory results in method performance were achieved. The method’s accuracy was in a range of 68%–108%, with intra-day relative standard deviation and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 12% and 15%, respectively. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.1 to 8 µg/Kg. The matrix effect was evaluated and matrix-matched calibrations were used for quantitation. Only deoxynivalenol (DON) was quantified in both food and urine samples. A total DON daily intake amounted to 49.2 ± 5.6 µg whereas DON daily excretion of 35.2 ± 4.3 µg was determined. DON daily intake represented 68.3% of the established DON provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI). Valuable preliminary information was obtained as regards DON excretion and needs to be confirmed in large-scale monitoring studies. PMID:25723325

  16. BDNFval66met affects neural activation pattern during fear conditioning and 24 h delayed fear recall

    PubMed Central

    Golkar, Armita; Lindström, Kara M.; Haaker, Jan; Öhman, Arne; Schalling, Martin; Ingvar, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most abundant neutrophin in the mammalian central nervous system, is critically involved in synaptic plasticity. In both rodents and humans, BDNF has been implicated in hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory and has more recently been linked to fear extinction processes. Fifty-nine healthy participants, genotyped for the functional BDNFval66met polymorphism, underwent a fear conditioning and 24h-delayed extinction protocol while skin conductance and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were acquired. We present the first report of neural activation pattern during fear acquisition ‘and’ extinction for the BDNFval66met polymorphism using a differential conditioned stimulus (CS)+ > CS− comparison. During conditioning, we observed heightened allele dose-dependent responses in the amygdala and reduced responses in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in BDNFval66met met-carriers. During early extinction, 24h later, we again observed heightened responses in several regions ascribed to the fear network in met-carriers as opposed to val-carriers (insula, amygdala, hippocampus), which likely reflects fear memory recall. No differences were observed during late extinction, which likely reflects learned extinction. Our data thus support previous associations of the BDNFval66met polymorphism with neural activation in the fear and extinction network, but speak against a specific association with fear extinction processes. PMID:25103087

  17. Creatinine measurements in 24 h urine by liquid chromatography--tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Kee; Watanabe, Takaho; Gee, Shirley J; Schenker, Marc B; Hammock, Bruce D

    2008-01-23

    A simple, sensitive, and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determining urinary creatinine was developed and used to evaluate 24 h urine samples collected during an exposure study. Urine (1 microL) was diluted with methanol and then directly applied to LC-MS/MS. Under electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions, the transition molecules of creatinine and creatinine- d3 were observed at m/ z 114 > 44 and m/ z 117 > 47, respectively. The retention time of creatinine was 0.59 min. The linear range was 1-2000 ng/mL, with a detection limit in urine of 1 ng/mL. LC-MS/MS and colorimetric end-point methods were significantly associated ( R2 = 0.8785, p < 0.0001). The LC-MS/MS method to determine creatinine in 24 h urine samples had shorter retention times, was more sensitive, reliable, reproducible, simple, selective, and used a smaller sample size than other LC-MS/MS or commercial methods. PMID:18092755

  18. The impact of a 24-h ultra-marathon on salivary antimicrobial protein responses.

    PubMed

    Gill, S K; Teixeira, A M; Rosado, F; Hankey, J; Wright, A; Marczak, S; Murray, A; Costa, R J S

    2014-10-01

    Depressed oral respiratory mucosal immunity and increased incidence of upper respiratory symptoms are commonly reported after bouts of prolonged exercise. The current study observed the impact of a 24-h continuous overnight ultra-marathon competition (distance range: 122-208 km; ambient temperature range: 0-20 °C) on salivary antimicrobial protein responses and incidence of upper respiratory symptoms. Body mass, unstimulated saliva and venous blood samples were taken from ultra-endurance runners (n=25) and controls (n=17), before and immediately after competition. Upper respiratory symptoms were assessed during and until 4-weeks after event completion. Samples were analyzed for salivary IgA, lysozyme, α-amylase and cortisol in addition to plasma osmolality. Decreased saliva flow rate (p<0.001), salivary IgA (p<0.001) and lysozyme (p=0.015) secretion rates, and increased salivary α-amylase secretion rate (p<0.001) and cortisol responses (p<0.001) were observed post-competition in runners, with no changes being observed in controls. No incidences of upper respiratory symptoms were reported by participants. A 24-h continuous overnight ultra-marathon resulted in the depression of some salivary antimicrobial protein responses, but no incidences of upper respiratory symptoms were evident during or following competition. Salivary antimicrobial protein synergism, effective management of non-infectious episodes, maintaining euhydration, and (or) favourable environmental influences could have accounted for the low prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms. PMID:24886918

  19. [Assessment of duodenogastric reflux 24h variability in subjects with functional dyspepsia].

    PubMed

    Romanowski, Marek; Chojnacki, Jan; Gil, Jerzy; Piotrowski, Wojciech

    2004-01-01

    Symptoms of functional dyspepsia demonstrate significant variability, among others dependently on the time of the day and on consumed meals. The aim of the study was to find out whether duodenogastric reflux is observed in subjects with nonulcer (NUD) and dysmotor dyspepsia (DD) and whether its intensification changes within 24 h. Investigations comprised 25 subjects with NUD and 25 with DD, aged 19-43 years after exclusion of other diseases and H. pylori infection. The gastric content of bilirubin was registered with Bilitec 2000 Synectics Medical. Duodenogastric reflux episodes were observed in both groups but their intensification and 24h dynamics were differentiated. In subjects with DD total reflux index was significantly higher than in those with NUD (mean=18.0+/-9.5% and mean=6.3+/-4.1%; p<0.05). These differences were particularly visible in after meal (mean=21.2+/-7.9% and mean=10.4+/-6.6%; p<0.01) and night time (mean=8.7+/-3.6% and mean=2.9+/-0.9%; p<0.01). The results of the study indicate that bilimetry may be useful in differentiation of the form of dyspepsia and in selection of rational therapy. PMID:15603369

  20. Preliminary estimation of deoxynivalenol excretion through a 24 h pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Mañes, Jordi; Berrada, Houda; Font, Guillermina

    2015-03-01

    A duplicate diet study was designed to explore the occurrence of 15 Fusarium mycotoxins in the 24 h-diet consumed by one volunteer as well as the levels of mycotoxins in his 24 h-collected urine. The employed methodology involved solvent extraction at high ionic strength followed by dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography determination coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem. Satisfactory results in method performance were achieved. The method's accuracy was in a range of 68%-108%, with intra-day relative standard deviation and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 12% and 15%, respectively. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.1 to 8 µg/Kg. The matrix effect was evaluated and matrix-matched calibrations were used for quantitation. Only deoxynivalenol (DON) was quantified in both food and urine samples. A total DON daily intake amounted to 49.2 ± 5.6 µg whereas DON daily excretion of 35.2 ± 4.3 µg was determined. DON daily intake represented 68.3% of the established DON provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI). Valuable preliminary information was obtained as regards DON excretion and needs to be confirmed in large-scale monitoring studies. PMID:25723325

  1. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-08-02

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  2. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-01-01

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  3. A human calorimeter for the direct and indirect measurement of 24 h energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Dauncey, M J; Murgatroyd, P R; Cole, T J

    1978-05-01

    1. A calorimeter for the continuous measurement of heat production and heat loss in the human subject, for at least 24 h, is described. The calorimeter operated on the heat-sink principle for direct calorimetry and an open-circuit system for indirect calorimetry. 2. Sensible heat loss was measured using a water-cooled heat exchanger, and the temperature of water entering the heat exchanger was controlled to maintain a mean temperature gradient of zero across the chamber walls. 3. Evaporative heat loss was determined from ingoing and outgoing wet-and-dry bulb temperatures and air flow-rates. 4. Problems associated with the calculation of evapoative heat loss and the estimation of the volume of incoming air in open-circuit systems are considered. 5. The calibration, limits of accuracy, sources of error and experiments with subjects are discussed. PMID:638125

  4. Master runners dominate 24-h ultramarathons worldwide—a retrospective data analysis from 1998 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were to examine (a) participation and performance trends and (b) the age of peak running performance in master athletes competing in 24-h ultra-marathons held worldwide between 1998 and 2011. Methods Changes in both running speed and the age of peak running speed in 24-h master ultra-marathoners (39,664 finishers, including 8,013 women and 31,651 men) were analyzed. Results The number of 24-h ultra-marathoners increased for both women and men across years (P < 0.01). The age of the annual fastest woman decreased from 48 years in 1998 to 35 years in 2011. The age of peaking running speed remained unchanged across time at 42.5 ± 5.2 years for the annual fastest men (P > 0.05). The age of the annual top ten women decreased from 42.6 ± 5.9 years (1998) to 40.1 ± 7.0 years (2011) (P < 0.01). For the annual top ten men, the age of peak running speed remained unchanged at 42 ± 2 years (P > 0.05). Running speed remained unchanged over time at 11.4 ± 0.4 km h-1 for the annual fastest men and 10.0 ± 0.2 km/h for the annual fastest women, respectively (P > 0.05). For the annual ten fastest women, running speed increased over time by 3.2% from 9.3 ± 0.3 to 9.6 ± 0.3 km/h (P < 0.01). Running speed of the annual top ten men remained unchanged at 10.8 ± 0.3 km/h (P > 0.05). Women in age groups 25–29 (r2 = 0.61, P < 0.01), 30–34 (r2 = 0.48, P < 0.01), 35–39 (r2 = 0.42, P = 0.01), 40–44 (r2 = 0.46, P < 0.01), 55–59 (r2 = 0.41, P = 0.03), and 60–64 (r2 = 0.57, P < 0.01) improved running speed; while women in age groups 45–49 and 50–54 maintained running speed (P > 0.05). Men improved running speed in age groups 25–29 (r2 = 0.48, P = 0.02), 45–49 (r2 = 0.34, P = 0.03), 50–54 (r2 = 0.50, P < 0.01), 55–59 (r2 = 0.70, P < 0.01), and 60–64 (r2 = 0.44, P = 0.03); while runners in age groups 30–34, 35–39, and 40–44 maintained running speed (P > 0.05). Conclusions Female and male age group runners improved

  5. Validity and relative validity of a novel digital approach for 24-h dietary recall in athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We developed a digital dietary analysis tool for athletes (DATA) using a modified 24-h recall method and an integrated, customized nutrient database. The purpose of this study was to assess DATA’s validity and relative validity by measuring its agreement with registered dietitians’ (RDs) direct observations (OBSERVATION) and 24-h dietary recall interviews using the USDA 5-step multiple-pass method (INTERVIEW), respectively. Methods Fifty-six athletes (14–20 y) completed DATA and INTERVIEW in randomized counter-balanced order. OBSERVATION (n = 26) consisted of RDs recording participants’ food/drink intake in a 24-h period and were completed the day prior to DATA and INTERVIEW. Agreement among methods was estimated using a repeated measures t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. Results The paired differences (with 95% confidence intervals) between DATA and OBSERVATION were not significant for carbohydrate (10.1%, -1.2–22.7%) and protein (14.1%, -3.2–34.5%) but was significant for energy (14.4%, 1.2–29.3%). There were no differences between DATA and INTERVIEW for energy (-1.1%, -9.1–7.7%), carbohydrate (0.2%, -7.1–8.0%) or protein (-2.7%, -11.3–6.7%). Bland-Altman analysis indicated significant positive correlations between absolute values of the differences and the means for OBSERVATION vs. DATA (r = 0.40 and r = 0.47 for energy and carbohydrate, respectively) and INTERVIEW vs. DATA (r = 0.52, r = 0.29, and r = 0.61 for energy, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively). There were also wide 95% limits of agreement (LOA) for most method comparisons. The mean bias ratio (with 95% LOA) for OBSERVATION vs. DATA was 0.874 (0.551-1.385) for energy, 0.906 (0.522-1.575) for carbohydrate, and 0.895(0.395-2.031) for protein. The mean bias ratio (with 95% LOA) for INTERVIEW vs. DATA was 1.016 (0.538-1.919) for energy, 0.995 (0.563-1.757) for carbohydrate, and 1.031 (0.514-2.068) for protein. Conclusion DATA has good relative

  6. Using multilevel path analysis in analyzing 24-h ambulatory physiological recordings applied to medically unexplained symptoms.

    PubMed

    Houtveen, Jan H; Hamaker, Ellen L; Van Doornen, Lorenz J P

    2010-05-01

    A non-clinical group high on heterogeneous medically unexplained symptoms (MUS; n=97) was compared with healthy controls (n=66) on the within-subject relationships between physiological measures using multilevel path analysis. Momentary experienced somatic complaints, mood (tension and depression), cardiac autonomic activity (inter-beat intervals, pre-ejection period (PEP), and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)) and respiration (rate and partial pressure of CO(2) at the end of a normal expiration) were monitored for 24 h using electronic diary and ambulatory devices. Relationships between measures were controlled for diurnal variation and individual means. Only subtle group differences were found in the diurnal rhythm and in the within-subject relationships between physiological measures. For participants high on MUS, within-subject changes in bodily symptoms were related to changes in mood, but only marginally to the physiological measures. Results of the current path analysis confirm the subordinate role of cardiac autonomic and respiratory parameters in MUS. PMID:20030762

  7. Intrinsic near-24-h pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans.

    PubMed

    Wright, K P; Hughes, R J; Kronauer, R E; Dijk, D J; Czeisler, C A

    2001-11-20

    Endogenous circadian clocks are robust regulators of physiology and behavior. Synchronization or entrainment of biological clocks to environmental time is adaptive and important for physiological homeostasis and for the proper timing of species-specific behaviors. We studied subjects in the laboratory for up to 55 days each to determine the ability to entrain the human clock to a weak circadian synchronizing stimulus [scheduled activity-rest cycle in very dim (approximately 1.5 lux in the angle of gaze) light-dark cycle] at three approximately 24-h periods: 23.5, 24.0, and 24.6 h. These studies allowed us to test two competing hypotheses as to whether the period of the human circadian pacemaker is near to or much longer than 24 h. We report here that imposition of a sleep-wake schedule with exposure to the equivalent of candle light during wakefulness and darkness during sleep is usually sufficient to maintain circadian entrainment to the 24-h day but not to a 23.5- or 24.6-h day. Our results demonstrate functionally that, in normally entrained sighted adults, the average intrinsic circadian period of the human biological clock is very close to 24 h. Either exposure to very dim light and/or the scheduled sleep-wake cycle itself can entrain this near-24-h intrinsic period of the human circadian pacemaker to the 24-h day. PMID:11717461

  8. Intrinsic near-24-h pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. P. Jr; Hughes, R. J.; Kronauer, R. E.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks are robust regulators of physiology and behavior. Synchronization or entrainment of biological clocks to environmental time is adaptive and important for physiological homeostasis and for the proper timing of species-specific behaviors. We studied subjects in the laboratory for up to 55 days each to determine the ability to entrain the human clock to a weak circadian synchronizing stimulus [scheduled activity-rest cycle in very dim (approximately 1.5 lux in the angle of gaze) light-dark cycle] at three approximately 24-h periods: 23.5, 24.0, and 24.6 h. These studies allowed us to test two competing hypotheses as to whether the period of the human circadian pacemaker is near to or much longer than 24 h. We report here that imposition of a sleep-wake schedule with exposure to the equivalent of candle light during wakefulness and darkness during sleep is usually sufficient to maintain circadian entrainment to the 24-h day but not to a 23.5- or 24.6-h day. Our results demonstrate functionally that, in normally entrained sighted adults, the average intrinsic circadian period of the human biological clock is very close to 24 h. Either exposure to very dim light and/or the scheduled sleep-wake cycle itself can entrain this near-24-h intrinsic period of the human circadian pacemaker to the 24-h day.

  9. 24-h activity rhythm and sleep in depressed outpatients.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hiroaki; Koga, Norie; Hidese, Shinsuke; Nagashima, Anna; Kim, Yoshiharu; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Disturbances in sleep and circadian rest-activity rhythms are key features of depression. Actigraphy, a non-invasive method for monitoring motor activity, can be used to objectively assess circadian rest-activity rhythms and sleep patterns. While recent studies have measured sleep and daytime activity of depressed patients using wrist-worn actigraphy, the actigraphic 24-h rest-activity rhythm in depression has not been well documented. We aimed to examine actigraphically measured sleep and circadian rest-activity rhythms in depressed outpatients. Twenty patients with DSM-IV major depressive episode and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated in this study. Participants completed 7 consecutive days of all-day actigraphic activity monitoring while engaging in usual activities. For sleep parameters, total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, and sleep fragmentation index were determined. Circadian rhythms were estimated by fitting individual actigraphy data to a cosine curve of a 24-h activity rhythm using the cosinor method, which generated three circadian activity rhythm parameters, i.e., MESOR (rhythm-adjusted mean), amplitude, and acrophase. Subjective sleep was also assessed using a sleep diary and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Patients showed significantly lower MESOR and more dampened amplitude along with significant sleep disturbances. Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower MESOR and more fragmented sleep emerged as the significant predictors of depression. Correlations between subjectively and actigraphically measured parameters demonstrated the validity of actigraphic measurements. These results indicate marked disturbances in sleep and circadian rest-activity rhythms of depression. By simultaneously measuring sleep and rest-activity rhythm parameters, actigraphy might serve as an objective diagnostic aid for depression. PMID:26978182

  10. Prophylaxis with human serum butyrylcholinesterase protects Göttingen minipigs exposed to a lethal high-dose of sarin vapor.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ashima; Hastings, Nicholas B; Sun, Wei; Dabisch, Paul A; Hulet, Stanley W; Jakubowski, Edward M; Mioduszewski, Robert J; Doctor, Bhupendra P

    2015-08-01

    Serum-derived human butyrylcholinesterase (Hu BChE) is a stoichiometric bioscavenger that is being developed as a potential prophylactic nerve agent countermeasure. Previously, we reported the prophylactic efficacy of Hu BChE in Göttingen minipigs against a whole-body exposure to 4.1mg/m(3) of sarin (GB) vapor, which produced lethality over 60min. Since the toxicity of nerve agent is concentration-dependent, in the present study, we investigated the toxic effects of an almost 3-fold higher rate of GB vapor exposure and the ability of Hu BChE to protect minipigs against this exposure. Male minipigs were subjected to: (1) air exposure; (2) GB vapor exposure; or (3) pretreatment with 7.5mg/kg of Hu BChE by i.m. injection, 24h prior to whole-body exposure to 11.4mg/m(3) of GB vapor for 10min. Electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, and pupil size were monitored throughout exposure. Blood drawn before and throughout exposure was analyzed for blood gases, electrolytes, metabolites, acetylcholinesterase and BChE activities, and amount of GB bound to red blood cells and plasma. A novel finding was that saline-treated animals exposed to GB vapor did not develop any seizures, but manifested a variety of cardiac and whole blood toxic signs and rapidly died due to respiratory failure. Strikingly, pre-treatment with 7.5mg/kg of Hu BChE not only prevented lethality, but also avoided all cardiac toxic signs manifested in the non-treated cohort. Thus, Hu BChE alone can serve as an effective prophylactic countermeasure versus a lethal high-dose exposure to GB vapor. PMID:26145887

  11. Tuberculosis in hospitalized patients: clinical characteristics of patients receiving treatment within the first 24 h after admission*

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise Rossato; da Silva, Larissa Pozzebon; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients hospitalized for tuberculosis, comparing those in whom tuberculosis treatment was started within the first 24 h after admission with those who did not. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving new tuberculosis cases in patients aged ≥ 18 years who were hospitalized after seeking treatment in the emergency room. Results: We included 305 hospitalized patients, of whom 67 (22.0%) received tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission ( ≤24h group) and 238 (88.0%) did not (>24h group). Initiation of tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission was associated with being female (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.06-3.74; p = 0.032) and with an AFB-positive spontaneous sputum smear (OR = 4.19; 95% CI: 1.94-9.00; p < 0.001). In the ≤24h and >24h groups, respectively, the ICU admission rate was 22.4% and 15.5% (p = 0.258); mechanical ventilation was used in 22.4% and 13.9% (p = 0.133); in-hospital mortality was 22.4% and 14.7% (p = 0.189); and a cure was achieved in 44.8% and 52.5% (p = 0.326). Conclusions: Although tuberculosis treatment was initiated promptly in a considerable proportion of the inpatients evaluated, the rates of in-hospital mortality, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation use remained high. Strategies for the control of tuberculosis in primary care should consider that patients who seek medical attention at hospitals arrive too late and with advanced disease. It is therefore necessary to implement active surveillance measures in the community for earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25029651

  12. The Lethality Test System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, W. M.; Sims, J. R.; Parker, J. V.

    1986-11-01

    The Lethality Test System (LTS) under construction at Los Alamos is an electromagnetic launcher facility designed to perform impact experiments at velocities up to 15 km/sec. The launcher is a 25 mm round bore, plasma armature railgun 22 m in length. Preinjection is accomplished with a two-stage light gas gun capable of 7 km/sec. The railgun power supply utilizes traction motors, vacuum interrupters, and pulse transformers. An assembly of 28 traction motors, equipped with flywheels, stores approximately 80 MJ at 92 percent of full speed and energizes the primary windings of three pulse transformers at a current of 50 kA. At peak current an array of vacuum interrupters disconnects the transformer primary windings and forces the current to flow in the secondary windings. The secondary windings are connected to the railgun, and by staging the vacuum interrupter openings, a 1-1.3 MA ramped current waveform will be delivered to the railgun.

  13. Lethality test system

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.; Sims, J.R.; Parker, J.V.

    1986-01-01

    The Lethality Test System (LTS), presently under construction at Los Alamos, is an electromagnetic launcher facility designed to perform impact experiments at velocities up to 15 km/s. The launcher is a 25 mm round bore, plasma armature railgun extending 22 m in length. Preinjection is accomplished with a two-stage gas gun capable of 7 km/s. The railgun power supply utilizes traction motors, vacuum interrupters, and pulse transformers. An assembly of 28 traction motors, equipped with flywheels, stores approximately 80 MJ at 92% of full speed and energizes the primary windings of three pulse transformers at a current of 50 kA. At peak current an array of vacuum interrupters disconnects the transformer primary windings and forces the current to flow in the secondary windings. The secondary windings are connected to the railgun, and by staging the vacuum interrupter openings, a 1 MA to 1.3 MA ramped current waveform will be delivered to the railgun.

  14. Baroreflex-mediated heart rate and vascular resistance responses 24 h after maximal exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Plasma volume, heart rate (HR) variability, and stimulus-response relationships for baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance (FVR) and HR were studied in eight healthy men after and without performing a bout of maximal exercise to test the hypotheses that acute expansion of plasma volume is associated with 1) reduction in baroreflex-mediated HR response, and 2) altered operational range for central venous pressure (CVP). METHODS: The relationship between stimulus (DeltaCVP) and vasoconstrictive reflex response (DeltaFVR) during unloading of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors was assessed with lower-body negative pressure (LBNP, 0, -5, -10, -15, -20 mm Hg). The relationship between stimulus (Deltamean arterial pressure (MAP)) and cardiac reflex response (DeltaHR) during loading of arterial baroreceptors was assessed with steady-state infusion of phenylephrine (PE) designed to increase MAP by 15 mm Hg alone and during application of LBNP (PE+LBNP) and neck pressure (PE+LBNP+NP). Measurements of vascular volume and autonomic baroreflex responses were conducted on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested 24 h after graded cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, measurement of baroreflex response was repeated with no exercise (control). The order of exercise and control treatments was counterbalanced. RESULTS: Baseline CVP was elevated (P = 0.04) from a control value of 10.5 +/- 0.4 to 12.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg 24 h after exercise. Average DeltaFVR/DeltaCVP during LBNP was not different (P = 0.942) between the exercise (-1.35 +/- 0.32 pru x mm Hg-1) and control (-1.32 +/- 0.36 pru x mm Hg-1) conditions. However, maximal exercise caused a shift along the reflex response relationship to a higher CVP and lower FVR. HR baroreflex response (DeltaHR/DeltaMAP) to PE+LBNP+NP was lower (P = 0.015) after maximal exercise (-0.43 +/- 0.15 beats x min-1 x mm Hg-1) compared with the control

  15. The friction coefficient of shoulder joints remains remarkably low over 24 h of loading.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian K; Durney, Krista M; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-11-01

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Eight human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean±standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (p<0.0001). The value in LCMS was significantly lower than in hHCMS and bHCMS (p<0.01). No visual damage was observed in any of the specimens. These are the first results to demonstrate that the friction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction. PMID:26472306

  16. Nitric oxide production contributes to Bacillus anthracis edema toxin-associated arterial hypotension and lethality: ex vivo and in vivo studies in the rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Cui, Xizhong; Xu, Wanying; Ohanjanian, Lernik; Sampath-Kumar, Hanish; Suffredini, Dante; Moayeri, Mahtab; Leppla, Stephen; Fitz, Yvonne; Eichacker, Peter Q

    2016-09-01

    We showed previously that Bacillus anthracis edema toxin (ET), comprised of protective antigen (PA) and edema factor (EF), inhibits phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction in rat aortic rings and these effects are diminished in endothelial-denuded rings. Therefore, employing rat aortic ring and in vivo models, we tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) contributes to ET's arterial effects. Compared with rings challenged with PA alone, ET (PA + EF) reduced PE-stimulated maximal contractile force (MCF) and increased the PE concentration producing 50% MCF (EC50) (P < 0.0001). Compared with placebo, l-nitro-arginine methyl-ester (l-NAME), an NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, reduced ET's effects on MCF and EC50 in patterns that approached or were significant (P = 0.06 and 0.03, respectively). In animals challenged with 24-h ET infusions, l-NAME (0.5 or 1.0 mg·kg(-1)·h(-1)) coadministration increased survival to 17 of 28 animals (60.7%) compared with 4 of 27 (14.8%) given placebo (P = 0.01). Animals receiving l-NAME but no ET all survived. Compared with PBS challenge, ET increased NO levels at 24 h and l-NAME decreased these increases (P < 0.0001). ET infusion decreased mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in placebo and l-NAME-treated animals (P < 0.0001) but l-NAME reduced decreases in MAP with ET from 9 to 24 h (P = 0.03 for the time interaction). S-methyl-l-thiocitrulline, a selective neuronal NOS inhibitor, had effects in rings and, at a high dose in vivo models, comparable to l-NAME, whereas N'-[3-(aminomethyl)benzyl]-acetimidamide, a selective inducible NOS inhibitor, did not. NO production contributes to ET's arterial relaxant, hypotensive, and lethal effects in the rat. PMID:27448553

  17. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic assessment of faropenem in a lethal murine Bacillus anthracis inhalation postexposure prophylaxis model.

    PubMed

    Gill, Stanley C; Rubino, Christopher M; Bassett, Jennifer; Miller, Lynda; Ambrose, Paul G; Bhavnani, Sujata M; Beaudry, Amber; Li, Jinfang; Stone, Kimberly Clawson; Critchley, Ian; Janjic, Nebojsa; Heine, Henry S

    2010-05-01

    There are few options for prophylaxis after exposure to Bacillus anthracis, especially in children and women of childbearing potential. Faropenem is a beta-lactam in the penem subclass that is being developed as an oral prodrug, faropenem medoxomil, for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. Faropenem was shown to have in vitro activity against B. anthracis strains that variably express the bla1 beta-lactamase (MIC range, concentrations and efficacy against B. anthracis in a murine postexposure prophylaxis inhalation model. The plasma PKs and PKs-PDs of faropenem were evaluated in BALB/c mice following the intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of doses ranging from 2.5 to 160 mg/kg of body weight. For the evaluation of efficacy, mice received by inhalation aerosol doses of B. anthracis (Ames strain; faropenem MIC, 0.06 microg/ml) at 100 times the 50% lethal dose. The faropenem dosing regimens (10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg/day) were administered i.p. at 24 h postchallenge at 4-, 6-, and 12-h intervals for 14 days. The sigmoid maximum-threshold-of-efficacy (E(max)) model fit the survival data, in which the free-drug area under the concentration-time curve (fAUC)/MIC ratio, the maximum concentration of free drug in plasma (fC(max))/MIC ratio, and the cumulative percentage of a 24-h period that the free-drug concentration exceeds the MIC under steady-state pharmacokinetic conditions (f %T(MIC)) were each evaluated. Assessment of f %T(MIC) demonstrated the strongest correlation with survival (R(2) = 0.967) compared to the correlations achieved by assessment of fAUC/MIC or fC(max)/MIC, for which minimal correlations were observed. The 50% effective dose (ED(50)), ED(90), and ED(99) corresponded to f %T(MIC) values of 10.6, 13.4, and 16.4%, respectively, and E(max) was 89.3%. Overall, faropenem demonstrated a high

  18. Cerebral blood flow velocity in humans exposed to 24 h of head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, Y.; Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Deroshia, C. W.; Hargens, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in humans before, during, and after 24 h of 6 deg head-down tilt (HDT), which is a currently accepted experimental model to simulate microgravity. CBF velocity was measured by use of the transcranial Doppler technique in the right middle cerebral artery of eight healthy male subjects. Mean CBF velocity increased from the pre-HDT upright seated baseline value of 55.5 +/- 3.7 (SE) cm/s to 61.5 +/- 3.3 cm/s at 0.5 h of HDT, reached a peak value of 63.2 +/- 4.1 cm/s at 3 h of HDT, and remained significantly above the pre-HDT baseline for over 6 h of HDT. During upright seated recovery, mean CBF velocity decreased to 87 percent of the pre-HDT baseline value. Mean CBF velocity correlated well with calculated intracranial arterial pressure (IAP). As analyzed by linear regression, mean CBF velocity = 29.6 + 0.32IAP. These results suggest that HDT increases CBF velocity by increasing IAP during several hours after the onset of microgravity. Importantly, the decrease in CBF velocity after HDT may be responsible, in part, for the increased risk of syncope observed in subjects after prolonged bed rest and also in astronauts returning to Earth.

  19. Gender differences in the impact of daily sadness on 24-h heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Verkuil, Bart; Brosschot, Jos F; Marques, Andrea H; Kampschroer, Kevin; Sternberg, Esther M; Thayer, Julian F

    2015-12-01

    Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) is proposed to mediate the relation between depressive symptoms and cardiovascular health problems. Yet, several studies have found that in women depression is associated with higher HRV levels, whereas in men depression is associated with lower HRV levels. So far, these studies have only examined gender differences in HRV levels using a single assessment. This study aimed to test the interactive effects of gender and sadness on ambulatory-assessed HRV levels. A sample of 60 (41 women) employees participated in an ambulatory study. HRV levels (mean of successive differences; MSD) were continuously measured for 24 h. During the daytime, hourly assessments of sadness and other mood states were taken, while depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D). Gender differences were observed when examining the impact of average daily sadness on MSD. In women, but not in men, the total amount of sadness experienced during the day was associated with higher circadian MSD levels. These findings suggest that researchers need to take gender differences into account when examining the relation between sadness, HRV, and cardiovascular problems. PMID:26338472

  20. Combined solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants - An approach to 24h solar electricity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzer, Werner J.

    2016-05-01

    Solar thermal power plants have the advantage of being able to provide dispatchable renewable electricity even when the sun is not shining. Using thermal energy strorage (TES) they may increase the capacity factor (CF) considerably. However in order to increase the operating hours one has to increase both, thermal storage capacity and solar field size, because the additional solar field is needed to charge the storage. This increases investment cost, although levelised electricity cost (LEC) may decrease due to the higher generation. Photovoltaics as a fluctuating source on the other side has arrived at very low generation costs well below 10 ct/kWh even for Central Europe. Aiming at a capacity factor above 70% and at producing dispatchable power it is shown that by a suitable combination of CSP and PV we can arrive at lower costs than by increasing storage and solar field size in CSP plants alone. Although a complete baseload power plant with more than 90% full load hours may not be the most economic choice, power plants approaching a full 24h service in most days of the year seem to be possible at reasonably low tariffs.

  1. Fasting for 24 h improves nasal chemosensory performance and food palatability in a related manner.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jameason D; Goldfield, Gary S; Doucet, Éric

    2012-06-01

    Changes in smell function can modify feeding behaviour but there is little evidence of how acute negative energy balance may impact olfaction and palatability. In a within-subjects repeated measures design, 15 subjects (nine male; six female) aged 28.6±4.5 years with initial body weight (BW) 74.7±4.9 kg and body mass index (BMI) 25.3±1.4 kg/m(2) were randomized and tested at baseline (FED) and Post Deprivation (FASTED) for nasal chemosensory performance (Sniffin' Sticks) and food palatability (visual analogue scale). Significant main effects for time indicated improvements in the FASTED session for odor threshold, odor discrimination, and total odor scores (TDI), and for increased palatability. There were significant positive correlations between initial BW and the change in odor threshold (r=.52) and TDI scores (r=.53). Positive correlations were also noted between delta identification score and delta palatability (r=.68). When the sample was split by sex, only for females were there significant correlations between delta palatability and: delta BW (r=.88); delta odor identification (r=.94); and delta TDI score (r=.85). Fasting for 24h improved smell function and this was related to increased palatability ratings and initial BW. Further studies should confirm the role of BW and sex in the context of olfaction, energy deprivation and palatability. PMID:22387713

  2. 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in healthy young adult Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American subjects.

    PubMed

    Chase, H P; Garg, S K; Icaza, G; Carmain, J A; Walravens, C F; Marshall, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) values for adolescent and young adult males and females of Anglo, Hispanic, and African-American descent. One hundred and eighteen healthy subjects (62 females, 56 males) participated, with an ethnic distribution of 50 Anglo, 32 Hispanic, and 36 African-American subjects. All subjects came to the clinic for height, weight, sitting blood pressure (BP), and to begin 24-h ABP monitoring using the SpaceLabs model 90207 automatic noninvasive monitor. The monitor recorded readings every 0.5 h from 06:00 to 22:00 and every hour at night from 22:00 to 06:00. Office systolic and diastolic BP values were higher for all males compared to all females. Mean 24-h, nighttime, and daytime systolic ABP values were also significantly higher for males compared to females. The 24-h mean and daytime systolic ABP values were significantly different by ethnic groups. The African-American subjects always had the highest readings. Mean 24-h diastolic ABP was also significantly different by ethnic groups, with the African-American subjects being higher than the Anglos or the Hispanics. Diastolic ABP (24-h mean, daytime, and nighttime) values (for all subjects combined) increased gradually and varied significantly with age. This study provides preliminary normative data about ABP in an understudied population (ie, teenagers and young adults of different ethnic backgrounds). It also shows that higher blood pressures are present among males and among subjects of African-American descent in the teenage and young adult population. PMID:9008244

  3. Dose-finding and 24-h monitoring for efficacy and safety of aerosolized Nacystelyn in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    App, E M; Baran, D; Dab, I; Malfroot, A; Coffiner, M; Vanderbist, F; King, M

    2002-02-01

    The aim of the present studies was to investigate the tolerability and activity of a novel mucolytic drug, Nacystelyn (NAL), for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. In study 1, involving 10 CF patients, the main objective was to determine the tolerability and potential efficacy of a range of single doses of NAL in comparison to a placebo, in order to establish an optimal dose for further testing. On five consecutive scheduled treatment days, patients inhaled either from two (4 mg) to eight puffs (16 mg) of a single dose of NAL from the range, administered in an open-label fashion, or 12 puffs of active NAL (24 mg) versus 12 puffs of placebo, administered in a randomized double-blind fashion. Pulmonary function data were unaffected and clinically-adverse effects were limited to wheezing in some patients that inhaled 12 puffs of either placebo or active drug. Subsequent rheological analysis of their sputum showed a dose-dependent decrease in sputum viscoelasticity, accompanied by a decrease in sputum solids content and an increase in chloride and sodium concentrations. In study 2, involving 12 CF patients, the clinical safety and mucolytic activity of a single dose of NAL was monitored over 24 h. On different scheduled treatment days, 7 days apart, patients inhaled a single dose of 12 puffs of active NAL (24 mg) or 12 puffs of placebo drug in a randomized, double-blind sequence, with sputum samples taken at intervals before and after inhalation. Mucus rigidity decreased following NAL inhalation, with the maximum effect observed at 4 h; the 1-, 2- and 4-h NAL rheology results were significantly different from placebo. No adverse effects were observed. The drug was well tolerated in both studies. Sputum results were predictive of improved clearability by ciliary and cough transport mechanisms. PMID:11866009

  4. The importance of bioimpedance (BIA) analysis and Cardio Tens (24-h ABPM and ECG) monitoring in the dialysis programme.

    PubMed

    Löcsey, L; Szlanka, B; Ménes, I; Kövér, A; Vitai, E; Malkócs, Z; Keresztes, P; Paragh, G

    1999-01-01

    The authors performed bioimpedance analysis and Cardio Tens (24-h ABPM and ECG) monitoring in 66 patients (28 males, 38 females) treated in the chronic haemodialysis programme. They investigated the correlations between the body weights before, during and after dialysis, the changes of the water compartments and fat body weight, and the recorded values of blood pressure and ECG alterations. On the basis of the measurements by this non-invasive method it is concluded that, as a result of dialysis and ultrafiltration, the total body weight and total body water are decreasing in a greater extent in men than in women. By gradually decreasing the body weight, the optimal dry weight could be attained, which resulted in the reduction of blood pressure or even normotension. In the course of dialysis the values of bioimpedance and bioreactance increase. The intradialytic hypotensive indispositions were accompanied by a significant reduction of bioreactance (n = 16). The BMI, total body weight and total body water hyperlipidaemic, hypalbuminic patients with treatment-resistant hypertension are considerably larger than those of the patients with normal blood pressure (p<0.01). During Cardio Tens monitoring 53% of the patients proved to be dippers, 47% of whom had ST depression, while in 73% of the non-dippers ischaemic alterations were encountered together with high hyperbaric impact values. The total body weights and total water compartments of patients returning to dialysis with an excess body weight of more than 3.5 kg were significantly larger than of patients who were cooperative and had no oedemas. In the last hour of dialysis and during the following few hours, arrhythmias and ST depressions of the cardiovascularly instable patients appeared more frequently. The total water compartments of these patients are significantly larger than normotensive, normolipaemic patients with appropriate serum albumin concentrations. The importance of the BIA and Cardio Tens monitoring

  5. Comparison of the lethal effects of chemical warfare nerve agents across multiple ages.

    PubMed

    Wright, Linnzi K M; Lee, Robyn B; Vincelli, Nicole M; Whalley, Christopher E; Lumley, Lucille A

    2016-01-22

    Children may be inherently more vulnerable than adults to the lethal effects associated with chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure because of their closer proximity to the ground, smaller body mass, higher respiratory rate, increased skin permeability and immature metabolic systems. Unfortunately, there have only been a handful of studies on the effects of CWNA in pediatric animal models, and more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Using a stagewise, adaptive dose design, we estimated the 24h median lethal dose for subcutaneous exposure to seven CWNA in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at six different developmental times. Perinatal (postnatal day [PND] 7, 14 and 21) and adult (PND 70) rats were more susceptible than pubertal (PND 28 and 42) rats to the lethal effects associated with exposure to tabun, sarin, soman and cyclosarin. Age-related differences in susceptibility were not observed in rats exposed to VM, Russian VX or VX. PMID:26621540

  6. Quality assurance of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (EPIC-Soft).

    PubMed

    Crispim, Sandra P; Nicolas, Genevieve; Casagrande, Corinne; Knaze, Viktoria; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Huybrechts, Inge; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-02-01

    The interview-administered 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) EPIC-Soft® has a series of controls to guarantee the quality of dietary data across countries. These comprise all steps that are part of fieldwork preparation, data collection and data management; however, a complete characterisation of these quality controls is still lacking. The present paper describes in detail the quality controls applied in EPIC-Soft, which are, to a large extent, built on the basis of the EPIC-Soft error model and are present in three phases: (1) before, (2) during and (3) after the 24-HDR interviews. Quality controls for consistency and harmonisation are implemented before the interviews while preparing the seventy databases constituting an EPIC-Soft version (e.g. pre-defined and coded foods and recipes). During the interviews, EPIC-Soft uses a cognitive approach by helping the respondent to recall the dietary intake information in a stepwise manner and includes controls for consistency (e.g. probing questions) as well as for completeness of the collected data (e.g. system calculation for some unknown amounts). After the interviews, a series of controls can be applied by dietitians and data managers to further guarantee data quality. For example, the interview-specific 'note files' that were created to track any problems or missing information during the interviews can be checked to clarify the information initially provided. Overall, the quality controls employed in the EPIC-Soft methodology are not always perceivable, but prove to be of assistance for its overall standardisation and possibly for the accuracy of the collected data. PMID:24001201

  7. Demographic, Dietary, and Urinary Factors and 24-h Urinary Calcium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Higher urinary calcium is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis. This study delineated associations between demographic, dietary, and urinary factors and 24-h urinary calcium. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Cross-sectional studies were conducted of 2201 stone formers (SF) and 1167 nonstone formers (NSF) in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (men) and Nurses' Health Studies I and II (older and younger women). Results: Median urinary calcium was 182 mg/d in men, 182 mg/d in older women, and 192 mg/d in younger women. Compared with NSF, urinary calcium as a fraction of calcium intake was 33 to 38% higher in SF (P values ≤0.01). In regression analyses, participants were combined because associations with urinary calcium were similar in each cohort and in SF and NSF. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of calcium intake excreted 18 mg/d more urinary calcium than those in the lowest (P trend =0.01). Caffeine and family history of nephrolithiasis were positively associated, whereas urinary potassium, thiazides, gout, and age were inversely associated, with urinary calcium. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartiles of urinary magnesium, sodium, sulfate, citrate, phosphorus, and volume excreted 71 mg/d, 37 mg/d, 44 mg/d, 61 mg/d, 37 mg/d, and 24 mg/d more urinary calcium, respectively, than participants in the lowest (P values trend ≤0.01). Conclusions: Intestinal calcium absorption and/or negative calcium balance is greater in SF than NSF. Higher calcium intakes at levels typically observed in free-living individuals are associated with only small increases in urinary calcium. PMID:19820135

  8. Eplerenone restores 24-h blood pressure circadian rhythm and reduces advanced glycation end-products in rhesus macaques with spontaneous hypertensive metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Yuli; Wang, Jue; Peng, Ying; Shang, Haibao; Hou, Ning; Hu, Xiaomin; Ding, Yi; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Can; Zeng, Fanxin; Mao, Jiaming; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Dongwei; Sun, Xueting; Li, Chuanyun; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Zhang, Xiuqin

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is often associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and serves as a risk factor of MetS and its complications. Blood pressure circadian rhythm in hypertensive patients has been suggested to contribute to cardiovascular consequences and organ damage of hypertension. But circadian changes of BP and their response to drugs have not been clearly investigated in non-human primates (NHPs) of MetS with hypertension. Here, we identified 16 elderly, hypertensive MetS rhesus monkeys from our in-house cohort. With implanted telemetry, we investigate BP changes and its circadian rhythm, together with the effect of antihypertensive drugs on BP and its diurnal fluctuation. MetS hypertensive monkeys displayed higher BP, obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. We also confirmed impaired 24-h BP circadian rhythm in MetS hypertensive monkeys. Importantly, Eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, exerts multiple beneficial effects in MetS hypertensive monkeys, including BP reduction, 24-h BP circadian rhythm restoration, and decreased plasma concentration of inflammation factors and advanced glycation end-products. In summary, we identified a naturally-developed hypertensive MetS NHP model, which is of great value in the studies on pathogenesis of MetS-associated hypertension and development of novel therapeutic strategies. We also provided multiple novel mechanistic insights of the beneficial effect of Eplerenone on MetS with hypertension. PMID:27032687

  9. Cognitive Efficacy (SIB) of 13.3 Versus 4.6 mg/24 h Rivastigmine Patch in Severe Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Richard S; Ferris, Steven; Velting, Drew M; Meng, Xiangyi

    2016-05-01

    Severe Impairment Battery (SIB) data from the 24-week, randomized, double-blind ACTivities of daily living and cognitION (ACTION) study suggest that patients with severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) benefit from treatment with 13.3 versus 4.6 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch. The objective of this retrospective analysis was to further examine the cognitive efficacy of 13.3 versus 4.6 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch on individual SIB items, and SIB domains derived using factor analysis of these items. Change from baseline at Week 24 on 9 new factor-defined domains and individual items was calculated and compared using effect sizes (Cohen's d). Numerically less decline was observed with 13.3 versus 4.6 mg/24 h patch on all domains and the majority of individual items. Largest least squares mean treatment differences were observed on "visuospatial reasoning," "object naming," "recognition," "design copying," "social agency," "ideational praxis," and "comprehension" domains. These findings suggest 13.3 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch demonstrates broad cognitive efficacy across a range of SIB items and domains in patients with severe AD. PMID:26371345

  10. [Use of customer relationship management to improve healthcare for citizens. The 24h Andalusian Health Service: Healthline].

    PubMed

    Quero, Manuel; Ramos, María Belén; López, Wilfredo; Cubillas, Juan José; González, José María; Castillo, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Salud Responde (in English: Healthline) is a Health Service and Information Centre of the taxpayer-funded Andalusian Health System (AHS) that offers a Telephone Health Advisory Service called SA24h, among other services. The main objective of SA24h is to inform and advise citizens on health issues and the available health resources of the AHS. SA24h has a Customer Relationship Management information technology tool that organises information at various levels of specialization. Depending on the difficulty of the query, the citizen is attended by professionals with distinct profiles, providing a consensual response within the professionals working within Salud Responde or within other healthcare levels of the AHS. SA24h provided responses to 757,168 patient queries from late 2008 to the end of 01/12/2015. A total of 9.38% of the consultations were resolved by the non-health professionals working at Salud Responde. The remaining 84.07% were resolved by health staff. A total of 6.5% of users were referred to accident and emergency facilities while 88.77% did not need to attend their general practitioner within the next 24hours, thus avoiding unnecessary visits to health care facilities. PMID:26900101

  11. Lethality, accumulation and toxicokinetics of aluminum in some tissues of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Rawy, Sayed M; Morsy, Gamal M; Elshibani, Majda M

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, the lethality percentiles including median lethal doses (LD50), accumulation, distribution and toxicokinetics of aluminum in the liver, kidney, intestine, brain and serum of male albino rats, following a single oral administration were studied throughout 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The estimated LD50 at 24 h was 3.45 g Al/kg body weight (b.wt.). The utilized dose of Al was 1/50 LD50 (0.07 g Al/kg b.wt.). Aluminum residues, in Al-treated rats, were significantly decreased in response to the experimental periods and were negatively correlated with time. In addition, the hepatic, renal, intestinal, brain and serum Al contents were significantly higher than the corresponding controls at all experimental periods, except the brain that showed significant depletion when compared with its corresponding control after 28 days. Kinetically, the highest average of Al area under concentration - time curves (AUCtotal, μg/g day) and area under moment concentration - time curves (AUMCtotal, µg/g day(2)) recorded in the brain followed by kidney, serum, intestine and liver. The longest elimination half-life time (t 1/2, day) and the mean residence time (MRT, day) were recorded in the brain followed by the liver, kidney, serum and intestine. On the other hand, the slowest clearance rates (Cls, L/day) of Al, in order, were recorded in brain, kidney, serum, intestine and the liver. The elimination rate constant (Lz, day(-) (1)) of Al from the brain was less than that in the intestine and serum was less than that in the liver and kidney. The computed maximum concentrations (C max) of Al in the intestine > kidney > serum > brain > liver were recorded after 3, 3.8, 2.2, 5.4 and 3.8 days, respectively. The computed starting concentration (C 0, μg) of Al in serum was higher than its level in the intestine followed by the brain, kidney and liver. PMID:22317823

  12. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children’s discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother’s 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child’s salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  13. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    PubMed

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  14. Prevalence and determinants of misreporting among European children in proxy-reported 24 h dietary recalls.

    PubMed

    Börnhorst, C; Huybrechts, I; Ahrens, W; Eiben, G; Michels, N; Pala, V; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Barba, G; Bel-Serrat, S; Moreno, L A; Papoutsou, S; Veidebaum, T; Loit, H-M; Lissner, L; Pigeot, I

    2013-04-14

    Dietary assessment is strongly affected by misreporting (both under- and over-reporting), which results in measurement error. Knowledge about misreporting is essential to correctly interpret potentially biased associations between diet and health outcomes. In young children, dietary data mainly rely on proxy respondents but little is known about determinants of misreporting here. The present analysis was conducted within the framework of the multi-centre IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study and is based on 6101 children aged 2-9 years with 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) and complete covariate information. Adapted Goldberg cut-offs were applied to classify the 24-HDR as 'over-report', 'plausible report' or 'under-report'. Backward elimination in the course of multi-level logistic regression analyses was conducted to identify factors significantly related to under- and over-reporting. Next to characteristics of the children and parents, social factors and parental concerns/perceptions concerning their child's weight status were considered. Further selective misreporting was addressed, investigating food group intakes commonly perceived as more or less socially desirable. Proportions of under-, plausible and over-reports were 8.0, 88.6 and 3.4 %, respectively. The risk of under-reporting increased with age (OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.05, 1.83), BMI z-score of the child (OR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.10, 1.37) and household size (OR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.25), and was higher in low/medium income groups (OR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.13, 1.86). Over-reporting was negatively associated with BMI z-scores of the child (OR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.69, 0.88) and higher in girls (OR 1.70, 95 % CI 1.27, 2.28). Further social desirability and parental concerns/perceptions seemed to influence the reporting behaviour. Future studies should involve these determinants of misreporting when investigating diet-disease relationships in children

  15. Definition of lethality thresholds for KE less-lethal projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadros, Jaime H.

    1997-01-01

    The interest in the definition and application of the lethality threshold for KE less-lethal projectiles has increased in the last few years, as the demand for proper use of these weapons has increased from the public at large and the law enforcement community. Experiments have been performed and reported utilizing commercially available projectiles in 12 ga., 37 mm against an anthropomorphic dummy and damage criteria developed by the automobile industry. The utility of the method is discussed and future trends are presented.

  16. Nqrs Data for C24H76BLiN12O4P4 (Subst. No. 1593)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H76BLiN12O4P4 (Subst. No. 1593)

  17. Long-term blood pressure changes induced by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: assessment by 24 h ambulatory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Petrarca, Marco; Petrazzi, Luisa; Pasqualetti, Paolo; Properzi, Giuliana; Desideri, Giovambattista; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    An increased rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been described during and immediately after earthquakes. In this regard, few data are available on long-term blood pressure control in hypertensive outpatients after an earthquake. We evaluated the long-term effects of the April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake on blood pressure levels, as detected by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Before/after (mean±s.d. 6.9±4.5/14.2±5.1 months, respectively) the earthquake, the available 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data for the same patients were extracted from our database. Quake-related daily life discomforts were evaluated through interviews. We enrolled 47 patients (25 female, age 52±14 years), divided into three groups according to antihypertensive therapy changes after versus before the earthquake: unchanged therapy (n=24), increased therapy (n=17) and reduced therapy (n=6). Compared with before the quake, in the unchanged therapy group marked increases in 24 h (P=0.004), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.02) systolic blood pressure were observed after the quake. Corresponding changes in 24 h (P=0.005), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.009) diastolic blood pressure were observed. Daily life discomforts were reported more frequently in the unchanged therapy and increased therapy groups than the reduced therapy group (P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that patients with unchanged therapy display marked blood pressure increments up to more than 1 year after an earthquake, as well as long-term quake-related discomfort. Our data suggest that particular attention to blood pressure levels and adequate therapy modifications should be considered after an earthquake, not only early after the event but also months later. PMID:23595046

  18. Nqrs Data for C24H46I2N6O2P2Sn (Subst. No. 1589)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H46I2N6O2P2Sn (Subst. No. 1589)

  19. Lethal mobilization of DDT by cowbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Velzen, A.C.; Stiles, W.B.; Stickel, L.F.

    1972-01-01

    This study is an experimental demonstration of lethal mobilization of DDT by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and the effects of food deprivation on the distribution and loss of DDT, DDD, and DDE. The principal experimental group consisted of 20 birds fed a dietary dosage of 100 ppm of DDT for 13 days. After 2 days of full rations of untreated food, they were subjected to food restriction. Food was reduced to 43 percent of normal. Seven of the 20 birds died within 4 days. No birds died in the three control groups, treated as follows: ( 1 ) 20 birds fed 100 ppm DDT for 13 days and full rations of untreated food thereafter, (2) 20 birds fed only untreated food but subjected to food restriction, and (3) 20 birds fed full rations of untreated food throughout. In a pilot study, birds were fed 100, 200, or 300 ppm of DDT and subjected to two periods of food restriction, the first of these immediately after dosage ceased and the second 4 months later. DDT-dosed birds from all dosage levels died in each period of food restriction. Before the weight loss that accompanied food restriction, the brains of DDT-dosed birds had concentrations of DDT and DDD that were far below the lethal range. Concentrations increased rapidly to lethal levels. In these birds, DDT in carcasses decreased while DDD increased. DDT-dosed birds that died during food restriction lost 16 percent of their total body burden of DDT + DDD + DDE, 21 percent of their weight, and 81 percent of their fat. The DDT-dosed birds that were subjected to food restriction but survived lost a significantly greater proportion of their body burden of residues than similarly dosed birds not subjected to weight loss. Brain levels of DDT and DDD in birds that died during food restriction soon after dosage did not differ significantly from brain levels of birds that died in a period of food restriction 4 months after dosage. Concentrations of DDE were significantly higher in the latter group, although they were lower

  20. 'Life in the age of screens': parent perspectives on a 24-h no screen-time challenge.

    PubMed

    Peláez, Sandra; Alexander, Stephanie; Roberge, Jean-Baptiste; Henderson, Melanie; Bigras, Jean-Luc; Barnett, Tracie A

    2016-08-01

    Screens have become ubiquitous in modern society. Their use frequently underlies sedentary behaviour, a well-established determinant of obesity. As part of a family oriented clinic offering a 2-year lifestyle program for obese children and youth, we explored parents' experiences with a 24-h no screen-time challenge, an intervention designed to raise awareness of screen-time habits and to help families develop strategies to limit their use. In total, 15 parents representing 13 families participated. A focus group with nine parents and six phone interviews with those who could not join in person were conducted. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed qualitatively. Key elements to successful completion of the 24-h no screen-time challenge emerged, namely: clear rules about permitted activities during the 24-h period; togetherness, i.e. involving all family members in the challenge; and busyness, i.e. planning a full schedule in order to avoid idleness and preclude the temptation to use screens. Our findings suggest that practitioners aiming to increase awareness of screen-time or to limit their use may be more likely to succeed if they include all family members, offer concrete alternatives to screen-based activities and provide tailored strategies to manage discretionary time. PMID:27242271

  1. Time course of the MAPK and PI3-kinase response within 24 h of skeletal muscle overload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, C. J.; Fan, Z.; Gordon, S. E.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which skeletal muscle hypertrophies in response to increased mechanical loading may lead to the discovery of novel treatment strategies for muscle wasting and frailty. To gain insight into potential early signaling mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the temporal pattern of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity during the first 24 h of muscle overload was determined in the rat slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles after ablation of the gastrocnemius muscle. p38alpha MAPK phosphorylation was elevated for the entire 24-h overload period in both muscles. In contrast, Erk 2 and p54 JNK phosphorylation were transiently increased by overload, returning to the levels of sham-operated controls by 24 h. PI3-kinase activity was increased by muscle overload only at 12 h of overload and only in the plantaris muscle. In summary, sustained elevation of p38alpha MAPK phosphorylation occurred early in response to muscle overload, identifying this pathway as a potential candidate for mediating early hypertrophic signals in response to skeletal muscle overload.

  2. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as a therapeutic target for intervention of respiratory effects and lethality from phosgene.

    PubMed

    Andres, Devon; Keyser, Brian; Benton, Betty; Melber, Ashley; Olivera, Dorian; Holmes, Wesley; Paradiso, Danielle; Anderson, Dana; Ray, Radharaman

    2016-02-26

    Phosgene (CG), a toxic inhalation and industrial hazard, causes bronchoconstriction, vasoconstriction and associated pathological effects that could be life threatening. Ion channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family have been identified to act as specific chemosensory molecules in the respiratory tract in the detection, control of adaptive responses and initiation of detrimental signaling cascades upon exposure to various toxic inhalation hazards (TIH); their activation due to TIH exposure may result in broncho- and vasoconstriction. We studied changes in the regulation of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in cultures of human bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMC) and human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) exposed to CG (16ppm, 8min), using an air/liquid interface exposure system. CG increased [Ca(2+)]i (p<0.05) in both cell types, The CG-induced [Ca(2+)]i was blocked (p<0.05) by two types of TRP channel blockers, SKF-96365, a general TRP channel blocker, and RR, a general TRPV (vanilloid type) blocker, in both BSMC and HPMEC. These effects correlate with the in vivo efficacies of these compounds to protect against lung injury and 24h lethality from whole body CG inhalation exposure in mice (8-10ppm×20min). Thus the TRP channel mechanism appears to be a potential target for intervention in CG toxicity. PMID:26562769

  3. Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-h shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Laura K.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Burke, Tina M.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration space missions depends on the ability of crewmembers and mission support specialists to be alert and maintain high levels of cognitive function while operating complex, technical equipment. We examined sleep, nocturnal melatonin levels and cognitive function of crewmembers and the sleep and cognitive function of mission controllers who participated in a high-fidelity 105-day simulated spaceflight mission at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (Moscow). Crewmembers were required to perform daily mission duties and work one 24-h extended duration work shift every sixth day. Mission controllers nominally worked 24-h extended duration shifts. Supplemental lighting was provided to crewmembers and mission controllers. Participants' sleep was estimated by wrist-actigraphy recordings. Overall, results show that crewmembers and mission controllers obtained inadequate sleep and exhibited impaired cognitive function, despite countermeasure use, while working extended duration shifts. Crewmembers averaged 7.04±0.92 h (mean±SD) and 6.94±1.08 h (mean±SD) in the two workdays prior to the extended duration shifts, 1.88±0.40 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h work shift, and then slept 10.18±0.96 h (mean±SD) the day after the night shift. Although supplemental light was provided, crewmembers' average nocturnal melatonin levels remained elevated during extended 24-h work shifts. Naps and caffeine use were reported by crewmembers during ˜86% and 45% of extended night work shifts, respectively. Even with reported use of wake-promoting countermeasures, significant impairments in cognitive function were observed. Mission controllers slept 5.63±0.95 h (mean±SD) the night prior to their extended duration work shift. On an average, 89% of night shifts included naps with mission controllers sleeping an average of 3.4±1.0 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h extended duration work shift. Mission controllers also showed impaired cognitive function during extended

  4. Histopathological biomarkers in juvenile silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to a sublethal lead concentration.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Lautaro; Weber, Paula; Dressler, Valderi; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Vigliano, Fabricio Andrés

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the 96-h lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of lead (Pb) in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, and to determine histopathological biomarkers in fish exposed for 96-h to a sublethal concentration at 25% of the LC50. The 96-h LC50 was 108 mgl(-1). In gills, the length and thickness of lamella and thickness of the filament epithelium were significantly higher in fish exposed to Pb for 48-h than in control fish whereas the interlamellar distance decreased. In the liver, the area occupied by lipid droplets and size of hepatocytes showed significantly higher values after 24-h of exposure. The percentage of abnormal renal tubules was higher in fish exposed to Pb, exhibiting a time-dependent increase. These variations in histopathological biomarkers permit the definition of the overall response of R. quelen to Pb and the potential usefulness in the monitoring of Pb contamination. PMID:25521338

  5. Critical body-residues for lethal and sublethal effects of sediment-associated PAH on benthic copepods

    SciTech Connect

    Lotufo, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    Adult females of the meiobenthic copepod Schizopera knabeni were exposed to sediment-associated fluoranthene for 3, 6, 12, 24, 96, and 240 h. Sediment concentrations ranged from 25 to 1,661 nmol (5--336 {micro}g)/gdw and the TOC was 1.5%. Body burden increased to an apparent steady state after only 6 h. Elimination half-lives were 4.6 and 3.2 h in uncontaminated water and sediment, respectively. Toxic effects were only detected after 240 h as increased mortality and decreased offspring production. Significant mortality was observed only at the highest concentration; the LC50 was 1,011 nmol (204 {micro}g)/dgw. In contrast, offspring production was decreased at much lower concentrations, yielding an IC25 value of 148 nmol (30 {micro}g)/dgw. Lethal critical body residue (CBR) was determined as a 10-d LD50 of 15.5 {micro}mol/g dry tissue. By measuring PAH concentrations in the body and eggs of females, CBRs for reproductive output were determined as IC25 values of 2 and 3.1 {micro}mol/gdw, respectively. PAH sublethal effects on feeding rate were also investigated Adult copepods were exposed to {sup 14}C sediment-associated fluoranthene for 24 h were fed {sup 3}H-labeled algae for 3 h. Ingestion rate was significantly decreased at tissue concentrations as low as 1 {micro}mol/gdw and yielded an IC25 value of 0.6 {micro}mol/gdw. Similar findings were obtained using another species of estuarine copepod, Coullana sp. Non-polar narcotic compounds such as PAH cause a nonspecific disturbance of the functioning of cell membrane which results in decreased overall activity. Measurement of CBR associated with decreased feeding is proposed as a direct method to quantify sublethal narcotizing effects of organic compounds.

  6. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Assessment of Faropenem in a Lethal Murine Bacillus anthracis Inhalation Postexposure Prophylaxis Model ▿

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Stanley C.; Rubino, Christopher M.; Bassett, Jennifer; Miller, Lynda; Ambrose, Paul G.; Bhavnani, Sujata M.; Beaudry, Amber; Li, Jinfang; Stone, Kimberly Clawson; Critchley, Ian; Janjic, Nebojsa; Heine, Henry S.

    2010-01-01

    There are few options for prophylaxis after exposure to Bacillus anthracis, especially in children and women of childbearing potential. Faropenem is a β-lactam in the penem subclass that is being developed as an oral prodrug, faropenem medoxomil, for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. Faropenem was shown to have in vitro activity against B. anthracis strains that variably express the bla1 β-lactamase (MIC range, ≤0.06 to 1 μg/ml). In this study we evaluated the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) relationships between the plasma faropenem free-drug (f) concentrations and efficacy against B. anthracis in a murine postexposure prophylaxis inhalation model. The plasma PKs and PKs-PDs of faropenem were evaluated in BALB/c mice following the intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of doses ranging from 2.5 to 160 mg/kg of body weight. For the evaluation of efficacy, mice received by inhalation aerosol doses of B. anthracis (Ames strain; faropenem MIC, 0.06 μg/ml) at 100 times the 50% lethal dose. The faropenem dosing regimens (10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg/day) were administered i.p. at 24 h postchallenge at 4-, 6-, and 12-h intervals for 14 days. The sigmoid maximum-threshold-of-efficacy (Emax) model fit the survival data, in which the free-drug area under the concentration-time curve (fAUC)/MIC ratio, the maximum concentration of free drug in plasma (fCmax)/MIC ratio, and the cumulative percentage of a 24-h period that the free-drug concentration exceeds the MIC under steady-state pharmacokinetic conditions (f %TMIC) were each evaluated. Assessment of f %TMIC demonstrated the strongest correlation with survival (R2 = 0.967) compared to the correlations achieved by assessment of fAUC/MIC or fCmax/MIC, for which minimal correlations were observed. The 50% effective dose (ED50), ED90, and ED99 corresponded to f %TMIC values of 10.6, 13.4, and 16.4%, respectively, and Emax was 89.3%. Overall, faropenem demonstrated a high level of activity against B

  7. [Acute lethal alcohol intoxication (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kringsholm, B

    1976-01-01

    In 14,744 autopsy cases from an 18-year period 92 cases (of which 7 were ruled out because of decomposition were observed in which death was supposed to be due to direct acute alcoholic intoxication. In the police reports 81 persons were designated as chronic alcoholics or abusers of spirits. The blood alcohol level ranged between 2.04 and 4.92 o/oo. The cases studied were divided into two groups, one with low and the other with high lethal alcohol level. Fatty liver and cirrhosis were found with identical frequency in the two groups, whereas cardiac hypertrophy of obscure origin occurred markedly more often in the group with low lethal blood alcohol level. On the basis the possible mechanism of death in the cases with cardiac hypertrophy is discussed. Finally, the relation between the blood and urine alcohol concentrations observed in 72 cases is discussed. On the assumption that the water phase of the blood was 75 per cent of the total blood, death occurred in the persons without cardiac hypertrophy with fairly identical frequency either in the phase of absorption or the phase of elimination, whereas in the persons with cardiac hypertrophy death most often occurred in the phase of absorption. These statements should, however, be taken with some reservation, partly because the water phase of the blood may vary considerably post mortem (60-90 per cent) and partly because the urine alcohol concentration depends on serval variable factors. PMID:137612

  8. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of spinosad on bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson).

    PubMed

    Morandin, Lora A; Winston, Mark L; Franklin, Michelle T; Abbott, Virginia A

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments of new families of pesticides and growing awareness of the importance of wild pollinators for crop pollination have stimulated interest in potential effects of novel pesticides on wild bees. Yet pesticide toxicity studies on wild bees remain rare, and few studies have included long-term monitoring of bumble bee colonies or testing of foraging ability after pesticide exposure. Larval bees feeding on exogenous pollen and exposed to pesticides during development may result in lethal or sub-lethal effects during the adult stage. We tested the effects of a naturally derived biopesticide, spinosad, on bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colony health, including adult mortality, brood development, weights of emerging bees and foraging efficiency of adults that underwent larval development during exposure to spinosad. We monitored colonies from an early stage, over a 10-week period, and fed spinosad to colonies in pollen at four levels: control, 0.2, 0.8 and 8.0 mg kg(-1), during weeks 2 through 5 of the experiment. At concentrations that bees would likely encounter in pollen in the wild (0.2-0.8 mg kg(-1)) we detected minimal negative effects to bumble bee colonies. Brood and adult mortality was high at 8.0 mg kg(-1) spinosad, about twice the level that bees would be exposed to in a 'worst case' field scenario, resulting in colony death two to four weeks after initial pesticide exposure. At more realistic concentrations there were potentially important sub-lethal effects. Adult worker bees exposed to spinosad during larval development at 0.8 mg kg(-1) were slower foragers on artificial complex flower arrays than bees from low or no spinosad treated colonies. Inclusion of similar sub-lethal assays to detect effects of pesticides on pollinators would aid in development of environmentally responsible pest management strategies. PMID:15880684

  9. Variations in 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate of type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Shipra; Verma, Narsingh; Anjum, Baby; Bhardwaj, Kshitij

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Diabetes has profound consequences on the cardiovascular system leading to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Blood pressure (BP) has a characteristic and reproducible circadian pattern, with high values during the day and low values at night. A 7-day timed analysis of BP through ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been used not only to diagnose day and night dipping patterns of blood pressure, but also to measure day-to-day variability and the circadian hyper-amplitude-tension, a condition in which excessive circadian BP amplitude precedes the chronic established hypertension. Our objective was to assess the 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of BP and heart rate in diabetic patients, as it could be helpful in the diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular morbidity. Materials and Methods A total of 50 diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes and 50 non-diabetic participants were recruited for the study. General health records were individually maintained, and 7-day/24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor was carried out. Results The rhythmic parameters of systolic and diastolic BP, heart rate, double amplitude, acrophase and 3-h fractionated hyperbaric index were found to be significantly high in diabetic patients. A total of 12 participants were diagnosed with circadian hyper-amplitude-tension. These data suggest that diabetic patients have certain variations in the circadian pattern of blood pressure and heart rate, which can result in disturbed vascular events, and thus are at greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Conclusion Seven-day/24-h monitoring might be useful as an early predictive tool in assessing future cardiovascular risk, guiding treatment and management of these patients. PMID:25422775

  10. Effects of dietary fatty acid composition on 24-h energy expenditure and chronic disease risk factors in men123

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jamie A; Watras, Abigail C; Adams, Alexandra K; Schoeller, Dale A

    2009-01-01

    Background: A high-fat (HF) diet and sedentary lifestyle are implicated in the development of obesity. Controlled feeding studies and measures of short-term resting energy expenditure (REE) have suggested that the type of dietary fat may alter energy expenditure (EE). Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of an HF diet rich in either monounsaturated or saturated fatty acids (FAs) and of exercise on EE and chronic disease risk factors. Design: Eight healthy men [age: 18–45 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 22 ± 3] were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 crossover design to 1 of 4 treatments: HF diet (50% of energy) with a high amount of saturated fat (22% of energy) plus exercise (SE) or a sedentary (SS) condition or a diet high in monounsaturated fat (30% of energy) plus exercise (UE) or a sedentary (US) condition. The subjects spent 5 d in a metabolic chamber and cycled at 45% of maximal oxygen uptake for 2 h each day during the exercise visits. Respiratory gases and urinary nitrogen were measured to determine 24-h EE. Resting metabolic rate was measured on days 2, 4, and 6. Results: Average 24-h EE was not different with respect to dietary FA composition (3202 ± 146, 3208 ± 151, 2240 ± 82, and 2270 ± 104 for SE, UE, SS, and US, respectively). Total and LDL cholesterol and blood pressure were significantly greater after the SE and SS treatments than after the UE and US treatments. Conclusion: Resting metabolic rate and 24-h EE were not significantly different after short-term exposure to an HF diet rich in monounsaturated FAs or after exposure to a diet rich in saturated FAs in healthy, nonobese men. PMID:19321562

  11. Parallel assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes: validation against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; De Marees, Markus; Fusch, Gerhard; Fusch, Christoph; Mester, Joachim; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2010-11-01

    The assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes requires accurate and precise methods. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for parallel assessment of diet and exercise against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and respiratory gas exchange. The participants were 14 male triathletes under normal training conditions. Energy intake and doubly labelled water were weakly associated with each other (r = 0.69, standard error of estimate [SEE] = 304 kcal x day(-1)). Protein intake was strongly correlated with 24-h urea (r = 0.89) but showed considerable individual variation (SEE = 0.34 g kg(-1) x day(-1)). Total energy expenditure based on recorded activities was highly correlated with doubly labelled water (r = 0.95, SEE = 195 kcal x day(-1)) but was proportionally biased. During running and cycling, estimated exercise energy expenditure was highly correlated with gas exchange (running: r = 0.89, SEE = 1.6 kcal x min(-1); cycling: r = 0.95, SEE = 1.4 kcal x min(-1)). High exercise energy expenditure was slightly underestimated during running. For nutrition data, variations appear too large for precise measurements in individual athletes, which is a common problem of dietary assessment methods. Despite the high correlations of total energy expenditure and exercise energy expenditure with reference methods, a correction for systematic errors is necessary for the valid estimation of energetic requirements in individual athletes. PMID:20967672

  12. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on serum electrolytes in rats: A 24-h time-course study.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, A; Khan, H A; Manthiri, R A

    2016-03-01

    Black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) belongs to the family Buthidae and is one of the most venomous scorpions in the world. The effects of A. bicolor venom on serum electrolytes were not known and therefore investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with five animals in each group. One of the groups served as control and received vehicle only. The animals in the remaining groups received a single subcutaneous injection of crude A. bicolor venom (200 μg/kg bodyweight) and were killed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after venom injection. The results showed that scorpion venom caused significant increase in serum sodium levels within 30 min after injection which slightly subsided after 1 h and then persisted over 24 h. Serum potassium levels continued to significantly increase until 4 h and then slightly subsided. There were significant decreases in serum magnesium (Mg(+)) levels following scorpion venom injection, at all the time points during the course of study. Serum calcium levels were significantly increased during the entire course of study, whereas serum chloride was significantly decreased. In conclusion, A. bicolor envenomation in rats caused severe and persistent hypomagnesemia with accompanied hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia. It is important to measure serum Mg(+) levels in victims of scorpion envenomation, and patients with severe Mg(+) deficiency should be treated accordingly. PMID:25964378

  13. Microdialysis in the Rat Striatum: Effects of 24 h Dexamethasone Retrodialysis on Evoked Dopamine Release and Penetration Injury

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The power of microdialysis for in vivo neurochemical monitoring is a result of intense efforts to enhance microdialysis procedures, the probes themselves, and the analytical systems used for the analysis of dialysate samples. Our goal is to refine microdialysis further by focusing attention on what happens when the probes are implanted into brain tissue. It is broadly acknowledged that some tissue damage occurs, such that the tissue nearest the probes is disrupted from its normal state. We hypothesize that mitigating such disruption would refine microdialysis. Herein, we show that the addition of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug, to the perfusion fluid protects evoked dopamine responses as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry next to the probes after 24 h. We also show that dexamethasone stabilizes evoked dopamine responses measured at the probe outlet over a 4–24 h postimplantation interval. The effects of dexamethasone are attributable to its anti-inflammatory actions, as dexamethasone had no significant effect on two histochemical markers for dopamine terminals, tyrosine hydroxylase and the dopamine transporter. Using histochemical assays, we confirmed that the actions of dexamethasone are tightly confined to the immediate, local vicinity of the probe. PMID:25491242

  14. Schottky barrier height of Ni/TiO2/4H-SiC metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Ivan R.; Pereira, Marcelo B.; Boudinov, Henri I.

    2015-12-01

    Ni/TiO2/4H-SiC diodes were analysed through measurements of current-voltage curves varying the temperature. The Schottky Barrier Height (SBH) which increased with temperature was studied by simulation of the Thermionic Emission Model, considering Ni/SiC Schottky structures with an insulator layer between the metal and semiconductor. This model shows that a new method of calculation should be applied to diodes that have a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. Misleading results for SBH are obtained if the thin insulator layer is not considered. When applying the suggested method to the Ni/TiO2/4H-SiC diodes it was necessary to consider not only the deposited TiO2 layer, but also a second dielectric layer of native SiCxOy at the surface of SiC. By measuring I-V-T curves for two samples with different thicknesses of TiO2, the suggested method allows one to estimate the thicknesses of both dielectric layers: TiO2 and SiOxCy.

  15. The classification of oesophageal 24 h pH measurements using a Kohonen self-organizing feature map.

    PubMed

    Haylett, K R; Vales, P; McCloy, R F

    2004-06-01

    Analysis of 24 h oesophageal pH studies can be problematic with many patients asymptomatic during the investigation, despite observations of reflux. The aim of this study was to carry out a cluster analysis of ambulatory pH studies to determine any underlying patterns and classes within the data. The results of 900 24 h pH studies were investigated using the Kohonen self-organizing feature map (SOFM), a neural network that can be used to identify clusters within multidimensional data. The clinical features were presented to the network and the main classes identified. The SOFM-based analysis showed that patients clinically assessed as having symptomatic reflux during the study could be described by four major classifications. The results also showed that the probability of identifying a correlation between symptoms and reflux during an investigation varies from 0.49 to 0.78 for the classes identified. The developed network may be a useful tool in the classification of pH data. The cluster-based technique may offer an alternative to standard statistical techniques for high-dimensional gastrointestinal data and form the basis of an expert system for the automated analysis of pH data. PMID:15253122

  16. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, D.N.; Micca, P.L.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1986-03-11

    A stable boronated (/sup 10/B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/, at a dose of about 200 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight. The infusion is preformed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of /sup 10/B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of /sup 10/B in the tumor. 1 tab.

  17. Treatment of Irradiated Mice with High-Dose Ascorbic Acid Reduced Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomohito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Masataka; Nishida, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Masaru; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Mukai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI) followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg) up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h) after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total) also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure. PMID:25651298

  18. Hippuric acid in 24 h urine collections as a biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Angela; Folesani, Giuseppina; Mena, Pedro; Ticinesi, Andrea; Allegri, Franca; Nouvenne, Antonio; Pinelli, Silvana; Del Rio, Daniele; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-12-01

    This work aimed to underline the prospects of hippuric acid, a product of the metabolism of polyphenols, as a new biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake associated with lithogenic risk. Biochemical parameters of lithogenic risk and hippuric acid were measured in the 24 h urine collections of a cohort of 696 Italian kidney stone formers divided into two subgroups according to their different dietary habits. The link between lithogenic risk parameters and hippuric acid was assessed and this compound was revealed as a valuable biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers. A cut-off value of urinary excretion of hippuric acid, 300 mg/24 h, was set as the threshold of discrimination between low and high intake of fruits and vegetables for these patients. These results highlight the importance of monitoring of the excretion hippuric acid in urine to address proper dietary guidelines for the management of stone former patients. PMID:25198158

  19. Nintendo® Wii Fit based sleepiness tester detects impairment of postural steadiness due to 24 h of wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Tietäväinen, Aino; Gates, Fred K; Meriläinen, Antti; Mandel, Jeff E; Hæggström, Edward

    2013-12-01

    A field-usable sleepiness tester could reduce sleepiness related accidents. 15 subjects' postural steadiness was measured with a Nintendo(®) Wii Fit balance board every hour for 24 h. Body sway was quantified with complexity index, CI, and the correlation between CI and alertness predicted by a three-process model of sleepiness was calculated. The CI group average was 8.9 ± 1.3 for alert and 7.9 ± 1.4 for sleep deprived subjects (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.94). The Wii Fit board detects the impairment of postural steadiness. This may allow large scale sleepiness testing outside the laboratory setting. PMID:24054980

  20. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    PubMed

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  1. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  2. Tasers--less than lethal!

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abiram; Theivacumar, Nada S; Souka, Hesham M

    2009-05-01

    We report a case of potentially lethal injury associated with the use of Taser. A 42-year-old man was stopped by police for potential detention. He held a large carving knife over his epigasrium threatening to stab himself. With a view to achieving immobilisation, a Taser gun was used. On activation of the Taser, the subject suffered a 7-cm wide and 10-cm deep stab injury to the upper abdomen. In this case, activation of the Taser resulted in the contraction of skeletal muscles, flexors more intensely than extensors, resulting in the stab injury. PMID:19416583

  3. Tasers – Less than Lethal!

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Abiram; Theivacumar, Nada S; Souka, Hesham M

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of potentially lethal injury associated with the use of Taser. A 42-year-old man was stopped by police for potential detention. He held a large carving knife over his epigasrium threatening to stab himself.With a view to achieving immobilisation, a Taser gun was used. On activation of the Taser, the subject suffered a 7-cm wide and 10-cm deep stab injury to the upper abdomen. In this case, activation of the Taser resulted in the contraction of skeletal muscles, flexors more intensely than extensors, resulting in the stab injury. PMID:19416583

  4. Late preconditioning against myocardial stunning. An endogenous protective mechanism that confers resistance to postischemic dysfunction 24 h after brief ischemia in conscious pigs.

    PubMed

    Sun, J Z; Tang, X L; Knowlton, A A; Park, S W; Qiu, Y; Bolli, R

    1995-01-01

    Conscious pigs underwent a sequence of 10 2-min coronary occlusions, each separated by 2 min of reperfusion, for three consecutive days (days 1, 2, and 3 of stage I). The recovery of systolic wall thickening (WTh) after the 10th reperfusion was markedly improved on days 2 and 3 compared with day 1, indicating that the myocardium had become preconditioned against "stunning." 10 d after stage I, pigs underwent again a sequence of 10 2-min coronary occlusions for two consecutive days (days 1 and 2 of stage II). On day 1 of stage II, the recovery of WTh after the 10th reperfusion was similar to that noted on day 1 of stage I; on day 2 of stage II, however, the recovery of WTh was again markedly improved compared with day 1. Blockade of adenosine receptors with 8-p-sulfophenyl theophylline failed to prevent the development of preconditioning against stunning. Northern blot analysis demonstrated an increase in heat stress protein (HSP) 70 mRNA 2 h after the preconditioning ischemia; at this same time point, immunohistochemical analysis revealed a concentration of HSP70 in the nucleus and an overall increase in staining for HSP70. 24 h after the preconditioning ischemia, Western dot blot analysis demonstrated an increase in HSP70. This study indicates the existence of a new, previously unrecognized cardioprotective phenomenon. The results demonstrate that a brief ischemic stress induces a powerful, long-lasting (at least 48 h) adaptive response that renders the myocardium relatively resistant to stunning 24 h later (late preconditioning against stunning). This adaptive response disappears within 10 d after the last ischemic stress but can be reinduced by another ischemic stress. Unlike early and late preconditioning against infarction, late preconditioning against stunning is not blocked by adenosine receptor antagonists, and therefore appears to involve a mechanism different from that of other forms of preconditioning currently known. The increase in myocardial HSP70 is

  5. 24-h fluid kinetics and perception of sweat losses following a 1-h run in a temperate environment.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Eric K; Caufield, Christina R; Lowe, Jordan B; Stevenson, Mary C; Davis, Brett A; Thigpen, Lauren K

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men=12, women=8) after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature=19.9±3.0 °C). Sweat losses (1353±422 mL; 1.9%±0.5% of body mass) were significantly greater (p<0.001) than perceived losses (686±586 mL). Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876±1133 mL (218±178 mL during) with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450±678 mL). Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554±669 mL at 12 h and +1186±735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG)=1.018±0.008) with no changes (p=0.33) at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p=0.004) at 12 h post-run for men (1.025±0.0070 vs. 1.014±0.007), who consumed 171%±40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268%±88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses. PMID:24451307

  6. The 24-h recall instrument for home nursing to measure the activity profile of home nurses: development and psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    De Vliegher, Kristel; Aertgeerts, Bert; Declercq, Anja; Gosset, Christiane; Heyden, Isabelle; Van Geert, Michel; Moons, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Home health care today is challenged by a shift from an acute to a chronic health-care model, moving the focus of care from the hospital to home-care setting. This increased focus on care at home emphasizes the need for an efficient, effective, and transparent management of home health care. However, it is not precisely known what home-care nurses do; what kind of care is received by patients; what the performance of home nurses is; and what the impact of the increasing need for home nursing is on the current and future role of home nurses. In this respect, it is necessary to gain a clear insight into the activity profile of home nurses, but there is no gold standard to measure their activities. This study reports on the development and psychometric testing of the '24-hour recall instrument for home nursing' to measure the activity profile of home nurses. Five home nurses in Belgium, simultaneously with the researcher, registered the performed activities in a total of 69 patients, using the 24-h recall instrument for home nursing. The validity and the interrater reliability of this instrument were high: the proportions that observed agreement were very high; the strength of kappa agreement was substantial to almost perfect; the prevalence index showed great variety; and the bias index was low. The findings in this study support the validity evidence based on test content and the interrater reliability of the 24-h recall instrument. This instrument can help to shape practice and policy by making the home nursing profession more transparent: a clear insight into the kind of care that is provided by home nurses and is received by the patients in primary care contributes to the development of a clear definition of the role of home nurses in health care. PMID:24479985

  7. Clinical and Laboratory Responses of Cross-Country Skiing for a 24-H World Record: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Niemelä, Markus; Juvonen, Jukka; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Niemelä, Onni; Juvonen, Tatu

    2015-01-01

    The physiological consequences of ultra-endurance cross-country skiing in cold conditions are poorly known. We report here clinical, echocardiographic and laboratory findings from a 41-y old male elite skier in a world record trial for 24-h skiing. The athlete completed a total of 406.8 km outdoors with the temperature ranging between -24°C and –5°C during the 24-h period. Post exercise, notable increases from baseline values were observed in myoglobin (50-fold), creatinine kinase (30-fold) and proBNP (6-fold), whereas troponin T or troponin I levels remained unchanged. At baseline, echocardiographic findings showed cardiac hypertrophy and after skiing, a 5% reduction of left-ventricular end-diastolic dimension. Increases in markers of kidney (creatinine) and liver function (alanine aminotransferase), serum uric acid, C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts were also noted. In addition, electrolyte disturbances including hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia and hypocalcaemia were noted during the follow-up. The data indicates that a prolonged period of high-intensity skiing leads to muscle, heart and kidney affection and activation of inflammation even in an experienced elite skier. The observed health effects underscore the need for strict medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration. Key points An elite athlete was able to ski over 400 km during 24 hours with an outdoor temperature ranging between –5 °C and –24 °C. Several postrace abnormalities occurred in biomarkers of muscle, heart, kidney, liver and inflammation status. Serum troponins, specific markers of myocardial cell damage, remained stable. The report supports careful medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration. PMID:26664265

  8. Pulse Arrival Time Based Cuff-Less and 24-H Wearable Blood Pressure Monitoring and its Diagnostic Value in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yali; Poon, Carmen C Y; Yan, Bryan P; Lau, James Y W

    2016-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Current standard ABPM devices use an oscillometric cuff-based method which can cause physical discomfort to the patients with repeated inflations and deflations, especially during nighttime leading to sleep disturbance. The ability to measure ambulatory BP accurately and comfortably without a cuff would be attractive. This study validated the accuracy of a cuff-less approach for ABPM using pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements on both healthy and hypertensive subjects for potential use in hypertensive management, which is the first of its kind. The wearable cuff-less device was evaluated against a standard cuff-based device on 24 subjects of which 15 have known hypertension. BP measurements were taken from each subject over a 24-h period by the cuff-less and cuff-based devices every 15 to 30 minutes during daily activities. Mean BP of each subject during daytime, nighttime and over 24-h were calculated. Agreement between mean nighttime systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measured by the two devices evaluated using Bland-Altman plot were -1.4 ± 6.6 and 0.4 ± 6.7 mmHg, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) statistics was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the cuff-less approach in the detection of BP above the hypertension threshold during nighttime (>120/70 mmHg). The area under ROC curves were 0.975/0.79 for nighttime. The results suggest that PAT-based approach is accurate and promising for ABPM without the issue of sleep disturbances associated with cuff-based devices. PMID:27447469

  9. Intracranial Pressure Elevation 24 h after Ischemic Stroke in Aged Rats Is Prevented by Early, Short Hypothermia Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Murtha, Lucy A.; Beard, Daniel J.; Bourke, Julia T.; Pepperall, Debbie; McLeod, Damian D.; Spratt, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is predominantly a senescent disease, yet most preclinical studies investigate treatment in young animals. We recently demonstrated that short-duration hypothermia-treatment completely prevented the dramatic intracranial pressure (ICP) rise seen post-stroke in young rats. Here, our aim was to investigate whether a similar ICP rise occurs in aged rats and to determine whether short-duration hypothermia is an effective treatment in aged animals. Experimental middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo-3 h occlusion) was performed on male Wistar rats aged 19–20 months. At 1 h after stroke-onset, rats were randomized to 2.5 h hypothermia-treatment (32.5°C) or normothermia (37°C). ICP was monitored at baseline, for 3.5 h post-occlusion, and at 24 h post-stroke. Infarct and edema volumes were calculated from histology. Baseline pre-stroke ICP was 11.2 ± 3.3 mmHg across all animals. Twenty-four hours post-stroke, ICP was significantly higher in normothermic animals compared to hypothermia-treated animals (27.4 ± 18.2 mmHg vs. 8.0 ± 5.0 mmHg, p = 0.03). Infarct and edema volumes were not significantly different between groups. These data demonstrate ICP may also increase 24 h post-stroke in aged rats, and that short-duration hypothermia treatment has a profound and sustained preventative effect. These findings may have important implications for the use of hypothermia in clinical trials of aged stroke patients. PMID:27303291

  10. 24-h urinary sodium excretion is associated with obesity in a cross-sectional sample of Australian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2016-03-28

    Emerging evidence indicates that dietary Na may be linked to obesity; however it is unclear whether this relationship is independent of energy intake (EI). The aim of this study was to assess the association between Na intake and measures of adiposity, including BMI z score, weight category and waist:height ratio (WHtR), in a sample of Australian schoolchildren. This was a cross-sectional study of schoolchildren aged 4-12 years. Na intake was assessed via one 24-h urine collection. BMI was converted to age- and sex-specific z scores, and WHtR was used to define abdominal obesity. In children aged ≥8 years, EI was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Of the 666 children with valid urine samples 55 % were male (average age 9·3 (sd 1·8) years). In adjusted models an additional 17 mmol/d of Na was associated with a 0·10 higher BMI z score (95 % CI 0·07, 0·13), a 23 % (OR 1·23; 95 % CI 1·16, 1·31) greater risk of being overweight/obese and a 15 % (OR 1·15; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·23) greater risk of being centrally obese. In the subsample of 8-12-year-old children (n 458), adjustment for EI did not markedly alter the associations between Na and adiposity outcomes. Using a robust measure of daily Na intake we found a positive association between Na intake and obesity risk in Australian schoolchildren, which could not be explained by total energy consumption. To determine whether this is a causal relationship, longitudinal studies, with high-quality measures of Na and EI, are required. PMID:26810972

  11. 24-h Fluid Kinetics and Perception of Sweat Losses Following a 1-h Run in a Temperate Environment

    PubMed Central

    O’Neal, Eric K.; Caufield, Christina R.; Lowe, Jordan B.; Stevenson, Mary C.; Davis, Brett A.; Thigpen, Lauren K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men = 12, women = 8) after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature = 19.9 ± 3.0 °C). Sweat losses (1353 ± 422 mL; 1.9% ± 0.5% of body mass) were significantly greater (p < 0.001) than perceived losses (686 ± 586 mL). Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876 ± 1133 mL (218 ± 178 mL during) with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450 ± 678 mL). Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554 ± 669 mL at 12 h and +1186 ± 735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG) = 1.018 ± 0.008) with no changes (p = 0.33) at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p = 0.004) at 12 h post-run for men (1.025 ± 0.0070 vs. 1.014 ± 0.007), who consumed 171% ± 40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268% ± 88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses. PMID:24451307

  12. Holter monitor (24h)

    MedlinePlus

    ... be firmly attached to the chest so the machine gets an accurate recording of the heart's activity. While wearing the device, avoid: Electric blankets High-voltage areas Magnets Metal detectors Continue ...

  13. Holter monitor (24h)

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart medicine It may be used to diagnose: Atrial fibrillation or flutter Multifocal atrial tachycardia Palpitations Paroxysmal supraventricular ... Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 62. Read More Arrhythmias Atrial fibrillation or flutter Chest pain Electrocardiogram Fainting Heart attack ...

  14. Spatial variation in inversion-focused vs 24-h integrated samples of PM2.5 and black carbon across Pittsburgh, PA

    PubMed Central

    Tunno, Brett J; Michanowicz, Drew R; Shmool, Jessie L C; Kinnee, Ellen; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Gillooly, Sara; Roper, Courtney; Chubb, Lauren; Clougherty, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature explores intra-urban variation in pollution concentrations. Few studies, however, have examined spatial variation during “peak” hours of the day (e.g., rush hours, inversion conditions), which may have strong bearing for source identification and epidemiological analyses. We aimed to capture “peak” spatial variation across a region of complex terrain, legacy industry, and frequent atmospheric inversions. We hypothesized stronger spatial contrast in concentrations during hours prone to atmospheric inversions and heavy traffic, and designed a 2-year monitoring campaign to capture spatial variation in fine particles (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC). Inversion-focused integrated monitoring (0600–1100 hours) was performed during year 1 (2011–2012) and compared with 1-week 24-h integrated results from year 2 (2012–2013). To allocate sampling sites, we explored spatial distributions in key sources (i.e., traffic, industry) and potential modifiers (i.e., elevation) in geographic information systems (GIS), and allocated 37 sites for spatial and source variability across the metropolitan domain (~388 km2). Land use regression (LUR) models were developed and compared by pollutant, season, and sampling method. As expected, we found stronger spatial contrasts in PM2.5 and BC using inversion-focused sampling, suggesting greater differences in peak exposures across urban areas than is captured by most integrated saturation campaigns. Temporal variability, commercial and industrial land use, PM2.5 emissions, and elevation were significant predictors, but did not more strongly predict concentrations during peak hours. PMID:25921079

  15. Spatial variation in inversion-focused vs 24-h integrated samples of PM2.5 and black carbon across Pittsburgh, PA.

    PubMed

    Tunno, Brett J; Michanowicz, Drew R; Shmool, Jessie L C; Kinnee, Ellen; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Gillooly, Sara; Roper, Courtney; Chubb, Lauren; Clougherty, Jane E

    2016-06-01

    A growing literature explores intra-urban variation in pollution concentrations. Few studies, however, have examined spatial variation during "peak" hours of the day (e.g., rush hours, inversion conditions), which may have strong bearing for source identification and epidemiological analyses. We aimed to capture "peak" spatial variation across a region of complex terrain, legacy industry, and frequent atmospheric inversions. We hypothesized stronger spatial contrast in concentrations during hours prone to atmospheric inversions and heavy traffic, and designed a 2-year monitoring campaign to capture spatial variation in fine particles (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC). Inversion-focused integrated monitoring (0600-1100 hours) was performed during year 1 (2011-2012) and compared with 1-week 24-h integrated results from year 2 (2012-2013). To allocate sampling sites, we explored spatial distributions in key sources (i.e., traffic, industry) and potential modifiers (i.e., elevation) in geographic information systems (GIS), and allocated 37 sites for spatial and source variability across the metropolitan domain (~388 km(2)). Land use regression (LUR) models were developed and compared by pollutant, season, and sampling method. As expected, we found stronger spatial contrasts in PM2.5 and BC using inversion-focused sampling, suggesting greater differences in peak exposures across urban areas than is captured by most integrated saturation campaigns. Temporal variability, commercial and industrial land use, PM2.5 emissions, and elevation were significant predictors, but did not more strongly predict concentrations during peak hours. PMID:25921079

  16. Resveratrol Antagonizes Antimicrobial Lethality and Stimulates Recovery of Bacterial Mutants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanli; Zhou, Jinan; Qu, Yilin; Yang, Xinguang; Shi, Guojing; Wang, Xiuhong; Hong, Yuzhi; Drlica, Karl; Zhao, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide, peroxide, and hydroxyl radical) are thought to contribute to the rapid bactericidal activity of diverse antimicrobial agents. The possibility has been raised that consumption of antioxidants in food may interfere with the lethal action of antimicrobials. Whether nutritional supplements containing antioxidant activity are also likely to interfere with antimicrobial lethality is unknown. To examine this possibility, resveratrol, a popular antioxidant dietary supplement, was added to cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus that were then treated with antimicrobial and assayed for bacterial survival and the recovery of mutants resistant to an unrelated antimicrobial, rifampicin. Resveratrol, at concentrations likely to be present during human consumption, caused a 2- to 3-fold reduction in killing during a 2-hr treatment with moxifloxacin or kanamycin. At higher, but still subinhibitory concentrations, resveratrol reduced antimicrobial lethality by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Resveratrol also reduced the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) characteristic of treatment with quinolone (oxolinic acid). These data support the general idea that the lethal activity of some antimicrobials involves ROS. Surprisingly, subinhibitory concentrations of resveratrol promoted (2- to 6-fold) the recovery of rifampicin-resistant mutants arising from the action of ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, or daptomycin. This result is consistent with resveratrol reducing ROS to sublethal levels that are still mutagenic, while the absence of resveratrol allows ROS levels to high enough to kill mutagenized cells. Suppression of antimicrobial lethality and promotion of mutant recovery by resveratrol suggests that the antioxidant may contribute to the emergence of resistance to several antimicrobials, especially if new derivatives and/or formulations of resveratrol markedly increase bioavailability. PMID:27045517

  17. Resveratrol Antagonizes Antimicrobial Lethality and Stimulates Recovery of Bacterial Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanli; Zhou, Jinan; Qu, Yilin; Yang, Xinguang; Shi, Guojing; Wang, Xiuhong; Hong, Yuzhi; Drlica, Karl; Zhao, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide, peroxide, and hydroxyl radical) are thought to contribute to the rapid bactericidal activity of diverse antimicrobial agents. The possibility has been raised that consumption of antioxidants in food may interfere with the lethal action of antimicrobials. Whether nutritional supplements containing antioxidant activity are also likely to interfere with antimicrobial lethality is unknown. To examine this possibility, resveratrol, a popular antioxidant dietary supplement, was added to cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus that were then treated with antimicrobial and assayed for bacterial survival and the recovery of mutants resistant to an unrelated antimicrobial, rifampicin. Resveratrol, at concentrations likely to be present during human consumption, caused a 2- to 3-fold reduction in killing during a 2-hr treatment with moxifloxacin or kanamycin. At higher, but still subinhibitory concentrations, resveratrol reduced antimicrobial lethality by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Resveratrol also reduced the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) characteristic of treatment with quinolone (oxolinic acid). These data support the general idea that the lethal activity of some antimicrobials involves ROS. Surprisingly, subinhibitory concentrations of resveratrol promoted (2- to 6-fold) the recovery of rifampicin-resistant mutants arising from the action of ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, or daptomycin. This result is consistent with resveratrol reducing ROS to sublethal levels that are still mutagenic, while the absence of resveratrol allows ROS levels to high enough to kill mutagenized cells. Suppression of antimicrobial lethality and promotion of mutant recovery by resveratrol suggests that the antioxidant may contribute to the emergence of resistance to several antimicrobials, especially if new derivatives and/or formulations of resveratrol markedly increase bioavailability. PMID:27045517

  18. Electroshock weapons can be lethal!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2008-03-01

    Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

  19. Association of food form with self-reported 24-h energy intake and meal patterns in US adults: NHANES 2003–2008123

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I; Mattes, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Background: Laboratory studies suggest that food form (beverages compared with solid foods) evokes behavioral and physiologic responses that modify short-term appetite and food intake. Beverage energy may be less satiating and poorly compensated, which leads to higher energy intake. Objective: We examined associations between 24-h energy consumed in beverages and a variety of meal and dietary attributes to quantify the contribution of beverage consumption to the energy content of diets in free-living individuals consuming their self-selected diets. Design: We used dietary recall data for adults (n = 13,704) in NHANES 2003–2008 to examine the multiple covariate-adjusted associations between 24-h energy from beverages and nonbeverages and associations between beverage intake, eating behaviors, and the energy density of beverage and nonbeverage foods. Results: In the highest tertile of 24-h beverage energy intake, beverages provided >30% of energy. Total 24-h energy and nonbeverage energy consumption and energy density (kcal/g) of both beverage and nonbeverage foods increased with increasing energy from beverages (P < 0.0001). With increasing 24-h beverage energy consumption, the reported frequency of all, snack, and beverage-only ingestive episodes and length of the ingestive period increased, whereas the percentage of energy from main meals decreased (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Higher 24-h beverage energy intake was related to higher energy intake from nonbeverage foods, quality of food selections, and distribution of 24-h energy into main meal and snack episodes. Moderation of beverage-only ingestive episodes and curtailing the length of the ingestion period may hold potential to lower uncompensated beverage energy consumption in the US population. PMID:23097271

  20. Effects of living at two ambient temperatures on 24-h blood pressure and neuroendocrine function among obese and non-obese humans: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2013-05-01

    The effects of environmental temperature on blood pressure and hormones in obese subjects in Japan were compared in two seasons: summer vs winter. Five obese (BMI, 32 ± 5 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23 ±3 kg/m2) men participated in this experiment at latitude 35°10' N and longitude 136°57.9' E. The average environmental temperature was 29 ± 1 °C in summer and 3 ± 1 °C in winter. Blood samples were analyzed for leptin, ghrelin, catecholamines, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and glucose. Blood pressure was measured over the course of 24 h in summer and winter. A Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire was also administered each season. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures in obese men were significantly higher in winter (lower environmental temperatures) than in summer (higher environmental temperatures). Noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations were also significantly higher at lower environmental temperatures in obese subjects, but ghrelin, TSH, fT3, fT4, insulin and glucose were not significantly different in summer and winter between obese and non-obese subjects. Leptin, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in winter in obese than non-obese men. Results from the POMS questionnaire showed a significant rise in Confusion at lower environmental temperatures (winter) in obese subjects. In this pilot study, increased blood pressure may have been due to increased secretion of noradrenaline in obese men in winter, and the results suggest that blood pressure control in obese men is particularly important in winter.

  1. Refined multiscale entropy: application to 24-h Holter recordings of heart period variability in healthy and aortic stenosis subjects.

    PubMed

    Valencia, José Fernando; Porta, Alberto; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Clarià, Francesc; Baranowski, Rafal; Orłowska-Baranowska, Ewa; Caminal, Pere

    2009-09-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) was proposed to characterize complexity as a function of the time-scale factor tau. Despite its broad use, this technique suffers from two limitations: 1) the artificial MSE reduction due to the coarse graining procedure and 2) the introduction of spurious MSE oscillations due to the suboptimal procedure for the elimination of the fast temporal scales. We propose a refined MSE (RMSE), and we apply it to simulations and to 24-h Holter recordings of heart rate variability (HRV) obtained from healthy and aortic stenosis (AS) groups. The study showed that the refinement relevant to the elimination of the fast temporal scales was more helpful at short scales (spanning the range of short-term HRV oscillations), while that relevant to the procedure of coarse graining was more useful at large scales. In healthy subjects, during daytime, RMSE was smaller at short scales (i.e., tau = 1-2) and larger at longer scales (i.e., tau = 4-20) than during nighttime. In AS population, RMSE was smaller during daytime both at short and long time scales (i.e., tau = 1 -11) than during nighttime. RMSE was larger in healthy group than in AS population during both daytime (i.e., tau = 2 -9) and nighttime (i.e., tau = 2). RMSE overcomes two limitations of MSE and confirms the complementary information that can be derived by observing complexity as a function of the temporal scale. PMID:19457745

  2. Time dependent effects of stress prior to encoding on event-related potentials and 24 h delayed retrieval.

    PubMed

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars; Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Stress can exert profound effects on memory encoding. Here, we investigated whether (sub)cortical information processing during encoding and memory retrieval at a 24 h delayed test are affected by the temporal proximity between stress and memory encoding. Sixty-four participants engaged in the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST) or a no-stress control condition either immediately before (i.e., proximate condition) or 30 min before (i.e., distant condition) a picture encoding task. In general, stress decreased the number of freely recalled and recognized pictures and increased the number of false alarms. However, timing of stress exposure did not differentially affect picture recall, recognition or selective attention processes (i.e., LPP). Nevertheless, stress-induced cortisol responses and correctly recognized neutral pictures were positively associated within the proximate stress condition but negatively associated within the distant stress condition. These findings suggest that the time at which a stressor is applied might differentially impact the association between stress-induced cortisol elevations and memory formation and indicate the need for a finer delineation of the time window during which glucocorticoids affect memory formation processes. PMID:24074803

  3. Determination of the Median Lethal Dose and Electrophoretic Pattern of Hottentotta saulcyi (Scorpiones, Buthidae) Scorpion Venom

    PubMed Central

    Yağmur, Ersen Aydın; Özkan, Özcan; Karaer, K Zafer

    2015-01-01

    Background: In this study, we investigated the lethal potency, electrophoretic protein pattern and in vivo effects of Hottentotta saulcyi scorpion venom in mice. Methods: Scorpions were collected at night, by using a UV lamp from Mardin Province, Turkey. Venom was obtained from mature H. saulcyi scorpions by electrical stimulation of the telson. The lethality of the venom was determined by i.v. injections using Swiss mice. In vivo effects of the venom were assessed by using the intraperitoneal route (ip) injections into mice (20±1g) and monitored for 24 h. The protein profiles of the scorpion venom were analyzed by NuPAGE® Novex® 4–12 % gradient Bis-Tris gel followed by Coomassie blue staining. Results: The lethal assay of the venom was 0.73 mg/kg in mice. We determined the electrophoretic protein pattern of this scorpion venom to be 4, 6, 9, 31, 35, 40, 46 and 69 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Analysis of electrophoresis indicated that H. saulcyi scorpion intoxicated mice exhibited autonomic nervous system symptoms (tachypnea, restlessness, hyperexcitability, convulsions, salivation, lacrimation, weakness). Conclusions: Hottentotta saulcyi scorpion venom includes short-chain neurotoxins and long-chain neurotoxins according to the electrophoretic protein patterns. The stings of H. saulcyi scorpion must be considered of risk for humans in the southeastern region, Turkey. PMID:26623435

  4. Immunobiotic Lactobacillus administered post-exposure averts the lethal sequelae of respiratory virus infection.

    PubMed

    Percopo, Caroline M; Rice, Tyler A; Brenner, Todd A; Dyer, Kimberly D; Luo, Janice L; Kanakabandi, Kishore; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Porcella, Stephen F; Domachowske, Joseph B; Keicher, Jesse D; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2015-09-01

    We reported previously that priming of the respiratory tract with immunobiotic Lactobacillus prior to virus challenge protects mice against subsequent lethal infection with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM). We present here the results of gene microarray which document differential expression of proinflammatory mediators in response to PVM infection alone and those suppressed in response to Lactobacillus plantarum. We also demonstrate for the first time that intranasal inoculation with live or heat-inactivated L. plantarum or Lactobacillus reuteri promotes full survival from PVM infection when administered within 24h after virus challenge. Survival in response to L. plantarum administered after virus challenge is associated with suppression of proinflammatory cytokines, limited virus recovery, and diminished neutrophil recruitment to lung tissue and airways. Utilizing this post-virus challenge protocol, we found that protective responses elicited by L. plantarum at the respiratory tract were distinct from those at the gastrointestinal mucosa, as mice devoid of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10, exhibit survival and inflammatory responses that are indistinguishable from those of their wild-type counterparts. Finally, although L. plantarum interacts specifically with pattern recognition receptors TLR2 and NOD2, the respective gene-deleted mice were fully protected against lethal PVM infection by L. plantarum, as are mice devoid of type I interferon receptors. Taken together, L. plantarum is a versatile and flexible agent that is capable of averting the lethal sequelae of severe respiratory infection both prior to and post-virus challenge via complex and potentially redundant mechanisms. PMID:26145728

  5. Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

  6. Lethality of Suicide Attempt Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents an 11-point scale for measuring the degree of lethality of suicide attempts. The scale has nine example "anchors" and uses the relative lethality of an extensive table of drugs. The scale can be used reliably by nonmedical personnel with no prior training. (Author/BL)

  7. The 24-h Energy Intake of Obese Adolescents Is Spontaneously Reduced after Intensive Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Calorimetric Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Thivel, David; Isacco, Laurie; Montaurier, Christophe; Boirie, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical exercise can modify subsequent energy intake and appetite and may thus be of particular interest in terms of obesity treatment. However, it is still unclear whether an intensive bout of exercise can affect the energy consumption of obese children and adolescents. Objective To compare the impact of high vs. moderate intensity exercises on subsequent 24-h energy intake, macronutrient preferences, appetite sensations, energy expenditure and balance in obese adolescent. Design This randomized cross-over trial involves 15 obese adolescent boys who were asked to randomly complete three 24-h sessions in a metabolic chamber, each separated by at least 7 days: (1) sedentary (SED); (2) Low-Intensity Exercise (LIE) (40% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max); (3) High-Intensity Exercise (HIE) (75%VO2max). Results Despite unchanged appetite sensations, 24-h total energy intake following HIE was 6–11% lower compared to LIE and SED (p<0.05), whereas no differences appeared between SED and LIE. Energy intake at lunch was 9.4% and 8.4% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.05). At dinner time, it was 20.5% and 19.7% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.01). 24-h energy expenditure was not significantly altered. Thus, the 24-h energy balance was significantly reduced during HIE compared to SED and LIE (p<0.01), whereas those of SED and LIE did not differ. Conclusions In obese adolescent boys, HIE has a beneficial impact on 24-h energy balance, mainly due to the spontaneous decrease in energy intake during lunch and dinner following the exercise bout. Prescribing high-intensity exercises to promote weight loss may therefore provide effective results without affecting appetite sensations and, as a result, food frustrations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01036360 PMID:22272251

  8. No effect of route of exposure (oral; subcutaneous injection) on plasma bisphenol A throughout 24h after administration in neonatal female mice.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julia A; Welshons, Wade V; Vom Saal, Frederick S

    2008-02-01

    Route of administration of chemicals in adults is an important factor in pharmacokinetics of chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA), the monomer with estrogenic activity used to make polycarbonate plastic products and to line food and beverage cans. Based on findings in adults it has been proposed (CERHR, 2007) that non-oral routes of administration in newborn rodents would also lead to high exposure relative to oral administration. However, in fetuses and neonates, the enzyme that conjugates BPA (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) is expressed at low levels, suggesting that there may be no differences in pharmacokinetics between oral and non-oral dosing. We thus conducted an analysis of plasma concentrations of unconjugated 3H-BPA after HPLC separation in postnatal day 3 female mice throughout the 24h after administering 3H-BPA orally or via subcutaneous injection at doses above and below the current EPA reference dose. We found no significant difference in plasma BPA based on route of administration in neonatal mice at either dose. However, compared to data from other studies conducted with adults, there was a markedly higher plasma BPA level after oral administration of BPA in newborn mice. This finding sets aside the belief that non-oral administration of BPA renders data as not suitable for consideration of the hazard posed by low-dose exposure to BPA during neonatal life. Therefore the large numbers of BPA studies that used non-oral administration at very low doses during the neonatal period should not be dismissed by scientists or the regulatory community based on route of administration. PMID:18295446

  9. Food intake during the previous 24 h as a percentage of usual intake: a marker of hypoxia in infants with bronchiolitis: an observational, prospective, multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypoxia associated with bronchiolitis is not always easy to assess on clinical grounds alone. The aim of this study was to determine the value of food intake during the previous 24 hours (bottle and spoon feeding), as a percentage of usual intake (24h FI), as a marker of hypoxia, and to compare its diagnostic value with that of usual clinical signs. Methods In this observational, prospective, multicenter study, 18 community pediatricians, enrolled 171 infants, aged from 0 to 6 months, with bronchiolitis (rhinorrhea + dyspnea + cough + expiratory sounds). Infants with risk factors (history of prematurity, chronic heart or lung disorders), breast-fed infants, and infants having previously been treated for bronchial disorders were excluded. The 24h FI, subcostal, intercostal, supracostal retractions, nasal flaring, respiratory rate, pauses, cyanosis, rectal temperature and respiratory syncytial virus test results were noted. The highest stable value of transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) was recorded. Hypoxia was noted if SpO2 was below 95% and verified. Results 24h FI ≥ 50% was associated with a 96% likelihood of SpO2 ≥ 95% [95% CI, 91–99]. In univariate analysis, 24h FI < 50% had the highest odds ratio (13.8) for SpO2 < 95%, compared to other 24h FI values and other clinical signs, as well as providing one of the best compromises between specificity (90%) and sensitivity (60%) for identifying infants with hypoxia. In multivariate analysis with adjustment for age, SpO2 < 95% was related to the presence of intercostal retractions (OR = 9.1 [95% CI, 2.4-33.8%]) and 24h FI < 50% (OR = 10.9 [95% CI, 3.0-39.1%]). Hospitalization (17 infants) was strongly related to younger age, 24h FI and intercostal retractions. Conclusion In practice, the measure of 24 h FI may be useful in identifying hypoxia and deserves further study. PMID:23311899

  10. Lethal outcome in xanthogranulomatous endometritis.

    PubMed

    Noack, Frank; Briese, Juliane; Stellmacher, Florian; Hornung, Daniela; Horny, Hans-Peter

    2006-05-01

    Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is rare, mainly involving the kidneys, while primary xanthogranulomatous endometritis (XE) is a very unusual finding, histologically characterized by partial or complete replacement of the mucosa by granulation tissue with an abundance of foamy histiocytes, siderophages and multinucleated giant cells. We present the case of a 69-year-old woman with a short history of abdominal pain and a palpable mass in the pouch of Douglas. Dilatation of the cervix drained a pyometra. Histological examination of the curettage rendered the diagnosis of XE. Microbiological studies revealed enterococcus spp. and Peptostreptococcus magnus. Despite antibiotic treatment the patient died of heart failure due to systemic inflammation. Autopsy confirmed the diagnosis of XE with transmural extension into the peritoneal cavity. Such a lethal course of XE is extraordinary. Proposed causes of XE include obstruction, infection and hemorrhage. Demonstration of enterococcus spp. and P. magnus supports the probable significance of bacteria in the development of XE. Because this condition may mimic malignant disease macroscopically and histologically, knowledge of XE is of major importance for both pathologists and gynecologists. PMID:16725016

  11. Lethal photosensitization of Helicobacter species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millson, Charles E.; Wilson, Michael; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Thurrell, Wendy; Mlkvy, Peter; Davies, Claire; Bown, Stephen G.

    1995-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with a large number of gastroduodenal disorders. Clearance of the bacteria has been shown to benefit patients with duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers, and certain rare types of gastric tumors. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are the mainstay of current treatment strategies but side-effects, poor compliance, and drug resistance limit their usefulness. We sensitized H. pylori with toluidine blue, haematoporphyrin derivative, aluminum disulphonated phthalocyanine, methylene blue or protoporphyrin IX prior to exposure to low-power laser light from either a gallium aluminum arsenide laser or a helium neon gas laser. All 5 sensitizers caused reductions of greater than 1000-fold in the number of viable bacteria. Light alone had no effect and only HpD caused a significant decrease in bacterial numbers without laser light. Next, we sensitized H. mustelae on explanted ferret gastric mucosa (ex vivo) with the same sensitizers and exposed them to light from a copper vapor pumped dye laser tuned appropriately. MB caused significant reductions in bacterial counts. Successful lethal photosensitization of Helicobacter pylori both in vitro and ex vivo raises the possibility of a local method for eradicating the bacteria, especially as the bacteria are only found in those parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract that are accessible to the endoscope.

  12. Adapting a standardised international 24 h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet software) for research and dietary surveillance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Kyung; Park, Jin Young; Nicolas, Geneviève; Paik, Hee Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-06-14

    During the past decades, a rapid nutritional transition has been observed along with economic growth in the Republic of Korea. Since this dramatic change in diet has been frequently associated with cancer and other non-communicable diseases, dietary monitoring is essential to understand the association. Benefiting from pre-existing standardised dietary methodologies, the present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and describe the development of a Korean version of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (GloboDiet software) and its complementary tools, developed at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO. Following established international Standard Operating Procedures and guidelines, about seventy common and country-specific databases on foods, recipes, dietary supplements, quantification methods and coefficients were customised and translated. The main results of the present study highlight the specific adaptations made to adapt the GloboDiet software for research and dietary surveillance in Korea. New (sub-) subgroups were added into the existing common food classification, and new descriptors were added to the facets to classify and describe specific Korean foods. Quantification methods were critically evaluated and adapted considering the foods and food packages available in the Korean market. Furthermore, a picture book of foods/dishes was prepared including new pictures and food portion sizes relevant to Korean diet. The development of the Korean version of GloboDiet demonstrated that it was possible to adapt the IARC-WHO international dietary tool to an Asian context without compromising its concept of standardisation and software structure. It, thus, confirms that this international dietary methodology, used so far only in Europe, is flexible and robust enough to be customised for other regions worldwide. PMID:25899045

  13. A 24 h investigation of the hydrogeochemistry of baseflow and stormwater in an urban area impacted by mining: Butte, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammons, Christopher H.; Shope, Christopher L.; Duaime, Terence E.

    2005-09-01

    Changes in water quality during a storm event were continuously monitored over a 24 h period at a single location along an urban stormwater drain in Butte, Montana. The Butte Metro Storm Drain (MSD) collects groundwater baseflow and stormwater draining Butte Hill, a densely populated site that has been severely impacted by 130 years of mining, milling, and smelting of copper-rich, polymetallic mineral deposits. On the afternoon of 26 June 2002, a heavy thunderstorm caused streamflow in the MSD to increase 100-fold, from 0.2 ft3 s-1 to more than 20 ft3 s-1. Hourly discharge and water quality data were collected before, during, and following the storm. The most significant finding was that the calculated loads (grams per hour) of both dissolved and particulate copper passing down the MSD increased more than 100-fold in the first hour following the storm, and remained elevated over baseline conditions for the remainder of the study period. Other metals, such as zinc, cadmium, and manganese, showed a decrease in load from pre-storm to post-storm conditions. In addition to the large flush of copper, loads of soluble phosphorus increased during the storm, whereas dissolved oxygen dropped to low levels (<2 mg l-1). These results show that infrequent storm events in Butte have the potential to generate large volumes of runoff that exceed Montana water quality standards for acute exposure of aquatic life to copper, as well as depressed levels of dissolved oxygen. This study has important implications to ongoing reclamation activities in the upper Clark Fork Superfund site, particularly with respect to management of storm flow, and may be applicable to other watersheds impacted by mining activities.

  14. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53), 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002

  15. Short-term blood pressure variability over 24 h and target organ damage in middle-aged men and women.

    PubMed

    Madden, J M; O'Flynn, A M; Dolan, E; Fitzgerald, A P; Kearney, P M

    2015-12-01

    Blood pressure variability (BPV) has been associated with cardiovascular events; however, the prognostic significance of short-term BPV remains uncertain. As uncertainty also remains as to which measure of variability most accurately describes short-term BPV, this study explores different indices and investigates their relationship with subclinical target organ damage (TOD). We used data from the Mitchelstown Study, a cross-sectional study of Irish adults aged 47-73 years (n=2047). A subsample (1207) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). As measures of short-term BPV, we estimated the s.d., weighted s.d. (wSD), coefficient of variation (CV) and average real variability (ARV). TOD was documented by microalbuminuria and electrocardiogram (ECG) left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). There was no association found between any measure of BPV and LVH in both unadjusted and fully adjusted logistic regression models. Similar analysis found that ARV (24 h, day and night), s.d. (day and night) and wSD were all univariately associated with microalbuminuria and remained associated after adjustment for age, gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and antihypertensive treatment. However, when the models were further adjusted for the mean BP the association did not persist for all indices. Our findings illustrate choosing the appropriate summary measure, which accurately captures that short-term BPV is difficult. Despite discrepancies in values between the different measures, there was no association between any indexes of variability with TOD measures after adjustment for the mean BP. PMID:25787777

  16. Long-term invariant parameters obtained from 24-h Holter recordings: A comparison between different analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Esposti, Federico; Ferrario, Manuela; Sassi, Roberto; Signorini, Maria Gabriella

    2007-03-01

    Over the last two decades, a large number of different methods had been used to study the fractal-like behavior of the heart rate variability (HRV). In this paper some of the most used techniques were reviewed. In particular, the focus is set on those methods which characterize the long memory behavior of time series (in particular, periodogram, detrended fluctuation analysis, rescale range analysis, scaled window variance, Higuchi dimension, wavelet-transform modulus maxima, and generalized structure functions). The performances of the different techniques were tested on simulated self-similar noises (fBm and fGn) for values of α, the slope of the spectral density for very small frequency, ranging from -1 to 3 with a 0.05 step. The check was performed using the scaling relationships between the various indices. DFA and periodogram showed the smallest mean square error from the expected values in the range of interest for HRV. Building on the results obtained from these tests, the effective ability of the different methods in discriminating different populations of patients from RR series derived from Holter recordings, was assessed. To this extent, the Noltisalis database was used. It consists of a set of 30, 24-h Holter recordings collected from healthy subjects, patients suffering from congestive heart failure, and heart transplanted patients. All the methods, with the exception at most of rescale range analysis, were almost equivalent in distinguish between the three groups of patients. Finally, the scaling relationships, valid for fBm and fGn, when empirically used on HRV series, also approximately held.

  17. Sleep-like behavior and 24-h rhythm disruption in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Heise, I; Fisher, S P; Banks, G T; Wells, S; Peirson, S N; Foster, R G; Nolan, P M

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome is a common disorder associated with intellectual disability in humans. Among a variety of severe health problems, patients with Down syndrome exhibit disrupted sleep and abnormal 24-h rest/activity patterns. The transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome, Tc1, is a trans-species mouse model for Down syndrome, carrying most of human chromosome 21 in addition to the normal complement of mouse chromosomes and expresses many of the phenotypes characteristic of Down syndrome. To date, however, sleep and circadian rhythms have not been characterized in Tc1 mice. Using both circadian wheel-running analysis and video-based sleep scoring, we showed that these mice exhibited fragmented patterns of sleep-like behaviour during the light phase of a 12:12-h light/dark (LD) cycle with an extended period of continuous wakefulness at the beginning of the dark phase. Moreover, an acute light pulse during night-time was less effective in inducing sleep-like behaviour in Tc1 animals than in wild-type controls. In wheel-running analysis, free running in constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) showed no changes in the circadian period of Tc1 animals although they did express subtle behavioural differences including a reduction in total distance travelled on the wheel and differences in the acrophase of activity in LD and in DD. Our data confirm that Tc1 mice express sleep-related phenotypes that are comparable with those seen in Down syndrome patients with moderate disruptions in rest/activity patterns and hyperactive episodes, while circadian period under constant lighting conditions is essentially unaffected. PMID:25558895

  18. Twice Daily Melatonin Peaks in Siberian but not Syrian Hamsters under 24 h Light:Dark:Light:Dark Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Raiewski, Evan E.; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Evans, Jennifer A.; Glickman, Gena L.; Gorman, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The daily pattern of blood borne melatonin varies seasonally under the control of a multi-oscillator circadian pacemaker. Here we examine patterns of melatonin secretion and locomotor activity in Siberian and Syrian hamsters entrained to bimodal LDLD8:4:8:4 and LD20:4 lighting schedules that facilitate novel temporal arrangements of component circadian oscillators. Under LDLD, both species robustly bifurcated wheel-running activity in distinct day scotophase (DS) and night scotophase (NS) bouts. Siberian hamsters displayed significant melatonin increases during each scotophase in LDLD, and in the single daily scotophase of LD20:4. The bimodal melatonin secretion pattern persisted in acutely extended 16 h scotophases. Syrian hamsters, in contrast, showed no significant increases in plasma melatonin during either scotophase of LDLD8:4:8:4 or in LD20:4. In this species, detectable levels were observed only when the day scotophase of LDLD was acutely extended to yield 16 h of darkness. Established species differences in the phase lag of nocturnal melatonin secretion relative to activity onset may underlie the above contrast: In non-bifurcated entrainment to 24 h LD cycles, Siberian hamsters show increased melatonin secretion within ~ 2 h after activity onset, whereas in Syrian hamsters, detectable melatonin secretion phase lags activity onset and the L/D transition by at least 4 h. The present results provide new evidence indicating multi-oscillator regulation of the waveform of melatonin secretion, specifically, the circadian control of the onset, offset, and duration of nocturnal secretion. PMID:23003567

  19. Lethal methemoglobinemia and automobile exhaust inhalation.

    PubMed

    Vevelstad, Merete; Morild, Inge

    2009-05-30

    Inhalation of automobile exhaust gas often leads to death by CO intoxication. In some cases the measured carbon monoxide hemoglobin saturation level (COHb) is considerably below what is considered to be lethal. The death in such cases has been attributed to a combination of a high CO2 and a low O2 tension. In a recent case the deceased was found dead in a car equipped with a catalytic converter, with a hose leading exhaust from the engine to the interior of the car. Analysis revealed a moderately elevated COHb and a high methemoglobin saturation level (MetHb) in peripheral blood. No ethanol, narcotics or drugs were detected. Reports mentioning MetHb or methemoglobinemia in post-mortem cases are surprisingly scarce, and very few have related exhaust gas deaths to methemoglobinemia. High-degree methemoglobinemia causes serious tissue hypoxia leading to unconsciousness, arrhythmia and death. The existing literature in this field and the knowledge that exhaust fumes contain nitrogen oxide gases (NOx) that by inhalation and absorption can result in severe methemoglobinemia, led us to postulate that this death could possibly be attributed to a combination of methemoglobinemia and a moderately high COHb concentration. PMID:19261402

  20. Novel substituted phenoxyalkyl pyridinium oximes enhance survival and attenuate seizure-like behavior of rats receiving lethal levels of nerve agent surrogates.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Janice E; Meek, Edward C; Bennett, Joshua P; Bennett, W Shane; Chambers, Howard W; Leach, C Andrew; Pringle, Ronald B; Wills, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    Novel substituted phenoxyalkyl pyridinium oximes, previously shown to reactivate brain cholinesterase in rats treated with high sublethal dosages of surrogates of sarin and VX, were tested for their ability to prevent mortality from lethal doses of these two surrogates. Rats were treated subcutaneously with 0.6mg/kg nitrophenyl isopropyl methylphosphonate (NIMP; sarin surrogate) or 0.65mg/kg nitrophenyl ethyl methylphosphonate (NEMP; VX surrogate), dosages that were lethal within 24h to all tested rats when they received only 0.65mg/kg atropine at the time of initiation of seizure-like behavior (about 30min). If 146mmol/kg 2-PAM (human equivalent dosage) was also administered, 40% and 33% survival was obtained with NIMP and NEMP, respectively, while the novel Oximes 1 and 20 provided 65% and 55% survival for NIMP and 75 and 65% for NEMP, respectively. In addition, both novel oximes resulted in a highly significant decrease in time to cessation of seizure-like behavior compared to 2-PAM during the first 8h of observation. Brain cholinesterase inhibition was slightly less in novel oxime treated rats compared to 2-PAM in the 24h survivors. The lethality data indicate that 24h survival is improved by two of the novel oximes compared to 2-PAM. The cessation of seizure-like behavior data strongly suggest that these novel oximes are able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and can combat the hypercholinergic activity that results in seizures. Therefore this oxime platform has exceptional promise as therapy that could both prevent nerve agent-induced lethality and attenuate nerve agent-induced seizures. PMID:26705700

  1. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE), and its components-ba...

  2. COMPARISON OF 24H AVERAGE VOC MONITORING RESULTS FOR RESIDENTIAL INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR USING CARBOPACK X-FILLED DIFFUSIVE SAMPLERS AND ACTIVE SAMPLING - A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical results obtained by thermal desorption GC/MS for 24h diffusive sampling of 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compared with results of time-averaged active sampling at a known constant flow rate. Air samples were collected with co-located duplicate diffusive samp...

  3. Hyperinsulinaemia reduces the 24-h virological response to PEG-interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Bortoletto, G; Scribano, L; Realdon, S; Marcolongo, M; Mirandola, S; Franceschini, L; Bonisegna, S; Noventa, F; Plebani, M; Martines, D; Alberti, A

    2010-07-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) reduces response to pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN)/ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C (CHC), but the mechanisms are still undefined. We examined the relationship between baseline insulin levels, the main component affecting homeostasis model of assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for assessment of IR in non-diabetic patients, and the 'acute' virological response to PEG-IFN measured 24 h after the first injection and taken as correlate of intracellular interferon signalling. In 62 patients treated with PEG-IFN/Ribavirin, serum insulin and HOMA-IR were assessed at baseline, while hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA was measured at baseline and 24 h, 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks after treatment initiation. Sustained virological response was examined 24 weeks after therapy discontinuation. Mean baseline insulin was 11.52 +/- 8.51 U/L and mean HOMA-IR was 2.65 +/- 2.01 both being significantly higher with advanced liver fibrosis. Hepatitis C virus-RNA decay observed 24 h after the first injection of PEG-IFN was significantly lower (0.7 +/- 0.8 log) in patients with HOMA > or =3 compared with those with HOMA <3 (1.7 +/- 0.8, P = 0.001). A highly significant (r = -0.42) inverse correlation was observed between baseline insulin levels and the 24-h HCV-RNA decay. The difference in early viral kinetics between patients with HOMA > or =3 or <3 resulted in a significant difference in the percentage of patients achieving rapid (week 4) and sustained virological response. Multivariate analysis, inclusive of patient age, HCV genotype and fibrosis stage, identified baseline insulin levels as the main independent variable affecting the 24-h response to PEG-IFN. Hyperinsulinaemia reduces the cellular response to Pegylated-interferon in CHC with IR. Strategies to reduce insulin levels before initiation of treatment should be pursued to improve efficacy of anti-viral treatment. PMID:19878535

  4. Ultra-early microsurgical treatment within 24 h of SAH improves prognosis of poor-grade aneurysm combined with intracerebral hematoma

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JUNHUI; ZHU, JUN; HE, JIANQING; WANG, YUHAI; CHEN, LEI; ZHANG, CHUNLEI; ZHOU, JINGXU; YANG, LIKUN

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is the most common cerebrovascular disease. The conventional treatment for SAH is usually associated with high mortality. The present study aims to assess the prognosis of microsurgical treatment for patients with poor-grade aneurysm (Hunt and Hess grades IV–V) associated with intracerebral hematoma. A total of 18 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with poor-grade aneurysm accompanied with intracerebral hematoma were retrospectively recruited. All patients underwent microsurgical treatment between April 2010 and June 2013 at The 101st Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army (Wuxi, China). Among them, 15 cases underwent microsurgery within 24 h of SAH, and 3 cases underwent microsurgery 24 h following SAH. All 18 cases were examined by computed tomography angiography (CTA). The outcome was assessed during a follow-up time of 6–36 months. According to the Glasgow Outcome Scale, 4 patients experienced a good recovery, 6 were dissatisfied with the outcome, 4 were in vegetative state and 4 succumbed to disease. Poor outcome occurred in patients with an aneurysm diameter >10 mm, exhibited >50 ml volume of intracerebral hematoma or presented cerebral hernia prior to the surgical operation. The outcome of ultra-early surgery (within 24 h of SAH) was improved, compared with that of surgery following 24 h of SAH (P=0.005). Among 7 patients who accepted extraventricular drainage, good outcomes were achieved in 4 of them, whereas dissatisfaction and mortality occurred in 2 and 1 patients, respectively. Therefore, ultra-early microsurgery (within 24 h of SAH) combined with extraventricular drainage may improve the prognosis of patients with poor-grade aneurysm. PMID:27123084

  5. Perturbed energy balance and hydration status in ultra-endurance runners during a 24 h ultra-marathon.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ricardo J S; Gill, Samantha K; Hankey, Joanne; Wright, Alice; Marczak, Slawomir

    2014-08-14

    The present study aimed to assess the adequacy of energy, macronutrients and water intakes of ultra-endurance runners (UER) competing in a 24 h ultra-marathon (distance range: 122-208 km). The ad libitum food and fluid intakes of the UER (n 25) were recorded throughout the competition and analysed using dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM), urinary ketone presence, plasma osmolality (POsmol) and volume change were determined at pre- and post-competition time points. Data were analysed using appropriate t tests, with significance set at P <0·05. The total energy intake and expenditure of the UER were 20 (sd 12) and 55 (sd 11) MJ, respectively (control (CON) (n 17): 12 (sd 1) and 14 (sd 5) MJ, respectively). The protein, carbohydrate and fat intakes of the UER were 1·1 (sd 0·4), 11·3 (sd 7·0) and 1·5 (sd 0·7) g/kg BM, respectively. The rate of carbohydrate intake during the competition was 37 (sd 24) g/h. The total water intake of the UER was 9·1 (sd 4·0) litres (CON: 2·1 (sd 1·0) litres), while the rate of water intake was 378 (sd 164) ml/h. Significant BM loss occurred at pre- to post-competition time points (P =0·001) in the UER (1·6 (sd 2·0) %). No significant changes in POsmol values were observed at pre- (285 (sd 11) mOsmol/kg) to post-competition (287 (sd 10) mOsmol/kg) time points in the UER and were lower than those recorded in the CON group (P <0·05). However, plasma volume (PV) increased at post-competition time points in the UER (10·2 (sd 9·7) %; P <0·001). Urinary ketones were evident in the post-competition samples of 90 % of the UER. Energy deficit was observed in all the UER, with only one UER achieving the benchmark recommendations for carbohydrate intake during endurance exercise. Despite the relatively low water intake rates recorded in the UER, hypohydration does not appear to be an issue, considering increases in PV values observed in the majority (80 %) of the UER. Population-specific dietary recommendations may be

  6. Oral Interleukin 11 as a Countermeasure to Lethal Total-Body Irradiation in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Alexander F.; Biju, Prabath G.; Lui, Huanli; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Countermeasures against radiation are critically needed. Ideally, these measures would be easy to store, easy to administer and have minimal toxicity. We used oral delivery of interleukin 11 (IL11) in mice exposed to lethal doses of total-body irradiation (TBI). Animals were given IL11 by gavage at various daily doses beginning 24 h after TBI, which continued for 5 days. At a TBI of 9.0 Gy, mice treated with IL11 had a 70% survival at 30 days compared with control group survival of 25% (P = 0.035). At 10.0 Gy, treated animals had 50% survival at 30 days compared with no survivors in the control group. Treated animals had significant improvement in intestinal mucosal surface area and crypt survival. In addition bacterial translocation of coliform bacteria was significantly less in the treated animals. Systemic absorption of IL11 was low in treated animals and effects on the hematopoietic cells were not seen. Serum citrulline levels rebounded significantly faster after irradiation in the IL11 treated animals, indicating quicker recovery of small intestine health. These data suggest that IL11 given orally protects the intestinal mucosa from radiation damage and that this compound is beneficial as a mitigating agent even when started 24 h after radiation exposure. PMID:24219324

  7. Subchronic chloroform priming protects mice from a subsequently administered lethal dose of chloroform

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Binu K.; Anand, Sathanandam S.; Palkar, Prajakta S.; Mumtaz, Moiz M.; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M. . E-mail: mehendale@ulm.edu

    2006-10-01

    Protection offered by pre-exposure priming with a small dose of a toxicant against the toxic and lethal effects of a subsequently administered high dose of the same toxicant is autoprotection. Although autoprotection has been extensively studied with diverse toxicants in acute exposure regimen, not much is known about autoprotection after priming with repeated exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate this concept following repeated exposure to a common water contaminant, chloroform. Swiss Webster (SW) mice, exposed continuously to either vehicle (5% Emulphor, unprimed) or chloroform (150 mg/kg/day po, primed) for 30 days, were challenged with a normally lethal dose of chloroform (750 mg chloroform/kg po) 24 h after the last exposure. As expected, 90% of the unprimed mice died between 48 and 96 h after administration of the lethal dose in contrast to 100% survival of mice primed with chloroform. Time course studies indicated lower hepato- and nephrotoxicity in primed mice as compared to unprimed mice. Hepatic CYP2E1, glutathione levels (GSH), and covalent binding of {sup 14}C-chloroform-derived radiolabel did not differ between livers of unprimed and primed mice after lethal dose exposure, indicating that protection in liver is neither due to decreased bioactivation nor increased detoxification. Kidney GSH and glutathione reductase activity were upregulated, with a concomitant reduction in oxidized glutathione in the primed mice following lethal dose challenge, leading to decreased renal covalent binding of {sup 14}C-chloroform-derived radiolabel, in the absence of any change in CYP2E1 levels. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) intervention led to 70% mortality in primed mice challenged with lethal dose. These data suggest that higher detoxification may play a role in the lower initiation of kidney injury observed in primed mice. Exposure of primed mice to a lethal dose of chloroform led to 40% lower chloroform levels (AUC{sub 15-360min}) in the systemic

  8. Development of Synthetic Lethality Anticancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The concept of synthetic lethality (the creation of a lethal phenotype from the combined effects of mutations in two or more genes) has recently been exploited in various efforts to develop new genotype-selective anticancer therapeutics. These efforts include screening for novel anticancer agents, identifying novel therapeutic targets, characterizing mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapy, and improving efficacies through the rational design of combination therapy. This review discusses recent developments in synthetic lethality anticancer therapeutics, including poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors for BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutant cancers, checkpoint inhibitors for p53 mutant cancers, and small molecule agents targeting RAS gene mutant cancers. Because cancers are caused by mutations in multiple genes and abnormalities in multiple signaling pathways, synthetic lethality for a specific tumor suppressor gene or oncogene is likely cell context-dependent. Delineation of the mechanisms underlying synthetic lethality and identification of treatment response biomarkers will be critical for the success of synthetic lethality anticancer therapy. PMID:24893124

  9. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of faecal deltamethrin residues on dung-feeding insects.

    PubMed

    Mann, C M; Barnes, S; Offer, B; Wall, R

    2015-06-01

    Endectocides administered to livestock to facilitate pest and parasite control may be excreted in the faeces at concentrations that are toxic to coprophagous insects, including species of ecological importance. Although much research has focused on the effects of macrocyclic lactones, relatively less attention has been given to any similar impacts of the widely used pyrethroid insecticides. Here, the effects of faecal residues of the pyrethroid deltamethrin after application to Holstein-Friesian cattle in a proprietary pour-on formulation are examined. Freshly dropped dung was collected 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after treatment and from an untreated control group. In laboratory bioasssays, female Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) blow flies matured significantly smaller egg batches and had a lower percentage of eggs hatch after feeding on dung collected for up to 5 days after treatment, compared with flies feeding on dung from untreated cattle. In the field, artificial dung pats were constructed from the collected dung and left on pastureland for 7 days before being retrieved and searched for insects. Significantly more adult Diptera emerged from the faeces of untreated cattle than from the dung of treated cattle collected on days 1 and 3 after treatment. Adult Coleoptera were found in lower numbers in the dung of treated animals compared with control dung, suggesting a repellent effect. The results indicate that deltamethrin residues in cattle faeces have a range of lethal and sub-lethal effects on dung-feeding insects for up to a week after treatment, but that the precise duration and nature of toxicity varies depending on the sensitivity of the insect in question. PMID:25594879

  10. Isotope concentrations from 24-h urine and 3-h serum samples can be used to measure intestinal magnesium absorption in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a >/= 6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative meth...

  11. Risk factors for stillbirths and mortality during the first 24h of life on dairy farms in Hokkaido, Japan 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Kayano, M; Kadohira, M; Stevenson, M A

    2016-05-01

    This was a retrospective cohort study using data from the insurance scheme provided by the Japanese Mutual Aid Association (NOSAI). The population of interest comprised all cattle born on NOSAI-client farms in the Japanese prefecture of Hokkaido, Japan for the period 1 April 2005-31 March 2009. The outcome of interest was whether or not at least one calf was stillborn, had died during delivery or died during the first 24 hours of life for a given calving event, termed first 24h mortality risk. A mixed-effects logistic regression model was developed to identify explanatory variables associated with first 24h mortality risk. The final data set comprised details of 1,281,737 calving events on a total of 5172 dairy herds from 19 NOSAI branches located throughout the prefecture of Hokkaido. Throughout the study period 7.68 (95% CI 7.64-7.73) of every 100 calving events had at least one calf that was either stillborn, dead at the time of delivery or dead during the first 24h of life. Factors that were positively associated with an increase in first 24h mortality risk included delivery during the colder months of the year (November-March), being of Wagyu breed, having a multipara dam, multiple (as opposed to single) birth deliveries, and delivery in larger herds. ​After adjusting for the fixed effects included in our multilevel model, 89% of the unexplained variation in first 24h mortality risk was at the calving event level. We propose that the data recording requirements of the NOSAI scheme are extended to include details of calving events (e.g. the presence or absence of dystocia) and details of the way in which calves are managed post delivery. This would allow more subtle risk factors for calf mortality to be identified which, in turn, will lead to refinement of recommendations for calf management during the first 24h of life in this area of Japan. PMID:27094140

  12. Non-lethal sampling for mercury evaluation in crocodilians.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, Wilkinson L; de Oliveira, Robson F; dos Santos-Filho, Manoel; da Silva, Carolina J; Malm, Olaf; Ignácio, Áurea R A; Díez, Sergi

    2015-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that poses potential threats to ecosystems due to its toxicity to humans and wildlife. The development of non-lethal sampling techniques is a critical step for evaluation of Hg in threatened species in tropical floodplain environments, where most of Hg found is the result of land use and gold mining activities, and more methylation sites are available. We evaluated the spatial and seasonal effectiveness of caudal scutes and claws to estimate Hg bioaccumulation in crocodilians (Caiman yacare), in the scarcely documented Pantanal. Hence, we investigated the potential for Hg bioaccumulation in top predators according to its proximity to mining sites, and in water bodies with different hydrological characteristics and connectivity with the main river during two phases of the flood pulse (dry and flood). The highest Hg concentrations were detected in caimans captured close to mining activities, in claws (2176 ng g(-1) ww) and caudal scutes (388 ng g(-1) ww). THg concentration in claws was related to the flood season and its mean concentration was thirteen fold higher than Hg concentration in scutes during whole year. Both tissues were found to be effective as non-lethal sampling techniques for measuring Hg bioaccumulation in reptiles over time. Nevertheless, claw tissue seems to have a more consistent result, since its constitutional chemical characteristics makes it a better indicator of spatial patterns that influence on Hg exposure. PMID:26026900

  13. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems in space. III - Productivity at successive harvest dates under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.

    1987-01-01

    Efficient crop production for controlled ecological life support systems requires near-optimal growing conditions with harvests taken when production per unit area per unit time is maximum. This maximum for potato was determined using data on Norland plants which were grown in walk-in growth rooms under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods at 16 C. Results show that high tuber production can be obtained from potatoes grown under a continuous light regime. The dry weights (dwt) of tuber and of the entire plants were found to increase under both photoperiods until the final harvest date (148 days), reaching 5732 g tuber dwt and 704 g total dwt under 12-h, and 791 g tuber dwt and 972 g total dwt under 24-h.

  14. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: The 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data.In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8-53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7-45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample.The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885-4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654-4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4-23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1-4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33-1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34-2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49-2.53, P < 0.001) in women.In this nationwide

  15. The acceptability of repeat Internet-based hybrid diet assessment of previous 24-h dietary intake: administration of the Oxford WebQ in UK Biobank.

    PubMed

    Galante, Julieta; Adamska, Ligia; Young, Alan; Young, Heather; Littlejohns, Thomas J; Gallacher, John; Allen, Naomi

    2016-02-28

    Although dietary intake over a single 24-h period may be atypical of an individual's habitual pattern, multiple 24-h dietary assessments can be representative of habitual intake and help in assessing seasonal variation. Web-based questionnaires are convenient for the participant and result in automatic data capture for study investigators. This study reports on the acceptability of repeated web-based administration of the Oxford WebQ--a 24-h recall of frequency from a set food list suitable for self-completion from which energy and nutrient values can be automatically generated. As part of the UK Biobank study, four invitations to complete the Oxford WebQ were sent by email over a 16-month period. Overall, 176 012 (53% of those invited) participants completed the online version of the Oxford WebQ at least once and 66% completed it more than once, although only 16% completed it on all four occasions. The response rate for any one round of invitations varied between 34 and 26%. On most occasions, the Oxford WebQ was completed on the same day that they received the invitation, although this was less likely if sent on a weekend. Participants who completed the Oxford WebQ tended to be white, female, slightly older, less deprived and more educated, which is typical of health-conscious volunteer-based studies. These findings provide preliminary evidence to suggest that repeated 24-h dietary assessment via the Internet is acceptable to the public and a feasible strategy for large population-based studies. PMID:26652593

  16. Evaluation of reduction of Fraser incubation by 24h in the EN ISO 11290-1 standard on detection and diversity of Listeria species.

    PubMed

    Gnanou Besse, Nathalie; Favret, Sandra; Desreumaux, Jennifer; Decourseulles Brasseur, Emilie; Kalmokoff, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The EN ISO 11290-1 method for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from food is carried out using a double enrichment in Fraser broths. While the method is effective it is also quite long requiring 4-7 days to process a contaminated food, and may be adversely affected by inter-strain and/or inter-species competition in samples containing mixed Listeria populations. Currently, we have little information on the impact of competition on food testing under routine conditions. Food samples (n=130) were analyzed using the standard method and the evolution of Listeria populations in 89 naturally contaminated samples followed over the entire enrichment process. In most instances, maximum increase in L. monocytogenes population occurred over the first 24h following sub-culture in Full Fraser broth and strain recovery was similar at both 24 and 48 h, indicating that the second enrichment step can be reduced by 24h without impacting the recovery of L. monocytogenes or affecting the sensitivity of the method. In approximately 6% of naturally contaminated samples the presence of competing Listeria species adversely impacted L. monocytogenes population levels. Moreover, these effects were more pronounced during the latter 24h of the Fraser enrichment, and potentially could affect or complicate the isolation of these strains. PMID:26913375

  17. Predictors of reported consumption of low-nutrient-density foods in a 24-h recall by 8-16 year old US children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an explanatory model to predict the number of low-nutrient-density (LND) foods reported in a 24-h recall by US children and adolescents using data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The reported number of LND foods was estimated from 24-h dietary recall data for 8-16 year old respondents (n=4137; 2024 males and 2113 females). The LND foods included--baked and dairy desserts, sweeteners, salty snacks, visible/discretionary fat, and miscellaneous. The predictive ability of socio-demographic, family, weight/dieting related, life-style or food consumption related subject characteristics was determined using multiple linear regression analyses. The strongest independent negative predictor of the reported number of LND foods was the amount of nutrient-dense foods from the five major food groups. In addition, number of eating occasions reported was a significant independent positive predictor, and the weekly frequency of consuming a complete school lunch was a significant independent negative predictor of the reported number of LND foods. These models explained approximately 55% of the variance in LND food reporting in both males and females. Socio-demographic, family, body weight, or lifestyle characteristics contributed little to predicting the number of LND foods reported in a 24-h recall. PMID:14550315

  18. Toxin-induced resistance in Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin-treated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Salles, Isabelle I.; Tucker, Amy E.; Voth, Daniel E.; Ballard, Jimmy D.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, we show that macrophages adaptively resist anthrax lethal toxin (LT) through a toxin-activated process termed toxin-induced resistance (TIR). TIR was triggered by pretreatment of RAW 264.7 or J774A.1 macrophages with a low dose of LT for at least 6 h, which resulted in resistance to high doses of LT for 96 h. Activation of TIR required functional toxin, because LT subunits, mutants, and heat-inactivated toxin were unable to trigger resistance. TIR macrophages were not altered in toxin receptor levels or cell cycle profiles. Treatment of TIR macrophages with high doses of LT resulted in a sustained decline in full-length mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2, a known target of lethal factor, and a marked reduction in diphosphorylated extracellular response kinases 1,2 for 24 h. However, despite the sustained loss of full-length mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2, by 48 h, TIR macrophages regained diphosphorylated extracellular response kinases 1,2, suggesting an adaptation led to recovery of this signaling pathway. TIR macrophages were also able to maintain normal levels of ubiquitinylated proteins, whereas sensitive cells show a rapid reduction in ubiquitin-modified proteins before cell death, indicating a possible alteration in proteasome activity contributed to resistance. These results provide a paradigm for toxin-cell interactions and suggest macrophages are capable of adapting to and tolerating toxic doses of LT. PMID:14519843

  19. A conditionally lethal mutant of Salmonella Typhimurium induces a protective response in mice.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Alejandro A; Villagra, Nicolás A; Jerez, Sebastián A; Fuentes, Juan A; Mora, Guido C

    2016-02-01

    Here we present the design of a conditionally lethal mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) which growth depends on tetracycline (Tet). Four mutants of S. Typhimurium, with Tet-conditional growth, were created by inserting the tetRA cassette. Three of the mutants presented a conditional-lethal phenotype in vitro. One mutant in the yabB gene remained conditional inside cells and did not persisted after 24 h in cell cultures. The capacity of S. Typhimurium yabB::tetRA to invade deep organs was investigated in intraperitoneally (IP) infected mice fed with or without chlortetracycline (CTet), a Tet analog with lower antibiotic activity. The yabB::tetRA mutant was undetectable in liver or spleen of animals under normal diet, while in mice under diet including CTet, yabB::tetRA invaded at a level comparable to the WT in mice under normal diet. Moreover, yabB::tetRA produced a strong humoral-immunoresponse after one IP immunization with 10(6) bacteria, measured as serum reactivity against S. Typhimurium whole cell extract. By contrast, oral immunization with 10(6) bacteria was weaker and variable on inducing antibodies. Consistently, IP infected mice were fully protected in a challenge with 10(4) oral S. Typhimurium, while protection was partial in orally immunized mice. Our data indicate that S. Typhimurium yabB::tetRA is a conditionally attenuated strain capable of inducing a protective response in mice in non-permissive conditions. PMID:26792728

  20. Protection against lethal bacterial infection in mice by monocyte-chemotactic and -activating factor.

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Y; Kasahara, T; Mukaida, N; Ko, Y C; Nakano, M; Matsushima, K

    1994-01-01

    Chemotactic factors regulate the recruitment of neutrophils, lymphocytes, or monocytes-macrophages to infectious and inflammatory sites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether monocyte-chemotactic and -activating factor (MCAF [MCP-1], a JE gene product) also influences the host defense mechanism against microbial infection. We evaluated the effect of recombinant human MCAF on the survival rate of mice systemically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Salmonella typhimurium. The administration of 2.5 micrograms of MCAF 6 h before infection completely protected the mice from lethal infection. Mice with cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenia exhibiting increased susceptibility to P. aeruginosa were also endowed with resistance by the same dose of MCAF. Administration of MCAF at -6 h was critical, since MCAF given either earlier or later than -6 h failed to rescue mice from lethal infection. The in vivo effect on the survival of mice paralleled the reduced recovery of viable P. aeruginosa or S. typhimurium from the peritoneal cavity, i.e., the number of recovered bacteria from the MCAF (2.5 micrograms per mouse)-treated mice was reduced to less than 2% of control mice for P. aeruginosa and 4% of control mice for S. typhimurium at 24 h. Since MCAF exhibited chemotaxis on murine macrophages as well as enhanced phagocytosis and killing of bacteria in vitro, the activation of macrophages, followed by the recruitment into the peritoneal cavity, is responsible for eliminating bacteria and thus enhancing the survival rate. PMID:8300198

  1. New form of platyspondylic lethal chondrodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Akaba, K; Nishimura, G; Hashimoto, M; Wakabayashi, T; Kanasugi, H; Hayasaka, K

    1996-12-30

    We report on a sporadic case of hitherto unknown lethal skeletal dysplasia. The cardinal clinical manifestations consisted of frontal bossing, cloudy corneae, low nasal ridge, and micrognathia, hypoplastic thorax, and rhizomelic micromelia. Laryngoscopy and neck CT disclosed laryngeal stenosis, and brain CT demonstrated hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Skeletal survey demonstrated hypoplasia of facial bones and short skull base, extremely severe platyspondyly, hypoplastic ilia, and delayed epiphyseal ossification and rhizomelic shortness of tubular bones. The long bones appeared overtubulated with exaggerated metaphyseal flaring. The humeri were particularly short and bowed. Bowing of the radii and ulnae with subluxation of radial heads presented as a Madelung-like deformity. Unlike the long bones, the short tubular bones were not short and normally modeled. The skeletal changes were superficially similar to those in a group of lethal platyspondylic chondrodysplasias, but were inconsistent with any known subtypes of this group or other lethal skeletal dysplasias. PMID:8989469

  2. Lethal and sub-lethal effects on the Asian common toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus from exposure to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Vindhya A K; Weerasena, Jagathpriya; Lakraj, G Pemantha; Perera, Inoka C; Dangalle, Chandima D; Handunnetti, Shiroma; Premawansa, Sunil; Wijesinghe, Mayuri R

    2016-08-01

    Chromium discharged in industrial effluents frequently occurs as an environmental pollutant, but the lethal and sub-lethal effects the heavy metal might cause in animals exposed to it have been insufficiently investigated. Selecting the amphibian Duttaphrynus melanostictus, we carried out laboratory tests to investigate the effects of short and long term exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in both tadpoles and adult toads. The concentrations used were 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 1.0 and 2.0mg/L, the first three corresponding to field levels. In vitro exposures were also carried out using toad erythrocytes and Cr(VI) concentrations of 0.0015, 0.003, 0.015, 0.03, 0.15mg/L. Mortality, growth retardation, developmental delays and structural aberrations were noted in the metal-treated tadpoles, with increasing incidence corresponding to increase in Cr(VI) level and duration of exposure. Many of the sub-lethal effects were evident with long term exposure to environmentally relevant levels of the toxicant. Changes in selected blood parameters and erythrocyte morphometry were also detected in Cr(VI) exposed toads, indicating anaemic and leucopenic conditions. In the genotoxicity study, DNA damage indicated by comet assay and increased micronuclei frequency, occurred at the low Cr(VI) concentrations tested. The multiple deleterious effects of exposure to chromium signal the need for monitoring and controlling the discharge of chromium to the environment. The dose-dependency and genotoxic effects observed in this widely distributed Asian toad indicates its suitability for monitoring heavy metal pollution in aquatic systems. PMID:27262939

  3. Lethal Injection for Execution: Chemical Asphyxiation?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmers, Teresa A; Sheldon, Jonathan; Lubarsky, David A; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Waterman, Linda; Weisman, Richard; Koniaris, Leonidas G

    2007-01-01

    Background Lethal injection for execution was conceived as a comparatively humane alternative to electrocution or cyanide gas. The current protocols are based on one improvised by a medical examiner and an anesthesiologist in Oklahoma and are practiced on an ad hoc basis at the discretion of prison personnel. Each drug used, the ultrashort-acting barbiturate thiopental, the neuromuscular blocker pancuronium bromide, and the electrolyte potassium chloride, was expected to be lethal alone, while the combination was intended to produce anesthesia then death due to respiratory and cardiac arrest. We sought to determine whether the current drug regimen results in death in the manner intended. Methods and Findings We analyzed data from two US states that release information on executions, North Carolina and California, as well as the published clinical, laboratory, and veterinary animal experience. Execution outcomes from North Carolina and California together with interspecies dosage scaling of thiopental effects suggest that in the current practice of lethal injection, thiopental might not be fatal and might be insufficient to induce surgical anesthesia for the duration of the execution. Furthermore, evidence from North Carolina, California, and Virginia indicates that potassium chloride in lethal injection does not reliably induce cardiac arrest. Conclusions We were able to analyze only a limited number of executions. However, our findings suggest that current lethal injection protocols may not reliably effect death through the mechanisms intended, indicating a failure of design and implementation. If thiopental and potassium chloride fail to cause anesthesia and cardiac arrest, potentially aware inmates could die through pancuronium-induced asphyxiation. Thus the conventional view of lethal injection leading to an invariably peaceful and painless death is questionable. PMID:17455994

  4. Live deaths online: internet suicide and lethality.

    PubMed

    Klein, Carolina A

    2012-01-01

    The Internet provides an infinite platform for the portrayal of lethal events. Beyond mere display, however, it dispenses information, allows for participation and sharing of content, and constitutes a virtual interactive forum. The Internet may ultimately shape society's approach to perceiving and dealing with death. Thus, psychiatrists may wish to be aware of these matters so that they may be considered in assessments and clinical care. In this article, the author attempts to identify key online locations where lethality is portrayed and how it may affect the individual patient and practitioner and the population at large. PMID:23233475

  5. Efficacy of 6-, 12-, and 24-h praziquantel bath treatments against Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in grass carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Praziquantel is an effective antihelmintic that has been used in dogs and cats as a de-wormer. It has also been used successfully against tapeworms and trematodes in fish. The current study tested the efficacy of praziquantel bath treatments at various concentrations (0.187, 0.375, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0,...

  6. What a Nostril Knows: Olfactory Nerve-Evoked AMPA Responses Increase while NMDA Responses Decrease at 24-h Post-Training for Lateralized Odor Preference Memory in Neonate Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Qi; Harley, Carolyn W.

    2012-01-01

    Increased AMPA signaling is proposed to mediate long-term memory. Rat neonates acquire odor preferences in a single olfactory bulb if one nostril is occluded at training. Memory testing here confirmed that only trained bulbs support increased odor preference at 24 h. Olfactory nerve field potentials were tested at 24 h in slices from trained and…

  7. Galantamine is a novel post-exposure therapeutic against lethal VX challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hilmas, Corey J. Poole, Melissa J.; Finneran, Kathryn; Clark, Matthew G.; Williams, Patrick T.

    2009-10-15

    The ability of galantamine hydrobromide (GAL HBr) treatment to antagonize O-ethyl-S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate (VX)-induced lethality, impairment of muscle tension, and electroencephalographic (EEG) changes was assessed in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were challenged with 16.8 {mu}g/kg VX (2LD50). One min after challenge, animals were administered 0.5 mg/kg atropine sulfate (ATR) and 25 mg/kg pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride (2-PAM). In addition, guinea pigs were given 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 or 10 mg/kg GAL as a post-exposure treatment immediately prior to ATR and 2-PAM. Animals were either monitored for 24-h survival, scheduled for electroencephalography (EEG) recording, or euthanized 60 min later for measurement of indirectly-elicited muscle tension in the hemidiaphragm. Post-exposure GAL therapy produced a dose-dependent increase in survival from lethal VX challenge. Optimal clinical benefits were observed in the presence of 10 mg/kg GAL, which led to 100% survival of VX-challenged guinea pigs. Based on muscle physiology studies, GAL post-exposure treatment protected the guinea pig diaphragm, the major effector muscle of respiration, from fatigue, tetanic fade, and muscular paralysis. Protection against the paralyzing effects of VX was dose-dependent. In EEG studies, GAL did not alter seizure onset for all doses tested. At the highest dose tested (10 mg/kg), GAL decreased seizure duration when administered as a post-exposure treatment 1 min after VX. GAL also reduced the high correlation associated between seizure activity and lethality after 2LD50 VX challenge. GAL may have additional benefits both centrally and peripherally that are unrelated to its established mechanism as a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI)

  8. Lethal Malaria: Marchiafava and Bignami Were Right

    PubMed Central

    White, Nicholas J.; Turner, Gareth D. H.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and twenty years ago, the Italian malariologists Marchiafava and Bignami proposed that the fundamental pathological process underlying lethal falciparum malaria was microvascular obstruction. Since then, several alternative hypotheses have been proposed. These formed the basis for adjunctive interventions, which have either been ineffective or harmful. Recent evidence strongly suggests that Marchiafava and Bignami were right. PMID:23585685

  9. The evolution of lethal intergroup violence

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Raymond C.

    2005-01-01

    Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry. PMID:16129826

  10. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mark H., Ed.; Petrie, Carol V., Ed.; Braga, Anthony A., Ed.; McLaughlin, Brenda L., Ed.

    This collection of papers is the outcome of the National Academies' effort to glean information from six different case studies of student-perpetrated school shootings. Part 1, "Case Studies of Lethal School Violence," includes: "The Copycat Factor: Mental Illness, Guns, and the Shooting Incident at Heritage High School, Rockdale County, Georgia"…

  11. Lethal exposure: An integrated approach to pathogen transmission via environmental reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Wendy C.; Kausrud, Kyrre L.; Beyer, Wolfgang; Easterday, W. Ryan; Barandongo, Zoë R.; Blaschke, Elisabeth; Cloete, Claudine C.; Lazak, Judith; Van Ert, Matthew N.; Ganz, Holly H.; Turnbull, Peter C. B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Getz, Wayne M.

    2016-01-01

    To mitigate the effects of zoonotic diseases on human and animal populations, it is critical to understand what factors alter transmission dynamics. Here we assess the risk of exposure to lethal concentrations of the anthrax bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, for grazing animals in a natural system over time through different transmission mechanisms. We follow pathogen concentrations at anthrax carcass sites and waterholes for five years and estimate infection risk as a function of grass, soil or water intake, age of carcass sites, and the exposure required for a lethal infection. Grazing, not drinking, seems the dominant transmission route, and transmission is more probable from grazing at carcass sites 1–2 years of age. Unlike most studies of virulent pathogens that are conducted under controlled conditions for extrapolation to real situations, we evaluate exposure risk under field conditions to estimate the probability of a lethal dose, showing that not all reservoirs with detectable pathogens are significant transmission pathways. PMID:27265371

  12. Lethal exposure: An integrated approach to pathogen transmission via environmental reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Turner, Wendy C; Kausrud, Kyrre L; Beyer, Wolfgang; Easterday, W Ryan; Barandongo, Zoë R; Blaschke, Elisabeth; Cloete, Claudine C; Lazak, Judith; Van Ert, Matthew N; Ganz, Holly H; Turnbull, Peter C B; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Getz, Wayne M

    2016-01-01

    To mitigate the effects of zoonotic diseases on human and animal populations, it is critical to understand what factors alter transmission dynamics. Here we assess the risk of exposure to lethal concentrations of the anthrax bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, for grazing animals in a natural system over time through different transmission mechanisms. We follow pathogen concentrations at anthrax carcass sites and waterholes for five years and estimate infection risk as a function of grass, soil or water intake, age of carcass sites, and the exposure required for a lethal infection. Grazing, not drinking, seems the dominant transmission route, and transmission is more probable from grazing at carcass sites 1-2 years of age. Unlike most studies of virulent pathogens that are conducted under controlled conditions for extrapolation to real situations, we evaluate exposure risk under field conditions to estimate the probability of a lethal dose, showing that not all reservoirs with detectable pathogens are significant transmission pathways. PMID:27265371

  13. Cholesterol Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Lethality.

    PubMed

    Stopsack, Konrad H; Gerke, Travis A; Sinnott, Jennifer A; Penney, Kathryn L; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Sesso, Howard D; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Andrén, Ove; Cerhan, James R; Giovannucci, Edward L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Rider, Jennifer R

    2016-08-15

    Cholesterol metabolism has been implicated in prostate cancer pathogenesis. Here, we assessed the association of intratumoral mRNA expression of cholesterol synthesis enzymes, transporters, and regulators in tumor specimen at diagnosis and lethal prostate cancer, defined as mortality or metastases from prostate cancer in contrast to nonlethal disease without evidence of metastases after at least 8 years of follow-up. We analyzed the prospective prostate cancer cohorts within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 249) and the Physicians' Health Study (n = 153) as well as expectantly managed patients in the Swedish Watchful Waiting Study (n = 338). The expression of squalene monooxygenase (SQLE) was associated with lethal cancer in all three cohorts. Men with high SQLE expression (>1 standard deviation above the mean) were 8.3 times (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 19.7) more likely to have lethal cancer despite therapy compared with men with the mean level of SQLE expression. Absolute SQLE expression was associated with lethal cancer independently from Gleason grade and stage, as was a SQLE expression ratio in tumor versus surrounding benign prostate tissue. Higher SQLE expression was tightly associated with increased histologic markers of angiogenesis. Collectively, this study establishes the prognostic value of intratumoral cholesterol synthesis as measured via SQLE, its second rate-limiting enzyme. SQLE expression at cancer diagnosis is prognostic for lethal prostate cancer both after curative-intent prostatectomy and in a watchful waiting setting, possibly by facilitating micrometastatic disease. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4785-90. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27325648

  14. Cardiovascular autonomic function analysis using approximate entropy from 24-h heart rate variability and its frequency components in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Yu, Shuo; Chen, Hui; Lu, Cheng; Zhang, Kuan; Li, Fangjie

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction The principal aim of the present study was to investigate the cardiovascular autonomic system status of diabetes patients using approximate entropy (ApEn) extracted from 24-h heart rate variability (HRV) and its frequency components. Materials and Methods A total of 29 healthy controls and 63 type 2 diabetes patients were included. Participants’ 24-h HRV signals were recorded, and decomposed and reconstructed into four frequency components: high, low, very low and ultra low. The total 24-h HRV and its four components were divided into 24 1-h segments. ApEn values were extracted and statistically analyzed. Four traditional HRV indices, namely standard deviation of the RR intervals, root mean square of successive differences, coefficient of variance of RR intervals and ratio of low to high power of HRV, were also calculated. Results The low-frequency component contained the most abundant non-linear information, so was potentially most suitable for studying the cardiovascular system status with non-linear methods. ApEn values extracted from low- and high-frequency components of healthy controls were higher than those of diabetes patients. Except for root mean square of successive differences, standard deviation of the RR intervals, low to high power of HRV and coefficient of variance of RR intervals of healthy controls were all higher than those of diabetes patients. Conclusions The results showed that ApEn contained information on disorders of autonomic system function of diabetes patients as traditional HRV indices in time and frequency domains. ApEn and three traditional indices showed accordance to some degree. Non-linear information in subcomponents of HRV was shown, which is potentially more effective for distinguishing healthy individuals and diabetes patients than that extracted from the total HRV. Compared with diabetes patients, the cardiovascular system of healthy controls showed information of higher complexity, and better regulation

  15. Spatial learning and memory deficits following exposure to 24 h of sleep fragmentation or intermittent hypoxia in a rat model of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Ward, Christopher P; McCoy, John G; McKenna, James T; Connolly, Nina P; McCarley, Robert W; Strecker, Robert E

    2009-10-19

    Obstructive sleep apnea is primarily characterized by hypoxemia due to frequent apneic episodes and fragmentation of sleep due to the brief arousals that terminate the apneic episodes. Though neurobehavioral deficits frequently accompany sleep apnea, the relative roles of hypoxia versus sleep fragmentation are difficult to separate in apneic patients. Here, we assessed cognitive function as measured by water maze in the Fischer/Brown Norway (FBN) rat, comparing 24 h of sleep interruption (SI) to 24 h of intermittent hypoxia (IH), in order to dissociate their relative contributions to cognitive impairment. For SI, automated treadmills were used to induce brief ambulation in rats every 2 min, either prior to, or after, initial water maze acquisition training. IH was simulated by cycling environmental oxygen levels between 6% and 19% every 2 min, again either prior to, or after, acquisition. Twenty-four hours of IH exposure had no significant effect on either acquisition or retention, irrespective of whether IH occurred prior to, or after, acquisition. To replicate previous work, another group of rats, exposed to 3 days of IH (10 h/day) prior to acquisition, had impaired performance during acquisition. A comparison of the 24 h IH and 3 day IH findings suggests that a minimum amount of IH exposure is necessary to produce detectable spatial memory impairments. Although SI before acquisition had no effect on acquisition or later retention of the hidden platform location, SI after acquisition robustly impaired retention, indicating that spatial memory consolidation is more susceptible to the effects of sleep disruption than is the acquisition (learning) of spatial information. PMID:19643093

  16. Nocturnal sleep-related variables from 24-h free-living waist-worn accelerometry: International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tudor-Locke, C; Mire, E F; Barreira, T V; Schuna, J M; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kurpad, A; Kuriyan, R; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Zhao, P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We describe the process of identifying and defining nocturnal sleep-related variables (for example, movement/non-movement indicators of sleep efficiency, waking episodes, midpoint and so on) using the unique 24-h waist-worn free-living accelerometer data collected in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE). Methods: Seven consecutive days of 24-h waist-worn accelerometer (GT3X+, ActiGraph LLC) data were collected from over 500 children at each site. An expert subgroup of the research team with accelerometry expertize, frontline data collectors and data managers met on several occasions to categorize and operationally define nocturnal accelerometer signal data patterns. The iterative process was informed by the raw data drawn from a sub set of the US data, and culminated in a refined and replicable delineated definition for each identified nocturnal sleep-related variable. Ultimately based on 6318 participants from all 12 ISCOLE sites with valid total sleep episode time (TSET), we report average clock times for nocturnal sleep onset, offset and midpoint in addition to sleep period time, TSET and restful sleep efficiency (among other derived variables). Results: Nocturnal sleep onset occurred at 2218 hours and nocturnal sleep offset at 0707 hours. The mean midpoint was 0243 hours. The sleep period time of 529.6 min (8.8 h) was typically accumulated in a single episode, making the average TSET very similar in duration (529.0 min). The mean restful sleep efficiency ranged from 86.8% (based on absolute non-movement of 0 counts per minute) to 96.0% (based on relative non-movement of <100 counts per minute). Conclusions: These variables extend the potential of field-based 24-h waist-worn accelerometry to distinguish and categorize the underlying robust patterns of movement/non-movement signals conveying magnitude, duration, frequency and periodicity during the nocturnal sleep period. PMID:27152185

  17. Variable day/night bias in 24-h non-invasive finger pressure against intrabrachial artery pressure is removed by waveform filtering and level correction.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, Berend E; Guelen, Ilja; Parati, Gianfranco; Groppelli, Antonella; van Montfrans, Gert A; Wieling, Wouter; Wesseling, Karel H; Bos, Willem Jan W

    2002-10-01

    BACKGROUND Twenty-four-hour finger arterial pressure (FAP) recordings show a negative bias against intrabrachial artery pressure (BAP) and the bias is greater during the night, thereby overestimating the nocturnal blood pressure dip. We have available a methodology with which to reconstruct BAP from FAP by waveform filtering (transfer function) and generalized level (bias) correction that reduces the bias for short-term blood pressure records. OBJECTIVE To investigate if this methodology also decreases the extra bias during the night, thereby yielding a better estimate of the nocturnal dip. METHODS Twenty-four-hour FAP and BAP blood pressure recordings were simultaneously obtained in eight healthy normotensive volunteers and 14 patients with hypertension (ages 19-60 years), during standardized scheduled activities. The data were analysed off-line, applying the brachial reconstruction technique (reBAP) consisting of a waveform filter and level correction. Simultaneous beats yielded systolic, diastolic and mean pressures that were averaged per 30 min, per day, per night, per activity, over the 24-h period, and for volunteers and patients separately. RESULTS Over the full 24 h, FAP systolic, diastolic and mean values for the total group differed from BAP by +1 +/- 10, -8 +/- 7 and -10 +/- 8 mmHg (mean +/- SD), respectively. Similarly, reBAPs differed by +1 +/- 11, -2 +/- 7 and -2 +/- 7 mmHg. BAPs dipped by 20 +/- 8, 13 +/- 6 and 15 +/- 6 mmHg, respectively, during the night. These dips were overestimated by +8, +4 and +4 mmHg by FAP, but not by reBAP: -1, +1 and +1 mmHg. The volunteer and the patient groups showed slight differences in results, but these were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS The generalized reconstruction technique to obtain near-brachial pressure from non-invasive FAP almost completely removed bias over the full 24-h day-night period and improved tracking of diurnal changes for all three blood pressure values. PMID:12359976

  18. Experimental sleep curtailment causes wake-dependent increases in 24-h energy expenditure as measured by whole-room indirect calorimetry1234

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Ari; Rising, Russell; Albu, Jeanine B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence has shown a link between short sleep and obesity. Clinical studies suggest a role of increased energy intake in this relation, whereas the contributions of energy expenditure (EE) and substrate utilization are less clearly defined. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the effects of sleep curtailment on 24-h EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) by using whole-room indirect calorimetry under fixed-meal conditions. Design: Ten females aged 22–43 y with a BMI (in kg/m2) of 23.4–27.5 completed a randomized, crossover study. Participants were studied under short- (4 h/night) and habitual- (8 h/night) sleep conditions for 3 d, with a 4-wk washout period between visits. Standardized weight-maintenance meals were served at 0800, 1200, and 1900 with a snack at 1600. Measures included EE and RQ during the sleep episode on day 2 and continuously over 23 h on day 3. Results: Short compared with habitual sleep resulted in significantly higher (±SEM) 24-h EE (1914.0 ± 62.4 compared with 1822.1 ± 43.8 kcal; P = 0.012). EE during the scheduled sleep episode (0100–0500 and 2300–0700 in short- and habitual-sleep conditions, respectively) and across the waking episode (0800–2300) were unaffected by sleep restriction. RQ was unaffected by sleep restriction. Conclusions: Short compared with habitual sleep is associated with an increased 24-h EE of ∼92 kcal (∼5%)—lower than the increased energy intake observed in prior sleep-curtailment studies. This finding supports the hypothesis that short sleep may predispose to weight gain as a result of an increase in energy intake that is beyond the modest energy costs associated with prolonged nocturnal wakefulness. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01751581. PMID:24088722

  19. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems in space: III. Productivity at successive harvest dates under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M; Tibbitts, T W

    1987-01-01

    Potatoes are among several crops under consideration for use in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) being proposed for space colonies. Efficient crop production for such life support systems will require near-optimal growing conditions with harvests taken when production per unit area per unit time is maximum. To determine this maximum for potato, cv. Norland plants were grown in walk-in growth rooms under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods at 16 C and harvested at 42, 63, 84, 105, 126 and 148 days from planting. At 42 days, plants were encaged in wire fence cylinders with a cross-sectional area of 0.2 m2. The dry weights (dwt) of tubers and of the entire plants increased under both photoperiods until the final harvest date (148 days), reaching 572 g tuber dwt and 704 g total dwt under 12-h, and 791 g tuber dwt and 972 g total dwt under 24-h. At a spacing of 0.2 m2 per plant, the 148-day tuber production from plants under continuous light would equate to nearly 40 t ha-1 dry matter (200 t fresh weight), approximately twice that of exceptionally high field yields. Tuber productivity (g m-2 day-1) under the 24-h photoperiod reached a maximum of 29.4 g dwt m-2 day-1 at 126 days, but continued to rise throughout the experiment under the 12-h photoperiod, reaching 19.5 g dwt m-2 day-1 at 14 days, approximately 25 m2 would continuously provide the daily dietary energy requirements for one human. PMID:11539685

  20. DETERMINATION OF LETHAL DISSOLVED OXYGEN LEVELS FOR SELECTED MARINE AND ESTUARINE FISHES, CRUSTACEANS AND A BIVALVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to provide a database of the incipient lethal concentrations for reduced dissolved oxygen (DO) for selected marine and estuarine species including 12 species of fish, 9 crustaceans, and 1 bivalve. All species occur in the Virginian Province, USA, w...

  1. Effects of antimony (Sb) on electron trapping near SiO2/4H-SiC interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, P. M.; Jiang, Zenan; Basile, A. F.; Zheng, Yongju; Dhar, Sarit

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the mechanism by which Sb at the SiO2/SiC interface improves the channel mobility of 4H-SiC MOSFETs, 1 MHz capacitance measurements and constant capacitance deep level transient spectroscopy (CCDLTS) measurements were performed on Sb-implanted 4H-SiC MOS capacitors. The measurements reveal a significant concentration of Sb donors near the SiO2/SiC interface. Two Sb donor related CCDLTS peaks corresponding to shallow energy levels in SiC were observed close to the SiO2/SiC interface. Furthermore, CCDLTS measurements show that the same type of near-interface traps found in conventional dry oxide or NO-annealed capacitors are present in the Sb implanted samples. These are O1 traps, suggested to be carbon dimers substituted for O dimers in SiO2, and O2 traps, suggested to be interstitial Si in SiO2. However, electron trapping is reduced by a factor of ˜2 in Sb-implanted samples compared with samples with no Sb, primarily at energy levels within 0.2 eV of the SiC conduction band edge. This trap passivation effect is relatively small compared with the Sb-induced counter-doping effect on the MOSFET channel surface, which results in improved channel transport.

  2. Prevalence of lethal osteochondrodysplasias in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Andersen, P E

    1989-04-01

    The point prevalence at birth of lethal osteochondrodysplasias in a subregion of Denmark was estimated by a study of all children born January 1970 through December 1983. Two cases of thanatophoric dysplasia, one case of thanatophoric dysplasia with cloverleaf skull, two cases of micromelic bone dysplasia with cloverleaf skull, two cases of achondrogenesis type III, and three cases of achondrogenesis type IV were found. Two cases were unclassifiable due to lack of radiographs. In total, the point prevalence at birth was 15.4 per 100,000. Thus lethal osteochondrodysplasias seem to be more common than is generally assumed. The clinical and radiographic findings in micromelic bone dysplasia with cloverleaf skull are discussed in relation to thanatophoric dysplasia and achondrogenesis type IV. PMID:2789000

  3. Henipaviruses-unanswered questions of lethal zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Field, Hume; Kung, Nina

    2011-12-01

    The highly lethal Hendra and Nipah viruses have been described for little more than a decade, yet within that time have been aetiologically associated with major livestock and human health impacts, albeit on a limited scale. Do these emerging pathogens pose a broader threat, or are they inconsequential 'viral chatter'. Given their lethality, and the evident multi-generational human-to-human transmission associated with Nipah virus in Bangladesh, it seems prudent to apply the precautionary principle. While much is known of their clinical, pathogenic and epidemiologic features in livestock species and humans, a number of fundamental questions regarding the relationship between the viruses, their natural fruit-bat host and the environment remain unanswered. In this paper, we pose and probe these questions in context, and offer perspectives based primarily on our experience with Hendra virus in Australia, augmented with Nipah virus parallels. PMID:22440924

  4. Synthetic lethal approaches to breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Farah L; Lord, Christopher J; Ashworth, Alan

    2010-12-01

    The promise of personalized therapy for breast cancer is that therapeutic efficacy will be increased while toxic effects are reduced to a minimum. To achieve this goal, there is now an emphasis on the design of therapies that are based not only on the clinical manifestations of the disease, but also on the underlying molecular and cellular biology of cancer. However, identifying targets for personalized therapies in breast cancer is challenging. Here, we describe how biological concepts such as synthetic lethality and oncogene addiction can be used to identify new therapeutic targets and approaches. We discuss the current clinical developments in implementing synthetic lethality therapies, and highlight new ways in which this approach could be used to target specific subsets of breast cancer. PMID:20956981

  5. Structure-Based Systematic Isolation of Conditional-Lethal Mutations in the Single Yeast Calmodulin Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ohya, Y.; Botstein, D.

    1994-01-01

    Conditional-lethal mutations of the single calmodulin gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been very difficult to isolate by random and systematic methods, despite the fact that deletions cause recessive lethality. We report here the isolation of numerous conditional-lethal mutants that were recovered by systematically altering phenylalanine residues. The phenylalanine residues of calmodulin were implicated in function both by structural studies of calmodulin bound to target peptides and by their extraordinary conservation in evolution. Seven single and 26 multiple Phe -> Ala mutations were constructed. Mutant phenotypes were examined in a haploid cmd1 disrupted strain under three conditions: single copy, low copy, and overexpressed. Whereas all but one of the single mutations caused no obvious phenotype, most of the multiple mutations caused obvious growth phenotypes. Five were lethal, 6 were lethal only in synthetic medium, 13 were temperature-sensitive lethal and 2 had no discernible phenotypic consequences. Overexpression of some of the mutant genes restored the phenotype to nearly wild type. Several temperature-sensitive calmodulin mutations were suppressed by elevated concentration of CaCl(2) in the medium. Mutant calmodulin protein was detected at normal levels in extracts of most of the lethal mutant cells, suggesting that the deleterious phenotypes were due to loss of the calmodulin function and not protein instability. Analysis of diploid strains heterozygous for all combinations of cmd1-ts alleles revealed four intragenic complementation groups. The contributions of individual phe->ala changes to mutant phenotypes support the idea of internal functional redundancy in the symmetrical calmodulin protein molecule. These results suggest that the several phenylalanine residues in calmodulin are required to different extents in different combinations in order to carry out each of the several essential tasks. PMID:7896089

  6. Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Rani, Padmaja; Kadamboor, Sandhya; Mathew, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Arun P; Agarwal, Amit

    2002-03-01

    Successive petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts, a saponin rich fraction (SRF) and bacoside A isolated from Bacopa monnieri were tested for brine shrimp lethality. Successive ethanol extracts and SRF showed potent activity. Bacoside A showed the maximum activity with a LC(50) of 38.3 microg/mL. The results confirmed the previous reports of an anticancer effect of Bacopa monnieri and suggest bacoside A as the active constituent. PMID:11933129

  7. Specific ultrasonographic features of perinatal lethal hypophosphatasia.

    PubMed

    Zankl, Andreas; Mornet, Etienne; Wong, Shell

    2008-05-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of perinatal lethal hypophosphatasia (PL-HPH) by ultrasonography is difficult as PL-HPH must be differentiated from other skeletal dysplasias with short long bones and poor mineralization of the skeleton, such as osteogenesis imperfecta type II and achondrogenesis/hypochondrogenesis. Here we present a case of molecularly confirmed PL-HPH and illustrate specific ultrasonographic findings that help to distinguish PL-HPH from similar conditions. PMID:18386808

  8. Relative toxicity testing of spacecraft materials. 1: Spacecraft materials. [lethality of pyrolysates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    In chamber thermodegradation procedures were used to access the lethality to rats of the pyrolysis/combustion products of three foams, an adhesive backed metallic tape and RTV silicone rubber adhesive sealant used in spacecraft construction. The role of carbon monoxide in the overall pyrolysate toxicity was also investigated. Post exposure observation of the rats, histological evaluation of selected organs, carbon monoxide concentration in the chamber atmosphere during exposure and the percent carboxyhemoglobin in the animals expiring in the chamber are discussed. Thermogravimetric analysis and dosage response results are given. The lethal effect of the RTV silicon appears to be due to physical obstruction of the respiratory system by particulate matter from pyrolysis.

  9. Nanopore Biosensor for Label-Free and Real-Time Detection of Anthrax Lethal Factor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report a label-free real-time nanopore sensing method for the detection of anthrax lethal factor, a component of the anthrax toxin, by using a complementary single-stranded DNA as a molecular probe. The method is rapid and sensitive: sub-nanomolar concentrations of the target anthrax lethal factor DNA could be detected in ∼1 min. Further, our method is selective, which can differentiate the target DNA from other single-stranded DNA molecules at the single-base resolution. This sequence-specific detection approach should find useful application in the development of nanopore sensors for the detection of other pathogens. PMID:24806593

  10. The population genetics of synthetic lethals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, P C; Johnson, N A

    1998-09-01

    Synthetic lethals are variants at different loci that have little or no effect on viability singly but cause lethality in combination. The importance of synthetic lethals and, more generally, of synthetic deleterious loci (SDL) has been controversial. Here, we derive the expected frequencies for SDL under a mutation-selection balance for the complete haploid model and selected cases of the diploid model. We have also obtained simple approximations that demonstrate good fit to exact solutions based on numerical iterations. In the haploid case, equilibrium frequencies of carrier haplotypes (individuals with only a single mutation) are comparable to analogous single-locus results, after allowing for the effects of linkage. Frequencies in the diploid case, however, are much higher and more comparable to the square root of the single-locus results. In particular, when selection operates only on the double-mutant homozygote and linkage is not too tight, the expected frequency of the carriers is approximately the quartic root of the ratio between the mutation rate and the selection coefficient of the synthetics. For a reasonably wide set of models, the frequencies of carriers can be on the order of a few percent. The equilibrium frequencies of these deleterious alleles can be relatively high because, with SDL, both dominance and epistasis act to shield carriers from exposure to selection. We also discuss the possible role of SDL in maintaining genetic variation and in hybrid breakdown. PMID:9725860

  11. Lethal Interpersonal Violence in the Middle Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-Pérez, Ana; Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M.; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin. PMID:26018668

  12. Lethal interpersonal violence in the Middle Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-Pérez, Ana; Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin. PMID:26018668

  13. Equation of state and fragmentation issues in computational lethality analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Trucano, T.G.

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the status of computational analysis of hypervelocity impact lethality in relatively nontechnical terms from the perspective of the author. It is not intended to be a review of the technical literature on the problems of concern. The discussion is focused by concentrating on two phenomenology areas which are of particular concern in computational impact studies. First, the material`s equation of state, specifically the treatment of expanded states of metals undergoing shock vaporization, is discussed. Second, the process of dynamic fragmentation is addressed. In both cases, the context of the discussion deals with inaccuracies and difficulties associated with numerical hypervelocity impact simulations. Laboratory experimental capabilities in hypervelocity impact for impact velocities greater than 10.0 km/s are becoming increasingly viable. This paper also gives recommendations for experimental thrusts which utilize these capabilities that will help to resolve the uncertainties in the numerical lethality studies that are pointed out in the present report.

  14. The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist can either reduce or enhance the lethality of Klebsiella pneumoniae sepsis in newborn rats.

    PubMed Central

    Mancilla, J; García, P; Dinarello, C A

    1993-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a worldwide cause of nosocomial infections, is one of the most common causes of death in newborns in nurseries. In this study, we investigated the role of interleukin-1 (IL-1) in an experimental animal model of neonatal sepsis, using a natural antagonist of IL-1 receptors, the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), to block IL-1's effects in neonatal Klebsiella sepsis in the absence of antibiotic treatment. Newborn Wistar-Kyoto rats were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose (10 mg/kg) of either IL-1Ra (n = 43) or human serum albumin as a control (n = 40). At the same time, a 50% lethal dose of K. pneumoniae was injected subcutaneously. No antibiotics were given at any time. After 10 days, survival was 60% for the albumin group and 80% for the IL-1Ra group (P < 0.01). IL-1Ra treatment also afforded protection when the dose of bacteria was increased sixfold (P < 0.01). There were two episodes of leukopenia in the control group, which were suppressed by IL-1Ra (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001). IL-1 and IL-6 levels were lower in the IL-1Ra-treated group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). No differences between the two groups were observed in the number of bacteria in cultures of the blood, lungs, liver, or spleen. When IL-1Ra (10 mg/kg) was given both at time zero and 24 h after bacterial challenge, lethality was significantly increased (P < 0.01). Single doses of IL-1Ra of from 20 to 40 mg/kg progressively increased lethality compared with controls (P < 0.01) in both Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley strain rats. In the same model, low doses of IL-1 itself (0.4 ng per rat), given 24 h prior to bacterial challenge, afforded protection (P < 0.001). These studies suggest that, in the absence of antibiotics, partial blockade of IL-1 receptors improves survival, whereas a longer or greater blockade increases lethality in newborn rats infected with K. pneumoniae. PMID:8432613

  15. Protection of Escherichia coli from the Lethal Effect of Colicins by High Osmotic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Beppu, Teruhiko; Arima, Kei

    1967-01-01

    The sensitivity of Escherichia coli to the lethal effect of colicin E2 was reduced by elevation of osmotic pressure of the incubation medium. Optimal protection of the cells from the lethal effect of colicin E2 was achieved with 0.6 to 0.8 m NaCl or with 0.8 m sucrose containing 0.01 m MgSO4. Under such conditions, the degradation of deoxyribonucleic acid caused by colicin E2 was also suppressed markedly. It was concluded that a high concentration of sucrose with Mg++ might prevent the action of the adsorbed colicin E2. A similar protection was observed against the lethal effect of colicin K. PMID:5335904

  16. Des-acyl-ghrelin (DAG) normalizes hyperlactacidemia and improves survival in a lethal rat model of burn trauma.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, Sulaiman; Kadeer, Nijiati; Friend, Lou Ann; James, J Howard; Alexander, J Wesley; Balasubramaniam, Ambikaipakan

    2014-10-01

    Critical illness, including burn injury, results in elevated plasma lactate levels. Dysregulation of PI3K/Akt signaling has been shown to play a predominant role in the inactivation of skeletal muscle PDC and, hence, in hyperlactacidemia in rat models of sepsis and endotoxemia. This observation, and our previous finding that DAG can reverse burn-induced skeletal muscle proteolysis through the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway, led us to hypothesize that DAG may also attenuate hyperlactacidemia in burn injury. Our investigations revealed that burn injury significantly elevated both skeletal muscle lactate production and plasma lactate levels. Moreover, this was accompanied in skeletal muscle by a 5-7 fold increase in mRNA expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK) 2 and 4, and a ∼30% reduction in PDC activity. DAG treatment of burn rats completely normalized not only the mRNA expression of the PDKs and PDC activity, but also hyperlactacidemia within 24h of burn injury. DAG also normalized epinephrine-induced lactate production by isolated skeletal muscles from normal rats. Moreover, DAG also improved survival in a lethal rat model of burn trauma. These findings with DAG may have clinical implications because chances of survival for critically ill patients are greatly improved if plasma lactate levels are normalized within 24h of injury. PMID:25063053

  17. Lethal and sublethal effects of thiamethoxam on the whitefly predator Serangium japonicum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) through different exposure routes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Feng-Luan; Zheng, Yu; Zhao, Jian-Wei; Desneux, Nicolas; He, Yu-Xian; Weng, Qi-Yong

    2015-06-01

    Given expectations for a booming usage of thiamethoxam and increasing availability of the promising biological agent Serangium japonicum for the control of Bemisia tabaci in China, an evaluation of their compatibility is crucial for integrated pest management (IPM). This study examined the lethal and sublethal effects of thiamethoxam on S. japonicum through three exposure routes. An acute toxicity bioassay showed that LC50 values of thiamethoxam for S. japonicum through residue contact, egg-dip, and systemic treatment were 6.65, 4.37, and 2.43 mg AI L(-1), respectively. The prey consumption of S. japonicum given different densities of B. tabaci eggs under control, discontinuous, egg-dip and systemic exposure scenarios showed a good fit to a Type II functional response. Predation of S. japonicum was most affected under systemic exposure, followed by egg-dip, and discontinuous, which was only slightly affected. In all cases tested, however, predators recovered their predation capacity rapidly, either after 24h of exposure or 24h after the end of exposure. Thiamethoxam was highly toxic to S. japonicum regardless of exposure routes. Sublethal effects of thiamethoxam applied systemically or foliar both impaired the biological control of S. japonicum on B. tabaci. Therefore, thiamethoxam should be used with caution in IPM of B. tabaci. PMID:25655818

  18. Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of UVB on Juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Pulmonata)

    PubMed Central

    Ruelas, Debbie S.; Karentz, Deneb; Sullivan, John T.

    2007-01-01

    Although Schistosoma mansoni occurs mainly in the tropics, where intense levels of solar radiation are present, the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on schistosome transmission is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential effects of UVB (290–320 nm) on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of S. mansoni. Albino and wild type snails were exposed to doses of UVB from UV-fluorescent lamps, and the following were measured: survival, photoreactivation (light-mediated DNA repair), effects on feeding behavior, and morphological tissue abnormalities. Irradiation with UVB is lethal to B. glabrata in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to white light subsequent to UVB irradiation enhances survival, probably by photoreactivation. The shell offers some, but not complete, protection. Experiments in which UVB transmittance through the shell was blocked with black nail polish suggest that injury to both exposed (headfoot) and shell-enclosed (mantle and visceral mass) tissues contributes to mortality in lethally-irradiated snails. Wild-type (pigmented) snails are less susceptible to lethal effects of UVB than albino snails, and they may be more capable of photoreactivation. UVB exposure inhibits snail feeding behavior, and causes tentacle forks and growths on the headfoot. Thus, UVB may influence the life cycle of S. mansoni by both lethal and sub-lethal damage to the snail intermediate host. However, the ability of snails to photoreactivate may mitigate these effects. PMID:16996081

  19. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of five pesticides used in rice farming on the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Rico, Andreu; Sabater, Consuelo; Castillo, María-Ángeles

    2016-05-01

    The toxicity of five pesticides typically used in rice farming (trichlorfon, dimethoate, carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz) was evaluated on different lethal and sub-lethal endpoints of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The evaluated endpoints included: avoidance behaviour after an exposure period of 2 days; and mortality, weight loss, enzymatic activities (cholinesterase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase) and histopathological effects after an exposure period of 14 days. Carbendazim was found to be highly toxic to E. fetida (LC50=2mg/kg d.w.), significantly reducing earthworm weight and showing an avoidance response at soil concentrations that are close to those predicted in rice-fields and in surrounding ecosystems. The insecticide dimethoate showed a moderate acute toxicity (LC50=28mg/kg d.w.), whereas the rest of tested pesticides showed low toxicity potential (LC50 values above 100mg/kg d.w.). For these pesticides, however, weight loss was identified as a sensitive endpoint, with NOEC values approximately 2 times or lower than the calculated LC10 values. The investigated effects on the enzymatic activities of E. fetida and the observed histopathological alterations (longitudinal and circular muscle lesions, edematous tissues, endothelial degeneration and necrosis) proved to be sensitive biomarkers to monitor pesticide contamination and are proposed as alternative measures to evaluate pesticide risks on agro-ecosystems. PMID:26874341

  20. A pilot study on the effect of telmisartan & ramipril on 24 h blood pressure profile & dipping pattern in type 1 diabetes patients with nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Anantharaman, R.; Bhansali, Anil; Bhadada, Sanjay K.; Kohli, Harbir S.; Walia, Rama; Shanmugasundar, G.; Jayaprakash, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been used to normalize the blood pressure and the dipping pattern in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and nephropathy. However, there are no data on the effect of the dual blockade on the dipping pattern in these subjects. We therefore, carried out this study to evaluate the effect of administrating an ACEI followed by ARB in the optimum doses in T1DM patients with nephropathy on 24 h blood pressure (BP) profile and nocturnal dipping pattern. Methods: An open label interventional pilot study was done during a one year period involving 30 consecutive patients who were treated with telmisartan 80 mg (0800-1000 h) for eight weeks followed by addition of ramipril 10 mg (1200-1400 h) for the next eight weeks. Ambulatory BP, dipping pattern and albumin excretion rate were studied after each phase. Twenty patients were hypertensive and 10 patients had macro- and 20 patients had microalbuminuria. Results: Telmisartan produced a fall in the clinic BP by 4/1.3 mm Hg (P<0.05 and P<0.362, respectively), 2/1.9 mm Hg in the mean 24 h BP, 1.4/1.1 mm Hg in the day BP and 3.7/3 mm Hg in the trough BP. Addition of ramipril to telmisartan produced a further reduction of 6.3/5.9 mm Hg in the clinic BP (P<0.001 for both), 4.3/4.2 mm Hg in the mean 24 h BP (P<0.01 and P<0.0001, respectively), 5.8/3.9 mm Hg in the day BP (P<0.01 for both), 4.2/2.5 mm Hg in the trough BP, with a reduction of clinic SBP and DBP of 10.3/7.2 mm Hg from the baseline. Telmisartan restored normal systolic dipping pattern in 33.3 per cent of the nondippers (P<0.01) but addition of ramipril was not complimentary. Hyperkalamia (>5.5 mmol/l) was observed only in 2 patients towards the end of the study. Interpretation & conclusions: The dual blockade with telmisartan and ramipril had complimentary effect on lowering of the BP, however, similar beneficial effect on the nocturnal dipping

  1. The relationship between serum albumin levels and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring recordings in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahbap, Elbis; Sakaci, Tamer; Kara, Ekrem; Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Koc, Yener; Basturk, Taner; Sevinc, Mustafa; Akgol, Cuneyt; Kayalar, Arzu O.; Ucar, Zuhal A.; Bayraktar, Feyza; Unsal, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum albumin levels and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (24-h ABPM) recordings in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients. METHODS: A total of 354 patients (mean [SD] age: 55.5 [14.3] years, 50% females) with essential hypertension and 24-h ABPM recordings were included. Patient 24-h nighttime and daytime ABPM values, systolic and diastolic dipping status and average nocturnal dipping were recorded. The correlations between serum albumin levels and nocturnal systolic and diastolic dipping were evaluated, and correlates of average nocturnal systolic dipping were determined via a linear regression model. RESULTS: Overall, 73.2% of patients were determined to be non-dippers. The mean (SD) levels of serum albumin (4.2 [0.3] g/dL vs. 4.4 [0.4] g/dL, p<0.001) and the average nocturnal systolic (15.2 [4.8] mmHg vs. 0.3 [6.6] mmHg, p<0.001) and diastolic dipping (4.2 [8.6] mmHgvs. 18.9 [7.0] mmHg, p<0.001) were significantly lower in non-dippers than in dippers. A significant positive correlation was noted between serum albumin levels and both systolic (r=0.297, p<0.001) and diastolic dipping (r=0.265, p<0.001). The linear regression analysis revealed that for each one-unit increase in serum albumin, the average nocturnal dip in systolic BP increased by 0.17 mmHg (p=0.033). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate an association between serum albumin levels and the deterioration of circadian BP rhythm among essential hypertensive patients along with the identification of a non-dipper pattern in more than two-thirds of patients. Our findings emphasize the importance of serum albumin levels, rather than urinary albumin excretion, as an independent predictor of nocturnal systolic dipping, at least in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients with moderate proteinuria. PMID:27276394

  2. Administration of an immunomodulatory azaspirane, SK F 105685, or human recombinant interleukin 1 stimulates myelopoiesis and enhances survival from lethal irradiation in C57Bl/6 mice

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.G.; Badger, A.M. )

    1991-08-01

    The immunomodulatory azaspirane SK F 105685 has immunosuppressive activity in animal models of autoimmune disease such as adjuvant-induced arthritis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The mechanism of SK F 105685 appears to be the induction of nonspecific suppressor cell (SC) activity. SC appear to be null cells, that is, cells that lack specific cell surface markers of mature B cells, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, or macrophages. Because the authors hypothesized that the induction of SC was associated with enhanced hematopoiesis, they sought to determine the hematopoietic potential of SK F 105685. Recombinant interleukin 1 alpha (rIL-1) was included as a positive control for hematopoietic stimulation in their studies. They demonstrate here that administration of SK F 105685 increases the number of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) within the bone marrow 24 h after injection in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the percentage of CFU-GM in S-phase of the cell cycle was significantly increased, as was colony-stimulating activity (CSA) present in the serum of treated animals. In their experiments IL-1 did not increase marrow CFU-GM; however, splenic CFU-GM, the proportion of CFU-GM in S-phase of the cell cycle, and serum CSA were all increased 24 h after a single treatment. Administration of SK F 105685 24 h prior to lethal irradiation resulted in a dose-related increase in the number of surviving mice. These results demonstrate that SK F 105685 and rIL-1 stimulate myelopoiesis in vivo and suggest a mechanism by which prophylactic treatment with these agents protects mice from otherwise lethal irradiation.

  3. Lethal and non-lethal violence against women in Australia: measurement challenges, conceptual frameworks, and limitations in knowledge.

    PubMed

    McPhedran, Samara; Baker, Jeanine

    2012-08-01

    Understanding pathways from non-lethal violence to lethal violence between intimate partners is a notable challenge for both policy and practice in partner violence prevention. Of particular interest is whether lethal violence represents an "escalation" of violence from "low" to "high" risk over time, or is best predicted by specific behavioral "typologies" of perpetrators. Testing the "escalation" and "typology" theories is hampered in Australia by limitations in knowledge about non-lethal and lethal violence against women. This article discusses data limitations, measurement problems, and conceptual shortcomings, and suggests approaches to improving evidence quality in the field of violence prevention and risk assessment. PMID:23008430

  4. Mutation induced extinction in finite populations: lethal mutagenesis and lethal isolation.

    PubMed

    Wylie, C Scott; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2012-01-01

    Reproduction is inherently risky, in part because genomic replication can introduce new mutations that are usually deleterious toward fitness. This risk is especially severe for organisms whose genomes replicate "semi-conservatively," e.g. viruses and bacteria, where no master copy of the genome is preserved. Lethal mutagenesis refers to extinction of populations due to an unbearably high mutation rate (U), and is important both theoretically and clinically, where drugs can extinguish pathogens by increasing their mutation rate. Previous theoretical models of lethal mutagenesis assume infinite population size (N). However, in addition to high U, small N can accelerate extinction by strengthening genetic drift and relaxing selection. Here, we examine how the time until extinction depends jointly on N and U. We first analytically compute the mean time until extinction (τ) in a simplistic model where all mutations are either lethal or neutral. The solution motivates the definition of two distinct regimes: a survival phase and an extinction phase, which differ dramatically in both how τ scales with N and in the coefficient of variation in time until extinction. Next, we perform stochastic population-genetics simulations on a realistic fitness landscape that both (i) features an epistatic distribution of fitness effects that agrees with experimental data on viruses and (ii) is based on the biophysics of protein folding. More specifically, we assume that mutations inflict fitness penalties proportional to the extent that they unfold proteins. We find that decreasing N can cause phase transition-like behavior from survival to extinction, which motivates the concept of "lethal isolation." Furthermore, we find that lethal mutagenesis and lethal isolation interact synergistically, which may have clinical implications for treating infections. Broadly, we conclude that stably folded proteins are only possible in ecological settings that support sufficiently large populations

  5. Clinical effects and lethal and forensic aspects of propofol.

    PubMed

    Levy, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Propofol is a potent intravenous anesthetic agent that rapidly induces sedation and unconsciousness. The potential for propofol dependency, recreational use, and abuse has only recently been recognized, and several cases of accidental overdose and suicide have emerged. In addition, the first documented case of murder using propofol was reported a few months ago, and a high profile case of suspected homicide with propofol is currently under investigation. A number of analytical methods have been employed to detect and quantify propofol concentrations in biological specimens. The reported propofol-related deaths and postmortem blood and tissue levels are reviewed. Importantly, limitations of propofol detection are discussed, and future considerations are presented. Because propofol has the potential for diversion with lethal consequences, the forensic scientist must have a basic understanding of its clinical indications and uses, pharmacologic properties, and detection methods. In addition, medical institutions should develop systems to prevent and detect diversion of this potential drug of abuse. PMID:20950316

  6. Clinical Effects and Lethal and Forensic Aspects of Propofol*

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Propofol is a potent intravenous anesthetic agent that rapidly induces sedation and unconsciousness. The potential for propofol dependency, recreational use and abuse has only recently been recognized and several cases of accidental overdose and suicide have emerged. In addition, the first documented case of murder using propofol was reported a few months ago and a high profile case of suspected homicide with propofol is currently under investigation. A number of analytical methods have been employed to detect and quantify propofol concentrations in biological specimens. The reported propofol related deaths and post-mortem blood and tissue levels are reviewed. Importantly, limitations of propofol detection are discussed and future considerations are presented. Because propofol has the potential for diversion with lethal consequences, the forensic scientist must have a basic understanding of its clinical indications and uses, pharmacologic properties, and detection methods. In addition, medical institutions should develop systems to prevent and detect diversion of this potential drug of abuse. PMID:20950316

  7. Fabrication of SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC (0001) interface with nearly ideal capacitance-voltage characteristics by thermal oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Richard Heihachiro; Kita, Koji

    2014-07-21

    We fabricated SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC (0001) metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with nearly ideal capacitance-voltage characteristics, simply by the control of thermal oxidation conditions which were selected based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations of SiC oxidation. The interface with low interface defect state density <10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} for the energy range of 0.1–0.4 eV below the conduction band of SiC was obtained by thermal oxidation at 1300 °C in a ramp-heating furnace with a short rise/fall time, followed by low temperature O{sub 2} anneal at 800 °C.

  8. Characterization and Conductivity Behavior of Magnetic Activated Carbon (MAC) from FeCl2.4H2O-Containing Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aripin, Department Of Physics, Faculty Of Mathematics; Natural Science, Haluoleo University, Kampus Bumi Tridharma Anduonohu Kendari 93232 Indonesia

    2007-05-01

    Activated carbons (AC) and magnetic-containing activated carbons (MAC) have been synthesized using coconut shells as carbon sources and FeCl2.4H2O as magnetic precursor. The samples were characterized by nitrogen sorption, XRD, and FTIR. The BET surface area and total pore volume of MAC increase as the temperature increased. AC has XRD peaks, which evidences an amorphous carbon framework and MAC shows that this material consists of an organized carbon with the nanocrystalline magnetite embedded in its structure. The FTIR spectrum of MAC shows that carboxyl groups decreased as the temperature increased. Absorption bands of MAC shows the stretching and torsional vibration modes of the magnetite Fe-O bond in tetrahedral and octahedral sites, respectively. The electrical conductivity studies showed that conductivity of MAC is more than the AC due to structural properties of carbons exists on a framework containing metal structures.

  9. Entropy, pattern entropy, and related methods for the analysis of data on the time intervals between heartbeats from 24-h electrocardiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żebrowski, J. J.; Popławska, W.; Baranowski, R.

    1994-11-01

    Sequences of the time intervals between heartbeats-medically termed RR intervals-extracted from 24-h electrocardiogram recordings are examined as three-dimensional return map images. The recordings were made in humans by means of the medically widely used portable electrocardiograph (Holter system). A time window measured in the number of heartbeats is used and different types of behavior are classified. Bifurcations between the types of dynamics of the heart are noted and a form of intermittency is found. An alternative quantitative measure-a form pattern entropy of the return map image-is defined that characterizes the dynamics of the RR interval sequence. It is shown that this is a measure of the degree of ordering of the RR interval sequence and as such it is a good novel medical diagnostic tool for analyzing heart rate variability which distinguishes between illness and health where other diagnostics fail.

  10. Cathodoluminescence study of radiative interface defects in thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, Yuta; Chanthaphan, Atthawut; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2015-06-29

    Radiative defects in thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) structures and their location in depth were investigated by means of cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. It was found that while luminescence peaks ascribed to oxygen vacancy and nonbridging oxygen hole centers were observed both from thermal oxides grown on (0001) Si-face and C-face surfaces as with thermal oxides on Si, intense yellow luminescence at a wavelength of around 600 nm was identified only from the oxide interface on the Si-face substrate regardless of the oxide thickness and dopant type. Possible physical origins of the radiative centers localized near an oxide interface of a few nm thick are discussed on the basis of visible light emission from Si backbone structures.

  11. New high proper motion stars with declinations between -5(deg) and -30(deg) , and right ascensions between 13h 30m and 24h

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroblewski, H.; Costa, E.

    1999-10-01

    Proper motions, positions, finding charts and magnitudes are given for 293 newly discovered stars with proper motions larger than 0.15 arcsec/year. They are located between -5(deg) and -30(deg) in declination, and 13h 30m and 24h in right ascension. Their blue photographic magnitudes range from approximately 13.0 to 18.5. Six stars of the above sample have proper motions larger than 0.4 (0.401 to 0.534) arcsec/year. An estimated precision level between 7 and 13 mas/year was achieved for the proper motions. Table~2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 or http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html and figures~2 are available in the on-line edition of the journal at http://www.edpsciences.com

  12. Testing of candidate non-lethal sampling methods for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Diane G.; McKibben, Constance L.; Conway, Carla M.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Applegate, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal pathogen testing can be a useful tool for fish disease research and management. Our research objectives were to determine if (1) fin clips, gill snips, surface mucus scrapings, blood draws, or kidney biopsies could be obtained non-lethally from 3 to 15 g Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, (2) non-lethal samples could accurately discriminate between fish exposed to the bacterial kidney disease agent Renibacterium salmoninarum and non-exposed fish, and (3) non-lethal samples could serve as proxies for lethal kidney samples to assess infection intensity. Blood draws and kidney biopsies caused ≥5% post-sampling mortality (Objective 1) and may be appropriate only for larger fish, but the other sample types were non-lethal. Sampling was performed over 21 wk following R. salmoninarum immersion challenge of fish from 2 stocks (Objectives 2 and 3), and nested PCR (nPCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) results from candidate non-lethal samples were compared with kidney tissue analysis by nPCR, qPCR, bacteriological culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and histopathology/immunohistochemistry. R. salmoninarum was detected by PCR in >50% of fin, gill, and mucus samples from challenged fish. Mucus qPCR was the only non-lethal assay exhibiting both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity estimates >90% for distinguishing between R. salmoninarum-exposed and non-exposed fish and was the best candidate for use as an alternative to lethal kidney sample testing. Mucus qPCR R. salmoninarum quantity estimates reflected changes in kidney bacterial load estimates, as evidenced by significant positive correlations with kidney R. salmoninaruminfection intensity scores at all sample times and in both fish stocks, and were not significantly impacted by environmentalR. salmoninarum concentrations.

  13. Testing of candidate non-lethal sampling methods for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Diane G; McKibben, Constance L; Conway, Carla M; Purcell, Maureen K; Chase, Dorothy M; Applegate, LynnMarie J

    2015-05-11

    Non-lethal pathogen testing can be a useful tool for fish disease research and management. Our research objectives were to determine if (1) fin clips, gill snips, surface mucus scrapings, blood draws, or kidney biopsies could be obtained non-lethally from 3 to 15 g Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, (2) non-lethal samples could accurately discriminate between fish exposed to the bacterial kidney disease agent Renibacterium salmoninarum and non-exposed fish, and (3) non-lethal samples could serve as proxies for lethal kidney samples to assess infection intensity. Blood draws and kidney biopsies caused ≥5% post-sampling mortality (Objective 1) and may be appropriate only for larger fish, but the other sample types were non-lethal. Sampling was performed over 21 wk following R. salmoninarum immersion challenge of fish from 2 stocks (Objectives 2 and 3), and nested PCR (nPCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) results from candidate non-lethal samples were compared with kidney tissue analysis by nPCR, qPCR, bacteriological culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and histopathology/immunohistochemistry. R. salmoninarum was detected by PCR in >50% of fin, gill, and mucus samples from challenged fish. Mucus qPCR was the only non-lethal assay exhibiting both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity estimates>90% for distinguishing between R. salmoninarum-exposed and non-exposed fish and was the best candidate for use as an alternative to lethal kidney sample testing. Mucus qPCR R. salmoninarum quantity estimates reflected changes in kidney bacterial load estimates, as evidenced by significant positive correlations with kidney R. salmoninarum infection intensity scores at all sample times and in both fish stocks, and were not significantly impacted by environmental R. salmoninarum concentrations. PMID:25958804

  14. Rhythmic 24 h Variation of Core Body Temperature and Locomotor Activity in a Subterranean Rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the Tuco-Tuco

    PubMed Central

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents. PMID:24454916

  15. Impact of hypobaric hypoxia in pressurized cabins of simulated long-distance flights on the 24 h patterns of biological variables, fatigue, and clinical status.

    PubMed

    Coste, Olivier; Van Beers, Pascal; Touitou, Yvan

    2007-01-01

    Long-distance flights can cause a number of clinical problems in both passengers and crewmembers. Jet lag as well as mild hypoxia resulting from incomplete cabin pressurization could contribute to these problems. The objective of this study was to assess, using a chronobiological approach, the clinical impact of diurnal hypobaric, hypoxic exposure on fatigue and other common symptoms encountered during high-altitude exposure and to measure changes in blood chemistry (i.e., plasma creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, glycemia, and lipids). Fourteen healthy, diurnally active (from 07:00 to 23:00 h) male volunteers, aged 23 to 39 yrs, spent 8.5 h in a hypobaric chamber (08:00 to 16:30 h), at a simulated altitude of 8,000 ft (2,438 m). This was followed by an additional 8.5 h of study four weeks later at a simulated altitude of 12,000 ft (3,658 m). Clinical data were collected every 2 h between 08:00 and 18:00 h, and biological variables were assayed every 2 h over two (control and hypoxic-exposure) 24 h cycles. Clinical symptoms were more frequent with the 12,000 ft exposure. Wide interindividual variability was observed in the clinical tolerance to prolonged hypobaric hypoxia. The 24 h profiles of most biochemical variables were significantly altered at each altitude, with changes in mean plasma levels and a tendency toward phase delay, except for uric acid, which showed a phase advance. Changes in appetite mainly occurred with the simulated 12,000 ft exposure and may have been associated with changes in the postprandial glycemia profile. Finally, though the observed biochemical changes were significant, their clinical relevance must be clarified in studies involving actual long-distance flights. PMID:18075804

  16. Validation of web-based, multiple 24-h recalls combined with nutritional supplement intake questionnaires against nitrogen excretions to determine protein intake in Dutch elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Wardenaar, F C; Steennis, J; Ceelen, I J M; Mensink, M; Witkamp, R; de Vries, J H M

    2015-12-28

    Information on dietary composition is vitally important for elite athletes to optimise their performance and recovery, which requires valid tools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of assessing protein intake using three web-based 24-h recalls and questionnaires, by comparing these with three urinary N excretions on the same day. A total of forty-seven Dutch elite top athletes, both disabled and non-disabled, aged between 18 and 35 years, with a BMI of 17·5-31 kg/m2, exercising >12 h/week were recruited. Estimated mean dietary protein intake was 109·6 (sd 33·0) g/d by recalls and questionnaires v. 141·3 (sd 38·2) g/d based on N excretions in urine; the difference was 25·5 (sd 21·3) % between the methods (P<0·05). We found a reasonably good association between methods for protein intake of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·79). On an individual level, under-reporting was larger with higher protein intakes than with lower intakes. No significant differences were found in reporting absolute differences between subcategories (sex, under-reporting, BMI, collection of recalls within a certain amount of time and using protein supplements or not). In conclusion, combined, multiple, 24-h recalls and questionnaires underestimated protein intake in these young elite athletes more than that reported for non-athlete populations. The method proved to be suitable for ranking athletes according to their protein intake as needed in epidemiological studies. On an individual level, the magnitude of underestimation was about equal for all athletes except for those with very high protein intakes. PMID:26435534

  17. Agreement between an online dietary assessment tool (myfood24) and an interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall in British adolescents aged 11-18 years.

    PubMed

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Greenwood, Darren C; Cade, Janet E

    2016-05-01

    myfood24 Is an online 24-h dietary assessment tool developed for use among British adolescents and adults. Limited information is available regarding the validity of using new technology in assessing nutritional intake among adolescents. Thus, a relative validation of myfood24 against a face-to-face interviewer-administered 24-h multiple-pass recall (MPR) was conducted among seventy-five British adolescents aged 11-18 years. Participants were asked to complete myfood24 and an interviewer-administered MPR on the same day for 2 non-consecutive days at school. Total energy intake (EI) and nutrients recorded by the two methods were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots (using between and within-individual information) and weighted κ to assess the agreement. Energy, macronutrients and other reported nutrients from myfood24 demonstrated strong agreement with the interview MPR data, and ICC ranged from 0·46 for Na to 0·88 for EI. There was no significant bias between the two methods for EI, macronutrients and most reported nutrients. The mean difference between myfood24 and the interviewer-administered MPR for EI was -230 kJ (-55 kcal) (95 % CI -490, 30 kJ (-117, 7 kcal); P=0·4) with limits of agreement ranging between 39 % (3336 kJ (-797 kcal)) lower and 34 % (2874 kJ (687 kcal)) higher than the interviewer-administered MPR. There was good agreement in terms of classifying adolescents into tertiles of EI (κ w =0·64). The agreement between day 1 and day 2 was as good for myfood24 as for the interviewer-administered MPR, reflecting the reliability of myfood24. myfood24 Has the potential to collect dietary data of comparable quality with that of an interviewer-administered MPR. PMID:26975650

  18. Mitomycin C with weekly 24-h infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with biliary tract and periampullar carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, J S; Lin, Y C; Jan, Y Y; Liau, C T

    2001-04-01

    We have reported a 33% partial response rate with acceptable toxicity using weekly 24-h infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV) in patients with far advanced biliary tract cancers (BTC). In this study, we added mitomycin (MMC) to 5-FU and LV in an attempt to improve the response rate and survival. From July 1997 to September 1999, 25 chemotherapy-naive patients with pathology-proven far advanced BTC and periampullar cancers were enrolled. The regimen consisted of MMC 10 mg/m(2) every 8 weeks combined with 5-FU 2600 mg/m(2) and LV 150 mg at a schedule of 24-h infusion weekly for 6 weeks followed by a 2 week break. There were 10 males and 15 females with a median age of 57 years (range 40-76). The sites of primary tumor were 15 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (CC), one perihilar CCs, three distal BTC, three gallbladder cancers (GB) and three periampullar cancers. A total of 148 sessions of chemotherapy were given with a mean of 8 (range 2-18). Nineteen patients were evaluable for response. The response rate was: 26% (five of 19) partial response, 42% (eight of 19) stable disease and 32% (six of 19) progressive disease. All of the patients were evaluable for toxicity. Toxicities more than grade III-IV were thrombocytopenia 16% (four of 25), leukopenia 12% (three of 25) and vomiting 4% (one of 25). There were four treatment-related deaths. The median time to disease progression was 3 months. The median survival was 6 months. A combination of MMC with weekly high-dose 5-FU and LV in patients with BTC did not improve the response rate, but produced more toxicity than weekly high-dose 5-FU and LV alone. PMID:11335790

  19. Rhythmic 24 h variation of core body temperature and locomotor activity in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the tuco-tuco.

    PubMed

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents. PMID:24454916

  20. Distribution and variability of the 24-h average air exchange rates and interzonal flow rates in 26 Japanese residences in 5 seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Naohide; Kataoka, Toshiyuki; Takamine, Koichi; Gamo, Masashi

    2011-07-01

    In this study, to evaluate the distribution of air exchange rates in Japan, daily, seasonal, and inter-residence variabilities were determined as well as the air exchange rate itself. In addition, airflows among multiple zones were also evaluated. For this purpose, the 24 h average air exchange rates and interzonal air flow rates were measured using a passive perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) method with three kinds of tracer gases for 1 week in three rooms of 26 Japanese residences over five seasons: summer and autumn of 2005, and winter, spring, and summer of 2006. During these seasons, the weekly average air exchange rates were found to be 1.6 ± 1.7, 0.58 ± 0.94, 0.61 ± 0.93, 1.2 ± 2.5, and 1.7 ± 1.8 h -1, respectively. Two-way repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the air exchange rates differed significantly with respect to the seasons, residences, and interaction of seasons and residences ( p < 0.01). In addition, the air exchange rates in both summers and spring were statistically higher than those in autumn and winter (Sheffe test, p < 0.01). According to the ANOVA, the percentage contribution of inter-residence variability, seasonal variability, interaction of seasonal and inter-residence variabilities, and daily variability to the total variability of the 24 h average air exchange rates in the present survey was 51%, 44%, 3.7%, and 1.0%, respectively.

  1. Lethal predators: psychopathic, sadistic, and sane.

    PubMed

    Ochberg, Frank M; Brantley, Alan C; Hare, R D; Houk, Peter D; Ianni, Robert; James, Earl; O'Toole, Mary Ellen; Saathoff, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    The violent criminals defined in this article are a small, exceptionally dangerous group of offenders designated by the authors as "lethal predators." They have a history of sexual predation, have killed at least once, and are mentally abnormal but legally sane. They are highly likely to keep killing as long as they are free. Laws permitting civil commitment of dangerous and mentally abnormal sexual predators after they have completed criminal prison sentences have been upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court. Such laws can provide a legal means of keeping these highly dangerous killers confined so they cannot kill again. PMID:14608825

  2. Bacillus anthracis Lethal Toxin Reduces Human Alveolar Epithelial Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A.; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M.; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin

    2012-01-01

    The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness. PMID:23027535

  3. Potential lethal and non-lethal effects of predators on dispersal of spider mites.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Hatsune; Yano, Shuichi

    2014-11-01

    Predators can affect prey dispersal lethally by direct consumption or non-lethally by making prey hesitate to disperse. These lethal and non-lethal effects are detectable only in systems where prey can disperse between multiple patches. However, most studies have drawn their conclusions concerning the ability of predatory mites to suppress spider mites based on observations of their interactions on a single patch or on heavily infested host plants where spider mites could hardly disperse toward intact patches. In these systems, specialist predatory mites that penetrate protective webs produced by spider mites quickly suppress the spider mites, whereas generalist predators that cannot penetrate the webs were ineffective. By using a connected patch system, we revealed that a generalist ant, Pristomyrmex punctatus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), effectively prevented dispersal of spider mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), by directly consuming dispersing individuals. We also revealed that a generalist predatory mite, Euseius sojaensis Ehara (Acari: Phytoseiidae), prevented between-patch dispersal of T. kanzawai by making them hesitate to disperse. In contrast, a specialist phytoseiid predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha, allowed spider mites to escape an initial patch, increasing the number of colonized patches within the system. Our results suggest that ants and generalist predatory mites can effectively suppress Tetranychus species under some conditions, and should receive more attention as agents for conservation biological control in agroecosystems. PMID:24867061

  4. Gonadosomatic mosaicism for lethal mutations in Drosophila lethal mutations disturbing larval development

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A.I.; Sakharova, N.Yu.

    1988-11-01

    Phenogenetic analysis of autonomous lethal mutations obtained by the method of gonadosomatic mosaicism which manifested during larval stages, established that the nuclei of hypodermal cells, salivary glands suprapharyngeal ganglion, pharynx, esophagus, gizzard, and hindgut are the derivatives of the same nucleus (from the first two nuclei of cleavage) as the nuclei of the cells of the imaginal-somatic tissues.

  5. Tityus serrulatus venom--A lethal cocktail.

    PubMed

    Pucca, Manuela Berto; Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Pinheiro Junior, Ernesto Lopes; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Amorim, Fernanda Gobbi; Cordeiro, Francielle Almeida; Longhim, Heloisa Tavoni; Cremonez, Caroline Marroni; Oliveira, Guilherme Honda; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2015-12-15

    Tityus serrulatus (Ts) is the main scorpion species of medical importance in Brazil. Ts venom is composed of several compounds such as mucus, inorganic salts, lipids, amines, nucleotides, enzymes, kallikrein inhibitor, natriuretic peptide, proteins with high molecular mass, peptides, free amino acids and neurotoxins. Neurotoxins are considered the most responsible for the envenoming syndrome due to their pharmacological action on ion channels such as voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and potassium (Kv) channels. The major goal of this review is to present important advances in Ts envenoming research, correlating both the crude Ts venom and isolated toxins with alterations observed in all human systems. The most remarkable event lies in the Ts induced massive releasing of neurotransmitters influencing, directly or indirectly, the entire body. Ts venom proved to extremely affect nervous and muscular systems, to modulate the immune system, to induce cardiac disorders, to cause pulmonary edema, to decrease urinary flow and to alter endocrine, exocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal and digestive functions. Therefore, Ts venom possesses toxins affecting all anatomic systems, making it a lethal cocktail. However, its low lethality may be due to the low venom mass injected, to the different venom compositions, the body characteristics and health conditions of the victim and the local of Ts sting. Furthermore, we also described the different treatments employed during envenoming cases. In particular, throughout the review, an effort will be made to provide information from an extensive documented studies concerning Ts venom in vitro, in animals and in humans (a total of 151 references). PMID:26522893

  6. Antenatal diagnosis of lethal skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Tretter, A E; Saunders, R C; Meyers, C M; Dungan, J S; Grumbach, K; Sun, C C; Campbell, A B; Wulfsberg, E A

    1998-02-17

    Lethal skeletal dysplasias (LSD) are a heterogeneous group of rare but important genetic disorders characterized by abnormal growth and development of bone and cartilage. We describe the diagnosis and outcome of 29 cases of lethal skeletal dysplasias evaluated between January 1989 and December 1996 at the University of Maryland Medical Center and the Ultrasound Institute of Baltimore. Two cases presented at delivery with no prenatal care while the remaining 27 cases were identified by antenatal sonography. Final diagnoses included thanatophoric dysplasia (14), osteogenesis imperfecta, type II (6), achondrogenesis (2), short rib syndromes (3), campomelic syndrome (2), atelosteogenesis (1), and no evidence of a skeletal dysplasia (1). Twenty out of 27 pregnancies were terminated with an average at detection of 21.6 weeks. The other 7 pregnancies that went on to deliver had an average age at detection of 29.2 weeks. Fetal abnormalities in the terminated pregnancies were identified at a significantly earlier gestational age (P = 0.0016) than the pregnancies that continued. While the identification of LSD by sonography was excellent (26/27), only 13/27 (48%) were given an accurate specific antenatal diagnosis. In 8/14 (57%) cases with an inaccurate or nonspecific diagnosis there was a significant or crucial change in the genetic counseling. Thus, while antenatal sonography is an excellent method for discovering LSD, clinical examination, radiographs, and autopsy are mandatory for making a specific diagnosis. PMID:9489797

  7. Lethal outcomes in Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karunamurthy, Arivarasan; Pantanowitz, Liron; Lepe, Jorge Guzman; Reyes-Múgica, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is an uncommon congenital angiodysplasia that manifests in infancy and is characterized by venous and lymphatic malformations of the skin, soft tissue, and bone causing limb hypertrophy. We report 2 patients with long-term KTS who developed lethal complications from uncommon and unusual manifestations. The 1st patient was a female with KTS who at 2 years of age underwent a below-the-knee amputation for a massively hypertrophied and malformed left foot. Two years later she required additional surgical removal of vascular malformations involving her left calf with extension to the groin, pubis, and ipsilateral abdomen. Fifteen years later she underwent splenectomy (400 g) revealing multifocal, cystically dilated vascular channels distorting the splenic architecture and died suddenly of massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage on the 2nd postoperative day. The 2nd patient was a 72-year-old male with long-standing KTS who presented with debilitating chronic penile and scrotal edema. Surgical excision of his lymphedematous scrotal and penile skin revealed a low-grade angiosarcoma arising in the setting of chronic lymphedema. The patient died shortly after surgery from massive hemorrhage due to traumatic rupture of malformed leg vessels. KTS may lead to significant morbidity and mortality, and pathologic consequences from long-term KTS have been rarely reported. These cases illustrate the risk of lethal hemorrhage, organomegaly from protracted vascular malformation, and development of vascular neoplasia associated with chronic lymphedema in KTS. PMID:23915076

  8. Enhancing CHK1 inhibitor lethality in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong; Dai, Yun; Grant, Steven; Dent, Paul

    2012-04-01

    The present studies were initiated to determine whether inhibitors of MEK1/2 or SRC signaling, respectively, enhance CHK1 inhibitor lethality in primary human glioblastoma cells. Multiple MEK1/2 inhibitors (CI-1040 (PD184352); AZD6244 (ARRY-142886)) interacted with multiple CHK1 inhibitors (UCN-01, AZD7762) to kill multiple primary human glioma cell isolates that have a diverse set of genetic alterations typically found in the disease. Inhibition of SRC family proteins also enhanced CHK1 inhibitor lethality. Combined treatment of glioma cells with (MEK1/2 + CHK1) inhibitors enhanced radiosensitivity. Combined (MEK1/2 + CHK1) inhibitor treatment led to dephosphorylation of ERK1/2 and S6 ribosomal protein, whereas the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 was increased. MEK1/2 + CHK1 inhibitor-stimulated cell death was associated with the cleavage of pro-caspases 3 and 7 as well as the caspase substrate (PARP). We also observed activation of pro-apoptotic BCL-2 effector proteins BAK and BAX and reduced levels of pro-survival BCL-2 family protein BCL-XL. Overexpression of BCL-XL alleviated but did not completely abolish MEK1/2 + CHK1 inhibitor cytotoxicity in GBM cells. These findings argue that multiple inhibitors of the SRC-MEK pathway have the potential to interact with multiple CHK1 inhibitors to kill glioma cells. PMID:22313687

  9. Relationship between lethal mutation yield and intake of ethylnitrosourea (ENU) in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Ayaki, T.; Ohshima, K.; Okumura, Y.; Yoshikawa, I.; Shiomi, T.

    1984-01-01

    To estimate the absorbed dose of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) ingested in Drosophila melanogaster, males were fed with sucrose solutions containing various concentrations of ENU plus /sup 3/H-labeled sucrose for 24 hr. Flies showed decreasing intakes with increase in ENU concentration when monitored by intake /sup 3/H radio-activity. Average absorbed doses of ENU were 0.064, 0.221, and 0.302 nmol, respectively, for the ENU concentrations of 0.03, 0.3, and 1.0 mM. Sex-linked recessive lethals were measured for males exposed to these sucrose solutions at three different ENU concentrations.

  10. Lethal domestic violence in eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, M G; Spence, P R; Spence, R L

    2000-01-01

    Strategies for preventing domestic violence can be tailored to a particular geographic or socioeconomic area if the patterns of domestic violence in the area are known. National statistics, although widely available, may not be applicable to a specific region. We reviewed homicide deaths in Eastern North Carolina between 1978 and 1999 to identify patterns in this rural area. Approximately 20% of the homicide deaths in eastern North Carolina are caused by intimate partners. Women accounted for 53% of the victims in 1976, similar to national figures but not rising to 72% as seen nationally in 1998. Latinos are an increasing presence in the area, but had only one recorded episode of lethal violence against an intimate partner. Gunshots accounted for most of the deaths (59% in men, 72% in women). Knowledge of such patterns can assist in selecting prevention strategies for this particular area. Over the last 25 years increasing attention has been devoted to domestic violence (DV), initially defined as abuse committed against a spouse, former spouse, fiancée, boy- or girlfriend, or cohabitant. As time has passed, the definition has been broadened to include other family members--elders, children, and siblings. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now uses the term "intimate partner violence" for intentional emotional or physical abuse inflicted by a spouse, ex-spouse, a present or former boy- or girlfriend, or date. For the purposes of this paper, we consider DV interchangeable with intimate partner violence. There has been a national concern that abusive events are under-reported. The National Crime Victimization Survey, an anonymous household survey, indicated nearly 1 million incidents of non-lethal intimate partner violence per year between 1992 and 1996. The number decreased from 1.1 million in 1993 to 840,000 in 1996. Attempts to validate such data for a given geographic area often require subjects to violate anonymity--this may account for lower

  11. Lethal and sublethal effects of lufenuron on sugarcane borer Diatraea flavipennella and its parasitoid Cotesia flavipes.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana Paula Pereira; Marques, Edmilson Jacinto; Torres, Jorge Braz; Silva, Liliane Marques; Siqueira, Herbert Álvaro Abreu

    2015-11-01

    The combination of chemical and biological controls is a historic goal of integrated pest management, but has rarely been achieved due to lethal and sublethal impact of insecticides on natural enemies altering their performance. In this context, the susceptibility of the yellow sugarcane borer, Diatraea flavipennella (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), to the insect growth regulator lufenuron and the consequent effects upon its endoparasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) encountering exposed but surviving larvae were studied. Neonate and 10-day-old larvae were subjected to one of seven concentrations of lufenuron (1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100 mg a.i./L). Further, effects of lufenuron to the host larvae and to the parasitoid were assessed using low lethal LC20 and LC50. Lufenuron at concentrations up to 12.5 mg a.i./L allowed partial survival of borer larvae; and concentrations over 12.5 mg a.i./L caused 100 % larval mortality before pupation in both ages. Neonate larvae exhibited lower pupal weights only at concentrations 12.5 mg a.i./L; while 10-day-old larvae treated with the LC50 exhibited delayed development. Egg viability was reduced for adult borers from surviving larvae of both ages treated with low lethal concentrations. The parasitoid C. flavipes successfully parasitized surviving low lethal treated larvae. Among the studied life history characteristics of C. flavipes, only a delayed development was observed. The results showed that lufenuron can be effective against D. flavipennella at concentrations over 25 mg a.i./L, and that surviving larvae can be successfully parasitized by C. flavipes. The insecticide lufenuron and the parasitoid C. flavipes seem to be compatible for sugarcane borer control. PMID:26250937

  12. Phagocytic activity, respiratory burst, cytoplasmic free-Ca(2+) concentration and apoptotic cell ratio of haemocytes from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon under acute copper stress.

    PubMed

    Xian, Jian-An; Wang, An-Li; Ye, Chao-Xia; Chen, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular toxicity of copper-induced injury to the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. The 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h LC(50) (median lethal concentration) of Cu(2+) on P. monodon (11.63+/-1.14g) were found to be 3.49, 1.54, 0.73 and 0.40mgL(-1), respectively. Total haemocyte count (THC), phagocytic activity, respiratory burst (RB), cytoplasmic free-Ca(2+) (cf-Ca(2+)) concentration and apoptotic cell ratio of shrimp were determined after exposure to different concentrations of Cu(2+) (0, 0.05, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.5mgL(-1)) for 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48h. There was no significant effect on the analytic indicator of shrimp exposed to 0.05mgL(-1) Cu(2+). THC decreased after Cu-exposure to 0.5mgL(-1) for 48h, 1.5mgL(-1) for 24h and 3.5mgL(-1) for 12h. Phagocytic activity decreased in P. monodon following 48h exposure to 3.5mgL(-1) Cu(2+). RB was induced after 6h exposure to 0.5, 1.5 and 3.5mgL(-1) Cu(2+). cf-Ca(2+) concentration increased after 48h exposure to 0.5mgL(-1) Cu(2+), and 12h exposure to 1.5 and 3.5mgL(-1) Cu(2+). The percentage of apoptotic cells increased to 9.5%, 16.3% and 18.6% respectively following 48h exposure to 0.5, 1.5 and 3.5mgL(-1) Cu(2+). These results indicate that Cu can induce oxidative stress, elevation of cf-Ca(2+) and cell apoptosis, and inhibit phagocytic activity in the shrimp P. monodon, and the lethal injury of Cu(2+) to P. monodon may be mainly due to the sharp reduction of THC caused by ROS-induced apoptosis. PMID:20398793

  13. Assessing lethal and sub-lethal effects of trichlorfon on different trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Sónia; Oliveira, Rhaul; Pereira, Susana; Musso, Carolina; Domingues, Inês; Bhujel, Ram C; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Nogueira, António J A

    2011-06-01

    Trichlorfon (TCF) is one of the most used veterinary pharmaceuticals not only to fight infestations but also as a preventive measure worldwide. The high concentrations used generate concerns about environmental and human health. In this work we assessed the acute toxicity of this compound to non-target organisms belonging to different trophic levels: Danio rerio (early life stages and adults), Daphnia magna and algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris), and studied the potential of the biomarkers cholinesterase (ChE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and catalase (CAT) to assess sub-lethal effects of trichlorfon in zebrafish and daphnids. The fish embryo test followed the OECD draft guideline FET and was based on the exposure of newly fertilized eggs to 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/L of TCF for 5 days; the fish acute test followed the OECD guideline 203 and was based on the exposure of adult fish to 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/L of TCF for 4 days; Daphnia sp. immobilization assay followed the OECD guideline 202 and was based on the exposure of juvenile daphnids to 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1 and 2 μg/L of TCF for 2 days and the algae growth inhibition assay followed the OECD guideline 201 and was based on the exposure of the two species to 0, 1, 3.2, 10, 32, 100 and 300 mg/L of TCF for 4 days. Biomarker levels were measured after 96 h exposure to TCF in zebrafish early life stages and adults and after 48 h exposure in D. magna. Tested organisms seem to have dissimilar sensitivities towards TCF exposure. D. magna (48 h-LC(50)=0.29 μg/L) was the most sensitive organism, followed by early life stages and adults of zebrafish (96 h-LC(50)=25.4 and 28.8 mg/L, respectively) and finally by the algae P. subcapitata (96 h-LC(50)=274.5 mg/L) and C. vulgaris (no effect observed). As daphnids are a source of food for organisms of higher trophic levels, the impairment on its population is prone to have

  14. Lethal Dietary Toxicities of Environmental Contaminants and Pesticides to Coturnix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Camardese, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    Five-day subacute dietary toxicity tests of 193 potential environmental contaminants, pesticides, organic solvents, and various adjuvants are presented for young coturnix (Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica Temminck and Schlegel). The report provides the most comprehensive data base available for avian subacute dietary toxicity tests and is primarily intended for use in ranking toxicities by a standard method that has a reasonable degree of environmental relevance. Findings are presented in two parts: Part I is a critique of selected drugs that includes discussion of subacute toxicity in relation to chemical class and structure, pesticide formulation, and age of animals; Part II is a summary of toxicologic findings for each test substance and provides a statistically basis for comparing toxicities. Data presented include the median lethal concentration (LC50), slope of the probit regression curve (dose-response curve), response chronology, and food consumption. We observed that: 1) fewer than 15% of the compounds were classed 'very' or 'highly' toxic (i.e, LC50 < 200 ppm) and all of these were either chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, or organometallics; 2) subacute toxicity may vary widely among structurally similar chemicals and between different formulations of the same chemical; therefore, conclusions about lethal hazard must be made cautiously until the actual formulation of inset has been tested: 3) inclusion of a general standard in each battery of tests is useful for detection of atypical trials and monitoring population changes but should not be used indiscriminantly for adjusting LC50's for intertest differences unless the chemicals of concern and the standard elicit their toxicities through the same action; 4) although other species have been tested effectively under the subacute protocol, coturnix were ideal for the stated purpose of this research because they are inexpensive, well-adapted to the laboratory environment, and yield good intertest

  15. Phase II study of weekly vinorelbine and 24-h infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil plus leucovorin as first-line treatment of advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, K H; Lu, Y S; Hsu, C H; Lin, J F; Chao, H J; Huang, T C; Chung, C Y; Chang, C S; Yang, C H; Cheng, A L

    2005-01-01

    We prospectively investigated the efficacy and safety of combining weekly vinorelbine (VNB) with weekly 24-h infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV) in the treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer (ABC). Vinorelbine 25 mg m−2 30-min intravenous infusion, and high-dose 5-FU 2600 mg m−2 plus LV 300 mg m−2 24-h intravenous infusion (HDFL regimen) were given on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks. Between June 1999 and April 2003, 40 patients with histologically confirmed recurrent or metastatic breast cancer were enrolled with a median age of 49 years (range: 36–68). A total of 25 patients had recurrent ABC, and 15 patients had primary metastatic diseases. The overall response rate for the intent-to-treat group was 70.0% (95% CI: 54–84%) with eight complete responses and 20 partial responses. All 40 patients were evaluated for survival and toxicities. Among a total of 316 cycles of VNB–HDFL given (average: 7.9: range: 4–14 cycles per patient), the main toxicity was Gr3/4 leucopenia and Gr3/4 neutropenia in 57 (18.0%) and 120 (38.0%) cycles, respectively. Gr1/2 infection and Gr1/2 stomatitis were noted in five (1.6%) and 59 (18.7%) cycles, respectively. None of the patients developed Gr3/4 stomatitis or Gr3/4 infection. Gr2/3 and Gr1 hand–foot syndrome was noted in two (5.0%) and 23 (57.5%) patients, respectively. Gr1 sensory neuropathy developed in three patients. The median time to progression was 8.0 months (range: 3–25.5 months), and the median overall survival was 25.0 months with a follow-up of 5.5 to 45+ months. This VNB–HDFL regimen is a highly active yet well-tolerated first-line treatment for ABC. PMID:15770209

  16. Toll-Like Receptor 2- and 6-Mediated Stimulation by Macrophage-Activating Lipopeptide 2 Induces Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Cross Tolerance in Mice, Which Results in Protection from Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha but in Only Partial Protection from Lethal LPS Doses

    PubMed Central

    Deiters, Ursula; Gumenscheimer, Marina; Galanos, Chris; Mühlradt, Peter F.

    2003-01-01

    Patients or experimental animals previously exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) become tolerant to further LPS challenge. We investigated the potential of the macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 (MALP-2) to induce in vivo cross tolerance to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and LPS. MALP-2-induced tolerance could be of practical interest, as MALP-2 proved much less pyrogenic in rabbits than LPS. Whereas LPS signals via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MALP-2 uses TLR2 and TLR6. LPS-mediated cytokine release was studied in mice pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of MALP-2. No biologically active TNF-α could be detected in the serum of MALP-2-treated animals when challenged with LPS 24 or 72 h later, whereas suppression of LPS-dependent interleukin (IL)-6 lasted for only 24 h. Protection from lethal TNF-α shock was studied in galactosamine-treated mice. Dose dependently, MALP-2 prevented death from lethal TNF-α doses in TLR4−/− but not in TLR2−/− mice, with protection lasting from 5 to 24 h. To assay protection from LPS, mice were pretreated with MALP-2 doses of up to 10 μg. Five and 24 h later, the animals were simultaneously sensitized and challenged by intravenous coinjection of galactosamine and a lethal dose of 50 ng of LPS. There was only limited protection (four of seven mice survived) when mice were challenged 5 h after MALP-2 pretreatment, and no protection when mice were challenged at later times. The high effectiveness of MALP-2 in suppressing TNF-α, the known ways of biological inactivation, and low pyrogenicity make MALP-2 a potential candidate for clinical use. PMID:12874325

  17. Pharmacological antagonism of lethal effects induced by O-isobutyl S-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]methylphosphonothioate.

    PubMed

    Chang, F C T; Hoffman, B E; DeBus, S

    2002-08-01

    O-Isobutyl S-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]methylphosphonothioate (VR) is a structural isomer of a more widely known chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-[2(diisopropylamino)ethyl]methylphosphonothioate (VX). VR has the potential of being used as military threat/sabotage/terrorist agent. The development of a sound medical countermeasure will undoubtedly enhance not only our medical readiness and ability in VR casualty management, but also our defense posture against the deployment of VR in both combat and politically volatile environments. Acute exposure to a lethal dose of VR has been shown to cause cholinergic hyperfunction, incapacitation, seizures, convulsions, cardiorespiratory depression and death. In this study, pharmacological antagonism of VR-induced cardiorespiratory failure and lethality was investigated in guinea pigs chronically instrumented for concurrent recordings of electrocorticogram, diaphragmatic EMG, Lead II ECG, heart rate and neck skeletal muscle EMG. Thirty (30) min prior to intoxication with a 2 x LD50 dose of VR (22.6 micrograms/kg, s.c.), animals were pretreated with pyridostigmine (0.026 mg/kg, i.m.). Immediately after VR intoxication, animals were given pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM; 25 mg/kg, i.m.) and atropine sulfate (2, 8 or 16 mg/kg, i.m.). In animals that displayed seizures and convulsions, diazepam (5 mg/kg, i.m.) was administered 10 min following the onset of epileptiform activities. Responses to pretreatment/therapy modality were evaluated at 24 h post-VR. All animals survived the 2 x LD50 VR challenge. With the exception of an increased heart rate in response to atropine, the myocardial and diaphragmatic (respiratory) activity profiles appeared normal throughout the course of intoxication and recovery. Animals receiving 2 mg/kg atropine all developed fasciculations, seizures, signs of excessive mucoid/salivary secretion, and needed diazepam adjunct therapy. One-half (50%) of the animals receiving 8 mg/kg atropine developed seizure

  18. Lethal photosensitization of biofilm-grown bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Michael

    1997-12-01

    Antibacterial agents are increasingly being used for the prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases. As these agents can be rendered ineffective by resistance development in the target organisms there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches. Light-activated antimicrobial agents release singlet oxygen and free radicals which can kill adjacent bacteria and a wide range of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria has been shown to be susceptible to such agents. In the oral cavity these organisms are present as biofilms (dental plaques) which are less susceptible to traditional antimicrobial agents than bacterial suspensions. The results of these studies have shown that biofilm-grown oral bacteria are also susceptible to lethal photosensitization although the light energy doses required are grater than those needed to kill the organisms when they are grown as aqueous suspensions.

  19. Ants defend aphids against lethal disease.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Charlotte; Agrawal, Anurag A; Hajek, Ann E

    2010-04-23

    Social insects defend their own colonies and some species also protect their mutualist partners. In mutualisms with aphids, ants typically feed on honeydew produced by aphids and, in turn guard and shelter aphid colonies from insect natural enemies. Here we report that Formica podzolica ants tending milkweed aphids, Aphis asclepiadis, protect aphid colonies from lethal fungal infections caused by an obligate aphid pathogen, Pandora neoaphidis. In field experiments, bodies of fungal-killed aphids were quickly removed from ant-tended aphid colonies. Ant workers were also able to detect infective conidia on the cuticle of living aphids and responded by either removing or grooming these aphids. Our results extend the long-standing view of ants as mutualists and protectors of aphids by demonstrating focused sanitizing and quarantining behaviour that may lead to reduced disease transmission in aphid colonies. PMID:19923138

  20. Alleged lethal sorcery in East Timor.

    PubMed

    Pollanen, Michael S

    2004-01-01

    A wide range of cultural and social perspectives exists on the concept of sudden and unexpected death. In countries, without a formal system of death investigation, sudden death is shrouded in mysticism often based on traditional belief systems. This cultural perspective on sudden death is often at variance with medical and forensic concepts and may include explanations such as sorcery, magic, and voodoo. In this case report, the postmortem findings in an alleged victim of lethal 'black magic', known as ema halo by the indigenous people of East Timor, is described. The alleged victim died suddenly in front of witnesses. At autopsy, marked dilation of a bicuspid aortic valve with annuloaortic ectasia and a sinus of Valsalva aneurysm was found after exhumation of the body. The findings mitigated the local belief in witchcraft and established a natural manner of death. PMID:14687768

  1. Low salinity enhances NI-mediated oxidative stress and sub-lethal toxicity to the green shore crab (Carcinus maenas).

    PubMed

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Wood, Chris M

    2015-12-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a metal of environmental concern, known to cause toxicity to freshwater organisms by impairing ionoregulation and/or respiratory gas exchange, and by inducing oxidative stress. However, little is known regarding how nickel toxicity is influenced by salinity. In the current study we investigated the salinity-dependence and mechanisms of sub-lethal Ni toxicity in a euryhaline crab (Carcinus maenas). Crabs were acclimated to three experimental salinities--20, 60 and 100% seawater (SW)--and exposed to 3mg/L Ni for 24h or 96 h. Tissues were dissected for analysis of Ni accumulation, gills were taken for oxidative stress analysis (catalase activity and protein carbonyl content), haemolymph ions were analysed for ionoregulatory disturbance, and oxygen consumption was determined in exercised crabs after 96 h of Ni exposure. Total Ni accumulation was strongly dependant on salinity, with crabs from 20% SW displaying the highest tissue Ni burdens after both 24 and 96-h exposures. After 96 h of exposure, the highest accumulation of Ni occurred in the posterior (ionoregulatory) gills at the lowest salinity, 20% SW. Posterior gill 8 exhibited elevated protein carbonyl levels and decreased catalase activity after Ni exposure, but only in 20% SW. Similarly, decreased levels of haemolymph Mg and K and an increased level of Ca were recorded but only in crabs exposed to Ni for 96 h in 20% SW. Oxygen consumption after exercise was also inhibited in crabs exposed to Ni in 20% SW. These data show for the first time the simultaneous presence of all three modes of sub-lethal Ni toxicity in exposed animals, and indicate a strong salinity dependence of sub-lethal Ni toxicity to the euryhaline crab, C. maenas, a pattern that corresponded to tissue Ni accumulation. PMID:26233920

  2. Structural and electronic properties of the transition layer at the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dejun; Zhao, Jijun

    2015-01-15

    Using first-principles methods, we generate an amorphous SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface with a transition layer. Based this interface model, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of the interfacial transition layer. The calculated Si 2p core-level shifts for this interface are comparable to the experimental data, indicating that various SiC{sub x}O{sub y} species should be present in this interface transition layer. The analysis of the electronic structures reveals that the tetrahedral SiC{sub x}O{sub y} structures cannot introduce any of the defect states at the interface. Interestingly, our transition layer also includes a C-C=C trimer and SiO{sub 5} configurations, which lead to the generation of interface states. The accurate positions of Kohn-Sham energy levels associated with these defects are further calculated within the hybrid functional scheme. The Kohn-Sham energy levels of the carbon trimer and SiO{sub 5} configurations are located near the conduction and valence band of bulk 4H-SiC, respectively. The result indicates that the carbon trimer occurred in the transition layer may be a possible origin of near interface traps. These findings provide novel insight into the structural and electronic properties of the realistic SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface.

  3. Safety and Efficacy of 24-h Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery in Well-Controlled Pregnant Women With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Helen R.; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M.; Caldwell, Karen; Biagioni, Martina; Simmons, David; Dunger, David B.; Nodale, Marianna; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Amiel, Stephanie A.; Hovorka, Roman

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery in well-controlled pregnant women with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 12 women with type 1 diabetes (aged 32.9 years, diabetes duration 17.6 years, BMI 27.1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 6.4%) were randomly allocated to closed-loop or conventional CSII. They performed normal daily activities (standardized meals, snacks, and exercise) for 24 h on two occasions at 19 and 23 weeks’ gestation. Plasma glucose time in target (63–140 mg/dL) and time spent hypoglycemic were calculated. RESULTS Plasma glucose time in target was comparable for closed-loop and conventional CSII (median [interquartile range]: 81 [59–87] vs. 81% [54–90]; P = 0.75). Less time was spent hypoglycemic (<45 mg/dL [0.0 vs. 0.3%]; P = 0.04), with a lower low blood glucose index (2.4 [0.9–3.5] vs. 3.3 [1.9–5.1]; P = 0.03), during closed-loop insulin delivery. CONCLUSIONS Closed-loop insulin delivery was as effective as conventional CSII, with less time spent in extreme hypoglycemia. PMID:22011408

  4. Successful outcome after endovascular thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke with basis on perfusion-diffusion mismatch after 24 h of symptoms onset

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Tobias A.; Rehman, Azeem A.; Goulart, Carlos R.; Sória, Marília G.; Rizelio, Vanessa; Meneses, Murilo S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although intravenous thrombolysis is the Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within 3 h, combined intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis with endovascular techniques may be able to extend this traditional time window. Case Description: We present the clinical evolution of a 45-year-old male presenting with acute left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small diffusion restriction at the right basal ganglia with perfusion compromise in the entire right middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Angiography revealed a complete occlusion of MCA at its M1 segment. The patient underwent endovascular mechanical thrombectomy with additional intra-arterial thrombolysis more than 24 hours after the onset of the initial symptoms and experienced complete vessel recanalization. At 1 year, the patient had global independence with minor residual motor impairment in the left arm. Conclusions: We report the case of a successful thrombolytic therapy following AIS performed more than 24 h after the initial symptoms based on the presence of a perfusion-diffusion mismatch. This report is expected to stimulate the development of future prospective studies with special focus on the role of perfusion-diffusion mismatch in patient selection for treatment of AIS, especially in those presenting outside the traditional time window. PMID:27313971

  5. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  6. Insights into ultraviolet-induced electrical degradation of thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeguchi, Daisuke; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji; Nakano, Yuki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2014-01-06

    The harmful impact of ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation on thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC structures was investigated by means of electrical measurements of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. Unlike Si-based MOS devices, significant electrical degradation, such as positive flatband voltage (V{sub FB}) shift and hysteresis in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves of SiC-MOS capacitors was induced by UV irradiation with a low-pressure mercury lamp. The interfacial fixed charge density increased with UV-irradiation (22.6 mW/cm{sup 2} for 16 h) to 1.7 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}, which was an order of magnitude larger than that of the as-grown SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface. A detailed study based on single wavelength solid-state UV lasers revealed that there was a threshold photon energy at around 5 eV and a moderate dependence of UV-induced degradation on temperature. These experimental findings imply that pre-existing inactive defects accumulated at the thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface were transformed to active carrier traps with high-energy UV irradiation through transparent SiO{sub 2} layers.

  7. Effects of sodium ions on trapping and transport of electrons at the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, A. F. Mooney, P. M.; Ahyi, A. C.; Williams, J. R.; Feldman, L. C.

    2014-01-21

    Capacitance-voltage (C-V) and Deep-Level-Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were performed on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors fabricated on 4H-SiC with the SiO{sub 2} layer grown by Sodium-Enhanced Oxidation. This technique has yielded 4H-SiC MOS transistors with record channel mobility, although with poor bias stability. The effects of the mobile positive charge on the C-V characteristics and DLTS spectra were investigated by applying a sequence of positive and negative bias-temperature stresses, which drifted the sodium ions toward and away from the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface, respectively. Analytical modeling of the C-V curves shows that the drift of sodium ions in the SiO{sub 2} layer during the voltage sweep can explain the temperature dependence of the C-V curves. The effects of lateral fluctuations of the surface potential (due to a non-uniform charge distribution) on the inversion layer mobility of MOS transistors are discussed within a two-dimensional percolation model.

  8. Chronic exposure of corals to fine sediments: lethal and sub-lethal impacts.

    PubMed

    Flores, Florita; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Smith, Luke D; Cooper, Timothy F; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS) for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata) more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora). The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l(-1) TSS (25 mg cm(-2) day(-1)) for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l(-1) TSS (83 mg cm(-2) day(-1)) for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue. PMID:22662225

  9. Syn-Lethality: An Integrative Knowledge Base of Synthetic Lethality towards Discovery of Selective Anticancer Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-juan; Mishra, Shital K.; Wu, Min; Zhang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic lethality (SL) is a novel strategy for anticancer therapies, whereby mutations of two genes will kill a cell but mutation of a single gene will not. Therefore, a cancer-specific mutation combined with a drug-induced mutation, if they have SL interactions, will selectively kill cancer cells. While numerous SL interactions have been identified in yeast, only a few have been known in human. There is a pressing need to systematically discover and understand SL interactions specific to human cancer. In this paper, we present Syn-Lethality, the first integrative knowledge base of SL that is dedicated to human cancer. It integrates experimentally discovered and verified human SL gene pairs into a network, associated with annotations of gene function, pathway, and molecular mechanisms. It also includes yeast SL genes from high-throughput screenings which are mapped to orthologous human genes. Such an integrative knowledge base, organized as a relational database with user interface for searching and network visualization, will greatly expedite the discovery of novel anticancer drug targets based on synthetic lethality interactions. The database can be downloaded as a stand-alone Java application. PMID:24864230

  10. Chronic Exposure of Corals to Fine Sediments: Lethal and Sub-Lethal Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Florita; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Smith, Luke D.; Cooper, Timothy F.; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS) for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata) more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora). The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l−1 TSS (25 mg cm−2 day−1) for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l−1 TSS (83 mg cm−2 day−1) for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue. PMID:22662225

  11. Lethal body burdens of chlorophenols and mixtures of chlorophenols in an oligochaete worm, Lumbriculus variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kukkonen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The lethal body burdens (LBB) of a few chlorophenol congeners were measured in the oligochaete worm, Lumbriculus variegatus. LBB is defined as the concentration of the compound in the organism on molar basis to cause a death. Groups of 40 organisms were exposed to different chlorophenol concentrations in artificial soft freshwater to achieve differential mortality. Exposure times were either 24 hours or 48 hours. Besides exposures with individual congener, mixtures of chlorophenols were also tested. After each exposure, the surviving organisms were collected and the body burden of chlorophenols were measured by GC with electron capture detection. Only the surviving organisms were analyzed, because dead worms started to decay rather quickly. The analyzed tissue concentrations were actually lower than in surviving organisms. The trichlorophenols and pentachlorophenol have a LBB of 0.4--0.7 {micro}mol/g wet weight. The 2,6-dichlorophenol has a slightly higher LBB of 1.0--1.6 {micro}mol/g wet weight. The LBB of chlorophenol mixtures (two congeners at a time) were of the same, on molar basis, as individual congeners demonstrating fully additive toxicity. The lethal body burdens of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol in Lumbriculus variegatus were the same for these water-only exposures as previously reported for these compounds in two different sediments. The use of lethal body burden approach in sediment toxicology is further discussed.

  12. Synthesis and antiproliferative evaluation of novel 2-(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio)acetamide derivatives as inducers of apoptosis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kulabaş, Necla; Tatar, Esra; Bingöl Özakpınar, Özlem; Özsavcı, Derya; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik; Küçükgüzel, İlkay

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a series of thiosemicarbazide derivatives 12-14, 1,2,4-triazol-3-thione derivatives 15-17 and compounds bearing 2-(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio)acetamide structure 18-32 have been synthesized starting from phenolic compounds such as 2-naphthol, paracetamol and thymol. Structures and purity of the target compounds were confirmed by the use of their chromatographic and spectral data besides microanalysis. All of the synthesized new compounds 12-32 were evaluated for their anti-HIV activity. Among these compounds, three representatives 18, 19 and 25 were selected and evaluated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) against the full panel of 60 human cancer cell lines derived from nine different cancer types. Antiproliferative effects of the selected compounds were demonstrated in human tumor cell lines K-562, A549 and PC-3. These compounds inhibited cell growth assessed by MTT assay. Compound 18, 19 and 25 exhibited anti-cancer activity with IC50 values of 5.96 μM (PC-3 cells), 7.90 μM (A549/ATCC cells) and 7.71 μM (K-562 cells), respectively. After the cell viability assay, caspase activation and Bcl-2 activity of the selected compounds were measured and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was detected. Compounds 18, 19 and 25 showed a significant increase in caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. This was not observed for caspase-8 activity with compound 18 and 25, while compound 19 was significantly elevated only at the dose of 50 μM. In addition, all three compounds significantly decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of Bcl-2. PMID:27214512

  13. Two or 24 h of daily contact with sexually active males results in different profiles of LH secretion that both lead to ovulation in anestrous goats.

    PubMed

    Bedos, M; Duarte, G; Flores, J A; Fitz-Rodríguez, G; Hernández, H; Vielma, J; Fernández, I G; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2014-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to (a) determine whether sexually active males are able to stimulate the sexual activity of anestrous female goats when duration of contact is reduced to an intermittent contact shorter than 4 daily hours and (b) compare the pattern of secretion of LH when anestrous goats are exposed either permanently or intermittently to males. In the first experiment, 4 groups of anovulatory goats were exposed to sexually active males for 24, 4, 2, or 1 h/d during 15 consecutive days, whereas control females remained isolated. More than 89% of females in the groups exposed to the sexually active bucks ovulated, whereas only 5% did so in the control group (P < 0.001). However, the proportion of females ovulating before day 4 was greater in the 2-, 4-, or 24-h contact groups than in the control, whereas it did not differ between the control group and the 1-h contact group (P = 0.02, <0.001, <0.001 and 0.23, respectively). In the second experiment, 3 groups of anovulatory goats were exposed permanently (24 h/d) or intermittently (2 h/d) to bucks during 5 d or remained isolated. We found that pulsatility of luteinizing hormone (LH) increased in the intermittent and permanent contact groups after males were introduced to females (P = 0.05); this pulsatility of LH remained elevated in the permanent-contact group, whereas it decreased in the intermittent-contact group, once the male was removed (P = 0.32 and 0.05, respectively). We conclude that 1 or 2 daily hours of contact with sexually active males is sufficient to stimulate ovulatory activity in anovulatory goats; however, ovulation is obtained through a different pattern of secretion of LH. PMID:24906934

  14. The use of multiple imputation method for the validation of 24-h food recalls by part-time observation of dietary intake in school.

    PubMed

    Kupek, Emil; de Assis, Maria Alice A

    2016-09-01

    External validation of food recall over 24 h in schoolchildren is often restricted to eating events in schools and is based on direct observation as the reference method. The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intake out of school, and consequently the bias in such research design based on only part-time validated food recall, using multiple imputation (MI) conditioned on the information on child age, sex, BMI, family income, parental education and the school attended. The previous-day, web-based questionnaire WebCAAFE, structured as six meals/snacks and thirty-two foods/beverage, was answered by a sample of 7-11-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren (n 602) from five public schools. Food/beverage intake recalled by children was compared with the records provided by trained observers during school meals. Sensitivity analysis was performed with artificial data emulating those recalled by children on WebCAAFE in order to evaluate the impact of both differential and non-differential bias. Estimated bias was within ±30 % interval for 84·4 % of the thirty-two foods/beverages evaluated in WebCAAFE, and half of the latter reached statistical significance (P<0·05). Rarely (<3 %) consumed dietary items were often under-reported (fish/seafood, vegetable soup, cheese bread, French fries), whereas some of those most frequently reported (meat, bread/biscuits, fruits) showed large overestimation. Compared with the analysis restricted to fully validated data, MI reduced differential bias in sensitivity analysis but the bias still remained large in most cases. MI provided a suitable statistical framework for part-time validation design of dietary intake over six daily eating events. PMID:27452779

  15. Tumor clone dynamics in lethal prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Suzanne; Romanel, Alessandro; Goodall, Jane; Grist, Emily; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Miranda, Susana; Prandi, Davide; Lorente, David; Frenel, Jean-Sebastien; Pezaro, Carmel; Omlin, Aurelius; Rodrigues, Daniel Nava; Flohr, Penelope; Tunariu, Nina; de Bono, Johann S.; Demichelis, Francesca; Attard, Gerhardt

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether a single clone metastasizes and remains dominant over the course of lethal prostate cancer. We describe the clonal architectural heterogeneity at different stages of disease progression by sequencing serial plasma and tumor samples from 16 ERG-positive patients. By characterizing the clonality of commonly occurring deletions at 21q22, 8p21, and 10q23, we identified multiple independent clones in metastatic disease that are differentially represented in tissue and circulation. To exemplify the clinical utility of our studies, we then showed a temporal association between clinical progression and emergence of androgen receptor (AR) mutations activated by glucocorticoids in about 20% of patients progressing on abiraterone and prednisolone or dexamethasone. Resistant clones showed a complex dynamic with temporal and spatial heterogeneity, suggesting distinct mechanisms of resistance at different sites that emerged and regressed depending on treatment selection pressure. This introduces a management paradigm requiring sequential monitoring of advanced prostate cancer patients with plasma and tumor biopsies to ensure early discontinuation of agents when they become potential disease drivers. PMID:25232177

  16. Lethal body burdens of polar narcotics: Chlorophenols

    SciTech Connect

    Wezel, A.P. van; Punte, S.S.; Opperhuizen, A.

    1995-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to measure in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) the lethal body burden (LBB) of three chlorophenols that are known as polar narcotic chemicals. The LBBs of the chlorophenols were compared to LBBs of nonpolar narcotic chemicals to consider if the two classes of narcotic chemicals differ on a body burden level. The LBB of the most acidic chlorophenol was measured at two different levels of pH exposure to determine the influence of the degree of ionization on the magnitude of the LBB. Both n-octanol/water partition coefficients and n-hexane/water partition coefficients of the chlorophenols were determined at different pH levels to consider the influence of ionization on the partition coefficient and to determine the importance of a polar group in the organic phase on the partitioning behavior. Partitioning to n-octanol and n-hexane was used as input in a model to simulate the equilibrium partitioning between hydrophobic and nonhydrophobic and target and nontarget compartments in the fish.

  17. Inhibitors of the Metalloproteinase Anthrax Lethal Factor.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Allison B; Turk, Benjamin E

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, a rod shaped, spore forming, gram positive bacteria, is the etiological agent of anthrax. B. anthracis virulence is partly attributable to two secreted bipartite protein toxins, which act inside host cells to disrupt signaling pathways important for host defense against infection. These toxins may also directly contribute to mortality in late stage infection. The zinc-dependent metalloproteinase anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a critical component of one of these protein toxins and a prime target for inhibitor development to produce anthrax therapeutics. Here, we describe recent efforts to identify specific and potent LF inhibitors. Derivatization of peptide substrate analogs bearing zinc-binding groups has produced potent and specific LF inhibitors, and X-ray crystallography of LFinhibitor complexes has provided insight into features required for high affinity binding. Novel inhibitor scaffolds have been identified through several approaches, including fragment-based drug discovery, virtual screening, and highthroughput screening of diverse compound libraries. Lastly, efforts to discover LF inhibitors have led to the development of new screening strategies, such as the use of full-length proteins as substrates, that may prove useful for other proteases as well. Overall, these efforts have led to a collection of chemically and mechanistically diverse molecules capable of inhibiting LF activity in vitro and in cells, as well as in animal models of anthrax infection. PMID:27072692

  18. A COMPARISON OF THE LETHAL AND SUBLETHAL TOXICITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL MIXTURES TO THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The joint toxic effects of known binary and multiple organic chemical mixtures to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were defined at both the 96-h 50% lethal effect concentration (LC50) and sublethal (32-d growth) response levels for toxicants with a narcosis I, narcosis II...

  19. Anti-tumor necrosis factor VNAR single domains reduce lethality and regulate underlying inflammatory response in a murine model of endotoxic shock

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    was decreased at 24 h only in the anti-TNF VNAR group. Conclusions Anti-TNF VNAR single domains improved survival in a murine model of endotoxic shock. Protection was associated with regulation in the TNF/IL-10 balance, attenuation of IL-6 and iNOS gene expression in the liver as well as decreased serum IL-6 concentration. PMID:23548047

  20. Sub-lethal plasma ammonia accumulation and the exercise performance of salmonids.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, D J; Shingles, A; Taylor, E W

    2003-08-01

    The proposal that plasma ammonia accumulation might impair the swimming performance of fish was first made over a decade ago, and has now proven to be the case for a number of salmonid species. The first experimental evidence was indirect, when a negative linear relationship between plasma ammonia concentrations and maximum sustainable swimming speed (U(crit)) was found following the exposure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) to sub-lethal concentrations of copper in soft acidic water. Since then, negative linear relationships between plasma ammonia concentration and U(crit) have been demonstrated following exposure of brown trout, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to elevated water ammonia. For brown trout, the relationships between plasma ammonia and U(crit) were remarkably similar following either exposure to elevated water ammonia or to sub-lethal copper. This indicates that the impairment of swimming performance resulting from exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of heavy metals may be attributable in large part to an accumulation of endogenous ammonia. The negative relationship between plasma ammonia concentration and U(crit) was similar in size-matched rainbow and brown trout but, under similar regimes of ammonia exposure, rainbow trout were able to maintain a significantly lower plasma ammonia concentration, revealing inter-specific differences in ammonia permeability and/or transport. One primary mechanism by which ammonia accumulation may impair exercise performance is a partial depolarisation of membrane potential in tissues such as the brain and white muscle. This may prejudice the co-ordination of swimming movements and reduce or abolish the development of muscle tension, thus, compromising swimming efficiency and performance at the top end of the range. PMID:12890542

  1. Ribavirin Protects Syrian Hamsters against Lethal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome — After Intranasal Exposure to Andes Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ogg, Monica; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Camp, Jeremy V.; Hooper, Jay W.

    2013-01-01

    Andes virus, ANDV, harbored by wild rodents, causes the highly lethal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) upon transmission to humans resulting in death in 30% to 50% of the cases. As there is no treatment for this disease, we systematically tested the efficacy of ribavirin in vitro and in an animal model. In vitro assays confirmed antiviral activity and determined that the most effective doses were 40 µg/mL and above. We tested three different concentrations of ribavirin for their capability to prevent HPS in the ANDV hamster model following an intranasal challenge. While the highest level of ribavirin (200 mg/kg) was toxic to the hamster, both the middle (100 mg/kg) and the lowest concentration (50 mg/kg) prevented HPS in hamsters without toxicity. Specifically, 8 of 8 hamsters survived intranasal challenge for both of those groups whereas 7 of 8 PBS control-treated animals developed lethal HPS. Further, we report that administration of ribavirin at 50 mg/kg/day starting on days 6, 8, 10, or 12 post-infection resulted in significant protection against HPS in all groups. Administration of ribavirin at 14 days post-infection also provided a significant level of protection against lethal HPS. These data provide in vivo evidence supporting the potential use of ribavirin as a post-exposure treatment to prevent HPS after exposure by the respiratory route. PMID:24217424

  2. The number of 24 h dietary recalls using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's automated multiple-pass method required to estimate nutrient intake in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA’s Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM) is a five-step, multiple-pass, interviewer-administered, computerized, 24-h dietary recall. The objective of the study was to quantify sources of variation such as day of the week, season, sequence of the diet interviews (training effect), diet interv...

  3. Biochemical and behavioral effects of soman vapors in low concentrations.

    PubMed

    Bajgar, Jiri; Sevelová, Lucie; Krejcová, Gabriela; Fusek, Josef; Vachek, Josef; Kassa, Jiri; Herink, Josef; de Jong, Leo P A; Benschop, Hendrik P

    2004-07-01

    Soman belongs to the most dangerous nerve agents because of the low effectiveness of the presently available antidotes. Soman acts by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) both peripherally and centrally, with a subsequent accumulation of neuromediator acetylcholine and other metabolic changes. From the data published in literature it can be concluded that exposure to nerve agents leading to acute effects or chronic exposure to nerve agents may lead to delayed and persistent adverse effects. The aim of this study was to demonstrate changes in AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities, stressogenic markers (i.e., tyrosine aminotransferase [TAT] activity, and plasma corticosterone level), and neuroexcitability and behavior 24 h and 4 wk following a single soman inhalation exposure at low level. AChE activity in erythrocytes and BuChE activity in plasma was decreased (dependent on the dose of soman) 24 h and 4 wk after the exposure. A similar decrease in AChE activity in different brain parts was observed. One of the stressogenic parameters, TAT, was changed 24 h after exposure only. Behavior of experimental animals was changed 24 h after the exposure, and 4 behavioral parameters persisted 4 wk after the exposure. Neuroexcitability was increased at 24 h after the exposure and had become about normal 4 wk after the exposure. Summarizing, long-term effects (4 wk) were observed after inhalation exposure of guinea pigs to sublethal concentrations of soman. PMID:15204741

  4. Tumour necrosis factor alpha antibody protects against lethal meningococcaemia.

    PubMed

    Nassif, X; Mathison, J C; Wolfson, E; Koziol, J A; Ulevitch, R J; So, M

    1992-03-01

    Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) has been shown to be the principal mediator of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin-induced shock. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that TNF-alpha plays a beneficial role in controlling bacterial infections when multiplication of the microorganism is required to kill the host. Using an infant rat model of Neisseria meningitidis infection, we found that blood TNF-alpha concentration reaches a peak three hours after intraperitoneal injection of 3 x 10(6) bacteria. Thereafter, the level of TNF-alpha decreased and was undetectable six to eight hours after infection. A correlation was observed between the magnitude of initial TNF-alpha response and a fatal outcome. Pretreatment of the animals with polyclonal anti-TNF antiserum significantly reduced mortality relative to animals pretreated with control serum. However, pretreatment of animals with anti-TNF antibody did not alter the bacterial invasion of the cerebrospinal fluid. Injection of heat-killed bacteria did not cause death and induced lower TNF-alpha levels than the same number of live bacteria. This excludes the possibility that the role of TNF-alpha is to mediate a shock induced by the endotoxin component of the bacterial inoculum. These results indicate that TNF-alpha has a deleterious effect in this model of bacteraemia. Identification of the critical factors that determine the action of TNF-alpha during lethal bacteraemia will lead to a better understanding of these diseases and the development of appropriate therapeutic intervention. PMID:1552859

  5. Lethal and sublethal effects of an insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen, on obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F

    2010-04-01

    The obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is one of the most destructive pests of tree fruit in Washington. The development of insecticide resistance in C. rosaceana has led us to explore new management tactics. The use of very low doses of insecticides that have strong sublethal effects represents an environmentally friendly option to improve existing integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. We tested the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen to determine its lethal and sublethal effects on growth and development of C. rosaceana. A leaf-disk bioassay was used to test seven concentrations of pyriproxyfen ranging from 0 to 30 ppm on fifth-instar C. rosaceana. Male and female larvae were assessed separately for mortality as well as other parameters of growth and development. The LC, values for males and females were 2.4 and 4.8 ppm, respectively. The response to pyriproxyfen was concentration-dependent: only 5-6% of the larvae treated with the highest concentration emerged as morphologically normal adults compared with 86% emergence in the controls. The pupation and adult emergence was significantly delayed at concentrations higher than 1 ppm. The weights of C. rosaceana pupae and adults were significantly increased, whereas fecundity and fertility were significantly reduced at a sublethal concentration of 0.3 ppm. We conclude that both lethal and sublethal effects might exhibit significant impacts on the population dynamics of C. rosaceana in tree fruit orchards treated with low concentrations of pyriproxyfen. PMID:20429446

  6. Factors Affecting Lethal Isotherms During Cryoablation Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Andrew C.; Siskey, Ryan; Ochoa, Jorge A.; Good, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Creating appropriately-sized, lethal isotherms during cryoablation of renal tumors is critical in order to achieve sufficiently-sized zones of cell death. To ensure adequate cell death in target treatment locations, surgeons must carefully select the type, size, location, and number of probes to be used, as well as various probe operating parameters. Objective: The current study investigates the effects of probe type, operating pressure, and clinical method on the resulting sizes of isotherms in an in vitro gelatin model. Method: Using a total of four cryoprobes from two manufacturers, freeze procedures were conducted in gelatin in order to compare resulting sizes of constant temperature zones (isotherms). The effects of certain procedural parameters which are clinically adjustable were studied. Results: Test results show that the sizes of 0 °C,-20 °C and -40 °C isotherms created by similarly-sized probes from two different manufacturers were significantly different for nearly all comparisons made, and that size differences resulting from changing the operating pressure were not as prevalent. Furthermore, isotherm sizes created using a multiple freeze procedure (a ten minute freeze, followed by a five minute passive thaw, followed by another ten minute freeze) did not result in statistically-significant differences when compared to those created using a single freeze procedure in all cases. Conclusion: These results indicate that selection of the probe manufacturer and probe size may be more important for dictating the size of kill zones during cryoablation than procedural adjustments to operating pressures or freeze times.

  7. Synchronous high-resolution phenotyping of leaf and root growth in Nicotiana tabacum over 24-h periods with GROWMAP-plant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Root growth is highly responsive to temporal changes in the environment. On the contrary, diel (24 h) leaf expansion in dicot plants is governed by endogenous control and therefore its temporal pattern does not strictly follow diel changes in the environment. Nevertheless, root and shoot are connected with each other through resource partitioning and changing environments for one organ could affect growth of the other organ, and hence overall plant growth. Results We developed a new technique, GROWMAP-plant, to monitor growth processes synchronously in leaf and root of the same plant with a high resolution over the diel period. This allowed us to quantify treatment effects on the growth rates of the treated and non-treated organ and the possible interaction between them. We subjected the root system of Nicotiana tabacum seedlings to three different conditions: constant darkness at 22°C (control), constant darkness at 10°C (root cooling), and 12 h/12 h light–dark cycles at 22°C (root illumination). In all treatments the shoot was kept under the same 12 h/12 h light–dark cycles at 22°C. Root growth rates were found to be constant when the root-zone environment was kept constant, although the root cooling treatment significantly reduced root growth. Root velocity was decreased after light-on and light-off events of the root illumination treatment, resulting in diel root growth rhythmicity. Despite these changes in root growth, leaf growth was not affected substantially by the root-zone treatments, persistently showing up to three times higher nocturnal growth than diurnal growth. Conclusion GROWMAP-plant allows detailed synchronous growth phenotyping of leaf and root in the same plant. Root growth was very responsive to the root cooling and root illumination, while these treatments altered neither relative growth rate nor diel growth pattern in the seedling leaf. Our results that were obtained simultaneously in growing leaves and roots of the same

  8. Renal denervation in treatment-resistant essential hypertension. A randomized, SHAM-controlled, double-blinded 24-h blood pressure-based trial

    PubMed Central

    Mathiassen, Ole N.; Vase, Henrik; Bech, Jesper N.; Christensen, Kent L.; Buus, Niels H.; Schroeder, Anne P.; Lederballe, Ole; Rickers, Hans; Kampmann, Ulla; Poulsen, Per L.; Hansen, Klavs W.; B⊘tker, Hans E.; Peters, Christian D.; Engholm, Morten; Bertelsen, Jannik B.; Lassen, Jens F.; Langfeldt, Sten; Andersen, Gratien; Pedersen, Erling B.; Kaltoft, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal denervation (RDN), treating resistant hypertension, has, in open trial design, been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) dramatically, but this was primarily with respect to office BP. Method: We conducted a SHAM-controlled, double-blind, randomized, single-center trial to establish efficacy data based on 24-h ambulatory BP measurements (ABPM). Inclusion criteria were daytime systolic ABPM at least 145 mmHg following 1 month of stable medication and 2 weeks of compliance registration. All RDN procedures were carried out by an experienced operator using the unipolar Medtronic Flex catheter (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, California, USA). Results: We randomized 69 patients with treatment-resistant hypertension to RDN (n = 36) or SHAM (n = 33). Groups were well balanced at baseline. Mean baseline daytime systolic ABPM was 159 ± 12 mmHg (RDN) and 159 ± 14 mmHg (SHAM). Groups had similar reductions in daytime systolic ABPM compared with baseline at 3 months [−6.2 ± 18.8 mmHg (RDN) vs. −6.0 ± 13.5 mmHg (SHAM)] and at 6 months [−6.1 ± 18.9 mmHg (RDN) vs. −4.3 ± 15.1 mmHg (SHAM)]. Mean usage of antihypertensive medication (daily defined doses) at 3 months was equal [6.8 ± 2.7 (RDN) vs. 7.0 ± 2.5 (SHAM)]. RDN performed at a single center and by a high-volume operator reduced ABPM to the same level as SHAM treatment and thus confirms the result of the HTN3 trial. Conclusion: Further, clinical use of RDN for treatment of resistant hypertension should await positive results from double-blinded, SHAM-controlled trials with multipolar ablation catheters or novel denervation techniques. PMID:27228432

  9. Fentanyl-Laced 'Norco' Is Lethal, Report Warns

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160158.html Fentanyl-Laced 'Norco' Is Lethal, Report Warns New street drug combines two synthetic opioids ... imprint and were beige instead of white. The report was published online July 27 in the journal ...

  10. In vitro breast cancer cell lethality of Brazilian plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Suffredini, I B; Paciencia, M L B; Frana, S A; Varella, A D; Younes, R N

    2007-10-01

    In this study we screened the cytotoxicity of 1220 plant extracts obtained from 351 plants belonging to 74 families occurring in the Amazon and Atlantic rain forests against MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. All extracts were tested at a dose of 100 microg/mL. Only 11 aqueous or organic extracts belonging to the Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Araceae, Clusiaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Leguminosae, Olacaceae and Violaceae showed marked lethal activity. Vismia guianensis and Annona hypoglauca extracts showed the greatest lethal activity. PMID:18236788

  11. Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease presenting as hydrops fetalis

    PubMed Central

    BenHamida, Emira; Ayadi, Imene; Ouertani, Ines; Chammem, Maroua; Bezzine, Ahlem; BenTmime, Riadh; Attia, Leila; Mrad, Ridha; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease is very rare and is considered a variant of type 2 Gaucher disease that occurs in the neonatal period. The most distinct features of perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease are non-immune hydrops fetalis. Less common signs of the disease are hepatosplenomegaly, ichthyosis and arthrogryposis. We report a case of Gaucher's disease (type 2) diagnosed in a newborn who presented with Hydrops Fetalis. PMID:26327947

  12. Late-acting dominant lethal genetic systems and mosquito control

    PubMed Central

    Phuc, Hoang Kim; Andreasen, Morten H; Burton, Rosemary S; Vass, Céline; Epton, Matthew J; Pape, Gavin; Fu, Guoliang; Condon, Kirsty C; Scaife, Sarah; Donnelly, Christl A; Coleman, Paul G; White-Cooper, Helen; Alphey, Luke

    2007-01-01

    Background Reduction or elimination of vector populations will tend to reduce or eliminate transmission of vector-borne diseases. One potential method for environmentally-friendly, species-specific population control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). SIT has not been widely used against insect disease vectors such as mosquitoes, in part because of various practical difficulties in rearing, sterilization and distribution. Additionally, vector populations with strong density-dependent effects will tend to be resistant to SIT-based control as the population-reducing effect of induced sterility will tend to be offset by reduced density-dependent mortality. Results We investigated by mathematical modeling the effect of manipulating the stage of development at which death occurs (lethal phase) in an SIT program against a density-dependence-limited insect population. We found late-acting lethality to be considerably more effective than early-acting lethality. No such strains of a vector insect have been described, so as a proof-of-principle we constructed a strain of the principal vector of the dengue and yellow fever viruses, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti, with the necessary properties of dominant, repressible, highly penetrant, late-acting lethality. Conclusion Conventional SIT induces early-acting (embryonic) lethality, but genetic methods potentially allow the lethal phase to be tailored to the program. For insects with strong density-dependence, we show that lethality after the density-dependent phase would be a considerable improvement over conventional methods. For density-dependent parameters estimated from field data for Aedes aegypti, the critical release ratio for population elimination is modeled to be 27% to 540% greater for early-acting rather than late-acting lethality. Our success in developing a mosquito strain with the key features that the modeling indicated were desirable demonstrates the feasibility of this approach for improved SIT for disease

  13. Late Multiple Organ Surge in Interferon-Regulated Target Genes Characterizes Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Ferreyra, Gabriela A.; Elinoff, Jason M.; Demirkale, Cumhur Y.; Starost, Matthew F.; Buckley, Marilyn; Munson, Peter J.; Krakauer, Teresa; Danner, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial superantigens are virulence factors that cause toxic shock syndrome. Here, the genome-wide, temporal response of mice to lethal intranasal staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) challenge was investigated in six tissues. Results The earliest responses and largest number of affected genes occurred in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), spleen, and lung tissues with the highest content of both T-cells and monocyte/macrophages, the direct cellular targets of SEB. In contrast, the response of liver, kidney, and heart was delayed and involved fewer genes, but revealed a dominant genetic program that was seen in all 6 tissues. Many of the 85 uniquely annotated transcripts participating in this shared genomic response have not been previously linked to SEB. Nine of the 85 genes were subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR in every tissue/organ at 24 h. These 85 transcripts, up-regulated in all tissues, annotated to the interferon (IFN)/antiviral-response and included genes belonging to the DNA/RNA sensing system, DNA damage repair, the immunoproteasome, and the ER/metabolic stress-response and apoptosis pathways. Overall, this shared program was identified as a type I and II interferon (IFN)-response and the promoters of these genes were highly enriched for IFN regulatory matrices. Several genes whose secreted products induce the IFN pathway were up-regulated at early time points in PBMCs, spleen, and/or lung. Furthermore, IFN regulatory factors including Irf1, Irf7 and Irf8, and Zbp1, a DNA sensor/transcription factor that can directly elicit an IFN innate immune response, participated in this host-wide SEB signature. Conclusion Global gene-expression changes across multiple organs implicated a host-wide IFN-response in SEB-induced death. Therapies aimed at IFN-associated innate immunity may improve outcome in toxic shock syndromes. PMID:24551153

  14. Sub-lethal levels of electric current elicit the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Kaimoyo, Evans; Farag, Mohamed A; Sumner, Lloyd W; Wasmann, Catherine; Cuello, Joel L; VanEtten, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Many secondary metabolites that are normally undetectable or in low amounts in healthy plant tissue are synthesized in high amounts in response to microbial infection. Various abiotic and biotic agents have been shown to mimic microorganisms and act as elicitors of the synthesis of these plant compounds. In the present study, sub-lethal levels of electric current are shown to elicit the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in transgenic and non-transgenic plant tissue. The production of the phytoalexin (+)-pisatin by pea was used as the main model system. Non-transgenic pea hairy roots treated with 30-100 mA of electric current produced 13 times higher amounts of (+)-pisatin than did the non-elicited controls. Electrically elicited transgenic pea hairy root cultures blocked at various enzymatic steps in the (+)-pisatin biosynthetic pathway also accumulated intermediates preceding the blocked enzymatic step. Secondary metabolites not usually produced by pea accumulated in some of the transgenic root cultures after electric elicitation due to the diversion of the intermediates into new pathways. The amount of pisatin in the medium bathing the roots of electro-elicited roots of hydroponically cultivated pea plants was 10 times higher 24 h after elicitation than in the medium surrounding the roots of non-elicited control plants, showing not only that the electric current elicited (+)-pisatin biosynthesis but also that the (+)-pisatin was released from the roots. Seedlings, intact roots or cell suspension cultures of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), barrel medic, (Medicago truncatula), Arabidopsis thaliana, red clover (Trifolium pratense) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) also produced increased levels of secondary metabolites in response to electro-elicitation. On the basis of our results, electric current would appear to be a general elicitor of plant secondary metabolites and to have potential for application in both basic and commercial research. PMID:18331050

  15. Synthetic lethal approaches for assessing combinatorial efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rebecca A; Chen, Ee Sin

    2016-06-01

    The recent advances in pharmacogenomics have made personalized medicine no longer a pipedream but a precise and powerful way to tailor individualized cancer treatment strategies. Cancer is a devastating disease, and contemporary chemotherapeutic strategies now integrate several agents in the treatment of some types of cancer, with the intent to block more than one target simultaneously. This constitutes the premise of synthetic lethality, an attractive therapeutic strategy already demonstrating clinical success in patients with breast and ovarian cancers. Synthetic lethal combinations offer the potential to also target the hitherto "undruggable" mutations that have challenged the cancer field for decades. However, synthetic lethality in clinical cancer therapy is very much still in its infancy, and selecting the most appropriate combinations-or synthetic lethal pairs-is not always an intuitive process. Here, we review some of the recent progress in identifying synthetic lethal combinations and their potential for therapy and highlight some of the tools through which synthetic lethal pairs are identified. PMID:26803999

  16. Lethal and Amanitin-Resistance Mutations in the Caenorhabditis Elegans Ama-1 and Ama-2 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, T. M.; Bullerjahn, AME.; Riddle, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    Mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans resistant to α-amanitin have been isolated at a frequency of about 1.6 X 10(-6) after EMS mutagenesis of the wild-type strain, N2. Four new dominant resistance mutations have been studied genetically. Three are alleles of a previously identified gene, ama-1 IV, encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. The fourth mutation defines a new gene, ama-2 V. Unlike the ama-1 alleles, the ama-2 mutation exhibits a recessive-lethal phenotype. Growth and reproduction of N2 was inhibited at a concentration of 10 μg/ml amanitin, whereas ama-2/+ animals were inhibited at 100 μg/ml, and 800 μg/ml was required to inhibit growth of ama-1/+ larvae. We have also determined that two reference strains used for genetic mapping, dpy-11(e224)V and sma-1(e30)V, are at least four-fold more sensitive to amanitin that the wild-type strain. Using an amanitin-resistant ama-1(m118) or ama-1(m322) strain as a parent, we have isolated amanitin-sensitive mutants that carry recessive-lethal ama-1 alleles. The frequency of EMS-induced lethal ama-1 mutations is approximately 1.7 X 10(-3), 1000-fold higher than the frequency of amanitin-resistance alleles. Nine of the lethal alleles are apparent null mutations, and they exhibit L1-lethal phenotypes at both 20° and 25°. Six alleles result in partial loss of RNA polymerase II function as determined by their sterile phenotypes at 20°. All but one of these latter mutations exhibit a more severe phenotype at 25°C. We have also selected seven EMS-induced revertants of three different ama-1 lethals. These revertants restore dominant resistance to amanitin. The selection for revertants also produced eight new dominant amanitin resistance alleles on the balancer chromosome, nT1. PMID:3197954

  17. Lipid nanocapsules for behavioural testing in aquatic toxicology: Time-response of Eurytemora affinis to environmental concentrations of PAHs and PCB.

    PubMed

    Michalec, François-Gaël; Holzner, Markus; Souissi, Anissa; Stancheva, Stefka; Barras, Alexandre; Boukherroub, Rabah; Souissi, Sami

    2016-01-01

    The increasing interest for behavioural investigations in aquatic toxicology has heightened the need for developing tools that allow realistic exposure conditions and provide robust quantitative data. Calanoid copepods dominate the zooplankton community in marine and brackish environments. These small organisms have emerged as attractive models because of the sensitivity of their behaviour to important environmental parameters and the significance of self-induced motion in their ecology. Estuarine copepods are particularly relevant in this context because of their incessant exposure to high levels of pollution. We used lipid nanocapsules to deliver sub-lethal concentrations of PAHs (pyrene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene) and PCB 153 into the digestive track of males and females Eurytemora affinis. This novel approach enabled us to achieve both contact and trophic exposure without using phytoplankton, and to expose copepods to small hydrophobic molecules without using organic solvent. We reconstructed the motion of many copepods swimming simultaneously by means of three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry. We quantified the combined effects of contact and trophic toxicity by comparing the kinematic and diffusive properties of their motion immediately and after 3h and 24h of exposure. Despite the lack of toxicity of their excipients, both empty and loaded capsules increased swimming activity and velocity immediately after exposure. Laser microscopy imaging shows adhesion of nanocapsules on the exoskeleton of the animals, suggesting contact toxicity. The behavioural response resembles an escape reaction allowing copepods to escape stressful conditions. The contact toxicity of empty capsules and pollutants appeared to be additive and nanocapsules loaded with PCB caused the greatest effects. We observed a progressive accumulation of capsules in the digestive track of the animals after 3h and 24h of exposure, which suggests an increasing contribution of systemic

  18. Materials Applications for Non-Lethal: Aqueous Foams

    SciTech Connect

    GOOLSBY,TOMMY D.; SCOTT,STEVEN H.

    1999-09-15

    High expansion aqueous foam is an aggregation of bubbles that has the appearance of soap suds and is used to isolate individuals both visually and acoustically. It was developed in the 1920's in England to fight coal mine fires and has been widely used since for fire fighting and dust suppression. It was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the 1970's for nuclear safeguards and security applications. In the mid-1990s, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the research arm of the Department of Justice, began a project with SNL to determine the applicability of high expansion aqueous foam for correctional applications. NIJ funded the project as part of its search for new and better less-than-lethal weapons for responding to violent and dangerous individuals, where other means of force could lead to serious injuries. The phase one objectives of the project were to select a low-to-no toxicity foam concentrate (foaming agent) with physical characteristics suited for use in a single cell or large prison disturbances, and to determine if the selected foam concentrate could serve as a carrier for Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) irritant. The phase two objectives were to conduct an extensive toxicology review of the selected foam concentrate and OC irritant, and to conduct respiration simulation experiments in the selected high expansion aqueous foam. The phase three objectives were to build a prototype individual cell aqueous foam system and to study the feasibility of aqueous foams for large prison facility disturbances. The phase four and five objectives were to use the prototype system to do large scale foam physical characteristics testing of the selected foam concentrate, and to have the prototype single cell system further evaluated by correctional representatives. Prison rather than street scenarios were evaluated as the first and most likely place for using the aqueous foam since prisons have recurrent incidents where officers and inmates might be

  19. Association between 24h Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) Decline or Death in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and eGFR More than 30 ml/min/1.73m2

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Takanobu; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Katsuno, Takayuki; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Matsuo, Seiichi; Tsuboi, Naotake; Maruyama, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Data regarding the association between 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion with kidney outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus is currently scarce. Methods We conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study in which 1230 patients with diabetes who had undergone a 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion test were analyzed. Patients with incomplete urine collection were excluded based on 24h urinary creatinine excretion. Outcomes were the composite of a 30% decline in eGFR or death. Multivariate cox regression analysis was used to investigate the association between urinary sodium and potassium excretion and outcomes. Results With a mean follow up period of 5.47 years, 130 patients reached the outcomes (30% decline in eGFR: 124, death: 6). Mean (SD) eGFR and 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion at baseline were 78.6 (19.5) ml/min/1.73m2, 4.50 (1.64) g/day, and 2.14 (0.77) g/day. Compared with sodium excretion < 3.0 g/day, no significant change in risk of outcomes was observed with increased increments of 1.0 g/day. Compared with potassium excretion of < 1.5 g/day, 2.0–2.5 g/day, and 2.5–3.0 g/day were significantly associated with a lower risk of outcomes (hazard ratio [HR], 0.49 and 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28 to 0.84 and 0.22 to 0.87). Conclusions 24h urinary sodium excretion was not significantly associated with a risk of 30% decline in eGFR or death in patients with diabetes. However, an increased risk of 30% decline in eGFR or death was significantly associated with 24h urinary potassium excretion < 1.5 g/day than with 2.0–2.5 g/day and 2.5–3.0 g/day. PMID:27136292

  20. Calculation of the structural and NMR properties of the tridecameric AlO 4Al 12(OH) 24(H 2O) 127+ polycation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tossell, J. A.

    2001-09-01

    The aluminum tridecameric polyoxocation, AlO 4Al 12(OH) 24(H 2O) 127+ is a major component in partially hydrolyzed Al +3(aq) solutions and has been extensively studied experimentally, mainly using NMR techniques. I have calculated the equilbrium geometry of this cation using the Hartree-Fock method and a polarized double-zeta effective core potential basis set, obtaining bond distances which agree well with X-ray crystallographic studies of selenate and sulfate salts of the polycation (Al[4]: 4 × 1.85 Å calc, 4 × 1.84 Å exp: Al[6]: 4 × 1.85, 2 × 2.05 Å calc, 2 × 1.84, 2 × 1.88, 1.91, 2.04 Å exp [where the numbers in brackets indicate the coordination numbers]). I have also calculated electric field gradients and NMR shielding constants at all the atoms using the standard 6-31G∗ basis set and Hartree-Fock and hybrid Hartree-Fock-density functional (B3LYP) techniques. Using the Hartree-Fock method, the central four-coordinate Al is calculated to be deshielded by ˜56 ppm, and the six-coordinate Al atoms by ˜16 ppm, vs. the Al(OH 2) 6+3 reference, compared to experimental shifts of 63 and 12 ppm, respectively. The central Al[4] is thus shielded by ˜20 ppm with respect to the tetrahedral monomer Al(OH) 4-1. Al-NMR shifts obtained from the B3LYP calculations are very similar. The calculated O-NMR shifts, vs. free gas-phase H 2O, are 17 ppm for the η-OH 2 groups, 30 ppm for the μ-OH and μOH' groups, and 55 ppm for the μ 4-O group, which match well with the experimentally assigned shifts of 20, 30, and 55 ppm, respectively (vs. liquid H 2O). The B3LYP method yields O shifts, which are systematically about 40 to 50% larger. It is not clear whether the discrepancies in the calculated O shifts vs. liquid water are a result of deficiencies in the model (neglect of the aqueous environment) or in the method (lack of correlation in the Hartree-Fock method). Studies on the Al 2(OH) 2(OH 2) 8+4 cation with small numbers of explicit waters hydrogen-bonded to it

  1. Internalization and processing of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin by toxin-sensitive and -resistant cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Y; Leppla, S H; Bhatnagar, R; Friedlander, A M

    1989-07-01

    Anthrax lethal toxin consists of two separate proteins, protective antigen and lethal factor (LF). Certain macrophages and a mouse macrophage-like cell line, J774A.1, are lysed by low concentrations of lethal toxin. In contrast, another macrophage cell line, IC-21, and all other cell types tested were resistant to this toxin. To discover the basis for this difference, each step in the intoxication process was examined. No differences between sensitive and resistant cells were found in receptor binding or proteolytic activation of protective antigen, steps that are required prior to LF binding. To determine whether resistance results from a defect in translocation to the cytosol, we introduced LF into J774A.1 and IC-21 cells and a nonmacrophage cell line (L6 myoblast) by osmotic lysis of pinocytic vesicles. Only J774A.1 cells were lysed; no effect was observed in IC-21 and L6 cells. These results suggest that resistant cells either lack the intracellular target of LF or fail to process LF to an active form. The relatively low potency of LF introduced into J774A.1 cells by osmotic lysis suggests that protective antigen may also be required at a stage subsequent to endocytosis. PMID:2500434

  2. Case series of 226 γ-hydroxybutyrate-associated deaths: lethal toxicity and trauma.

    PubMed

    Zvosec, Deborah L; Smith, Stephen W; Porrata, Trinka; Strobl, A Quinn; Dyer, Jo Ellen

    2011-03-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its prodrugs are drugs of abuse that were also sold as "dietary supplements." Users present to emergency departments with overdose, impaired driving, withdrawal, and associated trauma. We compiled a series of GHB-associated deaths to elucidate lethal risks, GHB concentrations, cointoxicants, products, uses, and medical interventions. Death records were reviewed for toxicology, autopsy findings, and history. Inclusion cutoffs were as follows: 5/10 mg/L of GHB (antemortem blood/urine) and 50/20/7 mg/L of GHB (postmortem blood/urine/vitreous). Of 226 deaths included, 213 had cardiorespiratory arrest and 13 had fatal accidents. Seventy-eight deaths (35%) had no cointoxicants. Sixteen deaths involved "supplements" and 1 involved pharmaceutical GHB (Xyrem, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Palo Alto, CA). Postmortem blood GHB was 18 to 4400 mg/L (median, 347 mg/L) in deaths negative for cointoxicants. Cardiorespiratory arrest occurred prehospital in 100% of 184 cases with available history. Of 72 cases with antemortem adverse effects reported, medical assistance was delayed or absent in 66; of these, acute GHB ingestion was known in 51, including 40 left to "sleep off" adverse effects. Thirty others were left "sleeping" and found dead. γ-Hydroxybutyrate is lethal even without cointoxicants, directly and through fatal accidents. Medical interventions were frequently delayed or absent despite known GHB ingestion, and witnessed adverse events and cardiorespiratory arrest occurred prehospital. Education is needed about the lethality of GHB and the necessity for prompt medical intervention. PMID:20825811

  3. Lethal protein produced in response to competition between sibling bacterial colonies

    PubMed Central

    Be’er, Avraham; Ariel, Gil; Kalisman, Oren; Helman, Yael; Sirota-Madi, Alexandra; Zhang, H.P.; Florin, E.-L.; Payne, Shelley M.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Swinney, Harry L.

    2010-01-01

    Sibling Paenibacillus dendritiformis bacterial colonies grown on low-nutrient agar medium mutually inhibit growth through secretion of a lethal factor. Analysis of secretions reveals the presence of subtilisin (a protease) and a 12 kDa protein, termed sibling lethal factor (Slf). Purified subtilisin promotes the growth and expansion of P. dendritiformis colonies, whereas Slf is lethal and lyses P. dendritiformis cells in culture. Slf is encoded by a gene belonging to a large family of bacterial genes of unknown function, and the gene is predicted to encode a protein of approximately 20 kDa, termed dendritiformis sibling bacteriocin. The 20 kDa recombinant protein was produced and found to be inactive, but exposure to subtilisin resulted in cleavage to the active, 12 kDa form. The experimental results, combined with mathematical modeling, show that subtilisin serves to regulate growth of the colony. Below a threshold concentration, subtilisin promotes colony growth and expansion. However, once it exceeds a threshold, as occurs at the interface between competing colonies, Slf is then secreted into the medium to rapidly reduce cell density by lysis of the bacterial cells. The presence of genes encoding homologs of dendritiformis sibling bacteriocin in other bacterial species suggests that this mechanism for self-regulation of colony growth might not be limited to P. dendritiformis. PMID:20308591

  4. Extinction of hepatitis C virus by ribavirin in hepatoma cells involves lethal mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Prieto, Ana M; Sheldon, Julie; Grande-Pérez, Ana; Tejero, Héctor; Gregori, Josep; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan I; Domingo, Esteban; Perales, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Lethal mutagenesis, or virus extinction produced by enhanced mutation rates, is under investigation as an antiviral strategy that aims at counteracting the adaptive capacity of viral quasispecies, and avoiding selection of antiviral-escape mutants. To explore lethal mutagenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV), it is important to establish whether ribavirin, the purine nucleoside analogue used in anti-HCV therapy, acts as a mutagenic agent during virus replication in cell culture. Here we report the effect of ribavirin during serial passages of HCV in human hepatoma Huh-7.5 cells, regarding viral progeny production and complexity of mutant spectra. Ribavirin produced an increase of mutant spectrum complexity and of the transition types associated with ribavirin mutagenesis, resulting in HCV extinction. Ribavirin-mediated depletion of intracellular GTP was not the major contributory factor to mutagenesis since mycophenolic acid evoked a similar decrease in GTP without an increase in mutant spectrum complexity. The intracellular concentration of the other nucleoside-triphosphates was elevated as a result of ribavirin treatment. Mycophenolic acid extinguished HCV without an intervening mutagenic activity. Ribavirin-mediated, but not mycophenolic acid-mediated, extinction of HCV occurred via a decrease of specific infectivity, a feature typical of lethal mutagenesis. We discuss some possibilities to explain disparate results on ribavirin mutagenesis of HCV. PMID:23976977

  5. 76 FR 6054 - Use of Less-Than-Lethal Force: Delegation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... proposed on June 25, 2008 (73 FR 39584), regarding the use of ] chemical agents and other less-than-lethal... of Prisons 28 CFR Part 552 RIN 1120-AB46 Use of Less-Than-Lethal Force: Delegation AGENCY: Bureau of... its proposed regulation on the use of chemical agents and other non-lethal (less-than-lethal) force...

  6. Linear relationship between lethal mutation yield and intake of ethyl methanesulfonate in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Ayaki, T.; Oshima, K.; Yoshikawa, I.

    1985-01-01

    Males of Drosophila melanogaster were fed sucrose solutions containing various concentrations of EMS (from 0.25 to 10mM) for 24 hr. To measure the intake of an EMS solution, /sup 3/H-labeled sucrose was added to the feeding solution, and the /sup 3/H activity inside the flies was used as a measure for the intake volume of EMS solution. The relationship between the estimated absorbed dose and the exposure concentration was almost linear in a low concentration range but became concave with a downward curvature in a high concentration range. The dose-response relationship between the frequency of sex-linked recessive lethals and the estimated absorbed dose showed no deviation from linearity at all the five absorbed doses tested. It may be concluded that the absorbed doses thus estimated were very close to true absorbed doses, indicating the usefulness of the present method for dosimetry of chemicals to be given to files.

  7. (1)H NMR-based metabolomics of Daphnia magna responses after sub-lethal exposure to triclosan, carbamazepine and ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Vera; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2016-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are a class of emerging contaminants that are present in wastewater effluents, surface water, and groundwater around the world. There is a need to determine rapid and reliable bioindicators of exposure and the toxic mode of action of these contaminants to aquatic organisms. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics in combination with multivariate statistical analysis was used to determine the metabolic profile of Daphnia magna after exposure to a range of sub-lethal concentrations of triclosan (6.25-100μg/L), carbamazepine (1.75-14mg/L) and ibuprofen (1.75-14mg/L) for 48h. Sub-lethal triclosan exposure suggested a general oxidative stress condition and the branched-chain amino acids, glutamine, glutamate, and methionine emerged as potential bioindicators. The aromatic amino acids, serine, glycine and alanine are potential bioindicators for sub-lethal carbamazepine exposure that may have altered energy metabolism. The potential bioindicators for sub-lethal ibuprofen exposure are serine, methionine, lysine, arginine and leucine, which showed a concentration-dependent response. The differences in the metabolic changes were related to the dissimilar modes of toxicity of triclosan, carbamazepine and ibuprofen. (1)H NMR-based metabolomics gave an improved understanding of how these emerging contaminants impact the keystone species D. magna. PMID:26809854

  8. Near interface traps in SiO2/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors monitored by temperature dependent gate current transient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorenza, Patrick; La Magna, Antonino; Vivona, Marilena; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    This letter reports on the impact of gate oxide trapping states on the conduction mechanisms in SiO2/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). The phenomena were studied by gate current transient measurements, performed on n-channel MOSFETs operated in "gate-controlled-diode" configuration. The measurements revealed an anomalous non-steady conduction under negative bias (VG > |20 V|) through the SiO2/4H-SiC interface. The phenomenon was explained by the coexistence of a electron variable range hopping and a hole Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunnelling. A semi-empirical modified FN model with a time-depended electric field is used to estimate the near interface traps in the gate oxide (Ntrap ˜ 2 × 1011 cm-2).

  9. Investigating the control of Listeria monocytogenes on alternatively-cured frankfurters using natural antimicrobial ingredients or post-lethality interventions.

    PubMed

    Lavieri, Nicolas A; Sebranek, Joseph G; Brehm-Stecher, Byron F; Cordray, Joseph C; Dickson, James S; Horsch, Ashley M; Jung, Stephanie; Larson, Elaine M; Manu, David K; Mendonca, Aubrey F

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate natural antimicrobials including cranberry powder, dried vinegar and lemon juice/vinegar concentrate, and post-lethality interventions (lauric arginate, octanoic acid, thermal treatment and high hydrostatic pressure) for the control of Listeria monocytogenes on alternatively-cured frankfurters. Lauric arginate, octanoic acid, and high hydrostatic pressure (400 MPa) reduced L. monocytogenes populations by 2.28, 2.03, and 1.88 log 10 CFU per g compared to the control. L. monocytogenes grew in all post-lethality intervention treatments, except after a 600 MPa high hydrostatic pressure treatment for 4 min. Cranberry powder did not inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes, while a dried vinegar and a vinegar/lemon juice concentrate did. This study demonstrated the bactericidal properties of high hydrostatic pressure, octanoic acid and lauric arginate, and the bacteriostatic potential of natural antimicrobial ingredients such as dried vinegar and vinegar/lemon juice concentrate against L. monocytogenes. PMID:24769878

  10. Sub-lethal Effects of Chlorpyrifos on Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    PubMed

    Eidels, Ronny R; Sparks, Daniel W; Whitaker, John O; Sprague, Charles A

    2016-10-01

    We determined dose-response curves for sublethal effects of the organophosphorus (OP) insecticide, chlorpyrifos, on bats. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus, n = 64) were given a single dose of chlorpyrifos (nominal concentrations) of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, or 60 µg/g body weight and examined at 12 or 24 h after dosing. A second experiment dosed 32 bats with 0 or 60 µg/g body weight and examined 1, 3, 7, or 14 days after dosing. Skin temperature and behavioral changes were recorded, and brain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity were measured. The benchmark dose (BMD10) of chlorpyrifos that altered brain and plasma ChE activity at 24 h was 3.7 and 10.1 µg/g, respectively. The 95 % lower confidence limit for the BMD10 (i.e., BMDL10) was 1.6 and 7.7 µg/g. The best of five models (as determined by AIC) for impaired flight, impaired movement, or presence of tremors provided a BMD10 of 6.2, 12.9, and 7.8 µg/g body weight of chlorpyrifos, respectively. BMDL10 for impaired flight, impaired movement, or presence of tremors was 3.5, 6.6, and 5.3 µg/g body weight, respectively. In the wild, impaired ability to fly or crawl could be life-threatening. Brain and plasma ChE activity remained low for 3 days after dosing. Gradual recovery of enzyme activity was observed by 7 days in survivors. Brain and plasma ChE activity were still significantly lower than that of the control group at 14 days after dosing. PMID:27491870

  11. The Rorschach Suicide Constellation: assessing various degrees of lethality.

    PubMed

    Fowler, J C; Piers, C; Hilsenroth, M J; Holdwick, D J; Padawer, J R

    2001-04-01

    In this article we examine the relation between the Rorschach Comprehensive System's Suicide Constellation (S-CON; Exner, 1993; Exner & Wiley, 1977) and lethality of suicide attempts during the course of patients' hospitalization at the Austen Riggs Center (Stockbridge, MA). Patient records were rated as nonsuicidal (n = 37), parasuicidal (n = 37), or near-lethal (n = 30) based on the presence and lethality of self-destructive acts. Diagnostic efficiency statistics utilizing a cutoff score of 7 or more positive indicators successfully predicted which patients would engage in near-lethal suicidal activity relative to parasuicidal patients (overall correct classification rate [OCC] = .79), nonsuicidal inpatients (OCC = .79), and college students (OCC = .89). Although these predictions were influenced by relatively high base rates in the hospital population (14.5%), base rate estimates were calculated for other hypothetical populations revealing different prediction estimates that should be considered when judging the relative efficacy of the S-CON. Logistic regression analysis revealed that an S-CON score of 7 or more was the sole predictor of near-lethal suicide attempts among 9 psychiatric and demographic variables. PMID:11393464

  12. Brief exposures of human body lice to sub-lethal amounts of ivermectin over transcribes detoxification genes involved in tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, K. S.; Strycharz, J. P.; Baek, J. H.; Sun, W.; Kim, J.H.; Kang, J.S.; Pittendrigh, B. R.; Lee, S. H.; Clark, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling results, using our non-invasive induction assay [short exposure intervals (2–5 h) to sub-lethal amounts of insecticides (24 h) administered by stress reducing means (contact vs. immersion screen) and with induction assessed in a time frame when tolerance is still present (~LC90 in 2–4 h)], show that ivermectin-induced detoxification genes from body lice are identified by quantitative real-time PCR analyses. Of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and ATP binding cassette transporter genes induced by ivermectin, CYP6CJ1, CYP9AG1, CYP9AG2 and PhABCC4 were respectively most significantly over-expressed, had high basal expression levels and were most closely related to genes from other organisms that metabolized insecticides, including ivermectin. Injection of dsRNAs against either CYP9AG2 or PhABCC4 into non-induced female lice reduced their respective transcript level and resulted in increase sensitivity to ivermectin, indicating that these two genes are involved in the xenobiotic metabolism of ivermectin and in the production of tolerance. PMID:21895817

  13. Curcumin and β-caryophellene attenuate cadmium quantum dots induced oxidative stress and lethality in Caenorhabditis elegans model system.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Swati; Pant, Aakanksha; Trivedi, Shalini; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-03-01

    Curcumin (CUR) and β-caryophellene (BCP) are well known bioactive phytomolecules which are known to reduce oxidative stress in living organisms. Therefore, the present study was envisaged to explore the possible effects of CUR and BCP in suppression of cadmium quantum dots (CdTe QDs) induced toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans. CdTe QD are luminescent nanoparticles extensively exploited for in vivo imaging, but long term bioaccumulation confer deleterious effects on living organisms. The 24-h LC50 and LC100 of CdTe QD were found to be 18.40μg/ml and 100μg/ml respectively. The CdTe QD exposure elevated HSP-16.2 expression mediating induction of the stress response. The CdTe QD lethality was due to increment in ROS and decline in SOD and GST expression. The present study demonstrates improved survival in BCP (50μM) and CUR (20μM) treated worms by over 60% (P<0.01) and 50% (P<0.029) in CdTe QD (100μg/ml) exposed worms. Furthermore, BCP and CUR attenuate oxidative stress triggered by QD. The present study for the first time demonstrates CdTe QD toxicity remediation via BCP and CUR. The future investigations can unravel underlying protective effects of phytomolceules for remediating cyotoxicolgical effects of QDs. PMID:26773363

  14. Concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of copper ions on mouse fibroblasts in vitro: effects of copper ion release from TCu380A vs TCu220C intra-uterine devices.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bianmei; Zheng, Yudong; Xi, Tingfei; Zhang, Chuanchuan; Song, Wenhui; Burugapalli, Krishna; Yang, Huai; Ma, Yanxuan

    2012-08-01

    extractions. The effects of TCuIUD extracts on viability, morphology, apoptosis and cell cycle assay on L929 mouse fibroblasts cells, were appropriate for their respective Cu ion concentrations. Thus, a concentration of about 46 μg/ml (~29 μM) was identified as the LD50 dose for L929 mouse fibroblasts when exposed for 24 h based on our MTT cell viability assay. The burst release of lethal concentration of Cu ions from TCu380A, especially at the implant site, is a cause of concern, and it is advisable to use TCuIUD designs that release Cu ions within cytotoxic limits yet therapeutic, similar to TCu220C. PMID:22526680

  15. Using photopigment biomarkers to quantify sub-lethal effects of petroleum pollution on natural phytoplankton assemblages

    SciTech Connect

    Swistak, J.; Pinckney, J.; Piehler, M.; Paerl, H.

    1995-12-31

    Although much work has been undertaken to determine the toxicity of petroleum pollutants to phytoplankton, most studies have used pure cultures to monitor growth of selected phytoplankton species. Fewer have considered the net effect on entire microalgal communities. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize diagnostic microalgal pigments, the authors were able to simultaneously assess sub-lethal pollutant effects on entire communities as well as on individual phytoplankton functional groups. Incubations of natural water samples with diesel fuel, an important contributor to coastal petroleum pollution, revealed significant changes in photopigments and relative abundance of taxonomic groups at sub-lethal concentrations. Differential rates of change of indicator pigment concentrations suggest a range of sensitivity among phytoplankton groups. In preliminary experiments, cyanobacteria exhibited the greatest overall tolerance to the diesel fuel concentrations tested, while cryptomonads displayed the most sensitivity. The authors are currently evaluating the responses of seasonal phytoplankton populations from 3 sites exposed to varied levels of petroleum pollution. HPLC will be used to characterize phytoplankton populations and to determine if the most abundant groups are also the most tolerant of diesel fuel. Preliminary experiments indicate that diesel fuel pollution may modify the structure and function of phytoplankton communities and subsequently alter the trophodynamics of impacted systems.

  16. Lethal effects of short-wavelength visible light on insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Masatoshi; Shibuya, Kazuki; Sato, Mitsunari; Saito, Yoshino

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the lethal effects of visible light on insects by using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The toxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, particularly shortwave (i.e., UVB and UVC) light, on organisms are well known. However, the effects of irradiation with visible light remain unclear, although shorter wavelengths are known to be more lethal. Irradiation with visible light is not thought to cause mortality in complex animals including insects. Here, however, we found that irradiation with short-wavelength visible (blue) light killed eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of Drosophila melanogaster. Blue light was also lethal to mosquitoes and flour beetles, but the effective wavelength at which mortality occurred differed among the insect species. Our findings suggest that highly toxic wavelengths of visible light are species-specific in insects, and that shorter wavelengths are not always more toxic. For some animals, such as insects, blue light is more harmful than UV light.

  17. Cyclopeptide toxins of lethal amanitas: Compositions, distribution and phylogenetic implication.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shanshan; Zhou, Qian; He, Zhengmi; Luo, Tao; Zhang, Ping; Cai, Qing; Yang, Zhuliang; Chen, Jia; Chen, Zuohong

    2016-09-15

    Lethal amanitas (Amanita sect. Phalloideae) are responsible for 90% of all fatal mushroom poisonings. Since 2000, more than ten new lethal Amanita species have been discovered and some of them had caused severe mushroom poisonings in China. However, the contents and distribution of cyclopeptides in these lethal mushrooms remain poorly known. In this study, the diversity of major cyclopeptide toxins in seven Amanita species from Eastern Asia and three species from Europe and North America were systematically analyzed, and a new approach to inferring phylogenetic relationships using cyclopeptide profile was evaluated for the first time. The results showed that there were diversities of the cyclopeptides among lethal Amanita species, and cyclopeptides from Amanita rimosa and Amanita fuligineoides were reported for the first time. The amounts of amatoxins in East Asian Amanita species were significantly higher than those in European and North American species. The analysis of distribution of amatoxins and phallotoxins in various Amanita species demonstrated that the content of phallotoxins was higher than that of amatoxins in Amanita phalloides and Amanita virosa. In contrast, the content of phallotoxins was significantly lower than that of amatoxins in all East Asian lethal Amanita species tested. However, the distribution of amatoxins and phallotoxins in different tissues showed the same tendency. Eight cyclopeptides and three unknown compounds were identified using cyclopeptide standards and high-resolution MS. Based on the cyclopeptide profiles, phylogenetic relationships of lethal amanitas were inferred through a dendrogram generated by UPGMA method. The results showed high similarity to the phylogeny established previously based on the multi-locus DNA sequences. PMID:27476461

  18. Resistance of Trichomonas vaginalis to Metronidazole: Report of the First Three Cases from Finland and Optimization of In Vitro Susceptibility Testing under Various Oxygen Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Meri, Taru; Jokiranta, T. Sakari; Suhonen, Lauri; Meri, Seppo

    2000-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a globally common sexually transmitted human parasite. Many strains of T. vaginalis from around the world have been described to be resistant to the current drug of choice, metronidazole. However, only a few cases of metronidazole resistance have been reported from Europe. The resistant strains cause prolonged infections which are difficult to treat. T. vaginalis infection also increases the risk for human immunodeficiency virus transmission. We present a practical method for determining the resistance of T. vaginalis to 5-nitroimidazoles. The suggested method was developed by determining the MICs and minimal lethal concentrations (MLCs) of metronidazole and ornidazole for T. vaginalis under various aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Using this assay we have found the first three metronidazole-resistant strains from Finland, although the origin of at least one of the strains seems to be Russia. Analysis of the patient-derived and previously characterized isolates showed that metronidazole-resistant strains were also resistant to ornidazole, and MLCs for all strains tested correlated well with the MICs. The suggested MICs of metronidazole for differentiation of sensitive and resistant isolates are >75 μg/ml in an aerobic 24-h assay and >15 μg/ml in an anaerobic 48-h assay. PMID:10655382

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of lethal osteogenesis imperfecta in twin pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Morin, L R; Herlicoviez, M; Loisel, J C; Jacob, B; Feuilly, C; Stanescu, V

    1991-06-01

    Lethal osteogenesis imperfecta was diagnosed at 27 weeks amenorrea in one fetus of a bichorial twin pregnancy. Sonographic findings included: short-limb dwarfism, hypotrophy and hypoechoic bones. The affected fetus was so translucent that only the normal fetus could be seen on plain in utero radiography. The affected fetus died immediately after birth. Postmortem radiography and histology were typical of lethal osteogenesis imperfecta of type IIA. Aids to the etiological diagnosis of in utero dwarfism are presented. Sonographic features correlated with neonatal death are described. PMID:1863995

  20. Approaches to identifying synthetic lethal interactions in cancer.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jordan M; Nguyen, Quy H; Singh, Manpreet; Razorenova, Olga V

    2015-06-01

    Targeting synthetic lethal interactions is a promising new therapeutic approach to exploit specific changes that occur within cancer cells. Multiple approaches to investigate these interactions have been developed and successfully implemented, including chemical, siRNA, shRNA, and CRISPR library screens. Genome-wide computational approaches, such as DAISY, also have been successful in predicting synthetic lethal interactions from both cancer cell lines and patient samples. Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages that need to be considered depending on the cancer type and its molecular alterations. This review discusses these approaches and examines case studies that highlight their use. PMID:26029013

  1. Advantages of less-tech, less-than-lethal technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marts, Donna J.; Overlin, Trudy K.

    1995-05-01

    This paper illustrates the advantages of developing less-tech technologies by reporting on two less-tech, less-than-lethal prototype law enforcement tools developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The devices were developed for the National Institute of Justice, less- than-lethal weapons program: 1) an air bag restraint device for use in restraining suspects who become violent during transport in patrol vehicles, and 2) a retractable spiked barrier strip for stopping fleeing vehicles during high-speed pursuit. The success of both projects relied on developing design requirements in conjunction with the actual users of the devices.

  2. Approaches to Identifying Synthetic Lethal Interactions in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jordan M.; Nguyen, Quy H.; Singh, Manpreet; Razorenova, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    Targeting synthetic lethal interactions is a promising new therapeutic approach to exploit specific changes that occur within cancer cells. Multiple approaches to investigate these interactions have been developed and successfully implemented, including chemical, siRNA, shRNA, and CRISPR library screens. Genome-wide computational approaches, such as DAISY, also have been successful in predicting synthetic lethal interactions from both cancer cell lines and patient samples. Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages that need to be considered depending on the cancer type and its molecular alterations. This review discusses these approaches and examines case studies that highlight their use. PMID:26029013

  3. The Lethal "Femme Fatale" in the Noir Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boozer, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Traces the lethal seductress through Hollywood's "noir" history from "Double Indemnity" (1944) to "The Last Seduction" (1996). Examines how this figure largely abjures traditional romance and passive domesticity, choosing instead to apply her sexuality to homicidal plots toward greed. Argues that her narrative positioning serves as a barometer of…

  4. Lethal head entrapment--a problem characteristic of early childhood.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Charlwood, Cheryl

    2009-08-01

    Accidental deaths in infancy and early childhood often result from young childrens' lack of understanding of the dangers of certain situations and their physical inability to extricate themselves from potentially lethal circumstances. Two cases are reported to demonstrate an age-related susceptibility in the young to lethal head entrapment. Case 1: a 5-month-old girl smothered when she slipped down in her stroller, trapping her head beneath the frame and forcing her face into the soft material of the base. Case 2: a 14-month-old boy was hanged while exploring a filing cabinet when his head became caught between two lower drawers. Additional mental and physical characteristics that predispose young children and infants to lethal head entrapment include an inability to effectively problem solve once confronted with a hazardous situation, and relatively large heads and weak neck musculature. Because of these features lethal head entrapment represents a particular circumstance that may predispose to accidental asphyxial deaths in the very young. A combination of careful death scene and autopsy evaluations will be required to confirm the alleged circumstances of death in these cases, including mortuary re-enactments and assessment of the deceased infant's level of physical maturity and mobility. PMID:19573845

  5. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed.

  6. The Prevalence, Lethality and Intent of Suicide Attempts among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Judy A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    Although suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in the United States, little is known about the prevalence or characteristics of suicide attempts among adolescents. Data from 1,710 adolescents attending 9 high schools in 5 communities were examined to determine the prevalence of suicide attempts and the lethality and intent…

  7. The "Lethal Chamber": Further Evidence of the Euthanasia Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elks, Martin A.

    1993-01-01

    Historical discussions of the euthanasia or "lethal chamber" option in relation to people with mental retardation are presented. The paper concludes that eugenic beliefs in the primacy of heredity over environment and the positive role of natural selection may have condoned the poor conditions characteristic of large, segregated institutions and…

  8. Subcutaneous wounding postirradiation reduces radiation lethality in mice.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Joy; Orschell, Christie M; Mendonca, Marc S; Bigsby, Robert M; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2014-06-01

    The detonation of an improvised nuclear device during a radiological terrorist attack could result in the exposure of thousands of civilians and first responders to lethal or potentially lethal doses of ionizing radiation (IR). There is a major effort in the United States to develop phamacological mitigators of radiation lethality that would be effective particularly if administered after irradiation. We show here that giving female C57BL/6 mice a subcutaneous surgical incision after whole body exposure to an LD50/30 X-ray dose protects against radiation lethality and increases survival from 50% to over 90% (P = 0.0001). The increase in survival, at least in part, appears to be due to enhanced recovery of hematopoiesis, notably red blood cells, neutrophils and platelets. While a definitive mechanism has yet to be elucidated, we propose that this approach may be used to identify potentially novel mechanisms and pathways that could aid in the development of novel pharmacological radiation countermeasures. PMID:24811864

  9. Small Molecule Inhibitors of Anthrax Lethal Factor Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John D.; Khan, Atiyya R.; Cardinale, Steven C.; Butler, Michelle M.; Bowlin, Terry L.; Peet, Norton P.

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript describes the preparation of new small molecule inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis lethal factor. Our starting point was the symmetrical, bis-quinolinyl compound 1 (NSC 12155). Optimization of one half of this molecule led to new LF inhibitors that were desymmetrized to afford more drug-like compounds. PMID:24290062

  10. An overview of the future of non-lethal weapons.

    PubMed

    Alexander, J B

    2001-01-01

    During the past decade, vast changes have occurred in the geopolitical landscape and the nature of the types of conflicts in which technologically developed countries have been involved. While the threat of conventional war remains, forces have been more frequently deployed in situations that require great restraint. Adversaries are often likely to be elusive and commingled with noncombatants. There has been some shift in public opinion away from tolerance of collateral casualties. Therefore there is a need to be able to apply force while limiting casualties. Non-lethal weapons provide part of the solution. Among the changes that will influence the future have been studies by the US and NATO concerning the use of non-lethal weapons, coincidental with increased funding for their development and testing. New concepts and policies have recently been formalized. Surprisingly, the most strident objections to the implementation of non-lethal weapons have come from organizations that are ostensibly designed to protect non-combatants. These arguments are specious and, while technically and academically challenging, actually serve to foster an environment that will result in the deaths of many more innocent civilians. They misconstrue technology with human intent. The reasons for use of force will not abate. Alternatives to bombs, missiles, tanks and artillery must therefore be found. Non-lethal weapons are not a panacea but do offer the best hope of minimizing casualties while allowing nations or alliances the means to use force in protection of national or regional interests. PMID:11578037

  11. Conditional lethality strains for the biological control of Anastrepha species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pro-apoptotic cell death genes are promising candidates for biologically-based autocidal control of pest insects as demonstrated by tetracycline (tet)-suppressible systems for conditional embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Cc). However, for medfly...

  12. Moving ahead on harnessing synthetic lethality to fight cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jerby-Arnon, Livnat; Ruppin, Eytan

    2015-01-01

    We have recently developed a data-mining pipeline that comprehensively identifies cancer unique susceptibilities, following the concept of Synthetic Lethality (SL). The approach enables, for the first time, to identify and harness genome-scale SL-networks to accurately predict gene essentiality, drug response, and clinical prognosis in cancer. PMID:27308440

  13. Surface binding of contaminants by algae: Consequences for lethal toxicity and feeding to Daphnia magna straus

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G. |; Baird, D.J.; Soares, A.M.V.M.

    1998-03-01

    Freshwater algae, as with all suspended particulate matter in the water column, exhibit a net negative charge resulting in an affinity for positively charged species, such as toxic metal cations, which will readily adsorb to algal cell surfaces. In this study, the adsorption of a representative toxic metal cadmium cation (Cd{sup 2+}) to a freshwater algal species, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated using environmentally realistic concentrations of both. A further study of the effects of this particulate adsorption of Cd{sup 2+} on lethal toxicity and feeding in Daphnia magna was conducted. Two apparently contrasting effects were observed. For the D. magna feeding study, cell ingestion was inhibited, leading to reduced growth and reproduction. Experiments comparing the effect of algal-bound cadmium and dissolved forms of cadmium demonstrate that this inhibition is almost entirely due to the surface-bound fraction of ions. However, at concentrations of dissolved cadmium that are lethal to Daphnia, algal cells were found to reduce toxicity. Such findings indicate the importance of food ration in laboratory-based toxicity tests as well as the difficulty in predicting the environmental fate and effect of contaminants using such tests.

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa UV-A-induced lethal effect: influence of salts, nutritional stress and pyocyanine.

    PubMed

    Fernández, R O; Pizarro, R A

    1999-05-01

    The presence of NaCl in plating media shows an important protection against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa UV-A-induced lethal effect, contrasting with the known sensitizing action of salts on UV-A-irradiated Escherichia coli cells. MgSO4 exhibits a similar protection, but lower concentrations than for NaCl are needed to achieve the same effect. NaCl protection from lethal effects involves an osmotic mechanism, while MgSO4 could act by a different process. On the other hand, when cells grown in a complete medium are then incubated for 20 min in a synthetic medium and irradiated with UV-A, a very marked protection is obtained. This protection is dependent on protein synthesis, since treatment with tetracycline, during the nutritional stress, blocks its induction. These results offer a new example of cross-protection among different stressing agents. In our experimental conditions, natural phenazines of P. aeruginosa are not present in the cells, ruling out the possibility that these pigments act as photosensitizers. Conversely, pyocyanine (the major phenazine produced by this microorganism) prevents the UV-A killing effect in a concentration-dependent way when present in the irradiation media. Finally, UV-A irradiation induces, as in E. coli, the accumulation of guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate, although the physiological meaning of this finding has yet to be determined. PMID:10443032

  15. Annotating novel genes by integrating synthetic lethals and genomic information

    PubMed Central

    Schöner, Daniel; Kalisch, Markus; Leisner, Christian; Meier, Lukas; Sohrmann, Marc; Faty, Mahamadou; Barral, Yves; Peter, Matthias; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bühlmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Large scale screening for synthetic lethality serves as a common tool in yeast genetics to systematically search for genes that play a role in specific biological processes. Often the amounts of data resulting from a single large scale screen far exceed the capacities of experimental characterization of every identified target. Thus, there is need for computational tools that select promising candidate genes in order to reduce the number of follow-up experiments to a manageable size. Results We analyze synthetic lethality data for arp1 and jnm1, two spindle migration genes, in order to identify novel members in this process. To this end, we use an unsupervised statistical method that integrates additional information from biological data sources, such as gene expression, phenotypic profiling, RNA degradation and sequence similarity. Different from existing methods that require large amounts of synthetic lethal data, our method merely relies on synthetic lethality information from two single screens. Using a Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Model, we determine the best subset of features that assign the target genes to two groups. The approach identifies a small group of genes as candidates involved in spindle migration. Experimental testing confirms the majority of our candidates and we present she1 (YBL031W) as a novel gene involved in spindle migration. We applied the statistical methodology also to TOR2 signaling as another example. Conclusion We demonstrate the general use of Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Modeling for selecting candidate genes for experimental characterization from synthetic lethality data sets. For the given example, integration of different data sources contributes to the identification of genetic interaction partners of arp1 and jnm1 that play a role in the same biological process. PMID:18194531

  16. A Multivariate Model of Stakeholder Preference for Lethal Cat Management

    PubMed Central

    Wald, Dara M.; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying stakeholder beliefs and attitudes is critical for resolving management conflicts. Debate over outdoor cat management is often described as a conflict between two groups, environmental advocates and animal welfare advocates, but little is known about the variables predicting differences among these critical stakeholder groups. We administered a mail survey to randomly selected stakeholders representing both of these groups (n = 1,596) in Florida, where contention over the management of outdoor cats has been widespread. We used a structural equation model to evaluate stakeholder intention to support non-lethal management. The cognitive hierarchy model predicted that values influenced beliefs, which predicted general and specific attitudes, which in turn, influenced behavioral intentions. We posited that specific attitudes would mediate the effect of general attitudes, beliefs, and values on management support. Model fit statistics suggested that the final model fit the data well (CFI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.062). The final model explained 74% of the variance in management support, and positive attitudes toward lethal management (humaneness) had the largest direct effect on management support. Specific attitudes toward lethal management and general attitudes toward outdoor cats mediated the relationship between positive (p<0.05) and negative cat-related impact beliefs (p<0.05) and support for management. These results supported the specificity hypothesis and the use of the cognitive hierarchy to assess stakeholder intention to support non-lethal cat management. Our findings suggest that stakeholders can simultaneously perceive both positive and negative beliefs about outdoor cats, which influence attitudes toward and support for non-lethal management. PMID:24736744

  17. Investigation into the potential of sub-lethal photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) to reduce susceptibility of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, C. M.; Donnelly, R. F.; Tunney, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    In PACT, a combination of a sensitising drug and visible light cause the selective destruction of microbial cells via singlet oxygen production. As singlet oxygen is a non-specific oxidizing agent and is only present during illumination, development of resistance to this treatment is thought to be unlikely. However, in response to oxidative stress, bacteria can up-regulate oxidative stress genes and associated antibiotic resistance genes. The up-regulation of these genes and potential transfer of genetic material may result in a resistant bacterial population. This study determined whether treatment of clinically isolated meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with sub-lethal doses of methylene blue (MB) and meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetra tosylate (TMP)-PACT resulted in reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and previously lethal PACT. Exposure of strains to sub-lethal doses of photosensitizer in combination with light had no effect on susceptibility to previously lethal photosensitization. Furthermore, exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of both photosensitizers caused no significant changes in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each strain tested. Any differences in susceptibility were not significant as they did not cross breakpoints between resistant and susceptible for any organism or antibiotic tested. Therefore, PACT remains an attractive alternative option for treatment of MRSA infections.

  18. Nqrs Data for C24H48I12O42S12Tl12 [C12H24O6·12(CH2IO3STl)] (Subst. No. 1591)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H48I12O42S12Tl12 [C12H24O6·12(CH2IO3STl)] (Subst. No. 1591)

  19. Antibodies against recombinant catalytic domain of lethal toxin of Clostridium sordellii neutralize lethal toxin toxicity in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Arya, Preetika; Ponmariappan, S; Singh, Lokendra; Prasad, G B K S

    2013-02-01

    Lethal toxin of Clostridium sordellii (MLD 150 ng/kg) is one of the most potent Clostridial toxins and is responsible for most of the diseases including sudden death syndrome in cattle, sheep and toxic shock syndrome, necrotizing faciitis, neonatal omphalitis and gangrene in humans. Lethal toxin (TcsL) is a single chain protein of about 270 kDa. In the present study, 1.6 kb DNA fragment encoding for the catalytic domain of TcsL was PCR amplified, cloned in pQE30 UA vector and expressed in E. coli SG 13009. The expression of recombinant lethal toxin protein (rTcsL) was optimized and it was purified under native conditions using a single step Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The purified recombinant protein was used for the production of polyclonal antibodies in mice and rabbit. The raised antibodies reacted specifically with the purified rTcsL and intact native lethal toxin on Western blot. The biological activity of the recombinant protein was tested in HeLa cells where it showed the cytotoxicity. Further, the polyclonal antibodies were used for in-vitro neutralization of purified rTcsL, acid precipitated C. sordellii and C. difficile native toxins in HeLa cells. Mice and rabbit anti-rTcsL sera effectively neutralized the cytotoxicity of rTcsL and C. sordellii native toxin but it did not neutralize the cytotoxicity of C. difficile toxin in HeLa cells. PMID:22894159

  20. The repair of sub-lethal damage and the stimulated repair of potentially lethal damage in Saintpaulia.

    PubMed

    Leenhouts, H P; Sijsma, M J; Litwiniszyn, M; Chadwick, K H

    1981-10-01

    The repair of sublethal and potentially lethal damage in stationary resting epidermal cells of Saintpaulia has been investigated. Fractionation experiments reveal an efficient repair of sublethal damage with a half-life of 1.9 hours. No repair of potentially lethal damage was noted when cultivation of the leaves was delayed for 24 hours after irradiation. At delay times of 2, 3 and 4 days some repair of potentially lethal damage has been found. A small pre-dose given 24 hours before a challenging dose improved the cells' chance to regenerate and the improvement has been shown to be compatible with an improved repair of potentially lethal damage induced by X-rays and fast neutrons. It hs been shown that the stimulated repair process takes 12 to 24 hours to develop, is dependent on the size of the pre-dose, has single-hit dose kinetics, and an r.b.e. of 1 for neutrons. With delayed cultivation of 2 days the stimulated repair process leads to an alteration in the shape of the regeneration (survival)-dose relationship which increases the low dose r.b.e. for neutrons from 10 to 35. PMID:6975252

  1. Francisella philomiragia Infection and Lethality in Mammalian Tissue Culture Cell Models, Galleria mellonella, and BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Propst, Crystal N.; Pylypko, Stephanie L.; Blower, Ryan J.; Ahmad, Saira; Mansoor, Mohammad; van Hoek, Monique L.

    2016-01-01

    Francisella (F.) philomiragia is a Gram-negative bacterium with a preference for brackish environments that has been implicated in causing bacterial infections in near-drowning victims. The purpose of this study was to characterize the ability of F. philomiragia to infect cultured mammalian cells, a commonly used invertebrate model, and, finally, to characterize the ability of F. philomiragia to infect BALB/c mice via the pulmonary (intranasal) route of infection. This study shows that F. philomiragia infects J774A.1 murine macrophage cells, HepG2 cells and A549 human Type II alveolar epithelial cells. However, replication rates vary depending on strain at 24 h. F. philomiragia infection after 24 h was found to be cytotoxic in human U937 macrophage-like cells and J774A.1 cells. This is in contrast to the findings that F. philomiragia was non-cytotoxic to human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, HepG2 cells and A549 cells. Differential cytotoxicity is a point for further study. Here, it was demonstrated that F. philomiragia grown in host-adapted conditions (BHI, pH 6.8) is sensitive to levofloxacin but shows increased resistance to the human cathelicidin LL-37 and murine cathelicidin mCRAMP when compared to related the Francisella species, F. tularensis subsp. novicida and F. tularensis subsp. LVS. Previous findings that LL-37 is strongly upregulated in A549 cells following F. tularensis subsp. novicida infection suggest that the level of antimicrobial peptide expression is not sufficient in cells to eradicate the intracellular bacteria. Finally, this study demonstrates that F. philomiragia is lethal in two in vivo models; Galleria mellonella via hemocoel injection, with a LD50 of 1.8 × 103, and BALB/c mice by intranasal infection, with a LD50 of 3.45 × 103. In conclusion, F. philomiragia may be a useful model organism to study the genus Francisella, particularly for those researchers with interest in studying microbial ecology or environmental strains of Francisella

  2. Francisella philomiragia Infection and Lethality in Mammalian Tissue Culture Cell Models, Galleria mellonella, and BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Propst, Crystal N; Pylypko, Stephanie L; Blower, Ryan J; Ahmad, Saira; Mansoor, Mohammad; van Hoek, Monique L

    2016-01-01

    Francisella (F.) philomiragia is a Gram-negative bacterium with a preference for brackish environments that has been implicated in causing bacterial infections in near-drowning victims. The purpose of this study was to characterize the ability of F. philomiragia to infect cultured mammalian cells, a commonly used invertebrate model, and, finally, to characterize the ability of F. philomiragia to infect BALB/c mice via the pulmonary (intranasal) route of infection. This study shows that F. philomiragia infects J774A.1 murine macrophage cells, HepG2 cells and A549 human Type II alveolar epithelial cells. However, replication rates vary depending on strain at 24 h. F. philomiragia infection after 24 h was found to be cytotoxic in human U937 macrophage-like cells and J774A.1 cells. This is in contrast to the findings that F. philomiragia was non-cytotoxic to human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, HepG2 cells and A549 cells. Differential cytotoxicity is a point for further study. Here, it was demonstrated that F. philomiragia grown in host-adapted conditions (BHI, pH 6.8) is sensitive to levofloxacin but shows increased resistance to the human cathelicidin LL-37 and murine cathelicidin mCRAMP when compared to related the Francisella species, F. tularensis subsp. novicida and F. tularensis subsp. LVS. Previous findings that LL-37 is strongly upregulated in A549 cells following F. tularensis subsp. novicida infection suggest that the level of antimicrobial peptide expression is not sufficient in cells to eradicate the intracellular bacteria. Finally, this study demonstrates that F. philomiragia is lethal in two in vivo models; Galleria mellonella via hemocoel injection, with a LD50 of 1.8 × 10(3), and BALB/c mice by intranasal infection, with a LD50 of 3.45 × 10(3). In conclusion, F. philomiragia may be a useful model organism to study the genus Francisella, particularly for those researchers with interest in studying microbial ecology or environmental strains of

  3. Strategy for enhanced transgenic strain development for embryonic conditionnal lethality in Anastrepha suspensa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here the first reproductive sterility system for the tephritid pest, Anastrepha suspensa, is presented, based on lethality primarily in embryos heterozygous for a lethal conditional transgene combination. The tetracycline-suppressible system uses the cellularization-specific A. suspensa serendipity...

  4. Concentrator Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque-Heredia, Ignacio; Luque, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * The early development of CPV * Concentrator solar cells * Optics for photovoltaic concentrators * Photovoltaic concentration modules * Tracking systems for photovoltaic concentration * High-concentration systems * Rating and performance * Cost considerations * Conclusions * References

  5. Association between 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zeng; Guo, Xiaolei; Chen, Xiaorong; Tang, Junli; Yan, Liuxia; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Jiyu; Lu, Zilong; Dong, Jing; Xu, Jianwei; Cai, Xiaoning; Liang, Hao; Ma, Jixiang

    2015-03-28

    The association of 24 h urinary Na and potassium excretion with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been studied in China. The aim of the present study was to examine this association by analysing the data from 1906 study participants living in north China. To this end, 24 h urine samples were collected. Of the 1906 participants, 471 (24·7 %) had the MetS. The mean urinary Na and K excretion was 228·7 and 40·8 mmol/d, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the odds of the MetS significantly increased across the increasing tertiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·40 and 1·54, respectively). For the components of the MetS, the odds of central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG, but not the odds of low HDL-cholesterol and elevated fasting glucose, significantly increased with the successive tertiles of urinary Na excretion. Furthermore, for every 100 mmol/d increase in urinary Na excretion, the odds of the MetS, central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG was significantly increased by 29, 63, 22 and 21 %, respectively. However, urinary K excretion was not significantly associated with the risk of the MetS. These findings suggest that high Na intake might be an important risk factor for the MetS in Chinese adults. PMID:25743698

  6. Effects of luseogliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on 24-h glucose variability assessed by continuous glucose monitoring in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, R; Osonoi, T; Kanada, S; Jinnouchi, H; Sugio, K; Omiya, H; Ubukata, M; Sakai, S; Samukawa, Y

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of luseogliflozin on 24-h glucose levels, assessed by continuous glucose monitoring, and on pharmacodynamic variables measured throughout the day. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 37 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with diet and exercise were randomized into two groups. Patients in each group first received luseogliflozin then placebo for 7 days each, or vice versa. After 7 days of treatment, the mean 24-h glucose level was significantly lower with luseogliflozin than with placebo [mean (95% confidence interval) 145.9 (134.4-157.5) mg/dl vs 168.5 (156.9-180.0) mg/dl; p < 0.001]. The proportion of time spent with glucose levels ≥70 to ≤180 mg/dl was significantly greater with luseogliflozin than with placebo [median (interquartile range) 83.2 (67.7-96.5)% vs 71.9 (46.9-83.3)%; p < 0.001] without inducing hypoglycaemia. The decrease in glucose levels was accompanied by reductions in serum insulin levels throughout the day. PMID:25930989

  7. Captopril at 50 mg as well as at 100 mg once a day reduces blood pressure for up to 24 h: a double-blind randomized crossover study in mild to moderate hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, A; Circo, A; Raciti, S; Gulizia, M; Cardillo, R; Miceli, S; Botta, G

    1988-12-01

    The extent and the duration of the antihypertensive effect of captopril, given once a day at a dose of 50 mg, compared with placebo and with the 100 mg once daily dose was studied in 30 mild or moderate uncomplicated essential hypertensives (mean +/- s.e.m. age 52.0 +/- 1.5 years), who responded (mean blood pressure decrease greater than 10%) to a single oral dose (12.5 mg) of captopril. According to a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, they were given 50 mg captopril four times a day, 100 mg captopril four times a day or matched placebo for 1 month. At the end of each treatment period blood pressure and heart rate were measured every 30 min from 3 h before to 2 h after the last dose. Although the heart rate did not change, mean blood pressure after the 50- and 100-mg doses of captopril was consistently significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) lower than after placebo. The hypotensive effect peaked at the second hour and was still significant 24 h after dosing without any significant differences between the 50- and the 100-mg doses. These findings indicate that captopril, given chronically once a day at a dose of 50 mg to mild to moderate hypertensive responders, exerts its hypotensive effect up to 24 h and that doubling the dose does not increase either the extent or the duration of its action. PMID:3071596

  8. Electrical and physical characterizations of the effects of oxynitridation and wet oxidation at the interface of SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) and (000\\bar{1})

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, Hiromu; Kitai, Hidenori; Tsujimura, Masatoshi; Kiuchi, Yuji; Nakata, Daisuke; Ono, Shuichi; Kojima, Kazutoshi; Fukuda, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kunihiro; Yamasaki, Kimiyohi; Okumura, Hajime

    2016-04-01

    The effects of oxynitridation and wet oxidation at the interface of SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) and (000\\bar{1}) were investigated using both electrical and physical characterization methods. Hall measurements and split capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements revealed that the difference in field-effect mobility between wet oxide and dry oxynitride interfaces was mainly attributed to the ratio of the mobile electron density to the total induced electron density. The surface states close to the conduction band edge causing a significant trapping of inversion carriers were also evaluated. High-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (HR-RBS) analysis and high-resolution elastic recoil detection analysis (HR-ERDA) were employed to show the nanometer-scale compositional profile of the SiC-MOS interfaces for the first time. These analyses, together with cathode luminescence (CL) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), suggested that the deviations of stoichiometry and roughness at the interface defined the effects of oxynitridation and wet oxidation at the interface of SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) and (000\\bar{1}).

  9. Lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin on the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Wagner Faria; De Meyer, Laurens; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachtin is a biorational insecticide commonly reported as selective to a range of beneficial insects. Nonetheless, only few studies have been carried out with pollinators, usually emphasizing the honeybee Apis mellifera and neglecting other important pollinator species such as the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Here, lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin were studied on B. terrestris via oral exposure in the laboratory to bring out the potential risks of the compound to this important pollinator. The compound was tested at different concentrations above and below the maximum concentration that is used in the field (32 mg L(-1)). As most important results, azadirachtin repelled bumblebee workers in a concentration-dependent manner. The median repellence concentration (RC50) was estimated as 504 mg L(-1). Microcolonies chronically exposed to azadirachtin via treated sugar water during 11 weeks in the laboratory exhibited a high mortality ranging from 32 to 100 % with a range of concentrations between 3.2 and 320 mg L(-1). Moreover, no reproduction was scored when concentrations were higher than 3.2 mg L(-1). At 3.2 mg L(-1), azadirachtin significantly inhibited the egg-laying and, consequently, the production of drones during 6 weeks. Ovarian length decreased with the increase of the azadirachtin concentration. When azadirachtin was tested under an experimental setup in the laboratory where bumblebees need to forage for food, the sublethal effects were stronger as the numbers of drones were reduced already with a concentration of 0.64 mg L(-1). Besides, a negative correlation was found between the body mass of male offspring and azadirachtin concentration. In conclusion, our results as performed in the laboratory demonstrated that azadirachtin can affect B. terrestris with a range of sublethal effects. Taking into account that sublethal effects are as important as lethal effects for the development and survival of the colonies of B. terrestris

  10. A framework for the assessment of non-lethal weapons.

    PubMed

    Rappert, Brian

    2004-01-01

    In many government, police and military circles, attention is being given to so-called 'non-lethal' weapons as means of reducing many of the negative effects directly or indirectly associated with the use of force. Despite the purported ability of the adoption of such weaponry to lessen grounds for contention and concern, past experience suggests the need for scepticism regarding the purported benefits. Rather than relying on poorly substantiated claims, comprehensive procedures are needed to ensure the appropriateness of force options. This article outlines some of the institutional structures required for 'carefully evaluating' and 'carefully controlling' non-lethal weapons, with a discussion of the perennial tensions associated with ensuring the relative 'acceptability' of the use of force. PMID:15015546

  11. Antiviral Strategies Based on Lethal Mutagenesis and Error Threshold.

    PubMed

    Perales, Celia; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The concept of error threshold derived from quasispecies theory is at the basis of lethal mutagenesis, a new antiviral strategy based on the increase of virus mutation rate above an extinction threshold. Research on this strategy is justified by several inhibitor-escape routes that viruses utilize to ensure their survival. Successive steps in the transition from an organized viral quasispecies into loss of biologically meaningful genomic sequences are dissected. The possible connections between theoretical models and experimental observations on lethal mutagenesis are reviewed. The possibility of using combination of virus-specific mutagenic nucleotide analogues and broad-spectrum, non-mutagenic inhibitors is evaluated. We emphasize the power that quasispecies theory has had to stimulate exploration of new means to combat pathogenic viruses. PMID:26294225

  12. Variability of platyspondylic lethal chondrodysplasia: another case report.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, G; Iwasawa, T; Fukuzawa, R; Hirabayashi, Y; Ito, T

    1998-07-01

    We report the radiological and histological findings of another case of platyspondylic lethal chondrodysplasia. The patient was a girl, who died of respiratory failure at 18 days of age. The radiological changes comprised moderate platyspondyly with ovoid-shaped vertebral bodies, broad and short ilia, rhizomelic shortening and mild bowing of the long bones (particularly of the humeri), relatively long short tubular bones, and retarded epiphyseal ossification and ragged metaphyses, which were most similar to those of a mild variant of this entity, the Luton type. However, the histological findings of cartilage, including hypercellularity of the reserve zone with round resting chondrocytes, relatively normal column formation of the proliferative and hypertrophic zones, and incorporation of hypertrophic cartilage with a columnar arrangement into metaphyseal bony trabeculae, resemble those of a severe variant of this entity, the Torrance type. Our observation provides an insight into the phenotypic variabilities of platyspondylic lethal chondrodysplasia. PMID:9689993

  13. Gene essentiality and synthetic lethality in haploid human cells.

    PubMed

    Blomen, Vincent A; Májek, Peter; Jae, Lucas T; Bigenzahn, Johannes W; Nieuwenhuis, Joppe; Staring, Jacqueline; Sacco, Roberto; van Diemen, Ferdy R; Olk, Nadine; Stukalov, Alexey; Marceau, Caleb; Janssen, Hans; Carette, Jan E; Bennett, Keiryn L; Colinge, Jacques; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Brummelkamp, Thijn R

    2015-11-27

    Although the genes essential for life have been identified in less complex model organisms, their elucidation in human cells has been hindered by technical barriers. We used extensive mutagenesis in haploid human cells to identify approximately 2000 genes required for optimal fitness under culture conditions. To study the principles of genetic interactions in human cells, we created a synthetic lethality network focused on the secretory pathway based exclusively on mutations. This revealed a genetic cross-talk governing Golgi homeostasis, an additional subunit of the human oligosaccharyltransferase complex, and a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase β adaptor hijacked by viruses. The synthetic lethality map parallels observations made in yeast and projects a route forward to reveal genetic networks in diverse aspects of human cell biology. PMID:26472760

  14. Lethal congenital contracture syndrome: further delineation and genetic aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Vuopala, K; Herva, R

    1994-01-01

    In a national morphology based study of lethal arthrogryposis between 1979 and 1992, 40 fetuses and infants with lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS, McKusick 253310) were found in Finland. The incidence of LCCS in Finland was 1:19,000 births. There were 20 affected males and 20 affected females in 26 families. In 16 cases the pregnancy was terminated after the prenatal diagnosis of total akinesia and fetal hydrops on ultrasound. There were 19 stillborn infants and five were born showing signs of life, but died within one hour. The segregation analyses yielded 0.45 affected by the "singles" method and 0.34 by the "sib" method. The birthplaces of the grandparents were located in the sparsely populated north east of Finland. This finding supports the existence of an autosomal recessive LCCS gene in Finland, particularly in the north eastern part. Images PMID:7966188

  15. Hydrometer test for estimation of immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum.

    PubMed

    Fleenor, W A; Stott, G H

    1980-06-01

    A practical field method for measuring immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum has been developed from the linear relationship between colostral specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Fourteen colostrums were collected within 24 h postpartum from nursed and unnursed cows and were assayed for specific gravity and major colostral constituents. Additionally, 15 colostrums were collected immediately postpartum prior to suckling and assayed for specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Regression analysis provided an equation to estimate colostral immunoglobulin concentration from the specific gravity of fresh whole colostrum. From this, a colostrometer was developed for practical field use. PMID:7400425

  16. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of chemical agents or non-lethal... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.25 Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. The Warden may authorize the use of chemical agents or non-lethal...

  17. To Laugh in the Face of Death: The Games That Lethal People Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, James A.; Powell, F. C.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 399 individuals completed a lethal behaviors scale and a measure of death anxiety, which were found to have no significant correlation. Predictors of lethalness included doing dangerous things for the fun of it and having ever driven a motorcycle. The most lethal individuals were young, male, and less educated. (Author/ABL)

  18. ACUTE LETHAL CONCENTRATIONS OF CAFFEINE ON NON-TARGET FRESHWATER ORGANISMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the recent detection of caffeine in US streams, studies investigating caffeine's toxic effects on non-target freshwater organisms lack acute data for several standard surrogate species and chronic data for any freshwater species. The present study describes the mortality rate at different c...

  19. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita. A cause of lethal neonatal dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, R I; Wood, B P

    1980-07-01

    Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita is a form of primary short dwarfism, that is manifest at birth generally has not been regarded as a cause of lethal neonatal dwarfism. Seven neonates with severe dwarfism are presented. The first survived the newborn period, but the other six were early neonatal deaths. All displayed the clinical and radiologic features of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita. The striking similarities between spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita and achondrogenesis type 2 are discussed. PMID:6773018

  20. [Lethal achondrogenesis: a review of 56 cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schulte, M J; Lenz, W; Vogel, M

    1978-07-01

    54 cases with lethal achondrogenesis from the literature as well as two own cases are reviewed and analyzed with regard to the following characteristics: sex, hydramnios, breech presentation, duration of pregnancy, length and weight at birth, head circumference, length of upper and lower extremities, clinical and radiological data, age of mother and father at time of birth, familial occurrence and consanguinity of parents, histological, histochemical and electronmicroscopic tissue examination. PMID:353375

  1. Rabbit Model for Superantigen-Mediated Lethal Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Kristi L; Rotschafer, Jessica H; Schlievert, Patrick M

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a highly significant cause of serious human infections in the USA. Many of these illnesses are mediated by interactions between the host immune system and staphylococcal superantigens (SAgs). Several of these severe staphylococcal infections are initiated in the lungs, making this an important site to study. Here, we describe the rabbit model for investigating the role of staphylococcal SAgs in pulmonary-associated lethal infection and intoxication. PMID:26676039

  2. Meckel-Gruber syndrome: A rare and lethal anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Kheir, Abdelmoneim E. M.; Imam, Abdelmutalab; Omer, Ilham M.; Hassan, Ibtsama M.A.; Elamin, Sara A.; Awadalla, Esra A.; Gadalla, Mohammed H.; Hamdoon, Tagwa A.

    2012-01-01

    Meckel-Gruber syndrome is a rare and lethal autosomal recessive disorder characterized by occipital encephalocele, postaxial polydactyly and bilateral dysplastic cystic kidneys. It can be associated with many other conditions. Antenatal ultrasound examination establishes the diagnosis by identifying at least two of the major features described. We describe a female baby who had the typical triad of Meckel-Gruber syndrome and died shortly after birth.

  3. Immunoneutralization of the aminoprocalcitonin peptide of procalcitonin protects rats from lethal endotoxaemia: neuroendocrine and systemic studies.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Eva; Miñano, Francisco J

    2010-12-01

    Severe sepsis and septic shock are an important cause of mortality and morbidity. These illnesses can be triggered by the bacterial endotoxin LPS (lipopolysaccharide) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor-α) and IL (interleukin)-1β. Severity and mortality of sepsis have also been associated with high concentrations of N-PCT (aminoprocalcitonin), a 57-amino-acid neuroendocrine peptide derived from ProCT (procalcitonin). Previous studies in a lethal model of porcine polymicrobial sepsis have revealed that immunoneutralization with IgG that is reactive to porcine N-PCT significantly improves short-term survival. To explore further the pathophysiological role of N-PCT in sepsis, we developed an antibody raised against a highly conserved amino acid sequence of human N-PCT [N-PCT-(44-57)]. This sequence differs by only one amino acid from rat N-PCT. First, we demonstrated the specificity of this antibody in a well-proven model of anorexia induced in rats by central administration of human N-PCT-(1-57). Next we explored further the therapeutic potential of anti-N-PCT-(44-57) in a rat model of lethal endotoxaemia and determined how this immunoneutralization affected LPS-induced lethality and cytokine production. We show that this specific antibody inhibited the LPS-induced early release of TNF-α and IL-1β and increased survival, even if treatment began after the cytokine response had occurred. In addition, anti-N-PCT-(44-57) may increase long-term survival in LPS-treated rats by up-regulating the late production of counter-regulatory anti-inflammatory mediators such as ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) and IL-10. In conclusion, these results support N-PCT as a pro-inflammatory factor in both the early and the late stages of lethal endotoxaemia, and suggest anti-N-PCT as a candidate for septic shock therapy. PMID:20569200

  4. [Detection of the lethal process in plankton noctiluca by means of a forbidden transition of ESR of Mn2+ ion].

    PubMed

    Kamenev, S E; Kopvillem, U Kh; Pasynkov, A S; Sharipov, R Z

    1981-01-01

    A forbidden ESR line of Mn2+ that is connected with the penetration of Mn into the plancton organism and binding it to a marcomolecule is selected from the experiment. A method for saturating the plancton organism with paramagnetic ions is proposed. It is shown that the constant of the axial electric field in the spin hamiltonian of Mn2+ ion described the dynamics of a selforganizing system. It is tested that the lethal process in the plancton with paramagnetic ion enrichment originated from boson avalanche. Experiments are performed with plancton noctiluca which illustrate the occurrence of avalancheline lethal process in the case of paramagnetic ion enrichment with limiting concentration. The meaning of these results for the problems of oceanology and pollution-ocean inhabitants interaction in the case of paramagnetic ions is discussed. PMID:6274429

  5. Intact alternation performance in high lethality suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Keilp, John G; Wyatt, Gwinne; Gorlyn, Marianne; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley K; John Mann, J

    2014-09-30

    Suicide attempters often perform poorly on tasks linked to ventral prefrontal cortical (VPFC) function. Object Alternation (OA) - a VPFC probe - has not been used in these studies. In this study, currently depressed medication-free past suicide attempters whose most severe attempt was of high (n=31) vs. low (n=64) lethality, 114 medication-free depressed non-attempters, and 86 non-patients completed a computerized OA task. Participants also completed comparison tasks assessing the discriminant validity of OA (Wisconsin Card Sort), its concurrent validity relative to tasks associated with past attempt status (computerized Stroop task, Buschke Selective Reminding Test), and its construct validity as a VPFC measure (Go-No Go and Iowa Gambling Task). Against expectations, high lethality suicide attempters - the majority of whom used non-violent methods in their attempts with some planning - outperformed other depressed groups on OA, with no group differences observed on Wisconsin Card Sort. Despite intact performance on OA, past attempters exhibited deficits on the Stroop and Buschke. OA performance was associated with performance on Go-No Go and Iowa Gambling, confirming that OA measures a similar construct. VPFC dysfunction may not be a characteristic of all suicide attempters, especially those who make more carefully planned, non-violent - though potentially lethal - attempts. PMID:24878299

  6. Crystallographic studies of the Anthrax lethal toxin. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, C.A.

    1996-07-01

    The lethal form of Anthrax results from the inhalation of anthrax spores. Death is primarily due to the effects of the lethal toxin (Protective Antigen (PA) + Lethal Factor) from the causative agent, Bacillus anthracis. All the Anthrax vaccines currently in use or under development contain or produce PA, the major antigenic component of anthrax toxin, and there is a clear need for an improved vaccine for human use. In the previous report we described the first atomic resolution structure of PA, revealing that the molecule is composed largely of beta-sheets organized into four domains. This information can be used in the design. of recombinant PA vaccines. In this report we describe additional features of the full-length PA molecule derived from further crystallographic refinement and careful examination of the structure. We compare two crystal forms of PA grown at different pH values and discuss the functional implications. A complete definition of the function of each domain must await the crystal structure of the PA63 heptamer. We have grown crystals of the heptamer under both detergent and detergent-free conditions, and made substantial progress towards the crystal structure. The mechanism of anthrax intoxication in the light of our results is reviewed.

  7. Structural basis for a lethal mutation in U6 RNA.

    PubMed

    Sashital, Dipali G; Allmann, Anne M; Van Doren, Steven R; Butcher, Samuel E

    2003-02-18

    U6 RNA is essential for nuclear pre-mRNA splicing and has been implicated directly in catalysis of intron removal. The U80G mutation at the essential magnesium binding site of the U6 3' intramolecular stem-loop region (ISL) is lethal in yeast. To further understand the structure and function of the U6 ISL, we have investigated the structural basis for the lethal U80G mutation by NMR and optical spectroscopy. The NMR structure reveals that the U80G mutation causes a structural rearrangement within the ISL resulting in the formation of a new Watson-Crick base pair (C67 x G80), and disrupts a protonated C67 x A79 wobble pair that forms in the wild-type structure. Despite the structural change, the accessibility of the metal binding site is unperturbed, and cadmium titration produces similar phosphorus chemical shift changes for both the U80G mutant and wild-type RNAs. The thermodynamic stability of the U80G mutant is significantly increased (Delta Delta G(fold) = -3.6 +/- 1.9 kcal/mol), consistent with formation of the Watson-Crick pair. Our structural and thermodynamic data, in combination with previous genetic data, suggest that the lethal basis for the U80G mutation is stem-loop hyperstabilization. This hyperstabilization may prevent the U6 ISL melting and rearrangement necessary for association with U4. PMID:12578359

  8. Lethality of First Contact Dysentery Epidemics on Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-08-01

    Infectious diseases depopulated many isolated Pacific islands when they were first exposed to global pathogen circulation from the 18th century. Although the mortality was great, the lack of medical observers makes determination of what happened during these historical epidemics largely speculative. Bacillary dysentery caused by Shigella is the most likely infection causing some of the most lethal island epidemics. The fragmentary historical record is reviewed to gain insight into the possible causes of the extreme lethality that was observed during first-contact epidemics in the Pacific. Immune aspects of the early dysentery epidemics and postmeasles infection resulting in subacute inflammatory enteric disease suggest that epidemiologic isolation was the major lethality risk factor on Pacific islands in the 19th century. Other possible risk factors include human leukocyte antigen homogeneity from a founder effect and pathogen-induced derangement of immune tolerance to gut flora. If this analysis is correct, then Pacific islands are currently at no greater risk of emerging disease epidemics than other developing countries despite their dark history. PMID:27185765

  9. Corticosteroid/antibiotic treatment of adrenalectomized dogs challenged with lethal E. coli.

    PubMed

    Hinshaw, L B; Beller, B K; Chang, A C; Murray, C K; Flournoy, D J; Passey, R B; Archer, L T

    1985-01-01

    Adrenalectomized animals are extremely sensitive to endotoxin and die quickly when given small doses. A six hour administration of the corticosteroid, methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS), combined with the antibiotic, gentamicin sulfate (GS), promotes complete recovery of dogs with intact adrenals administered LD100 E. coli. The aim of the present study was to determine if this early administered treatment would protect adrenalectomized dogs from overwhelming lethal doses of E. coli. Dogs were infused with MPSS from fifteen minutes to six hours after the onset of E. coli administration and with GS after administration of all E. coli. Animals given only E. coli died in 2.6 (+/- 0.3) hours, while those given no E. coli, or E. coli plus steroid/antibiotic, survived longer than 100 hours. Arterial pressure, pH, pO2, hematocrit, lactate, and glucose concentrations were maintained near control values in animals receiving steroid/antibiotic infusions. Adrenalectomized dogs infused with corticosteroid/antibiotic recovered completely from shock even though the treatment period was limited to the first 6 hours after lethal E. coli infusion. Findings indicate that animals treated with MPSS/GS after E. coli ultimately succumbed to adrenal insufficiency rather than from the E. coli insult and thus recovery from shock itself was complete. PMID:3902272

  10. Nutritional supplement chromium picolinate causes sterility and lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, Dion D D; Xiao, Jiarong; Bindom, Sharell; Vincent, John B; O'Donnell, Janis

    2003-04-01

    The nutritional dietary supplement chromium picolinate, [Cr(pic)(3)], has gained much notoriety as a safe supplement that supposedly promotes fat loss and muscle enhancement in humans. Thus, a significant industry has materialized around the incorporation of [Cr(pic)(3)] in many sports foods and drinks and a variety of weight loss products. However, in vitro studies have suggested that low levels of [Cr(pic)(3)] in the presence of biological reducing agents can catalytically generate reactive oxygen species, and recent in vivo studies have detected oxidative damage in rats receiving the supplement. The potential deleterious in vivo effects of this activity were examined by using Drosophila melanogaster. [Cr(pic)(3)], but not CrCl(3), at levels of 260 microg Crkg food or less were found to lower the success rate of pupation and eclosion and to arrest development of pupae in a concentration dependent fashion. X-linked lethal analysis indicates that the supplement greatly enhances the rate of appearance of lethal mutations and dominant female sterility. PMID:12649323

  11. Green Malt Osmolyte Concentration as an Early Indicator of Finished Malt Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley green malt osmolyte concentration (GMOC) can be used as an early indicator of finished barley malt quality. Seeds of three six-row and three two-row genotypes were steeped and germinated in a mircomalter for six days. At intervals of 24 h...

  12. Osmolyte Concentration in Green and Kilned Malt as Indicators of Malt Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research was conducted to test the hypothesis that osmolyte concentrations of green and/or kilned malts can be used as early indicators of finished malt quality. Barley seeds were steeped and germinated in a mircomalter for six days during which time samples were collected every 24 h. Green ...

  13. Mutant prevention concentration and phenotypic and molecular basis of fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates and in vitro-selected mutants of Escherichia coli from dogs.

    PubMed

    Gebru, Elias; Damte, Dereje; Choi, Myung-Jin; Lee, Seung-Jin; Kim, Young-Hoan; Park, Seung Chun

    2012-01-27

    The antibacterial activity, selection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) mutants and mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance were investigated by integrating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and in vitro dynamic model approaches. Difloxacin and orbifloxacin, for which the above information has been scarce, were used. A range of area under curve over a 24h interval (AUC(24h))/MIC ratios and selected E. coli strains were investigated using the dynamic models. Continuous incubation for three days in the presence of difloxacin or orbifloxacin resulted in losses in E. coli susceptibility. An AUC(24h)/MIC (AUC(24h)/MPC)-dependent fluoroquinolone activity and selection of E. coli mutants was confirmed. Maximum losses in susceptibility occurred at AUC(24h)/MIC ratios of 54 (orbifloxacin) and 57.3 (difloxacin). AUC(24h)/MIC ratios of 169.8 (orbifloxacin) and 199.5 (difloxacin) were estimated to be protective against the selection of E. coli mutants, and the corresponding ratios based on AUC(24h)/MPC predictions were 34 (orbifloxacin) and 36.3 (difloxacin). When integrating our in vitro data with pharmacokinetic data in dogs, the conventional clinical doses of both drugs were found to be inadequate to attain the above protective values for 90% of the mutant subpopulation (AUC(24h)/MPC(90)). Both target mutations, esp. at codon 83 (Ser to Leu) of gyrA, and overexpression of efflux pumps contributed to resistance development, with mutants also showing decreased susceptibility to enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin. Additional studies would determine the role of mutations found outside the QRDR, at codon 24 of gyrA, and at codon 116 of parC, and establish the significance of these observations in vivo. PMID:21893387

  14. Effect of plasma phospholipid transfer protein deficiency on lethal endotoxemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Thomas; Klein, Alexis; Deckert, Valérie; Desrumaux, Catherine; Ogier, Nicolas; Sberna, Anne-Laure; Paul, Catherine; Le Guern, Naig; Athias, Anne; Montange, Thomas; Monier, Serge; Piard, Françoise; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Masson, David; Lagrost, Laurent

    2008-07-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are components of Gram-negative bacteria. The cellular response from the host to LPS is mediated through stepwise interactions involving the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), CD14, and MD-2, which produces the rearrangement of TLR4. In addition to LBP, the lipid transfer/lipopolysaccharide-binding protein gene family includes the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). Here we show that the intravascular redistribution of LPS from the plasma lipoprotein-free fraction toward circulating lipoproteins is delayed in PLTP-deficient mice. In agreement with earlier in vitro studies, which predicted the neutralization of the endotoxic properties of LPS when associated with lipoproteins, significant increases in the plasma concentration of proinflammatory cytokines were found in PLTP-deficient as compared with wild type mice. Similar inflammatory damage occurred in tissues from wild type and PLTP-deficient mice 24 h after one single intraperitoneal injection of LPS but with a more severe accumulation of red blood cells in glomeruli of LPS-injected PLTP-deficient mice. Complementary ex vivo experiments on isolated splenocytes from wild type and PLTP-deficient mice further supported the ability of cell-derived PLTP to prevent LPS-mediated inflammation and cytotoxicity when combined with lipoprotein acceptors. Finally, PLTP deficiency in mice led to a significant increase in LPS-induced mortality. It is concluded that increasing circulating levels of PLTP may constitute a new and promising strategy in preventing endotoxic shock. PMID:18458077

  15. Stability of amoxicillin in portable pumps is drug concentration dependent.

    PubMed

    Arlicot, N; Marie, A; Cade, C; Laffon, M; Antier, D

    2011-08-01

    Continuous amoxicillin infusion for deep infection's intravenous treatment is performed using elastomeric portable pumps carried under clothing and requires high doses of antibiotic. Therefore, we evaluated the stability of amoxicillin in those medical devices, with particular focus on both drug concentration and storage temperature. Stability of 20, 40, and 60g/L amoxicillin solutions in 300 mL portable pumps stored at 20 or 35 degrees C was studied by visual examination and drug concentration measurements at T0; T0 + 12 h; T0 + 24 h and; T0 + 48 h. Twenty and 40 g/L amoxicillin solutions were stable over 48 h, with a degradation rate that never exceeded 12% at T0 + 24 h, and 18% at T 0 + 48 h. However, the 60 g/L amoxicillin solution degradation rate was significant (p < 0.05, versus C1 and C2) at T0 + 24 h: 24.5 and 26.9% at 20 and 35 degrees C, respectively. This degradation process was amplified at T0 + 48 h, with degradation rates of 37 and 42% at 20 and 35 degrees C, respectively. Stability of amoxicillin in pump is guarantied over 48 h up to concentrations of 40 g/L. At 60 g/L major degradation of the antibiotic was observed. PMID:21901990

  16. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    King, L M; Anderson, M B; Sikka, S C; George, W J

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 micromol/kg CdCl2). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 micromol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 micromol/kg CdCl2 administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  17. [Bladder tumor lethality. Results in the autonomous community of Rioja between 1975-1991].

    PubMed

    Fernández Fernández, A; Gil Fabra, J; Fernández Ruíz, M; Angulo Castellanos, M G; Blanco Martín, E; Otero Mauricio, G

    1998-01-01

    Between 1975-1991, a total of 557 cases of bladder carcinoma were identified in the Autonomous Community of La Rioja (CAR) which were followed up to December 1994. The overall lethality was 21.9%. 492 cases with 22.35% lethality were identified in males. In females, however, there was 65 cases with 18.46% lethality. The comparison of males and females lethality resulted in p = 0.525. Lethality between cases diagnosed within each 5-year period analyzed is: 1975-1981: 177 cases, lethality 23.72%. 1982-1986: 168 cases, lethality 30.95%. 1987-1991: 212 cases, lethality 13.20%. Between the first and the second 5-year periods, p = 0.132; between the first and third 5-year periods p = 0.007 and between the second and third 5-year periods p < 0.000. Bladder tumours accounts in CAR for a 22.35% lethality. Lethality is higher in males that in females but the difference is not statistically significant. In the last 5-year period assessed, 1987-1991, a reduction of lethality from bladder neoplasms has been documented. PMID:9807870

  18. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24 h postmain shock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014 M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Tom; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-12-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  19. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24h post mainshock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014M=6.0 West Napa earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Ned; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M= 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  20. Surface photovoltage and Auger electron spectromicroscopy studies of HfO2/SiO2/4H-SiC and HfO2/Al2O3/4H-SiC structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domanowska, A.; Miczek, M.; Ucka, R.; Matys, M.; Adamowicz, B.; Żywicki, J.; Taube, A.; Korwin-Mikke, K.; Gierałtowska, S.; Sochacki, M.

    2012-08-01

    The electronic and chemical properties of the interface region in the structures obtained by the passivation of epitaxial n-type 4H-SiC layers with bilayers consisting of a 5 nm-thick SiO2 or Al2O3 buffer film and high-κ HfO2 layer were investigated. The main aim was to estimate the influence of the passivation approach on the interface effective charge density (Qeff) from the surface photovoltage (SPV) method and, in addition to determine the in-depth element distribution in the interface region from the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) combined with Ar+ ion profiling. The structure HfO2/SiO2/4H-SiC exhibited slightly superior electronic properties in terms of Qeff (in the range of -1011 q cm-2).

  1. Estimation of the respiratory tract burden resulting from a prolonged inhalation exposure to aerosols of DU, based on the U in a 24-h urine sample taken years after exposure.

    PubMed

    Valdés, M

    2014-12-01

    A procedure is presented to estimate the respiratory tract burden from a prolonged inhalation exposure to particulate matter of depleted uranium, in cases where the rate of deposition is an unknown function. The precise range of possible values is identified. The calculations are based on the amount of depleted uranium measured in a single 24-h urine sample. In order to present an example, a simplified pharmacokinetical model is introduced. The results presented in this article are valid for any pharmacokinetical model represented by homogeneous linear differential equations with constant coefficients and non-zero initial values, and that clearly includes the International Commission on Radiological Protection model. In fact, they are applicable to any monitorable quantity measured over a short period of time, a monitorable quantity with a kinetic that can be described using a structurally similar system of differential equations to one describing these pharmacokinetical models. PMID:24682012

  2. Effects of a quercetin-rich onion skin extract on 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and endothelial function in overweight-to-obese patients with (pre-)hypertension: a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Brüll, Verena; Burak, Constanze; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Wolffram, Siegfried; Nickenig, Georg; Müller, Cornelius; Langguth, Peter; Alteheld, Birgit; Fimmers, Rolf; Naaf, Stefanie; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stehle, Peter; Egert, Sarah

    2015-10-28

    The polyphenol quercetin may prevent CVD due to its antihypertensive and vasorelaxant properties. We investigated the effects of quercetin after regular intake on blood pressure (BP) in overweight-to-obese patients with pre-hypertension and stage I hypertension. In addition, the potential mechanisms responsible for the hypothesised effect of quercetin on BP were explored. Subjects (n 70) were randomised to receive 162 mg/d quercetin from onion skin extract powder or placebo in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over trial with 6-week treatment periods separated by a 6-week washout period. Before and after the intervention, ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and office BP were measured; urine and blood samples were collected; and endothelial function was measured by EndoPAT technology. In the total group, quercetin did not significantly affect 24 h ABP parameters and office BP. In the subgroup of hypertensives, quercetin decreased 24 h systolic BP by -3·6 mmHg (P=0·022) when compared with placebo (mean treatment difference, -3·9 mmHg; P=0·049). In addition, quercetin significantly decreased day-time and night-time systolic BP in hypertensives, but without a significant effect in inter-group comparison. In the total group and also in the subgroup of hypertensives, vasoactive biomarkers including endothelin-1, soluble endothelial-derived adhesion molecules, asymmetric dimethylarginine, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, endothelial function, parameters of oxidation, inflammation, lipid and glucose metabolism were not affected by quercetin. In conclusion, supplementation with 162 mg/d quercetin from onion skin extract lowers ABP in patients with hypertension, suggesting a cardioprotective effect of quercetin. The mechanisms responsible for the BP-lowering effect remain unclear. PMID:26328470

  3. Lactotripeptides effect on office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure stress response, pulse wave velocity and cardiac output in patients with high-normal blood pressure or first-degree hypertension: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Rosticci, Martina; Gerocarni, Beatrice; Bacchelli, Stefano; Veronesi, Maddalena; Strocchi, Enrico; Borghi, Claudio

    2011-09-01

    Contrasting data partially support a certain antihypertensive efficacy of lactotripeptides (LTPs) derived from enzymatic treatment of casein hydrolysate. Our aim was to evaluate this effect on a large number of hemodynamic parameters. We conducted a prospective double-blind randomized clinical trial, which included 52 patients affected by high-normal blood pressure (BP) or first-degree hypertension. We investigated the effect of a 6-week treatment with the LTPs isoleucine-proline-proline and valine-proline-proline at 3 mg per day, assumed to be functional food, on office BP, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) values, stress-induced BP increase and cardiac output-related parameters. In the LTP-treated subjects, we observed a significant reduction in office systolic BP (SBP; -5±8 mm Hg, P=0.013) and a significant improvement in pulse wave velocity (PWV; -0.66±0.81 m s(-1), P=0.001; an instrumental biomarker of vascular rigidity). No effect on 24-h ABPM parameters and BP reaction to stress was observed from treatment with the combined LTPs. LTPs, but not placebo, were associated with a mild but significant change in the stroke volume (SV), SV index (markers of cardiac flow), the acceleration index (ACI) and velocity index (VI) (markers of cardiac contractility). No effect was observed on parameters related to fluid dynamics or vascular resistance. LTPs positively influenced the office SBP, PWV, SV, SV index, ACI and VI in patients with high-normal BP or first-degree hypertension. PMID:21753776

  4. Lymphocyte alterations in zinc-deficient calves with lethal trait A46.

    PubMed

    Perryman, L E; Leach, D R; Davis, W C; Mickelsen, W D; Heller, S R; Ochs, H D; Ellis, J A; Brummerstedt, E

    1989-07-01

    Lymphocyte numbers and activities were evaluated at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age in two calves with lethal trait A46 (A46), a genetic disorder affecting intestinal zinc absorption. Plasma zinc concentrations declined to subnormal by 3 weeks of age, after which anorexia, diarrhea, alopecia and hyperkeratosis occurred. Lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulation was variably reduced. CD4+ T-lymphocytes were subnormal on at least one observation period following onset of zinc deficiency, and relative numbers of B lymphocytes were decreased at 8 weeks. Secondary antibody responses to bacteriophage phi X 174 were significantly reduced. The results demonstrate that calves homozygous for the A46 trait have normal numbers of functional lymphocyte subpopulations at birth, and that the activity of their lymphocytes is altered once the calves become zinc deficient. PMID:2800326

  5. Rifaximin diminishes neutropenia following potentially lethal whole-body radiation.

    PubMed

    Jahraus, Christopher D; Schemera, Bettina; Rynders, Patricia; Ramos, Melissa; Powell, Charles; Faircloth, John; Brawner, William R

    2010-07-01

    Terrorist attacks involving radiological or nuclear weapons are a substantial geopolitical concern, given that large populations could be exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation. Because of this, evaluating potential countermeasures against radiation-induced mortality is critical. Gut microflora are the most common source of systemic infection following exposure to lethal doses of whole-body radiation, suggesting that prophylactic antibiotic therapy may reduce mortality after radiation exposure. The chemical stability, easy administration and favorable tolerability profile of the non-systemic antibiotic, rifaximin, make it an ideal potential candidate for use as a countermeasure. This study evaluated the use of rifaximin as a countermeasure against low-to-intermediate-dose whole-body radiation in rodents. Female Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were irradiated with 550 cGy to the whole body and were evaluated for 30 d. Animals received methylcellulose, neomycin (179 mg/kg/d) or variably dosed rifaximin (150-2000 mg/kg/d) one hour after irradiation and daily throughout the study period. Clinical assessments (e.g. body weight) were made daily. On postirradiation day 30, blood samples were collected and a complete blood cell count was performed. Animals receiving high doses of rifaximin (i.e. 1000 or 2000 mg/kg/d) had a greater increase in weight from the day of irradiation to postirradiation day 30 compared with animals that received placebo or neomycin. For animals with an increase in average body weight from irradiation day within 80-110% of the group average, methylcellulose rendered an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 211, neomycin rendered an ANC of 334, rifaximin 300 mg/kg/d rendered an ANC of 582 and rifaximin 1000 mg/kg/d rendered an ANC of 854 (P = 0.05 for group comparison). Exposure to rifaximin after near-lethal whole-body radiation resulted in diminished levels of neutropenia. PMID:20558844

  6. Preparation and characterization of cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor

    SciTech Connect

    Saebel, Crystal E.; Carbone, Ryan; Dabous, John R.; Lo, Suet Y.; Siemann, Stefan

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor (CoLF) is highly active. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoLF can be prepared by bio-assimilation and direct exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lethal factor binds cobalt tightly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic spectrum of CoLF reveals penta-coordination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of CoLF with thioglycolic acid follows a 2-step mechanism. -- Abstract: Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in the cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases near their N-termini. The current report concerns the preparation of cobalt-substituted LF (CoLF) and its characterization by electronic spectroscopy. Two strategies to produce CoLF were explored, including (i) a bio-assimilation approach involving the cultivation of LF-expressing Bacillus megaterium cells in the presence of CoCl{sub 2}, and (ii) direct exchange by treatment of zinc-LF with CoCl{sub 2}. Independent of the method employed, the protein was found to contain one Co{sup 2+} per LF molecule, and was shown to be twice as active as its native zinc counterpart. The electronic spectrum of CoLF suggests the Co{sup 2+} ion to be five-coordinate, an observation similar to that reported for other Co{sup 2+}-substituted gluzincins, but distinct from that documented for the crystal structure of native LF. Furthermore, spectroscopic studies following the exposure of CoLF to thioglycolic acid (TGA) revealed a sequential mechanism of metal removal from LF, which likely involves the formation of an enzyme: Co{sup 2+}:TGA ternary complex prior to demetallation of the active site. CoLF reported herein constitutes the first spectroscopic probe of LF's active site, which may be utilized in future studies to gain further insight into the enzyme's mechanism and inhibitor interactions.

  7. 5-Lipoxygenase Deficiency Reduces Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Hohmann, Miriam S. N.; Cardoso, Renato D. R.; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A.; Crespigio, Jefferson; Cunha, Thiago M.; Alves-Filho, José C.; da Silva, Rosiane V.; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Ferreira, Sergio H.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A.

    2013-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) converts arachidonic acid into leukotrienes (LTs) and is involved in inflammation. At present, the participation of 5-LO in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity and liver damage has not been addressed. 5-LO deficient (5-LO−/−) mice and background wild type mice were challenged with APAP (0.3–6 g/kg) or saline. The lethality, liver damage, neutrophil and macrophage recruitment, LTB4, cytokine production, and oxidative stress were assessed. APAP induced a dose-dependent mortality, and the dose of 3 g/kg was selected for next experiments. APAP induced LTB4 production in the liver, the primary target organ in APAP toxicity. Histopathological analysis revealed that 5-LO−/− mice presented reduced APAP-induced liver necrosis and inflammation compared with WT mice. APAP-induced lethality, increase of plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, liver cytokine (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10), superoxide anion, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production, myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity, Nrf2 and gp91phox mRNA expression, and decrease of reduced glutathione and antioxidant capacity measured by 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonate) assay were prevented in 5-LO−/− mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, 5-LO deficiency resulted in reduced mortality due to reduced liver inflammatory and oxidative damage, suggesting 5-LO is a promising target to reduce APAP-induced lethality and liver inflammatory/oxidative damage. PMID:24288682

  8. The mutational landscape of lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Catherine S; Wu, Yi-Mi; Robinson, Dan R; Cao, Xuhong; Dhanasekaran, Saravana M; Khan, Amjad P; Quist, Michael J; Jing, Xiaojun; Lonigro, Robert J; Brenner, J Chad; Asangani, Irfan A; Ateeq, Bushra; Chun, Sang Y; Siddiqui, Javed; Sam, Lee; Anstett, Matt; Mehra, Rohit; Prensner, John R; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Ryslik, Gregory A; Vandin, Fabio; Raphael, Benjamin J; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Rhodes, Daniel R; Pienta, Kenneth J; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Tomlins, Scott A

    2012-07-12

    Characterization of the prostate cancer transcriptome and genome has identified chromosomal rearrangements and copy number gains and losses, including ETS gene family fusions, PTEN loss and androgen receptor (AR) amplification, which drive prostate cancer development and progression to lethal, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, less is known about the role of mutations. Here we sequenced the exomes of 50 lethal, heavily pre-treated metastatic CRPCs obtained at rapid autopsy (including three different foci from the same patient) and 11 treatment-naive, high-grade localized prostate cancers. We identified low overall mutation rates even in heavily treated CRPCs (2.00 per megabase) and confirmed the monoclonal origin of lethal CRPC. Integrating exome copy number analysis identified disruptions of CHD1 that define a subtype of ETS gene family fusion-negative prostate cancer. Similarly, we demonstrate that ETS2, which is deleted in approximately one-third of CRPCs (commonly through TMPRSS2:ERG fusions), is also deregulated through mutation. Furthermore, we identified recurrent mutations in multiple chromatin- and histone-modifying genes, including MLL2 (mutated in 8.6% of prostate cancers), and demonstrate interaction of the MLL complex with the AR, which is required for AR-mediated signalling. We also identified novel recurrent mutations in the AR collaborating factor FOXA1, which is mutated in 5 of 147 (3.4%) prostate cancers (both untreated localized prostate cancer and CRPC), and showed that mutated FOXA1 represses androgen signalling and increases tumour growth. Proteins that physically interact with the AR, such as the ERG gene fusion product, FOXA1, MLL2, UTX (also known as KDM6A) and ASXL1 were found to be mutated in CRPC. In summary, we describe the mutational landscape of a heavily treated metastatic cancer, identify novel mechanisms of AR signalling deregulated in prostate cancer, and prioritize candidates for future study. PMID

  9. Sub-lethal effects of fenbutatin oxide on prey location by the predatory mite Iphiseiodes zuluagai (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Teodoro, Adenir V; Pallini, Angelo; Oliveira, Claudinei

    2009-04-01

    We used a Y-tube olfactometer to assess the sub-lethal effects of the acaricide fenbutatin oxide on the olfactory response of the predatory mite Iphiseiodes zuluagai towards odours from: (1) air or undamaged coffee plants; (2) undamaged or red spider mite Oligonychus ilicis-infested coffee plants; (3) undamaged or false spider mite Brevipalpus phoenicis-infested coffee plants. Predatory mite adult females were exposed to residues of fenbutatin oxide or distilled water on leaf discs during a period of 72 h prior experiments. When exposed to distilled water (control treatments), predatory mites significantly preferred undamaged plants over air, O. ilicis-infested plants over undamaged plants, and they did not prefer B. phoenicis-infested plants over undamaged plants. However, predatory mites that had been exposed to residues of fenbutatin oxide were neither attracted towards undamaged plants nor to O. ilicis-infested plants. Thus, fenbutatin oxide affected negatively the olfactory response of I. zuluagai. We conclude that sub-lethal-effect studies should be considered in pesticide selectivity programs since the ability of predatory mites to locate their prey may be negatively affected by non-lethal concentrations of pesticides. PMID:19009359

  10. Liver-Directed Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 8 Gene Transfer Rescues a Lethal Murine Model of Citrullinemia Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Randy J.; Tarasenko, Tatiana N.; Cusmano-Ozog, Kristina; Sun, Qin; Sutton, V. Reid; Venditti, Charles P.; McGuire, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Citrullinemia type 1 (CTLN1) is an autosomal recessive disorder of metabolism caused by a deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase. Despite optimal management, CTLN1 patients still suffer from lethal metabolic instability and experience life threatening episodes of acute hyperammonemia. A murine model of CTLN1 (fold/fold) that displays lethality within the first 21 days of life was used to determine the efficacy of adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene transfer as a potential therapy. An AAV serotype 8 (AAV8) vector was engineered to express the human ASS1 cDNA under the control of a liver-specific promoter (thyroxine binding globulin, TBG), AAV8-TBG-hASS1, and delivered to 7–10 day old mice via intraperitoneal injection. Greater than 95% of the mice were rescued from lethality and survival was extended beyond 100 days after receiving a single dose of vector. AAV8-TBG-hASS1 treatment resulted in liver specific expression of hASS1, increased ASS1 enzyme activity, reduction in plasma ammonia and citrulline concentrations, and significant phenotypic improvement of the fold/fold growth and skin phenotypes. These experiments highlight a gene transfer approach using AAV8 vector for liver targeted gene therapy that could serve as a treatment for CTLN1. PMID:24131980

  11. Dual Acting Neuraminidase Inhibitors Open New Opportunities to Disrupt the Lethal Synergism between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Elisabeth; Xu, Zhongli; Richter, Martina; Kirchmair, Johannes; Grienke, Ulrike; Rollinger, Judith M.; Krumbholz, Andi; Saluz, Hans P.; Pfister, Wolfgang; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Secondary infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae cause severe pneumonia and enhance lethality during influenza epidemics and pandemics. Structural and functional similarities with viral neuraminidase (NA) suggest that the highly prevalent pneumococcal NAs, NanA and NanB, might contribute to this lethal synergism by supporting viral replication and that dual acting NA inhibitors (NAIs) will disrupt it. To verify this hypothesis, NanA and NanB were expressed in E. coli. After confirming their activity in enzyme assays, in vitro models with influenza virus A/Jena/8178/09 (Jena/8178) and the recombinant NanA or NanB (rNanA and rNanB) were established in A549 and MDCK cells to mimic the role of these pneumococcal NAs during co-infection. Studies on the influence of both NAs on viral receptor expression, spread, and yield revealed a distinct effect of NanA and NanB on viral replication in these in vitro models. Both enzymes were able to support Jena/8178 replication at certain concentrations. This synergism was disrupted by the NAIs oseltamivir, DANA, katsumadain A, and artocarpin exerting an inhibitory effect on viral NA and NanA. Interestingly, katsumadain A and artocarpin inhibited rNanA and rNanB similarly. Zanamivir did not show activity. These results demonstrate a key role of pneumococcal NAs in the lethal synergism with influenza viruses and reveal opportunities for its effective disruption. PMID:27047471

  12. Dual Acting Neuraminidase Inhibitors Open New Opportunities to Disrupt the Lethal Synergism between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Walther, Elisabeth; Xu, Zhongli; Richter, Martina; Kirchmair, Johannes; Grienke, Ulrike; Rollinger, Judith M; Krumbholz, Andi; Saluz, Hans P; Pfister, Wolfgang; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Secondary infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae cause severe pneumonia and enhance lethality during influenza epidemics and pandemics. Structural and functional similarities with viral neuraminidase (NA) suggest that the highly prevalent pneumococcal NAs, NanA and NanB, might contribute to this lethal synergism by supporting viral replication and that dual acting NA inhibitors (NAIs) will disrupt it. To verify this hypothesis, NanA and NanB were expressed in E. coli. After confirming their activity in enzyme assays, in vitro models with influenza virus A/Jena/8178/09 (Jena/8178) and the recombinant NanA or NanB (rNanA and rNanB) were established in A549 and MDCK cells to mimic the role of these pneumococcal NAs during co-infection. Studies on the influence of both NAs on viral receptor expression, spread, and yield revealed a distinct effect of NanA and NanB on viral replication in these in vitro models. Both enzymes were able to support Jena/8178 replication at certain concentrations. This synergism was disrupted by the NAIs oseltamivir, DANA, katsumadain A, and artocarpin exerting an inhibitory effect on viral NA and NanA. Interestingly, katsumadain A and artocarpin inhibited rNanA and rNanB similarly. Zanamivir did not show activity. These results demonstrate a key role of pneumococcal NAs in the lethal synergism with influenza viruses and reveal opportunities for its effective disruption. PMID:27047471

  13. Using Fur to Estimate Mercury Concentrations in Mink

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations in fur and muscle tissue from mink (Mustela vison) were compared to determine the utility of fur analysis as a non-lethal and convenient method for predicting mercury concentrations in tissues. Sixty nine wild-trapped mink were collected in Rhode...

  14. Neonatal Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II Deficiency: A Lethal Entity.

    PubMed

    Malik, Sushma; Paldiwal, Ashutosh Abhimanyu; Korday, Charusheela Sujit; Jadhav, Shruti Sudhir

    2015-10-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPTII) deficiency is a rare disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation with autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Three classic forms of CPT II deficiency have been described namely the lethal neonatal form, severe infantile hepatocardiomuscular form and the myopathic form. We present a three-day-old female child, admitted to us for lethargy, icterus, low sugars and convulsions. Persistent non ketotic hypoglycaemia, hyperammonemia, raised liver enzymes with hepatomegaly and cardiomyopathy led to the suspicion of fatty acid oxidation defect. Tandem mass spectrometry helped to clinch the diagnosis of CPT II Deficiency in the present case. PMID:26557586

  15. Potent inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor from green tea

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Aica, Isabella; Donà, Massimo; Tonello, Fiorella; Piris, Alejandro; Mock, Michèle; Montecucco, Cesare; Garbisa, Spiridione

    2004-01-01

    The anthrax lethal factor (LF) has a major role in the development of anthrax. LF is delivered by the protective antigen (PA) inside the cell, where it exerts its metalloprotease activity on the N-terminus of MAPK-kinases. PA+LF are cytotoxic to macrophages in culture and kill the Fischer 344 rat when injected intravenously. We describe here the properties of some polyphenols contained in green tea as powerful inhibitors of LF metalloproteolytic activity, and how the main catechin of green tea, (−)epigallocatechin-3-gallate, prevents the LF-induced death of macrophages and Fischer 344 rats. PMID:15031715

  16. Perinatal lethal type II osteogenesis imperfecta: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ayadi, Imene Dahmane; Hamida, Emira Ben; Rebeh, Rania Ben; Chaouachi, Sihem; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We report a new case of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type II which is a perinatal lethal form. First trimester ultrasound didn't identified abnormalities. Second trimester ultrasound showed incurved limbs, narrow chest, with hypomineralization and multiple fractures of ribs and long bones. Parents refused pregnancy termination; they felt that the diagnosis was late. At birth, the newborn presented immediate respiratory distress. Postnatal examination and bone radiography confirmed the diagnosis of OI type IIA. Death occurred on day 25 of life related to respiratory failure. PMID:26401205

  17. Neonatal Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II Deficiency: A Lethal Entity

    PubMed Central

    Paldiwal, Ashutosh Abhimanyu; Korday, Charusheela Sujit; Jadhav, Shruti Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPTII) deficiency is a rare disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation with autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Three classic forms of CPT II deficiency have been described namely the lethal neonatal form, severe infantile hepatocardiomuscular form and the myopathic form. We present a three-day-old female child, admitted to us for lethargy, icterus, low sugars and convulsions. Persistent non ketotic hypoglycaemia, hyperammonemia, raised liver enzymes with hepatomegaly and cardiomyopathy led to the suspicion of fatty acid oxidation defect. Tandem mass spectrometry helped to clinch the diagnosis of CPT II Deficiency in the present case. PMID:26557586

  18. [Isadora Duncan syndrome : Lethal strangulation injuries caused by filling equipment].

    PubMed

    Jansen, G; Mertzlufft, F

    2016-05-01

    Aside from suicide attempts or autoerotic accidents, serious injuries from strangulation are rare. In 1929, the accidental death of the famous dancer Isadora Duncan gained high profile. However, even today there are reports of accidental strangulations. These are referred to as Isadora Duncan or long-scarf syndrome and are oftentimes lethal. In the pre-hospital setting, airway management has been challenging, as even a correctly placed airway device may initiate a rapid and marked deterioration of the patient's condition. The case history at hand outlines the death of a 47-year-old female, following entanglement of her scarf in bottling equipment. PMID:27142365

  19. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism in coconut palms infected with the lethal yellowing phytoplasma.

    PubMed

    Maust, B E; Espadas, F; Talavera, C; Aguilar, M; Santamaría, J M; Oropeza, C

    2003-08-01

    ABSTRACT Lethal yellowing (LY), a disease caused by a phytoplasma, is the most devastating disease affecting coconut (Cocos nucifera) in Mexico. Thousands of coconut palm trees have died on the Yucatan peninsula while plantations in Central America and on the Pacific coast of Mexico are severely threatened. Polymerase chain reaction assays enable identification of incubating palm trees (stage 0+, phytoplasma detected but palm asymptomatic). With the development of LY, palm trees exhibit various visual symptoms such as premature nut fall (stage 1), inflorescence necrosis (stages 2 to 3), leaf chlorosis and senescence (stages 4 to 6), and finally palm death. However, physiological changes occur in the leaves and roots prior to onset of visual symptoms. Stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and root respiration decreased in stages 0+ to 6. The number of active photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers decreased during stage 2, but maximum quantum use efficiency of PSII remained similar until stage 3 before declining. Sugar and starch concentrations in intermediate leaves (leaf 14) and upper leaves (leaf 4) increased from stage 0- (healthy) to stages 2 to 4, while root carbohydrate concentrations decreased rapidly from stage 0- to stage 0+ (incubating phytoplasma). Although photosynthetic rates and root carbohydrate concentrations decreased, leaf carbohydrate concentrations increased, suggesting inhibition of sugar transport in the phloem leading to stress in sink tissues and development of visual symptoms of LY. PMID:18943864

  20. Combined diazepam and MK-801 therapy provides synergistic protection from tetramethylenedisulfotetramine-induced tonic-clonic seizures and lethality in mice.

    PubMed

    Shakarjian, Michael P; Ali, Mahil S; Velíšková, Jana; Stanton, Patric K; Heck, Diane E; Velíšek, Libor

    2015-05-01

    The synthetic rodenticide, tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT), is a persistent and highly lethal GABA-gated Cl(-) channel blocker. TMDT is clandestinely produced, remains popular in mainland China, and causes numerous unintentional and deliberate poisonings worldwide. TMDT is odorless, tasteless, and easy to manufacture, features that make it a potential weapon of terrorism. There is no effective treatment. We previously characterized the effects of TMDT in C57BL/6 mice and surveyed efficacies of GABAergic and glutamatergic anticonvulsant treatments. At 0.4 mg/kg i.p., TMDT produced neurotoxic symptomatology consisting of twitches, clonic and tonic-clonic seizures, often progressing to status epilepticus and death. If administered immediately after the occurrence of the first clonic seizure, the benzodiazepine diazepam (DZP) effectively prevented all subsequent seizure symptoms, whereas the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) primarily prevented tonic-clonic seizures. The latter agent, however, appeared to be more effective at preventing delayed death. The present study further explored these phenomena, and characterized the therapeutic actions of DZP and MK-801 as combinations. Joint treatment with both DZP and MK-801 displayed synergistic protection against tonic-clonic seizures and 24 h lethality as determined by isobolographic analysis. Clonic seizures, however, remained poorly controlled. A modification of the treatment regimen, where DZP was followed 10 min later by MK-801, yielded a reduction in both types of seizures and improved overall outcome. Simultaneous monitoring of subjects via EEG and videography confirmed effectiveness of this sequential regimen. We conclude that TMDT blockage at GABAA receptors involves early activation of NMDA receptors, which contribute to persistent ictogenic activity. Our data predict that a sequential combination treatment with DZP followed by MK-801 will be superior to either individual therapy with, or

  1. Increases in Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Potassium Concentration Do Not Increase Isoflurane Minimum Alveolar Concentration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shnayderman, Dimitry; Laster, Michael J.; Eger, Edmond I; Oh, Irene; Zhang, Yi; Jinks, Steven L.; Antognini, Joseph F.; Raines, Douglas E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Previous studies demonstrated that MAC for isoflurane directly correlates with the concentration of Na+ in cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the spinal cord, the primary site for mediation of the immobility produced by inhaled anesthetics. If this correlation resulted from increased irritability of the cord, then infusion of increased concentrations of potassium (K+) might be predicted to act similarly. However, an absence of effect of K+ might be interpreted to indicate that K+ channels do not mediate the immobility produced by inhaled anesthetics whereas Na+ channels remain as potential mediators. Accordingly, in the present study, we examined the effect of altering intrathecal concentrations of K+ on MAC. METHODS In rats prepared with chronic indwelling intrathecal catheters, we infused solutions deficient in K+ and with an excess of K+ into the lumbar space and measured MAC for isoflurane 24 h before, during, and 24 h after infusion. Rats similarly prepared were tested for the effect of altered osmolarity on MAC (accomplished by infusion of mannitol) and for the penetration of Na+ into the cord. RESULTS MAC of isoflurane never significantly increased with increasing concentrations of K+ infused intrathecally. At infused concentrations exceeding 12 times the normal concentration of KCl, i.e., 29 mEq/L, rats moved spontaneously at isoflurane concentrations just below, and sometimes at MAC, but the average MAC in these rats did not exceed their control MAC. At the largest infused concentration (58.1 mEq/L), MAC significantly decreased and did not subsequently return to normal (i.e., such large concentrations produced injury). Infusions of lower concentrations of K+ had no effect on MAC. Infusion of osmotically equivalent solutions of mannitol did not affect MAC. Na+ infused intrathecally measurably penetrated the spinal cord. CONCLUSIONS The results do not support a mediation or modulation of MAC by K+ channels. PMID:18713900

  2. Evaluating the formulae for integrated lethality in ethylene oxide sterilization using six different endospore forming strains of bacteria, and comparisons of integrated lethality for ethylene oxide and steam systems.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Gregg A; Gillis, John R; Krushefski, Garrett

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial endospores from six different species of bacteria were exposed to a spectrum of ethylene oxide (EtO) sterilizing conditions. Temperature was varied from 40 to 60 degrees C and the ethylene oxide concentration was varied from 300 to 750 mg/L. Relative humidity was maintained at 60+/-10% RH. The fraction negative procedure was used to determine the D value for each of the test conditions. Bacterial species tested included Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC # 9372, Bacillus smithii ATCC # 51232, Bacillus subtilis "5230" ATCC # 35021, Bacillus subtilis, DSM # 4181, Bacillus pumilus ATCC # 27142, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC # 7953. All spore preparations were inoculated on filter paper strips packaged in blue, sterilizable glassine pouches. G. stearothermophilus was the least resistant organism tested. The most resistant organisms tested were B. atrophaeus and B. subtilis "5230". The B. subtilis "5230" strain was slightly more resistant than B. atrophaeus at conditions of 54C and EtO concentrations of 400, 600, and 750 mg/L, as well as at 60C/750mg/L EtO. The other species were between these extremes. This empirical data allowed the application of the recently published formula for converting D values from one set of conditions to another and evaluations of accuracy. The measured D values also allowed the determination of Z values based on temperature variations. These formulae, when applied to process temperatures independent of gas concentration, result in a Z value of approximately 32 degrees C that appears to be similar for all species tested. These data support the application of the previously published formulae 1-6 and allow the same approach to integrated lethality for ethylene oxide processes as is commonly applied to steam sterilization. A review of steam sterilization and related principles was conducted for comparison of integrated lethality for these two methods of sterilization. Errors associated with D values, Z values, extrapolation, and

  3. Less-lethal munitions as extended-range impact weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbs, Ken

    1997-01-01

    With the proliferation of 'suicide by cop' incidents, the concept of less lethal (LL) impact munitions has definitely caught on. There is much to be said for sterile laboratory testing and wound ballistic studies, but having 'real world' operational data is invaluable. Two years ago, a data base was set up to collect this information. The data base continues to grow with incidents from a cross the country and others pursued internationally. Indications are that LL munitions deliver a similar amount of force as conventional police impact weapons i.e., police batons, PR-24's, nunchakus, etc. One advantage over conventional impact weapons, is that LL munitions can be used at much greater distances from a suspect or crown of rioters. This gave rise to the term: extended range impact weapons. Having the ability to examine numerous cases in which these LL munitions have been successfully used for the resolution of critical incidents, is beneficial in evaluating the application and defending the usage of these force options. This paper examines 187 less lethal shootings and discusses such things as: the distance the munitions were fired, the types of injuries sustained by the targeted suspect, the body area of impact, what, if any weapons the suspect was armed with, and the type of incident requiring police response.

  4. Injury risk assessment of non-lethal projectile head impacts.

    PubMed

    Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as "force wall approach" suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the "force wall approach" and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712

  5. Homoeosis in Drosophila: a description of the Polycomb lethal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Denell, R E; Frederick, R D

    1983-05-01

    Adults heterozygous for dominant mutations at the haploabnormal Polycomb (Pc) locus display many homoeotic transformations. E. B. Lewis (1978) first described the cuticular morphology of lethal embryos homozygous for Polycomb mutant alleles, and suggested that the Pc+ gene product acts as a repressor of genes in the Bithorax gene complex. In the present work, we have further examined the Polycomb lethal syndrome by phase-contrast and scanning electron microscopy of whole mounts, and show that the phenotype is more complex than hitherto realized. Many cuticular features characteristic of more anterior body segments are partially or completely transformed to resemble those of more caudal segments; the posteriormost homoeotic features which develop are those of the 8th abdominal segment (rather than the 9th or 10th). Involution and dorsal closure of the head are usually incomplete, and the labium and dorsal head regularly develop cuticular features normally characteristic of abdominal segments. Not all homoeotic alterations are caudal, however, and embryos also display partial transformations of the 9th (or 10th) abdominal segment to 8th and of meso- and metathorax to prothorax. It should be emphasized that Polycomb mutations do not homoeotically transform segments as a whole; various cuticular markers differ considerably in their relative probability and extent of transformation, and a single segment may display features normally specific to several different segments. We suggest that these mutations result in an instability in the transmission of determined states. PMID:6404678

  6. Effectiveness of lethal, directed wolf-depredation control in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, E.K.; Paul, W.J.; Mech, L.D.; Weisberg, S.

    2008-01-01

    Wolf (Canis lupus) depredations on livestock in Minnesota, USA, are an economic problem for many livestock producers, and depredating wolves are lethally controlled. We sought to determine the effectiveness of lethal control through the analysis of data from 923 government-verified wolf depredations from 1979 to 1998. We analyzed the data by 1) assessing the correlations between the number of wolves killed in response to depredations with number of depredations the following year at state and local levels, and 2) the time to the next depredation. No analysis indicated that trapping wolves substantially reduced the following year's depredations at state or local levels. However, more specific analyses indicated that in certain situations, killing wolves was more effective than no action (i.e., not trapping). For example, trapping and killing adult males decreased the re-depredation risk. At sheep farms, killing wolves was generally effective. Attempting to trap, regardless of the results, seemed more effective at reducing depredations than not trapping, suggesting that mere human activity near depredation sites might deter future depredations.

  7. Injury Risk Assessment of Non-Lethal Projectile Head Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as “force wall approach” suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the “force wall approach” and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712

  8. An outbreak of lethal adenovirus infection among different otariid species.

    PubMed

    Inoshima, Yasuo; Murakami, Tomoaki; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Kasamatsu, Masahiko

    2013-08-30

    An outbreak of fatal fulminant hepatitis at a Japanese aquarium involved 3 otariids: a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) and a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). In a span of about a week in February 2012, 3 otariids showed diarrhea and were acutely low-spirited; subsequently, all three animals died within a period of 3 days. Markedly increased aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase activities were observed. Necrotic hepatitis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in liver hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells were observed in the South American sea lion on histological examination. Otarine adenovirus DNA was detected from the livers of all three animals by polymerase chain reaction and determination of the sequences showed that all were identical. These results suggest that a single otarine adenovirus strain may have been the etiological agent of this outbreak of fatal fulminant hepatitis among the different otariid species, and it may be a lethal threat to wild and captive otariids. This is the first evidence of an outbreak of lethal adenovirus infection among different otariid species. PMID:23643878

  9. Loss of desmoplakin tail causes lethal acantholytic epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Marcel F; Pasmooij, Anna M G; Pasmans, Suzanne G M A; van den Berg, Maarten P; Ter Horst, Henk J; Timmer, Albertus; Pas, Hendri H

    2005-10-01

    The cytoplasmic plaque protein desmoplakin (DP), which is located in desmosomes, plays a major role in epithelial and muscle cell adhesion by linking the transmembrane cadherins to the cytoplasmic intermediate filament network. Mutations of DP may cause striate palmoplantar keratoderma, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, skin fragility/woolly hair syndrome, Naxos-like disease, and Carvajal syndrome. DP must be indispensable, because DP-/- mice are early abortive. Here, we report a patient with severe fragility of skin and mucous membranes caused by genetic truncation of the DP tail. The new phenotype is lethal in the neonatal period because of immense transcutaneous fluid loss. The phenotype also comprised universal alopecia, neonatal teeth, and nail loss. Histology showed suprabasal clefting and acantholysis throughout the spinous layer, mimicking pemphigus. Electron microscopy revealed disconnection of keratin intermediate filaments from desmosomes. Immunofluorescence staining of DP showed a distinct punctate intercellular pattern in the patient's skin. Protein analysis revealed expression of truncated DP polypeptides. Mutational analysis of the patient demonstrated compound heterozygosity for two DP mutations, 6079C-->T (R1934X) and 6370delTT, respectively. Aberrant mRNA transcripts that predict premature termination of translation with loss of the three intermediate filament-binding subdomains in the DP tail were detected by RT-PCR. The new dramatic phenotype, which we named "lethal acantholytic epidermolysis bullosa," underscores the paramount role of DP in epidermal integrity. PMID:16175511

  10. Engineered female-specific lethality for control of pest Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li; Walker, Adam S; Fu, Guoliang; Harvey-Samuel, Timothy; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Miles, Andrea; Marubbi, Thea; Granville, Deborah; Humphrey-Jones, Nerys; O'Connell, Sinead; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2013-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy involving the mass release of radiation-sterilized insects, which reduce the target population through nonviable matings. In Lepidoptera, SIT could be more broadly applicable if the deleterious effects of sterilization by irradiation could be avoided. Moreover, male-only release can improve the efficacy of SIT. Adequate methods of male-only production in Lepidoptera are currently lacking, in contrast to some Diptera. We describe a synthetic genetic system that allows male-only moth production for SIT and also replaces radiation sterilization with inherited female-specific lethality. We sequenced and characterized the doublesex (dsx) gene from the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Sex-alternate splicing from dsx was used to develop a conditional lethal genetic sexing system in two pest moths: the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm. This system shows promise for enhancing existing pink bollworm SIT, as well as broadening SIT-type control to diamondback moth and other Lepidoptera. PMID:23802263

  11. Sleep extension increases IGF-I concentrations before and during sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle

    2016-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to suppress circulating trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This experiment examined the effect of an intervention involving 6 nights of extended sleep before total sleep deprivation on this catabolic profile. In a randomized crossover design, 14 young men (age range: 26-37 years) were either in an extended (EXT; time in bed: 2100-0700 h) or habitual (HAB: 2230-0700 h) sleep condition, followed by 3 days in the laboratory with blood sampling at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24h-SD), and after 1 night of recovery sleep (R). In the EXT condition compared with the HAB condition, free IGF-I levels were significantly higher at B, 24h-SD, and R (P < 0.001), and those of total IGF-I at B and 24h-SD (P < 0.05). EXT did not influence growth hormone, IGF binding protein 3, BDNF, insulin, and glucose levels. The only effect of 24 h of sleep deprivation was for insulin levels, which were significantly higher after R compared with B. In a healthy adult, additional sleep over 1 week increased blood concentrations of the anabolic factor IGF-I before and during 24 h of sleep deprivation and after the subsequent recovery night without effects on BDNF. With further research, these findings may prove to be important in guiding effective lifestyle modifications to limit physical or cognitive deficits associated with IGF-I decrease with age. PMID:27560704

  12. Serum amyloid A protects murine macrophages from lethal toxin-mediated death.

    PubMed

    Rose, Kira; Long, Paul; Shankar, Malini; Ballard, Jimmy D; Webb, Carol F

    2012-01-01

    Lethal toxin, a key virulence factor produced by Bacillus anthracis, induces cell death, in part by disrupting numerous signaling pathways, in mouse macrophages. However, exposure to sublethal doses of lethal toxin allows some cells to survive. Because these pro-survival signaling events occur within a few hours after exposure to sublethal doses, we hypothesized that acute phase proteins might influence macrophage survival. Our data show that serum amyloid A (SAA) is produced in response to lethal toxin treatment. Moreover, pre-treatment of macrophages with exogenous SAA protected macrophages from lethal toxin-mediated death. Exogenous SAA activated the p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP) kinase pathway, while lethal toxin mutants incapable of p38 activation were incapable of causing cell death. Chemical inhibition of the p38 activation pathway abrogated the protective effects of SAA. These data show that SAA affords protection against lethal toxin in mouse macrophages and link this response to the p38 pathway. PMID:22082566

  13. Efficacy of 11 Brazilian essential oils on lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Santana, Raul Costa Mascarenhas; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Gama, Paola Ervatti; Chaves, Francisco Celio Maia

    2016-04-01

    Herbal extracts have been investigated as an alternative for parasite control, aiming to slow the development of resistance and to obtain low-cost biodegradable parasiticides. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, in vitro, of 11 essential oils from Brazil on reproductive efficiency and lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The effects of oils extracted from Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Lippia alba, Lippia gracilis, Lippia origanoides, Lippia sidoides, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Croton cajucara (white and red), and Croton sacaquinha on ticks were investigated by the Immersion Test with Engorged Females (ITEF) and the modified Larval Packet Test (LPT). Distilled water and 2% Tween 80 were used as control treatments. Chemical analysis of the oils was done with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the in vitro tests using Probit (SAS program) allowed the calculation of lethal concentrations (LCs). Lower reproductive efficiency indexes and higher efficacy percentages in the ITEF were obtained with the oils extracted from C. longa (24 and 71%, respectively) and M. arvensis oils (27 and 73%, respectively). Lower LC50 was reached with C. longa (10.24 mg/mL), L. alba (10.78 mg/mL), M. arvensis (22.31 mg/mL), L. sidoides (27.67 mg/mL), and C. sacaquinha (29.88 mg/mL) oils. In the LPT, species from Zingiberaceae and Verbenaceae families caused 100% lethality at 25 mg/mL, except for L. sidoides. The most effective oils were from C. longa, L. gracilis, L. origanoides, L. alba, and Z. officinale. The LC50 and LC90 were, respectively: 0.54 and 1.80 mg/mL, 3.21 and 7.03 mg/mL, 3.10 and 8.44 mg/mL, 5.85 and 11.14 mg/mL, and 7.75 and 13.62 mg/mL. The efficacy was directly related to the major components in each essential oil, and the oils derived from Croton genus presented the worst performance, suggesting the absence of synergistic effect among its compounds. Since C. longa, containing 62

  14. Enhanced fluorescence cyanide detection at physiologically lethal levels: reduced ICT-based signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R; Geddes, Chris D

    2005-03-16

    Three water-soluble fluorescent probes have been specifically designed to determine free cyanide concentrations up to physiologically lethal levels, >20 microM. The probes have been designed in such a way as to afford many notable sensing features, which render them unique with regard to signal transduction, photophysical characteristics, and their application to physiological cyanide determination and safeguard. The probes are readily able to reversibly bind free aqueous cyanide with dissociation constants around 4 microM3. Subsequent cyanide binding modulates the intramolecular charge transfer within the probes, a change in the electronic properties within the probes, resulting in enhanced fluorescence optical signals as a function of increased solution cyanide concentration. The ground-state chelation with cyanide produces wavelength shifts, which also enable the probes to sense cyanide in both an excitation and emission ratiometric manner, in addition to enhanced fluorescence signaling. This has enabled a generic cyanide sensing platform to be realized that is not dependent on fluorescent probe concentration, probe photodegradation, or fluctuations in the intensity of any employed excitation sources, ideal for remote cyanide sensing applications. Further, the >600 nm fluorescence emission of the probes potentially allows for enhanced fluorescence ratiometric cyanide sensing in the optical window of tissues and blood, facilitating their use for the transdermal monitoring of cyanide for mammalian safeguard or postmortem in fire victims, both areas of active research. PMID:15755185

  15. The Drosophila splicing regulator sex-lethal directly inhibits translation of male-specific-lethal 2 mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Gebauer, F; Merendino, L; Hentze, M W; Valcárcel, J

    1998-01-01

    Male-specific expression of the protein male-specific-lethal 2 (MSL-2) controls dosage compensation in Drosophila. msl-2 gene expression is inhibited in females by Sex-lethal (SXL), an RNA binding protein known to regulate pre-mRNA splicing. An intron present at the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of msl-2 mRNA contains putative SXL binding sites and is retained in female flies. Here we show that SXL plays a dual role in the inhibition of msl-2 expression. Cotransfection of Drosophila Schneider cells with an SXL expression vector and a reporter containing the 5' UTR of msl-2 mRNA resulted in retention of the 5' UTR intron and efficient accumulation of the unspliced mRNA in the cytoplasm, where its translation was blocked by SXL, but not by the intron per se. Both splicing and translation inhibition by SXL were recapitulated in vitro and found to be dependent upon SXL binding to high-affinity sites within the intron, showing that SXL directly regulates these events. Our data reveal a coordinated mechanism for the regulation of msl-2 expression by the same regulatory factor: SXL enforces intron retention in the nucleus and subsequent translation inhibition in the cytoplasm. PMID:9570314

  16. RKN Lethal DB: A database for the identification of Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) candidate lethal genes

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ahmed; Matthews, Benjamin F; Alkharouf, Nadim W

    2012-01-01

    Root Knot nematode (RKN; Meloidogyne spp.) is one of the most devastating parasites that infect the roots of hundreds of plant species. RKN cannot live independently from their hosts and are the biggest contributors to the loss of the world's primary foods. RNAi gene silencing studies have demonstrated that there are fewer galls and galls are smaller when RNAi constructs targeted to silence certain RKN genes are expressed in plant roots. We conducted a comparative genomics analysis, comparing RKN genes of six species: Meloidogyne Arenaria, Meloidogyne Chitwoodi, Meloidogyne Hapla, Meloidogyne Incognita, Meloidogyne Javanica, and Meloidogyne Paranaensis to that of the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, to identify candidate genes that will be lethal to RKN when silenced or mutated. Our analysis yielded a number of such candidate lethal genes in RKN, some of which have been tested and proven to be effective in soybean roots. A web based database was built to house and allow scientists to search the data. This database will be useful to scientists seeking to identify candidate genes as targets for gene silencing to confer resistance in plants to RKN. Availability The database can be accessed from http://bioinformatics.towson.edu/RKN/ PMID:23144556

  17. Synthetic lethality-based targets for discovery of new cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Weidle, Ulrich H; Maisel, Daniela; Eick, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic lethality is based on the incompatibility of cell survival with the loss of function of two or more genes, not with loss of function of a single gene. If targets of synthetic lethality are deregulated or mutated in cancer cells, the strategy of synthetic lethality can result in significant increase of therapeutic efficacy and a favourable therapeutic window. In this review, we discuss synthetic lethality based on deficient DNA repair mechanisms, activating mutations of RAS, loss of function mutations of the tumor suppressor genes p53, Rb and von Hippel-Lindau, and disruption of interactive protein kinase networks in the context of development of new anticancer agents. PMID:21737609

  18. Risks of non-lethal weapon use: case studies of three French victims of stinger grenades.

    PubMed

    Scolan, V; Herry, C; Carreta, M; Stahl, C; Barret, L; Romanet, J P; Paysant, F

    2012-11-30

    The development of non-lethal weapons started in the 1960s. In France, they have been used by the police for about 10 years. We relate the cases of three French women, victims of stinger grenades, non-lethal weapons recently adopted by the French law enforcement to distract and disperse crowds. The three victims presented serious injuries requiring emergency surgical care. One lost her eye. Based on these cases, we discuss the lethal character of these weapons and propose measures to be taken to prevent their dramatic consequences. Although the danger is obviously less than for firearms, stinger grenades are nonetheless potentially lethal and cause serious physical injuries. PMID:22981215

  19. 77 FR 6548 - Notice of Availability of Ballistic Survivability, Lethality and Vulnerability Analyses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Laboratory's (ARL's), Survivability, Lethality Analysis Directorate (SLAD) is a leader in ballistic..., telephone (410) 278- 5028. For further technical information, please contact Denise Jordan, (410)...

  20. The role of sub-lethal weapons in human rights abuse.

    PubMed

    Wright, S

    2001-01-01

    This article is based on two recent reports contracted by the European Parliament (EP), which assessed sub-lethal weapons as flexible tools of political control. It analyses the role and function of existing weapons systems in human rights abuses using examples from Indonesia, Israel, Kenya, Northern Ireland and Turkey. These weapons are designed to 'appear' rather than 'be' safe and, since they augment rather than replace lethal technologies, their use can distort conflicts and actually bridge the firewall between use of less-lethal and lethal technologies. PMID:11578040

  1. A Cysteine Protease Inhibitor Rescues Mice from a Lethal Cryptosporidium parvum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nath-Chowdhury, Milli; Sajid, Mohammed; Marcus, Victoria; Mashiyama, Susan T.; Sakanari, Judy; Chow, Eric; Mackey, Zachary; Land, Kirkwood M.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Kalyanaraman, Chakrapani; McKerrow, James H.; Arrowood, Michael J.; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum, can stunt infant growth and can be lethal in immunocompromised individuals. The most widely used drugs for treating cryptosporidiosis are nitazoxanide and paromomycin, although both exhibit limited efficacy. To investigate an alternative approach to therapy, we demonstrate that the clan CA cysteine protease inhibitor N-methyl piperazine-Phe-homoPhe-vinylsulfone phenyl (K11777) inhibits C. parvum growth in mammalian cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, using the C57BL/6 gamma interferon receptor knockout (IFN-γR-KO) mouse model, which is highly susceptible to C. parvum, oral or intraperitoneal treatment with K11777 for 10 days rescued mice from otherwise lethal infections. Histologic examination of untreated mice showed intestinal inflammation, villous blunting, and abundant intracellular parasite stages. In contrast, K11777-treated mice (210 mg/kg of body weight/day) showed only minimal inflammation and no epithelial changes. Three putative protease targets (termed cryptopains 1 to 3, or CpaCATL-1, -2, and -3) were identified in the C. parvum genome, but only two are transcribed in infected mammals. A homology model predicted that K11777 would bind to cryptopain 1. Recombinant enzymatically active cryptopain 1 was successfully targeted by K11777 in a competition assay with a labeled active-site-directed probe. K11777 exhibited no toxicity in vitro and in vivo, and surviving animals remained free of parasites 3 weeks after treatment. The discovery that a cysteine protease inhibitor provides potent anticryptosporidial activity in an animal model of infection encourages the investigation and development of this biocide class as a new, and urgently needed, chemotherapy for cryptosporidiosis. PMID:24060869

  2. Ear tuftedness: a lethal condition in the Araucana fowl.

    PubMed

    Somes, R G; Pabilonia, M S

    1981-01-01

    The lethal effects of the ear-tuft trait of the Araucana chicken are reported and the genetic basis of its inheritance is verified. The ear-tuft (Et) gene acts as an autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance in heterozygotes. This study gave two estimates of reduced penetrance, 4 and 14 percent. Homozygotes die during 17-19 days of incubation, although a few may hatch. Most of these die within a week, but occasionally an "escaper" will live to maturity; one such Et/Et individual was verified. Heterozygotes also experience increased embryonic mortality at about 20 or 21 days of incubation. In this study the average embryonic mortality among heterozygotes was 41.6 percent. Posthatch mortality also was significantly greater among tufted chicks than among nontufted chicks. PMID:7276512

  3. Lethal hypophosphatasia, spur type: case report and fetopathological study.

    PubMed

    Vandevijver, N; De Die-Smulders, C E; Offermans, J P; Van Der Linden, E S; Arends, J W; Sastrowijoto, S H; Moerman, P; Fryns, J P

    1998-01-01

    Lethal hypophosphatasia, spur type: case report and fetopathological study: Hypophosphatasia (HP) is characterised by severe undermineralisation of the skeleton owing to deficiency of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase. Clinically a perinatal, infantile, childhood and adult type is distinguished. Clinical signs in the perinatal type of HP show considerable overlap with other skeletal dysplasias such as osteogenesis imperfecta type IIA and type IIC, and achondrogenesis type IA. If present, "spurs" of the limbs are diagnostic for HP. We present a prenatally diagnosed case of HP and discuss the differential diagnosis based on clinical, radiological and pathological findings. Our findings indicate that two types of spurs can be distinguished in hypophosphatasia: midshaft type and joint type. PMID:9777343

  4. Radiation-induced mutagenicity and lethality in Salmonella typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Isildar, M.; Bakale, G.

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenic and lethal effects of ionizing radiation on histidine-deficient auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium were studied to improve the understanding of radiation damage to DNA. The auxotrophs were divided into two groups - one which is sensitive to base-pair substitutions and another sensitive to frameshifts. These groups were composed of parent-daughter pairs in which the chemical mutagenicity enhancing plasmid, pKM101, is absent in the parent strain and present in the daughter. Co-60 ..gamma..-radiation and 250 kV x-rays were used to irradiate the bacteria. Irradiation of the frameshift - sensitive strains which carry the pKm101 plasmid doubled the absolute number of induced revertants whereas irradiation of the base-pair substitution sensitive strain which also carries the pKm101 plasmid produced nearly no change in the number of induced revertants. A nearly negligible effect on the mutation rate was observed for all parent strains. (ACR)

  5. DDE in birds: Lethal residues and loss rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, W.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Dyrland, R.A.; Hughes, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Lethal brain residues of DDE were determined experimentally in four species of wild birds (male common grackels (Quiscalus quiscula ), immature female red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus ), adult male brown-headed cowbirds (Molathrus ater ), and immature female starlings (Sturnus vulgaris ) given dietary dosage of 1,500 ppm DDE until one-half had died, then sacrificing the survivors, chemically analyzing the tissues, and comparing results in dead birds and survivors. In all species, residues of 300 to 400 ppm of DDE in the brain were considered to show increasing likelihood of death from DDE, confirming results of an earlier study with a single species. Body residues (ppm wet weight) were not diagnostic, overlapping grossly in dead birds and survivors, but averaging higher in survivors.

  6. Non-lethal laser dazzling as a personnel countermeasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, David C.

    2013-10-01

    Optical distraction is likely one of the original and simpler optical countermeasure concepts with a technology history dating back to the 1800's. The objective is to distract or suppress either equipment or personnel with optical radiation from a safe distance. This paper is intended to review and expand on the concepts presented at the 2012 SPIE Security and Defense meeting; "Non-Lethal Optical Interruption (Dazzling): Technology, Devices, and Scenarios". The information that follows will focus primarily on the technology and techniques associated with the safe laser dazzling of personnel. Key product design guidelines will be highlighted and reviewed. Recent advances in laser technology and their associated impact on hand-held devices will also be discussed. Finally, the author will offer his opinion on the growth rate of military and non-military markets for laser dazzlers.

  7. Synthetic lethal approaches exploiting DNA damage in aggressive myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Cottini, Francesca; Hideshima, Teru; Suzuki, Rikio; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Bianchini, Giampaolo; Richardson, Paul G.; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Tonon, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing DNA damage is a common feature of epithelial cancers. Here we show that tumor cells derived from multiple myeloma (MM), a disease of clonal plasma cells, demonstrate DNA replicative stress leading to DNA damage. We identified a poor prognosis subset of MM with extensive chromosomal instability and replicative stress which rely on ATR to compensate for DNA replicative stress; conversely, silencing of ATR or treatment with a specific ATR inhibitor triggers MM cell apoptosis. We show that oncogenes such as MYC induce DNA damage in MM cells not only by increased replicative stress, but also via increased oxidative stress, and that ROS-inducer piperlongumine triggers further DNA damage and apoptosis. Importantly, ATR inhibition combined with piperlongumine triggers synergistic MM cytotoxicity. This synthetic lethal approach, enhancing oxidative stress while concomitantly blocking replicative stress response, provides a novel combination targeted therapy to address an unmet medical need in this subset of MM. PMID:26080835

  8. Radiosensitivity Parameters For Lethal Mutagenesis In Caenorhabditis Elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Cucinotta, F.A.; Wilson, J.W.; Katz, R.

    1994-01-01

    For the first time track structure theory has been applied to radiobiological effects in a living organism. Data for lethal mutagenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans, obtained after irradiation with nine different types of ions of atomic number 1-57 and gamma rays have yielded radiosensitivity parameters (E{sub 0}, sigma{sub 0}, Kappa, m = 68 Gy, 2.5 x 10(exp {minus}9) cm (exp 2), 750, 2) comparable with those found for the transformation of C3HT10 1/2 cells (180 Gy, 1.15 x 10(exp {minus}10) cm(exp 2), 750, 2) but remote from those (E{sub 0} and sigma{sub 0} = approx. 2 Gy, approx. 5 x 10(exp {minus}7) cm(exp 2)) for mammalian cell survival.

  9. Aroclor 1254 residues in birds: Lethal levels and loss rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, W.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Dyrland, R.A.; Hughes, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Lethal residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined experimentally in four species of wild birds (male common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula ), immature female red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus ), adult male brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater ) and immature female starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)) given dietary dosage of 1,500 ppm of Aroclor 1254) until one-half had died, sacrificing the survivors, chemically analyzing the tissues, and comparing results in dead birds and survivors. For all species, residues of 310 ppm or higher in the brain showed increasing likelihood of death from PCB poisoning. Residues in dead birds did not differ among species except for starlings (Sturnus vulgaris ), which averaged slightly lower than the others. However, the species differed in the length of time to 50% mortality and in the levels of PCBs in brains at sacrifice.

  10. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection and lethal chytridiomycosis in caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Gower, David J; Doherty-Bone, Thomas; Loader, Simon P; Wilkinson, Mark; Kouete, Marcel T; Tapley, Benjamin; Orton, Frances; Daniel, Olivia Z; Wynne, Felicity; Flach, Edmund; Müller, Hendrik; Menegon, Michele; Stephen, Ian; Browne, Robert K; Fisher, Mathew C; Cunningham, Andrew A; Garner, Trenton W J

    2013-06-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is commonly termed the 'amphibian chytrid fungus' but thus far has been documented to be a pathogen of only batrachian amphibians (anurans and caudatans). It is not proven to infect the limbless, generally poorly known, and mostly soil-dwelling caecilians (Gymnophiona). We conducted the largest qPCR survey of Bd in caecilians to date, for more than 200 field-swabbed specimens from five countries in Africa and South America, representing nearly 20 species, 12 genera, and 8 families. Positive results were recovered for 58 specimens from Tanzania and Cameroon (4 families, 6 genera, 6+ species). Quantities of Bd were not exceptionally high, with genomic equivalent (GE) values of 0.052-17.339. In addition, we report the first evidence of lethal chytridiomycosis in caecilians. Mortality in captive (wild-caught, commercial pet trade) Geotrypetes seraphini was associated with GE scores similar to those we detected for field-swabbed, wild animals. PMID:23677560

  11. RAS Synthetic Lethal Screens Revisited: Still Seeking the Elusive Prize?

    PubMed Central

    Downward, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The RAS genes are critical oncogenic drivers activated by point mutation in some 20% of human malignancies. However, no pharmacological approaches to targeting RAS proteins directly have yet succeeded, leading to suggestions that these proteins may be “undruggable.” This has led to two alternative indirect approaches to targeting RAS function in cancer. One has been to target RAS signaling pathways downstream at tractable enzymes such as kinases, particularly in combination. The other, which is the focus of this review, has been to seek targets that are essential in cells bearing an activated RAS oncogene, but not those without. This synthetic lethal approach, while rooted in ideas from invertebrate genetics, has been inspired most strongly by the successful use of PARP inhibitors, such as olaparib, in the clinic to treat BRCA defective cancers. Several large-scale screens have been carried out using RNA interference-mediated expression silencing to find genes that are uniquely essential to RAS mutant but not wild type cells. These screens have been notable for the low degree of overlap between their results, with the possible exception of proteasome components, and have yet to lead to successful new clinical approaches to the treatment of RAS mutant cancers. Possible reasons for these disappointing results are discussed here, along with a re-evaluation of the approaches taken. Based on experience to date, RAS synthetic lethality has so far fallen some way short of its original promise and remains unproven as an approach to finding effective new ways of tackling RAS mutant cancers. PMID:25878361

  12. Contrasting low-dimensional magnetism in the 3D metal-organic frameworks [Cu(VF6)(pyz)2]4H2O and [Cu(HF2)(pyz)2]SbF6 (pyz = pyrazine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manson, Jamie; Schlueter, John; Goddard, Paul; Singleton, John; McDonald, Ross; Ayala-Valenzuela, Oscar; Lancaster, Tom; Blundell, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    [Cu(VF6)(pyz)2]4H2O (1) and [Cu(HF2)(pyz)2]SbF6 (2) form tetragonal frameworks that consist of 2D [Cu(pyz)2]^2+ square lattices that are linked in 3D by bridging VF6^2- (1) or HF2^- (2) anions. Magnetic susceptibility data shows apparent paramagnetism, although not simple Curie-Weiss behavior, in 1. For 2, a broad maximum in χ(T) at 12.5 K and a sharp kink at 4.3 K indicate short- (SRO) and long-range (LRO) magnetic ordering, respectively. Additional experimental data for 1 (e.g., heat capacity and μ^+SR) however, indicate that a LRO state occurs below 3.6 K whereas pulsed-field magnetization data suggest a superposition of AFM Cu^2+ layers and fluctuating V^4+ moments. The structural and magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 will be described as well as possible new directions.

  13. Estimation and interpretation of fermentation in the gut: coupling results from a 24 h batch in vitro system with fecal measurements from a human intervention feeding study using fructo-oligosaccharides, inulin, gum acacia, and pea fiber.

    PubMed

    Koecher, Katie J; Noack, Jackie A; Timm, Derek A; Klosterbuer, Abby S; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2014-02-12

    Gut bacteria ferment fiber at different rates to primarily short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and gas while proteins are metabolized to SCFA, branched chain fatty acids (BCFA), gas, and undesirable metabolites. Large volumes of gas produced in vivo may contribute to bloating and flatulence in an individual. The objectives of this trial were to (1) compare the in vitro fermentation profiles of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), inulin, gum acacia, and pea fiber alone or blended using a 24 h batch model and (2) relate these findings to a human study that fed enteral formula fortified with fiber blend (FB) or no fiber (FF). The in vitro fermentation of the fiber blend resulted in a delayed pH decrease and gas and SCFA production compared to the FOS and inulin. Human samples had higher SCFA on FB compared to FF (p = 0.029). BCFA were not different between formulas. By using a blend of fibers, we observed a slower fermentation in vitro but still increased fecal SCFA when fed to human subjects. PMID:24446899

  14. Analysis of Latvian familial melanoma patients shows novel variants in the noncoding regions of CDKN2A and that the CDK4 mutation R24H is a founder mutation.

    PubMed

    Veinalde, Rūta; Ozola, Aija; Azarjana, Kristīne; Molven, Anders; Akslen, Lars A; Doniņa, Simona; Proboka, Guna; Cēma, Ingrīda; Baginskis, Ainārs; Pjanova, Dace

    2013-06-01

    Hereditary cutaneous melanoma is associated with mutations in the high-risk CDKN2A gene in about 40% of melanoma-prone families. Mutations in the CDK4 gene are the cause in only a few pedigrees. In this study, we analyzed 20 Latvian familial melanoma probands and carried out a comprehensive analysis of CDKN2A including sequencing of its promoter/intronic regions and deletion screening. We also analyzed the critical second exon of the CDK4 gene. One novel intronic variant (IVS2+82C>T) of the CDKN2A gene and a small deletion (c.-20677_-20682delGTACGC) in its promoter region were found. Genotyping of the novel variants in larger melanoma and control groups indicated that the deletion increases the risk of melanoma (odds ratio=6.353, 95% confidence interval: 1.34-30.22, P=0.0168). The CDK4 gene analysis showed a Latvian melanoma family with the mutation R24H carried on the same haplotype as in two previously described Latvian CDK4-positive families. Our study suggests that the main risk gene in Latvian families with a strong family history of melanoma is CDK4 and that most of the other cases analyzed could be sporadic or associated with low-penetrance risk genes. PMID:23546221

  15. Photoinduced lethal and sublethal toxicity of retene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derived from resin acid, to coregonid larvae.

    PubMed

    Vehniäinen, Eeva-Riikka; Häkkinen, Jani; Oikari, Aimo

    2003-12-01

    A comparative investigation on the acute phototoxicity of retene to vendace (Coregonus albula) and whitefish (C. lavaretus), both having pelagial larvae in spring, was conducted. To test the concept of early warning of sublethal biomarkers in relation to lethality to posthatch stages, we examined the effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) and retene on the levels of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) by exposing the animals to elevated levels of these factors for 48 and 72 h, respectively. Whereas UV-B and retene on their own were not lethal, simultaneous retene and UV-B exposure caused very high mortality to both species. The median lethal concentration (LC50; i.e., the concentration at which half of the larvae died) of retene as a precursor was 41 g/L for vendace and 15 to 16 microg/L, depending on the UV-B dose, for whitefish. Retene evoked substantial induction of CYP1A in larvae of both species, and UV-B induced CYP1A in whitefish. In vendace, no effect on HSP70 levels by any factor was observed. In whitefish, however, UV-B radiation and water retene alone upregulated HSP70, but no additive response was detected. The CYPIA is a biomarker of exposure to retene in both species. The HSP70 is an early warning signal of UV-B exposure in whitefish. As a species, vendace appears to be more resistant than whitefish to the phototoxicity of retene, as indicated by the higher tolerance. PMID:14713041

  16. Efficacy of Indian polyvalent snake antivenoms against Sri Lankan snake venoms: lethality studies or clinically focussed in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Maduwage, Kalana; Silva, Anjana; O'Leary, Margaret A; Hodgson, Wayne C; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2016-01-01

    In vitro antivenom efficacy studies were compared to rodent lethality studies to test two Indian snake antivenoms (VINS and BHARAT) against four Sri Lankan snakes. In vitro efficacy was tested at venom concentrations consistent with human envenoming. Efficacy was compared statistically for one batch from each manufacturer where multiple vials were available. In binding studies EC50 for all VINS antivenoms were less than BHARAT for D. russelii [553 μg/mL vs. 1371 μg/mL;p = 0.016), but were greater for VINS antivenoms compared to BHARAT for N. naja [336 μg/mL vs. 70 μg/mL;p < 0.0001]. EC50 of both antivenoms was only slighty different for E. carinatus and B. caeruleus. For procoagulant activity neutralisation, the EC50 was lower for VINS compared to BHARAT - 60 μg/mL vs. 176 μg/mL (p < 0.0001) for Russell's viper and 357 μg/mL vs. 6906μg/mL (p < 0.0001) for Saw-scaled viper. Only VINS antivenom neutralized in vitro neurotoxicity of krait venom. Both antivenoms partially neutralized cobra and didn't neutralize Russell's viper neurotoxicity. Lethality studies found no statistically significant difference in ED50 values between VINS and BHARAT antivenoms. VINS antivenoms appeared superior to BHARAT at concentrations equivalent to administering 10 vials antivenom, based on binding and neutralisation studies. Lethality studies were inconsistent suggesting rodent death may not measure relevant efficacy outcomes in humans. PMID:27231196

  17. Efficacy of Indian polyvalent snake antivenoms against Sri Lankan snake venoms: lethality studies or clinically focussed in vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    Maduwage, Kalana; Silva, Anjana; O’Leary, Margaret A.; Hodgson, Wayne C.; Isbister, Geoffrey K.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro antivenom efficacy studies were compared to rodent lethality studies to test two Indian snake antivenoms (VINS and BHARAT) against four Sri Lankan snakes. In vitro efficacy was tested at venom concentrations consistent with human envenoming. Efficacy was compared statistically for one batch from each manufacturer where multiple vials were available. In binding studies EC50 for all VINS antivenoms were less than BHARAT for D. russelii [553 μg/mL vs. 1371 μg/mL;p = 0.016), but were greater for VINS antivenoms compared to BHARAT for N. naja [336 μg/mL vs. 70 μg/mL;p < 0.0001]. EC50 of both antivenoms was only slighty different for E. carinatus and B. caeruleus. For procoagulant activity neutralisation, the EC50 was lower for VINS compared to BHARAT - 60 μg/mL vs. 176 μg/mL (p < 0.0001) for Russell’s viper and 357 μg/mL vs. 6906μg/mL (p < 0.0001) for Saw-scaled viper. Only VINS antivenom neutralized in vitro neurotoxicity of krait venom. Both antivenoms partially neutralized cobra and didn’t neutralize Russell’s viper neurotoxicity. Lethality studies found no statistically significant difference in ED50 values between VINS and BHARAT antivenoms. VINS antivenoms appeared superior to BHARAT at concentrations equivalent to administering 10 vials antivenom, based on binding and neutralisation studies. Lethality studies were inconsistent suggesting rodent death may not measure relevant efficacy outcomes in humans. PMID:27231196

  18. Evaluating the lethal and pre-lethal effects of a range of fungi against adult Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance is seriously undermining efforts to eliminate malaria. In response, research on alternatives to the use of chemical insecticides against adult mosquito vectors has been increasing. Fungal entomopathogens formulated as biopesticides have received much attention and have shown considerable potential. This research has necessarily focused on relatively few fungal isolates in order to ‘prove concept’. Further, most attention has been paid to examining fungal virulence (lethality) and not the other properties of fungal infection that might also contribute to reducing transmission potential. Here, a range of fungal isolates were screened to examine variation in virulence and how this relates to additional pre-lethal reductions in feeding propensity. Methods The Asian malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi was exposed to 17 different isolates of entomopathogenic fungi belonging to species of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Metarhizium acridum and Isaria farinosus. Each isolate was applied to a test substrate at a standard dose rate of 1×109 spores ml-1 and the mosquitoes exposed for six hours. Subsequently the insects were removed to mesh cages where survival was monitored over the next 14 days. During this incubation period the mosquitoes’ propensity to feed was assayed for each isolate by offering a feeding stimulant at the side of the cage and recording the number probing. Results and conclusions Fungal isolates showed a range of virulence to A. stephensi with some causing >80% mortality within 7 days, while others caused little increase in mortality relative to controls over the study period. Similarly, some isolates had a large impact on feeding propensity, causing >50% pre-lethal reductions in feeding rate, whereas other isolates had very little impact. There was clear correlation between fungal virulence and feeding reduction with virulence explaining nearly 70% of the variation in feeding reduction. However, there

  19. Cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells present a valuable alternative to fish lethal testing for azoxystrobin.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elsa T; Pardal, Miguel Â; Laizé, Vincent; Cancela, M Leonor; Oliveira, Paulo J; Serafim, Teresa L

    2015-11-01

    The present study aims at identifying, among six mammalian and fish cell lines, a sensitive cell line whose in vitro median inhibitory concentration (IC50) better matches the in vivo short-term Sparus aurata median lethal concentration (LC50). IC50s and LC50 were assessed after exposure to the widely used fungicide azoxystrobin (AZX). Statistical results were relevant for most cell lines after 48 h of AZX exposure, being H9c2 the most sensitive cells, as well as the ones which provided the best prediction of fish toxicity, with a LC50,96h/IC50,48h = 0.581. H9c2 cell proliferation upon 72 h of AZX exposure revealed a LC50,96h/IC50,72h = 0.998. Therefore, identical absolute sensitivities were attained for both in vitro and in vivo assays. To conclude, the H9c2 cell-based assay is reliable and represents a suitable ethical alternative to conventional fish assays for AZX, and could be used to get valuable insights into the toxic effects of other pesticides. PMID:26319055

  20. Lipids as Tumoricidal Components of Human α-Lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumor Cells (HAMLET)

    PubMed Central

    Ho, James C. S.; Storm, Petter; Rydström, Anna; Bowen, Ben; Alsin, Fredrik; Sullivan, Louise; Ambite, Inès; Mok, K. H.; Northen, Trent; Svanborg, Catharina

    2013-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acids are internalized by receptor-mediated mechanisms or receptor-independent diffusion across cytoplasmic membranes and are utilized as nutrients, building blocks, and signaling intermediates. Here we describe how the association of long-chain fatty acids to a partially unfolded, extracellular protein can alter the presentation to target cells and cellular effects. HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a tumoricidal complex of partially unfolded α-lactalbumin and oleic acid (OA). As OA lacks independent tumoricidal activity at concentrations equimolar to HAMLET, the contribution of the lipid has been debated. We show by natural abundance 13C NMR that the lipid in HAMLET is deprotonated and by chromatography that oleate rather than oleic acid is the relevant HAMLET constituent. Compared with HAMLET, oleate (175 μm) showed weak effects on ion fluxes and gene expression. Unlike HAMLET, which causes metabolic paralysis, fatty acid metabolites were less strongly altered. The functional overlap increased with higher oleate concentrations (500 μm). Cellular responses to OA were weak or absent, suggesting that deprotonation favors cellular interactions of fatty acids. Fatty acids may thus exert some of their essential effects on host cells when in the deprotonated state and when presented in the context of a partially unfolded protein. PMID:23629662

  1. Effects of Training with Lethal Chemicals on Job Proficiency and Job Confidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paula; And Others

    A study was designed to determine if soldiers trained to use chemical agents are more proficient in performing their jobs in an environment where lethal chemical agents are used and more confident of their ability to survive. A treatment group, composed of 150 soldiers, knew that their training would involve lethal agents in the Chemical…

  2. The Danger Assessment: Validation of a Lethality Risk Assessment Instrument for Intimate Partner Femicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Webster, Daniel W.; Glass, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The Danger Assessment (DA) is an instrument designed to assess the likelihood of lethality or near lethality occurring in a case of intimate partner violence. This article describes the development, psychometric validation, and suggestions for use of the DA. An 11-city study of intimate partner femicide used multivariate analysis to test the…

  3. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Suicidal Intent and Medical Lethality in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapyta, Jeffrey; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Heilbron, Nicole; Mayfield, Andrew; Treadway, S. Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether suicidal intent and medical lethality of past suicide attempts are predictive of future attempts, the association between intent and lethality, and the consistency of these characteristics across repeated attempts among youth. Method: Suicide attempts in a 15-year prospective study of 180 formerly psychiatrically…

  4. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., including chemical agents. 552.25 Section 552.25 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF... Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The Warden may authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only when the situation is...

  5. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., including chemical agents. 552.25 Section 552.25 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF... Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The Warden may authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only when the situation is...

  6. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., including chemical agents. 552.25 Section 552.25 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF... Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The Warden may authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only when the situation is...

  7. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., including chemical agents. 552.25 Section 552.25 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF... Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The Warden may authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only when the situation is...

  8. Improving on Army Field Gauze for Lethal Vascular Injuries: Challenges in Dressing Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accounting for half of all deaths, uncontrolled hemorrhage remains the leading cause of death on the battlefield. Gaining hemostatic control of lethal vascular injuries sustained in combat using topical agents remains a challenge. Recent animal testing using a lethal arterial injury model compared a...

  9. 40 CFR 798.5275 - Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information shall be reported... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sex-linked recessive lethal test in....5275 Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. The sex-linked...

  10. 40 CFR 798.5275 - Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information shall be reported... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sex-linked recessive