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Sample records for 24-h recall method

  1. Quality assurance of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (EPIC-Soft).

    PubMed

    Crispim, Sandra P; Nicolas, Genevieve; Casagrande, Corinne; Knaze, Viktoria; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Huybrechts, Inge; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-02-01

    The interview-administered 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) EPIC-Soft® has a series of controls to guarantee the quality of dietary data across countries. These comprise all steps that are part of fieldwork preparation, data collection and data management; however, a complete characterisation of these quality controls is still lacking. The present paper describes in detail the quality controls applied in EPIC-Soft, which are, to a large extent, built on the basis of the EPIC-Soft error model and are present in three phases: (1) before, (2) during and (3) after the 24-HDR interviews. Quality controls for consistency and harmonisation are implemented before the interviews while preparing the seventy databases constituting an EPIC-Soft version (e.g. pre-defined and coded foods and recipes). During the interviews, EPIC-Soft uses a cognitive approach by helping the respondent to recall the dietary intake information in a stepwise manner and includes controls for consistency (e.g. probing questions) as well as for completeness of the collected data (e.g. system calculation for some unknown amounts). After the interviews, a series of controls can be applied by dietitians and data managers to further guarantee data quality. For example, the interview-specific 'note files' that were created to track any problems or missing information during the interviews can be checked to clarify the information initially provided. Overall, the quality controls employed in the EPIC-Soft methodology are not always perceivable, but prove to be of assistance for its overall standardisation and possibly for the accuracy of the collected data.

  2. The accuracy of the 24-h activity recall method for assessing sedentary behaviour: the physical activity measurement survey (PAMS) project.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngwon; Welk, Gregory J

    2017-02-01

    Sedentary behaviour (SB) has emerged as a modifiable risk factor, but little is known about measurement errors of SB. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 24-h Physical Activity Recall (24PAR) relative to SenseWear Armband (SWA) for assessing SB. Each participant (n = 1485) undertook a series of data collection procedures on two randomly selected days: wearing a SWA for full 24-h, and then completing the telephone-administered 24PAR the following day to recall the past 24-h activities. Estimates of total sedentary time (TST) were computed without the inclusion of reported or recorded sleep time. Equivalence testing was used to compare estimates of TST. Analyses from equivalence testing showed no significant equivalence of 24PAR for TST (90% CI: 443.0 and 457.6 min · day(-1)) relative to SWA (equivalence zone: 580.7 and 709.8 min · day(-1)). Bland-Altman plots indicated individuals that were extremely or minimally sedentary provided relatively comparable sedentary time between 24PAR and SWA. Overweight/obese and/or older individuals were more likely to under-estimate sedentary time than normal weight and/or younger individuals. Measurement errors of 24PAR varied by the level of sedentary time and demographic indicators. This evidence informs future work to develop measurement error models to correct for errors of self-reports.

  3. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    PubMed

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-15

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  4. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11–24 Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N. S.; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J.; Foster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11–24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11–24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. PMID:27294952

  5. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-06-09

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults.

  6. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A.; Wright, Janine L.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  7. The number of 24 h dietary recalls using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's automated multiple-pass method required to estimate nutrient intake in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA’s Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM) is a five-step, multiple-pass, interviewer-administered, computerized, 24-h dietary recall. The objective of the study was to quantify sources of variation such as day of the week, season, sequence of the diet interviews (training effect), diet interv...

  8. Validity and relative validity of a novel digital approach for 24-h dietary recall in athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We developed a digital dietary analysis tool for athletes (DATA) using a modified 24-h recall method and an integrated, customized nutrient database. The purpose of this study was to assess DATA’s validity and relative validity by measuring its agreement with registered dietitians’ (RDs) direct observations (OBSERVATION) and 24-h dietary recall interviews using the USDA 5-step multiple-pass method (INTERVIEW), respectively. Methods Fifty-six athletes (14–20 y) completed DATA and INTERVIEW in randomized counter-balanced order. OBSERVATION (n = 26) consisted of RDs recording participants’ food/drink intake in a 24-h period and were completed the day prior to DATA and INTERVIEW. Agreement among methods was estimated using a repeated measures t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. Results The paired differences (with 95% confidence intervals) between DATA and OBSERVATION were not significant for carbohydrate (10.1%, -1.2–22.7%) and protein (14.1%, -3.2–34.5%) but was significant for energy (14.4%, 1.2–29.3%). There were no differences between DATA and INTERVIEW for energy (-1.1%, -9.1–7.7%), carbohydrate (0.2%, -7.1–8.0%) or protein (-2.7%, -11.3–6.7%). Bland-Altman analysis indicated significant positive correlations between absolute values of the differences and the means for OBSERVATION vs. DATA (r = 0.40 and r = 0.47 for energy and carbohydrate, respectively) and INTERVIEW vs. DATA (r = 0.52, r = 0.29, and r = 0.61 for energy, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively). There were also wide 95% limits of agreement (LOA) for most method comparisons. The mean bias ratio (with 95% LOA) for OBSERVATION vs. DATA was 0.874 (0.551-1.385) for energy, 0.906 (0.522-1.575) for carbohydrate, and 0.895(0.395-2.031) for protein. The mean bias ratio (with 95% LOA) for INTERVIEW vs. DATA was 1.016 (0.538-1.919) for energy, 0.995 (0.563-1.757) for carbohydrate, and 1.031 (0.514-2.068) for protein. Conclusion DATA has good relative

  9. Development of a Web-Based 24-h Dietary Recall for a French-Canadian Population

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Simon; Lemieux, Simone; Lamarche, Benoît; Laramée, Catherine; Corneau, Louise; Lapointe, Annie; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Robitaille, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls can provide high-quality dietary intake data, but are considered expensive, as they rely on trained professionals for both their administration and coding. The objective of this study was to develop an automated, self-administered web-based 24-h recall (R24W) for a French-Canadian population. The development of R24W was inspired by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Questions about the context of meals/snacks were included. Toppings, sauces and spices frequently added to each food/dish were suggested systematically. A list of frequently forgotten food was also suggested. An interactive summary allows the respondent to track the progress of the questionnaire and to modify or remove food as needed. The R24W prototype was pre-tested for usability and functionality in a convenience sample of 29 subjects between the ages of 23 and 65 years, who had to complete one recall, as well as a satisfaction questionnaire. R24W includes a list of 2865 food items, distributed into 16 categories and 98 subcategories. A total of 687 recipes were created for mixed dishes, including 336 ethnic recipes. Pictures of food items illustrate up to eight servings per food item. The pre-test demonstrated that R24W is easy to complete and to understand. This new dietary assessment tool is a simple and inexpensive tool that will facilitate diet assessment of individuals in large-scale studies, but validation studies are needed prior to the utilization of the R24W. PMID:27854276

  10. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): A self-completed 24-h dietary recall for children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4), is a web-based 24-h dietary recall (24 hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24 hdr for adults). The food choices in FIRSSt4 are abbreviated to include only ...

  11. BDNFval66met affects neural activation pattern during fear conditioning and 24 h delayed fear recall

    PubMed Central

    Golkar, Armita; Lindström, Kara M.; Haaker, Jan; Öhman, Arne; Schalling, Martin; Ingvar, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most abundant neutrophin in the mammalian central nervous system, is critically involved in synaptic plasticity. In both rodents and humans, BDNF has been implicated in hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory and has more recently been linked to fear extinction processes. Fifty-nine healthy participants, genotyped for the functional BDNFval66met polymorphism, underwent a fear conditioning and 24h-delayed extinction protocol while skin conductance and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were acquired. We present the first report of neural activation pattern during fear acquisition ‘and’ extinction for the BDNFval66met polymorphism using a differential conditioned stimulus (CS)+ > CS− comparison. During conditioning, we observed heightened allele dose-dependent responses in the amygdala and reduced responses in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in BDNFval66met met-carriers. During early extinction, 24h later, we again observed heightened responses in several regions ascribed to the fear network in met-carriers as opposed to val-carriers (insula, amygdala, hippocampus), which likely reflects fear memory recall. No differences were observed during late extinction, which likely reflects learned extinction. Our data thus support previous associations of the BDNFval66met polymorphism with neural activation in the fear and extinction network, but speak against a specific association with fear extinction processes. PMID:25103087

  12. A review of the design and validation of web- and computer-based 24-h dietary recall tools.

    PubMed

    Timon, Claire M; van den Barg, Rinske; Blain, Richard J; Kehoe, Laura; Evans, Katie; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R

    2016-12-01

    Technology-based dietary assessment offers solutions to many of the limitations of traditional dietary assessment methodologies including cost, participation rates and the accuracy of data collected. The 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) method is currently the most utilised method for the collection of dietary intake data at a national level. Recently there have been many developments using web-based platforms to collect food intake data using the principles of the 24HDR method. This review identifies web- and computer-based 24HDR tools that have been developed for both children and adult population groups, and examines common design features and the methods used to investigate the performance and validity of these tools. Overall, there is generally good to strong agreement between web-based 24HDR and respective reference measures for intakes of macro- and micronutrients.

  13. Overestimation of infant and toddler energy intake by 24-h recall compared with weighed food records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls have been used in large surveys of infant and toddler energy intake, but the accuracy of the method for young children is not well documented. We aimed to determine the accuracy of infant and toddler energy intakes by a single, telephone-administered, multiple-pass 2...

  14. Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children

    PubMed Central

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Alexandrou, Christina; Bergström, Anna; Bonn, Stephanie; Bälter, Katarina; Löf, Marie

    2017-01-01

    The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i) energy intake (EI) obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water and (ii) the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different (p < 0.001) from TEE (4670 ± 1430 kJ/24 h and 6070 ± 690 kJ/24 h, respectively). Significant correlations were observed for vegetables, fruit juice and candy between KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. Only sweetened beverage consumption was significantly different in mean intake (p < 0.001), as measured by KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. In conclusion, KidMeal-Q had a relatively short answering time and comparative validity to other food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children. PMID:28098765

  15. Evaluating the effect of measurement error when using one or two 24 h dietary recalls to assess eating out: a study in the context of the HECTOR project.

    PubMed

    Orfanos, Philippos; Knüppel, Sven; Naska, Androniki; Haubrock, Jennifer; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boeing, Heiner

    2013-09-28

    Eating out is often recorded through short-term measurements and the large within-person variability in intakes may not be adequately captured. The present study aimed to understand the effect of measurement error when using eating-out data from one or two 24 h dietary recalls (24hDR), in order to describe intakes and assess associations between eating out and personal characteristics. In a sample of 366 adults from Potsdam, Germany, two 24hDR and a FFQ were collected. Out-of-home intakes were estimated based on either one 24hDR or two 24hDR or the Multiple Source Method (MSM) combining the two 24hDR and the questionnaire. The distribution of out-of-home intakes of energy, macronutrients and selected foods was described. Multiple linear regression and partial correlation coefficients were estimated to assess associations between out-of-home energy intake and participants' characteristics. The mean daily out-of-home intakes estimated from the two 24hDR were similar to the usual intakes estimated through the MSM. The out-of-home energy intake, estimated through either one or two 24hDR, was positively associated with total energy intake, inversely with age and associations were stronger when using the two 24hDR. A marginally significant inverse association between out-of-home energy intake and physical activity at work was observed only on the basis of the two 24hDR. After applying the MSM, all significant associations remained and were more precise. Data on eating out collected through one or two 24hDR may not adequately describe intake distributions, but significant associations between eating out and participants' characteristics are highly unlikely to appear when in reality these do not exist.

  16. [Validity of the 24-h previous day physical activity recall (PDPAR-24) in Spanish adolescents].

    PubMed

    Cancela, José María; Lago, Joaquín; Ouviña, Lara; Ayán, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: El control del nivel de práctica de actividad física que realizan los adolescentes, de sus factores determinantes y susceptibilidad al cambio resulta indispensable para intervenir sobre la epidemia de obesidad que afecta a la sociedad española. Sin embargo, el número de cuestionarios validados para valorar la actividad física en adolescentes españoles es escaso. Objetivos: Evaluar la validez del cuestionario24hPrevious Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR-24) cuando es aplicado a la población de adolescentes españoles. Método: Participaron en este estudio estudiantes de 14-15 años de dos centros de educación secundaria del norte de Galicia. Como criterio objetivo de la actividad física realizada se utilizó el registro proporcionado por el acelerómetro Actigraph GT3X.Se monitorizó a los sujetos durante un día por medio del acelerómetro y al día siguiente se administró el cuestionario de auto-informe. Resultados: Un total de 79 alumnos (15.16 ± 0.81 años, 39% mujeres) finalizaron el estudio. Se observan correlaciones positivas estadísticamente significativas de tamaño medio a grande en ambos sexos (r=0.50-0.98), para la actividad física ligera y moderada. Las correlaciones observadas son más elevadas a medida que aumenta la intensidad de la actividad física realizada. Conclusiones: El cuestionario de auto-informe PDPAR-24 puede ser considerado como una herramienta válida a la hora de valorar el nivel de actividad física en adolescentes españoles.

  17. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): a self-completed 24-h dietary recall for children.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, T; Islam, N; Douglass, D; Dadabhoy, H; Beltran, A; Baranowski, J; Thompson, D; Cullen, K W; Subar, A F

    2014-01-01

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (firsst4), is a web-based 24-h dietary recall (24 hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24 hdr for adults). The food choices in firsst4 are abbreviated to include only those reported by children in US national surveys; and detailed food probe questions are simplified to exclude those that children could not be expected to answer (e.g. questions regarding food preparation and added fats). ASA24 and firsst4 incorporate 10 000+ food images, with up to eight images per food, to assist in portion size estimation. We review the formative research conducted during the development of firsst4. When completed, firsst4 will be hosted and maintained for investigator use on the National Cancer Institute's ASA24 website.

  18. Adapting a standardised international 24 h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet software) for research and dietary surveillance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Kyung; Park, Jin Young; Nicolas, Geneviève; Paik, Hee Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-06-14

    During the past decades, a rapid nutritional transition has been observed along with economic growth in the Republic of Korea. Since this dramatic change in diet has been frequently associated with cancer and other non-communicable diseases, dietary monitoring is essential to understand the association. Benefiting from pre-existing standardised dietary methodologies, the present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and describe the development of a Korean version of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (GloboDiet software) and its complementary tools, developed at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO. Following established international Standard Operating Procedures and guidelines, about seventy common and country-specific databases on foods, recipes, dietary supplements, quantification methods and coefficients were customised and translated. The main results of the present study highlight the specific adaptations made to adapt the GloboDiet software for research and dietary surveillance in Korea. New (sub-) subgroups were added into the existing common food classification, and new descriptors were added to the facets to classify and describe specific Korean foods. Quantification methods were critically evaluated and adapted considering the foods and food packages available in the Korean market. Furthermore, a picture book of foods/dishes was prepared including new pictures and food portion sizes relevant to Korean diet. The development of the Korean version of GloboDiet demonstrated that it was possible to adapt the IARC-WHO international dietary tool to an Asian context without compromising its concept of standardisation and software structure. It, thus, confirms that this international dietary methodology, used so far only in Europe, is flexible and robust enough to be customised for other regions worldwide.

  19. The 24-h recall instrument for home nursing to measure the activity profile of home nurses: development and psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    De Vliegher, Kristel; Aertgeerts, Bert; Declercq, Anja; Gosset, Christiane; Heyden, Isabelle; Van Geert, Michel; Moons, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Home health care today is challenged by a shift from an acute to a chronic health-care model, moving the focus of care from the hospital to home-care setting. This increased focus on care at home emphasizes the need for an efficient, effective, and transparent management of home health care. However, it is not precisely known what home-care nurses do; what kind of care is received by patients; what the performance of home nurses is; and what the impact of the increasing need for home nursing is on the current and future role of home nurses. In this respect, it is necessary to gain a clear insight into the activity profile of home nurses, but there is no gold standard to measure their activities. This study reports on the development and psychometric testing of the '24-hour recall instrument for home nursing' to measure the activity profile of home nurses. Five home nurses in Belgium, simultaneously with the researcher, registered the performed activities in a total of 69 patients, using the 24-h recall instrument for home nursing. The validity and the interrater reliability of this instrument were high: the proportions that observed agreement were very high; the strength of kappa agreement was substantial to almost perfect; the prevalence index showed great variety; and the bias index was low. The findings in this study support the validity evidence based on test content and the interrater reliability of the 24-h recall instrument. This instrument can help to shape practice and policy by making the home nursing profession more transparent: a clear insight into the kind of care that is provided by home nurses and is received by the patients in primary care contributes to the development of a clear definition of the role of home nurses in health care.

  20. Validation of web-based, multiple 24-h recalls combined with nutritional supplement intake questionnaires against nitrogen excretions to determine protein intake in Dutch elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Wardenaar, F C; Steennis, J; Ceelen, I J M; Mensink, M; Witkamp, R; de Vries, J H M

    2015-12-28

    Information on dietary composition is vitally important for elite athletes to optimise their performance and recovery, which requires valid tools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of assessing protein intake using three web-based 24-h recalls and questionnaires, by comparing these with three urinary N excretions on the same day. A total of forty-seven Dutch elite top athletes, both disabled and non-disabled, aged between 18 and 35 years, with a BMI of 17·5-31 kg/m2, exercising >12 h/week were recruited. Estimated mean dietary protein intake was 109·6 (sd 33·0) g/d by recalls and questionnaires v. 141·3 (sd 38·2) g/d based on N excretions in urine; the difference was 25·5 (sd 21·3) % between the methods (P<0·05). We found a reasonably good association between methods for protein intake of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·79). On an individual level, under-reporting was larger with higher protein intakes than with lower intakes. No significant differences were found in reporting absolute differences between subcategories (sex, under-reporting, BMI, collection of recalls within a certain amount of time and using protein supplements or not). In conclusion, combined, multiple, 24-h recalls and questionnaires underestimated protein intake in these young elite athletes more than that reported for non-athlete populations. The method proved to be suitable for ranking athletes according to their protein intake as needed in epidemiological studies. On an individual level, the magnitude of underestimation was about equal for all athletes except for those with very high protein intakes.

  1. Agreement between an online dietary assessment tool (myfood24) and an interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall in British adolescents aged 11-18 years.

    PubMed

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Greenwood, Darren C; Cade, Janet E

    2016-05-01

    myfood24 Is an online 24-h dietary assessment tool developed for use among British adolescents and adults. Limited information is available regarding the validity of using new technology in assessing nutritional intake among adolescents. Thus, a relative validation of myfood24 against a face-to-face interviewer-administered 24-h multiple-pass recall (MPR) was conducted among seventy-five British adolescents aged 11-18 years. Participants were asked to complete myfood24 and an interviewer-administered MPR on the same day for 2 non-consecutive days at school. Total energy intake (EI) and nutrients recorded by the two methods were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots (using between and within-individual information) and weighted κ to assess the agreement. Energy, macronutrients and other reported nutrients from myfood24 demonstrated strong agreement with the interview MPR data, and ICC ranged from 0·46 for Na to 0·88 for EI. There was no significant bias between the two methods for EI, macronutrients and most reported nutrients. The mean difference between myfood24 and the interviewer-administered MPR for EI was -230 kJ (-55 kcal) (95 % CI -490, 30 kJ (-117, 7 kcal); P=0·4) with limits of agreement ranging between 39 % (3336 kJ (-797 kcal)) lower and 34 % (2874 kJ (687 kcal)) higher than the interviewer-administered MPR. There was good agreement in terms of classifying adolescents into tertiles of EI (κ w =0·64). The agreement between day 1 and day 2 was as good for myfood24 as for the interviewer-administered MPR, reflecting the reliability of myfood24. myfood24 Has the potential to collect dietary data of comparable quality with that of an interviewer-administered MPR.

  2. Performance of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall relative to a measure of true intakes and to an interviewer-administered 24-h recall123

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Subar, Amy F; Douglass, Deirdre; Zimmerman, Thea P; Thompson, Frances E; Kahle, Lisa L; George, Stephanie M; Dodd, Kevin W; Potischman, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall (ASA24), a freely available Web-based tool, was developed to enhance the feasibility of collecting high-quality dietary intake data from large samples. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the criterion validity of ASA24 through a feeding study in which the true intake for 3 meals was known. Design: True intake and plate waste from 3 meals were ascertained for 81 adults by inconspicuously weighing foods and beverages offered at a buffet before and after each participant served him- or herself. Participants were randomly assigned to complete an ASA24 or an interviewer-administered Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) recall the following day. With the use of linear and Poisson regression analysis, we examined the associations between recall mode and 1) the proportions of items consumed for which a match was reported and that were excluded, 2) the number of intrusions (items reported but not consumed), and 3) differences between energy, nutrient, food group, and portion size estimates based on true and reported intakes. Results: Respondents completing ASA24 reported 80% of items truly consumed compared with 83% in AMPM (P = 0.07). For both ASA24 and AMPM, additions to or ingredients in multicomponent foods and drinks were more frequently omitted than were main foods or drinks. The number of intrusions was higher in ASA24 (P < 0.01). Little evidence of differences by recall mode was found in the gap between true and reported energy, nutrient, and food group intakes or portion sizes. Conclusions: Although the interviewer-administered AMPM performed somewhat better relative to true intakes for matches, exclusions, and intrusions, ASA24 performed well. Given the substantial cost savings that ASA24 offers, it has the potential to make important contributions to research aimed at describing the diets of populations, assessing the effect of interventions on diet, and elucidating diet and health

  3. Preliminary nutritional assessment of the Ecuadorian diet based on a 24-h food recall survey in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Llaguno, S N; Neira-Mosquera, J A; Pérez-Rodríguez, F; Moreno Rojas, R

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Realizar una evaluación nutricional de la dieta ecuatoriana y determinar el porcentaje de contribución de la ingesta de diferentes nutrientes en función del tipo de comida (desayuno, almuerzo, comida, merienda, y cena) y de la Referencia de Ingesta Dietética (RID). Métodos: Se realizó una encuesta piloto basada en el método del recordatorio de alimentación de 24 h en tres regiones concretas de Ecuador y se procesó la información recogida, se analizó y se comparó con las RID establecidas para la población latinoamericana. Resultados: El estudio encontró diferencias significativas para energía y ciertas vitaminas en hombres y en mujeres, además de determinar que la mayor contribución energética se obtenía en la comida, seguida de la merienda y el desayuno. Las comidas intermedias (almuerzo, merienda y cena) contribuían de una manera significativamente menor en la dieta diaria en comparación con otros tipos de comidas. Además, se observó que las ingestas analizadas no alcanzaban las RID para hidratos de carbono, algunas vitaminas (tiamina, ácido pantoténico, biotina, folato, vitamina D y vitamina E) y minerales (Ca, K, Cu, Mn, I y Fe). La ingesta de NA estaba bastante por encima de las RID y el Límite Superior Tolerable proporcionado por la USDA, lo que indica un problema de salud pública en relación con este electrolito. Conclusiones: Esta encuesta piloto puede considerarse como un punto de partida para obtener una visión más profunda de la dieta ecuatoriana. Esto permitirá determinar los patrones de consumo que afectan al bienestar de la población y establecer efectos positivos y efectos adversos del patrón de consumo en Ecuador.

  4. Reporting accuracy of population dietary sodium intake using duplicate 24 h dietary recalls and a salt questionnaire.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Dofková, Marcela; Lillegaard, Inger Therese L; De Maeyer, Mieke; Andersen, Lene Frost; Ruprich, Jirí; Řehůřková, Irena; Geelen, Anouk; van 't Veer, Pieter; De Henauw, Stefaan; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; de Boer, Evelien; Ocké, Marga; Slimani, Nadia; Huybrechts, Inge

    2015-02-14

    High dietary Na intake is associated with multiple health risks, making accurate assessment of population dietary Na intake critical. In the present study, reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was evaluated by 24 h urinary Na excretion using the EPIC-Soft 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR). Participants from a subsample of the European Food Consumption Validation study (n 365; countries: Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic), aged 45-65 years, completed two 24 h urine collections and two 24-HDR. Reporting accuracy was calculated as the ratio of reported Na intake to that estimated from the urinary biomarker. A questionnaire on salt use was completed in order to assess the discretionary use of table and cooking salt. The reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was assessed using two scenarios: (1) a salt adjustment procedure using data from the salt questionnaire; (2) without salt adjustment. Overall, reporting accuracy improved when data from the salt questionnaire were included. The mean reporting accuracy was 0·67 (95 % CI 0·62, 0·72), 0·73 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·79) and 0·79 (95 % CI 0·74, 0·85) for Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic, respectively. Reporting accuracy decreased with increasing BMI among male subjects in all the three countries. For women from Belgium and Norway, reporting accuracy was highest among those classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2: 0·73, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·81 and 0·81, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·86, respectively). The findings from the present study showed considerable underestimation of dietary Na intake assessed using two 24-HDR. The questionnaire-based salt adjustment procedure improved reporting accuracy by 7-13 %. Further development of both the questionnaire and EPIC-Soft databases (e.g. inclusion of a facet to describe salt content) is necessary to estimate population dietary Na intakes accurately.

  5. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake.

    PubMed

    Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M E; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H; Slimani, Nadia

    2012-03-01

    Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomarkers for protein and K intake and whether the BMI effect differs between six European countries. Between 1995 and 1999, 1086 men and women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition completed a single 24-HDR, a DQ and one 24 h urine collection. In regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, education and country, each unit (1 kg/m²) increase in BMI predicted an approximately 1·7 and 1·3 % increase in protein under-reporting on 24-HDR and DQ, respectively (both P < 0·0001). Exclusion of individuals who probably misreported energy intake attenuated BMI-related bias on both instruments. The BMI effect on protein under-reporting did not differ for men and women and neither between countries on both instruments as tested by interaction (all P>0·15). In women, but not in men, the DQ yielded higher mean intakes of protein that were closer to the biomarker-based measurements across BMI groups when compared with 24-HDR. Results for K were similar to those of protein, although BMI-related under-reporting of K was of a smaller magnitude, suggesting differential misreporting of foods. Under-reporting of protein and K appears to be predicted by BMI, but this effect may be driven by 'low-energy reporters'. The BMI effect on under-reporting seems to be the same across countries.

  6. Availability of 24-h urine collection method on dietary phosphorus intake estimation

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Masae; Morimoto, Yuuka; Suzuki, Yukie; Suzuki, Akitsu; Noda, Saaya; Nishino, Kanaho; Ando, Sakiko; Ishikawa, Makoto; Arai, Hidekazu

    2017-01-01

    Accurate assessment of dietary phosphorus intake is necessary to prevent hyperphosphatemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine collection method for estimation of phosphate intake in healthy males. Two experiments, a 1-day and a 5-day loading test, were performed. After an overnight fast, subjects consumed test meals, 24-h urine collection was performed, and blood samples were obtained. In the 5-day loading test, a phosphorus supplement was orally administered on day 3. The association between the phosphorus content of test meals and urinary excretion, anthropometric indices, and blood biomarkers was analyzed to develop a more precise formula for estimating phosphorus intake. In the 1-day loading test, the standard deviation of predictive phosphorus intake, based on multiple linear regression analysis, was less than that for the phosphorus absorption rate. In the 5-day loading test, urinary phosphorus excretion was similar on days 2, 4 and 5, but was significantly higher on day 3 after phosphorus supplementation. Our results indicate that estimation of dietary phosphorus intake with the 24-h urine collection method, using the amount of phosphorus and urea nitrogen excretion, may increase the precision of short-term monitoring. PMID:28366992

  7. Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, Marion; Landais, Edwige; Bastard, Guillaume; Carriquiry, Alicia; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls) and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal. PMID:27775598

  8. Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Marion; Landais, Edwige; Bastard, Guillaume; Carriquiry, Alicia; Wieringa, Frank T; Berger, Jacques

    2016-10-20

    Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5-17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls) and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal.

  9. Validation of soy protein estimates from a food-frequency questionnaire with repeated 24-h recalls and isoflavonoid excretion in overnight urine in a Western population with a wide range of soy intakes2

    PubMed Central

    Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fraser, Gary E; Chan, Jacqueline; Franke, Adrian; Sabaté, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence of the benefits of soy on cancer risk in Western populations is inconsistent, in part because of the low intake of soy in these groups. Objective We assessed the validity of soy protein estimates from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) in a sample of Adventist Health Study-2 participants with a wide range of soy intakes. Design We obtained dietary intake data from 100 men and women (43 blacks and 57 nonblacks). Soy protein estimates from FFQs were compared against repeated 24-h recalls and urinary excretion of daidzein, genistein, total isoflavonoids (TIFLs), and equol (measured by HPLC/photodiode array/mass spectrometry) as reference criteria. We calculated Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients (with 95% CIs) for FFQ–24-h recall, 24 h-recall–urinary excretion, and FFQ–urinary excretion pairs. Results Among soy users, mean (± SD) soy protein values were 12.12 ± 10.80 g/d from 24-h recalls and 9.43 ± 7.83 g/d from FFQs. The unattenuated correlation (95% CI) between soy protein estimates from 24-h recalls and FFQs was 0.57 (0.32, 0.75). Correlation coefficients between soy protein intake from 24-h recalls and urinary isoflavonoids were 0.72 (0.43, 0.96) for daidzein, 0.67 (0.43, 0.91) for genistein, and 0.72 (0.47, 0.98) for TIFLs. Between FFQs and urinary excretion, these were 0.50 (0.32, 0.65), 0.48 (0.29, 0.61), and 0.50 (0.32, 0.64) for daidzein, genistein, and TIFLs, respectively. Conclusions Soy protein estimates from questionnaire were significantly correlated with soy protein from 24-h recalls and urinary excretion of daidzein, genistein, and TIFLs. The Adventist Health Study-2 FFQ is a valid instrument for assessing soy protein in a population with a wide range of soy intakes. PMID:18469267

  10. 24 h Accelerometry: impact of sleep-screening methods on estimates of sedentary behaviour and physical activity while awake.

    PubMed

    Meredith-Jones, Kim; Williams, Sheila; Galland, Barbara; Kennedy, Gavin; Taylor, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Although accelerometers can assess sleep and activity over 24 h, sleep data must be removed before physical activity and sedentary time can be examined appropriately. We compared the effect of 6 different sleep-scoring rules on physical activity and sedentary time. Activity and sleep were obtained by accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X) over 7 days in 291 children (51.3% overweight or obese) aged 4-8.9 years. Three methods removed sleep using individualised time filters and two methods applied standard time filters to remove sleep each day (9 pm-6 am, 12 am-6 am). The final method did not remove sleep but simply defined non-wear as at least 60 min of consecutive zeros over the 24-h period. Different methods of removing sleep from 24-h data markedly affect estimates of sedentary time, yielding values ranging from 556 to 1145 min/day. Estimates of non-wear time (33-193 min), wear time (736-1337 min) and counts per minute (384-658) also showed considerable variation. By contrast, estimates of moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) were similar, varying by less than 1 min/day. Different scoring methods to remove sleep from 24-h accelerometry data do not affect measures of MVPA, whereas estimates of counts per minute and sedentary time depend considerably on which technique is used.

  11. Children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-h dietary recalls): conventional and reporting-error-sensitive measures show inconsistent accuracy results for retention interval and breakfast location.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Guinn, Caroline H; Smith, Albert F; Hitchcock, David B; Royer, Julie A; Puryear, Megan P; Collins, Kathleen L; Smith, Alyssa L

    2016-04-14

    Validation-study data were analysed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on the accuracy of fourth-grade children's reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-h recalls), and the accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly selected fourth-grade children at ten schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and were interviewed under one of eight conditions created by crossing two RIs ('short'--prior-24-hour recall obtained in the afternoon and 'long'--previous-day recall obtained in the morning) with four prompts ('forward'--distant to recent, 'meal name'--breakfast, etc., 'open'--no instructions, and 'reverse'--recent to distant). Each condition had sixty children (half were girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure--report rate--and reporting-error-sensitive measures--correspondence rate and inflation ratio--were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio--but not report rate--showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short RI than with the long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than for cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than for breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select a short RI to maximise accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended.

  12. Latent semantic analysis: a new method to measure prose recall.

    PubMed

    Dunn, John C; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Barclay, Lee; Waterreus, Anna; Flicker, Leon

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare traditional methods of scoring the Logical Memory test of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III with a new method based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). LSA represents texts as vectors in a high-dimensional semantic space and the similarity of any two texts is measured by the cosine of the angle between their respective vectors. The Logical Memory test was administered to a sample of 72 elderly individuals, 14 of whom were classified as cognitively impaired by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The results showed that LSA was at least as valid and sensitive as traditional measures. Partial correlations between prose recall measures and measures of cognitive function indicated that LSA explained all the relationship between Logical Memory and general cognitive function. This suggests that LSA may serve as an improved measure of prose recall.

  13. Two random repeat recall methods to assess alcohol use.

    PubMed Central

    Midanik, L T

    1993-01-01

    Two random repeat recall methods were compared with a summary measure to assess alcohol use. Subjects (n = 142) were randomly assigned to one of two groups; they were called either on 14 random days during three 30-day waves and asked about drinking yesterday, or on 2 random days during each wave and asked about drinking in the past week. Follow-up telephone interviews obtained summary measures for each wave. Random repeat methods generally obtained higher estimates. However, the high dropout rate makes questionable the feasibility of using this approach with general population samples. PMID:8498631

  14. Toward a Systematic Method of Measuring Free Recall from Printed News Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Gigi

    This paper proposes a systematic method of measuring subjects' free recall from printed hard news stories, based on schema theories of cognition. Citing literature that demonstrates the role of text structures and text schemas in the recall of written text, the paper suggests incorporating these processes into the assessment of recall of news. In…

  15. What and how much do we eat? 24-hour dietary recall method.

    PubMed

    Salvador Castell, Gemma; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes

    2015-02-26

    Diet, along with lifestyle factors, is an important determinant of the health status of an individual and of a community. Dietary assessment at the population level provides us with key information on the frequency and distribution of possible inadequate diets and/or nutritional status. It is also useful as input into the elaboration of food and nutrition policies aiming to improve dietary habits and the health status of a community. This article reviews the characteristics, advantages and limitations of the 24-hour dietary recall method (24hDR), which is one of the most widely used tools in nutrition epidemiology to identify food, energy and nutrient intake in national nutrition surveys, cross-sectional studies, clinical trials and cohort studies as well as in the evaluation of individual dietary intake and Total Diet assessment. To reduce the key factors associated with bias, the importance of previously trained interviewers is highlighted, as well as the role of support materials and the contribution of novel technologies.

  16. Recall order determines the magnitude of directed forgetting in the within-participants list method.

    PubMed

    Golding, Jonathan M; Gottlob, Lawrence R

    2005-06-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the effect of recall order on directed forgetting when the within-participants list method is used. Experiment 1 showed that participants tend to recall to-be-remembered (R) items before to-be-forgotten (F) items when they can recall items in any order. In Experiment 2, recall order was manipulated (F-R or R-F). The results showed that only the R-F order led to directed forgetting. Finally, in Experiment 3, recall order was also manipulated, and half of the participants were explicitly instructed to use a relational strategy when both F and R items were presented. Again, only the R-F order led to directed forgetting. These results demonstrate that directed forgetting under the list method hinges on the output order in which participants recall the F and R information. Thus, output order should be taken into account by researchers investigating specific mechanisms that lead to directed forgetting.

  17. Validation of the Portuguese self-administered computerised 24-hour dietary recall among second-, third- and fourth-grade children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current methods for assessing children's dietary intake, such as interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall (24-h DR), are time consuming and resource intensive. Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use with children. The present study assessed the validity of ...

  18. The Stimulated Recall Method and ICTs in Research on the Reasoning of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesterinen, Olli; Toom, Auli; Patrikainen, Sanna

    2010-01-01

    This article reports methodological aspects of a research study on the reasoning of teachers. The aim is to describe and evaluate the use of the stimulated recall method (STR) when information and communication technologies (ICTs) are involved in terms of educational settings and therefore in the research setting as well. First, we introduce the…

  19. Comparison of three methods of recalling patients for influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    McDowell, I; Newell, C; Rosser, W

    1986-11-01

    Despite recommendations supporting annual influenza vaccination for people aged 65 years or older, vaccination rates remain low. Several studies have evaluated the effect of sending mailed reminders, but few have compared alternative ways of reminding patients to receive the vaccine. In a randomized trial of 939 patients aged 65 years or older in four family practices carried out between Oct. 23 and Dec. 31, 1984, we compared three ways of reminding elderly patients to receive the vaccine: personal reminder by the physician, telephone reminder by the nurse and reminder by letter. The vaccination rates for the three groups were 22.9%, 37% and 35.1% respectively. No reminder was issued to a control group, and the rate was 9.8%. Some patients could not be reached by telephone, and some did not see the physician during the specified time. Among the patients whom the nurse actually contacted, the vaccination rate was 43.5%; the rate for patients whom the doctor actually saw was 45.1%. Overall, a telephone reminder by the nurse was the most effective method, and at an hourly salary of $16 or less this method would also be the most cost-effective. The reminders used in this study were automatically generated from a computerized medical record system. The study shows how a computerized system can be used to identify patients for whom preventive procedures are due.

  20. Feasibility Testing of an Automated Image-Capture Method to Aid Dietary Recall

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Lenore; Estrin, Deborah; Kim, Donnie H.; Burke, Jeff; Goldman, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives The accuracy of dietary recalls might be enhanced by providing participants with photo images of foods they consumed during the test period. Subjects/Methods We examined the feasibility of a system (Image-Diet Day) that is a user-initiated camera-equipped mobile phone that is programmed to automatically capture and transmit images to a secure website in conjunction with computer-assisted, multi-pass, 24-hour dietary recalls in 14 participants during 2007. Participants used the device during eating periods on each of the three independent days. Image processing filters successfully eliminated underexposed, over-exposed, and blurry images. Captured images were accessed by participants using the ImageViewer software while completing the 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. Results None of the participants reported difficulty using the ImageViewer. Images were deemed “helpful” or “sort of helpful” by 93% of participants. A majority (79%) of users reported having no technical problems, but 71% rated the burden of wearing the device as somewhat to very difficult, owing to issues such as limited battery life, self-consciousness about wearing the device in public, and concerns about the camera’s field of view. Conclusion Overall, these findings suggest that automated imaging is a promising technology to facilitate dietary recall. The challenge of managing the thousands of images generated can be met. Smaller devices with a broader field of view may aid in overcoming user’s self-consciousness with using or wearing the device PMID:21587282

  1. Cost effective analysis of recall methods for cervical cancer screening in Selangor--results from a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Rima Marhayu Abdul; Ramli, Sophia; John, Jennifer; Dahlui, Maznah

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening in Malaysia is by opportunistic Pap smear which contributes to the low uptake rate. To overcome this, a pilot project called the SIPPS program (translated as information system of Pap smear program) had been introduced whereby women aged 20-65 years old are invited for Pap smear and receive recall to repeat the test. This study aimed at determining which recall method is most cost-effective in getting women to repeat Pap smear. A randomised control trial was conducted where one thousand women were recalled for repeat smear either by registered letter, phone messages, phone call or the usual postal letter. The total cost applied for cost-effectiveness analysis includes the cost of sending letter for first invitation, cost of the recall method and cost of two Pap smears. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) of Pap smear uptake by each recall method was then performed. The uptake of Pap smear by postal letter, registered letters, SMS and phone calls were 18.8%, 20.0%, 21.6% and 34.4%, respectively (p<0.05). The CER for the recall method was lowest by phone call compared to other interventions; RM 69.18 (SD RM 0.14) compared to RM 106.53 (SD RM 0.13), RM 134.02 (SD RM 0.15) and RM 136.38 (SD RM 0.11) for SMS, registered letter and letter, respectively. ICER showed that it is most cost saving if the usual method of recall by postal letter be changed to recall by phone call. The possibility of letter as a recall for repeat Pap smear to reach the women is higher compared to sending SMS or making phone call. However, getting women to do repeat Pap smear is better with phone call which allows direct communication. Despite the high cost of the phone call as a recall method for repeat Pap smear, it is the most cost-effective method compared to others.

  2. Improvements in recall and food choices using a graphical method to deliver information of select nutrients.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Nathan S; Ellison, Brenna D; Benjamin, Aaron S; Nakamura, Manabu T

    2016-01-01

    Consumers have difficulty using nutrition information. We hypothesized that graphically delivering information of select nutrients relative to a target would allow individuals to process information in time-constrained settings more effectively than numerical information. Objectives of the study were to determine the efficacy of the graphical method in (1) improving memory of nutrient information and (2) improving consumer purchasing behavior in a restaurant. Values of fiber and protein per calorie were 2-dimensionally plotted alongside a target box. First, a randomized cued recall experiment was conducted (n=63). Recall accuracy of nutrition information improved by up to 43% when shown graphically instead of numerically. Second, the impact of graphical nutrition signposting on diner choices was tested in a cafeteria. Saturated fat and sodium information was also presented using color coding. Nutrient content of meals (n=362) was compared between 3 signposting phases: graphical, nutrition facts panels (NFP), or no nutrition label. Graphical signposting improved nutrient content of purchases in the intended direction, whereas NFP had no effect compared with the baseline. Calories ordered from total meals, entrées, and sides were significantly less during graphical signposting than no-label and NFP periods. For total meal and entrées, protein per calorie purchased was significantly higher and saturated fat significantly lower during graphical signposting than the other phases. Graphical signposting remained a predictor of calories and protein per calorie purchased in regression modeling. These findings demonstrate that graphically presenting nutrition information makes that information more available for decision making and influences behavior change in a realistic setting.

  3. Recall Listing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Community Outreach Resource Center Toy Recall Statistics CO Poster Contest Pool Safely Business & Manufacturing Business & Manufacturing Business ... Laws & Standards Statutes Voluntary Standards Rulemaking Federal Register Notices Advisory Opinions Regulations, Mandatory Standards and Bans Report ...

  4. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  5. Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michelle C.; Albar, Salwa A.; Morris, Michelle A.; Mulla, Umme Z.; Hancock, Neil; Evans, Charlotte E.; Alwan, Nisreen A.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Frost, Gary S.; Wark, Petra A.; Cade, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a food diary), has been developed for use in the UK population. Development of myfood24 was a multi-stage process. Focus groups conducted with three age groups, adolescents (11–18 years) (n = 28), adults (19–64 years) (n = 24) and older adults (≥65 years) (n = 5) informed the development of the tool, and usability testing was conducted with beta (adolescents n = 14, adults n = 8, older adults n = 1) and live (adolescents n = 70, adults n = 20, older adults n = 4) versions. Median system usability scale (SUS) scores (measured on a scale of 0–100) in adolescents and adults were marginal for the beta version (adolescents median SUS = 66, interquartile range (IQR) = 20; adults median SUS = 68, IQR = 40) and good for the live version (adolescents median SUS = 73, IQR = 22; adults median SUS = 80, IQR = 25). Myfood24 is the first online 24-h dietary recall tool for use with different age groups in the UK. Usability testing indicates that myfood24 is suitable for use in UK adolescents and adults. PMID:26024292

  6. Serum immunoreactive relaxin in women during a 24-h period.

    PubMed

    Seki, K; Kato, K; Tabei, T

    1987-03-01

    Serum relaxin concentrations were measured every 30 min during a 24-h period in nonpregnant and pregnant women. Relaxin was undetectable in all serum samples obtained from 3 nonpregnant women. Relaxin was detectable in all serum samples obtained from 2 pregnant women. However, neither episodic secretion of relaxin nor a 24-h rhythm in relaxin secretion was discernible in these women.

  7. 24-h hydration status: parameters, epidemiology and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Manz, F; Wentz, A

    2003-12-01

    Hydration of individuals and groups is characterised by comparing actual urine osmolality (Uosm) with maximum Uosm. Data of actual, maximum and minimum Uosm in infants, children and adults and its major influencing factors are reviewed. There are remarkable ontogenetic, individual and cultural differences in Uosm. In the foetus and the breast-fed infant Uosm is much lower than plasma osmolality, whereas in children and adults it is usually much higher. Individuals and groups may show long-term differences in Uosm. In industrialised countries, the gender difference of Uosm is common. There are large intercultural differences of mean 24-h Uosm ranging from 860 mosm/kg in Germany, 649 mosm/kg in USA to 392 mosm/kg in Poland. A new physiologically based concept called 'free-water reserve' quantifies differences in 24-h euhydration. In 189 boys of the DONALD Study aged 4.0-6.9 y, median urine volume was 497 ml/24-h and median Uosm 809 mosm/kg. Considering mean-2 s.d. of actual maximum 24-h Uosm of 830 mosm/kg as upper level of euhydration and physiological criterion of adequate hydration in these boys, median free-water reserve was 11 ml/24-h. Based on median total water intake of 1310 ml/24-h and the third percentile of free-water volume of -156 ml/24-h, adequate total water intake was 1466 ml/24-h or 1.01 ml/kcal. Data of Uosm in 24-h urine samples and corresponding free-water reserve values of homogeneous groups of healthy subjects from all over the world might be useful parameters in epidemiology to investigate the health effects of different levels of 24-h euhydration.

  8. The influence of study methods and knowledge processing on academic success and long-term recall of anatomy learning by first-year veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Ward, Peter J; Walker, James J

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to quantitatively and qualitatively identify the study methods and learning strategies that veterinary students used to study anatomy during their first year of professional school and to correlate these with their academic achievement and long-term recall of information. It was surmised that active study methods would be more beneficial than passive method, but this hypothesis was not supported. The activity or passivity of each study method was secondary to the way in which the students processed the learning. No single study method was associated with academic success or long-term recall; instead, successful students used a multitude of study methods while the struggling students relied on a single method alone, although these methods varied from student to student. Students and their study methods were profiled using the qualitative technique known as phenomenographic analysis to find those who studied in a deep or surface way. The deep-processing students, who commonly used multiple study methods, not only succeeded in the class but also had better recall. Students who relied on a memorization-heavy surface approach to learning had limited recall and tended to perform poorly in the class. These results strongly suggest that by encouraging students to integrate their studying by using multiple methods educators can improve both student grades and recall of complex topics.

  9. Enhanced vagal baroreflex response during 24 h after acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Adams, W. C.

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated carotid-cardiac baroreflex responses in eight normotensive men (25-41 yr) on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested before and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after graded supine cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, this 24-h protocol was repeated with no exercise (control). Beat-to-beat R-R intervals were measured during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses from 40 to -65 mmHg; changes of R-R intervals were plotted against carotid pressure (systolic pressure minus neck chamber pressure). The maximum slope of the response relationship increased (P less than 0.05) from preexercise to 12 h (3.7 +/- 0.4 to 7.1 +/- 0.7 ms/mmHg) and remained significantly elevated through 24 h. The range of the R-R response was also increased from 217 +/- 24 to 274 +/- 32 ms (P less than 0.05). No significant differences were observed during the control 24-h period. An acute bout of graded exercise designed to elicit exhaustion increases the sensitivity and range of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response for 24 h and enhances its capacity to buffer against hypotension by increasing heart rate. These results may represent an underlying mechanism that contributes to blood pressure stability after intense exercise.

  10. Black Ink and Red Ink (BIRI) Testing: A Testing Method to Evaluate Both Recall and Recognition Learning in Accelerated Adult-Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rodgers, Jacci L.

    2011-01-01

    We propose, develop, and evaluate the black ink-red ink (BIRI) method of testing. This approach uses two different methods within the same test administration setting, one that matches recognition learning and the other that matches recall learning. Students purposively define their own tradeoff between the two approaches. Evaluation of the method…

  11. Identification of 24h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lauren A; Radulović, Željko M; Kim, Tae K; Porter, Lindsay M; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ∼19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ∼81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ∼18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (∼3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (∼6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (∼31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (∼24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted.

  12. Identification of 24 h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Lauren A.; Radulović, Željko M.; Kim, Tae K.; Porter, Lindsay M.; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24 h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24 h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24 h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24 h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ~19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ~81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ~18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (~3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (~6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (~31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (~24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24 h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted. PMID:25825233

  13. Effects on a Later Recall by Delaying Initial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modigliani, Vito

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to define the relationships between four measures of recall in a two-recall task, namely (a) initial short-term recall (STR), (b) unconditional final free recall (FFR), (c) final free recall conditionalized on an initial successful recall (FFR/STR), and (d) final free recall conditionalized on an unsuccessful recall (FFR/STR). (Author/RK)

  14. Comparison of the traditional recall-based versus a new list-based method for computing semantic clustering on the California Verbal Learning Test: evidence from Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Delis, Dean C; Fine, Eric M; Stricker, John L; Houston, Wes S; Wetter, Spencer R; Cobell, Krystal; Jacobson, Mark W; Salmon, David P; Bondi, Mark W

    2010-01-01

    For over 50 years, cognitive psychologists and neuropsychologists have relied almost exclusively on a method for computing semantic clustering on list-learning tasks (recall-based formula) that was derived from an outdated assumption about how learning occurs. A new procedure for computing semantic clustering (list-based formula) was developed for the CVLT-II to correct the shortcomings of the traditional method. In the present study we compared the clinical utility of the traditional recall-based method versus the new list-based method using results from the original CVLT administered to 87 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 86 matched normal control participants. Logistic regression and score distribution analyses indicated that the new list-based method enhances the detection of differences in semantic-clustering ability between the groups.

  15. Iterative Development of an Online Dietary Recall Tool: INTAKE24.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Emma; Bradley, Jennifer; Poliakov, Ivan; Jackson, Dan; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2017-02-09

    Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24 h dietary recall tool developed for use in national food and nutrition surveys. The development of INTAKE24 was a four-stage iterative process of user interaction and evaluation with the intended end users, 11-24 years old. A total of 80 11-24 years old took part in the evaluation, 20 at each stage. Several methods were used to elicit feedback from the users including, 'think aloud', 'eye tracking', semi-structured interviews, and a system usability scale. Each participant completed an interviewer led recall post system completion. Key system developments generated from the user feedback included a 'flat' interface, which uses only a single interface screen shared between all of the various activities (e.g., free text entry, looking up foods in the database, portion size estimation). Improvements to the text entry, search functionality, and navigation around the system were also influenced through feedback from users at each stage. The time to complete a recall using INTAKE24 almost halved from the initial prototype to the end system, while the agreement with an interviewer led recall improved. Further developments include testing the use of INTAKE24 with older adults and translation into other languages for international use. Our future aim is to validate the system with recovery biomarkers.

  16. Iterative Development of an Online Dietary Recall Tool: INTAKE24

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Emma; Bradley, Jennifer; Poliakov, Ivan; Jackson, Dan; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J.; Foster, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24 h dietary recall tool developed for use in national food and nutrition surveys. The development of INTAKE24 was a four-stage iterative process of user interaction and evaluation with the intended end users, 11–24 years old. A total of 80 11–24 years old took part in the evaluation, 20 at each stage. Several methods were used to elicit feedback from the users including, ‘think aloud’, ‘eye tracking’, semi-structured interviews, and a system usability scale. Each participant completed an interviewer led recall post system completion. Key system developments generated from the user feedback included a ‘flat’ interface, which uses only a single interface screen shared between all of the various activities (e.g., free text entry, looking up foods in the database, portion size estimation). Improvements to the text entry, search functionality, and navigation around the system were also influenced through feedback from users at each stage. The time to complete a recall using INTAKE24 almost halved from the initial prototype to the end system, while the agreement with an interviewer led recall improved. Further developments include testing the use of INTAKE24 with older adults and translation into other languages for international use. Our future aim is to validate the system with recovery biomarkers. PMID:28208763

  17. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, P<0.05) with ephedrine than with placebo, but mechanical work was not different between the ephedrine and placebo periods. Noradrenaline excretion was lower with ephedrine (0.032+/-0.011 microg/mg creatinine) compared with placebo (0.044+/-0.012 microg/mg creatinine) (P<0.05). (+/-)Ephedrine is a relatively weak partial agonist of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors, and had no detectable activity at human beta3-adrenoreceptors. Ephedrine (50 mg thrice daily) modestly increases energy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  18. Exercise Increases 24-h Fat Oxidation Only When It Is Performed Before Breakfast

    PubMed Central

    Iwayama, Kaito; Kurihara, Reiko; Nabekura, Yoshiharu; Kawabuchi, Ryosuke; Park, Insung; Kobayashi, Masashi; Ogata, Hitomi; Kayaba, Momoko; Satoh, Makoto; Tokuyama, Kumpei

    2015-01-01

    Background As part of the growing lifestyle diversity in modern society, there is wide variation in the time of day individuals choose to exercise. Recent surveys in the US and Japan have reported that on weekdays, more people exercise in the evening, with fewer individuals exercising in the morning or afternoon. Exercise performed in the post-prandial state has little effect on accumulated fat oxidation over 24 h (24-h fat oxidation) when energy intake is matched to energy expenditure (energy-balanced condition). The present study explored the possibility that exercise increases 24-h fat oxidation only when performed in a post-absorptive state, i.e. before breakfast. Methods Indirect calorimetry using a metabolic chamber was performed in 10 young, non-obese men over 24 h. Subjects remained sedentary (control) or performed 60-min exercise before breakfast (morning), after lunch (afternoon), or after dinner (evening) at 50% of VO2max. All trials were designed to be energy balanced over 24 h. Time course of energy and substrate balance relative to the start of calorimetry were estimated from the differences between input (meal consumption) and output (oxidation). Findings Fat oxidation over 24 h was increased only when exercise was performed before breakfast (control, 456 ± 61; morning, 717 ± 64; afternoon, 446 ± 57; and evening, 432 ± 44 kcal/day). Fat oxidation over 24 h was negatively correlated with the magnitude of the transient deficit in energy and carbohydrate. Interpretation Under energy-balanced conditions, 24-h fat oxidation was increased by exercise only when performed before breakfast. Transient carbohydrate deficits, i.e., glycogen depletion, observed after morning exercise may have contributed to increased 24-h fat oxidation. PMID:26844280

  19. ASSESSMENT OF THE FOOD PATTERNS OF IMMIGRANT ECUADORIAN POPULATION IN SOUTHERN SPAIN BASED ON A 24-H FOOD RECALL SURVEY.

    PubMed

    Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Sanchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: ecuador es un país con limitada información nutricional con la excepción de algunos estudios de carácter general realizados por FAO (Food Agriculture Organization). Objetivos: realizar una evaluación nutricional de la dieta de la población inmigrante ecuatoriana en el sur de España para determinar diferencias en los patrones alimentarios y posibles deficiencias nutricionales. Métodos: la evaluación nutricional se basa en un estudio de recordatorio de alimentos de 24 horas llevado acabo sobre la población ecuatoriana residente en Sevilla y Córdoba (España) en combinación con la aplicación de bases de datos nacionales e internacionales de composición de alimentos. Se estimaron los niveles de ingesta de nutrientes y el cumplimiento de las ingestas dietéticas de referencia (IDR) que se analizaron estadísticamente para los factores, genero, edad, profesión y ciudad. Resultados: según las IDR utilizadas, la distribución de macronutrientes y los niveles de ingesta de nutrientes fueron, en la mayoría de los casos, adecuadas. De manera destacada, se constató que los hábitos alimentarios ecuatorianos permanecieron en la población inmigrante, con el arroz como fuente principal de energía. Los niveles de ingesta fueron significativamente diferentes para diferentes nutrientes dependiendo del grupo de edad, sexo, lugar de residencia y ocupación profesional. Comparando estos datos con un estudio previo en Ecuador reveló que la población inmigrante en España presenta un mejor estado nutricional, si bien en ambas poblaciones se detectaron deficiencias en fibra, vitamina E, I y Se. En cuanto a estas deficiencias, los resultados no pueden considerarse concluyentes debido a limitaciones propias de las bases de datos (por ej. Se) y a la carencia de estudios adecuados que permitan una evaluación más precisa (por ej. estudios de larga duración para vitamina E). Conclusiones: estos resultados evidencian que la población inmigrante ecuatoriana presenta un patrón alimentario más adecuado que el documentado para la población Ecuador. Estos resultados pueden ser útiles para determinar el valor nutricional de la dieta ecuatoriana y desarrollar estrategias adecuadas de intervención nutricional.

  20. Tuberculosis in hospitalized patients: clinical characteristics of patients receiving treatment within the first 24 h after admission*

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise Rossato; da Silva, Larissa Pozzebon; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients hospitalized for tuberculosis, comparing those in whom tuberculosis treatment was started within the first 24 h after admission with those who did not. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving new tuberculosis cases in patients aged ≥ 18 years who were hospitalized after seeking treatment in the emergency room. Results: We included 305 hospitalized patients, of whom 67 (22.0%) received tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission ( ≤24h group) and 238 (88.0%) did not (>24h group). Initiation of tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission was associated with being female (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.06-3.74; p = 0.032) and with an AFB-positive spontaneous sputum smear (OR = 4.19; 95% CI: 1.94-9.00; p < 0.001). In the ≤24h and >24h groups, respectively, the ICU admission rate was 22.4% and 15.5% (p = 0.258); mechanical ventilation was used in 22.4% and 13.9% (p = 0.133); in-hospital mortality was 22.4% and 14.7% (p = 0.189); and a cure was achieved in 44.8% and 52.5% (p = 0.326). Conclusions: Although tuberculosis treatment was initiated promptly in a considerable proportion of the inpatients evaluated, the rates of in-hospital mortality, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation use remained high. Strategies for the control of tuberculosis in primary care should consider that patients who seek medical attention at hospitals arrive too late and with advanced disease. It is therefore necessary to implement active surveillance measures in the community for earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25029651

  1. Recollective and Nonrecollective Recall

    PubMed Central

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.

    2010-01-01

    The study of recollective and nonrecollective retrieval has become controversial, owing to several critiques of traditional recognition-based measurement (e.g., remember/know, ROC, process dissociation). We present a new methodology in which subjects merely study and recall lists, using any standard paradigm (associative, cued, free, or serial recall), the data are analyzed with a Markov model whose parameters measure recollective and nonrecollective retrieval, and the model’s fit is compared to that of one-process models. The power of this approach is illustrated in some experiments that dealt with two classic questions: (a) What are the process-level differences between associative and free recall, and (b) why does taxonomic organization improve free recall but impair associative recall? Fit results showed that a dual-retrieval model is both necessary and sufficient to account for associative and free recall data, in contrast to the sufficient-but-not-necessary pattern that prevails in the recognition literature. Key substantive findings were that associative recall is more reliant on recollective retrieval and less reliant on nonrecollective retrieval than free recall, that taxonomic organization impairs recollective retrieval in both paradigms, and that taxonomic organization enhances the reconstruction component of nonrecollective retrieval in free recall. PMID:22279248

  2. Failure to recall.

    PubMed

    Laming, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical analysis shows that if the pattern of rehearsal in free-recall experiments (of necessity, the pattern observed when participants rehearse aloud) be continued without any further interruption by stimuli (as happens during recall), it terminates with the retrieval of the same 1 word over and over again. Such a terminal state is commonly reached before some of the words in the list have been retrieved even once; those words are not recalled. The 1 minute frequently allowed for recall in free-recall experiments is ample time for retrieval to seize up in this way. The author proposes a model that represents the essential features of the pattern of rehearsal; validates that model by reference to the overt rehearsal data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and J. Metcalfe (1978) and the recall data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and R. Okada (1970); demonstrates the long-term properties of continued sequences of retrievals and, also, a fundamental relation linking recall to the total time of presentation; and, finally, compares failure to recall in free-recall experiments with forgetting in general.

  3. Directed Forgetting of Recently Recalled Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnier, Amanda J.; Conway, Martin A.; Mayoh, Lyndel; Speyer, Joanne; Avizmil, Orit; Harris, Celia B.

    2007-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated list-method directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories. Reliable directed forgetting effects were observed across all experiments. In 4 experiments, the authors examined the impact of memory valence on directed forgetting. The forget instruction impaired recall of negative,…

  4. Does Active Rehearsal Improve Young Children's Recall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, Richard

    This study investigates different methods of increasing children's use of active rehearsal in recall, and the extent to which this active rehearsal improves their recall. Seven groups of second grade children and one group of adults were asked to memorize a list of everyday words in four study-test trials. Two of the groups of children were given…

  5. Failure to Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical analysis shows that if the pattern of rehearsal in free-recall experiments (of necessity, the pattern observed when participants rehearse aloud) be continued without any further interruption by stimuli (as happens during recall), it terminates with the retrieval of the same 1 word over and over again. Such a terminal state is commonly…

  6. Predicting Free Recalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2006-01-01

    This article reports some calculations on free-recall data from B. Murdock and J. Metcalfe (1978), with vocal rehearsal during the presentation of a list. Given the sequence of vocalizations, with the stimuli inserted in their proper places, it is possible to predict the subsequent sequence of recalls--the predictions taking the form of a…

  7. Recalling academic tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Franklin Gno

    This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.

  8. Interpersonal Process Recall (IPR): Uses in Training Trauma Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Geoffrey G.

    As an approach to mental health skills training, Interpersonal Process Recall (IPR) emphasizes a learning by discovery method. There are seven basic units in the IPR training package: (1) presentation, on the skills of facilitating communication; (2) affect simulation; (3) counselor recall; (4) inquirer training; (5) client recall; (6) mutual…

  9. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  10. Time dependent effects of stress prior to encoding on event-related potentials and 24 h delayed retrieval.

    PubMed

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars; Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Stress can exert profound effects on memory encoding. Here, we investigated whether (sub)cortical information processing during encoding and memory retrieval at a 24 h delayed test are affected by the temporal proximity between stress and memory encoding. Sixty-four participants engaged in the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST) or a no-stress control condition either immediately before (i.e., proximate condition) or 30 min before (i.e., distant condition) a picture encoding task. In general, stress decreased the number of freely recalled and recognized pictures and increased the number of false alarms. However, timing of stress exposure did not differentially affect picture recall, recognition or selective attention processes (i.e., LPP). Nevertheless, stress-induced cortisol responses and correctly recognized neutral pictures were positively associated within the proximate stress condition but negatively associated within the distant stress condition. These findings suggest that the time at which a stressor is applied might differentially impact the association between stress-induced cortisol elevations and memory formation and indicate the need for a finer delineation of the time window during which glucocorticoids affect memory formation processes.

  11. The Effects of Aging on Time Reproduction in Delayed Free-Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakitin, B.C.; Stern, Y.; Malapani, C.

    2005-01-01

    The experiments presented here demonstrate that normal aging amplifies differences in time production occurring in delayed free-recall testing. Experiment 1 compared the time production ability of two healthy aged groups as well as college-aged participants. During the test session, which followed a 24-h delay and omitted all feedback and examples…

  12. Delayed Recall of Fear Extinction in Rats with Lesions of Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebron, Kelimer; Milad, Mohammed R.; Quirk, Gregory J.

    2004-01-01

    Extinction of auditory fear conditioning is thought to form a new memory. We previously found that rats with vmPFC lesions could extinguish fear to the tone within a session, but showed no recall of extinction 24 h later. One interpretation is that the vmPFC is the sole storage site of extinction memory. However, it is also possible that lesioned…

  13. The 24 h blood pressure-R-R interval relation in ambulatory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Recordati, Giorgio; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2008-05-30

    The present study was aimed at investigating whether the blood pressure-R-R interval relation obtained by ABPM may give useful information about autonomic control in the 24 h period. To this purpose ABPM was performed in 60 healthy young subjects (30 females and 30 males, mean age 21.8+/-1.0 years) and the collected variables were copied to a software program to convert heart rate into R-R interval values, for statistical analysis and graphic representation. The following data were calculated: 1) day and night means+/-SD; 2) difference and percent difference in mean night less mean day R-R interval (Delta y), diastolic and systolic blood pressures (Delta x) and their Delta y/Delta x ratios; 3) intercept (a_24 h), slope (b_24 h) and r coefficient (r_24 h) of the linear regressions of 24 h R-R interval over diastolic and systolic blood pressure values. In all subjects night, with respect to day, was characterized by R-R interval lengthening and blood pressure lowering. Despite this common pattern, day and night means and SDs, night and day differences, Delta y/Delta x ratios, a_24 h and b_24 h were different from individual to individual, but they were characteristic and reproducible in 20 out of the 21 subjects in which ABPM was repeated twice. Subjects could thus be classified according to their Delta y/Delta x ratios and slope (b_24 h). The 24 h blood pressure-R-R interval relation as calculated from ABPM yields individually characteristic indices of circadian sympatho-vagal reciprocity. This novel approach may be helpful in characterizing the 24 h autonomic control of several groups of patients.

  14. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 version, for youth aged 9 to 11 Years: A validation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites using a quasiexperimental design. In one s...

  15. Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall

    DOE PAGES

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.

    2014-12-22

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are storedmore » in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.« less

  16. Adiabatic quantum optimization for associative memory recall

    SciTech Connect

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis S.

    2014-12-22

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  17. 24-h urinary sodium excretion is associated with obesity in a cross-sectional sample of Australian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2016-03-28

    Emerging evidence indicates that dietary Na may be linked to obesity; however it is unclear whether this relationship is independent of energy intake (EI). The aim of this study was to assess the association between Na intake and measures of adiposity, including BMI z score, weight category and waist:height ratio (WHtR), in a sample of Australian schoolchildren. This was a cross-sectional study of schoolchildren aged 4-12 years. Na intake was assessed via one 24-h urine collection. BMI was converted to age- and sex-specific z scores, and WHtR was used to define abdominal obesity. In children aged ≥8 years, EI was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Of the 666 children with valid urine samples 55 % were male (average age 9·3 (sd 1·8) years). In adjusted models an additional 17 mmol/d of Na was associated with a 0·10 higher BMI z score (95 % CI 0·07, 0·13), a 23 % (OR 1·23; 95 % CI 1·16, 1·31) greater risk of being overweight/obese and a 15 % (OR 1·15; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·23) greater risk of being centrally obese. In the subsample of 8-12-year-old children (n 458), adjustment for EI did not markedly alter the associations between Na and adiposity outcomes. Using a robust measure of daily Na intake we found a positive association between Na intake and obesity risk in Australian schoolchildren, which could not be explained by total energy consumption. To determine whether this is a causal relationship, longitudinal studies, with high-quality measures of Na and EI, are required.

  18. Master runners dominate 24-h ultramarathons worldwide—a retrospective data analysis from 1998 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were to examine (a) participation and performance trends and (b) the age of peak running performance in master athletes competing in 24-h ultra-marathons held worldwide between 1998 and 2011. Methods Changes in both running speed and the age of peak running speed in 24-h master ultra-marathoners (39,664 finishers, including 8,013 women and 31,651 men) were analyzed. Results The number of 24-h ultra-marathoners increased for both women and men across years (P < 0.01). The age of the annual fastest woman decreased from 48 years in 1998 to 35 years in 2011. The age of peaking running speed remained unchanged across time at 42.5 ± 5.2 years for the annual fastest men (P > 0.05). The age of the annual top ten women decreased from 42.6 ± 5.9 years (1998) to 40.1 ± 7.0 years (2011) (P < 0.01). For the annual top ten men, the age of peak running speed remained unchanged at 42 ± 2 years (P > 0.05). Running speed remained unchanged over time at 11.4 ± 0.4 km h-1 for the annual fastest men and 10.0 ± 0.2 km/h for the annual fastest women, respectively (P > 0.05). For the annual ten fastest women, running speed increased over time by 3.2% from 9.3 ± 0.3 to 9.6 ± 0.3 km/h (P < 0.01). Running speed of the annual top ten men remained unchanged at 10.8 ± 0.3 km/h (P > 0.05). Women in age groups 25–29 (r2 = 0.61, P < 0.01), 30–34 (r2 = 0.48, P < 0.01), 35–39 (r2 = 0.42, P = 0.01), 40–44 (r2 = 0.46, P < 0.01), 55–59 (r2 = 0.41, P = 0.03), and 60–64 (r2 = 0.57, P < 0.01) improved running speed; while women in age groups 45–49 and 50–54 maintained running speed (P > 0.05). Men improved running speed in age groups 25–29 (r2 = 0.48, P = 0.02), 45–49 (r2 = 0.34, P = 0.03), 50–54 (r2 = 0.50, P < 0.01), 55–59 (r2 = 0.70, P < 0.01), and 60–64 (r2 = 0.44, P = 0.03); while runners in age groups 30–34, 35–39, and 40–44 maintained running speed (P > 0.05). Conclusions Female and male age group runners improved

  19. From Recall to Resolve: Supporting the Development of Culturally Responsive Preservice Teachers in a Language Arts Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Crystal Polite

    2013-01-01

    The need for culturally responsive teachers in an increasingly diverse educational system is paramount. The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice teachers' developing understandings of culturally responsive pedagogy in a language arts methods class over the course of one semester. The study also sought to explore the…

  20. Autogenic training and dream recall.

    PubMed

    Schredl, M; Doll, E

    1997-06-01

    The present study has investigated the relationship between Autogenic Training and dream recall for 112 participants in 16 beginning courses of 10 wk. Analyses confirmed the hypothesis that learning and practicing this relaxation technique enhanced dream recall.

  1. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  2. Are the costs of directed forgetting due to failures of sampling or recovery? Exploring the dynamics of recall in list-method directed forgetting.

    PubMed

    Spillers, Gregory J; Unsworth, Nash

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the costs of directed forgetting within the framework of a search model. In such models, retrieval failure can occur at either the sampling or the recovery stage of recall. Multiple measures of performance were employed to answer two primary questions of interest: (1) Where does the locus of forgetting occur in the directed forgetting paradigm? and (2) What current theory of directed forgetting can best account for the pattern of data observed? Converging evidence from these measures suggested that the costs of directed forgetting are the result of sampling issues during retrieval. Further, these results were best explained by a contextual-change account that argues an instruction to forget creates a break in context causing individuals to sample more items at retrieval. It is argued that the retrieval deficits observed in list-method directed forgetting paradigms are due, in part, to the fact that individuals sample a greater number of items (that include both targets and intrusions) during retrieval in the forget-condition, thereby creating greater response competition compared with retrieval in the remember-condition.

  3. A simple method for censored age-of-onset data subject to recall bias: mothers' reports of age of puberty in male twins.

    PubMed

    Pickles, A; Neale, M; Simonoff, E; Rutter, M; Hewitt, J; Meyer, J; Crouchley, R; Silberg, J; Eaves, L

    1994-09-01

    Genetic analysis of variation in age of onset of development milestones or psychopathological behaviors has been little researched, owing largely to the computational difficulty of dealing with "censored" observations. Censored observations arise when the only information on individuals is that they have reached a particular age but without onset having occurred. This paper shows how models can be simply fitted to such data using programs that can perform genetic analysis of categorical data by maximum likelihood. The method is illustrated using the program Mx with data on maternal report of the onset of puberty in twin sons from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development. Frequently, data on age of onset is collected by retrospective recall. This can pose a variety of measurement problems. Suggestions are made for models that account for some of these problems or are robust to their presence. Substantial evidence for "telescoping" of onset dates is found for the puberty data. If left unaccounted for, these effects can artifactually inflate estimates of common environment effects.

  4. Changes in the oral health-related quality of life 24 h following insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Noorhanizar; Saub, Roslan; Othman, Siti Adibah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess changes in the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances 24 h after insertion. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients aged between 14 and 24 years (29 males and 31 females; mean age, 17.8 years; SD 3.1 years) were recruited from the Postgraduate Clinic, Department of Children's Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. The oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was measured before treatment and 24 h after insertion of the orthodontic appliance. The instrument used to measure OHRQoL was a modified self-administered short version of Malaysian Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-16[M]) questionnaire. The higher the score, the poorer is the OHRQoL. Results: Overall score of OHRQoL increased significantly 24 h after insertion (mean 43.5±10.9) as compared to before insertion (mean 34.1±9.2) (P<0.001). Significant changes were found for the following items: Difficulties in chewing, bad breath, difficulties in pronunciation, discomfort in eating, ulcer, pain, avoidances of eating certain foods, difficulties in cleaning, embarrassment, avoid smiling, disturbed sleep, concentration affected, difficulty carrying out daily activities, and lack of self-confidence (P<0.05). Significant changes were also found in the mean difference of OHRQoL for gender (P<0.001). Conclusion: OHRQoL was found to deteriorate 24 h after insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances in almost all domains, with significant changes in gender. This information can be used as “informed consent”, which might increase patient's compliance as they are aware of what to expect from initial orthodontic treatment. PMID:24987635

  5. The acceptability of repeat Internet-based hybrid diet assessment of previous 24-h dietary intake: administration of the Oxford WebQ in UK Biobank.

    PubMed

    Galante, Julieta; Adamska, Ligia; Young, Alan; Young, Heather; Littlejohns, Thomas J; Gallacher, John; Allen, Naomi

    2016-02-28

    Although dietary intake over a single 24-h period may be atypical of an individual's habitual pattern, multiple 24-h dietary assessments can be representative of habitual intake and help in assessing seasonal variation. Web-based questionnaires are convenient for the participant and result in automatic data capture for study investigators. This study reports on the acceptability of repeated web-based administration of the Oxford WebQ--a 24-h recall of frequency from a set food list suitable for self-completion from which energy and nutrient values can be automatically generated. As part of the UK Biobank study, four invitations to complete the Oxford WebQ were sent by email over a 16-month period. Overall, 176 012 (53% of those invited) participants completed the online version of the Oxford WebQ at least once and 66% completed it more than once, although only 16% completed it on all four occasions. The response rate for any one round of invitations varied between 34 and 26%. On most occasions, the Oxford WebQ was completed on the same day that they received the invitation, although this was less likely if sent on a weekend. Participants who completed the Oxford WebQ tended to be white, female, slightly older, less deprived and more educated, which is typical of health-conscious volunteer-based studies. These findings provide preliminary evidence to suggest that repeated 24-h dietary assessment via the Internet is acceptable to the public and a feasible strategy for large population-based studies.

  6. Baroreflex-mediated heart rate and vascular resistance responses 24 h after maximal exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Plasma volume, heart rate (HR) variability, and stimulus-response relationships for baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance (FVR) and HR were studied in eight healthy men after and without performing a bout of maximal exercise to test the hypotheses that acute expansion of plasma volume is associated with 1) reduction in baroreflex-mediated HR response, and 2) altered operational range for central venous pressure (CVP). METHODS: The relationship between stimulus (DeltaCVP) and vasoconstrictive reflex response (DeltaFVR) during unloading of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors was assessed with lower-body negative pressure (LBNP, 0, -5, -10, -15, -20 mm Hg). The relationship between stimulus (Deltamean arterial pressure (MAP)) and cardiac reflex response (DeltaHR) during loading of arterial baroreceptors was assessed with steady-state infusion of phenylephrine (PE) designed to increase MAP by 15 mm Hg alone and during application of LBNP (PE+LBNP) and neck pressure (PE+LBNP+NP). Measurements of vascular volume and autonomic baroreflex responses were conducted on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested 24 h after graded cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, measurement of baroreflex response was repeated with no exercise (control). The order of exercise and control treatments was counterbalanced. RESULTS: Baseline CVP was elevated (P = 0.04) from a control value of 10.5 +/- 0.4 to 12.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg 24 h after exercise. Average DeltaFVR/DeltaCVP during LBNP was not different (P = 0.942) between the exercise (-1.35 +/- 0.32 pru x mm Hg-1) and control (-1.32 +/- 0.36 pru x mm Hg-1) conditions. However, maximal exercise caused a shift along the reflex response relationship to a higher CVP and lower FVR. HR baroreflex response (DeltaHR/DeltaMAP) to PE+LBNP+NP was lower (P = 0.015) after maximal exercise (-0.43 +/- 0.15 beats x min-1 x mm Hg-1) compared with the control

  7. A MULTIPLE TESTING OF THE ABC METHOD AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SECOND-GENERATION MODEL. PART II, TEST RESULTS AND AN ANALYSIS OF RECALL RATIO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALTMANN, BERTHOLD

    AFTER A BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE TEST PROGRAM (DESCRIBED MORE FULLY IN LI 000 318), THE STATISTICAL RESULTS TABULATED AS OVERALL "ABC (APPROACH BY CONCEPT)-RELEVANCE RATIOS" AND "ABC-RECALL FIGURES" ARE PRESENTED AND REVIEWED. AN ABSTRACT MODEL DEVELOPED IN ACCORDANCE WITH MAX WEBER'S "IDEALTYPUS" ("DIE OBJEKTIVITAET…

  8. Identifying nutrients that are under-reported by an automated 24-hour dietary recall method in overweight and obese women after weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underreporting of energy intake by 15-50% is a common problem in dietary assessment. Evidence suggests overweight/obese respondents are more likely to under-report than normal weight. This study compared Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24)-reported dietary intake to true intake in ove...

  9. 24 h electrocardiographic monitoring in morbidly obese patients during short-term zero calorie diet.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, E; Yeshurun, D; Goldhammer, E; Shiran, A

    1993-06-01

    The medical literature of the previous decades has reported sudden unexpected death among cases of very low calorie dieters. Cardiac arrhythmias, possibly produced by a prolonged QT interval, were suspected to be the main cause of death in a considerable number of these cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of significant cardiac arrhythmias and prolongation of the QT interval, during short-term zero calorie diet, in morbidly obese patients. A group of 11 such patients (BMI > 35 kg/m2) were treated with a short-term zero calorie diet, as in-patients for ten days, followed by an out-patient regime on an 800 kcal diet. Their ages ranged from 19-58 years (mean 43.6). None had diabetes mellitus, cardiac, liver or renal disease, or thyroid or pituitary abnormalities, and none took any medication except Allupurinol 300 mg/day. We used a 24h holter monitoring system to detect cardiac arrhythmias or prolonged QT interval. Recordings were performed on the day before starting the fast, while the patients were on their regular diet, and compared with similar recordings of the same patients taken on the 10th day of the fast. No significant cardiac arrhythmias or prolongation of the QT interval were recorded during the fasting period. Short-term zero calorie dieting provided the patients with physical and psychological encouragement and is a safe method for reducing weight if it is carried out under strict medical supervision.

  10. Compound cueing in free recall

    PubMed Central

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cueing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the two most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cueing in both conditional response probabilities and inter-response times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cueing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cueing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  11. Fading Memories: Retrospective Recall Inaccuracies in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This longitudinal study examines the recall accuracy of childhood ADHD symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood by youth and their parents, compared with reports obtained during childhood. Method: Participants (N = 94) are initially evaluated when they are aged between 7 and 11 and reassessed when they are aged between 16 and 22…

  12. Veridical and False Recall in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Sheng, Li; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Gkalitsiou, Zoi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study used a false memory paradigm to explore the veridical and false recall of adults who stutter. Method: Twelve adults who stutter and 12 age-matched typically fluent peers listened to and then verbally recalled lists of words that consisted of either semantic or phonological associates or an equal number of semantic and…

  13. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-Term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alduais, Ahmed Mohammed Saleh; Almukhaizeem, Yasir Saad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first…

  14. Chronic stress and sex differences on the recall of fear conditioning and extinction.

    PubMed

    Baran, Sarah E; Armstrong, Charles E; Niren, Danielle C; Hanna, Jeffery J; Conrad, Cheryl D

    2009-03-01

    Chronic stress effects and sex differences were examined on conditioned fear extinction. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically stressed by restraint (6 h/d/21 d), conditioned to tone and footshock, followed by extinction after 1 h and 24 h delays. Chronic stress impaired the recall of fear extinction in males, as evidenced by high freezing to tone after the 24 h delay despite exposure to the previous 1 h delay extinction trials, and this effect was not due to ceiling effects from overtraining during conditioning. In contrast, chronic stress attenuated the recall of fear conditioning acquisition in females, regardless of exposure to the 1 h extinction exposure. Since freezing to tone was reinstated following unsignalled footshocks, the deficit in the stressed rats reflected impaired recall rather than impaired consolidation. Sex differences in fear conditioning and extinction were observed in nonstressed controls as well, with control females resisting extinction to tone. Analysis of contextual freezing showed that all groups (control, stress, male, female) increased freezing immediately after the first tone extinction trial, demonstrating contextual discrimination. These findings show that chronic stress and sex interact to influence fear conditioning, with chronic stress impairing the recall of delayed fear extinction in males to implicate the medial prefrontal cortex, disrupting the recall of the fear conditioning acquisition in females to implicate the amygdala, and nonstressed controls exhibiting sex differences in fear conditioning and extinction, which may involve the amygdala and/or corticosterone levels.

  15. Interpersonal Process Recall. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Craig S.

    This digest focuses on Information Process Recall (IPR), a supervision strategy developed to increase counselor awareness of covert thoughts and feelings and to deepen the therapeutic relationship between the counselor and the client. Steps in conducting IPR are given as a guideline for conducting IPR recall sessions using audio or video tapes. To…

  16. NQRS Data for C24H20BRb (Subst. No. 1578)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BRb (Subst. No. 1578)

  17. NQRS Data for C24H24BN (Subst. No. 1583)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H24BN (Subst. No. 1583)

  18. NQRS Data for C24H20BCs (Subst. No. 1575)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BCs (Subst. No. 1575)

  19. NQRS Data for C24H20BK (Subst. No. 1576)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BK (Subst. No. 1576)

  20. Probable maximum precipitation for 24 h duration over southeast Asian monsoon region—Selangor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desa M, M. N.; Noriah, A. B.; Rakhecha, P. R.

    The probable maximum precipitation (PMP) for stations in Malaysia using Hershfield formula is routinely estimated as mean plus 15 standard deviations processed from yearly maximum rainfall values. The value of 15 as frequency factor is too high for a humid region such as Malaysia. In this paper, yearly maximum 1-day rainfall data of about 30-60 years for 33 stations in the region of Selangor, Malaysia, were analysed in an attempt to estimate PMP for 1-day duration based on an appropriate frequency factor for the first time. Based on the actual rainfall data of the stations, the highest value of this frequency factor was found to be 8.7. The frequency factor of 8.7 was subsequently used to estimate 24-h PMP values for the 33 stations. Using these PMP estimates, a generalised map was prepared showing the spatial distribution of 24-h PMP. It was found that 24-h PMP over Selangor, Malaysia, varied from 375 to 500 mm and the average ratio of the 24-h PMP to the highest observed 1-day rainfall was found to be about 2.0. The PMP map is considered as important to determine reliable and consistent PMP estimate for any location in Selangor, Malaysia, for designing costly and large hydraulic structures.

  1. Parallel assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes: validation against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; De Marees, Markus; Fusch, Gerhard; Fusch, Christoph; Mester, Joachim; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2010-11-01

    The assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes requires accurate and precise methods. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for parallel assessment of diet and exercise against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and respiratory gas exchange. The participants were 14 male triathletes under normal training conditions. Energy intake and doubly labelled water were weakly associated with each other (r = 0.69, standard error of estimate [SEE] = 304 kcal x day(-1)). Protein intake was strongly correlated with 24-h urea (r = 0.89) but showed considerable individual variation (SEE = 0.34 g kg(-1) x day(-1)). Total energy expenditure based on recorded activities was highly correlated with doubly labelled water (r = 0.95, SEE = 195 kcal x day(-1)) but was proportionally biased. During running and cycling, estimated exercise energy expenditure was highly correlated with gas exchange (running: r = 0.89, SEE = 1.6 kcal x min(-1); cycling: r = 0.95, SEE = 1.4 kcal x min(-1)). High exercise energy expenditure was slightly underestimated during running. For nutrition data, variations appear too large for precise measurements in individual athletes, which is a common problem of dietary assessment methods. Despite the high correlations of total energy expenditure and exercise energy expenditure with reference methods, a correction for systematic errors is necessary for the valid estimation of energetic requirements in individual athletes.

  2. Schottky barrier height of Ni/TiO2/4H-SiC metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Ivan R.; Pereira, Marcelo B.; Boudinov, Henri I.

    2015-12-01

    Ni/TiO2/4H-SiC diodes were analysed through measurements of current-voltage curves varying the temperature. The Schottky Barrier Height (SBH) which increased with temperature was studied by simulation of the Thermionic Emission Model, considering Ni/SiC Schottky structures with an insulator layer between the metal and semiconductor. This model shows that a new method of calculation should be applied to diodes that have a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. Misleading results for SBH are obtained if the thin insulator layer is not considered. When applying the suggested method to the Ni/TiO2/4H-SiC diodes it was necessary to consider not only the deposited TiO2 layer, but also a second dielectric layer of native SiCxOy at the surface of SiC. By measuring I-V-T curves for two samples with different thicknesses of TiO2, the suggested method allows one to estimate the thicknesses of both dielectric layers: TiO2 and SiOxCy.

  3. What are the approaches for evaluating antihypertensive treatment by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring?

    PubMed

    Neutel, J M; Smith, D H; Weber, M A

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of trough blood pressure in a clinic setting have been the traditional method of assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive agents. The duration of action of antihypertensive drugs has been assessed by calculation of a trough-to-peak ratio; drugs with a trough-to-peak ratio greater than 50% are typically given once-a-day indications. However, the use of clinical measurements to assess antihypertensive agents can be misleading. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a simple technique that provides accurate and reproducible data on both the efficacy and duration of action of antihypertensive agents. Although several complicated techniques have been used for the analysis of ambulatory blood pressure data, studies have demonstrated that calculation of simple blood pressure means (24 h mean, day-time mean and night-time mean) will provide all the data required to assess the efficacy of a drug. Calculations of systolic and diastolic load also provide useful information, and the index correlates closely with target-organ damage. Assessing the reduction of blood pressure during the last 2-6 h of the dosing interval provides critical information on the duration of action of agents with once-a-day dosing. Trough-to-peak ratio can also be calculated from an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. Furthermore, a simple line graph constructed from hourly means makes available, at a simple glance, a large amount of information about a drug. The reproducibility of ambulatory monitoring, together with the absence of placebo effect and the ability to exclude patients with white-coat hypertension, make the technique an extremely powerful tool for the assessment of antihypertensive agents that clearly provides more data on the efficacy and duration of action of an antihypertensive agent than do traditional clinical measurements.

  4. Postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in rabbits over 24 h.

    PubMed

    Maskell, Peter D; Albeishy, Mohammed; De Paoli, Giorgia; Wilson, Nathan E; Seetohul, L Nitin

    2016-03-01

    The interpretation of postmortem drug levels is complicated by changes in drug blood levels in the postmortem period, a phenomena known as postmortem drug redistribution. We investigated the postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in a rabbit model. Heroin (1 mg/kg) was injected into anesthetised rabbit; after 1 h, an auricular vein blood sample was taken and the rabbit was euthanised. Following death rabbits were placed in a supine position at room temperature and divided into three groups namely (1) immediate autopsy, (2) autopsy after 30 minutes and (3) autopsy 24 h after death. Various samples which included femoral blood, cardiac blood, lung, liver, kidney, vitreous humour, subcutaneous and abdominal fat, liver, bone marrow and skeletal muscle were taken. The samples were analysed with a validated LC-MS/MS method. It was observed that within minutes there was a significant increase in free morphine postmortem femoral blood concentration compared to the antemortem sample (0.01 ± 0.01 to 0.05 ± 0.02 mg/L).Various other changes in free morphine and metabolite concentrations were observed during the course of the experiment in various tissues. Principal component analysis was used to investigate possible correlations between free morphine in the various samples. Some correlations were observed but gave poor predictions (>20 % error) when back calculating. The results suggest that rabbits are a good model for further studies of postmortem redistribution but that further study and understanding of the phenomena is required before accurate predictions of the blood concentration at the time of death are possible.

  5. Dietary quality varies according to data collection instrument: a comparison between a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; de Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes; De Cnop, Mara Lima; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Coura, Camila Pinheiro; Brito, Alessandra Page; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the agreement between the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R), estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and multiple 24-hour recalls (24h-R). The Wilcoxon paired test, partial correlations (PC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman method were used. The total BHEI-R scores and its components ("total fruits", "whole fruits", "total vegetables", "integral cereals", "saturated fat", "sodium", and "energy intake derived from solid fat, added sugar, and alcoholic beverages") were statistically different, with the ICC and PC indicating poor concordance and correlation. The mean concordance estimated for the total BHEI-R and its components varied from 68% for "integral cereals" to 147% for "whole fruits". The suitable concordance limits were violated for most of the components of the BHEI-R. Poor concordance was observed between the BHEI-R estimated by the FFQ and by multiple 24h-R, which indicated a strong reliability of the BHEI-R on the instrument used to collect information on food consumption.

  6. Wearable cameras can reduce dietary under-reporting: doubly labelled water validation of a camera-assisted 24 h recall.

    PubMed

    Gemming, Luke; Rush, Elaine; Maddison, Ralph; Doherty, Aiden; Gant, Nicholas; Utter, Jennifer; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2015-01-28

    Preliminary research has suggested that wearable cameras may reduce under-reporting of energy intake (EI) in self-reported dietary assessment. The aim of the present study was to test the validity of a wearable camera-assisted 24 h dietary recall against the doubly labelled water (DLW) technique. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed over 15 d using the DLW protocol among forty adults (n 20 males, age 35 (sd 17) years, BMI 27 (sd 4) kg/m2 and n 20 females, age 28 (sd 7) years, BMI 22 (sd 2) kg/m2). EI was assessed using three multiple-pass 24 h dietary recalls (MP24) on days 2-4, 8-10 and 13-15. On the days before each nutrition assessment, participants wore an automated wearable camera (SenseCam (SC)) in free-living conditions. The wearable camera images were viewed by the participants following the completion of the dietary recall, and their changes in self-reported intakes were recorded (MP24+SC). TEE and EI assessed by the MP24 and MP24+SC methods were compared. Among men, the MP24 and MP24+SC measures underestimated TEE by 17 and 9%, respectively (P< 0.001 and P= 0.02). Among women, these measures underestimated TEE by 13 and 7%, respectively (P< 0.001 and P= 0.004). The assistance of the wearable camera (MP24+SC) reduced the magnitude of under-reporting by 8% for men and 6% for women compared with the MP24 alone (P< 0.001 and P< 0.001). The increase in EI was predominantly from the addition of 265 unreported foods (often snacks) as revealed by the participants during the image review. Wearable cameras enhance the accuracy of self-report by providing passive and objective information regarding dietary intake. High-definition image sensors and increased imaging frequency may improve the accuracy further.

  7. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... changes as appropriate. A recalling firm should conduct the recall in accordance with an approved recall... request from the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers...

  8. Accuracy of caregivers’ recall of hospital admissions: implications for research

    PubMed Central

    Burakevych, Nataliia; McKinlay, Christopher Joel Dorman; Alsweiler, Jane Marie; Harding, Jane Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the accuracy of caregivers’ recall of hospital admissions in early childhood. Methods Prospective cohort study of babies born at risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia at Waikato Hospital, New Zealand, a regional public hospital and sole provider of acute inpatient care to over 100,000 children. Caregivers’ recall of children’s hospital admissions up to 4.5 years were compared with medical records. Accuracy of recall was related to neonatal and socio-demographic characteristics. Results Out of 267 children, 179 (67%) visited hospital and 106 (40%) were admitted at least once. The most frequent reasons for admission were for respiratory (29%) and gastrointestinal (18%) problems. Of 106 children admitted to hospital, 27 (25%) caregivers did not recall the admission and only 37 (35%) accurately recalled the number of admissions. The accuracy of recall was lower for gastrointestinal (38%) and surgical (40%) problems, while recall of respiratory (64%) and ear, nose and throat (60%) admissions was more accurate. Low socio-economic status and multiple admissions were associated with less accurate recall of number of admissions. Conclusion Caregivers do not accurately report hospital admissions. Questionnaire data about use of hospital facilities should be interpreted cautiously, and may not be sufficiently accurate for use in research studies. PMID:26355393

  9. High-intensity interval exercise induces 24-h energy expenditure similar to traditional endurance exercise despite reduced time commitment.

    PubMed

    Skelly, Lauren E; Andrews, Patricia C; Gillen, Jenna B; Martin, Brian J; Percival, Michael E; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Subjects performed high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (END) to evaluate 24-h oxygen consumption. Oxygen consumption during HIIT was lower versus END; however, total oxygen consumption over 24 h was similar. These data demonstrate that HIIT and END induce similar 24-h energy expenditure, which may explain the comparable changes in body composition reported despite lower total training volume and time commitment.

  10. Nqrs Data for C24H20MnO4P (Subst. No. 1581)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20MnO4P (Subst. No. 1581)

  11. Nqrs Data for C24H22Cl2Cu2N6 (Subst. No. 1582)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H22Cl2Cu2N6 (Subst. No. 1582)

  12. Ambulant 24-h glucose rhythms mark calendar and biological age in apparently healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Wijsman, Carolien A; van Heemst, Diana; Hoogeveen, Evelien S; Slagboom, P Eline; Maier, Andrea B; de Craen, Anton J M; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Pijl, Hanno; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Mooijaart, Simon P

    2013-04-01

    Glucose metabolism marks health and disease and is causally inferred in the aging process. Ambulant continuous glucose monitoring provides 24-h glucose rhythms under daily life conditions. We aimed to describe ambulant 24-h glucose rhythms measured under daily life condition in relation to calendar and biological age in apparently healthy individuals. In the general population and families with propensity for longevity, we studied parameters from 24-h glucose rhythms; glucose levels; and its variability, obtained by continuous glucose monitoring. Participants were 21 young (aged 22-37 years), 37 middle-aged (aged 44-72 years) individuals from the general population, and 26 middle-aged (aged 52-74 years) individuals with propensity for longevity. All were free of diabetes. Compared with young individuals, middle-aged individuals from the general population had higher mean glucose levels (5.3 vs. 4.7 mmol L(-1) , P < 0.001), both diurnally (P < 0.001) and nocturnally (P = 0.002). Glucose variability was higher in the middle-aged compared with the young (standard deviation 0.70 vs. 0.57 mmol L(-1) , P = 0.025). Compared with middle-aged individuals from the general population, middle-aged individuals with propensity for longevity had lower overall mean glucose levels (5.2 vs. 5.4 mmol L(-1) , P = 0.047), which were more different nocturnally (4.8 vs. 5.2 mmol L(-1) , P = 0.003) than diurnally (5.3 vs. 5.5 mmol L(-1) , P = 0.14). There were no differences in glucose variability between these groups. Results were independent of body mass index. Among individuals without diabetes, we observed significantly different 24-h glucose rhythms depending on calendar and biological age.

  13. Nqrs Data for C24H42Li2N4 (Subst. No. 1587)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H42Li2N4 (Subst. No. 1587)

  14. Transcriptomic response of Arabidopsis thaliana after 24 h incubation with the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Morán-Diez, Eugenia; Rubio, Belén; Domínguez, Sara; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Nicolás, Carlos

    2012-04-15

    Trichoderma harzianum is a fungus used as biocontrol agent using its antagonistic abilities against phytopathogenic fungi, although it has also direct effects on plants, increasing or accelerating their growth and resistance to diseases and the tolerance to abiotic stresses. We analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression changes after 24 h of incubation in the presence of T. harzianum T34 using the Affymetrix GeneChip Arabidopsis ATH1. Because this microarray contains more than 22,500 probe sets representing approximately 24,000 genes, we were able to construct a global picture of the molecular physiology of the plant at 24 h of T. harzianum-Arabidopsis interaction. We identified several differentially expressed genes that are involved in plant responses to stress, regulation of transcription, signal transduction or plant metabolism. Our data support the hypothesis that salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-related genes were down-regulated in A. thaliana after 24 h of incubation in the presence of T. harzianum T34, while several genes related to abiotic stress responses were up-regulated. These systemic changes elicited by T. harzianum in Arabidopsis are discussed.

  15. Effect of octreotide on 24-h blood pressure profile in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Fallo, F; Barzon, L; Boscaro, M; Casiglia, E; Sonino, N

    1998-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of octreotide, a somatostatin analog drug potentially able to inhibit growth hormone (GH), on the circadian blood pressure profile in a group of patients with acromegaly. Ten patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenoma were studied before and 6 months after treatment with subcutaneous octreotide 0.2 to 0.6 mg/day. Twenty-four hour blood pressure and heart rate were measured every 15 min at daytime (07:00 to 22:59) and every 30 min at nighttime (23:00 to 06:59) using a TM-2420 recorder. No correlation was found between GH levels and 24-h blood pressure in baseline conditions. Untreated patients had a significant nocturnal decrease of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < .01), and all showed a circadian systolic or diastolic blood pressure rhythm. During octreotide treatment, 24 h as well as nighttime systolic and diastolic blood pressures significantly increased (P < .05), whereas daytime systolic and diastolic blood pressures did not change. Treated patients did not have a nocturnal decline in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures (P = NS), and eight lost their systolic or diastolic blood pressure rhythm. In conclusion, blood pressure circadian rhythm seems to be maintained in acromegaly. Octreotide treatment is associated with an increase of 24-h and nighttime blood pressure, and with loss of circadian blood pressure rhythm. Splanchnic vasoconstriction by this drug, shifting blood to peripheral vessels, may explain this phenomenon.

  16. Immune cell changes in response to a swimming training session during a 24-h recovery period.

    PubMed

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Joana F; Matias, Catarina; Seixas, Maria T; Alvim, Marta G; Bourbon, Mafalda; Laires, Maria J; Alves, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools.

  17. 24-h ambulatory recording of aortic pulse wave velocity and central systolic augmentation: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Luzardo, Leonella; Lujambio, Inés; Sottolano, Mariana; da Rosa, Alicia; Thijs, Lutgarde; Noboa, Oscar; Staessen, Jan A; Boggia, José

    2012-10-01

    We assessed the feasibility of ambulatory pulse wave analysis by comparing this approach with an established tonometric technique. We investigated 35 volunteers (45.6 years; 51.0% women) exclusively at rest (R study) and 83 volunteers (49.9 years; 61.4% women) at rest and during daytime (1000-2000 h) ambulatory monitoring (R+A study). We recorded central systolic (cSP), diastolic (cDP) and pulse (cPP) pressures, augmentation index (cAI) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) by brachial oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph 24h PWA Monitor) and radial tonometry (SphygmoCor). We applied the Bland and Altman's statistics. In the R study, tonometric and oscillometric estimates of cSP (105.6 vs. 106.9 mm Hg), cDP (74.6 vs. 74.7 mm Hg), cPP (31.0 vs. 32.1 mm Hg), cAI (21.1 vs. 20.6%) and PWV (7.3 vs. 7.0 m s(-1)) were similar (P0.11). In the R+A study, tonometric vs. oscillometric assessment yielded similar values for cSP (115.4 vs. 113.9 mm Hg; P=0.19) and cAI (26.5 vs. 25.3%; P=0.54), but lower cDP (77.8 vs. 81.9 mm Hg; P<0.0001), so that cPP was higher (37.6 vs. 32.1 mm Hg; P<0.0001). PWV (7.9 vs. 7.4 m s(-1)) was higher (P=0.0002) on tonometric assessment. The differences between tonometric and oscillometric estimates increased (P0.004) with cSP (r=0.37), cAI (r=0.39) and PWV (r=0.39), but not (P0.17) with cDP (r=0.15) or cPP (r=0.13). Irrespective of measurement conditions, brachial oscillometry compared with an established tonometric method provided similar estimates for cSP and systolic augmentation, but slightly underestimated PWV. Pending further validation, ambulatory assessment of central hemodynamic variables is feasible.

  18. High-fat meals reduce 24-h circulating leptin concentrations in women.

    PubMed

    Havel, P J; Townsend, R; Chaump, L; Teff, K

    1999-02-01

    Leptin induces weight loss in rodents via its effects on food intake and energy expenditure. High-fat diets induce weight gain, but the mechanism is not well understood. Previous studies have not found an effect of dietary fat content on fasting leptin. There is a nocturnal increase of leptin, however, which is related to insulin responses to meals. We have reported that adipocyte glucose utilization is involved in insulin-induced leptin secretion in vitro. Accordingly, high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HF/LC) meals, which induce smaller insulin and glucose responses, would produce lower leptin concentrations than low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LF/HC) meals. Blood samples were collected every 30-60 min for 24 h from 19 normal-weight (BMI, 24.2 +/- 0.7 kg/m2; percent body fat = 31 +/- 1%) women on 2 days (10 days apart) during which the subjects were randomized to consume three isocaloric 730-kcal meals containing either 60/20 or 20/60% of energy as fat/carbohydrate. Overall insulin and glycemic responses (24-h area under the curve [AUC]) were reduced by 55 and 61%, respectively, on the HF/LC day (P < 0.0001). During LF/HC feeding, there were larger increases of leptin 4-6 h after breakfast (38 +/- 7%, P < 0.001) and lunch (78 +/- 14%, P < 0.001) than after HF/LC meals (both P < 0.02). During LF/HC feeding, leptin increased from a morning baseline of 10.7 +/- 1.6 ng/ml to a nocturnal peak of 21.3 +/- 1.3 ng/ml (change, 10.6 +/- 1.3 ng/ml; percent change, 123 +/- 16%; P < 0.0001). The amplitudes of the nocturnal rise of leptin and the 24-h leptin AUC were 21 +/- 8% (P < 0.005) and 38 +/- 12% (P < 0.0025) larger, respectively, on the LF/HC day. In summary, consumption of HF/LC meals results in lowered 24-h circulating leptin concentrations. This result may be a consequence of decreased adipocyte glucose metabolism. Decreases of 24-h circulating leptin could contribute to the weight gain during consumption of high-fat diets.

  19. Stimulated recall interviews for describing pragmatic epistemology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.

    2015-12-01

    Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources that can be brought to bear as they learn physics. In previous studies, these epistemologies have been either inferred from behavior in learning contexts or probed through surveys or interviews outside of the learning context. We argue that stimulated recall interviews provide a contextually and interpretively valid method to access students' epistemologies that complement existing methods. We develop a stimulated recall interview methodology to assess a curricular intervention and find evidence that epistemological resources aptly describe student epistemologies.

  20. Serial Position Curves in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model…

  1. Effectiveness of Prompts on Fourth-Grade Children’s Dietary Recall Accuracy Depends on Retention Interval and Varies by Gender1234

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Smith, Albert F; Hitchcock, David B; Guinn, Caroline H; Royer, Julie A; Collins, Kathleen L; Smith, Alyssa L; Puryear, Megan P; Vaadi, Kate K; Finney, Christopher J; Miller, Patricia H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary recall accuracy is related to retention interval (RI) (i.e., time between to-be-reported meals and the interview), and possibly to prompts. To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated their combined effect. Objective: The combined influence of RI and prompts on children’s recall accuracy was investigated in this study. Two RIs [short (prior-24-h recall obtained in afternoon) and long (previous-day recall obtained in morning)] were crossed with 4 prompts [forward (distant-to-recent), meal-name (breakfast, lunch, etc.), open (no instructions), and reverse (recent-to-distant)], creating 8 conditions. Methods: Fourth-grade children (n = 480; 50% girls) were randomly selected from consenting children at 10 schools in 4 districts in a southern state during 3 school years (2011–2012, 2012–2013, and 2013–2014). Each child was observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and interviewed one time under 1 of the 8 conditions. Condition assignment was constrained so that each had 60 children (30 girls). Accuracy measures were food-item omission and intrusion rates, and energy correspondence rate and inflation ratio. For each measure, linear models determined effects of RI, prompt, gender, and interactions (2-way, 3-way); race/ethnicity, school year, and district were control variables. Results: RI (P values < 0.015) and prompt (P values < 0.005) were significant for all 4 accuracy measures. RI × prompt (P values < 0.001) was significant for 3 accuracy measures (not intrusion rate). Prompt × gender (P = 0.005) was significant for omission rate. RI × prompt × gender was significant for intrusion rate and inflation ratio (P values < 0.001). For the short vs. long RI across prompts and genders, accuracy was better by 33–50% for each accuracy measure. Conclusions: To obtain the most accurate recalls possible from children, studies should be designed to use a short rather than long RI. Prompts affect children’s recall accuracy

  2. Entrainment of the human circadian pacemaker to longer-than-24-h days

    PubMed Central

    Gronfier, Claude; Wright, Kenneth P.; Kronauer, Richard E.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    Entrainment of the circadian pacemaker to the light:dark cycle is necessary for rhythmic physiological functions to be appropriately timed over the 24-h day. Nonentrainment results in sleep, endocrine, and neurobehavioral impairments. Exposures to intermittent bright light pulses have been reported to phase shift the circadian pacemaker with great efficacy. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that a modulated light exposure (MLE) with bright light pulses in the evening would entrain subjects to a light:dark cycle 1 h longer than their own circadian period (τ). Twelve subjects underwent a 65-day inpatient study. Individual subject's circadian period was determined in a forced desynchrony protocol. Subsequently, subjects were released into 30 longer-than-24-h days (daylength of τ + 1 h) in one of three light:dark conditions: (i) ≈25 lux; (ii) ≈100 lux; and (iii) MLE: ≈25 lux followed by ≈100 lux, plus two 45-min bright light pulses of ≈9,500 lux near the end of scheduled wakefulness. We found that lighting levels of ≈25 lux were insufficient to entrain all subjects tested. Exposure to ≈100 lux was sufficient to entrain subjects, although at a significantly wider phase angle compared with baseline. Exposure to MLE was able to entrain the subjects to the imposed sleep–wake cycles but at a phase angle comparable to baseline. These results suggest that MLE can be used to entrain the circadian pacemaker to non-24-h days. The implications of these findings are important because they could be used to treat circadian misalignment associated with space flight and circadian rhythm sleep disorders such as shift-work disorder. PMID:17502598

  3. Effects of sleep fragmentation on appetite and related hormone concentrations over 24 h in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Martens, Eveline A P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-02-28

    In addition to short sleep duration, reduced sleep quality is also associated with appetite control. The present study examined the effect of sleep fragmentation, independent of sleep duration, on appetite profiles and 24 h profiles of hormones involved in energy balance regulation. A total of twelve healthy male subjects (age 23 (sd 4) years, BMI 24·4 (sd 1·9) kg/m²) completed a 24 h randomised crossover study in which sleep (23.30-07.30 hours) was either fragmented or non-fragmented. Polysomnography was used to determine rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and total sleep time (TST). Blood samples were taken at baseline and continued hourly for the 24 h period to measure glucose, insulin, ghrelin, leptin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and melatonin concentrations. In addition, salivary cortisol levels were measured. Visual analogue scales were used to score appetite-related feelings. Sleep fragmentation resulted in reduced REM sleep (69·4 min compared with 83·5 min; P< 0·05) and preservation of SWS without changes in TST. In fragmented v. non-fragmented sleep, glucose concentrations did not change, while insulin secretion was decreased in the morning, and increased in the afternoon (P< 0·05), and GLP-1 concentrations and fullness scores were lower (P< 0·05). After dinner, desire-to-eat ratings were higher after fragmented sleep (P< 0·05). A single night of fragmented sleep, resulting in reduced REM sleep, induced a shift in insulin concentrations, from being lower in the morning and higher in the afternoon, while GLP-1 concentrations and fullness scores were decreased. These results may lead to increased food intake and snacking, thus contributing to a positive energy balance.

  4. Evaluation of reduction of Fraser incubation by 24h in the EN ISO 11290-1 standard on detection and diversity of Listeria species.

    PubMed

    Gnanou Besse, Nathalie; Favret, Sandra; Desreumaux, Jennifer; Decourseulles Brasseur, Emilie; Kalmokoff, Martin

    2016-05-02

    The EN ISO 11290-1 method for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from food is carried out using a double enrichment in Fraser broths. While the method is effective it is also quite long requiring 4-7 days to process a contaminated food, and may be adversely affected by inter-strain and/or inter-species competition in samples containing mixed Listeria populations. Currently, we have little information on the impact of competition on food testing under routine conditions. Food samples (n=130) were analyzed using the standard method and the evolution of Listeria populations in 89 naturally contaminated samples followed over the entire enrichment process. In most instances, maximum increase in L. monocytogenes population occurred over the first 24h following sub-culture in Full Fraser broth and strain recovery was similar at both 24 and 48 h, indicating that the second enrichment step can be reduced by 24h without impacting the recovery of L. monocytogenes or affecting the sensitivity of the method. In approximately 6% of naturally contaminated samples the presence of competing Listeria species adversely impacted L. monocytogenes population levels. Moreover, these effects were more pronounced during the latter 24h of the Fraser enrichment, and potentially could affect or complicate the isolation of these strains.

  5. Pulse Arrival Time Based Cuff-Less and 24-H Wearable Blood Pressure Monitoring and its Diagnostic Value in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yali; Poon, Carmen C Y; Yan, Bryan P; Lau, James Y W

    2016-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Current standard ABPM devices use an oscillometric cuff-based method which can cause physical discomfort to the patients with repeated inflations and deflations, especially during nighttime leading to sleep disturbance. The ability to measure ambulatory BP accurately and comfortably without a cuff would be attractive. This study validated the accuracy of a cuff-less approach for ABPM using pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements on both healthy and hypertensive subjects for potential use in hypertensive management, which is the first of its kind. The wearable cuff-less device was evaluated against a standard cuff-based device on 24 subjects of which 15 have known hypertension. BP measurements were taken from each subject over a 24-h period by the cuff-less and cuff-based devices every 15 to 30 minutes during daily activities. Mean BP of each subject during daytime, nighttime and over 24-h were calculated. Agreement between mean nighttime systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measured by the two devices evaluated using Bland-Altman plot were -1.4 ± 6.6 and 0.4 ± 6.7 mmHg, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) statistics was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the cuff-less approach in the detection of BP above the hypertension threshold during nighttime (>120/70 mmHg). The area under ROC curves were 0.975/0.79 for nighttime. The results suggest that PAT-based approach is accurate and promising for ABPM without the issue of sleep disturbances associated with cuff-based devices.

  6. Monitoring hand flexor fatigue in a 24-h motorcycle endurance race.

    PubMed

    Marina, M; Porta, J; Vallejo, L; Angulo, R

    2011-04-01

    Motorcycle riders must endure high levels of muscle tension for long periods of time, especially in their arms and forearms, when steering and using handlebar controls. Because the right hand operates the gas handle and front brakes, the present research focuses on fatigue in the right hand flexors. Ten adult riders, aged 32.5±5.5years, volunteered to participate in this study. During the 24h race each rider, on completion of a relay stage, visited the assessment box to do the following handgrip test sequence: (1) 10s of EMG recording at rest, (2) one 3-s maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), (3) 1min rest interval and (4) 50% MVC maintained during 10s. EMG amplitude (MP: μV) and median and mean frequency (MF and MPF: Hz) over the superficial finger flexors were recorded during the whole handgrip test sequence with adhesive surface electrodes. MVC values were maintained during the first two relays (50-60min duration in total) and dropped gradually thereafter (p<0.01). During the monitoring of the 50% MVC, mean amplitude increased (p=0.024) while median and mean frequency tended to decrease. These results suggest fatigue is produced in motorcycle riders in a 24h race. However, the expected reduction of EMG frequency was not confirmed given to a potentially large variability.

  7. Effect of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors on ambulatory 24-h blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Chagai; Bornstein, Gil; Leibowitz, Avshalom; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Grossman, Ehud

    2017-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are increasingly being used in inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD). The risk of cardiovascular disease is elevated in patients with IRD and TNF-α inhibitors reduce this risk. We assessed whether the beneficial effect of TNF-α inhibitors on cardiovascular risk is mediated by blood pressure reduction. We measured blood pressure levels with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements device in patients with IRD before and 3 months after treatment with TNF-α inhibitors. The study population consisted of 15 subjects (6 men; mean age 45.9 ± 14.1 years). Most patients had either rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis and adalimumab was the most common TNF-α inhibitor used. Mean 24-h systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels remained the same after treatment (121 ± 12/66 ± 7 before and 123 ± 11/67 ± 10 mm Hg after; p = 0.88 and 0.66, respectively). The study demonstrates that TNF-α inhibitors have no effect on blood pressure levels.

  8. Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans.

    PubMed

    Rabinak, Christine A; Angstadt, Mike; Sripada, Chandra S; Abelson, James L; Liberzon, Israel; Milad, Mohammed R; Phan, K Luan

    2013-01-01

    A first-line approach to treat anxiety disorders is exposure-based therapy, which relies on extinction processes such as repeatedly exposing the patient to stimuli (conditioned stimuli; CS) associated with the traumatic, fear-related memory. However, a significant number of patients fail to maintain their gains, partly attributed to the fact that this inhibitory learning and its maintenance is temporary and conditioned fear responses can return. Animal studies have shown that activation of the cannabinoid system during extinction learning enhances fear extinction and its retention. Specifically, CB1 receptor agonists, such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), can facilitate extinction recall by preventing recovery of extinguished fear in rats. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated in humans. We conducted a study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design, coupling a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and simultaneous skin conductance response (SCR) recording with an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) or placebo (PBO) 2 h prior to extinction learning in 29 healthy adult volunteers (THC = 14; PBO = 15) and tested extinction retention 24 h after extinction learning. Compared to subjects that received PBO, subjects that received THC showed low SCR to a previously extinguished CS when extinction memory recall was tested 24 h after extinction learning, suggesting that THC prevented the recovery of fear. These results provide the first evidence that pharmacological enhancement of extinction learning is feasible in humans using cannabinoid system modulators, which may thus warrant further development and clinical testing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  9. Validation of the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall for children (ASA24-Kids) among 9- to 11-year-old youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty-nine children in two sites participated in the study. In one site, trained staff observed and recorded types and portions of foods and drinks consumed by ...

  10. Study modality and false recall.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebekah E; Engle, Randall W

    2011-01-01

    False memories occur when individuals mistakenly report an event as having taken place when that event did not in fact occur. The DRM (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) paradigm provides an effective technique for creating and investigating false memories. In this paradigm participants study a list of words (e.g., SOUR, CANDY,…) that are highly associated to a non-presented critical item (e.g., SWEET). The study phase is followed by a test of memory for the study list words. Researchers typically find very high levels of false recall of the critical non-presented item. However, the likelihood of falsely remembering the non-presented critical items can be reduced by presenting studied associates visually rather than auditorally (e.g., Smith & Hunt, 1998). This is referred to as the modality effect in false memory. The current study investigated the role of resource availability in the expression of this modality effect in false recall. In Experiment 1 false recall was reduced in the visual study presentation condition relative to the auditory condition for participants with higher working memory capacity, but not for participants with lower working memory capacity. In Experiment 2 the effect of study modality on false recall was eliminated by the addition of a divided attention task at encoding. Both studies support the proposal that resource availability plays a role in the expression of the modality effect in the DRM paradigm (Smith, Lozito, & Bayen, 2005).

  11. Performance and sleepiness during a 24 h wake in constant conditions are affected by diet.

    PubMed

    Lowden, Arne; Holmbäck, Ulf; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Forslund, Jeanette; Lennernäs, Maria; Forslund, Anders

    2004-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of high-carbohydrate (HC) and high-fat (HF) diet on cognitive performance, and subjective and objective sleepiness. Seven male participants were kept awake for 24 h in a metabolic ward. Meals were given every 4h and cognitive performance and sleepiness ratings were assessed hourly. The Karolinska Drowsiness Test (KDT, EEG derived) was performed twice after meal. Performance in simple reaction time showed a significant interaction of diet and the post-prandial period, a slower reaction time was observed for the HC-diet 3.5 h after meal intake. Diet did not affect EEG measures but a general post-prandial increase of objective sleepiness was observed 3.5h after meal servings. The HC-diet was significantly associated with an increase of subjective sleepiness. The study demonstrated that the HC-diet caused larger oscillation in performance and increased sleepiness as compared to HF-diet throughout day and night.

  12. Temporal trends in symptom experience predict the accuracy of recall PROs

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Stefan; Broderick, Joan E.; Junghaenel, Doerte U.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Stone, Arthur A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Patient-reported outcome measures with reporting periods of a week or more are often used to evaluate the change of symptoms over time, but the accuracy of recall in the context of change is not well understood. This study examined whether temporal trends in symptoms that occur during the reporting period impact the accuracy of 7-day recall reports. Methods Women with premenstrual symptoms (n = 95) completed daily reports of anger, depression, fatigue, and pain intensity for 4 weeks, as well as 7-day recall reports at the end of each week. Latent class growth analysis was used to categorize recall periods based on the direction and rate of change in the daily reports. Agreement (level differences and correlations) between 7-day recall and aggregated daily scores was compared for recall periods with different temporal trends. Results Recall periods with positive, negative, and flat temporal trends were identified and they varied in accordance with weeks of the menstrual cycle. Replicating previous research, 7-day recall scores were consistently higher than aggregated daily scores, but this level difference was more pronounced for recall periods involving positive and negative trends compared with flat trends. Moreover, correlations between 7-day recall and aggregated daily scores were lower in the presence of positive and negative trends compared with flat trends. These findings were largely consistent for anger, depression, fatigue, and pain intensity. Conclusion Temporal trends in symptoms can influence the accuracy of recall reports and this should be considered in research designs involving change. PMID:23915773

  13. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... action that takes place because manufacturers and distributors carry out their responsibility to protect... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7... providing guidance so that responsible firms may effectively discharge their recall responsibilities....

  14. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... action that takes place because manufacturers and distributors carry out their responsibility to protect... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7... providing guidance so that responsible firms may effectively discharge their recall responsibilities....

  15. Isolation Effect in Immediate and Delayed Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellezza, Francis S.; Cheney, Terry L.

    1973-01-01

    If the hypothesis of selective rehearsal is used to account for the isolation effect, then the recall of isolated items will depend both on the serial position of the isolated item and on whether recall is immediate or delayed. (Author)

  16. Intrinsic near-24-h pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. P. Jr; Hughes, R. J.; Kronauer, R. E.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks are robust regulators of physiology and behavior. Synchronization or entrainment of biological clocks to environmental time is adaptive and important for physiological homeostasis and for the proper timing of species-specific behaviors. We studied subjects in the laboratory for up to 55 days each to determine the ability to entrain the human clock to a weak circadian synchronizing stimulus [scheduled activity-rest cycle in very dim (approximately 1.5 lux in the angle of gaze) light-dark cycle] at three approximately 24-h periods: 23.5, 24.0, and 24.6 h. These studies allowed us to test two competing hypotheses as to whether the period of the human circadian pacemaker is near to or much longer than 24 h. We report here that imposition of a sleep-wake schedule with exposure to the equivalent of candle light during wakefulness and darkness during sleep is usually sufficient to maintain circadian entrainment to the 24-h day but not to a 23.5- or 24.6-h day. Our results demonstrate functionally that, in normally entrained sighted adults, the average intrinsic circadian period of the human biological clock is very close to 24 h. Either exposure to very dim light and/or the scheduled sleep-wake cycle itself can entrain this near-24-h intrinsic period of the human circadian pacemaker to the 24-h day.

  17. Cannabinoid modulation of prefrontal-limbic activation during fear extinction learning and recall in humans.

    PubMed

    Rabinak, Christine A; Angstadt, Mike; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Milad, Mohammed R; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K Luan

    2014-09-01

    Pre-extinction administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) facilitates recall of extinction in healthy humans, and evidence from animal studies suggest that this likely occurs via enhancement of the cannabinoid system within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (HIPP), brain structures critical to fear extinction. However, the effect of cannabinoids on the underlying neural circuitry of extinction memory recall in humans has not been demonstrated. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design (N=14/group) coupled with a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) in healthy adult volunteers. We examined the effects of THC on vmPFC and HIPP activation when tested for recall of extinction learning 24 h after extinction learning. Compared to subjects who received placebo, participants who received THC showed increased vmPFC and HIPP activation to a previously extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS+E) during extinction memory recall. This study provides the first evidence that pre-extinction administration of THC modulates prefrontal-limbic circuits during fear extinction in humans and prompts future investigation to test if cannabinoid agonists can rescue or correct the impaired behavioral and neural function during extinction recall in patients with PTSD. Ultimately, the cannabinoid system may serve as a promising target for innovative intervention strategies (e.g. pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based therapy) in PTSD and other fear learning-related disorders.

  18. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... class letters conspicuously marked, preferably in bold red type, on the letter and the envelope: “drug recall ”. The letter and the envelope should be also marked: “urgent” for class I and class II recalls and, when appropriate, for class III recalls. Telephone calls or other personal contacts...

  19. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... class letters conspicuously marked, preferably in bold red type, on the letter and the envelope: “drug recall ”. The letter and the envelope should be also marked: “urgent” for class I and class II recalls and, when appropriate, for class III recalls. Telephone calls or other personal contacts...

  20. An Improved Algorithm for Predicting Free Recalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Laming [Laming, D. (2006). "Predicting free recalls." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 32, 1146-1163] has shown that, in a free-recall experiment in which the participants rehearsed out loud, entire sequences of recalls could be predicted, to a useful degree of precision, from the prior sequences of stimuli…

  1. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Antônio F. M.; Moresco, James; Yates, John R.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick

  2. The friction coefficient of shoulder joints remains remarkably low over 24 h of loading.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian K; Durney, Krista M; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-11-05

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Eight human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean±standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (p<0.0001). The value in LCMS was significantly lower than in hHCMS and bHCMS (p<0.01). No visual damage was observed in any of the specimens. These are the first results to demonstrate that the friction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction.

  3. Radiative cooling to deep sub-freezing temperatures through a 24-h day–night cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-01-01

    Radiative cooling technology utilizes the atmospheric transparency window (8–13 μm) to passively dissipate heat from Earth into outer space (3 K). This technology has attracted broad interests from both fundamental sciences and real world applications, ranging from passive building cooling, renewable energy harvesting and passive refrigeration in arid regions. However, the temperature reduction experimentally demonstrated, thus far, has been relatively modest. Here we theoretically show that ultra-large temperature reduction for as much as 60 °C from ambient is achievable by using a selective thermal emitter and by eliminating parasitic thermal load, and experimentally demonstrate a temperature reduction that far exceeds previous works. In a populous area at sea level, we have achieved an average temperature reduction of 37 °C from the ambient air temperature through a 24-h day–night cycle, with a maximal reduction of 42 °C that occurs when the experimental set-up enclosing the emitter is exposed to peak solar irradiance. PMID:27959339

  4. Combined solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants - An approach to 24h solar electricity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzer, Werner J.

    2016-05-01

    Solar thermal power plants have the advantage of being able to provide dispatchable renewable electricity even when the sun is not shining. Using thermal energy strorage (TES) they may increase the capacity factor (CF) considerably. However in order to increase the operating hours one has to increase both, thermal storage capacity and solar field size, because the additional solar field is needed to charge the storage. This increases investment cost, although levelised electricity cost (LEC) may decrease due to the higher generation. Photovoltaics as a fluctuating source on the other side has arrived at very low generation costs well below 10 ct/kWh even for Central Europe. Aiming at a capacity factor above 70% and at producing dispatchable power it is shown that by a suitable combination of CSP and PV we can arrive at lower costs than by increasing storage and solar field size in CSP plants alone. Although a complete baseload power plant with more than 90% full load hours may not be the most economic choice, power plants approaching a full 24h service in most days of the year seem to be possible at reasonably low tariffs.

  5. Radiative cooling to deep sub-freezing temperatures through a 24-h day-night cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen; Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-12-01

    Radiative cooling technology utilizes the atmospheric transparency window (8-13 μm) to passively dissipate heat from Earth into outer space (3 K). This technology has attracted broad interests from both fundamental sciences and real world applications, ranging from passive building cooling, renewable energy harvesting and passive refrigeration in arid regions. However, the temperature reduction experimentally demonstrated, thus far, has been relatively modest. Here we theoretically show that ultra-large temperature reduction for as much as 60 °C from ambient is achievable by using a selective thermal emitter and by eliminating parasitic thermal load, and experimentally demonstrate a temperature reduction that far exceeds previous works. In a populous area at sea level, we have achieved an average temperature reduction of 37 °C from the ambient air temperature through a 24-h day-night cycle, with a maximal reduction of 42 °C that occurs when the experimental set-up enclosing the emitter is exposed to peak solar irradiance.

  6. Cerebral blood flow velocity in humans exposed to 24 h of head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, Y.; Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Deroshia, C. W.; Hargens, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in humans before, during, and after 24 h of 6 deg head-down tilt (HDT), which is a currently accepted experimental model to simulate microgravity. CBF velocity was measured by use of the transcranial Doppler technique in the right middle cerebral artery of eight healthy male subjects. Mean CBF velocity increased from the pre-HDT upright seated baseline value of 55.5 +/- 3.7 (SE) cm/s to 61.5 +/- 3.3 cm/s at 0.5 h of HDT, reached a peak value of 63.2 +/- 4.1 cm/s at 3 h of HDT, and remained significantly above the pre-HDT baseline for over 6 h of HDT. During upright seated recovery, mean CBF velocity decreased to 87 percent of the pre-HDT baseline value. Mean CBF velocity correlated well with calculated intracranial arterial pressure (IAP). As analyzed by linear regression, mean CBF velocity = 29.6 + 0.32IAP. These results suggest that HDT increases CBF velocity by increasing IAP during several hours after the onset of microgravity. Importantly, the decrease in CBF velocity after HDT may be responsible, in part, for the increased risk of syncope observed in subjects after prolonged bed rest and also in astronauts returning to Earth.

  7. Effects of 24-h and 36-h sleep deprivation on human postural control and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Patel, M; Gomez, S; Berg, S; Almbladh, P; Lindblad, J; Petersen, H; Magnusson, M; Johansson, R; Fransson, P A

    2008-02-01

    This study investigated whether human postural stability and adaptation were affected by sleep deprivation and the relationship between motor performance and subjective scores of sleepiness (visuo-anlogue sleepiness scores, VAS). Postural stability and subjective sleepiness were examined in 18 healthy subjects (mean age 23.8 years) following 24 and 36 h of continued wakefulness, ensured by portable EEG recordings, and compared to a control test where the assessments were made after a normal night of sleep. The responses were assessed using posturography with eyes open and closed, and vibratory proprioceptive stimulations were used to challenge postural control. Postural control was significantly affected after 24 h of sleep deprivation both in anteroposterior and in lateral directions, but less so after 36 h. Subjective VAS scores showed poor correlation with indicators of postural control performance. The clearest evidence that sleep deprivation decreased postural control was the reduction of adaptation. Also several near falls after 2-3 min during the posturographic tests showed that sleep deprivation might affect stability through momentary lapses of attention. Access to vision, somewhat, but not entirely reduced the effect of sleep deprivation. In conclusion, sleep deprivation can be a contributing factor to decreased postural control and falls.

  8. Radiative cooling to deep sub-freezing temperatures through a 24-h day-night cycle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-12-13

    Radiative cooling technology utilizes the atmospheric transparency window (8-13 μm) to passively dissipate heat from Earth into outer space (3 K). This technology has attracted broad interests from both fundamental sciences and real world applications, ranging from passive building cooling, renewable energy harvesting and passive refrigeration in arid regions. However, the temperature reduction experimentally demonstrated, thus far, has been relatively modest. Here we theoretically show that ultra-large temperature reduction for as much as 60 °C from ambient is achievable by using a selective thermal emitter and by eliminating parasitic thermal load, and experimentally demonstrate a temperature reduction that far exceeds previous works. In a populous area at sea level, we have achieved an average temperature reduction of 37 °C from the ambient air temperature through a 24-h day-night cycle, with a maximal reduction of 42 °C that occurs when the experimental set-up enclosing the emitter is exposed to peak solar irradiance.

  9. Fasting for 24 h improves nasal chemosensory performance and food palatability in a related manner.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jameason D; Goldfield, Gary S; Doucet, Éric

    2012-06-01

    Changes in smell function can modify feeding behaviour but there is little evidence of how acute negative energy balance may impact olfaction and palatability. In a within-subjects repeated measures design, 15 subjects (nine male; six female) aged 28.6±4.5 years with initial body weight (BW) 74.7±4.9 kg and body mass index (BMI) 25.3±1.4 kg/m(2) were randomized and tested at baseline (FED) and Post Deprivation (FASTED) for nasal chemosensory performance (Sniffin' Sticks) and food palatability (visual analogue scale). Significant main effects for time indicated improvements in the FASTED session for odor threshold, odor discrimination, and total odor scores (TDI), and for increased palatability. There were significant positive correlations between initial BW and the change in odor threshold (r=.52) and TDI scores (r=.53). Positive correlations were also noted between delta identification score and delta palatability (r=.68). When the sample was split by sex, only for females were there significant correlations between delta palatability and: delta BW (r=.88); delta odor identification (r=.94); and delta TDI score (r=.85). Fasting for 24h improved smell function and this was related to increased palatability ratings and initial BW. Further studies should confirm the role of BW and sex in the context of olfaction, energy deprivation and palatability.

  10. Recognition during recall failure: Semantic feature matching as a mechanism for recognition of semantic cues when recall fails.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Anne M; Ryals, Anthony J; Wagner, Samantha R

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that a feature-matching process underlies cue familiarity-detection when cued recall with graphemic cues fails. When a test cue (e.g., potchbork) overlaps in graphemic features with multiple unrecalled studied items (e.g., patchwork, pitchfork, pocketbook, pullcork), higher cue familiarity ratings are given during recall failure of all of the targets than when the cue overlaps in graphemic features with only one studied target and that target fails to be recalled (e.g., patchwork). The present study used semantic feature production norms (McRae et al., Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 37, 547-559, 2005) to examine whether the same holds true when the cues are semantic in nature (e.g., jaguar is used to cue cheetah). Indeed, test cues (e.g., cedar) that overlapped in semantic features (e.g., a_tree, has_bark, etc.) with four unretrieved studied items (e.g., birch, oak, pine, willow) received higher cue familiarity ratings during recall failure than test cues that overlapped in semantic features with only two (also unretrieved) studied items (e.g., birch, oak), which in turn received higher familiarity ratings during recall failure than cues that did not overlap in semantic features with any studied items. These findings suggest that the feature-matching theory of recognition during recall failure can accommodate recognition of semantic cues during recall failure, providing a potential mechanism for conceptually-based forms of cue recognition during target retrieval failure. They also provide converging evidence for the existence of the semantic features envisaged in feature-based models of semantic knowledge representation and for those more concretely specified by the production norms of McRae et al. (Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 37, 547-559, 2005).

  11. Long-term invariant parameters obtained from 24-h Holter recordings: A comparison between different analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Esposti, Federico; Ferrario, Manuela; Sassi, Roberto; Signorini, Maria Gabriella

    2007-03-01

    Over the last two decades, a large number of different methods had been used to study the fractal-like behavior of the heart rate variability (HRV). In this paper some of the most used techniques were reviewed. In particular, the focus is set on those methods which characterize the long memory behavior of time series (in particular, periodogram, detrended fluctuation analysis, rescale range analysis, scaled window variance, Higuchi dimension, wavelet-transform modulus maxima, and generalized structure functions). The performances of the different techniques were tested on simulated self-similar noises (fBm and fGn) for values of α, the slope of the spectral density for very small frequency, ranging from -1 to 3 with a 0.05 step. The check was performed using the scaling relationships between the various indices. DFA and periodogram showed the smallest mean square error from the expected values in the range of interest for HRV. Building on the results obtained from these tests, the effective ability of the different methods in discriminating different populations of patients from RR series derived from Holter recordings, was assessed. To this extent, the Noltisalis database was used. It consists of a set of 30, 24-h Holter recordings collected from healthy subjects, patients suffering from congestive heart failure, and heart transplanted patients. All the methods, with the exception at most of rescale range analysis, were almost equivalent in distinguish between the three groups of patients. Finally, the scaling relationships, valid for fBm and fGn, when empirically used on HRV series, also approximately held.

  12. Recalling the origins of DLTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, David V.

    2007-12-01

    This paper recalls the events leading up to the author's 1973 discovery of Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS). It discusses the status of junction capacitance techniques in the late 1960s and points out why the typical capacitance instrumentation of that era would not have lead the author to the DLTS discovery. This discovery is discussed in the context of the novel NMR-inspired instrumentation used by the author to study fast capacitance transients of the ZnO center in GaP LEDs. Finally, the author makes some general comments about the innovation process.

  13. Resale of recalled children's products online: an examination of the world's largest yard sale

    PubMed Central

    Kirschman, Keri Brown; Smith, Gary A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine an online auction site for the presence and sale of children's products and toys previously recalled because of safety concerns. Methods Targeted items were randomly selected from US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) press releases of recalled children's products dated 1992–2004. Auction listings from eBay were searched for the 150 targeted recalled items for 30 days. Item, seller, and buyer information were recorded from the auction listings. Results 190 auctions contained or were suspected to contain a recalled children's item from the target list. Most of the recalled items were listed for sale from addresses within the United States, with sellers from Canada, Australia, Great Britain, and Ireland also represented. On average, six bids were placed on each recalled item, with 70% of auctions eventuating in a sale. Conclusions Recalled children's products were found to be available for sale online and were sold most of the time, presenting a risk of injury to children. Although the CPSC is charged with notifying the public of recalled items, these results suggest that potentially hazardous products are recirculating online. A multi‐front initiative to decrease the presence of hazards in online auctions is needed. This initiative should include increased manufacturer efforts to improve recall return rates, a requirement by online auction sites that sellers verify non‐recall status before item posting, and parental checks of government recall websites before item purchase. Investigation of parental understanding and awareness of recalls and the potential risks associated with recall announcements is needed. PMID:17686931

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of food recalls in retail establishments in New York City.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Heather; Reddy, Vasudha; Bauer, Melissa; Stich, Stephen; Kidoguchi, Lara; Luker, John; Sebek, Kim; Sawyer, Erin; Balter, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Information on how promptly food recalls of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated products are disseminated to retailers is not well documented. Store managers were surveyed after recalls were declared to estimate the proportion aware of a recall, to describe the methods by which they learned of the recall, and to ascertain how they would prefer to be notified of recalls in the future. From 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2009, we identified FDA Class I products recalled because of potential contamination with an infectious agent such as Salmonella, which were sold in New York City. After each recall, a sample of retailers who carried the products was contacted, a standardized questionnaire was administered to store managers, and a sample of stores was inspected to determine if the product had been removed. Among nine recalls evaluated, 85 % (range, 12 to 100 % ) of managers were aware of the recall affecting a product at their store. Chain store managers were more aware of recalls than were independent store managers (93 versus 78%, P < 0.0001). More chain store managers first heard about the recall via e-mail as compared with independent store managers (35 versus 4%, P < 0.0001). E-mail notification was preferred by large chain store managers (38 versus 8%, P < 0.0001); on inspection, chain stores were more likely to have removed the item than were independent stores (85 versus 56%, P = 0.0071). Although recall information reaches many stores, faster electronic notifications are not effective at reaching small, independent stores, which may lack computers or fax machines. Alternate means to disseminate recall notifications rapidly are needed for stores without electronic communication capabilities.

  15. Parabens in 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Moos, Rebecca K; Koch, Holger M; Angerer, Jürgen; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Brüning, Thomas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care and consumer products, food and pharmaceuticals. Due to their ubiquity, humans are constantly exposed to these chemicals. We assessed exposure to nine parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, n- and iso-propyl-, n- and iso-butyl-, benzyl-, pentyl- and heptyl paraben) in the German population from 1995 to 2012 based on 660 24h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) using on-line HPLC coupled to isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg/L for all parabens. We detected methyl-, ethyl- and n-propyl paraben in 79-99% of samples, followed by n-butyl paraben in 40% of samples. We infrequently detected iso-butyl-, iso-propyl- and benzyl paraben in 24%, 4% and 1.4% of samples, respectively. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 39.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 319 μg/L) followed by n-propyl paraben (4.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 74.0 μg/L) and ethyl paraben (2.1 μg/L; 95th percentile 39.1 μg/L). Women had significantly higher urinary levels for all parabens than men, except for benzyl paraben. Samples from the ESB revealed that over the investigation period of nearly 20 years urinary paraben levels remained surprisingly constant; only methyl paraben had a significant increase, for both men and women. We found strong correlations between methyl- and n-propyl paraben and between n- and iso-butyl paraben. These results indicate that parabens are used in combination and arise from common sources of exposure. Urinary excretion factors are needed to extrapolate from individual urinary concentrations to actual doses.

  16. Differential Gene Expression Analysis in Polygonum minus Leaf upon 24 h of Methyl Jasmonate Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Rahnamaie-Tajadod, Reyhaneh; Loke, Kok-Keong; Goh, Hoe-Han; Noor, Normah M.

    2017-01-01

    Polygonum minus is an herbal plant that grows in Southeast Asian countries and traditionally used as medicine. This plant produces diverse secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds and their derivatives, which are known to have roles in plant abiotic and biotic stress responses. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a plant signaling molecule that triggers transcriptional reprogramming in secondary metabolism and activation of defense responses against many biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the effect of MeJA elicitation on the genome-wide expression profile in the leaf tissue of P. minus has not been well-studied due to the limited genetic information. Hence, we performed Illumina paired-end RNA-seq for de novo reconstruction of P. minus leaf transcriptome to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to MeJA elicitation. A total of 182,111 unique transcripts (UTs) were obtained by de novo assembly of 191.57 million paired-end clean reads using Trinity analysis pipeline. A total of 2374 UTs were identified to be significantly up-/down-regulated 24 h after MeJA treatment. These UTs comprising many genes related to plant secondary metabolite biosynthesis, defense and stress responses. To validate our sequencing results, we analyzed the expression of 21 selected DEGs by quantitative real-time PCR and found a good correlation between the two analyses. The single time-point analysis in this work not only provides a useful genomic resource for P. minus but also gives insights on molecular mechanisms of stress responses in P. minus. PMID:28220135

  17. Acute metabolic responses to a 24-h ultra-marathon race in male amateur runners.

    PubMed

    Waśkiewicz, Zbigniew; Kłapcińska, Barbara; Sadowska-Krępa, Ewa; Czuba, Milosz; Kempa, Katarzyna; Kimsa, Elżbieta; Gerasimuk, Dagmara

    2012-05-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the metabolic responses to a 24 h ultra-endurance race in male runners. Paired venous and capillary blood samples from 14 athletes (mean age 43.0 ± 10.8 years, body weight 64.3 ± 7.2 kg, VO(2max) 57.8 ± 6.1 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), taken 3 h before the run, after completing the marathon distance (42.195 km), after 12 h, and at the finish of the race, were analyzed for blood morphology, acid-base balance and electrolytes, lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and serum enzyme activities. Mean distance covered during the race was 168.5 ± 23.1 km (range 125.2-218.5 km). Prolonged ultra-endurance exercise triggered immune and inflammatory responses, as evidenced by a twofold increase in total leukocyte count with neutrophils and monocytes as main contributors, nearly 30-fold increase in serum IL-6 and over 20-fold rise in hsCRP. A progressive exponential increase in mean creatine kinase activity up to the level 70-fold higher than the respective pre-race value, a several fold rise in serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and a fairly stable serum γ-glutamyl transferase level, were indicative of muscle, but not of liver damage. With duration of exercise, there was a progressive development of hyperventilation-induced hypocapnic alkalosis, and a marked alteration in substrate utilization towards fat oxidation to maintain blood glucose homeostasis. The results of this study may imply that progressive decline in partial CO(2) pressure (hypocapnia) that develops during prolonged exercise may contribute to increased interleukin-6 production.

  18. Specificity of the bilingual advantage for memory: examining cued recall, generalization, and working memory in monolingual, bilingual, and trilingual toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Natalie H.; Grenell, Amanda; Barr, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The specificity of the bilingual advantage in memory was examined by testing groups of monolingual, bilingual, and trilingual 24-month-olds on tasks tapping cued recall, memory generalization and working memory. For the cued recall and memory generalization conditions, there was a 24-h delay between time of encoding and time of retrieval. In addition to the memory tasks, parent-toddler dyads completed a picture-book reading task, in order to observe emotional responsiveness, and a parental report of productive vocabulary. Results indicated no difference between language groups on cued recall, working memory, emotional responsiveness, or productive vocabulary, but a significant difference was found in the memory generalization condition with only the bilingual group outperforming the baseline control group. These results replicate and extend results from past studies (Brito and Barr, 2012, 2014; Brito et al., 2014) and suggest a bilingual advantage specific to memory generalization. PMID:25520686

  19. Functional characterization of left ventricular segmental responses during the initial 24 h and 1 wk after experimental canine myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Roan, P; Scales, F; Saffer, S; Buja, L M; Willerson, J T

    1979-01-01

    Characterization of the temporal evolution of resting segmental function and inotropic reserve after coronary occlusion may be important in evaluating attempts to salvage ischemic but non-necrotic myocardium. Accordingly, we chronically implanted up to six pairs of pulse-transit piezoelectric crystals in the left ventricular myocardium of dogs to measure segmental wall thickness. Segments were separated into groups according to the loss of net systolic thickening (NET) at 5 min postocclusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery in awake, unsedated dogs. Group 1 included segments with NET values of 67--100+ (percent control); group 2 between 67 and 0; and group 3 less than 0 (paradoxical motion). 5 min after coronary occlusion, group 1 NET was 92 +/- 5% (SEM) although significant decreases occurred in NET in group 2 (36 +/- 4%) and group 3 segments (-33 +/- 5%). Between 5 min and 24 h after coronary occlusion, no further significant changes occurred in NET in groups 1, 2, and 3 crystals. Some segments underwent further functional deterioration between 24 h and 1 wk after left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, although no overall change occurred in segments with mild to moderate ischemic dysfunction. Segments with NET less than 0 at 24 h, on the other hand, exhibited a reduction in aneurysmal bulging between 24 h and 1 wk from -41 +/- 10 to -23 +/- 11% (n = 12, P = 0.02). Inotropic reserve was assessed with postextrasystolic potentiation (PESP) in 14 dogs, and with infusions of dopamine (11 dogs), and isoproterenol (13 dogs). PESP was the most potent intervention and produced a significant augmentation in NET in group 2 crystals at 1, 2, 4, 6,8, and 24 h after coronary occlusion but only at 1 and 2 h in NET in group 3 crystals. Thus, following experimental coronary occlusion, the evolution of ischemic segmental dysfunction is dynamic and variable. A significant degree of inotropic reserve, as assessed by PESP, dopamine, and isoproterenol

  20. Recall Latencies, Confidence, and Output Positions of True and False Memories: Implications for Recall and Metamemory Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jou, Jerwen

    2008-01-01

    Recall latency, recall accuracy rate, and recall confidence were examined in free recall as a function of recall output serial position using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to test a strength-based theory against the dual-retrieval process theory of recall output sequence. The strength theory predicts the item output sequence to be…

  1. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  2. Human Figure Drawings and Children’s Recall of Touching

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. PMID:20025421

  3. Appropriate Recall Interval for Periodontal Maintenance: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Farooqi, Owais A.; Wehler, Carolyn J.; Gibson, Gretchen; Jurasic, M. Marianne; Jones, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to assess the evidence to support a specific time interval between periodontal maintenance (PM) visits. Methods Relevant articles were identified through searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed using specific search terms, until April, 2014, resulting in 1095 abstracts and/or titles with possible relevance. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) guidelines were used to evaluate the strength of studies and synthesize findings. If mean recall interval was not reported for study groups, authors were contacted to attempt to retrieve this information. Results Eight cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. No randomized control trials were found. All included studies assessed the effect of PM recall intervals in terms of compliance with a recommended regimen (3–6 months) as a primary outcome. Shorter PM intervals (3–6 months) favored more teeth retention but also statistically insignificant differences between RC and IC/EC, or converse findings are also found. In the 2 studies reporting mean recall interval in groups, significant tooth loss differences were noted as the interval neared the 12 month limit. Conclusions Evidence for a specific recall interval (e.g. every 3 months) for all patients following periodontal therapy is weak. Further studies, such as RCTs or large electronic database evaluations would be appropriate. The merits of risk-based recommendations over fixed recall interval regimens should be explored. PMID:26698003

  4. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall

    PubMed Central

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits. PMID:26441560

  5. Stress-related biomarkers of dream recall and implicit memory under anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Aceto, P; Lai, C; Perilli, V; Dello Russo, C; Federico, B; Navarra, P; Proietti, R; Sollazzi, L

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether auditory presentation of a story during general anaesthesia might influence stress hormone changes and thus affecting dream recall and/or implicit memory. One hundred and ten patients were randomly assigned either to hear a recording of a story through headphones or to have routine care with no auditory recording while undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Anaesthesia was standardised. Blood samples for cortisol and prolactin assays were collected 20 min before anaesthesia and 5 min after pneumoperitoneum. Dream recall and explicit/implicit memory were investigated upon awakening from anaesthesia and approximately 24 h after the end of the operation. Auditory presentation was associated with lower intra-operative serum prolactin concentration compared with control (p = 0.0006). Twenty-seven patients with recall of dreaming showed higher intra-operative prolactin (p = 0.004) and lower cortisol (p = 0.03) concentrations compared with those without dream recall. The knowledge of this interaction might be useful in the quest to ensure postoperative amnesia.

  6. Biomarkers of Dietary Intake Are Correlated with Corresponding Measures from Repeated Dietary Recalls and Food-Frequency Questionnaires in the Adventist Health Study-2123

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jing; Knutsen, Synnove F; Sabaté, Joan; Bennett, Hannelore

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accurate assessment of diet in study populations is still a challenge. Some statistical strategies that use biomarkers of dietary intake attempt to compensate for the biasing effects of reporting errors. Objective: The objective was to correlate biomarkers of dietary intake with 2 direct measures of dietary intake. Methods: Subjects provided repeated 24-h dietary recalls and 2 food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) separated by ∼3 y. Correlations between biomarkers and reported dietary intakes as measured by the recalls and FFQs were de-attenuated for within-person variability. The Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) has a large database of biomarkers of dietary intake (blood, urine, adipose tissue) from a calibration study (909 analytic subjects) representing the cohort. Participants were black and non-black Adventists in the United States and Canada. Results: Dietary items with higher-valued de-attenuated correlations (≥0.50) between biomarkers and recalls included some fatty acids (FAs), the non-fish meats, fruit (non-black subjects), some carotenoids, vitamin B-12 (non-black subjects), and vitamin E. Moderately valued correlations (0.30–0.49) were found for very long chain ω-3 (n–3) FAs, some carotenoids, folate, isoflavones, cruciferous vegetables, fruit (black subjects), and calcium. The highest correlation values in non-black and black subjects were 0.69 (urinary 1-methyl-histidine and meat consumption) and 0.72 (adipose and dietary 18:2 ω-6), respectively. Correlations comparing biomarkers with recalls were generally similar for black and non-black subjects, but correlations between biomarkers and the FFQ were slightly lower than corresponding recall correlations. Correlations between biomarkers and a single FFQ estimate (the usual cohort situation) were generally much lower. Conclusions: Many biomarkers that have relatively high-valued correlations with dietary intake were identified and were usually of similar value in black and non

  7. Serial position curves in free recall.

    PubMed

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model accommodates the serial position curve for first recalls (where those data are available) as well as that for total recalls. Both curves are fit with the same parameter values, as also (with 1 exception) are all of the conditions compared within each experiment. The distributions of numbers of recalls are also examined and shown to have variances increased above what would be expected if successive recalls were independent. This is taken to signify that, in those experiments in which rehearsals were not recorded, the retrieval of words for possible recall follows the same pattern that is observed following overt rehearsal, namely, that retrieval consists of runs of consecutive elements from memory. Finally, 2 sets of data are examined that the present approach cannot accommodate. It is argued that the problem with these data derives from an interaction between the patterns of (covert) rehearsal and the parameters of list presentation.

  8. Medical Device Recalls: Examination of Selected Cases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    accelerator Device class: 2 Medical specialty: Radiology Brand: Therac - 25 Linear Accelerator Use: Used in clinical (cancer) radiotherapy Premarketing...design recalls.- As wouldl Ne exp~ected, becaulse all (lass 8 (high-risk) dev.ices require prenmarket ap)1O1lmtSt PNMA-dCSigfl r-ecalls ( 25 , or 89...Table 11.4 PMA-Design Recalls by Device Class, Fiscal Years 1983-88 No. oi Device class recalls Percent 2 (medium risk) 3 1 100 3 (high risk) 25 89

  9. Background instrumental music and serial recall.

    PubMed

    Nittono, H

    1997-06-01

    Although speech and vocal music are consistently shown to impair serial recall for visually presented items, instrumental music does not always produce a significant disruption. This study investigated the features of instrumental music that would modulate the disruption in serial recall. 24 students were presented sequences of nine digits and required to recall the digits in order of presentation. Instrumental music as played either forward or backward during the task. Forward music caused significantly more disruption than did silence, whereas the reversed music did not. Some higher-order factor may be at work in the effect of background music on serial recall.

  10. Effect of ethanol on 24-h hormonal changes in prolactin release mechanisms in growing male rats.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cardinali, Daniel P; Cano, Pilar; Fernández-Mateos, Pilar; Reyes-Toso, Carlos; Esquifino, Ana I

    2006-12-01

    This study analyzes the effect of chronic ethanol feeding on 24-h variation of hypothalamic-pituitary mechanisms involved in prolactin regulation in growing male Wistar rats. Animals were maintained under a 12:12 h light/dark photoperiod (lights off at 2000 h), and they received a liquid diet for 4 wk, starting on d 35 of life. The ethanol-fed group received a similar diet to controls except that maltose was isocalorically replaced by ethanol. Ethanol replacement provided 36% of the total caloric content of the diet. Rats were killed at six time intervals every 4 h, beginning at 0900 h. Mean concentration of serum prolactin in ethanol-fed rats was 58.7% higher than in controls. Peak circulating prolactin levels occurred at the early phase of the activity span in both groups of rats, whereas a second peak was found late in the resting phase in ethanol-fed rats only. In control rats, median eminence dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and taurine levels exhibited two maxima, the major one preceding prolactin release and a second one during the first part of the resting phase. Median eminence DA and 5-HT turnover (as measured by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, DOPAC/DA, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio) showed a single maximum preceding prolactin, at 0100 h. Ethanol treatment did not affect median eminence DA or 5-HT levels but it decreased significantly their turnover rate. The midday peak in DA and 5-HT levels (at 1300 h) was abolished and the night peak (at 0100 h) became spread and blunted in the ethanol-fed rats. This was accompanied with the disappearance of the 0100 h peak in DA and 5-HT turnover and the occurrence of a peak in 5-HT turnover at 1700 h. Ethanol intake suppressed the night peak in median eminence GABA and taurine (at 0100 h) as well as the midday peak of GABA. Ethanol augmented pituitary levels of DOPAC and 5-HIAA. The results indicate that chronic ethanol administration affects the mechanisms that

  11. [Use of customer relationship management to improve healthcare for citizens. The 24h Andalusian Health Service: Healthline].

    PubMed

    Quero, Manuel; Ramos, María Belén; López, Wilfredo; Cubillas, Juan José; González, José María; Castillo, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Salud Responde (in English: Healthline) is a Health Service and Information Centre of the taxpayer-funded Andalusian Health System (AHS) that offers a Telephone Health Advisory Service called SA24h, among other services. The main objective of SA24h is to inform and advise citizens on health issues and the available health resources of the AHS. SA24h has a Customer Relationship Management information technology tool that organises information at various levels of specialization. Depending on the difficulty of the query, the citizen is attended by professionals with distinct profiles, providing a consensual response within the professionals working within Salud Responde or within other healthcare levels of the AHS. SA24h provided responses to 757,168 patient queries from late 2008 to the end of 01/12/2015. A total of 9.38% of the consultations were resolved by the non-health professionals working at Salud Responde. The remaining 84.07% were resolved by health staff. A total of 6.5% of users were referred to accident and emergency facilities while 88.77% did not need to attend their general practitioner within the next 24hours, thus avoiding unnecessary visits to health care facilities.

  12. Cadmium effects on 24h changes in glutamate, aspartate, glutamine, GABA and taurine content of rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, B; Caride, A; Cabaleiro, T; Lafuente, A

    2010-07-01

    This work evaluates the possible changes in 24 h variations of striatal aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine content after oral cadmium treatment. Male rats were submitted to cadmium exposure at two doses (25 and 50 mg/L of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2))) in the drinking water for 30 days. Control rats received cadmium-free water. After the treatment, rats were killed at six different time intervals throughout a 24 h cycle. Differential effects of cadmium on 24 h amino acid fluctuations were observed. Metal exposure modified the daily pattern of the amino acids concentration found in control animals, except for GABA and taurine with the lowest dose used. Exposure to 25 mg/L of CdCl(2) decreased mean content of aspartate, as well as GABA concentration. These results suggest that cadmium exposure affects 24 h changes of the studied amino acids concentration in the striatum, and those changes may be related to alterations in striatal function.

  13. Effects of the long-acting calcium channel blocker barnidipine hydrochloride on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Kuwajima, Iwao; Abe, Keishi

    2002-02-01

    The effect of the long acting calcium channel blocker, barnidipine hydrochloride (barnidipine) on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was evaluated in J-MUBA (Japanese Multicentre Study on Barnidipine with Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring). Following an observation period of two weeks, antihypertensive treatment with barnidipine was continued for at least six months. At the end of each period, ABP were measured. The patients were divided into high- and low-range groups based on ABP measurement. Throughout the 24 h, barnidipine exerted an excellent antihypertensive effect in the high-range group, but not in the low-range group. Barnidipine had comparable effects in the daytime and nighttime in inverted dippers and non-dippers, but it was more effective on daytime ABP than on nighttime ABP in dippers and in extreme dippers. Morning blood pressure before and after waking was evaluated before and after barnidipine administration in 233 patients. Barnidipine inhibited increases in blood pressure before and after waking, especially in surge-type patients whose blood pressure increased rapidly after waking. A positive correlation among 24-h ABP, daytime and night time ABP, morning blood pressure, and clinic blood pressure during the observation period and the antihypertensive effect of barnidipine was observed, with barnidipine exhibiting stronger antihypertensive effects in patients with persistently high blood pressure. It was concluded that the antihypertensive effects of barnidipine are maintained for 24 h but it has no excessive hypotensive effects on lower blood pressure and is thus a safe antihypertensive agent.

  14. Isotope concentrations from 24-h urine and 3-h serum samples can be used to measure intestinal magnesium absorption in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karen E; Nabak, Andrea C; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S; Shafer, Martin M; Abrams, Steven A

    2014-04-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ≥6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ∼23 mg of oral ²⁶Mg and ∼11 mg of i.v. ²⁵Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0-24 h urine MgA value alone (ρ = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0-24 h urine and the 3-h (ρ = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (ρ = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (-0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection.

  15. Nocturnal sleep-related variables from 24-h free-living waist-worn accelerometry: International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tudor-Locke, C; Mire, E F; Barreira, T V; Schuna, J M; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kurpad, A; Kuriyan, R; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Zhao, P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We describe the process of identifying and defining nocturnal sleep-related variables (for example, movement/non-movement indicators of sleep efficiency, waking episodes, midpoint and so on) using the unique 24-h waist-worn free-living accelerometer data collected in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE). Methods: Seven consecutive days of 24-h waist-worn accelerometer (GT3X+, ActiGraph LLC) data were collected from over 500 children at each site. An expert subgroup of the research team with accelerometry expertize, frontline data collectors and data managers met on several occasions to categorize and operationally define nocturnal accelerometer signal data patterns. The iterative process was informed by the raw data drawn from a sub set of the US data, and culminated in a refined and replicable delineated definition for each identified nocturnal sleep-related variable. Ultimately based on 6318 participants from all 12 ISCOLE sites with valid total sleep episode time (TSET), we report average clock times for nocturnal sleep onset, offset and midpoint in addition to sleep period time, TSET and restful sleep efficiency (among other derived variables). Results: Nocturnal sleep onset occurred at 2218 hours and nocturnal sleep offset at 0707 hours. The mean midpoint was 0243 hours. The sleep period time of 529.6 min (8.8 h) was typically accumulated in a single episode, making the average TSET very similar in duration (529.0 min). The mean restful sleep efficiency ranged from 86.8% (based on absolute non-movement of 0 counts per minute) to 96.0% (based on relative non-movement of <100 counts per minute). Conclusions: These variables extend the potential of field-based 24-h waist-worn accelerometry to distinguish and categorize the underlying robust patterns of movement/non-movement signals conveying magnitude, duration, frequency and periodicity during the nocturnal sleep period. PMID:27152185

  16. Infrared spectroscopy of [XFeC24H12]+ (X = C5H5, C5(CH3)5) complexes in the gas phase: experimental and computational studies of astrophysical interest.

    PubMed

    Simon, Aude; Joblin, Christine; Polfer, Nick; Oomens, Jos

    2008-09-18

    We report the first experimental mid-infrared (700-1600 cm (-1)) multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra of [XFeC 24H 12] (+) (X = C 5H 5 or Cp, C 5(CH 3) 5 or Cp*) complexes in the gas phase obtained using the free electron laser for infrared experiments. The experimental results are complemented with theoretical infrared (IR) absorption spectra calculated with methods based on density functional theory. The isomers in which the XFe unit is coordinated to an outer ring of C 24H 12 (+) (Out isomers) were calculated to be the most stable ones. From the comparison between the experimental and calculated spectra, we could derive that, (i) for [CpFeC 24H 12] (+) complexes, the (1)A Out isomer appears to be the best candidate to be formed in the experiment but the presence of the (1)A In higher energy isomer in minor abundance is also plausible; and (ii) for [Cp*FeC 24H 12] (+) complexes, the three calculated Out isomers of similar energy are likely to be present simultaneously, in qualitative agreement with the observed dissociation patterns. This study also emphasizes the threshold effect in the IRMPD spectrum below which IR bands cannot be observed and evidence strong mode coupling effects in the [XFeC 24H 12] (+) species. The effect of the coordination of Fe in weakening the bands of C 24H 12 (+) in the 1000-1600 cm (-1) region is confirmed, which is of interest to search for such complexes in interstellar environments.

  17. Quantum Bounce and Cosmic Recall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Singh, Parampreet

    2008-04-01

    Loop quantum cosmology predicts that, in simple models, the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce. A natural question is whether the universe retains, after the bounce, its memory about the previous epoch. More precisely, does the Universe retain various properties of the state after evolving unitarily through the bounce, or does it suffer from recently suggested cosmic amnesia? We show that this issue can be answered unambiguously at least within an exactly solvable model. A semiclassical state at late times on one side of the bounce, peaked on a pair of canonically conjugate variables, strongly bounds the fluctuations on the other side, implying semiclassicality. For a model universe growing to 1 megaparsec, the change in relative fluctuation across the bounce is less than 10-56 (becoming smaller for larger universes). The universe maintains (an almost) total recall.

  18. Reproducibility of 24-h post-exercise changes in energy intake in overweight and obese women using current methodology.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gemma L; Lean, Michael E; Hankey, Catherine R

    2012-07-01

    Direct observation(s) of energy intake (EI) via buffet meals served in the laboratory are often carried out within short-term exercise intervention studies. The reproducibility of values obtained has not been assessed either under resting control conditions or post-exercise, in overweight and obese females. A total of fourteen sedentary, pre-menopausal females (BMI 30.0 (SD 5.1) kg/m²) completed four trials; two exercise and two control. Each trial lasted 24 h spanning over 2 d; conducted from afternoon on day 1 and morning on day 2. An exercise session to expend 1.65 MJ was completed on day 1 of exercise trials, and three buffet meals were served during each trial. Reproducibility of post-exercise changes in energy and macronutrient intakes was assessed at each individual buffet meal by intraclass correlation coefficient (r(i)). Only the r(i) values for post-exercise changes in energy (r(i) 0.44 (95 % CI - 0.03, 0.77), P = 0.03) and fat intake (r(i) 0.51 (95 % CI 0.04, 0.81), P = 0.02) at the lunch buffet meal achieved statistical significance; however, these r i values were weak and had large associated 95 % CI, which indicates a large degree of variability associated with these measurements. Energy and macronutrient intakes at the breakfast and evening buffet meals were not reproducible. This study concludes that the frequently used laboratory-based buffet meal method of assessing EI does not produce reliable, reproducible post-exercise changes in EI in overweight and obese women.

  19. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53), 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002

  20. Identification of trends in rainfall, rainy days and 24 h maximum rainfall over subtropical Assam in Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhajharia, Deepak; Yadav, Brijesh K.; Maske, Sunil; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Kar, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Trends in rainfall, rainy days and 24 h maximum rainfall are investigated using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test at twenty-four sites of subtropical Assam located in the northeastern region of India. The trends are statistically confirmed by both the parametric and non-parametric methods and the magnitudes of significant trends are obtained through the linear regression test. In Assam, the average monsoon rainfall (rainy days) during the monsoon months of June to September is about 1606 mm (70), which accounts for about 70% (64%) of the annual rainfall (rainy days). On monthly time scales, sixteen and seventeen sites (twenty-one sites each) witnessed decreasing trends in the total rainfall (rainy days), out of which one and three trends (seven trends each) were found to be statistically significant in June and July, respectively. On the other hand, seventeen sites witnessed increasing trends in rainfall in the month of September, but none were statistically significant. In December (February), eighteen (twenty-two) sites witnessed decreasing (increasing) trends in total rainfall, out of which five (three) trends were statistically significant. For the rainy days during the months of November to January, twenty-two or more sites witnessed decreasing trends in Assam, but for nine (November), twelve (January) and eighteen (December) sites, these trends were statistically significant. These observed changes in rainfall, although most time series are not convincing as they show predominantly no significance, along with the well-reported climatic warming in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons may have implications for human health and water resources management over bio-diversity rich Northeast India.

  1. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    PubMed

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake.

  2. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children’s discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother’s 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child’s salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  3. 24h Urinary Protein Levels and Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratios Could Probably Forecast the Pathological Classification of HSPN

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qing; Shang, Shi-qiang; Liu, Ai-min; Zhang, Ting; Shen, Hong-qiang; Chen, Xue-jun; Mao, Jian-hua

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the relevance of laboratory tests in Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) classification, and determine accurate classification factors. This prospective study included 694 HSPN patients who underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB). Renal specimens were scored according to International Study of Kidney Disease in Children (ISKDC) classification. Meanwhile, blood samples were immediately collected for laboratory examination. The associations between laboratory parameters and HSPN classification were assessed. Significant differences in levels of serum Th1/Th2 cytokines, immunoglobulins, T-lymphocyte subsets, complement, and coagulation markers were obtained between HSPN patients and healthy children. Interestingly, 24h urinary protein (24h-UPRO) levels and urine protein/urine creatinine ratios could determine HPSN grade IIb, IIIa, and IIIb incidences, with areas under ROC curve of 0.767 and 0.731, respectively. At 24h-UPRO >580.35mg/L, prediction sensitivity and specificity were 75.2% and 70.0%, respectively. These values became 53.0% and 82.3%, respectively, with 24h-UPRO exceeding 1006.25mg/L. At urine protein/urine creatinine > 0.97, prediction sensitivity and specificity were 65.5% and 67.2%, respectively, values that became 57.4% and 80.0%, respectively, at ratios exceeding 1.2. Cell and humoral immunity, coagulation and fibrinolytic systems are all involved in the pathogenesis of HSPN, and type I hypersensitivity may be the disease trigger of HSPN. 24h-UPRO levels and urine protein/creatinine ratios could probably forecast the pathological classification of HSPN. PMID:25996387

  4. Beginning at the Beginning: Recall Order and the Number of Words to Be Recalled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff; Paulauskaite, Laura; Markou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    When participants are asked to recall a short list of words in any order that they like, they tend to initiate recall with the first list item and proceed in forward order, even when this is not a task requirement. The current research examined whether this tendency might be influenced by varying the number of items that are to be recalled. In 3…

  5. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Effect of Concurrent Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, participants saw lists of 16 words for free recall with or without a 6-digit immediate serial recall (ISR) task after each word. Free recall was performed under standard visual silent and spoken-aloud conditions (Experiment 1), overt rehearsal conditions (Experiment 2), and fixed rehearsal conditions (Experiment 3). The authors…

  6. On the Auditory Modality Superiority Effect in Serial Recall: Separating Input and Output Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; Saults, J. Scott; Brown, Gordon D.A.

    2004-01-01

    The modality effect in immediate recall refers to superior recall of the last few items within lists presented in spoken as opposed to printed form. The locus of this well-known effect has been unclear. N. Cowan, J. S. Saults, E. M. Elliott, and M. Moreno (2002) introduced a new method to distinguish between the effects of input serial position,…

  7. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  8. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  9. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  10. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  11. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall communications. 7.49 Section 7.49 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities §...

  12. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities §...

  13. Organization of Free Recall Using Specialized Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprafka, Sarah; Zacks, Rose

    The organizational factors in memory relevant to learning medical diagnosis terms are discussed in this paper. Two hypotheses are tested: that the type of list organization will affect total recall; and that the type of curriculum and year in school will affect the organization of recall. Ninety-six second and third year medical students from two…

  14. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS Canning and Canned... recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  15. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered...

  16. Enhanced recognition and recall of new words in 7- and 12-year-olds following a period of offline consolidation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Helen; Weighall, Anna; Henderson, Lisa M; Gareth Gaskell, M

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies of adults have found evidence for consolidation effects in the acquisition of novel words, but little is known about whether such effects are found developmentally. In two experiments, we familiarized children with novel nonwords (e.g., biscal) and tested their recognition and recall of these items. In Experiment 1, 7-year-olds were then retested on either the same day or the following day to examine changes in performance after a short delay compared with a longer delay that included sleep. Experiment 2 used two age groups (7- and 12-year-olds), with all participants being retested 24h later. The 12-year-olds accurately recognized the novel nonwords immediately after exposure, as did the 7-year-olds in Experiment 2 (but not in Experiment 1), suggesting generally good initial rates of learning. Experiment 1 revealed improved recognition of the novel nonwords after both short (3- to 4-h) and longer (24-h) delays. In contrast, recall was initially poor but showed improvements only when children were retested 24h later, not after a 3- to 4-h delay. Similar improvements were observed in both age groups despite better overall performance in 12-year-olds. We argue that children, like adults, exhibit offline consolidation effects on the formation of novel phonological representations.

  17. Relationship between 24-h urine sodium/potassium ratio and central aortic systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Moo-Yong; Shin, Sung-Joon; Gu, Namyi; Nah, Deuk-Young; Kim, Byong-Kyu; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Cho, Eun-Joo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Lee, Sim-Yeol; Kim, Kwang-Il

    2016-11-24

    Studies evaluating the relationship between measured 24-h urine sodium (24HUNa), potassium (24HUK) and aortic blood pressure (BP) are rare, and no such study has been performed with an Asian population. We evaluated the relationship between 24HUNa, 24HUK, casual BP, 24-h ambulatory BP and aortic BP by analyzing data from 524 participants with valid 24-h urine collection, 24-h ambulatory BP and central BP measurements (mean age 48.1±9.8 years, 193 men). Hypertension was defined as a 24-h ambulatory BP ⩾130/80 mm Hg or current treatment for hypertension (n=219). The participants with hypertension and high 24HUNa (mean 210.5±52.0 mmol  per day, range 151.0-432.0) showed higher 24-h systolic (P=0.037) and diastolic BP (P=0.037) and aortic systolic BP (AoSBP, P=0.038) than the participants with hypertension and low 24HUNa (mean 115.7±25.0 mmol per day, range 45.6-150.0), adjusted for confounders. The participants with hypertension and a high ratio of 24HUNa and 24HUK (24HUNa/24HUK, mean 4.03±1.00, range 2.93-7.96) had higher AoSBP than the participants with hypertension and a low 24HUNa/24HUK ratio (mean 2.13±0.54, range 0.53-2.91), adjusted for confounders (P=0.026). The participants with hypertension demonstrated a significant linear relationship between AoSBP and 24HUNa/24HUK ratio that was independent of 24HUNa, according to the multiple regression analysis (P=0.047). In hypertensive patients, 24HUNa/24HUK was positively and more strongly related to AoSBP compared with 24HUNa alone. The result indicates that high sodium and low potassium intake may increase the subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease by elevating AoSBP.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 24 November 2016; doi:10.1038/hr.2016.161.

  18. Discrimination between patients with melancholic depression and healthy controls: comparison between 24-h cortisol profiles, the DST and the Dex/CRH test.

    PubMed

    Paslakis, Georgios; Krumm, Bertram; Gilles, Maria; Schweiger, Ulrich; Heuser, Isabella; Richter, Inga; Deuschle, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Diurnal (24-h) cortisol profiles were compared to DST and Dex/CRH test outcomes with regard to their discriminative power in depressive disorder. With regard to several statistical measures (effect sizes, area under the curve) we found 24-h cortisol profiles to better discriminate between healthy controls and inpatients with the melancholic subtype of depression compared to the DST and Dex/CRH test. In search of a shortened time interval we found the 2-h time window 1000-1200 h of the cortisol profile to be the one with the highest sensitivity (83.3%) and specificity (87.9%). The specificity of the DST was 93.3% and somewhat higher than that of the cortisol profiles and the Dex/CRH test (87.9% and 78.8.%, respectively). However, the sensitivity of the DST was very low (30.8%), in fact similar to that of the Dex/CRH test (30.8%), but much lower than that of the 1000-1200 h interval (83.3%). The assessment of cortisol in plasma is an easy to perform, cost-saving method for the evaluation of the HPA system activity, which may have a series of clinical and scientific implications for the depressive disorder.

  19. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history.

    PubMed

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall.

  20. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history

    PubMed Central

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall. PMID:25599028

  1. Environmental impact on crew of armoured vehicles: effects of 24 h combat exercise in a hot desert.

    PubMed

    Singh, A P; Majumdar, D; Bhatia, M R; Srivastava, K K; Selvamurthy, W

    1995-11-01

    A field study was undertaken to investigate the effects of combined noise, vibration and heat stress on the physiological functions of the crew of armoured vehicles during prolonged combat exercise in a desert. The sound pressure level of noise was measured with a sound level meter and accelerations by vibration analyser. The thermal load on the crew was evaluated by calculating the wet bulb globe temperature index. The physiological responses of the subjects (n = 9), included significant increases in the heart rate, 24 h water intake and urinary catecholamine concentration. A significant decrease was recorded in body mass, peak expiratory flow rate and 24 h urinary output. The high heat load on the crew resulted in a hypohydration of 3% body mass and appeared to be the dominant factor in producing the physiological strain.

  2. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence from Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Sörqvist, Patrik; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this…

  3. Long-term blood pressure changes induced by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: assessment by 24 h ambulatory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Petrarca, Marco; Petrazzi, Luisa; Pasqualetti, Paolo; Properzi, Giuliana; Desideri, Giovambattista; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    An increased rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been described during and immediately after earthquakes. In this regard, few data are available on long-term blood pressure control in hypertensive outpatients after an earthquake. We evaluated the long-term effects of the April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake on blood pressure levels, as detected by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Before/after (mean±s.d. 6.9±4.5/14.2±5.1 months, respectively) the earthquake, the available 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data for the same patients were extracted from our database. Quake-related daily life discomforts were evaluated through interviews. We enrolled 47 patients (25 female, age 52±14 years), divided into three groups according to antihypertensive therapy changes after versus before the earthquake: unchanged therapy (n=24), increased therapy (n=17) and reduced therapy (n=6). Compared with before the quake, in the unchanged therapy group marked increases in 24 h (P=0.004), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.02) systolic blood pressure were observed after the quake. Corresponding changes in 24 h (P=0.005), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.009) diastolic blood pressure were observed. Daily life discomforts were reported more frequently in the unchanged therapy and increased therapy groups than the reduced therapy group (P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that patients with unchanged therapy display marked blood pressure increments up to more than 1 year after an earthquake, as well as long-term quake-related discomfort. Our data suggest that particular attention to blood pressure levels and adequate therapy modifications should be considered after an earthquake, not only early after the event but also months later.

  4. Nqrs Data for C24H76BLiN12O4P4 (Subst. No. 1593)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H76BLiN12O4P4 (Subst. No. 1593)

  5. Shock in the first 24 h of intensive care unit stay: observational study of protocol-based fluid management.

    PubMed

    See, Kay Choong; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Lau, Samuel Chuan-Xian; Tan, Sandra Ming-Yien; Lim, Tow Keang; Phua, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Precision in fluid management for shock could lead to better clinical outcomes. We evaluated the association of protocol-based fluid management with intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital mortality. We performed an observational study of mechanically ventilated patients admitted directly from our emergency department to the ICU from August 2011 to December 2013, who had circulatory shock in the first 24 h of ICU stay (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg at ICU admission or lactate >4 mmol/L). Patients with onset of shock beyond 24 h of ICU stay were excluded. Protocol-based fluid management required close physician-nurse cooperation and computerized documentation, checking for fluid response (≥10% arterial pulse pressure or stroke volume increase after two consecutive 250-mL crystalloid boluses), and fluid loading with repeated 500-mL boluses until fluid response became negative. Six hundred twelve mechanically ventilated patients with shock (mean [±SD] age, 63.0 years [16.5]; 252 or 41.2% females; mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, 30.2 [8.8]) were studied. The fluid management protocol was used 455 times for 242 patients (39.5% of 612 patients) within the first 24 h of ICU stay, with 244 (53.6% of 455) positive responses. Adjusted for age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, comorbidity, and admission year, protocol use was associated with reduced ICU mortality (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.94; P = 0.025) but not hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.23; P = 0.369). Among mechanically ventilated patients with shock within the first 24 h of ICU stay, about half had positive fluid responses. Adherence to protocol-based fluid management was associated with improved ICU survival.

  6. Nqrs Data for C24H46I2N6O2P2Sn (Subst. No. 1589)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H46I2N6O2P2Sn (Subst. No. 1589)

  7. Tyramine pressor sensitivity during treatment with the selegiline transdermal system 6 mg/24 h in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Azzaro, Albert J; Vandenberg, Chad M; Blob, Lawrence F; Kemper, Eva M; Sharoky, Melvin; Oren, Dan A; Campbell, Bryan J

    2006-08-01

    The oral tyramine pressor test was administered to healthy males during treatment with a selegiline transdermal system (STS; 6 mg/24 h). The tyramine sensitivity factor (TSF) was calculated from the ratio of baseline and on-treatment tyramine pressor doses. The tyramine sensitivity factor value following 9 days of treatment with the selegiline transdermal system was 1.85 +/- 0.10. Extended treatment, 33 days, produced a small, clinically non-meaningful increase in this value. The tyramine sensitivity factor for the selegiline transdermal system was similar to that following treatment with 10 mg/d of oral selegiline capsules but more than 20 times less than observed during tranylcypromine treatment. A larger increase in the tyramine sensitivity factor was observed following extended selegiline transdermal system treatment at a higher dose (12 mg/24 h), which was significantly decreased following coadministration of tyramine capsules with a meal. These results suggest a wide tyramine safety margin for the selegiline transdermal system and provide evidence that the 6-mg/24-h selegiline transdermal system can be administered safely without dietary tyramine restrictions.

  8. 'Life in the age of screens': parent perspectives on a 24-h no screen-time challenge.

    PubMed

    Peláez, Sandra; Alexander, Stephanie; Roberge, Jean-Baptiste; Henderson, Melanie; Bigras, Jean-Luc; Barnett, Tracie A

    2016-08-01

    Screens have become ubiquitous in modern society. Their use frequently underlies sedentary behaviour, a well-established determinant of obesity. As part of a family oriented clinic offering a 2-year lifestyle program for obese children and youth, we explored parents' experiences with a 24-h no screen-time challenge, an intervention designed to raise awareness of screen-time habits and to help families develop strategies to limit their use. In total, 15 parents representing 13 families participated. A focus group with nine parents and six phone interviews with those who could not join in person were conducted. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed qualitatively. Key elements to successful completion of the 24-h no screen-time challenge emerged, namely: clear rules about permitted activities during the 24-h period; togetherness, i.e. involving all family members in the challenge; and busyness, i.e. planning a full schedule in order to avoid idleness and preclude the temptation to use screens. Our findings suggest that practitioners aiming to increase awareness of screen-time or to limit their use may be more likely to succeed if they include all family members, offer concrete alternatives to screen-based activities and provide tailored strategies to manage discretionary time.

  9. No evidence for genotoxic effects from 24 h exposure of human leukocytes to 1.9 GHz radiofrequency fields.

    PubMed

    McNamee, J P; Bellier, P V; Gajda, G B; Lavallée, B F; Marro, L; Lemay, E; Thansandote, A

    2003-05-01

    The current study extends our previous investigations of 2-h radiofrequency (RF)-field exposures on genotoxicity in human blood cell cultures by examining the effect of 24-h continuous-wave (CW) and pulsed-wave (PW) 1.9 GHz RF-field exposures on both primary DNA damage and micronucleus induction in human leukocyte cultures. Mean specific absorption rates (SARs) ranged from 0 to 10 W/kg, and the temperature within the cultures was maintained at 37.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C for the duration of the 24-h exposure period. No significant differences in primary DNA damage were observed between the sham-treated controls and any of the CW or PW 1.9 GHz RF-field-exposed cultures when processed immediately after the exposure period by the alkaline comet assay. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in the incidence of micronuclei, incidence of micronucleated binucleated cells, frequency of binucleated cells, or proliferation index between the sham-treated controls and any of the CW or PW 1.9 GHz RF-field-exposed cultures. In conclusion, the current study found no evidence of 1.9 GHz RF-field-induced genotoxicity in human blood cell cultures after a 24-h exposure period.

  10. Time course of the MAPK and PI3-kinase response within 24 h of skeletal muscle overload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, C. J.; Fan, Z.; Gordon, S. E.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which skeletal muscle hypertrophies in response to increased mechanical loading may lead to the discovery of novel treatment strategies for muscle wasting and frailty. To gain insight into potential early signaling mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the temporal pattern of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity during the first 24 h of muscle overload was determined in the rat slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles after ablation of the gastrocnemius muscle. p38alpha MAPK phosphorylation was elevated for the entire 24-h overload period in both muscles. In contrast, Erk 2 and p54 JNK phosphorylation were transiently increased by overload, returning to the levels of sham-operated controls by 24 h. PI3-kinase activity was increased by muscle overload only at 12 h of overload and only in the plantaris muscle. In summary, sustained elevation of p38alpha MAPK phosphorylation occurred early in response to muscle overload, identifying this pathway as a potential candidate for mediating early hypertrophic signals in response to skeletal muscle overload.

  11. Effect of moderate cold exposure on 24-h energy expenditure: similar response in postobese and nonobese women.

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A; Christensen, N J; Madsen, J

    1992-12-01

    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation rates were measured two times in eight postobese women and eight matched controls. On one occasion the subjects were exposed to a room temperature of 16 degrees C, on the other to 24 degrees C. Cold exposure elicited a 2% increment in 24-h EE (P < 0.05), with similar response in the two groups. The slight increase in EE was entirely covered by an enhanced carbohydrate oxidation rate. Fasting plasma norepinephrine (NE) increased from 0.74 +/- 0.08 to 1.29 +/- 0.21 nmol/l under cold exposure (P < 0.05), with no group difference. The cold-induced increase in 24-h EE was positively correlated to the increase in NE concentration (r2 = 0.41, P = 0.01). Sleeping EE was found to be 5% lower in the postobese women than in the controls (P = 0.04). The postobese group also had higher 24-h nonprotein respiratory quotient than the control group (P = 0.04), which was due to a 26% lower lipid-to-carbohydrate oxidation ratio. The study demonstrates that the thermogenic response to cold is normal in women susceptible to obesity, but it supports previous reports of a slightly lower basal EE and lower lipid-to-carbohydrate oxidation ratio in postobese subjects.

  12. Does Size Impact Attention and Recall of Graphic Health Warnings?

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Elizabeth G.; Shoben, Abigail B.; Krygowski, Sarah; Ferketich, Amy; Berman, Micah; Peters, Ellen; Rao, Unnava; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the attention paid to larger sizes of graphic health warnings (GHWs) embedded within cigarette advertisements so as to assess their impacts on rural smokers. Methods Daily smokers (N = 298) were randomly assigned to view a cigarette advertisement with 3 conditions: 2 intervention conditions with GHW comprising 20% or 33% of the ad area, or a text-only control. Eye-tracking software measured attention in milliseconds. Binary outcome mediation was conducted. Results Intervention participants spent 24% of their time viewing the GHWs, compared to 10% for control (p < .01). The odds of GHW recall in the combined (20% and 33%) intervention group were 3.3 times higher than controls. Total dwell time mediated 33% of the effect of the graphic condition on any recall. Conclusions GHWs in 20% of cigarette advertisement space attracted significantly more attention than text-only warnings; larger GHWs did not increase attention. Attention was significantly associated with warning recall; total time viewing mediated warning recall. Tobacco ads should include GHWs to attract the attention of smokers. PMID:26550583

  13. Recalling what was where when seeing nothing there.

    PubMed

    Staudte, Maria; Altmann, Gerry T M

    2016-07-18

    So-called "looks-at-nothing" have previously been used to show that recalling what also elicits the recall of where this was. Here, we present evidence from an eye-tracking study which shows that disrupting looks to "there" does not disrupt recalling what was there, nor do (anticipatory) looks to "there" facilitate recalling what was there. Therefore, our results suggest that recalling where does not recall what.

  14. Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-h shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Laura K.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Burke, Tina M.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration space missions depends on the ability of crewmembers and mission support specialists to be alert and maintain high levels of cognitive function while operating complex, technical equipment. We examined sleep, nocturnal melatonin levels and cognitive function of crewmembers and the sleep and cognitive function of mission controllers who participated in a high-fidelity 105-day simulated spaceflight mission at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (Moscow). Crewmembers were required to perform daily mission duties and work one 24-h extended duration work shift every sixth day. Mission controllers nominally worked 24-h extended duration shifts. Supplemental lighting was provided to crewmembers and mission controllers. Participants' sleep was estimated by wrist-actigraphy recordings. Overall, results show that crewmembers and mission controllers obtained inadequate sleep and exhibited impaired cognitive function, despite countermeasure use, while working extended duration shifts. Crewmembers averaged 7.04±0.92 h (mean±SD) and 6.94±1.08 h (mean±SD) in the two workdays prior to the extended duration shifts, 1.88±0.40 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h work shift, and then slept 10.18±0.96 h (mean±SD) the day after the night shift. Although supplemental light was provided, crewmembers' average nocturnal melatonin levels remained elevated during extended 24-h work shifts. Naps and caffeine use were reported by crewmembers during ˜86% and 45% of extended night work shifts, respectively. Even with reported use of wake-promoting countermeasures, significant impairments in cognitive function were observed. Mission controllers slept 5.63±0.95 h (mean±SD) the night prior to their extended duration work shift. On an average, 89% of night shifts included naps with mission controllers sleeping an average of 3.4±1.0 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h extended duration work shift. Mission controllers also showed impaired cognitive function during extended

  15. Patient recall 6 weeks after surgical consent for midurethral sling using mesh

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Brook L.; Hammil, Sarah L.; Constantine, Melissa L.; Tarr, Megan E.; Kenton, Kimberly S.; Abed, Husam T.; Sung, Vivian W.; Rogers, Rebecca G.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis We aimed to determine patient recall of specific surgical risks and benefits discussed during consent for midurethral sling (MUS) surgery immediately after consent and at 6 weeks follow-up. Specifically we sought to determine whether or not women recalled specific risks related to the placement of mesh. Methods Surgeons consented patients for MUS in their usual fashion during audio recorded consent sessions. After consent and again at 6 weeks postoperatively, women completed a checklist of risks, benefits, alternatives, and general procedural items covered during consent. In addition, women completed the Decision Regret Scale for Pelvic Floor Disorders (DRS-PFD). Audio files were used to verify specific risks, benefits, alternatives, and procedural items discussed at consent. Recall of specific risks, benefits, and alternatives were correlated with DRS-PFD scores. Results Sixty-three women completed checklists immediately post consent and at 6 weeks postoperatively. Six-week recall of benefits, alternatives, and description of the operation did not change. Surgical risk recall as measured by the patient checklist deteriorated from 92 % immediately post consent to 72 % at 6 weeks postoperatively (p < .001). Recall of the risk for mesh erosion declined from 91 to 64 % (p < .001). Recall that mesh was placed during the MUS procedure declined from 98 to 84 % (p = .01). DRS-PFD scores were correlated with poorer surgical risk recall and surgical complications (r =.31, p = .02). Conclusions Recall of MUS surgery risks deteriorated overtime. Specifically, women forgot that mesh was placed or might erode. Further investigations into methods and measures of adequate consent that promote recall of long-term surgical risks are needed. PMID:23818127

  16. Docetaxel-induced photo-recall phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Droitcourt, Catherine; Le Hô, Hélêne; Adamski, Henri; Le Gall, François; Dupuy, Alain

    2012-08-01

    Photo-recall phenomenon is a phototoxic eruption occurring on areas of previous ultraviolet-induced solar erythema following a systemic administration of a drug. It has been mostly described with methotrexate but remains rare with other antineoplastic drugs. We describe a case of docetaxel-induced photo-recall skin rash in a woman treated for a non-small-cell lung cancer. Although the patient has refused to receive a second infusion, chemotherapy can be carried on with photoprotection and the use of topical and/or systemic corticosteroids. In contrast, radiation recall is a well-known reaction by oncologists, most of them may not be aware of a similar phenomenon called photo-recall phenomenon. Recognizing this entity may avoid misdiagnosing a drug allergy and should avoid inappropriate decisions of drug discontinuation.

  17. Jim Lovell Recalls Apollo 8 Launch Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronaut Jim Lovell, veteran of two Gemini flights as well as the legendary missions of Apollo 8 and Apollo 13, recalls his thoughts on launch day of Apollo 8 in 1968, when humans first left the E...

  18. The Structure and Recall of Narrative Prose

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    reactors and parakeets into a hierarchy of "idea units" and found that idea units higher in the hierarchy were more frequently recalled than idea...responses for recall of descriptive i prose involving set relations. I I" I i i i I I I Monk and Kintsch (1974) measured reaction times to...repeated exposures. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1975, 14, 158-169. Monk , D., & Kintsch, W. Memory search I: Paragraph memory

  19. Oncologists' non-verbal behavior and analog patients' recall of information.

    PubMed

    Hillen, Marij A; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; van Weert, Julia C M; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2016-06-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist's non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors, i.e. eye contact, body posture and smiling, on patients' recall of information and perceived friendliness of the oncologist. Moreover, the influence of patient characteristics on recall was examined, both directly or as a moderator of non-verbal communication. Material and methods Non-verbal communication of an oncologist was experimentally varied using video vignettes. In total 194 breast cancer patients/survivors and healthy women participated as 'analog patients', viewing a randomly selected video version while imagining themselves in the role of the patient. Directly after viewing, they evaluated the oncologist. From 24 to 48 hours later, participants' passive recall, i.e. recognition, and free recall of information provided by the oncologist were assessed. Results Participants' recognition was higher if the oncologist maintained more consistent eye contact (β = 0.17). More eye contact and smiling led to a perception of the oncologist as more friendly. Body posture and smiling did not significantly influence recall. Older age predicted significantly worse recognition (β = -0.28) and free recall (β = -0.34) of information. Conclusion Oncologists may be able to facilitate their patients' recall functioning through consistent eye contact. This seems particularly relevant for older patients, whose recall is significantly worse. These findings can be used in training, focused on how to maintain eye contact while managing computer tasks.

  20. Temporal variability in urinary excretion of bisphenol A and seven other phenols in spot, morning, and 24-h urine samples.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Main, Katharina M; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Jørgensen, Niels; Kranich, Selma Kløve; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2013-10-01

    Human exposure to modern non-persistent chemicals is difficult to ascertain in epidemiological studies as exposure patterns and excretion rates may show temporal and diurnal variations. The aim of this study was to assess the temporal variability in repeated measurements of urinary excretion of bisphenol A (BPA) and seven other phenols. All analytes were determined using TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS. Two spot, three first morning and three 24-h urine samples were collected from 33 young Danish men over a three months period. Temporal variability was estimated by means of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). More than 70% of the urine samples had detectable levels of BPA, triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and sum of 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorophenol (ΣDCP). We found low to moderate ICCs for BPA (0.10-0.42) and ΣDCP (0.39-0.72), whereas the ICCs for BP-3 (0.69-0.80) and TCS (0.55-0.90) were higher. The ICCs were highest for the two spot urine samples, which were collected approximately 4 days apart, compared with the 24-h urine samples and the first morning urine samples, which were collected approximately 40 days apart. A consequence of the considerable variability in urinary excretion of BPA may be misclassification of individual BPA exposure level in epidemiological studies, which may lead to attenuation of the association between BPA and outcomes. Our data do not support that collection of 24-h samples will improve individual exposure assessment for any of the analysed phenols.

  1. Evaluation of repolarization dynamics using the QT-RR regression line slope and intercept relationship during 24-h Holter ECG.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Akira; Yoshioka, Ryozo; Sakabe, Masao

    2015-03-01

    QT-RR linear regression consists of two parameters, slope and intercept, and the aim of this study was to evaluate repolarization dynamics using the QT-RR linear regression slope and intercept relationship during 24-h Holter ECG. This study included 466 healthy subjects (54.6 ± 14.6 years; 200 men and 266 women) and 17 patients with ventricular arrhythmias, consisted of 10 patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) and 7 patients with torsades de pointes (TDP). QT and RR intervals were measured from ECG waves based on a 15-s averaged ECG during 24-h Holter recording using an automatic QT analyzing system. The QT interval dependence on the RR interval was analyzed using a linear regression line for each subject ([QT] = A[RR] + B; where A is the slope and B is the y-intercept). The slope of the QT-RR regression line in healthy subjects was significantly greater in women than in men (0.185 ± 0.036 vs. 0.161 ± 0.033, p < 0.001) and the intercept was significantly smaller in women than in men (0.229 ± 0.028 vs. 0.240 ± 0.027, p < 0.001). A scatter diagram of the QT-RR regression line slope and intercept among healthy subjects demonstrated a statistically significant negative correlation (B = -0.62A + 0.34, r = -0.79). Distribution of both scatter diagrams of the slope and the intercept of the QT-RR regression line in patients with IVF and TDP was different from healthy subjects (left corner for IVF and upward shift for TDP). The slope and intercept relationship of the QT-RR linear regression line based on 24-h Holter ECG may become a simple useful marker for abnormality of ventricular repolarization dynamics.

  2. Neighbourhood food store availability in relation to 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies on the relationship of local food environment with residents' diets have relied exclusively on self-reported information on diet, producing inconsistent results. Evaluation of dietary intake using biomarkers may obviate the biases inherent to the use of self-reported dietary information. This cross-sectional study examined the association between neighbourhood food store availability and 24 h urinary Na and K excretion. The subjects were 904 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18-22 years. Neighbourhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence. Urinary Na and K excretion and the ratio of urinary Na to K were estimated from a single 24 h urine sample. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, neighbourhood availability of confectionery stores/bakeries was inversely associated with urinary K, and was positively associated with the ratio of Na to K (P for trend = 0.008 and 0.03, respectively). Neighbourhood availability of rice stores showed an independent inverse association with urinary K (P for trend = 0.03), whereas neighbourhood availability of supermarkets/grocery stores conversely showed an independent positive association with this variable (P for trend = 0.03). Furthermore, neighbourhood availability of fruit/vegetable stores showed an independent inverse association with the ratio of Na to K (P for trend = 0.049). In a group of young Japanese women, increasing neighbourhood availability of supermarkets/grocery stores and fruit/vegetable stores and decreasing availability of confectionery stores/bakeries and rice stores were associated with favourable profiles of 24 h urinary K (and Na) excretion.

  3. Metal element excretion in 24-h urine in patients with Wilson disease under treatment of D-penicillamine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lisu; Yu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yongjun; Jiao, Xianting; Yu, Xiaogang

    2012-05-01

    Wilson disease is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder causing copper accumulation and consequent toxicity. D-Penicillamine, a potent metal chelator, is an important therapy for Wilson disease. To investigate the changes of metal elements under the treatment of D-penicillamine, we determined the levels of Cu, Zn, Mg, Ca, Fe, Se, Mn, Pb, Hg, Cd, As, Tl, and Al by ICP-MS in 24-h urine of 115 Wilson disease patients who had received treatment with D: -penicillamine for 1 month to 22 years at maintenance doses, as well as 115 age-matched, healthy controls. The levels of Cu, Mg, Ca, Zn, Hg, Pb, Tl, Cd, and Mn in the 24-h urine of the cases were significantly higher than those of the controls (P < 0.05), and the observed increases in the levels of Mg, Ca, and Zn were directly correlated with the treatment duration with Pearson Correlation Coefficient (R) of 0.356 (Mg), 0.329 (Ca), and 0.313 (Zn), respectively (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the levels of Al and As in the 24-h urine were lower than those of the controls (P < 0.05) and were negatively correlated with the treatment time with R of -0.337 (Al) and -0.398 (As), respectively, (P < 0.05). Thus, this study indicates that the levels of metal elements may be altered in patients with Wilson disease under the treatment of D-penicillamine.

  4. Prediction of hypertensive crisis based on average, variability and approximate entropy of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Schoenenberger, A W; Erne, P; Ammann, S; Perrig, M; Bürgi, U; Stuck, A E

    2008-01-01

    Approximate entropy (ApEn) of blood pressure (BP) can be easily measured based on software analysing 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), but the clinical value of this measure is unknown. In a prospective study we investigated whether ApEn of BP predicts, in addition to average and variability of BP, the risk of hypertensive crisis. In 57 patients with known hypertension we measured ApEn, average and variability of systolic and diastolic BP based on 24-h ABPM. Eight of these fifty-seven patients developed hypertensive crisis during follow-up (mean follow-up duration 726 days). In bivariate regression analysis, ApEn of systolic BP (P<0.01), average of systolic BP (P=0.02) and average of diastolic BP (P=0.03) were significant predictors of hypertensive crisis. The incidence rate ratio of hypertensive crisis was 14.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8, 631.5; P<0.01) for high ApEn of systolic BP as compared to low values. In multivariable regression analysis, ApEn of systolic (P=0.01) and average of diastolic BP (P<0.01) were independent predictors of hypertensive crisis. A combination of these two measures had a positive predictive value of 75%, and a negative predictive value of 91%, respectively. ApEn, combined with other measures of 24-h ABPM, is a potentially powerful predictor of hypertensive crisis. If confirmed in independent samples, these findings have major clinical implications since measures predicting the risk of hypertensive crisis define patients requiring intensive follow-up and intensified therapy.

  5. Melatonin, selective and non-selective MT1/MT2 receptors agonists: differential effects on the 24-h vigilance states.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Sanchez, Rafael; Comai, Stefano; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Tarzia, Giorgio; Gobbi, Gabriella

    2014-02-21

    Melatonin (MLT) is a neurohormone implicated in several physiological processes such as sleep. Contrasting results have been produced on whether or not it may act as a hypnotic agent, and the neurobiological mechanism through which it controls the vigilance states has not yet been elucidated. In this study we investigated the effect of MLT (40 mg/kg), a non-selective MT1/MT2 receptor agonist (UCM793, 40 mg/kg), and a selective MT2 partial agonist (UCM924, 40 mg/kg) on the 24-h vigilance states. EEG and EMG sleep-wake patterns were registered across the 24-h light-dark cycle in adult Sprague-Dawley male rats. MLT decreased (-37%) the latency to the first episode of non rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS), enhanced the power of NREMS delta band (+33%), but did not alter the duration of any of the three vigilance states. Differently, UCM793 increased the number of episodes (+52%) and decreased the length of the episodes (-38%) of wakefulness but did not alter the 24-h duration of wakefulness, NREMS and REMS. UCM924 instead reduced the latency (-56%) and increased (+31%) the duration of NREMS. Moreover, it raised the number of REMS episodes (+57%) but did not affect REMS duration. Taken together, these findings show that MLT and non-selective MT1/MT2 receptor agonists do not increase the quantity of sleep but differently influence the three vigilance states. In addition, they support the evidence that selective MT2 receptor agonists increase NREMS duration compared to MLT and non-selective MT1/MT2 agonists.

  6. Restructuring and redistribution of actinides in Am-MOX fuel during the first 24 h of irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Miwa, Shuhei; Sekine, Shin-ichi; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shin-ichi

    2013-09-01

    In order to confirm the effect of minor actinide additions on the irradiation behavior of MOX fuel pellets, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.% americium-containing MOX (Am-MOX) fuels were irradiated for 10 min at 43 kW/m and for 24 h at 45 kW/m in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. Two nominal values of the fuel pellet oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M), 1.95 and 1.98, were used as a test parameter. Emphasis was placed on the behavior of restructuring and redistribution of actinides which directly affect the fuel performance and the fuel design for fast reactors. Microstructural evolutions in the fuels were observed by optical microscopy and the redistribution of constituent elements was determined by EPMA using false color X-ray mapping and quantitative point analyses. The ceramography results showed that structural changes occurred quickly in the initial stage of irradiation. Restructuring of the fuel from middle to upper axial positions developed and was almost completed after the 24-h irradiation. No sign of fuel melting was found in any of the specimens. The EPMA results revealed that Am as well as Pu migrated radially up the temperature gradient to the center of the fuel pellet. The increase in Am concentration on approaching the edge of the central void and its maximum value were higher than those of Pu after the 10-min irradiation and the difference was more pronounced after the 24-h irradiation. The increment of the Am and Pu concentrations due to redistribution increased with increasing central void size. In all of the specimens examined, the extent of redistribution of Am and Pu was higher in the fuel of O/M ratio of 1.98 than in that of 1.95.

  7. Validation of the OMNI RPE Seven Day Exertional Recall Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Mark A.; Robertson, Robert J.; Thekkada, Savitha J.; Gallagher, Michael, Jr.; Hunt, Sarah E.; Goss, Fredric L.; Aaron, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the validity of the Seven Day Recall Questionnaire among recreationally active men and women. Method: Initially, participants completed a level walk (2.5 mph [4.0 kph]), hill walk (3.5 mph [5.6 kph], 5% grade), and run (5.0 mph [8.0 kph], 2.5% grade). Seven days later, participants were given the Seven Day…

  8. SY 13-3 DISTRIBUTION OF 24-H AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE IN CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, coronary artery disease and kidney damage in adults and children. There is a paucity of data on the long-term sequelae of persistent hypertension in children, but it is already known that children with hypertension have evidence of end organ damage and are at risk of hypertension into adulthood. The prevalence of hypertension in children is rising, most likely due to a concurrent rise in obesity rates. In children with hypertension, non-pharmacological measures are often recommended as first-line therapy, but a significant proportion of children will eventually require pharmacological treatment to reduce blood pressure, especially those with evidence of end organ damage at presentation or during follow-up. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is an essential tool in the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of arterial hypertension in children. In this review I will describe and discuss current methods to evaluate of BP level, the distribution of ABPM, outline available methods for BP assessment and discuss the clinical consequences of BP variability.

  9. Rhythmic 24 h Variation of Core Body Temperature and Locomotor Activity in a Subterranean Rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the Tuco-Tuco

    PubMed Central

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents. PMID:24454916

  10. A 24-h helpline for access to expert management advice for food allergy-related anaphylaxis in children: protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, Maeve M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Cullinane, Claire; Fitzsimons, John; Sheikh, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Anaphylaxis is an important, potentially life-threatening paediatric emergency. It is responsible for considerable morbidity and, in some cases, death. Poor outcomes may be associated with an inability to differentiate between milder and potentially more severe reactions and an associated reluctance to administer self-injectable adrenaline. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a 24-h telephone access to specialist paediatric allergy expert advice in improving the quality of life of children and their families with potentially life-threatening food allergy (ie, anaphylaxis) compared with usual clinical care. Methods and analysis Children aged less than 16 years with food allergy and who carry an adrenaline autoinjector will be recruited from the Paediatric Allergy Clinic at Cork University Hospital, Ireland and baseline disease-specific quality of life will be ascertained using the validated Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire (FAQLQ). Participants will be randomised for a period of 6 months to the 24-h telephone specialist support line or usual care. The primary outcome measure of interest is a change in FAQLQ scores, which will be assessed at 0, 1 and 6 months postrandomisation. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis using a 2×3 repeated measures within-between analysis of variance. Although lacking power, we will in addition assess the impact of the intervention on a range of relevant process and clinical endpoints. Ethics and dissemination This trial protocol has been approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Cork Teaching Hospitals. The findings will be presented at international scientific conferences and will be reported on in the peer-reviewed literature in early 2013. PMID:22893666

  11. Rhythmic 24 h variation of core body temperature and locomotor activity in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the tuco-tuco.

    PubMed

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents.

  12. A 24-h forecast of solar irradiance using artificial neural network: Application for performance prediction of a grid-connected PV plant at Trieste, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Mellit, Adel; Pavan, Alessandro Massi

    2010-05-15

    Forecasting of solar irradiance is in general significant for planning the operations of power plants which convert renewable energies into electricity. In particular, the possibility to predict the solar irradiance (up to 24 h or even more) can became - with reference to the Grid Connected Photovoltaic Plants (GCPV) - fundamental in making power dispatching plans and - with reference to stand alone and hybrid systems - also a useful reference for improving the control algorithms of charge controllers. In this paper, a practical method for solar irradiance forecast using artificial neural network (ANN) is presented. The proposed Multilayer Perceptron MLP-model makes it possible to forecast the solar irradiance on a base of 24 h using the present values of the mean daily solar irradiance and air temperature. An experimental database of solar irradiance and air temperature data (from July 1st 2008 to May 23rd 2009 and from November 23rd 2009 to January 24th 2010) has been used. The database has been collected in Trieste (latitude 45 40'N, longitude 13 46'E), Italy. In order to check the generalization capability of the MLP-forecaster, a K-fold cross-validation was carried out. The results indicate that the proposed model performs well, while the correlation coefficient is in the range 98-99% for sunny days and 94-96% for cloudy days. As an application, the comparison between the forecasted one and the energy produced by the GCPV plant installed on the rooftop of the municipality of Trieste shows the goodness of the proposed model. (author)

  13. Ingestion of nutrition bars high in protein or carbohydrate does not impact 24-h energy intakes in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Trier, Catherine M; Johnston, Carol S

    2012-12-01

    Sales of nutrition bars increased almost 10-fold to $1.7billion over the past decade yet few studies have examined the impact of bar ingestion on dietary parameters. In this crossover trial, 24-h energy intakes were assessed in free-living college students ingesting a high-protein (HP, 280kcal) or a high-carbohydrate (HC, 260kcal) nutrition bar upon waking. Fifty-four students entered the trial, and 37 participants completed the three test days. Daily energy intakes ranged from 1752±99kcal for the non-intervention day to 1846±75 and 1891±110kcal for the days the HP and HC bars were consumed respectively (p=0.591). However, for individuals who reported high levels of physically activity (n=11), daily energy intakes increased significantly compared to the control day for the HC bar day (+45%; p=0.030) and HP bar day (+22%; p=0.038). Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes differed significantly across test days in the total sample mirroring the nutrient profile of the specific bars. These data suggest that young adults adjust caloric intakes appropriately following the ingestion of energy-dense nutrition bars over a 24-h period. Moreover, nutrition bars may represent a unique opportunity to favorably influence nutrient status of young adults.

  14. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on serum electrolytes in rats: A 24-h time-course study.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, A; Khan, H A; Manthiri, R A

    2016-03-01

    Black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) belongs to the family Buthidae and is one of the most venomous scorpions in the world. The effects of A. bicolor venom on serum electrolytes were not known and therefore investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with five animals in each group. One of the groups served as control and received vehicle only. The animals in the remaining groups received a single subcutaneous injection of crude A. bicolor venom (200 μg/kg bodyweight) and were killed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after venom injection. The results showed that scorpion venom caused significant increase in serum sodium levels within 30 min after injection which slightly subsided after 1 h and then persisted over 24 h. Serum potassium levels continued to significantly increase until 4 h and then slightly subsided. There were significant decreases in serum magnesium (Mg(+)) levels following scorpion venom injection, at all the time points during the course of study. Serum calcium levels were significantly increased during the entire course of study, whereas serum chloride was significantly decreased. In conclusion, A. bicolor envenomation in rats caused severe and persistent hypomagnesemia with accompanied hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia. It is important to measure serum Mg(+) levels in victims of scorpion envenomation, and patients with severe Mg(+) deficiency should be treated accordingly.

  15. Microdialysis in the rat striatum: effects of 24 h dexamethasone retrodialysis on evoked dopamine release and penetration injury.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Kathryn M; Varner, Erika L; Jaquins-Gerstl, Andrea; Michael, Adrian C

    2015-01-21

    The power of microdialysis for in vivo neurochemical monitoring is a result of intense efforts to enhance microdialysis procedures, the probes themselves, and the analytical systems used for the analysis of dialysate samples. Our goal is to refine microdialysis further by focusing attention on what happens when the probes are implanted into brain tissue. It is broadly acknowledged that some tissue damage occurs, such that the tissue nearest the probes is disrupted from its normal state. We hypothesize that mitigating such disruption would refine microdialysis. Herein, we show that the addition of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug, to the perfusion fluid protects evoked dopamine responses as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry next to the probes after 24 h. We also show that dexamethasone stabilizes evoked dopamine responses measured at the probe outlet over a 4-24 h postimplantation interval. The effects of dexamethasone are attributable to its anti-inflammatory actions, as dexamethasone had no significant effect on two histochemical markers for dopamine terminals, tyrosine hydroxylase and the dopamine transporter. Using histochemical assays, we confirmed that the actions of dexamethasone are tightly confined to the immediate, local vicinity of the probe.

  16. Sleep and 24-h activity rhythms in relation to cortisol change after a very low-dose of dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Luik, Annemarie I; Direk, Neşe; Zuurbier, Lisette A; Hofman, Albert; Van Someren, Eus J W; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-03-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays an important role in sleep. Nevertheless, the association of sleep and its 24-h organization with negative feedback control of the HPA axis has received limited attention in population-based studies. We explored this association in 493 middle-aged persons of the Rotterdam Study, a large population-based study (mean age 56 years, standard deviation: 5.3 years; 57% female). The negative feedback of the HPA axis was measured as the change in morning saliva cortisol after the intake of 0.25mg dexamethasone the night before. Actigraphy allowed us to measure the stability and fragmentation of the activity rhythm and to estimate total sleep time, sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset. A sleep diary kept during the week of actigraphy was used to assess self-reported total sleep time, sleep onset latency, number of awakenings and perceived sleep quality. In our study, enhanced negative feedback of the HPA axis was found in association with unstable activity rhythms (B=0.106, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.002; 0.210), total sleep time (B=0.108, 95%CI: 0.001; 0.215) and poor subjective sleep quality (B=0.107, 95%CI: 0.009; 0.206) after multivariate adjustment. These results indicated that the 24-h organization, duration and experience of sleep are all associated with the negative feedback control of the HPA axis.

  17. Microdialysis in the Rat Striatum: Effects of 24 h Dexamethasone Retrodialysis on Evoked Dopamine Release and Penetration Injury

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The power of microdialysis for in vivo neurochemical monitoring is a result of intense efforts to enhance microdialysis procedures, the probes themselves, and the analytical systems used for the analysis of dialysate samples. Our goal is to refine microdialysis further by focusing attention on what happens when the probes are implanted into brain tissue. It is broadly acknowledged that some tissue damage occurs, such that the tissue nearest the probes is disrupted from its normal state. We hypothesize that mitigating such disruption would refine microdialysis. Herein, we show that the addition of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug, to the perfusion fluid protects evoked dopamine responses as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry next to the probes after 24 h. We also show that dexamethasone stabilizes evoked dopamine responses measured at the probe outlet over a 4–24 h postimplantation interval. The effects of dexamethasone are attributable to its anti-inflammatory actions, as dexamethasone had no significant effect on two histochemical markers for dopamine terminals, tyrosine hydroxylase and the dopamine transporter. Using histochemical assays, we confirmed that the actions of dexamethasone are tightly confined to the immediate, local vicinity of the probe. PMID:25491242

  18. Noncontact interface trap determination of SiO2-4H-SiC structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oborina, E. I.; Hoff, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    A sequence of noncontact corona-Kelvin metrology is introduced that enables the determination and monitoring of interface properties in dielectric/wide band gap semiconductor structures. The technique involves the incremental application of precise and measured quantities of corona charge, QC, onto the dielectric surface followed by determination of the contact potential difference, VCPD, as the material structure response. The V-Q characteristics obtained are used to extract the surface barrier, VSB, response related to the applied corona charge. The described approach differs from the common noncontact method applied in the case of dielectric/silicon structures where for each quanta of applied charge the value of surface barrier voltage, VSB, is obtained. Materials with wide band gaps and high concentrations of deep levels, as suggested for silicon carbide, do not permit quick determination of VSB by modulation of the band bending in the semiconductor with light. Light exposure in the case of SiC results in a long recovery time required to approach the nominal value of the preillumination VCPD value. The metrology approach presented determines an intersection of the VCPD-QC characteristic obtained in the dark with the Vox-QC characteristic representing the dielectric response. The specific VSB-QC dependence surrounding the reference VFB value is obtained from this approach and enables the noncontact determination of the dielectric interface trap density and its spectrum. Application of the modified metrology method to thermal oxide on n-type 4H-SiC demonstrates the modification of the Dit distribution by Fowler-Nordheim stress. In addition, an ability to quantify and separate trapped charge components is shown.

  19. Understanding the dynamics of correct and error responses in free recall: evidence from externalized free recall.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A; Spillers, Gregory J

    2010-06-01

    The dynamics of correct and error responses in a variant of delayed free recall were examined in the present study. In the externalized free recall paradigm, participants were presented with lists of words and were instructed to subsequently recall not only the words that they could remember from the most recently presented list, but also any other words that came to mind during the recall period. Externalized free recall is useful for elucidating both sampling and postretrieval editing processes, thereby yielding more accurate estimates of the total number of error responses, which are typically sampled and subsequently edited during free recall. The results indicated that the participants generally sampled correct items early in the recall period and then transitioned to sampling more erroneous responses. Furthermore, the participants generally terminated their search after sampling too many errors. An examination of editing processes suggested that the participants were quite good at identifying errors, but this varied systematically on the basis of a number of factors. The results from the present study are framed in terms of generate-edit models of free recall.

  20. Effects of Recognition on Subsequent Recall: Comments on "Determinants of Recognition and Recall: Accessibility and Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Donald E.; Broadbent, Margaret H. P.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts have been made by Rabinowitz, Mandler, and Patterson (AA 527 084) to show that both recall and recognition involve the accessibility of individual words. Their recall tests preceded recognition tests, or vice versa, thus contaminating each other; a fresh experiment is presented to confirm that this is so. (Editor)

  1. Four to seven random casual urine specimens are sufficient to estimate 24-h urinary sodium/potassium ratio in individuals with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Iwahori, T; Ueshima, H; Torii, S; Saito, Y; Fujiyoshi, A; Ohkubo, T; Miura, K

    2016-05-01

    This study was done to clarify the optimal number and type of casual urine specimens required to estimate urinary sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio in individuals with high blood pressure. A total of 74 individuals with high blood pressure, 43 treated and 31 untreated, were recruited from the Japanese general population. Urinary sodium, potassium and Na/K ratio were measured in both casual urine samples and 7-day 24-h urine samples and then analyzed by correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. Mean Na/K ratio from random casual urine samples on four or more days strongly correlated with the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.80-0.87), which was similar to the correlation between 1 and 2-day 24-h urine and 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.75-0.89). The agreement quality for Na/K ratio of seven random casual urine for estimating the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine was good (bias: -0.26, limits of agreements: -1.53-1.01), and it was similar to that of 2-day 24-h urine for estimating 7-day 24-h values (bias: 0.07, limits of agreement: -1.03 to 1.18). Stratified analyses comparing individuals using antihypertensive medication and individuals not using antihypertensive medication showed similar results. Correlations of the means of casual urine sodium or potassium concentrations with 7-day 24-h sodium or potassium excretions were relatively weaker than those for Na/K ratio. The mean Na/K ratio of 4-7 random casual urine specimens on different days provides a good substitute for 1-2-day 24-h urinary Na/K ratio for individuals with high blood pressure.

  2. Sentence Recall by Children With SLI Across Two Nonmainstream Dialects of English

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Janet L.; Seidel, Christy M.; Hegarty, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The inability to accurately recall sentences has proven to be a clinical marker of specific language impairment (SLI); this task yields moderate-to-high levels of sensitivity and specificity. However, it is not yet known if these results hold for speakers of dialects whose nonmainstream grammatical productions overlap with those that are produced at high rates by children with SLI. Method Using matched groups of 70 African American English speakers and 36 Southern White English speakers and dialect-strategic scoring, we examined children's sentence recall abilities as a function of their dialect and clinical status (SLI vs. typically developing [TD]). Results For both dialects, the SLI group earned lower sentence recall scores than the TD group with sensitivity and specificity values ranging from .80 to .94, depending on the analysis. Children with SLI, as compared with TD controls, manifested lower levels of verbatim recall, more ungrammatical recalls when the recall was not exact, and higher levels of error on targeted functional categories, especially those marking tense. Conclusion When matched groups are examined and dialect-strategic scoring is used, sentence recall yields moderate-to-high levels of diagnostic accuracy to identify SLI within speakers of nonmainstream dialects of English. PMID:26501934

  3. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence From Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this did not influence the disruptive effect of those distractors on veridical recall (Experiment 1). Using an externalized output-editing procedure—whereby participants recalled all items that came to mind and identified those that were erroneous—the usual between-sequences semantic similarity effect on erroneous and veridical recall was replicated but the relationship between the rate of erroneous and veridical recall was weak (Experiment 2). The results suggest that forgetting is not due to veridical recall being blocked by similar events. PMID:25938326

  4. Extraversion, activation and the recall of prose.

    PubMed

    Eysenck, M W

    1976-02-01

    Subjects were divided into four groups on the basis of their scores on the extraversion scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory and the general activation scale of Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List. A prose passage was presented to subjects who then attempted to recall it under strict instructions to avoid errors. There were significant interactions between activation and extraversion for the error data, and the phrase-correct data, with moderate levels of arousal (high activation extraverts and low activation introverts) being associated with the fewest errors and the most phrases correctly recalled. It was concluded that the study showed the importance of arousal to recall performance, possibly due to the effects of arousal on retrieval processes.

  5. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and retrieval of task-relevant information. In 6 experiments, we tested the inhibitory account of the effect of negative priming in free recall against alternative accounts. We found that ignoring auditory distracters is neither sufficient nor necessary to produce the effect of negative priming in free recall. Instead, the effect is more readily accounted for by a buildup of proactive interference occurring whenever 2 successively presented lists of words are drawn from the same semantic category. PMID:26595066

  6. Lingering representations of stimuli influence recall organization.

    PubMed

    Chan, Stephanie C Y; Applegate, Marissa C; Morton, Neal W; Polyn, Sean M; Norman, Kenneth A

    2017-03-01

    Several prominent theories posit that information about recent experiences lingers in the brain and organizes memories for current experiences, by forming a temporal context that is linked to those memories at encoding. According to these theories, if the thoughts preceding an experience X resemble the thoughts preceding an experience Y, then X and Y should show an elevated probability of being recalled together. We tested this prediction by using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data to measure neural evidence for lingering processing of preceding stimuli. As predicted, memories encoded with similar lingering thoughts about the category of preceding stimuli were more likely to be recalled together. Our results demonstrate that the "fading embers" of previous stimuli help to organize recall, confirming a key prediction of computational models of episodic memory.

  7. Symbolic forms can be mnemonics for recall.

    PubMed

    Liu, C H; Kennedy, J M

    1994-12-01

    Form symbolism using squares and circles can aid recall. In Experiment 1, subjects saw 20 words, each presented in a circle or a square. Words like SOFT and MOTHER were presented in circles in the "congruent" condition, whereas the same words were presented in squares in the "incongruent" condition. Two experiments revealed that words in the congruent condition were more likely to be recalled. A comparison of the conditions with a baseline condition, in which 20 listed words were not closely related to either of the shapes, suggests that the effect was more likely due to facilitation produced by the congruent condition than to inhibition from the incongruent condition.

  8. Validity of the Food Frequency Questionnaire Assessing the Folate Intake in Women of Reproductive Age Living in a Country without Food Fortification: Application of the Method of Triads

    PubMed Central

    Zekovic, Milica; Djekic-Ivankovic, Marija; Nikolic, Marina; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Krajnovic, Dusanka; Glibetic, Marija

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the external validity of the Folate Food Frequency Questionnaire (F-FFQ) designed for assessing the folate intake in Serbian women of reproductive age. The F-FFQ was tested against repeated 24 h dietary recalls and correspondent nutritional biomarkers (red blood cells (RBC) and serum folate concentrations) using the method of triads. In a cross sectional study, 503 women aged 18–49 years completed dietary questionnaires and representative validation subsample (n = 50) provided fasting blood samples for biomarker analyses. Correlation coefficients were calculated between each of the dietary methods and three pair-wise correlations were applied for the calculation of validity coefficients. Correlation coefficients observed between F-FFQ and three 24 h recalls were r = 0.56 (p < 0.001) and r = 0.57 (p < 0.001) for total sample and validation group, respectively. Bland–Altman plot and cross-classification analyses indicated good agreement between methods. High validity coefficients were determined between the true intake (I) and dietary assessment methods, F-FFQ (Q) and 24 h dietary recalls (R) (ρQIrbc = 0.871 and ρQIser = 0.814; ρRIrbc = 0.652 and ρRIser = 0.698), and moderate ones for biomarkers (B) (ρBIrbc = 0.428 and ρBIser = 0.421). The F-FFQ is valid instrument for the assessment of dietary folate intake in women living in Serbia, a country without mandatory folic acid food fortification. PMID:28208817

  9. Holter monitor (24h)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the machine gets an accurate recording of the heart's activity. While wearing the device, avoid: Electric blankets High- ... Holter monitoring is used to determine how the heart responds to normal activity. The monitor may also be used: After a ...

  10. Hippuric acid in 24 h urine collections as a biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Angela; Folesani, Giuseppina; Mena, Pedro; Ticinesi, Andrea; Allegri, Franca; Nouvenne, Antonio; Pinelli, Silvana; Del Rio, Daniele; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-12-01

    This work aimed to underline the prospects of hippuric acid, a product of the metabolism of polyphenols, as a new biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake associated with lithogenic risk. Biochemical parameters of lithogenic risk and hippuric acid were measured in the 24 h urine collections of a cohort of 696 Italian kidney stone formers divided into two subgroups according to their different dietary habits. The link between lithogenic risk parameters and hippuric acid was assessed and this compound was revealed as a valuable biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers. A cut-off value of urinary excretion of hippuric acid, 300 mg/24 h, was set as the threshold of discrimination between low and high intake of fruits and vegetables for these patients. These results highlight the importance of monitoring of the excretion hippuric acid in urine to address proper dietary guidelines for the management of stone former patients.

  11. Effect of boron incorporation on slow interface traps in SiO2/4H-SiC structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Dai; Sometani, Mitsuru; Harada, Shinsuke; Kosugi, Ryoji; Yonezawa, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    The reason for the effective removal of interface traps in SiO2/4H-SiC (0001) structures by boron (B) incorporation was investigated by employing low-temperature electrical measurements. Low-temperature capacitance-voltage and thermal dielectric relaxation current measurements revealed that the density of electrons captured in slow interface traps in B-incorporated oxide is lower than that in dry and NO-annealed oxides. These results suggest that near-interface traps can be removed by B incorporation, which is considered to be an important reason for the increase in the field-effect mobility of 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. A model for the passivation mechanism is proposed that takes account of stress relaxation during thermal oxidation.

  12. Airway hyper- or hyporeactivity to inhaled spasmogens 24 h after ovalbumin challenge of sensitized guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, C. A.; Broadley, K. J.

    1995-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to determine whether an inhalation of ovalbumin (OA, 10 or 20 mg ml-1) by conscious OA-sensitized guinea-pigs leads to airway hyperreactivity to spasmogens 24 h later. In contrast to most previous studies, the spasmogens (5-HT, methacholine (MCh), U-46619 and adenosine) were administered by inhalation and airway function was measured in conscious guinea-pigs. 2. Guinea-pigs were sensitized by i.p. injection of 10 micrograms OA and 100 mg aluminium hydroxide in 1 ml normal saline; 14-21 days later they were exposed to an inhalation of 5-HT, MCh, U-46619 or adenosine. Specific airway conductance (sGaw) was measured in conscious animals by whole body plethysmography. The spasmogens caused bronchoconstriction, measured as a reduction in sGaw from the pre-inhalation basal values. Dose-related bronchoconstrictions were observed with 5-HT, MCh and U-46619. 3. The effect of an ovalbumin macroshock challenge upon the responses to each spasmogen were examined by giving an inhalation of aerosolized OA at 24 h (or 7 days in the cause of adenosine) after an initial spasmogen challenge. Eighteen to twenty-four hours after the OA macroshock, the same guinea-pigs were exposed to a repeated inhalation of 5-HT, MCh, U-46619 or adenosine. 4. U-46619 was the only spasmogen to demonstrate hyperresponsiveness, the peak change in sGaw being increased from -12.3 +/- 9.9 to -38.8 +/- 5.0% by 10 mg ml-1 OA challenge. In contrast, the ovalbumin challenge (20 mg ml-1) inhibited the bronchoconstrictions to 5-HT (50 micrograms ml-1) and MCh (100 micrograms ml-1). Adenosine demonstrated bronchoconstriction in sensitized guinea-pigs but no significant change in the response was observed after an OA challenge. 5. All results were compared with a control group of sensitized guinea-pigs receiving a NaCl challenge. The bronchoconstrictor responses to 5-HT, MCh, U-46619 or adenosine did not differ significantly before and after the saline challenge, indicating

  13. Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall.

    PubMed

    Marzano, Cristina; Ferrara, Michele; Mauro, Federica; Moroni, Fabio; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Tempesta, Daniela; Cipolli, Carlo; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2011-05-04

    Under the assumption that dream recall is a peculiar form of declarative memory, we have hypothesized that (1) the encoding of dream contents during sleep should share some electrophysiological mechanisms with the encoding of episodic memories of the awake brain and (2) recalling a dream(s) after awakening from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep should be associated with different brain oscillations. Here, we report that cortical brain oscillations of human sleep are predictive of successful dream recall. In particular, after morning awakening from REM sleep, a higher frontal 5-7 Hz (theta) activity was associated with successful dream recall. This finding mirrors the increase in frontal theta activity during successful encoding of episodic memories in wakefulness. Moreover, in keeping with the different EEG background, a different predictive relationship was found after awakening from stage 2 NREM sleep. Specifically, a lower 8-12 Hz (alpha) oscillatory activity of the right temporal area was associated with a successful dream recall. These findings provide the first evidence of univocal cortical electroencephalographic correlates of dream recall, suggesting that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and recall of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness.

  14. Mojibake – The rehearsal of word fragments in verbal recall

    PubMed Central

    Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Sykorova, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Theories of verbal rehearsal usually assume that whole words are being rehearsed. However, words consist of letter sequences, or syllables, or word onset-vowel-coda, amongst many other conceptualizations of word structure. A more general term is the ‘grain size’ of word units (Ziegler and Goswami, 2005). In the current study, a new method measured the quantitative percentage of correctly remembered word structure. The amount of letters in the correct letter sequence as per cent of word length was calculated, disregarding missing or added letters. A forced rehearsal was tested by repeating each memory list four times. We tested low frequency (LF) English words versus geographical (UK) town names to control for content. We also tested unfamiliar international (INT) non-words and names of international (INT) European towns to control for familiarity. An immediate versus distributed repetition was tested with a between-subject design. Participants responded with word fragments in their written recall especially when they had to remember unfamiliar words. While memory of whole words was sensitive to content, presentation distribution and individual sex and language differences, recall of word fragments was not. There was no trade-off between memory of word fragments with whole word recall during the repetition, instead also word fragments significantly increased. Moreover, while whole word responses correlated with each other during repetition, and word fragment responses correlated with each other during repetition, these two types of word recall responses were not correlated with each other. Thus there may be a lower layer consisting of free, sparse word fragments and an upper layer that consists of language-specific, orthographically and semantically constrained words. PMID:25941500

  15. Mojibake - The rehearsal of word fragments in verbal recall.

    PubMed

    Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Sykorova, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Theories of verbal rehearsal usually assume that whole words are being rehearsed. However, words consist of letter sequences, or syllables, or word onset-vowel-coda, amongst many other conceptualizations of word structure. A more general term is the 'grain size' of word units (Ziegler and Goswami, 2005). In the current study, a new method measured the quantitative percentage of correctly remembered word structure. The amount of letters in the correct letter sequence as per cent of word length was calculated, disregarding missing or added letters. A forced rehearsal was tested by repeating each memory list four times. We tested low frequency (LF) English words versus geographical (UK) town names to control for content. We also tested unfamiliar international (INT) non-words and names of international (INT) European towns to control for familiarity. An immediate versus distributed repetition was tested with a between-subject design. Participants responded with word fragments in their written recall especially when they had to remember unfamiliar words. While memory of whole words was sensitive to content, presentation distribution and individual sex and language differences, recall of word fragments was not. There was no trade-off between memory of word fragments with whole word recall during the repetition, instead also word fragments significantly increased. Moreover, while whole word responses correlated with each other during repetition, and word fragment responses correlated with each other during repetition, these two types of word recall responses were not correlated with each other. Thus there may be a lower layer consisting of free, sparse word fragments and an upper layer that consists of language-specific, orthographically and semantically constrained words.

  16. The Doors and People Test: The Effect of Frontal Lobe Lesions on Recall and Recognition Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Memory deficits in patients with frontal lobe lesions are most apparent on free recall tasks that require the selection, initiation, and implementation of retrieval strategies. The effect of frontal lesions on recognition memory performance is less clear with some studies reporting recognition memory impairments but others not. The majority of these studies do not directly compare recall and recognition within the same group of frontal patients, assessing only recall or recognition memory performance. Other studies that do compare recall and recognition in the same frontal group do not consider recall or recognition tests that are comparable for difficulty. Recognition memory impairments may not be reported because recognition memory tasks are less demanding. Method: This study aimed to investigate recall and recognition impairments in the same group of 47 frontal patients and 78 healthy controls. The Doors and People Test was administered as a neuropsychological test of memory as it assesses both verbal and visual recall and recognition using subtests that are matched for difficulty. Results: Significant verbal and visual recall and recognition impairments were found in the frontal patients. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that when frontal patients are assessed on recall and recognition memory tests of comparable difficulty, memory impairments are found on both types of episodic memory test. PMID:26752123

  17. RESP-24: a computer program for the investigation of 24-h breathing abnormalities in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Maestri, R; Pinna, G D; Robbi, E; Varanini, M; Emdin, M; Raciti, M; La Rovere, M T

    2002-05-01

    In this paper, we describe a computer program (RESP-24) specifically devised to assess the prevalence and characteristics of breathing disorders in ambulant chronic heart failure patients during the overall 24 h period. The system works on a single channel respiratory signal (RS) recorded through a Holter-like portable device. In the pre-processing stage RESP-24 removes noise, baseline drift and motion artefacts from the RS using a non-linear filter, enhances respiratory frequency components through high-pass filtering and derives an instantaneous tidal volume (ITV) signal. The core processing is devoted to the identification and classification of the breathing pattern into periodic breathing (PB), normal breathing or non-classifiable breathing using a 60 s segmentation, and to the identification and estimation of apnea and hypopnea events. Sustained episodes of PB are detected by cross analysis of both the spectral content and time behavior of the ITV signal. User-friendly interactive facilities allow all the results of the automatic analysis procedure to be edited. The final report provides a set of standard and non-standard parameters quantifying breathing abnormalities during the 24 h period, the night-time and the day-time, including the apnea/hypopnea index, the apnea index, the total time spent in apnea or in hypopnea and the prevalence of non-apneic and apneic PB. The accuracy of these measurements was appraised on a data set of 14 recordings, by comparing them with those provided by a trained analyst. The mean and standard deviation of the error of the automatic procedure were below respectively 6 and 8% of the reference value for all parameters considered and the mean total classification accuracy was 92%. In most cases, the individual error was <12%. We conclude that measurements provided automatically by the RESP-24 software are suitable for screening purposes and clinical trials, although a preventive check of signal quality should be recommended.

  18. Pharmacological interventions in the newborn piglet in the first 24 h after hypoxia-ischemia. A hemodynamic and electrophysiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Peeters-Scholte, Cacha; van den Tweel, Evelyn; Ioroi, Tomoaki; Post, Ilka; Braun, Kees; Veldhuis, Wouter; Nicolay, Klaas; Groenendaal, Floris; van Bel, Frank

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether combined inhibition of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by 2-iminobiotin, free radical scavenging by allopurinol, and non-protein-bound iron chelation with deferoxamine improved cerebral oxygenation, electrocortical brain activity, and brain energy status during the first 24 h after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in the newborn piglet. Forty-three newborn piglets were subjected to 1 h of severe HI by occluding both carotid arteries and phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS)-guided hypoxia, whereas five served as sham-operated controls. Upon reperfusion, piglets received vehicle (n=12), 2-iminobiotin (n=11), allopurinol (n=10), or deferoxamine (n=10). Cerebral oxygenation was recorded with near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS), electrocortical brain activity was assessed with amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), and cerebral energy status with (31)P-MRS. The oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO(2)) and total hemoglobin (tHb) were significantly increased in vehicle-treated piglets compared with 2-iminobiotin-treated and deferoxamine-treated piglets. No change in deoxygenated Hb (HHb) was demonstrated over time. The aEEG was significantly preserved in 2-iminobiotin- and deferoxamine-treated piglets compared with vehicle-treated piglets. Allopurinol treatment was not as effective as 2-iminobiotin treatment after HI. Phosphocreatine/inorganic phosphate ratios (PCr/P(i)) were significantly decreased for vehicle-treated piglets at 24 h post-HI, whereas 2-iminobiotin, allopurinol, and deferoxamine prevented the development of secondary energy failure. We speculate that the beneficial effects, especially of 2-iminobiotin, but also of deferoxamine, are due to reduced peroxynitrite-mediated oxidation.

  19. Lessons from Studies to Evaluate an Online 24-Hour Recall for Use with Children and Adults in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Gilsing, Anne M.; Hobin, Erin; Solbak, Nathan M.; Wallace, Angela; Haines, Jess; Mayhew, Alexandra J.; Orr, Sarah K.; Raina, Parminder; Robson, Paula J.; Sacco, Jocelyn E.; Whelan, Heather K.

    2017-01-01

    With technological innovation, comprehensive dietary intake data can be collected in a wide range of studies and settings. The Automated Self-Administered 24-h (ASA24) Dietary Assessment Tool is a web-based system that guides respondents through 24-h recalls. The purpose of this paper is to describe lessons learned from five studies that assessed the feasibility and validity of ASA24 for capturing recall data among several population subgroups in Canada. These studies were conducted within a childcare setting (preschool children with reporting by parents), in public schools (children in grades 5–8; aged 10–13 years), and with community-based samples drawn from existing cohorts of adults and older adults. Themes emerged across studies regarding receptivity to completing ASA24, user experiences with the interface, and practical considerations for different populations. Overall, we found high acceptance of ASA24 among these diverse samples. However, the ASA24 interface was not intuitive for some participants, particularly young children and older adults. As well, technological challenges were encountered. These observations underscore the importance of piloting protocols using online tools, as well as consideration of the potential need for tailored resources to support study participants. Lessons gleaned can inform the effective use of technology-enabled dietary assessment tools in research. PMID:28146125

  20. Recalls of Cardiac Implants in the Last Decade: What Lessons Can We Learn?

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, Sandra; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to an ageing population and demographic changes worldwide, a higher prevalence of heart disease is forecasted, which causes an even higher demand for cardiac implants in future. The increasing high incidence of clinical adverse events attributed especially to high-risk medical devices has led an advocated change from many stakeholders. This holds especially true for devices like cardiac implants, with their high-risk nature and high complication rates associated with considerable mortality, due to their frequent use in older populations with frequent co-morbidities. To ensure patients’ safety, the objective of this study is to analyze different cardiac implants recall reasons and different recall systems, based on an overview of the recalls of cardiac implant medical devices in the last decade. On the basis of the results from this structured analysis, this study provides recommendations on how to avoid such recalls from a manufacturer perspective, as well as how to timely react to an adverse event from a post-surveillance system perspective. Methods and Findings A systematic search of cardiac implant recalls information has been performed in the PubMed, ScienceDirect and Scopus databases, as well as data sources in regulatory authorities from 193 UN Member States. Data has been extracted for the years 2004-2014 with the following criteria applied: cardiac implant medical device recalls and reasons for recall, associated harm or risk to patients. From the data sources described above, eleven regulatory authorities and 103 recall reports have been included in this study. The largest cardiac implant categories include ICDs 40.8%, pacemakers 14.5% and stents 14.5%. Regarding the recall reasons, the majority of reports were related to device battery problems (33.0%) and incorrect therapy delivery (31.1%). From a total of 103 recall reports, five reported death and serious injuries. Our review highlights weaknesses in the current cardiac implant recall

  1. Enhancing the Recall of Presented Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    Many educators distribute either complete or incomplete handouts so students can follow along with their lectures. This research examines a teaching system that combines computer-generated graphics presentations and detailed outline handouts with blanks added. An experiment found that this system produced significantly higher short-term recall of…

  2. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  3. Young Children's Scripted-Story Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doiron, Renee; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    A study investigated the effects of presentation mode and type of content on young children's recall of nouns in a scripted narrative. Forty-nine children in the second month of first grade were presented a fictional narrative in which were embedded 18 target nouns classified as high-scripted, medium-scripted, or low-scripted. Subjects then viewed…

  4. Precision and Recall in Title Keyword Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McJunkin, Monica Cahill

    This study examines precision and recall for title and keyword searches performed in the "FirstSearch" WorldCat database when keywords are used with and without adjacency of terms specified. A random sample of 68 titles in economics were searched in the OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) Online Union Catalog in order to obtain their…

  5. Genetic Counselling: Information Given, Recall and Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Susan; McDonald, Valerie; Marteau, Theresa M.

    1997-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to counselors (N=32) to categorize the key points given in genetic counseling; to assess the amount and type of information recalled; and to examine the relationships between counselees' knowledge, satisfaction with information received, the meeting of expectations, concern, and anxiety. Results emphasize the importance of…

  6. Task Context and Organization in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polyn, Sean M.; Norman, Kenneth A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work on organization in free recall has focused on the ways in which semantic and temporal information determine the order in which material is retrieved from memory. Tulving's theory of ecphory suggests that these organizational effects arise from the interaction of a retrieval cue with the contents of memory. Using the…

  7. Dreaming and recall during sedation for colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Stait, M L; Leslie, K; Bailey, R

    2008-09-01

    Dreaming is reported by one in five patients who are interviewed on emergence from general anaesthesia, but the incidence, predictors and consequences of dreaming during procedural sedation are not known. In this prospective observational study, 200 patients presenting for elective colonoscopy under intravenous sedation were interviewed on emergence to determine the incidences of dreaming and recall. Sedation technique was left to the discretion of the anaesthetist. The incidence of dreaming was 25.5%. Patients reporting dreaming were younger than those who did not report dreaming. Doses of midazolam and fentanyl were similar between dreamers and non-dreamers, however propofol doses were higher in patients who reported dreams than those who did not. Patients reported short, simple dreams about everyday life--no dream suggested near-miss recall of the procedure. Frank recall of the procedure was reported by 4% of the patients, which was consistent with propofol doses commensurate with light general anaesthesia. The only significant predictor of recall was lower propofol dose. Satisfaction with care was generally high, however dreamers were more satisfied with their care than non-dreamers.

  8. Low adherence to exclusive breastfeeding in Eastern Uganda: A community-based cross-sectional study comparing dietary recall since birth with 24-hour recall

    PubMed Central

    Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie S; Wamani, Henry; Karamagi, Charles; Semiyaga, Nulu; Tumwine, James; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2007-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended as the best feeding alternative for infants up to six months and has a protective effect against mortality and morbidity. It also seems to lower HIV-1 transmission compared to mixed feeding. We studied infant feeding practices comparing dietary recall since birth with 24-hour dietary recall. Methods A cross-sectional survey on infant feeding practices was performed in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda in 2003 and 727 mother-infant (0–11 months) pairs were analysed. Four feeding categories were made based on WHO's definitions: 1) exclusive breastfeeding, 2) predominant breastfeeding, 3) complementary feeding and 4) replacement feeding. We analyzed when the infant fell into another feeding category for the first time. This was based on the recall since birth. Life-table analysis was made for the different feeding categories and Cox regression analysis was done to control for potential associated factors with the different practices. Prelacteal feeding practices were also addressed. Results Breastfeeding was practiced by 99% of the mothers. Dietary recall since birth showed that 7% and 0% practiced exclusive breastfeeding by 3 and 6 months, respectively, while 30% and 3% practiced predominant breastfeeding and had not started complementary feeding at the same points in time. The difference between the 24-hour recall and the recall since birth for the introduction of complementary feeds was 46 percentage points at two months and 59 percentage points at four months. Prelacteal feeding was given to 57% of the children. High education and formal marriage were protective factors against prelacteal feeding (adjusted OR 0.5, 0.2 – 1.0 and 0.5, 0.3 – 0.8, respectively). Conclusion Even if breastfeeding is practiced at a very high rate, the use of prelacteal feeding and early introduction of other food items is the norm. The 24-hour recall gives a higher estimate of exclusive breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding than

  9. A single prolonged milking interval of 24h compromises the well-being and health of dairy Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Kohler, P; Alsaaod, M; Dolf, G; O'Brien, R; Beer, G; Steiner, A

    2016-11-01

    Cows are often shown at dairy shows with overfilled udders to achieve a better show placing. However, it is unclear to what degree "over-bagging" affects the health and well-being of show cows. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of a single prolonged milking interval (PMI) of 24h on the measurable signs of health and well-being in dairy cows in early and mid-lactation and to assess the effect of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) on well-being during a PMI. Fifteen Holstein cows were studied in early lactation (89.5±2.7d in milk) and were given an NSAID or physiological saline in a crossover design. Ten cows were studied again in mid-lactation (151.6±4.0d in milk). Data on clinical signs of cows' health, behavior, and well-being were collected at 1 or 2h intervals before and during a PMI of 24h. Data from the last 6h of a 12h milking interval were compared with the last 6h of the PMI. Compared with that of a cow in the last 6h of a 12-h milking interval, the behavior of cows in early lactation (saline group) changed during the last 6h of the PMI: we observed decreased eating time (22.4 vs. 16.2min/h), increased ruminating time (13.3 vs. 25.0min/h), and increased hind limb abduction while walking (score 41.7 vs. 62.6) and standing (31.2 vs. 38.9cm). Udder firmness was increased (2.9 vs. 4.5kg) during this period and more weight was placed on the hind limbs (46.4 vs. 47.0%). We also found pathological signs at the end of the PMI: all cows showed milk leaking, and 10 of 15 cows developed edema in the subcutaneous udder tissue. Somatic cell count was significantly increased from 12h to 72h after the PMI. Administration of an NSAID had no influence on measured variables, except that the occurrence of edema was not significantly increased during PMI in the flunixin group (10 of 15 and 6 of 15 cows for the saline and flunixin groups, respectively). In the cows in mid-lactation, different variables were not significantly changed in the PMI

  10. Remembering the News: What the Picture Adds to Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Elihu; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Reports on two studies, conducted in Jerusalem, that indicated that those who saw and heard news recalled slightly more than those who only heard; difference in recall was greater among the best educated subjects. (KS)

  11. 78 FR 34156 - Hazardous Materials: Emergency Recall Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Hazardous Materials: Emergency Recall Order AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Emergency Recall Order... on May 24, 2013 to The Lite Cylinder Company, Inc. The Office of Hazardous Materials Safety...

  12. Painful Memories: Reliability of Pain Intensity Recall at 3 Months in Senior Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jacques S.; Griffith, Lauren E.; Paquet, Jean; Chauny, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    Background. Validity of pain recall is questioned in research. Objective. To evaluate the reliability of pain intensity recall for seniors in an emergency department (ED). Methods. This study was part of a prospective multicenter project for seniors (≥65 years old) treated in an ED for minor traumatic injury. Pain intensity (0–10 numerical rating scale) was evaluated at the initial ED visit, at one week (baseline), and 3 months. At three months, patients were asked to recall the pain intensity they had at baseline. Results. 482 patients were interviewed (mean age 76.6 years, SD ± 7.3) and 72.8% were female. Intraclass correlation coefficient between pain at baseline and its recall was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.14–0.33). Senior patients tended to overestimate their pain intensity by a mean of 1.2 (95% CI: 0.9–1.5) units. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the variance of baseline pain recall at 3 months was explained by pain at ED visit (11%), pain at 3 months (7%), and pain at baseline (2%). Conclusion. The accuracy of pain intensity recall after three months is poor in seniors and seems to be influenced by the pain experienced at the time of injury. PMID:28260963

  13. The Effects of Presentation Order in Multitrial Free Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Anthony J.

    The experiment tested the effects of presentation word orders in a multitrial free-recall task. Three types of presentation were used: (1) randomized; (2) constant order; and (3) maintained order (maintenance of subjects order of recall on the subsequent presentation). In addition, the effects of number of recalls per presentation (1 or 3) were…

  14. Bender Test Recall in Children: An Unreliable Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Dan L.

    1980-01-01

    To assess the utility and reliability of Bender test recall in children, 304 children (ages 5 through 14) were individually administered the copy and recall phases using Koppitz's directions. The recall phase was judged to be of doubtful utility in assessing intellectual functioning in children. (Author/SJL)

  15. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory... § 810.12, FDA determines that the order should be amended to require a recall of the device with...

  16. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory... § 810.12, FDA determines that the order should be amended to require a recall of the device with...

  17. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory... § 810.12, FDA determines that the order should be amended to require a recall of the device with...

  18. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory... § 810.12, FDA determines that the order should be amended to require a recall of the device with...

  19. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory... § 810.12, FDA determines that the order should be amended to require a recall of the device with...

  20. Encoding Specificity: Relation Between Recall Superiority and Recognition Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Sandor; Tulving, Endel

    1976-01-01

    The results of four experiments show that (a) recall superiority over recognition is reversed by the use of unrelated word pairs in the study list, and (b) the reversal of recall superiority leaves intact the phenomenon of recognition failure of recallable words. (Editor)

  1. Effect of Within-Category Spacing on Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Marilyn A.; Mandler, George

    1972-01-01

    Contrary to previous experiments which found recall with blocked spacing always superior to recall with random" spacings, these experiments found that total recall was a function of two independent factors: (a) category representation, and (b) items per category represented (IPC). Both factors are dependent upon within-category spacing.…

  2. 19 CFR 141.67 - Recall of documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall of documentation. 141.67 Section 141.67... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Presentation of Entry Papers § 141.67 Recall of documentation. The importer may recall the entry and entry summary documentation at any time before the...

  3. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-01-01

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  4. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-08-02

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  5. Ambulatory 24-h oesophageal impedance-pH recordings: reliability of automatic analysis for gastro-oesophageal reflux assessment.

    PubMed

    Roman, S; Bruley des Varannes, S; Pouderoux, P; Chaput, U; Mion, F; Galmiche, J-P; Zerbib, F

    2006-11-01

    Oesophageal pH-impedance monitoring allows detection of acid and non-acid gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) events. Visual analysis of impedance recording requires expertise. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of an automated analysis for GOR assessment. Seventy-three patients with suspected GORD underwent 24-h oesophageal pH-impedance monitoring. Recordings analysis was performed visually (V) and automatically using Autoscan function (AS) of Bioview software. A symptom index (SI) > or =50% was considered for a significant association between symptoms and reflux events. AS analysis detected more reflux events, especially non-acid, liquid, pure gas and proximal events. Detection of oesophageal acid exposure and acid reflux events was similar with both analyses. Agreement between V and AS analysis was good (Kendall's coefficient W > 0.750, P < 0.01) for all parameters. During pH-impedance studies, 65 patients reported symptoms. As compared to visual analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of a positive SI determined by AS were respectively 85.7% and 80% for all reflux events, 100% and 98% for acid reflux and 33% and 87.5% for non-acid reflux. Despite good agreement with visual analysis, automatic analysis overestimates the number of non-acid reflux events. Visual analysis remains the gold standard to detect an association between symptoms and non-acid reflux events.

  6. Comprehensive Mapping of Regional Expression of the Clock Protein PERIOD2 in Rat Forebrain across the 24-h Day

    PubMed Central

    Harbour, Valerie L.; Weigl, Yuval; Robinson, Barry; Amir, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, a light-entrainable clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) regulates circadian rhythms by synchronizing oscillators throughout the brain and body. Notably, the nature of the relation between the SCN clock and subordinate oscillators in the rest of the brain is not well defined. We performed a high temporal resolution analysis of the expression of the circadian clock protein PERIOD2 (PER2) in the rat forebrain to characterize the distribution, amplitude and phase of PER2 rhythms across different regions. Eighty-four LEW/Crl male rats were entrained to a 12-h: 12-h light/dark cycle, and subsequently perfused every 30 min across the 24-h day for a total of 48 time-points. PER2 expression was assessed with immunohistochemistry and analyzed using automated cell counts. We report the presence of PER2 expression in 20 forebrain areas important for a wide range of motivated and appetitive behaviors including the SCN, bed nucleus, and several regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, striatum, and cortex. Eighteen areas displayed significant PER2 rhythms, which peaked at different times of day. Our data demonstrate a previously uncharacterized regional distribution of rhythms of a clock protein expression in the brain that provides a sound basis for future studies of circadian clock function in animal models of disease. PMID:24124556

  7. Safety and Efficacy of 24-h Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery in Well-Controlled Pregnant Women With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Helen R.; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M.; Caldwell, Karen; Biagioni, Martina; Simmons, David; Dunger, David B.; Nodale, Marianna; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Amiel, Stephanie A.; Hovorka, Roman

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery in well-controlled pregnant women with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 12 women with type 1 diabetes (aged 32.9 years, diabetes duration 17.6 years, BMI 27.1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 6.4%) were randomly allocated to closed-loop or conventional CSII. They performed normal daily activities (standardized meals, snacks, and exercise) for 24 h on two occasions at 19 and 23 weeks’ gestation. Plasma glucose time in target (63–140 mg/dL) and time spent hypoglycemic were calculated. RESULTS Plasma glucose time in target was comparable for closed-loop and conventional CSII (median [interquartile range]: 81 [59–87] vs. 81% [54–90]; P = 0.75). Less time was spent hypoglycemic (<45 mg/dL [0.0 vs. 0.3%]; P = 0.04), with a lower low blood glucose index (2.4 [0.9–3.5] vs. 3.3 [1.9–5.1]; P = 0.03), during closed-loop insulin delivery. CONCLUSIONS Closed-loop insulin delivery was as effective as conventional CSII, with less time spent in extreme hypoglycemia. PMID:22011408

  8. An Open Framework Aluminophosphate with Unique 12-Membered Ring Channels: Al 9(PO 4) 12(C 24H 91N 16)·17H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yao-Hua; Zhang, Bing-Guang; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Shu-Hua; Duan, Chun-Ying; You, Xiao-Zeng

    1999-06-01

    By using the hydrothermal method, a new large-pore three dimensional aluminophosphate Al9(PO)12(C24H81N16)·17H2O has been synthesized. The compound crystallizes in the cubic space group I-43m with a=16.7963(13) Å, V=4738.5(6) Å3, and Z=2. The P/Al ratio of this compound is 4:3 and the structure consists of Al-centered and P-centered tetrahedra in which all the AlO4 tetrahedra vertices and three of PO4 tetrahedra corners are shared. The framework contains unique 12-membered ring channels, which intersect each other with 12-membered ring windows in three dimensions, and almost spherical cavities, in which water and amine ions are located. The window containing three P=O groups selectively interacts with 4-(2-aminoethyl)diethylenetriamine by the effect of recognition in the hydrothermal condition. The compound could exist up to 260°C. At higher temperature, the amine was decomposed and released, and the compound was transferred into amorphous phase. The component Al of the compound can be partly substituted with other elements, such as Sn, Zn, Mg, Co, Mn, and Cd, by which the charge of the framework can be adjusted.

  9. Structural and electronic properties of the transition layer at the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dejun; Zhao, Jijun

    2015-01-15

    Using first-principles methods, we generate an amorphous SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface with a transition layer. Based this interface model, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of the interfacial transition layer. The calculated Si 2p core-level shifts for this interface are comparable to the experimental data, indicating that various SiC{sub x}O{sub y} species should be present in this interface transition layer. The analysis of the electronic structures reveals that the tetrahedral SiC{sub x}O{sub y} structures cannot introduce any of the defect states at the interface. Interestingly, our transition layer also includes a C-C=C trimer and SiO{sub 5} configurations, which lead to the generation of interface states. The accurate positions of Kohn-Sham energy levels associated with these defects are further calculated within the hybrid functional scheme. The Kohn-Sham energy levels of the carbon trimer and SiO{sub 5} configurations are located near the conduction and valence band of bulk 4H-SiC, respectively. The result indicates that the carbon trimer occurred in the transition layer may be a possible origin of near interface traps. These findings provide novel insight into the structural and electronic properties of the realistic SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface.

  10. Measurement of C{sub 24}H{sub 14} polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with a size-segregated urban aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.O.; Dookeran, N.M.; Sarofim, A.F.; Smith, K.A.; Taghizadeh, K.; Plummer, E.F.; Lafleur, A.L.; Durant, J.L.

    1998-07-01

    Six-ring C{sub 24}H{sub 14} (MW 302) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which are potent mutagens, are present in urban aerosols. Size-segregated atmospheric aerosol samples from Boston, MA, were analyzed for C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Eleven peaks were found with mass to charge ratios of 302; of these, eight were identified using authentic standards. Five of the peaks were quantified. For each of these five, the distributions with respect to particle size were bimodal with the majority of the mass associated with accumulation mode particles and a smaller fraction of the mass associated with ultrafine mode particles. These distributions are similar to those observed for PAH of molecular weight 252--278 in the same sample but different from those of benzo[ghi]perylene and coronene which were associated to a greater degree with ultrafine particles. The data suggest that C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH repartition to larger particles by vaporization and sorption more rapidly than do benzo[ghi]perylene and coronene. The total concentration of C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH was comparable to that of benzo[a]pyrene in the same sample. Because of their mutagenicities, C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH may make a contribution to the genotoxicity of urban aerosols comparable to that of benzo[a]pyrene.

  11. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Role of List Length, Strategy Use, and Test Expectancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that the immediate free recall (IFR) of short lists is similar to immediate serial recall (ISR). These findings were obtained using a methodology in which participants did not know the list length in advance of each list, and this uncertainty may have encouraged participants to adopt atypical recall strategies. Therefore,…

  12. Bender Gestalt recall: memory measure or intelligence estimate.

    PubMed

    Armentrout, J A

    1976-10-01

    WAIS subtest standard scores, IQ scores, and factorial deviation quotients were correlated with Bender Gestalt recall scores for 111 vocational rehabilitation clients. The number of Bender designs recalled was associated significantly with intellectual measures, with the strength of association somewhat stronger with nonverbal than with verbal scores. Bender recall scores were correlated more highly with Perceptual Organization DQs than with Memory-Freedom from Distractibility DQs, but that difference only approached significance. Despite the relationships between Bender recall scores and intelligence scores, the Bender recall task could not classify Ss as to general intelligence level with greater accuracy than could be obtained with the WAIS Vocabulary subtest alone.

  13. Induced arousal and orienting tasks as determinants of intentional recall.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, C B

    1992-07-01

    In this study, the author examined the effects of intention to learn, noise, and different types of orienting tasks on short-term and long-term recall for 15 Hindi paired-associates. Intention to learn improved recall, as did encoding of semantic features, and noise impaired both short-term and long-term recall. The analysis of short-term recall scores indicated that there were no significant interactions between these factors, but the analysis of long-term recall scores indicated that there were significant interactions between noise and orienting tasks and between intentionality and orienting tasks.

  14. Risk factors for stillbirths and mortality during the first 24h of life on dairy farms in Hokkaido, Japan 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Kayano, M; Kadohira, M; Stevenson, M A

    2016-05-01

    This was a retrospective cohort study using data from the insurance scheme provided by the Japanese Mutual Aid Association (NOSAI). The population of interest comprised all cattle born on NOSAI-client farms in the Japanese prefecture of Hokkaido, Japan for the period 1 April 2005-31 March 2009. The outcome of interest was whether or not at least one calf was stillborn, had died during delivery or died during the first 24 hours of life for a given calving event, termed first 24h mortality risk. A mixed-effects logistic regression model was developed to identify explanatory variables associated with first 24h mortality risk. The final data set comprised details of 1,281,737 calving events on a total of 5172 dairy herds from 19 NOSAI branches located throughout the prefecture of Hokkaido. Throughout the study period 7.68 (95% CI 7.64-7.73) of every 100 calving events had at least one calf that was either stillborn, dead at the time of delivery or dead during the first 24h of life. Factors that were positively associated with an increase in first 24h mortality risk included delivery during the colder months of the year (November-March), being of Wagyu breed, having a multipara dam, multiple (as opposed to single) birth deliveries, and delivery in larger herds. ​After adjusting for the fixed effects included in our multilevel model, 89% of the unexplained variation in first 24h mortality risk was at the calving event level. We propose that the data recording requirements of the NOSAI scheme are extended to include details of calving events (e.g. the presence or absence of dystocia) and details of the way in which calves are managed post delivery. This would allow more subtle risk factors for calf mortality to be identified which, in turn, will lead to refinement of recommendations for calf management during the first 24h of life in this area of Japan.

  15. A 24 h investigation of the hydrogeochemistry of baseflow and stormwater in an urban area impacted by mining: Butte, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gammons, Christopher H.; Shope, Christopher L.; Duaime, Terence E.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in water quality during a storm event were continuously monitored over a 24 h period at a single location along an urban stormwater drain in Butte, Montana. The Butte Metro Storm Drain (MSD) collects groundwater baseflow and stormwater draining Butte Hill, a densely populated site that has been severely impacted by 130 years of mining, milling, and smelting of copper-rich, polymetallic mineral deposits. On the afternoon of 26 June 2002, a heavy thunderstorm caused streamflow in the MSD to increase 100-fold, from 0·2 ft3 s−1 to more than 20 ft3 s−1. Hourly discharge and water quality data were collected before, during, and following the storm. The most significant finding was that the calculated loads (grams per hour) of both dissolved and particulate copper passing down the MSD increased more than 100-fold in the first hour following the storm, and remained elevated over baseline conditions for the remainder of the study period. Other metals, such as zinc, cadmium, and manganese, showed a decrease in load from pre-storm to post-storm conditions. In addition to the large flush of copper, loads of soluble phosphorus increased during the storm, whereas dissolved oxygen dropped to low levels (<2 mg l−1). These results show that infrequent storm events in Butte have the potential to generate large volumes of runoff that exceed Montana water quality standards for acute exposure of aquatic life to copper, as well as depressed levels of dissolved oxygen. This study has important implications to ongoing reclamation activities in the upper Clark Fork Superfund site, particularly with respect to management of storm flow, and may be applicable to other watersheds impacted by mining activities.

  16. Attenuated benzodiazepine-sensitive tonic GABAA currents of supraoptic magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in 24-h water-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Pandit, S; Song, J G; Kim, Y J; Jeong, J A; Jo, J Y; Lee, G S; Kim, H-W; Jeon, B H; Lee, J U; Park, J B

    2014-01-01

    In supraoptic nucleus (SON) magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs), γ-GABA, via activation of GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs), mediates persistent tonic inhibitory currents (Itonic ), as well as conventional inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs, Iphasic ). In the present study, we examined the functional significance of Itonic in SON MNCs challenged by 24-h water deprivation (24WD). Although the main characteristics of spontaneous IPSCs were similar in 24WD compared to euhydrated (EU) rats, Itonic , measured by bicuculline (BIC)-induced Iholding shifts, was significantly smaller in 24WD compared to EU rats (P < 0.05). Propofol and diazepam prolonged IPSC decay time to a similar extent in both groups but induced less Itonic in 24WD compared to EU rats, suggesting a selective decrease in GABAA receptors mediating Itonic over Iphasic in 24WD rats. THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol), a preferential δ subunit agonist, and L-655,708, a GABAA receptor α5 subunit selective imidazobenzodiazepine, caused a significantly smaller inward and outward shift in Iholding , respectively, in 24WD compared to EU rats (P < 0.05 in both cases), suggesting an overall decrease in the α5 subunit-containing GABAA Rs and the δ subunit-containing receptors mediating Itonic in 24WD animals. Consistent with a decrease in 24WD Itonic , bath application of GABA induced significantly less inhibition of the neuronal firing activity in 24WD compared to EU SON MNCs (P < 0.05). Taken together, the results of the present study indicate a selective decrease in GABAA Rs functions mediating Itonic as opposed to those mediating Iphasic in SON MNCs, demonstrating the functional significance of Itonic with respect to increasing neuronal excitability and hormone secretion in 24WD rats.

  17. Sleep-like behavior and 24-h rhythm disruption in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heise, I; Fisher, S P; Banks, G T; Wells, S; Peirson, S N; Foster, R G; Nolan, P M

    2015-02-01

    Down syndrome is a common disorder associated with intellectual disability in humans. Among a variety of severe health problems, patients with Down syndrome exhibit disrupted sleep and abnormal 24-h rest/activity patterns. The transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome, Tc1, is a trans-species mouse model for Down syndrome, carrying most of human chromosome 21 in addition to the normal complement of mouse chromosomes and expresses many of the phenotypes characteristic of Down syndrome. To date, however, sleep and circadian rhythms have not been characterized in Tc1 mice. Using both circadian wheel-running analysis and video-based sleep scoring, we showed that these mice exhibited fragmented patterns of sleep-like behaviour during the light phase of a 12:12-h light/dark (LD) cycle with an extended period of continuous wakefulness at the beginning of the dark phase. Moreover, an acute light pulse during night-time was less effective in inducing sleep-like behaviour in Tc1 animals than in wild-type controls. In wheel-running analysis, free running in constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) showed no changes in the circadian period of Tc1 animals although they did express subtle behavioural differences including a reduction in total distance travelled on the wheel and differences in the acrophase of activity in LD and in DD. Our data confirm that Tc1 mice express sleep-related phenotypes that are comparable with those seen in Down syndrome patients with moderate disruptions in rest/activity patterns and hyperactive episodes, while circadian period under constant lighting conditions is essentially unaffected.

  18. Twice daily melatonin peaks in Siberian but not Syrian hamsters under 24 h light:dark:light:dark cycles.

    PubMed

    Raiewski, Evan E; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Evans, Jennifer A; Glickman, Gena L; Gorman, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    The daily pattern of blood-borne melatonin varies seasonally under the control of a multi-oscillator circadian pacemaker. Here we examine patterns of melatonin secretion and locomotor activity in Siberian and Syrian hamsters entrained to bimodal LDLD8:4:8:4 and LD20:4 lighting schedules that facilitate novel temporal arrangements of component circadian oscillators. Under LDLD, both species robustly bifurcated wheel-running activity in distinct day scotophase (DS) and night scotophase (NS) bouts. Siberian hamsters displayed significant melatonin increases during each scotophase in LDLD, and in the single daily scotophase of LD20:4. The bimodal melatonin secretion pattern persisted in acutely extended 16 h scotophases. Syrian hamsters, in contrast, showed no significant increases in plasma melatonin during either scotophase of LDLD8:4:8:4 or in LD20:4. In this species, detectable levels were observed only when the DS of LDLD was acutely extended to yield 16 h of darkness. Established species differences in the phase lag of nocturnal melatonin secretion relative to activity onset may underlie the above contrast: In non-bifurcated entrainment to 24 h LD cycles, Siberian hamsters show increased melatonin secretion within ≈ 2 h after activity onset, whereas in Syrian hamsters, detectable melatonin secretion phase lags activity onset and the L/D transition by at least 4 h. The present results provide new evidence indicating multi-oscillator regulation of the waveform of melatonin secretion, specifically, the circadian control of the onset, offset and duration of nocturnal secretion.

  19. Counterregulatory deficits occur within 24 h of a single hypoglycemic episode in conscious, unrestrained, chronically cannulated mice

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Lauren; Ansari, Tasneem; McGuinness, Owen P.

    2006-01-01

    Hypoglycemia-induced Counterregulatory failure is a dangerous complication of insulin use in diabetes mellitus. Controlled hypoglycemia studies in gene knockout models, which require the use of mice, would aid in identifying causes of defective counterregulation. Because stress can influence Counterregulatory hormones and glucose homeostasis, we developed glucose clamps with remote blood sampling in conscious, unrestrained mice. Male C57BL/6 mice implanted with indwelling carotid artery and jugular vein catheters were subjected to 2 h of hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps 24 h apart, with a 6-h fast before each clamp. On day 1,, blood glucose was maintained (euglycemia, 178 ± 4 mg/dl) or decreased to 62 ± 1 mg/dl (hypoglycemia) by insulin (20 mU·kg−1·min−1) and variable glucose infusion. Donor blood was continuously infused to replace blood sample volume. Baseline plasma epinephrine (32 ± 8 pg/ml), corticosterone (16.1 ± 1.8 μg/dl), and glucagon (35 ± 3 pg/ml) were unchanged during euglycemia but increased significantly during hypoglycemia, with a glycemic threshold of ~80 mg/dl. On day 2, all mice underwent a hypoglycemic clamp (blood glucose, 64 ± 1 mg/dl). Compared with mice that were euglycemic on day 1, previously hypoglycemic mice had significantly higher glucose requirements and significantly lower plasma glucagon and corticosterone (n = 6/group) on day 2. Epinephrine tended to decrease, although not significantly, in repeatedly hypoglycemic mice. Pre- and post-clamp insulin levels were similar between groups. We conclude that counterregulatory responses to acute and repeated hypoglycemia in unrestrained, chronically cannulated mice reproduce aspects of counterregulation in humans, and that repeated hypoglycemia in mice is a useful model of counterregulatory failure. PMID:16533951

  20. Interface Design Implications for Recalling the Spatial Configuration of Virtual Auditory Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullen, Kyla A.

    Although the concept of virtual spatial audio has existed for almost twenty-five years, only in the past fifteen years has modern computing technology enabled the real-time processing needed to deliver high-precision spatial audio. Furthermore, the concept of virtually walking through an auditory environment did not exist. The applications of such an interface have numerous potential uses. Spatial audio has the potential to be used in various manners ranging from enhancing sounds delivered in virtual gaming worlds to conveying spatial locations in real-time emergency response systems. To incorporate this technology in real-world systems, various concerns should be addressed. First, to widely incorporate spatial audio into real-world systems, head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) must be inexpensively created for each user. The present study further investigated an HRTF subjective selection procedure previously developed within our research group. Users discriminated auditory cues to subjectively select their preferred HRTF from a publicly available database. Next, the issue of training to find virtual sources was addressed. Listeners participated in a localization training experiment using their selected HRTFs. The training procedure was created from the characterization of successful search strategies in prior auditory search experiments. Search accuracy significantly improved after listeners performed the training procedure. Next, in the investigation of auditory spatial memory, listeners completed three search and recall tasks with differing recall methods. Recall accuracy significantly decreased in tasks that required the storage of sound source configurations in memory. To assess the impacts of practical scenarios, the present work assessed the performance effects of: signal uncertainty, visual augmentation, and different attenuation modeling. Fortunately, source uncertainty did not affect listeners' ability to recall or identify sound sources. The present

  1. Validation of short term recall of mobile phone use for the Interphone study

    PubMed Central

    Vrijheid, M; Cardis, E; Armstrong, B K; Auvinen, A; Berg, G; Blaasaas, K G; Brown, J; Carroll, M; Chetrit, A; Christensen, H C; Deltour, I; Feychting, M; Giles, G G; Hepworth, S J; Hours, M; Iavarone, I; Johansen, C; Klæboe, L; Kurttio, P; Lagorio, S; Lönn, S; McKinney, P A; Montestrucq, L; Parslow, R C; Richardson, L; Sadetzki, S; Salminen, T; Schüz, J; Tynes, T; Woodward, A

    2006-01-01

    Aim To validate short term recall of mobile phone use within Interphone, an international collaborative case control study of tumours of the brain, acoustic nerve, and salivary glands related to mobile telephone use. Methods Mobile phone use of 672 volunteers in 11 countries was recorded by operators or through the use of software modified phones, and compared to use recalled six months later using the Interphone study questionnaire. Agreement between recalled and actual phone use was analysed using both categorical and continuous measures of number and duration of phone calls. Results Correlations between recalled and actual phone use were moderate to high (ranging from 0.5 to 0.8 across countries) and of the same order for number and duration of calls. The kappa statistic demonstrated fair to moderate agreement for both number and duration of calls (weighted kappa ranging from 0.20 to 0.60 across countries). On average, subjects underestimated the number of calls per month (geometric mean ratio of recalled to actual = 0.92, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.99), whereas duration of calls was overestimated (geometric mean ratio = 1.42, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.56). The ratio of recalled to actual use increased with level of use, showing underestimation in light users and overestimation in heavy users. There was substantial heterogeneity in this ratio between countries. Inter‐individual variation was also large, and increased with level of use. Conclusions Volunteer subjects recalled their recent phone use with moderate systematic error and substantial random error. This large random error can be expected to reduce the power of the Interphone study to detect an increase in risk of brain, acoustic nerve, and parotid gland tumours with increasing mobile phone use, if one exists. PMID:16556742

  2. Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men.

    PubMed

    Bérubé-Parent, Sonia; Pelletier, Catherine; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo

    2005-09-01

    It has been reported that green tea has a thermogenic effect, due to its caffeine content and probably also to the catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The main aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a mixture of green tea and Guarana extracts containing a fixed dose of caffeine and variable doses of EGCG on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Fourteen subjects took part to this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. Each subject was tested five times in a metabolic chamber to measure 24 h energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure. During each stay, the subjects ingested a capsule of placebo or capsules containing 200 mg caffeine and a variable dose of EGCG (90, 200, 300 or 400 mg) three times daily, 30 min before standardized meals. Twenty-four hour energy expenditure increased significantly by about 750 kJ with all EGCG-caffeine mixtures compared with placebo. No effect of the EGCG-caffeine mixture was observed for lipid oxidation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by about 7 and 5 mmHg, respectively, with the EGCG-caffeine mixtures compared with placebo. This increase was significant only for 24 h diastolic blood pressure. The main finding of the study was the increase in 24 h energy expenditure with the EGCG-caffeine mixtures. However, this increase was similar with all doses of EGCG in the mixtures.

  3. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE), and its components-ba...

  4. Three 15-min bouts of moderate postmeal walking significantly improves 24-h glycemic control in older people at risk for impaired glucose tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three 15-min bouts of postmeal walking with 45 min of sustained walking on 24-h glycemic control in older persons at risk for glucose intolerance. Inactive older (=60 years of age) participants (N = 10) were recruited from the community a...

  5. Myocardial infarction occurs with a similar 24 h pattern in the 4G/5G versions of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

    PubMed

    Bergheanu, Sandrin C; Pons, Douwe; Jukema, J Wouter; van der Hoeven, Bas L; Liem, Su-San; Vandenbroucke, Jan P; Rosendaal, Frits R; le Cessie, Saskia; Schalij, Martin J; van der Bom, Johanna G

    2009-05-01

    PAI-1 expression is regulated by a 4G/5G promoter polymorphism. The 4G allele is associated with greater circadian variation of PAI-1 levels. We hypothesized that the 24 h variation of cardiac risk is more pronounced among persons with the 4G4G genotype than among ones with 4G5G and 5G5G genotypes. We assessed the time of onset of symptoms in 623 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) enrolled in the MISSION! Study between February 1, 2004, and October 29, 2006. All of the patients were genotyped for the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism. We quantified the amplitude of the 24 h variation of AMI with a generalized linear model with Poisson distribution. A morning peak, between 06:00-11:59 h (n = 197; 32% of all cases), in the onset of symptoms of AMI was observed. The group composed of patients with the 4G4G genotype did not have a more pronounced morning peak than the groups composed of other genotypes; the 24 h variation was 38% (95% confidence interval 12-70%) in the group of 4G4G patients and 34% (14-58%) and 56% (20-100%) in the 4G5G and 5G5G groups of patients, respectively. Our findings show that 24 h variation of cardiac risk is not more pronounced among the 4G4G genotype of PAI-1.

  6. COMPARISON OF 24H AVERAGE VOC MONITORING RESULTS FOR RESIDENTIAL INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR USING CARBOPACK X-FILLED DIFFUSIVE SAMPLERS AND ACTIVE SAMPLING - A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical results obtained by thermal desorption GC/MS for 24h diffusive sampling of 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compared with results of time-averaged active sampling at a known constant flow rate. Air samples were collected with co-located duplicate diffusive samp...

  7. Televised Self-Confrontation and Recalled Affect: A New Look at Videotape Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, David; Resnikoff, Arthur

    1977-01-01

    The extent to which individuals can recall feelings they experienced during a dyadic interaction, when shown a televised replay of that interaction, was investigated. Pairs of subjects (N=10) were trained rate their degree of comfort or discomfort during the actual ("live") interaction and, subsequently, as they watched a video-taped replay of…

  8. Memory recall and spike-frequency adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, James P.; Sander, Leonard M.; Zochowski, Michal R.

    2016-05-01

    The brain can reproduce memories from partial data; this ability is critical for memory recall. The process of memory recall has been studied using autoassociative networks such as the Hopfield model. This kind of model reliably converges to stored patterns that contain the memory. However, it is unclear how the behavior is controlled by the brain so that after convergence to one configuration, it can proceed with recognition of another one. In the Hopfield model, this happens only through unrealistic changes of an effective global temperature that destabilizes all stored configurations. Here we show that spike-frequency adaptation (SFA), a common mechanism affecting neuron activation in the brain, can provide state-dependent control of pattern retrieval. We demonstrate this in a Hopfield network modified to include SFA, and also in a model network of biophysical neurons. In both cases, SFA allows for selective stabilization of attractors with different basins of attraction, and also for temporal dynamics of attractor switching that is not possible in standard autoassociative schemes. The dynamics of our models give a plausible account of different sorts of memory retrieval.

  9. Self-serving confabulation in prose recall.

    PubMed

    Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Conway, Martin A; Solms, Mark; Tyrer, Stephen; Kopelman, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that the content of confabulation is mainly positive and self-enhancing. In this group study, we aimed to investigate whether this positive bias is specific to self-referent information. Confabulating amnesic patients, amnesic non-confabulating patients and healthy controls were asked to reproduce a series of short stories. We manipulated the emotional valence of the material by including positive, negative and neutral story plots. We also manipulated the self-reference of the material by including self-referent versus other-referent encoding instructions. Confabulating patients were as impaired as a group of amnesic patients in the amount of information they recalled, both groups being worse than healthy controls. Importantly, confabulating patients showed a selective bias in the negative self-referent condition, in that they recalled such information in a manner which portrayed a more positive image of themselves. This positive bias was not present in stories that were not encoded in a self-referent manner and it was not significantly correlated to patients' self-reported mood. We propose that both confabulation and its motivated content result from a deficit in the control and regulation of memory retrieval, which allows motivational factors to acquire a greater role than usual in determining which memories are selected for retrieval. To this extent, the self-enhancing content of confabulation could be explained as a neurogenic exaggeration of normal self-serving memory distortion.

  10. Metamemory appraisals in autobiographical event recall.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Talarico, Jennifer M; Pascal, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    Two studies examined whether belief in the occurrence of events, recollecting events, and belief in the accuracy of recollections are distinct aspects of autobiographical remembering. In Study 1, 299 student participants received a cue to recall five childhood events, after which they rated each event on these constructs and other characteristics associated with remembering. Structural equation modelling revealed that variance in ratings was best explained by the three anticipated latent variables. In Study 2, an online sample of 1026 adults recalled and rated a childhood event and an event about which they were somehow uncertain. Confirmatory modelling replicated the three latent variables. The relationship of key predictors (perceptual detail, spatial detail, re-experiencing, and event plausibility) to the latent variables confirmed the distinction. These studies demonstrate that belief in occurrence and belief in accuracy appraisals are distinct, the former indexing the truth status of the event and the latter the degree to which the event representation accurately reflects prior experience. Further, they suggest that belief in accuracy indexes the monitoring of the quality of recollections.

  11. UK dietary exposure to PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDD/Fs, PBBs and PBDEs: comparison of results from 24-h duplicate diets and total diet studies.

    PubMed

    Bramwell, Lindsay; Mortimer, David; Rose, Martin; Fernandes, Alwyn; Harrad, Stuart; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Chemicals in food are monitored to check for compliance with regulatory limits and to evaluate trends in dietary exposures, among other reasons. This study compared two different methods for estimating human dietary exposure to lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during 2011/12: (1) the 2012 Total Diet Study (TDS) conducted by the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) and (2) a 24-h duplicate diet (DD) study of 20 adults from the North East of England. The equivalence of the two approaches was assessed; anything less than an order of magnitude could be considered reasonable and within three-fold (equivalent to 0.5 log) as good. Adult dietary exposure estimates derived from the DD study for both average and high-level (97.5th percentile) consumers compared well with those from the TDS. Estimates from the DD study when compared with those from the TDS were within 10% for P97.5 for total PCDD/F/PCB with divergence increasing to a factor of 3.4 for average BDE-209. Most estimates derived from the TDS were slightly higher than those derived from the DD. Comparison with earlier UK TDS data over the last 30 years or so confirmed a gradual decline in levels of PCDD/F/PCBs in food. Such comparisons also indicated peaks in dietary exposure to ∑PBDE (excluding BDE-209) between 2000 and 2005. Exposure estimates for all measured compounds using both TDS and DD data were found to be within recommended tolerable daily intakes where available or within acceptable margins of exposure.

  12. Influence of 8 and 24-h storage of whole blood at ambient temperature on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, thrombin time, antithrombin and D-dimer.

    PubMed

    Kemkes-Matthes, Bettina; Fischer, Ronald; Peetz, Dirk

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluates the effect of whole blood storage on common coagulation parameters in order to confirm or revise acceptable storage limits as defined by current guidelines and diverse study reports. Aliquots were taken from the citrated whole blood of inpatients and outpatients (n = 147) within 4 h after blood withdrawal and after extended storage of whole blood for 8 and 24 h at ambient temperature. Aliquots were centrifuged and analyzed for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin (AT), thrombin time (TT) and D-dimer. For each parameter, samples from 33-56 patients were investigated covering a wide range of normal and pathological values. Samples from patients receiving heparin were excluded from analyses of APTT and TT. All assays were performed using reagents and an analyzer from Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Products GmbH. The mean percentage change after 8 and 24-h storage was below 10% for all parameters. Considering the changes in individual samples, all parameters can be reliably tested after 8-h storage, since less than 15% of the samples demonstrated individual changes of above 10%. The acceptable storage time can be extended to 24 h for PT, TT and D-dimer. Clinically relevant changes were detected after 24-h storage for APTT: 41% of the investigated samples demonstrated changes of above 10%. After 24-h storage, changes for Fbg and AT values were more than 15% in five out of 49 and in three out of 45 samples, respectively. This sporadic increase of values is clinically acceptable except for borderline samples.

  13. The effects of telmisartan alone or with hydrochlorothiazide on morning and 24-h ambulatory BP control: results from a practice-based study (SURGE 2).

    PubMed

    Parati, Gianfranco; Bilo, Grzegorz; Redon, Josep

    2013-04-01

    Observational studies have shown that 24-h and morning ambulatory blood pressure (BP) control is low. This large-scale, practice-based study evaluated the effects of telmisartan 40 or 80 mg alone or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg on these BP parameters over 8 weeks; treatment was adjusted if clinic BP remained ≥140/90 mm Hg. A total of 863 patients were evaluated (baseline mean clinic BP, morning and 24-h ambulatory BP: 155±15/93±10 mm Hg, 137±15/83±11 mm Hg, 133±14/79±10 mm Hg, respectively; 68% were previously treated at baseline). Telmisartan with/without HCTZ significantly reduced the mean morning ambulatory BP (-8.2/-4.9 mm Hg), daytime ambulatory BP (-8.0/-4.7 mm Hg), 24-h ambulatory BP (-7.9/-4.7 mm Hg) and clinic BP (-22.3/-13.2 mm Hg) (all P<0.001) in previously untreated and in treated patients who switched to telmisartan and telmisartan/HCTZ. After treatment with telmisartan with/without HCTZ, the morning ambulatory BP control increased from 36.5 to 64.4%; daytime ambulatory BP control increased from 40.8 to 67.6%; 53.0% of patients achieved 24-h ambulatory BP <125/80 mm Hg and 62% achieved <130/80 mm Hg targets. Only 0.8% (7/863) reported an adverse event. In summary, telmisartan and telmisartan/HCTZ increased smooth 24-h BP control in daily management of hypertension.

  14. At-sea trial of 24-h-based submarine watchstanding schedules with high and low correlated color temperature light sources.

    PubMed

    Young, Colin R; Jones, Geoffrey E; Figueiro, Mariana G; Soutière, Shawn E; Keller, Matthew W; Richardson, Annely M; Lehmann, Benjamin J; Rea, Mark S

    2015-04-01

    United States Navy submariners have historically lived with circadian disruption while at sea due to 18-h-based watchschedules. Previous research demonstrated that circadian entrainment improved with 24-h-based watchschedules. Twenty-nine male crew members participated in the study, which took place on an actual submarine patrol. The crew were exposed, first, to experimental high correlated color temperature (CCT = 13,500 K) fluorescent light sources and then to standard-issue fluorescent light sources (CCT = 4100 K). A variety of outcome measures were employed to determine if higher levels of circadian-effective light during on-watch times would further promote behavioral alignment to 24-h-based watchschedules. The high CCT light source produced significantly higher circadian light exposures than the low CCT light source, which was associated with significantly greater 24-h behavioral alignment with work schedules using phasor analysis, greater levels of sleep efficiency measured with wrist actigraphy, lower levels of subjective sleepiness measured with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, and higher nighttime melatonin concentrations measured by morning urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin/creatinine ratios. Unlike these diverse outcome measures, performance scores were significantly worse under the high CCT light source than under the low CCT light source, due to practice effects. As hypothesized, with the exception of the performance scores, all of the data converge to suggest that high CCT light sources, combined with 24-h watchschedules, promote better behavioral alignment with work schedules and greater sleep quality on submarines. Since the order and the type of light sources were confounded in this field study, the results should only be considered as consistent with our theoretical understanding of how regular, 24-h light-dark exposures combined with high circadian light exposures can promote greater behavioral alignment with work schedules and with sleep.

  15. The effect of semantic categorisation on recall memory in amnesia.

    PubMed

    Channon, S; Daum, I

    2000-01-01

    Amnesic patients were compared to a healthy control group on recall of word lists containing semantically-related or unrelated words. As expected on the basis of previous literature, the amnesic group performed below the control group on all measures of recall. When total recall scores for each list were used as the index of performance, their scores were not significantly affected by the type of list, unlike those of the control group. Comparison of serial position effects for different parts of the lists revealed that the control group derived greater benefit from semantic relatedness in recall of items from the middle positions. This effect was not shown by the amnesic group, who showed similar U-shaped serial position curves for recall of all three lists, and appeared to use a more passive recall strategy than the control group. The findings are discussed in relation to our current understanding of amnesic deficits.

  16. Validity of 12-Month Falls Recall in Community-Dwelling Older Women Participating in a Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kerrie M; Stuart, Amanda L; Scott, David; Kotowicz, Mark A; Nicholson, Geoff C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare 12-month falls recall with falls reported prospectively on daily falls calendars in a clinical trial of women aged ≥70 years. Methods. 2,096 community-dwelling women at high risk of falls and/or fracture completed a daily falls calendar and standardised interviews when falls were recorded, for 12 months. Data were compared to a 12-month falls recall question that categorised falls status as "no falls," "a few times," "several," and "regular" falls. Results. 898 (43%) participants reported a fall on daily falls calendars of whom 692 (77%) recalled fall(s) at 12 months. Participants who did not recall a fall were older (median 79.3 years versus 77.8 years, P = 0.028). Smaller proportions of fallers who sustained an injury or accessed health care failed to recall a fall (all P < 0.04). Among participants who recalled "no fall," 85% reported zero falls on daily calendars. Few women selected falls categories of "several times" or "regular" (4.1% and 0.4%, resp.) and the sensitivity of these categories was low (30% to 33%). Simply categorising participants into fallers or nonfallers had 77% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Conclusion. For studies where intensive ascertainment of falls is not feasible, 12-month falls recall questions with fewer responses may be an acceptable alternative.

  17. Automatic processing influences free recall: converging evidence from the process dissociation procedure and remember-know judgments.

    PubMed

    McCabe, David P; Roediger, Henry L; Karpicke, Jeffrey D

    2011-04-01

    Dual-process theories of retrieval suggest that controlled and automatic processing contribute to memory performance. Free recall tests are often considered pure measures of recollection, assessing only the controlled process. We report two experiments demonstrating that automatic processes also influence free recall. Experiment 1 used inclusion and exclusion tasks to estimate recollection and automaticity in free recall, adopting a new variant of the process dissociation procedure. Dividing attention during study selectively reduced the recollection estimate but did not affect the automatic component. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of Experiment 1, and subjects additionally reported remember-know-guess judgments during recall in the inclusion condition. In the latter task, dividing attention during study reduced remember judgments for studied items, but know responses were unaffected. Results from both methods indicated that free recall is partly driven by automatic processes. Thus, we conclude that retrieval in free recall tests is not driven solely by conscious recollection (or remembering) but also by automatic influences of the same sort believed to drive priming on implicit memory tests. Sometimes items come to mind without volition in free recall.

  18. Estimating usual food intake distributions by using the multiple source method in the EPIC-Potsdam Calibration Study.

    PubMed

    Haubrock, Jennifer; Nöthlings, Ute; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Dekkers, Arnold; Ocké, Marga; Harttig, Ulrich; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Knüppel, Sven; Andersen, Lene F; Boeing, Heiner

    2011-05-01

    Estimating usual food intake distributions from short-term quantitative measurements is critical when occasionally or rarely eaten food groups are considered. To overcome this challenge by statistical modeling, the Multiple Source Method (MSM) was developed in 2006. The MSM provides usual food intake distributions from individual short-term estimates by combining the probability and the amount of consumption with incorporation of covariates into the modeling part. Habitual consumption frequency information may be used in 2 ways: first, to distinguish true nonconsumers from occasional nonconsumers in short-term measurements and second, as a covariate in the statistical model. The MSM is therefore able to calculate estimates for occasional nonconsumers. External information on the proportion of nonconsumers of a food can also be handled by the MSM. As a proof-of-concept, we applied the MSM to a data set from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Calibration Study (2004) comprising 393 participants who completed two 24-h dietary recalls and one FFQ. Usual intake distributions were estimated for 38 food groups with a proportion of nonconsumers > 70% in the 24-h dietary recalls. The intake estimates derived by the MSM corresponded with the observed values such as the group mean. This study shows that the MSM is a useful and applicable statistical technique to estimate usual food intake distributions, if at least 2 repeated measurements per participant are available, even for food groups with a sizeable percentage of nonconsumers.

  19. Exploring a novel environment improves motivation and promotes recall of words

    PubMed Central

    Schomaker, Judith; van Bronkhorst, Marthe L. V.; Meeter, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    Active exploration of novel environments is known to increase plasticity in animals, promoting long-term potentiation in the hippocampus and enhancing memory formation. These effects can occur during as well as after exploration. In humans novelty’s effects on memory have been investigated with other methods, but never in an active exploration paradigm. We therefore investigated whether active spatial exploration of a novel compared to a previously familiarized virtual environment promotes performance on an unrelated word learning task. Exploration of the novel environment enhanced recall, generally thought to be hippocampus-dependent, but not recognition, believed to rely less on the hippocampus. Recall was better for participants that gave higher presence ratings for their experience in the virtual environment. These ratings were higher for the novel compared to the familiar virtual environment, suggesting that novelty increased attention for the virtual rather than real environment; however, this did not explain the effect of novelty on recall. PMID:25191297

  20. Software-related recalls: an analysis of records.

    PubMed

    Simone, Lisa K

    2013-01-01

    Public and internal databases were examined to evaluate software-related recalls in the medical device industry sector. In the analysis of recalls reported from 2005 through 2011, 19.4% of medical device recalls are related to software. This paper includes analysis results, challenges faced in determining the causes, and examples and trends in software-related recalls. This information can be useful in enhancing our understanding of why medical devices fail, and it can help to improve medical device safety, and patient and public health.

  1. Stimulated Recall Methodology for Assessing Work System Barriers and Facilitators in Family-Centered Rounds in a Pediatric Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Li, Yaqiong; Kelly, Michelle M.; DuBenske, Lori L.; Xie, Anping; McCabe, Brenna; Orne, Jason; Cox, Elizabeth D.

    2014-01-01

    Human factors and ergonomics methods are needed to redesign healthcare processes and support patient-centered care, in particular for vulnerable patients such as hospitalized children. We implemented and evaluated a stimulated recall methodology for collective confrontation in the context of family-centered rounds. Five parents and five healthcare team members reviewed video records of their bedside rounds, and were then interviewed using the stimulated recall methodology to identify work system barriers and facilitators in family-centered rounds. The evaluation of the methodology was based on a survey of the participants, and a qualitative analysis of interview data in light of the work system model of Smith and Carayon (1989; 2000). Positive survey feedback from the participants was received. The stimulated recall methodology identified barriers and facilitators in all work system elements. Participatory ergonomics methods such as the stimulated recall methodology allow a range of participants, including parents and children, to participate in healthcare process improvement. PMID:24894378

  2. Stimulated recall methodology for assessing work system barriers and facilitators in family-centered rounds in a pediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Carayon, Pascale; Li, Yaqiong; Kelly, Michelle M; DuBenske, Lori L; Xie, Anping; McCabe, Brenna; Orne, Jason; Cox, Elizabeth D

    2014-11-01

    Human factors and ergonomics methods are needed to redesign healthcare processes and support patient-centered care, in particular for vulnerable patients such as hospitalized children. We implemented and evaluated a stimulated recall methodology for collective confrontation in the context of family-centered rounds. Five parents and five healthcare team members reviewed video records of their bedside rounds, and were then interviewed using the stimulated recall methodology to identify work system barriers and facilitators in family-centered rounds. The evaluation of the methodology was based on a survey of the participants, and a qualitative analysis of interview data in light of the work system model of Smith and Carayon (1989, 2001). Positive survey feedback from the participants was received. The stimulated recall methodology identified barriers and facilitators in all work system elements. Participatory ergonomics methods such as the stimulated recall methodology allow a range of participants, including parents and children, to participate in healthcare process improvement.

  3. Photo-assisted recall increases estimates of energy and macronutrient intake in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Herrmann, Stephen D; Lee, Jaehoon; Sullivan, Debra K; Rondon, Mary F; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2013-12-01

    Diet assessment of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities is challenging because of their limited cognitive abilities. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and outcomes of combining photos with 24-hour dietary recalls for the assessment of energy and macronutrient intakes in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Participants used an iPad 2 tablet computer (Apple) to take photos of all food and beverages consumed before a standard, multiple-pass, 24-hour dietary recall. After the standard 24-hour diet recall, the photos were reviewed with the participant for clarification details (eg, portion size) and differences were recorded. The standard 24-hour recall and photo-assisted recall were entered separately into the Nutrition Data System for Research for computerized dietary analysis. Sixty-four eating occasions were entered from 23 participants (48% female; mean age 26.4±9.7 years). Participants captured photos for 66.5%±30.4% of all recorded eating occasions. Greater energy intake per eating occasion was reported with the photo-assisted recalls than the standard recalls (625.6±85.7 kcal vs 497.2±86.6 kcal; P=0.002) and a greater intake of grams of fat (P=0.006), protein (P=0.029), and carbohydrates (P=0.003). Photo-assisted 24-hour recalls provided a significant increase in total calories and macronutrient content compared with a standard 24-hour recall and may be a feasible method to enhance dietary assessment in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

  4. Dietary restraint and disinhibition do not affect accuracy of 24-hour recall in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Desmond, Renee Ann; Allison, David B; Conway, Joan Marie

    2006-03-01

    Some psychological predictors of eating behaviors have been shown to affect usefulness of methods for dietary assessment. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the association of dietary restraint and disinhibition with dietary recall accuracy for total energy, fat, carbohydrate, and protein. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 79 male and 71 female non-Hispanic whites and African-American volunteers. Participants selected and consumed all foods for a 1-day period under observation and actual intake was determined. The following day, each participant completed a telephone 24-hour recall using the US Department of Agriculture Multiple-Pass method to obtain recalled intake. The Eating Inventory, which measures dietary restraint and disinhibition, was administered prior to eating any food in the study. Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to determine if dietary restraint or disinhibition were independent predictors of recall accuracy. The mean (+/-standard deviation) age and body mass index of the participants was 43+/-12 years and 29+/-5.5 (calculated as kg/m2), respectively. On average, men overreported intake of energy by 265 kcal and women by 250 kcal; both groups also overreported intake of protein, carbohydrate, and fat. When controlling for body mass index, sex, and race, restraint was a significant independent predictor of energy intake (P=0.004) and negatively correlated with energy intake (r=-0.23, P<0.001). Unlike intake of carbohydrate or protein, fat intake was significantly and negatively associated with dietary restraint (P<0.001; r=-0.3). Dietary restraint did not affect accuracy of recall of intake of energy, fat, carbohydrate, or protein, but was significantly associated with intake of energy and fat. Disinhibition was not related to intake or accuracy. Dietetics professionals should consider dietary restraint a possible reason for a lower than expected estimate of energy intake when using 24-hour recalls.

  5. The 24 h pattern of arterial pressure in mice is determined mainly by heart rate‐driven variation in cardiac output

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Theodore W.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have systematically investigated whether daily patterns of arterial blood pressure over 24 h are mediated by changes in cardiac output, peripheral resistance, or both. Understanding the hemodynamic mechanisms that determine the 24 h patterns of blood pressure may lead to a better understanding of how such patterns become disturbed in hypertension and influence risk for cardiovascular events. In conscious, unrestrained C57BL/6J mice, we investigated whether the 24 h pattern of arterial blood pressure is determined by variation in cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, or both and also whether variations in cardiac output are mediated by variations in heart rate and or stroke volume. As expected, arterial pressure and locomotor activity were significantly (P < 0.05) higher during the nighttime period compared with the daytime period when mice are typically sleeping (+12.5 ± 1.0 mmHg, [13%] and +7.7 ± 1.3 activity counts, [254%], respectively). The higher arterial pressure during the nighttime period was mediated by higher cardiac output (+2.6 ± 0.3 mL/min, [26%], P < 0.05) in association with lower peripheral resistance (−1.5 ± 0.3 mmHg/mL/min, [−13%] P < 0.05). The increased cardiac output during the nighttime was mainly mediated by increased heart rate (+80.0 ± 16.5 beats/min, [18%] P < 0.05), as stroke volume increased minimally at night (+1.6 ± 0.5 μL per beat, [6%] P < 0.05). These results indicate that in C57BL/6J mice, the 24 h pattern of blood pressure is hemodynamically mediated primarily by the 24 h pattern of cardiac output which is almost entirely determined by the 24 h pattern of heart rate. These findings suggest that the differences in blood pressure between nighttime and daytime are mainly driven by differences in heart rate which are strongly correlated with differences in locomotor activity. PMID:25428952

  6. Modification over time of pulse wave velocity parallel to changes in aortic BP, as well as in 24-h ambulatory brachial BP.

    PubMed

    Oliveras, A; Segura, J; Suarez, C; García-Ortiz, L; Abad-Cardiel, M; Vigil, L; Gómez-Marcos, M A; Sans Atxer, L; Martell-Claros, N; Ruilope, L M; de la Sierra, A

    2016-03-01

    Arterial stiffness as assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is a marker of preclinical organ damage and a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes, independently of blood pressure (BP). However, limited evidence exists on the association between long-term variation (Δ) on aortic BP (aoBP) and ΔcfPWV. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of ΔBP with ΔcfPWV over time, as assessed by office and 24-h ambulatory peripheral BP, and aoBP. AoBP and cfPWV were evaluated in 209 hypertensive patients with either diabetes or metabolic syndrome by applanation tonometry (Sphygmocor) at baseline(b) and at 12 months of follow-up(fu). Peripheral BP was also determined by using validated oscillometric devices (office(o)-BP) and on an outpatient basis by using a validated (Spacelabs-90207) device (24-h ambulatory BP). ΔcfPWV over time was calculated as follows: ΔcfPWV=[(cfPWVfu-cfPWVb)/cfPWVb] × 100. ΔBP over time resulted from the same formula applied to BP values obtained with the three different measurement techniques. Correlations (Spearman 'Rho') between ΔBP and ΔcfPWV were calculated. Mean age was 62 years, 39% were female and 80% had type 2 diabetes. Baseline office brachial BP (mm Hg) was 143±20/82±12. Follow-up (12 months later) office brachial BP (mm Hg) was 136±20/79±12. ΔcfPWV correlated with ΔoSBP (Rho=0.212; P=0.002), Δ24-h SBP (Rho=0.254; P<0.001), Δdaytime SBP (Rho=0.232; P=0.001), Δnighttime SBP (Rho=0.320; P<0.001) and ΔaoSBP (Rho=0.320; P<0.001). A multiple linear regression analysis included the following independent variables: ΔoSBP, Δ24-h SBP, Δdaytime SBP, Δnighttime SBP and ΔaoSBP. ΔcfPWV was independently associated with Δ24-h SBP (β-coefficient=0.195; P=0.012) and ΔaoSBP (β-coefficient= 0.185; P=0.018). We conclude that changes in both 24-h SBP and aoSBP more accurately reflect changes in arterial stiffness than do office BP measurements.

  7. Norms for CERAD constructional praxis recall.

    PubMed

    Fillenbaum, Gerda G; Burchett, Bruce M; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Rexroth, Daniel F; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen

    2011-11-01

    Recall of the four-item constructional praxis measure was a later addition to the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery. Norms for this measure, based on cognitively intact African Americans age ≥70 (Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project, N=372), European American participants age ≥66 (Cache County Study of Memory, Health and Aging, N=507), and European American CERAD clinic controls age ≥50 (N = 182), are presented here. Performance varied by site; by sex, education, and age (African Americans in Indianapolis); education and age (Cache County European Americans); and only age (CERAD European American controls). Performance declined with increased age, within age with less education, and was poorer for women. Means, standard deviations, and percentiles are presented separately for each sample.

  8. Recall Latencies, Confidence, and Output Positions of True and False Memories: Implications for Recall and Metamemory Theories

    PubMed Central

    Jou, Jerwen

    2012-01-01

    Recall latency, recall accuracy rate, and recall confidence were examined in free recall as a function of recall output serial position using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to test a strength-based theory against the dual-retrieval process theory of recall output sequence. The strength theory predicts the item output sequence to be in the descending order of memory strength. The dual-retrieval process theory postulates two phases in a free recall, a first direct access phase in which items are output verbatim in the weakest-to-strongest order (cognitive triage) and a second reconstructive phase in which reconstructed items are output in the strongest-to-weakest order. In three experiments, all three indicators of memory strength (latency, accuracy, and confidence) consistently showed a descending-strength order of recall both for true and false memories. Additionally, false memory was found to be output in two phases and subjects’ confidence judgment of their own memory to be unaccountable by retrieval fluency (recall latency). PMID:22582008

  9. Recall Latencies, Confidence, and Output Positions of True and False Memories: Implications for Recall and Metamemory Theories.

    PubMed

    Jou, Jerwen

    2008-05-01

    Recall latency, recall accuracy rate, and recall confidence were examined in free recall as a function of recall output serial position using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to test a strength-based theory against the dual-retrieval process theory of recall output sequence. The strength theory predicts the item output sequence to be in the descending order of memory strength. The dual-retrieval process theory postulates two phases in a free recall, a first direct access phase in which items are output verbatim in the weakest-to-strongest order (cognitive triage) and a second reconstructive phase in which reconstructed items are output in the strongest-to-weakest order. In three experiments, all three indicators of memory strength (latency, accuracy, and confidence) consistently showed a descending-strength order of recall both for true and false memories. Additionally, false memory was found to be output in two phases and subjects' confidence judgment of their own memory to be unaccountable by retrieval fluency (recall latency).

  10. Socialization of Children's Recall and Use of Strategies for Coping with Interparental Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul A.; Kliewer, Wendy; Partch, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Using experimental, observational and interview-assessment methods, we examined relations among mother-child discussion skills and suggested strategies for coping with postdivorce interparental conflict in a conflict task, children's memory for those strategies in a later recall interview, and children's self-reported use of coping strategies in…

  11. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  12. Recall and Believability of the Tips from Former Smokers Campaign among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ickes, Melinda. J.; Butler, Karen; Rayens, Mary Kay; Noland, Melody; Wiggins, Amanda T.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tobacco media campaigns are effective, but less is known regarding the impact on college students. Purpose: The purpose was to test the effects of an on-campus Tips television campaign on frequency and believability of ads recalled and to assess demographic and personal factors associated with believability. Methods: A…

  13. Comparison of a web-based versus traditional diet recall among children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use in adult and pediatric populations. This study tested whether 8- to 13-year-old children could complete an early version of the Automated Self Administered 24 (ASA24) hour dietary recall and how this compared to an intervi...

  14. Semantic Mapping as a Vocabulary Teaching Technique to Improve Recall of Word Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Darlene

    A study investigated the effectiveness of semantic mapping as a technique to improve recall of word meaning versus the traditional method of teaching vocabulary. Eight intermediate-level students from grades 4, 5, and 6, five of whom were identified as learning disabled students, were subjects. They were tested using vocabulary subtests of the…

  15. Influence of Text Type, Topic Familiarity, and Stuttering Frequency on Listener Recall, Comprehension, and Mental Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panico, James; Healey, E. Charles

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how text type, topic familiarity, and stuttering frequency influence listener recall, comprehension, and perceived mental effort. Method: Sixty adults listened to familiar and unfamiliar narrative and expository texts produced with 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% stuttering. Participants listened to 4 experimental text samples at only 1…

  16. The Narragram: A New Way to Describe Children's Recall of Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erber, Norman P.; Grant, Lois M.; Leigh, Kathryn; Kenfield, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Narrative production is often used to measure a child's communicative progress. Typical methods include assessment of quality or content. We propose a new way to describe narrative performance with a simple graph that depicts recall accuracy in relation to the sequence of story details. Children with impaired hearing (9-12 years-old) watched a…

  17. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems in space. III - Productivity at successive harvest dates under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.

    1987-01-01

    Efficient crop production for controlled ecological life support systems requires near-optimal growing conditions with harvests taken when production per unit area per unit time is maximum. This maximum for potato was determined using data on Norland plants which were grown in walk-in growth rooms under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods at 16 C. Results show that high tuber production can be obtained from potatoes grown under a continuous light regime. The dry weights (dwt) of tuber and of the entire plants were found to increase under both photoperiods until the final harvest date (148 days), reaching 5732 g tuber dwt and 704 g total dwt under 12-h, and 791 g tuber dwt and 972 g total dwt under 24-h.

  18. Effect of X-ray and ethylnitrosourea exposures separated by 24 h on specific-locus mutation frequency in mouse stem-cell spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Russell, W L; Carpenter, D A; Hitotsumachi, S

    1988-04-01

    Specific-locus mutation frequencies in mouse stem-cell spermatogonia were determined in 3 experiments in which mature male mice were exposed to 100,m 300, or 500 R of X-rays followed, 24 h later, by intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg of ethylnitrosourea (ENU). The purpose was to find out if the mutation frequencies would be augmented over those expected on the basis of additivity of the effects of the separate treatments. Such augmentation had been observed in earlier work in which exposure to 100 or 500 R of X-rays was followed 24 h later by a second exposure of 500 R. No augmentation was observed for X-rays followed by ENU. The mutation frequencies in all 3 experiments actually fell below those expected on the basis of additivity, although the reductions were not statistically significant.

  19. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: The 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8-53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7-45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885-4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654-4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4-23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1-4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33-1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34-2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49-2.53, P < 0.001) in women. In this

  20. Seeing the Talker's Face Improves Free Recall of Speech for Young Adults with Normal Hearing but Not Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Mary; Mishra, Sushmit; Stenfelt, Stefan; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Seeing the talker's face improves speech understanding in noise, possibly releasing resources for cognitive processing. We investigated whether it improves free recall of spoken two-digit numbers. Method: Twenty younger adults with normal hearing and 24 older adults with hearing loss listened to and subsequently recalled lists of 13…

  1. Sex, age, and sex hormones affect recall of words in a directed forgetting paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kerschbaum, Hubert H; Hofbauer, Ildiko; Gföllner, Anna; Ebner, Birgit; Bresgen, Nikolaus; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2017-01-02

    During the course of serious discussion, an unexpected interruption may induce forgetting of the original topic of a conversation. Sex, age, and sex hormone levels may affect frequency and extension of forgetting. In a list-method directed forgetting paradigm, subjects have to learn two word lists. After learning list 1, subjects receive either a forget or a remember list 1 cue. When the participants had learned list 2 and completed a distraction task, they were asked to write down as many recalled items as possible, starting either with list 1 or list 2 items. In the present study, 96 naturally cycling women, 60 oral contraceptive users, 56 postmenopausal women, and 41 young men were assigned to one of these different experimental conditions. Forget-cued young subjects recall fewer list 1 items (list 1 forgetting) but more list 2 items (list 2 enhancement) compared with remember-cued subjects. However, forget-cued postmenopausal women showed reduced list 1 forgetting but enhanced list 2 retention. Remember-cued naturally cycling women recalled more list 1 items than oral contraceptive users, young men, and postmenopausal women. In forget-cued follicular women, salivary progesterone correlated positively with recalled list 2 items. Salivary 17β-estradiol did not correlate with recalled list 1 or list 2 items in either remember- or forget-cued young women. However, salivary 17β-estradiol correlated with item recall in remember-cued postmenopausal women. Our findings suggest that sex hormones do not globally modulate verbal memory or forgetting, but selectively affect cue-specific processing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Gene expression responses over 24 h to lengthening and shortening contractions in human muscle: major changes in CSRP3, MUSTN1, SIX1, and FBXO32.

    PubMed

    Kostek, Matthew C; Chen, Yi-Wen; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Shi, Rongye; Fedele, Mark J; Esser, Karyn A; Rennie, Michael J

    2007-09-19

    Resistance training using lengthening (eccentric) contractions induces greater increases in muscle size than shortening (concentric) contractions, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. Using temporal expression profiling, we compared changes in gene expression within 24 h of an acute bout of each type of contractions conducted simultaneously in the quadriceps of different legs. Five healthy young men performed shortening contractions with one leg while the contralateral leg performed lengthening contractions. Biopsies were taken from both legs before exercise and 3, 6, and 24 h afterwards, in the fed state. Expression profiling (n = 3) was performed using a custom-made Affymetrix MuscleChip containing probe sets of approximately 3,300 known genes and expressed sequence tags expressed in skeletal muscle. We identified 51 transcripts differentially regulated between the two exercise modes. Using unsupervised hierarchical clustering, we identified four distinct clusters, three of which corresponded to unique functional categories (protein synthesis, stress response/early growth, and sarcolemmal structure). Using quantitative RT-PCR (n = 5), we verified expression changes (lengthening/shortening) in SIX1 (3 h, -1.9-fold, P < 0.001), CSRP3 (6 h, 2.9-fold, P < 0.05), and MUSTN1 (24 h, 4.3-fold, P < 0.05). We examined whether FBXO32/atrogin-1/MAFbx, a known regulator of protein breakdown and of muscle atrophy was differentially expressed: the gene was downregulated after lengthening contractions (3 h, 2.7-fold, P < 0.05; 6 h, 3.3-fold, P < 0.05; 24 h, 2.3-fold, P < 0.05). The results suggested that lengthening and shortening contractions activated distinct molecular pathways as early as 3 h postexercise. The molecular differences might contribute to mechanisms underlying the physiological adaptations seen with training using the two modes of exercise.

  3. Prior-List Intrusions in Serial Recall Are Positional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osth, Adam F.; Dennis, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Henson (1996) provided a number of demonstrations of error patterns in serial recall that contradict chaining models. One such error pattern concerned when participants make intrusions from prior lists: Rather than originating from random positions in the prior list, intrusions tend to be recalled in the same position as their position in the…

  4. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a…

  5. The fSAM Model of False Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Daniel R.; Smith, Troy A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report a new theory of false memory building upon existing associative memory models and implemented in fSAM, the first fully specified quantitative model of false recall. Participants frequently intrude unstudied critical words while recalling lists comprising their strongest semantic associates but infrequently produce other…

  6. Accuracy in Recalling Interest Inventory Information at Three Time Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jane L.; Gore, Paul A., Jr.; Leuwerke, Wade; D'Achiardi, Catalina; Edwards, Jorie Hitch; Edwards, Jared

    2006-01-01

    Rates of accurate recall of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII; L. W. Harmon, J. C. Hansen, F. H. Borgen, & A. L. Hammer, 1994) profile information varied with the amount of time elapsed since the interpretation, the type of SII scale, and whether immediate recall was elicited, but rates did not vary with the strategy used to provide the…

  7. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and...

  8. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities §...

  9. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and...

  10. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall status reports. 7.53 Section 7.53 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities §...

  11. Bender Gestalt Recall: Memory Measure or Intelligence Estimate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armentrout, James A.

    1976-01-01

    WAIS subtset standard scores, IQ scores, and factorial deviation quotients were correlated with Bender Gestalt recall scores for 111 vocational rehabilitation clients. Results found that the Bender recall task could not classify Ss as to general intelligence level with greater accuracy than could be obtained with the WAIS Vocabulary subtest alone.…

  12. Using Recall to Reduce False Recognition: Diagnostic and Disqualifying Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false…

  13. Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

  14. 75 FR 3355 - Guidelines and Requirements for Mandatory Recall Notices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ...The Consumer Product Safety Commission (``Commission,'' ``CPSC,'' ``we'') is issuing a final rule establishing guidelines and requirements for mandatory recall notices as required by section 214 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (``CPSIA''). The rule contains the Commission's interpretation of information which must appear on mandatory recall notices ordered by the......

  15. Lawfulness of preventive recall from a community treatment order.

    PubMed

    Dawson, John

    2015-04-01

    Preventive recall to hospital of a patient on a community treatment order can be lawful when it is based on a convincing prediction that relapse in illness would otherwise occur. The legislation for England and Wales provides several indications that authorising preventive recall in those circumstances is a purpose of the community treatment order regime.

  16. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... inspection or be denied vehicle registration if the required recall repairs have not been completed. (2) In... vehicle inspection or registration record shall be modified to include (or be supplemented with other VIN... of recalled vehicles still in non-compliance that have either failed inspection or been...

  17. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... inspection or be denied vehicle registration if the required recall repairs have not been completed. (2) In... vehicle inspection or registration record shall be modified to include (or be supplemented with other VIN... of recalled vehicles still in non-compliance that have either failed inspection or been...

  18. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... inspection or be denied vehicle registration if the required recall repairs have not been completed. (2) In... vehicle inspection or registration record shall be modified to include (or be supplemented with other VIN... of recalled vehicles still in non-compliance that have either failed inspection or been...

  19. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... inspection or be denied vehicle registration if the required recall repairs have not been completed. (2) In... vehicle inspection or registration record shall be modified to include (or be supplemented with other VIN... of recalled vehicles still in non-compliance that have either failed inspection or been...

  20. 40 CFR 51.370 - Compliance with recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... inspection or be denied vehicle registration if the required recall repairs have not been completed. (2) In... vehicle inspection or registration record shall be modified to include (or be supplemented with other VIN... of recalled vehicles still in non-compliance that have either failed inspection or been...

  1. Parent-Child Relationships and Quality of Children's Episodic Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Howieson, Noel D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ability of five- to six-year-old children to remember past experiences. A set of stimuli cards modelled on adaptations of the Separation Anxiety Test was generated. Interview transcripts are scored for the child's ability to recall past experience in episodic form. The quality of episodic recall is compared with attachment…

  2. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and the former annuity will be resumed at the previous rate adjusted by any cost-of-living increases.... (b) Survivor benefit for death during recall service. (1) If an annuitant entitled to a reduced... computed as if the recall service had otherwise terminated on the day of death and the annuity of...

  3. 22 CFR 19.10-6 - Benefits for recall service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and the former annuity will be resumed at the previous rate adjusted by any cost-of-living increases.... (b) Survivor benefit for death during recall service. (1) If an annuitant entitled to a reduced... computed as if the recall service had otherwise terminated on the day of death and the annuity of...

  4. Signal Detection Analysis of Recall and Recognition Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Wayne; Glathe, Herta

    Three paired-associate learning studies were run to compare signal detection analysis of recall and recognition memory performance. Experiment I showed that (a) rates of recall and recognition discriminability are substantially different in later trials and (b) a previously suggested correction for guessing does not transform the data to…

  5. Food Recall Attitudes and Behaviors of School Nutrition Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisamore, Amber; Roberts, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore school nutrition directors' attitudes and behaviors about food recalls. Specific objectives included: 1) Determine current food recall attitudes and the relationship between demographics and these attitudes; 2) Determine current practices of school nutrition directors related to…

  6. Stimulated Recall: A Report on Its Use in Naturalistic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, John

    2003-01-01

    Stimulated recall (SR) is a family of introspective research procedures through which cognitive processes can be investigated by inviting subjects to recall, when prompted by a video sequence, their concurrent thinking during that event. Variations of the generic approach are widely used and many of the studies treat SR as non-problematic. The…

  7. Age effects on spectral electroencephalogram activity prior to dream recall.

    PubMed

    Chellappa, Sarah L; Münch, Mirjam; Knoblauch, Vera; Cajochen, Christian

    2012-06-01

    Ageing is associated with marked changes in sleep timing, structure and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. Older people exhibit less slow-wave and spindle activity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, together with attenuated levels of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as compared to young individuals. However, the extent to which these age-related changes in sleep impact on dream processing remains largely unknown. Here we investigated NREM and REM sleep EEG activity prior to dream recall and no recall in 17 young (20-31 years) and 15 older volunteers (57-74 years) during a 40 h multiple nap protocol. Dream recall was assessed immediately after each nap. During NREM sleep prior to dream recall, older participants displayed higher frontal EEG delta activity (1-3 Hz) and higher centro-parietal sigma activity (12-15 Hz) than the young volunteers. Conversely, before no recall, older participants had less frontal-central delta activity and less sigma activity in frontal, central and parietal derivations than the young participants. REM sleep was associated to age-related changes, such that older participants had less frontal-central alpha (10-12 Hz) and beta (16-19 Hz) activity, irrespective of dream recall and no recall. Our data indicate that age-related differences in dream recall seem to be directly coupled to specific frequency and topography EEG patterns, particularly during NREM sleep. Thus, the spectral correlates of dreaming can help to understand the cortical pathways of dreaming.

  8. Parent Implementation of RECALL: A Systematic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalon, Kelly; Hanline, Mary Frances; Davis, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    This systematic case study utilized a repeated acquisition design to investigate the impact of a caregiver-implemented RECALL (Reading to Engage Children with Autism in Language and Learning) on the correct, unprompted responses of a young child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). RECALL is an adapted shared reading intervention that includes a…

  9. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying vehicles. 205... of noncomplying vehicles. (a) Pursuant to section 11(d)(1) of the Act, the Administrator may issue an order to the manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not...

  10. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recall of noncomplying vehicles. 205... of noncomplying vehicles. (a) Pursuant to section 11(d)(1) of the Act, the Administrator may issue an order to the manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not...

  11. Segmentation quality evaluation using region-based precision and recall measures for remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xueliang; Feng, Xuezhi; Xiao, Pengfeng; He, Guangjun; Zhu, Liujun

    2015-04-01

    Segmentation of remote sensing images is a critical step in geographic object-based image analysis. Evaluating the performance of segmentation algorithms is essential to identify effective segmentation methods and optimize their parameters. In this study, we propose region-based precision and recall measures and use them to compare two image partitions for the purpose of evaluating segmentation quality. The two measures are calculated based on region overlapping and presented as a point or a curve in a precision-recall space, which can indicate segmentation quality in both geometric and arithmetic respects. Furthermore, the precision and recall measures are combined by using four different methods. We examine and compare the effectiveness of the combined indicators through geometric illustration, in an effort to reveal segmentation quality clearly and capture the trade-off between the two measures. In the experiments, we adopted the multiresolution segmentation (MRS) method for evaluation. The proposed measures are compared with four existing discrepancy measures to further confirm their capabilities. Finally, we suggest using a combination of the region-based precision-recall curve and the F-measure for supervised segmentation evaluation.

  12. Assessing the effect of lexical variables in backward recall.

    PubMed

    Guérard, Katherine; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2012-03-01

    In a recent study, Bireta et al. (2010) suggested that when participants are required to recall lists of items in the reverse order, more attention is devoted to the recall of order at the expense of item information, leading to the abolition of item-based phenomena (the item and order trade-off hypothesis). In order to test the item and order trade-off hypothesis, we manipulated 4 lexical factors that are well known to influence item retention. The effects of word frequency, of lexicality, of semantic similarity, and of imageability were tested in forward and backward recall. All 4 phenomena were maintained in backward recall, which contradicts the item and order trade-off hypothesis. Instead, we suggest that backward recall might rely on semantic retrieval strategies.

  13. Does displayed enthusiasm favour recall, intrinsic motivation and time estimation?

    PubMed

    Moè, Angelica

    2016-11-01

    Displayed enthusiasm has been shown to relate to intrinsic motivation, vitality, and positive affect, but its effects on recall performance and time estimation have not yet been explored. This research aimed at studying the effects of a delivery style characterised by High Enthusiasm (HE) on recall, time estimation, and intrinsic motivation. In line with previous studies, effects on intrinsic motivation were expected. In addition, higher recall and lower time estimations were hypothesised. In two experiments, participants assigned to a HE condition or to a normal reading control condition listened to a narrative and to a descriptive passage. Then, they were asked to rate perceived time, enthusiasm, pleasure, interest, enjoyment and curiosity, before writing a free recall. Experiment 1 showed that in the HE condition, participants recalled more, were more intrinsically motivated, and expressed lower time estimations compared to the control condition. Experiment 2 confirmed the positive effects of HE reading compared to normal reading, using different passages and a larger sample.

  14. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  15. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  16. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  17. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  18. Maternal recall of infant feeding events is accurate.

    PubMed Central

    Launer, L J; Forman, M R; Hundt, G L; Sarov, B; Chang, D; Berendes, H W; Naggan, L

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--Retrospective infant feeding data are important to the study of child and adult health patterns. The accuracy of maternal recall of past infant feeding events was examined and specifically the infant's age when breast feeding was stopped and formula feeding and solid foods were introduced. DESIGN AND SETTING--The sample consisted of Bedouin Arab women (n = 318) living in the Negev in Israel who were a part of a larger cohort participating in a prospective study of infant health and who were delivered of their infants between July 1 and December 15, 1981. Data from interviews conducted 12 and 18 months postpartum were compared to the standard data collected six months postpartum. MAIN RESULTS--As length of recall increased there was a small increase in the mean difference, and its standard deviation, between the standard and recalled age when breast feeding was stopped and formula feeding and solid foods were started. Recall on formula feeding was less accurate than recall on solid foods and breast feeding. In particular, among those 61% reporting formula use at the six month interview, 51% did not recall introducing formula when interviewed at 18 months. The odds ratio (95% CI) of stunting versus normal length for age for formula fed versus breast fed infants based on recall data (OR = 2.07; 95% CI 0.82-5.22) differed only slightly from those based on the standard data (OR = 2.21; 95% CI 0.77-6.37). The accuracy of a mother's recall varied with her child's nutritional status at the time of the interview, but not with other sociodemographic, infant, or interviewer characteristics. CONCLUSIONS--Retrospective infant feeding data based on maternal recall of events up to 18 months in the past can be used with confidence in epidemiological studies. However, data on formula feeding may not be as accurate as data on breast feeding and solid food feeding, and accuracy may decrease as length of recall increases. PMID:1645071

  19. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24 h postmain shock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014 M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Tom; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-12-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  20. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24h post mainshock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014M=6.0 West Napa earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Ned; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M= 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  1. Context Retrieval and Context Change in Free Recall: Recalling from Long-Term Memory Drives List Isolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yoonhee; Huber, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments used the "list-before-the-last" free recall paradigm (Shiffrin, 1970) to investigate retrieval for context and the manner in which context changes. This paradigm manipulates target and intervening list lengths to measure the interference from each list, providing a measure of list isolation. Correct target list recall was only…

  2. Sleep-Related Offline Improvements in Gross Motor Task Performance Occur Under Free Recall Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Malangré, Andreas; Blischke, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Nocturnal sleep effects on memory consolidation following gross motor sequence learning were examined using a complex arm movement task. This task required participants to produce non-regular spatial patterns in the horizontal plane by successively fitting a small peg into different target-holes on an electronic pegboard. The respective reaching movements typically differed in amplitude and direction. Targets were visualized prior to each transport movement on a computer screen. With this task we tested 18 subjects (22.6 ± 1.9 years; 8 female) using a between-subjects design. Participants initially learned a 10-element arm movement sequence either in the morning or in the evening. Performance was retested under free recall requirements 15 min post training, as well as 12 and 24 h later. Thus, each group was provided with one sleep-filled and one wake retention interval. Dependent variables were error rate (number of Erroneous Sequences, ES) and average sequence execution time (correct sequences only). Performance improved during acquisition. Error rate remained stable across retention. Sequence execution time (inverse to execution speed) significantly decreased again during the sleep-filled retention intervals, but remained stable during the respective wake intervals. These results corroborate recent findings on sleep-related enhancement consolidation in ecological valid, complex gross motor tasks. At the same time, they suggest this effect to be truly memory-based and independent from repeated access to extrinsic sequence information during retests. PMID:27065834

  3. Cerebellar Contribution to Context Processing in Extinction Learning and Recall.

    PubMed

    Chang, D-I; Lissek, S; Ernst, T M; Thürling, M; Uengoer, M; Tegenthoff, M; Ladd, M E; Timmann, D

    2015-12-01

    Whereas acquisition of new associations is considered largely independent of the context, context dependency is a hallmark of extinction of the learned associations. The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are known to be involved in context processing during extinction learning and recall. Although the cerebellum has known functional and anatomic connections to the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, cerebellar contributions to context processing of extinction have rarely been studied. In the present study, we reanalyzed functional brain imaging data (fMRI) of previous work investigating context effects during extinction in a cognitive associative learning paradigm in 28 young and healthy subjects (Lissek et al. Neuroimage. 81:131-3, 2013). In that study, event-related fMRI analysis did not include the cerebellum. The 3 T fMRI dataset was reanalyzed using a spatial normalization method optimized for the cerebellum. Data of seven participants had to be excluded because the cerebellum had not been scanned in full. Cerebellar activation related to context change during extinction learning was most prominent in lobule Crus II bilaterally (p < 0.01, t > 2.53; partially corrected by predetermined cluster size). No significant cerebellar activations were observed related to context change during extinction retrieval. The posterolateral cerebellum appears to contribute to context-related processes during extinction learning, but not (or less) during extinction retrieval. The cerebellum may support context learning during extinction via its connections to the hippocampus. Alternatively, the cerebellum may support the shifting of attention to the context via its known connections to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Because the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is critically involved in context-related processes during extinction retrieval, and there are no known connections between the cerebellum and the vmPFC, the cerebellum may be less important

  4. Lessons from Studies to Evaluate an Online 24-Hour Recall for Use with Children and Adults in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Gilsing, Anne M; Hobin, Erin; Solbak, Nathan M; Wallace, Angela; Haines, Jess; Mayhew, Alexandra J; Orr, Sarah K; Raina, Parminder; Robson, Paula J; Sacco, Jocelyn E; Whelan, Heather K

    2017-01-31

    With technological innovation, comprehensive dietary intake data can be collected in a wide range of studies and settings. The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour (ASA24) Dietary Assessment Tool is a web-based system that guides respondents through 24-h recalls. The purpose of this paper is to describe lessons learned from five studies that assessed the feasibility and validity of ASA24 for capturing recall data among several population subgroups in Canada. These studies were conducted within a childcare setting (preschool children with reporting by parents), in public schools (children in grades 5-8; aged 10-13 years), and with community-based samples drawn from existing cohorts of adults and older adults. Themes emerged across studies regarding receptivity to completing ASA24, user experiences with the interface, and practical considerations for different populations. Overall, we found high acceptance of ASA24 among these diverse samples. However, the ASA24 interface was not intuitive for some participants, particularly young children and older adults. As well, technological challenges were encountered. These observations underscore the importance of piloting protocols using online tools, as well as consideration of the potential need for tailored resources to support study participants. Lessons gleaned can inform the effective use of technology-enabled dietary assessment tools in research.

  5. Recall and recognition hypermnesia for Socratic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kazén, Miguel; Solís-Macías, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigate hypermnesia, net memory improvements with repeated testing of the same material after a single study trial. In the first experiment, we found hypermnesia across three trials for the recall of word solutions to Socratic stimuli (dictionary-like definitions of concepts) replicating Erdelyi, Buschke, and Finkelstein and, for the first time using these materials, for their recognition. In the second experiment, we had two "yes/no" recognition groups, a Socratic stimuli group presented with concrete and abstract verbal materials and a word-only control group. Using signal detection measures, we found hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli-and stable performance for abstract stimuli across three recognition tests. The control group showed memory decrements across tests. We interpret these findings with the alternative retrieval pathways (ARP) hypothesis, contrasting it with alternative theories of hypermnesia, such as depth of processing, generation and retrieve-recognise. We conclude that recognition hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli is a reliable phenomenon, which we found in two experiments involving both forced-choice and yes/no recognition procedures.

  6. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion.

  7. Conditional recall and the frequency effect in the serial recall task: an examination of item-to-item associativity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leonie M; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-11-01

    The frequency effect in short-term serial recall is influenced by the composition of lists. In pure lists, a robust advantage in the recall of high-frequency (HF) words is observed, yet in alternating mixed lists, HF and low-frequency (LF) words are recalled equally well. It has been argued that the preexisting associations between all list items determine a single, global level of supportive activation that assists item recall. Preexisting associations between items are assumed to be a function of language co-occurrence; HF-HF associations are high, LF-LF associations are low, and mixed associations are intermediate in activation strength. This account, however, is based on results when alternating lists with equal numbers of HF and LF words were used. It is possible that directional association between adjacent list items is responsible for the recall patterns reported. In the present experiment, the recall of three forms of mixed lists-those with equal numbers of HF and LF items and pure lists-was examined to test the extent to which item-to-item associations are present in serial recall. Furthermore, conditional probabilities were used to examine more closely the evidence for a contribution, since correct-in-position scoring may mask recall that is dependent on the recall of prior items. The results suggest that an item-to-item effect is clearly present for early but not late list items, and they implicate an additional factor, perhaps the availability of resources at output, in the recall of late list items.

  8. Validation of the school lunch recall questionnaire to capture school lunch intake of third- to fifth-grade students.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Amy; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Fleming, Phyllis; Ammerman, Alice

    2011-03-01

    Children's dietary intake is a key variable in evaluations of school-based interventions. Current methods for assessing children's intake, such as 24-hour recalls and meal observations, are time- and resource-intensive. As part of a study to evaluate the impact of farm-to-school programs, the school lunch recall was developed from a need for a valid and efficient tool to assess school lunch intake among large samples of children. A self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaire, the school lunch recall prompts for school lunch items by asking children whether they chose a menu item, how much of it they ate, how much they liked it, and whether they would choose it again. The school lunch recall was validated during summer school in 2008 with 18 third- to fifth-grade students (8 to 11 years old) in a North Carolina elementary school. For 4 consecutive days, trained observers recorded foods and amounts students ate during school lunch. Students completed the school lunch recall immediately after lunch. Thirty-seven total observation school lunch recall sets were analyzed. Comparison of school lunch recalls against observations indicated high accuracy, with means of 6% for omission rate (items observed but unreported), 10% for intrusion rate (items unobserved but reported), and 0.63 servings for total inaccuracy (a measure that combines errors for reporting items and amounts). For amounts, accuracy was high for matches (0.06 and 0.01 servings for absolute and arithmetic differences, respectively) but lower for omissions (0.47 servings) and intrusions (0.54 servings). In this pilot study, the school lunch recall was a valid, efficient tool for assessing school lunch intake for a small sample of third- to fifth-grade students.

  9. Adaptable, high recall, event extraction system with minimal configuration

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomedical event extraction has been a major focus of biomedical natural language processing (BioNLP) research since the first BioNLP shared task was held in 2009. Accordingly, a large number of event extraction systems have been developed. Most such systems, however, have been developed for specific tasks and/or incorporated task specific settings, making their application to new corpora and tasks problematic without modification of the systems themselves. There is thus a need for event extraction systems that can achieve high levels of accuracy when applied to corpora in new domains, without the need for exhaustive tuning or modification, whilst retaining competitive levels of performance. Results We have enhanced our state-of-the-art event extraction system, EventMine, to alleviate the need for task-specific tuning. Task-specific details are specified in a configuration file, while extensive task-specific parameter tuning is avoided through the integration of a weighting method, a covariate shift method, and their combination. The task-specific configuration and weighting method have been employed within the context of two different sub-tasks of BioNLP shared task 2013, i.e. Cancer Genetics (CG) and Pathway Curation (PC), removing the need to modify the system specifically for each task. With minimal task specific configuration and tuning, EventMine achieved the 1st place in the PC task, and 2nd in the CG, achieving the highest recall for both tasks. The system has been further enhanced following the shared task by incorporating the covariate shift method and entity generalisations based on the task definitions, leading to further performance improvements. Conclusions We have shown that it is possible to apply a state-of-the-art event extraction system to new tasks with high levels of performance, without having to modify the system internally. Both covariate shift and weighting methods are useful in facilitating the production of high recall systems

  10. The Effect of Modality and Narration Style on Recall of Online Health Information: Results From a Web-Based Experiment

    PubMed Central

    van Weert, Julia CM; de Haes, Hanneke CJM; Loos, Eugene F; Smets, Ellen MA

    2015-01-01

    Background Older adults are increasingly using the Internet for health information; however, they are often not able to correctly recall Web-based information (eHealth information). Recall of information is crucial for optimal health outcomes, such as adequate disease management and adherence to medical regimes. Combining effective message strategies may help to improve recall of eHealth information among older adults. Presenting information in an audiovisual format using conversational narration style is expected to optimize recall of information compared to other combinations of modality and narration style. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of modality and narration style on recall of health information, and whether there are differences between younger and older adults. Methods We conducted a Web-based experiment using a 2 (modality: written vs audiovisual information) by 2 (narration style: formal vs conversational style) between-subjects design (N=440). Age was assessed in the questionnaire and included as a factor: younger (<65 years) versus older (≥65 years) age. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental webpages where information about lung cancer treatment was presented. A Web-based questionnaire assessed recall of eHealth information. Results Audiovisual modality (vs written modality) was found to increase recall of information in both younger and older adults (P=.04). Although conversational narration style (vs formal narration style) did not increase recall of information (P=.17), a synergistic effect between modality and narration style was revealed: combining audiovisual information with conversational style outperformed combining written information with formal style (P=.01), as well as written information with conversational style (P=.045). This finding suggests that conversational style especially increases recall of information when presented audiovisually. This combination of modality and

  11. Recall of Anti-Tobacco Advertisements and Effects on Quitting Behavior: Results From the California Smokers Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Leas, Eric C.; Myers, Mark G.; Strong, David R.; Hofstetter, C. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether an anti-tobacco television advertisement called “Stages,” which depicted a woman giving a brief emotional narrative of her experiences with tobacco use, would be recalled more often and have a greater effect on smoking cessation than 3 other advertisements with different intended themes. Methods. Our data were derived from a sample of 2596 California adult smokers. We used multivariable log-binomial and modified Poisson regression models to calculate respondents’ probability of quitting as a result of advertisement recall. Results. More respondents recalled the “Stages” ad (58.5%) than the 3 other ads (23.1%, 23.4%, and 25.6%; P < .001). Respondents who recalled “Stages” at baseline had a higher probability than those who did not recall the ad of making a quit attempt between baseline and follow-up (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.34) and a higher probability of being in a period of smoking abstinence for at least a month at follow-up (adjusted RR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.02, 2.37). Conclusions. Anti-tobacco television advertisements that depict visceral and personal messages may be recalled by a larger percentage of smokers and may have a greater impact on smoking cessation than other types of advertisements. PMID:25521871

  12. Impaired Memory for Instructions in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Is Improved by Action at Presentation and Recall.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tian-Xiao; Allen, Richard J; Holmes, Joni; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often fail to comply with teacher instructions in the classroom. Using action during presentation or recall can enhance typically developing children's abilities to complete multi-step instruction sequences. In this study, we tested the ability to following instructions in children with ADHD under different conditions to explore whether they show the same beneficial effects of action. A total of 24 children with ADHD and 27 typically developing children either listened to or viewed demonstrations of instructions during encoding, and then either verbally repeated or physically performed the sequences during recall. This resulted in four conditions: spoken-verbal, spoken-enacted, demonstration-verbal, and demonstration-enacted. Children with ADHD were significantly impaired in all conditions of the following instructions task relative to the typically developing group. Both groups showed an enacted-recall advantage, with superior recall by physical performance than oral repetition. Both groups also benefitted from demonstration over spoken presentation, but only when the instructions were recalled verbally. These findings suggest that children with ADHD struggle to complete multi-step instructions, but that they benefit from action-based presentation and recall in the same way as typically developing children. These findings have important implications for educators, suggesting that motor-based methods of instruction-delivery might enhance classroom learning both for children with and without developmental disorders.

  13. Impaired Memory for Instructions in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Is Improved by Action at Presentation and Recall

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tian-xiao; Allen, Richard J.; Holmes, Joni; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often fail to comply with teacher instructions in the classroom. Using action during presentation or recall can enhance typically developing children’s abilities to complete multi-step instruction sequences. In this study, we tested the ability to following instructions in children with ADHD under different conditions to explore whether they show the same beneficial effects of action. A total of 24 children with ADHD and 27 typically developing children either listened to or viewed demonstrations of instructions during encoding, and then either verbally repeated or physically performed the sequences during recall. This resulted in four conditions: spoken-verbal, spoken-enacted, demonstration-verbal, and demonstration-enacted. Children with ADHD were significantly impaired in all conditions of the following instructions task relative to the typically developing group. Both groups showed an enacted-recall advantage, with superior recall by physical performance than oral repetition. Both groups also benefitted from demonstration over spoken presentation, but only when the instructions were recalled verbally. These findings suggest that children with ADHD struggle to complete multi-step instructions, but that they benefit from action-based presentation and recall in the same way as typically developing children. These findings have important implications for educators, suggesting that motor-based methods of instruction-delivery might enhance classroom learning both for children with and without developmental disorders. PMID:28174550

  14. Collaborative recall of details of an emotional film.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Ineke; Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Hengeveld, Hester M E; Moulds, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative inhibition refers to the phenomenon that when several people work together to produce a single memory report, they typically produce fewer items than when the unique items in the individual reports of the same number of participants are combined (i.e., nominal recall). Yet, apart from this negative effect, collaboration may be beneficial in that group members remove errors from a collaborative report. Collaborative inhibition studies on memory for emotional stimuli are scarce. Therefore, the present study examined both collaborative inhibition and collaborative error reduction in the recall of the details of emotional material in a laboratory setting. Female undergraduates (n = 111) viewed a film clip of a fatal accident and subsequently engaged in either collaborative (n = 57) or individual recall (n = 54) in groups of three. The results show that, across several detail categories, collaborating groups recalled fewer details than nominal groups. However, overall, nominal recall produced more errors than collaborative recall. The present results extend earlier findings on both collaborative inhibition and error reduction to the recall of affectively laden material. These findings may have implications for the applied fields of forensic and clinical psychology.

  15. The impact of chewing gum resistance on immediate free recall.

    PubMed

    Rickman, Sarah; Johnson, Andrew; Miles, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    Although the facilitative effects of chewing gum on free recall have proved contentious (e.g., Tucha, Mecklinger, Maier, Hammerl, & Lange, 2004; Wilkinson, Scholey, & Wesnes, 2002), there are strong physiological grounds, for example, increased cerebral activity and blood flow following the act of mastication, to suppose facilitation. The present study manipulated resistance to mastication, that is, chewing four pellets versus one pellet of gum, with the assumption that increased resistance will accentuate cerebral activity and blood flow. Additionally, chewing rate was recorded for all participants. In a within-participants design, participants performed a series of immediate free recall tasks while chewing gum at learning (one or four pellets) and recall (one or four pellets). Increased chewing resistance was not associated with increased memory performance, despite consistent chewing rates for both the one and four pellet conditions at both learning and recall. However, a pattern of recall consistent with context-dependent memory was observed. Here, participants who chewed the equivalent number of gum pellets at both learning and recall experienced significantly superior word recall compared to those conditions where the number of gum pellets differed.

  16. Chunk Limits and Length Limits in Immediate Recall: A Reconciliation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Whereas some research on immediate recall of verbal lists has suggested that it is limited by the number of chunks that can be recalled (e.g., Tulving & Patkau, 1962; Cowan, Chen, & Rouder, 2004), other research has suggested that it is limited by the length of the material to be recalled (e.g., Baddeley, Thomson, & Buchanan, 1975). We investigated this question by teaching new paired associations between words to create two-word chunks. The results suggest that both chunk capacity limits and length limits come into play. For the free recall of 12-word lists, 6 pre-learned pairs could be recalled about as well as 6 pre-exposed singletons, suggesting a chunk limit. However, for the serially-ordered recall of 8-word lists, 4 pre-learned pairs could be recalled about as well as 8 pre-exposed singletons, suggesting a length limit. Other conditions yielded intermediate results suggesting that sometimes both limits may operate together. PMID:16393043

  17. Recall is not necessary for verbal sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Kalm, Kristjan; Norris, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether overt recall of to-be-remembered material accelerates learning is important in a wide range of real-world learning settings. In the case of verbal sequence learning, previous research has proposed that recall either is necessary for verbal sequence learning (Cohen & Johansson Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 6, 139-143, 1967; Cunningham, Healy, & Williams Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 10, 575-597, 1984), or at least contributes significantly to it (Glass, Krejci, & Goldman Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 189-199, 1989; Oberauer & Meyer Memory, 17, 774-781, 2009). In contrast, here we show that the amount of previous spoken recall does not predict learning and is not necessary for it. We suggest that previous research may have underestimated participants' learning by using suboptimal performance measures, or by using manual or written recall. However, we show that the amount of spoken recall predicted how much interference from other to-be-remembered sequences would be observed. In fact, spoken recall mediated most of the error learning observed in the task. Our data support the view that the learning of overlapping auditory-verbal sequences is driven by learning the phonological representations and not the articulatory motor responses. However, spoken recall seems to reinforce already learned representations, whether they are correct or incorrect, thus contributing to a participant identifying a specific stimulus as either "learned" or "new" during the presentation phase.

  18. What a Nostril Knows: Olfactory Nerve-Evoked AMPA Responses Increase while NMDA Responses Decrease at 24-h Post-Training for Lateralized Odor Preference Memory in Neonate Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Qi; Harley, Carolyn W.

    2012-01-01

    Increased AMPA signaling is proposed to mediate long-term memory. Rat neonates acquire odor preferences in a single olfactory bulb if one nostril is occluded at training. Memory testing here confirmed that only trained bulbs support increased odor preference at 24 h. Olfactory nerve field potentials were tested at 24 h in slices from trained and…

  19. Acute exposure to selenium disrupts associative conditioning and long-term memory recall in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Burden, Christina M; Elmore, Christopher; Hladun, Kristen R; Trumble, John T; Smith, Brian H

    2016-05-01

    A plethora of toxic compounds - including pesticides, heavy metals, and metalloids - have been detected in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and their colonies. One such compound is selenium, which bees are exposed to by consuming nectar and pollen from flowers grown in contaminated areas. Though selenium is lethal at high concentrations, sublethal exposure may also impair honey bees' ability to function normally. Examining the effect of selenium exposure on learning and memory provides a sensitive assay with which to identify sublethal effects on honey bee health and behavior. To determine whether sublethal selenium exposure causes learning and memory deficits, we used proboscis extension reflex conditioning coupled with recall tests 30min and 24h post-conditioning. We exposed forager honey bees to a single sublethal dose of selenium, and 3h later we used an olfactory conditioning assay to train the bees to discriminate between one odor associated with sucrose-reinforcement and a second unreinforced odor. Following conditioning we tested short- and long-term recall of the task. Acute exposure to as little as 1.8ng of an inorganic form of selenium (sodium selenate) before conditioning caused a reduction in behavioral performance during conditioning. And, exposure to 18ng of either an inorganic form (sodium selenate) or an organic form (methylseleno-l-cysteine) of selenium caused a reduction in the bees' performance during the long-term recall test. These concentrations of selenium are lower than those found in the nectar of plants grown in selenium-contaminated soil, indicating that even low-grade selenium toxicity produces significant learning and memory impairments. This may reduce foragers' ability to effectively gather resources for the colony or nurse bees' ability to care for and maintain a healthy colony.

  20. How Broadcast Volume and Emotional Content Affect Youth Recall of Anti-Tobacco Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Biener, Lois; Wakefield, Melanie; Shiner, Cecilia M.; Siegel, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Televised anti-tobacco advertising has been shown to be effective for discouraging smoking initiation; however, purchasing broadcasting time is very costly. This study investigated the relative impact of the broadcast volume (media weight) and the emotional content of an ad as predictors of advertising recall. Methods The data come from a random-digit-dialed survey conducted in 2001 and 2002 of 3863 youth aged 12–17. Media weight was based on commercial TV ratings data. The emotional intensity of advertisements was derived from the ratings made by independent youth judges. Results Data analyses were conducted between 2005 and 2007. Results indicated that media weight was a significant predictor of recall, but the emotional content of the ad was an even stronger predictor. Also, ads low in emotional intensity required more media weight than those high in emotional intensity to achieve the same amount of increase in recall. Conclusions This study extends prior research that highlights the importance of emotional intensity for effective anti-tobacco advertising. It also indicates that, relative to unemotional advertisements, emotionally arousing advertisements require fewer broadcasts to achieve the same level of recall, and hence are likely to be less costly to a public health campaign. PMID:18482819

  1. Effect of skill level on recall of visually presented patterns of musical notes.

    PubMed

    Kalakoski, Virpi

    2007-04-01

    Expertise effects in music were studied in a new task: the construction of mental representations from separate fragments. Groups of expert musicians and non-musicians were asked to recall note patterns presented visually note by note. Skill-level, musical well-formedness of the note patterns and presentation mode were varied. The musicians recalled note patterns better than the non-musicians, even though the presentation was visual and successive. Furthermore, only musicians' performance was affected by musical well-formedness of the note patterns when visual gestalt properties, verbal rehearsability, and familiarity of the stimuli were controlled. Musicians were also able to use letter names referring to notes as efficiently as visual notes, which indicates that the better recall of musicians cannot be explained by perceptual visual chunking. These results and the effect of skill level on the distribution of recall errors indicate that the ability to chunk incoming information into meaningful units does not require that complete familiar patterns are accessible to encoding processes, yet previous knowledge stored in long-term memory affects representation construction in working memory. The present method offers a new reliable tool, and its implications to the research on construction of representations and musical imagery are discussed.

  2. Medical Record Validation of Maternal Recall of Pregnancy and Birth Events From a Twin Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Tuvblad, Catherine; Li, Linda; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the validity of maternal recall for several perinatal variables 8–10 years after pregnancy in a twin sample. Retrospective information was collected 8–10 years after the delivery event in a cohort of mothers from the University of Southern California Twin Study (N = 611) and compared with medical records for validity analysis. Recall of most variables showed substantial to perfect agreement (κ = 0.60–1.00), with notable exceptions for specific medical problems during pregnancy (κ ≤ 0.40) and substance use when mothers provided continuous data (e.g., number of cigarettes per day; r ≤ 0.24). With the exception of delivery method, neonatal intensive care unit admission, birth weight, neonatal information, and post-delivery complications were also recalled with low accuracy. For mothers of twins, maternal recall is generally a valid measure for perinatal variables 10 years after pregnancy. However, caution should be taken regarding variables such as substance use, medical problems, birth length, and post-delivery complications. PMID:23725849

  3. Altered states of consciousness, dissociation, and dream recall.

    PubMed

    Suszek, Hubert; Kopera, Maciej

    2005-02-01

    In a sample of 71 medical students, dream recall frequency was positively correlated with proneness to altered states of consciousness (r = .26) measured by the State of Mind and Consciousness Questionnaire and dissociation (r = .29) measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale II. A regression analysis, however, yielded neither altered states of consciousness nor dissociation, sex, or age to be significant predictors of dream recall frequency. Among women dream recall frequency was associated with proneness to dissociation; among men it was correlated with proneness to altered states of consciousness.

  4. Acute Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Continuous Moderate-Intensity Exercise Elicit a Similar Improvement in 24-h Glycemic Control in Overweight and Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S; Banting, Lauren; Levinger, Itamar; Hill, Karen M; McAinch, Andrew J; Stepto, Nigel K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress and glycemia; however, the effects of exercise intensity are unclear. We investigated the effect of acute low-volume high-intensity interval-exercise (LV-HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE) on glycemic control and oxidative stress in overweight and obese, inactive adults. Methods: Twenty-seven adults were randomly allocated to perform a single session of LV-HIIE (9 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 1 years; BMI: 29 ± 1 kg·m(-2); mean ± SEM) or CMIE (8 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 2.0; BMI: 30 ± 2.0) 1 h after consumption of a standard breakfast. Plasma redox status, glucose and insulin were measured. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted during the 24-h period before (rest day) and after exercise (exercise day). Results: Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; 29 ±13%, p < 0.01; mean percent change ±90% confidence limit), hydrogen peroxide (44 ± 16%, p < 0.01), catalase activity (50 ± 16%, p < 0.01), and superoxide dismutase activity (21 ± 6%, p < 0.01) significantly increased 1 h after breakfast (prior to exercise) compared to baseline. Exercise significantly decreased postprandial glycaemia in whole blood (-6 ± 5%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Only CMIE significantly decreased postprandial TBARS (CMIE: -33 ± 8%, p < 0.01; LV-HIIE: 11 ± 22%, p = 0.34) and hydrogen peroxide (CMIE: -25 ± 15%, p = 0.04; LV-HIIE: 7 ± 26%; p = 0.37). Acute exercise provided a similar significant improvement in 24-h average glucose levels (-5 ± 2%, p < 0.01), hyperglycemic excursions (-37 ± 60%, p < 0.01), peak glucose concentrations (-8 ± 4%, p < 0.01), and the 2-h postprandial glucose response to dinner (-9 ± 4%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Conclusion: Despite elevated postprandial oxidative stress compared to CMIE, LV-HIIE is an equally effective exercise mode for improving 24-h glycemic control in overweight and obese

  5. Acute Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Continuous Moderate-Intensity Exercise Elicit a Similar Improvement in 24-h Glycemic Control in Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S.; Banting, Lauren; Levinger, Itamar; Hill, Karen M.; McAinch, Andrew J.; Stepto, Nigel K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress and glycemia; however, the effects of exercise intensity are unclear. We investigated the effect of acute low-volume high-intensity interval-exercise (LV-HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE) on glycemic control and oxidative stress in overweight and obese, inactive adults. Methods: Twenty-seven adults were randomly allocated to perform a single session of LV-HIIE (9 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 1 years; BMI: 29 ± 1 kg·m−2; mean ± SEM) or CMIE (8 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 2.0; BMI: 30 ± 2.0) 1 h after consumption of a standard breakfast. Plasma redox status, glucose and insulin were measured. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted during the 24-h period before (rest day) and after exercise (exercise day). Results: Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; 29 ±13%, p < 0.01; mean percent change ±90% confidence limit), hydrogen peroxide (44 ± 16%, p < 0.01), catalase activity (50 ± 16%, p < 0.01), and superoxide dismutase activity (21 ± 6%, p < 0.01) significantly increased 1 h after breakfast (prior to exercise) compared to baseline. Exercise significantly decreased postprandial glycaemia in whole blood (−6 ± 5%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Only CMIE significantly decreased postprandial TBARS (CMIE: −33 ± 8%, p < 0.01; LV-HIIE: 11 ± 22%, p = 0.34) and hydrogen peroxide (CMIE: −25 ± 15%, p = 0.04; LV-HIIE: 7 ± 26%; p = 0.37). Acute exercise provided a similar significant improvement in 24-h average glucose levels (−5 ± 2%, p < 0.01), hyperglycemic excursions (−37 ± 60%, p < 0.01), peak glucose concentrations (−8 ± 4%, p < 0.01), and the 2-h postprandial glucose response to dinner (−9 ± 4%, p < 0.01), irrespective of the exercise protocol. Conclusion: Despite elevated postprandial oxidative stress compared to CMIE, LV-HIIE is an equally effective exercise mode for improving 24-h glycemic control in

  6. Effects of Immediate Recall Trial on One-Year Delayed Recall Performance in Rey Complex Figure Test.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hikari

    2016-04-18

    This study aimed to examine the effects of the presence or absence of an immediate recall trial on university students' (n = 39) performance on the one-year delayed recall test in the Rey complex figure test (RCFT). Participants were divided into two groups that took either one or two tests, respectively. In the first year, the participants in the two-test condition completed a copy trial and an immediate recall trial, whereas those in the one-test condition underwent the copy trial only. In the second year, all participants completed a delayed recall test. Those in the two-test condition showed significantly higher scores than those in the one-test condition on the one-year delayed recall test. Thus, we found that omitting the immediate recall trial caused a decline in performance on the one-year delayed recall test. The relevance of these findings to the relationship with testing effects (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006 ) was considered.

  7. Improved accuracy in the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air using 24 h sampling on a mixed bed followed by thermal desorption capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wauters, Eric; Van Caeter, Peter; Desmet, Gilbert; David, Frank; Devos, Christophe; Sandra, Pat

    2008-05-09

    A new sampling method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air is described. The method is based on active sampling on sorption tubes consisting of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) foam, PDMS particles and a TENAX TA bed. After sampling, the solutes are quantitatively recovered by thermal desorption and analysed by capillary GC-MS. The new sampling method has been compared to the classical method using high-volume sampling on a glass fiber filter followed by polyurethane foam for 24h sampling of ambient air. Volumes enriched were 144 l on the mixed bed and 1296 m3 with the classical method. The concentrations measured using the new method were significantly higher that the values obtained using the classical method, i.e. a factor 1.2-3 for the high molecular weight PAHs and up to 35 times for naphthalene and 23 times for acenaphthene. The total toxicity equivalence value (TEQ) for PAHs was ca. two times higher compared to the conventional method, illustrating that the concentrations of PAHs in ambient air have been underestimated until now. Some figures of merit (mean value for 17 PAHs) of the method are repeatability 7.4%, detection limit 13 pg/m3, accuracy 105.6% and linearity 0.996. The method also opens interesting perspectives for the determination of other semi-volatile persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air as illustrated with the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at a workplace during removal of transformer oil.

  8. Cadmium-Induced Disruption in 24-h Expression of Clock and Redox Enzyme Genes in Rat Medial Basal Hypothalamus: Prevention by Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cano-Barquilla, Pilar; Scacchi, Pablo A.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Esquifino, Ana I.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study we reported that a low daily p.o. dose of cadmium (Cd) disrupted the circadian expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). To assess whether melatonin could counteract Cd activity, male Wistar rats (45 days of age) received CdCl2 (5 ppm) and melatonin (3 μg/mL) or vehicle (0.015% ethanol) in drinking water. Groups of animals receiving melatonin or vehicle alone were also included. After 1 month, MBH mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR analysis at six time intervals in a 24-h cycle. In control MBH Bmal1 expression peaked at early scotophase, Per1 expression at late afternoon, and Per2 and Cry2 expression at mid-scotophase, whereas neither Clock nor Cry1 expression showed significant 24-h variations. This pattern was significantly disrupted (Clock, Bmal1) or changed in phase (Per1, Per2, Cry2) by CdCl2 while melatonin counteracted the changes brought about by Cd on Per1 expression only. In animals receiving melatonin alone the 24-h pattern of MBH Per2 and Cry2 expression was disrupted. CdCl2 disrupted the 24-h rhythmicity of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-1, NOS-2, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and HO-2 gene expression, most of the effects being counteracted by melatonin. In particular, the co-administration of melatonin and CdCl2 increased Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression and decreased that of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GSR), and HO-2. In animals receiving melatonin alone, significant increases in mean Cu/Zn and Mn-SOD gene expression, and decreases in that of GPx, GSR, NOS-1, NOS-2, HO-1, and HO-2, were found. The results indicate that the interfering effect of melatonin on the activity of a low dose of CdCl2 on MBH clock and redox enzyme genes is mainly exerted at the level of redox enzyme gene expression. PMID:21442002

  9. Improving Recall Using Database Management Systems: A Learning Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of microcomputer database management systems to facilitate the instructional uses of learning strategies relating to information processing skills, especially recall. Two learning strategies, cross-classification matrixing and node acquisition and integration, are highlighted. (Author/LRW)

  10. Presentation modality and mode of recall in verbal false memory.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, R T

    2001-07-01

    False memories were investigated for aurally and visually presented lists of semantically associated words. In Experiment 1, false written recall of critical intrusions was reliably lower following visual presentation compared with aural presentation. This presentation modality effect was attributed to the use of orthographic features during written recall to edit critical intrusions from visually presented lists. As predicted by this hypothesis, the modality effect was eliminated when the mode of recall was spoken rather than written. In Experiment 2, the modality effect in written recall was again replicated and then eliminated with an orienting task that ensured orthographic encoding even of aurally presented words. Thus, the modality effect appears to depend on using orthographic information to distinguish true from false verbal memories.

  11. Joe Engle Recalls Legacy Of X-15 Testing at Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    Retired Air Force test pilot and NASA astronaut Joe Engle recalled the legacy of the famed X-15 rocket plane recently during a colloquium at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. Engle, the only pe...

  12. Category Cued Recall Evokes a Generate-Recognize Retrieval Process

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Toth, Jeffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to replicate and extend McCabe, Roediger, and Karpicke’s (2011) finding that retrieval in category cued recall involves both controlled and automatic processes. The extension entailed identifying whether distinctive encoding affected one or both of these two processes. The first experiment successfully replicated McCabe et al., but the second, which added a critical baseline condition, produced data inconsistent with a two independent process model of recall. The third experiment provided evidence that retrieval in category cued recall reflects a generate-recognize strategy, with the effect of distinctive processing being localized to recognition. Overall, the data suggest that category cued recall evokes a generate-recognize retrieval strategy and that the sub-processes underlying this strategy can be dissociated as a function of distinctive versus relational encoding processes. PMID:26280355

  13. Achieving New Levels of Recall in Consent to Research by Combining Remedial and Motivational Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Clements, Nicolle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Research supports the efficacy of both a remedial consent procedure (corrected feedback) and a motivational consent procedure (incentives) for improving recall of informed consent to research. Although these strategies were statistically superior to standard consent, effects were modest and not clinically significant. This study examines a combined incentivized consent and corrected feedback that simplifies the cognitive task and increases motivation to learn consent information. Methods We randomly assigned 104 individuals consenting to an unrelated host study to a consent as usual (CAU) condition (n = 52) or an incentivized corrected feedback (ICF) condition (n = 52). All participants were told they would be quizzed on their consent recall following their baseline assessment and at 4 monthly follow-ups. ICF participants were also informed that they would earn $5.00 for each correct answer and receive corrected feedback as needed. Results Quiz scores in the two conditions did not differ at the first administration (p = 0.39, d = 0.2), however ICF scores were significantly higher at each subsequent administration (second : p = 0.003, Cohen’s d = 0.6; third: p < 0.0001, d = 1.4; fourth: p < 0.0001, d = 1.6; fifth: p < 0.0001, d = 1.8.) Conclusions The ICF procedure increased consent recall from 72% to 83%, compared to the CAU condition in which recall decreased from 69% to 59%. This supports the statistical and clinical utility of a combined remedial and motivational consent procedure for enhancing recall of study information and human research protections. PMID:23557912

  14. Reduction of false-positive recalls using a computerized mammographic image feature analysis scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Maxine; Pu, Jiantao; Zheng, Bin

    2014-08-01

    The high false-positive recall rate is one of the major dilemmas that significantly reduce the efficacy of screening mammography, which harms a large fraction of women and increases healthcare cost. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of helping reduce false-positive recalls by developing a new computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme based on the analysis of global mammographic texture and density features computed from four-view images. Our database includes full-field digital mammography (FFDM) images acquired from 1052 recalled women (669 positive for cancer and 383 benign). Each case has four images: two craniocaudal (CC) and two mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. Our CAD scheme first computed global texture features related to the mammographic density distribution on the segmented breast regions of four images. Second, the computed features were given to two artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers that were separately trained and tested in a ten-fold cross-validation scheme on CC and MLO view images, respectively. Finally, two ANN classification scores were combined using a new adaptive scoring fusion method that automatically determined the optimal weights to assign to both views. CAD performance was tested using the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The AUC = 0.793  ±  0.026 was obtained for this four-view CAD scheme, which was significantly higher at the 5% significance level than the AUCs achieved when using only CC (p = 0.025) or MLO (p = 0.0004) view images, respectively. This study demonstrates that a quantitative assessment of global mammographic image texture and density features could provide useful and/or supplementary information to classify between malignant and benign cases among the recalled cases, which may eventually help reduce the false-positive recall rate in screening mammography.

  15. A time to pregnancy questionnaire designed for long term recall: validity in Oxford, England.

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, M; Villard, L; Li, Z; Plowman, R; Vessey, M

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To establish the degree of validity of data on time to pregnancy, derived retrospectively using a short questionnaire. DESIGN--Information from the questionnaire was compared with data that had been collected concurrently from the same individuals. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--Questionnaires were mailed to 1647 women who continue to be followed up by the Oxford Family Planning Association contraceptive study, and a further 424 were approached for personal interview. Response rates were 91% and 79% respectively. MAIN RESULTS--Matching was successful in 91% of pregnancies. Median recall time was 14 years (interquartile range, 11-16 years). At the group level, remarkably good agreement was found between the two sources of information, presented as cumulative percentage distributions of live births. The findings were at least as good with longer recall (> 14 years) as with shorter recall. Digit performance was present to a limited degree. At the individual level, some misclassification was evident, which has implications for statistical power. For detection of clinical infertility (no conception within 12 months), the sensitivity was in the range 67%-91%, and the specificity was 92%-96%. Variations with format, duration of recall, age at delivery, year of birth, parity, social class, smoking habit, last contraceptive method, and outcome (live birth or not) were generally small, and were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS--Time to pregnancy is a sensitive way of assessing reproductive function in either sex. Valid data at a group level can be derived retrospectively, with a long duration of recall, using a short questionnaire. PMID:7629471

  16. ECRI Institute offers recommendations on Cardiac Science AED recall.

    PubMed

    2010-07-01

    In late 2009, Cardiac Science voluntarily recalled certain automated external defibrillator (AED) models because of rare component failures that could cause the units to fail to deliver therapy. These failures were not being detected by the units' automated self-tests. More recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued recommendations about the recall that differ from those of Cardiac Science. ECRI Institute is presenting its own recommendations to help clarify the situation.

  17. Prose recall and amnesia: more implications for the episodic buffer.

    PubMed

    Gooding, P A; Isaac, C L; Mayes, A R

    2005-01-01

    Baddeley and Wilson [Baddeley, A. D., & Wilson, F. B. (2002). Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory. Neuropsychologia 40, 1737-1743.] have argued that their finding of a positive association between amnesics' immediate prose recall scores and their scores on measures of executive function and fluid intelligence supports the view that an episodic buffer exists. However, the pattern of data from amnesics tested in our laboratory presented some problems for this conceptualisation of the episodic buffer.

  18. Cognitive style and order of recall effects in dichotic listening.

    PubMed

    Mohr, E

    1987-06-01

    Dichotic listening performance (ear preference and accuracy) was examined as a function of cognitive style and order of recall. In replication of earlier work, a right ear preference was found for free and right ear first recall and a left preference for left ear first recall, thus validating the dichotic instrument used. Cognitive style (field dependence, independence) did not show any systematic differential association with ear preference. Accuracy in contrast varied significantly as a function of cognitive style. Field independent subjects were more accurate than their field dependent counterparts; variability appeared to be due to their greater accuracy in left and right ear first recall conditions, with no apparent group differences under free recall. The order of recall factor was without effect here. No differences emerged between males and females in terms of ear preference, accuracy or cognitive style. In addition, no correlation between handedness and ear preference could be ascertained. The observed lack of influence of the cognitive style variable on lateralization patterns is discussed with respect to earlier assertions to the contrary. Current models of dichotic listening are evaluated in terms of all of the above findings.

  19. Blending technology and teamwork for successful management of product recalls.

    PubMed

    Frush, Karen; Pleasants, Jane; Shulby, Gail; Hendrix, Barbara; Berson, Brooke; Gordon, Cynthia; Cuffe, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    Patient safety programs have been developed in many hospitals to reduce the risk of harm to patients. Proactive, real-time, and retrospective risk-reduction strategies should be implemented in hospitals, but patient safety leaders should also be cognizant of the risks associated with thousands of products that enter the hospital through the supply chain. A growing number of recalls and alerts related to these products are received by health care facilities each year, through a recall process that is fraught with challenges. Despite the best efforts of health care providers, weaknesses and gaps in the process lead to delays, fragmentation, and disruptions, thus extending the number of days patients may be at risk from potentially faulty or misused products. To address these concerns, Duke Medicine, which comprises an academic medical center, two community hospitals, outlying clinics, physicians' offices, and home health and hospice, implemented a Web-based recall management system. Within three months, the time required to receive, deliver, and close alerts decreased from 43 days to 2.74 days. To maximize the effectiveness of the recall management process, a team of senior Duke Medicine leaders was established to evaluate the impact of product recalls and alerts on patient safety, to evaluate response action plans, and to provide oversight of patient and provider communication strategies. Alerts are now communicated more effectively and responded to in a more consistent and global manner. This comprehensive approach to product recalls is a critical component of a broader Duke Medicine strategy to improve patient safety.

  20. A computational language approach to modeling prose recall in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Mark; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Foltz, Peter W; Elvevåg, Brita

    2014-06-01

    Many cortical disorders are associated with memory problems. In schizophrenia, verbal memory deficits are a hallmark feature. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains elusive. Modeling aspects of language features used in memory recall have the potential to provide means for measuring these verbal processes. We employ computational language approaches to assess time-varying semantic and sequential properties of prose recall at various retrieval intervals (immediate, 30 min and 24 h later) in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants. First, we model the recall data to quantify the degradation of performance with increasing retrieval interval and the effect of diagnosis (i.e., group membership) on performance. Next we model the human scoring of recall performance using an n-gram language sequence technique, and then with a semantic feature based on Latent Semantic Analysis. These models show that automated analyses of the recalls can produce scores that accurately mimic human scoring. The final analysis addresses the validity of this approach by ascertaining the ability to predict group membership from models built on the two classes of language features. Taken individually, the semantic feature is most predictive, while a model combining the features improves accuracy of group membership prediction slightly above the semantic feature alone as well as over the human rating approach. We discuss the implications for cognitive neuroscience of such a computational approach in exploring the mechanisms of prose recall.

  1. Nanoscale probing of the lateral homogeneity of donors concentration in nitridated SiO2/4H-SiC interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorenza, Patrick; Di Franco, Salvatore; Giannazzo, Filippo; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, nanoscale resolution scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) and local capacitance-voltage measurements were used to probe the interfacial donor concentration in SiO2/4H-SiC systems annealed in N2O. Such nitrogen-based annealings are commonly employed to passivate SiO2/SiC interface traps, and result both in the incorporation of N-related donors in SiC and in the increase of the mobility in the inversion layer in 4H-SiC MOS-devices. From our SCM measurements, a spatially inhomogeneous donor distribution was observed in the SiO2/4H-SiC system subjected to N2O annealing. Hence, the effect of a phosphorus implantation before the oxide deposition and N2O annealing was also evaluated. In this case, besides an increased average donor concentration, an improvement of the lateral homogeneity of the active doping was also detected. The possible implications of such a pre-implantation doping of the near-interface region on 4H-SiC MOS-devices are discussed.

  2. Nanoscale probing of the lateral homogeneity of donors concentration in nitridated SiO2/4H-SiC interfaces.

    PubMed

    Fiorenza, Patrick; Di Franco, Salvatore; Giannazzo, Filippo; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-08-05

    In this paper, nanoscale resolution scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) and local capacitance-voltage measurements were used to probe the interfacial donor concentration in SiO2/4H-SiC systems annealed in N2O. Such nitrogen-based annealings are commonly employed to passivate SiO2/SiC interface traps, and result both in the incorporation of N-related donors in SiC and in the increase of the mobility in the inversion layer in 4H-SiC MOS-devices. From our SCM measurements, a spatially inhomogeneous donor distribution was observed in the SiO2/4H-SiC system subjected to N2O annealing. Hence, the effect of a phosphorus implantation before the oxide deposition and N2O annealing was also evaluated. In this case, besides an increased average donor concentration, an improvement of the lateral homogeneity of the active doping was also detected. The possible implications of such a pre-implantation doping of the near-interface region on 4H-SiC MOS-devices are discussed.

  3. Eplerenone restores 24-h blood pressure circadian rhythm and reduces advanced glycation end-products in rhesus macaques with spontaneous hypertensive metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Yuli; Wang, Jue; Peng, Ying; Shang, Haibao; Hou, Ning; Hu, Xiaomin; Ding, Yi; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Can; Zeng, Fanxin; Mao, Jiaming; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Dongwei; Sun, Xueting; Li, Chuanyun; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Zhang, Xiuqin

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is often associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and serves as a risk factor of MetS and its complications. Blood pressure circadian rhythm in hypertensive patients has been suggested to contribute to cardiovascular consequences and organ damage of hypertension. But circadian changes of BP and their response to drugs have not been clearly investigated in non-human primates (NHPs) of MetS with hypertension. Here, we identified 16 elderly, hypertensive MetS rhesus monkeys from our in-house cohort. With implanted telemetry, we investigate BP changes and its circadian rhythm, together with the effect of antihypertensive drugs on BP and its diurnal fluctuation. MetS hypertensive monkeys displayed higher BP, obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. We also confirmed impaired 24-h BP circadian rhythm in MetS hypertensive monkeys. Importantly, Eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, exerts multiple beneficial effects in MetS hypertensive monkeys, including BP reduction, 24-h BP circadian rhythm restoration, and decreased plasma concentration of inflammation factors and advanced glycation end-products. In summary, we identified a naturally-developed hypertensive MetS NHP model, which is of great value in the studies on pathogenesis of MetS-associated hypertension and development of novel therapeutic strategies. We also provided multiple novel mechanistic insights of the beneficial effect of Eplerenone on MetS with hypertension. PMID:27032687

  4. Eplerenone restores 24-h blood pressure circadian rhythm and reduces advanced glycation end-products in rhesus macaques with spontaneous hypertensive metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Yuli; Wang, Jue; Peng, Ying; Shang, Haibao; Hou, Ning; Hu, Xiaomin; Ding, Yi; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Can; Zeng, Fanxin; Mao, Jiaming; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Dongwei; Sun, Xueting; Li, Chuanyun; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Zhang, Xiuqin

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension is often associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and serves as a risk factor of MetS and its complications. Blood pressure circadian rhythm in hypertensive patients has been suggested to contribute to cardiovascular consequences and organ damage of hypertension. But circadian changes of BP and their response to drugs have not been clearly investigated in non-human primates (NHPs) of MetS with hypertension. Here, we identified 16 elderly, hypertensive MetS rhesus monkeys from our in-house cohort. With implanted telemetry, we investigate BP changes and its circadian rhythm, together with the effect of antihypertensive drugs on BP and its diurnal fluctuation. MetS hypertensive monkeys displayed higher BP, obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. We also confirmed impaired 24-h BP circadian rhythm in MetS hypertensive monkeys. Importantly, Eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, exerts multiple beneficial effects in MetS hypertensive monkeys, including BP reduction, 24-h BP circadian rhythm restoration, and decreased plasma concentration of inflammation factors and advanced glycation end-products. In summary, we identified a naturally-developed hypertensive MetS NHP model, which is of great value in the studies on pathogenesis of MetS-associated hypertension and development of novel therapeutic strategies. We also provided multiple novel mechanistic insights of the beneficial effect of Eplerenone on MetS with hypertension.

  5. Validation of triple pass 24-hour dietary recall in Ugandan children by simultaneous weighed food assessment

    PubMed Central

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Amorut, Denis; Nakuya, Margaret; Arimi, Margaret; Frost, Gary; Maitland, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition remains highly prevalent in African children, highlighting the need for accurately assessing dietary intake. In order to do so, the assessment method must be validated in the target population. A triple pass 24 hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation has been described but not previously validated in African children. This study aimed to establish the relative validity of 24-hour dietary recalls of daily food consumption in healthy African children living in Mbale and Soroti, eastern Uganda compared to simultaneous weighed food records. Methods Quantitative assessment of daily food consumption by weighed food records followed by two independent assessments using triple pass 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. In conjunction with household measures and standard food sizes, volumes of liquid, dry rice, or play dough were used to aid portion size estimation. Inter-assessor agreement, and agreement with weighed food records was conducted primarily by Bland-Altman analysis and secondly by intraclass correlation coefficients and quartile cross-classification. Results 19 healthy children aged 6 months to 12 years were included in the study. Bland-Altman analysis showed 24-hour recall only marginally under-estimated energy (mean difference of 149kJ or 2.8%; limits of agreement -1618 to 1321kJ), protein (2.9g or 9.4%; -12.6 to 6.7g), and iron (0.43mg or 8.3%; -3.1 to 2.3mg). Quartile cross-classification was correct in 79% of cases for energy intake, and 89% for both protein and iron. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the separate dietary recalls for energy was 0.801 (95% CI, 0.429-0.933), indicating acceptable inter-observer agreement. Conclusions Dietary assessment using 24-hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation resulted in similar and acceptable estimates of dietary intake compared with weighed food records and thus is considered a valid method for daily dietary intake assessment of

  6. Optimizing the tracking of falls in studies of older participants: comparison of quarterly telephone recall with monthly falls calendars in the MOBILIZE Boston Study.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Marian T; Gagnon, Margaret M; Aneja, Jasneet; Jones, Richard N; Cupples, L Adrienne; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Samelson, Elizabeth J; Leveille, Suzanne G; Kiel, Douglas P

    2010-05-01

    Tracking falls among elders is challenging. In this reliability study, which took place between October 2007 and February 2008, the authors compared participants' daily recordings of falls on calendars with a telephone survey of recall of falls over the previous 3 months within the population-based MOBILIZE Boston Study cohort, a cohort of 765 elders. From the cohort, 218 participants were randomly selected. Falls were tracked prospectively on daily calendars (mailed back monthly). Telephone recalls of falls over the previous 3 months were conducted in January and February 2008. Agreement, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated to compare the occurrence of falls as determined by 3-month recall with falls recorded by daily calendar (gold standard) during the same 3-month period. Results showed good agreement between recall and calendars: 27 persons reported a fall by both methods. However, while the 3-month recall correctly classified persons who did not fall (164 persons by both methods), it missed 25% of participants who fell (of 36 participants with a calendar-reported fall, 9 did not report a fall by telephone recall). Kappa was 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.80), sensitivity was 75%, and specificity was 96%. Retrospective 3-month recall of falls resulted in underreporting of falls by as much as 25% compared with daily calendars. Calendars should be considered the preferred method of ascertaining falls in longitudinal studies.

  7. Effects of aerobic exercise intensity on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes and prehypertension

    PubMed Central

    Karoline de Morais, Pâmella; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Alves de Almeida, Jeeser; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Victor de Sousa, Caio; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To verify the effects of different intensities of aerobic exercise on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) responses in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and prehypertension. [Subjects and Methods] Ten individuals with T2D and prehypertension (55.8 ± 7.7 years old; blood glucose 133.0 ± 36.7 mg·dL−1 and awake BP 130.6 ± 1.6/ 80.5 ± 1.8 mmHg) completed three randomly assigned experiments: non-exercise control (CON) and exercise at moderate (MOD) and maximal (MAX) intensities. Heart rate (HR), BP, blood lactate concentrations ([Lac]), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at rest, during the experimental sessions, and during the 60 min recovery period. After this period, ambulatory blood pressure was monitored for 24 h. [Results] The results indicate that [Lac] (MAX: 6.7±2.0 vs. MOD: 3.8±1.2 mM), RPE (MAX: 19±1.3 vs. MOD: 11±2.3) and VO2peak (MAX: 20.2±4.1 vs. MOD: 14.0±3.0 mL·kg−1·min−1) were highest following the MAX session. Compared with CON, only MAX elicited post-exercise BP reduction that lasted for 8 h after exercise and during sleep. [Conclusion] A single session of aerobic exercise resulted in 24 h BP reductions in individuals with T2D, especially while sleeping, and this reduction seems to be dependent on the intensity of the exercise performed. PMID:25642036

  8. Effects of language dominance on item and order memory in free recall, serial recall and order reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Francis, Wendy S; Baca, Yuzeth

    2014-01-01

    Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 144) performed free recall, serial recall and order reconstruction tasks in both English and Spanish. Long-term memory for both item and order information was worse in the less fluent language (L2) than in the more fluent language (L1). Item scores exhibited a stronger disadvantage for the L2 in serial recall than in free recall. Relative order scores were lower in the L2 for all three tasks, but adjusted scores for free and serial recall were equivalent across languages. Performance of English-speaking monolinguals (N = 72) was comparable to bilingual performance in the L1, except that monolinguals had higher adjusted order scores in free recall. Bilingual performance patterns in the L2 were consistent with the established effects of concurrent task performance on these memory tests, suggesting that the cognitive resources required for processing words in the L2 encroach on resources needed to commit item and order information to memory. These findings are also consistent with a model in which item memory is connected to the language system, order information is processed by separate mechanisms and attention can be allocated differentially to these two systems.

  9. Effect of Glaucoma Medications on 24-h Intraocular Pressure-related Patterns Using a Contact Lens Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Kaweh; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Background To study the circadian intraocular pressure-related (IOP) effects of ocular hypotensive medications using a contact lens sensor (CLS). Design University-based prospective, randomized, crossover trial. Participants Twenty-three patients with primary open-angle glaucoma Methods Patients underwent ambulatory recording of IOP-related patterns for 24 hours in one eye during 3 monthly sessions using a CLS. Patients were untreated in session 1 (S1), were randomized to one of 4 classes of glaucoma drops for S2, and had a prostaglandin analog add-on for S3. Outcome measures Changes in IOP-related patterns were defined using 1) slopes from wake/sitting to sleep/supine, 2) cosinor rhythmometry modeling, and 3) area under receiver operating curve (AUC) of sleep period. Results Mean patient age was 63.8±11.8 years. Positive linear slopes were seen from wake/sitting to sleep/supine at S1 (17.1±14.2 mVeq/h) and S2 (5.5±23.9 mVeq/h) and negative slopes at S3 (−1.9±29.4 mVeq/h) (S1 to S2, p=0.01; S1 to S3, p=0.02). In the prostaglandin group, slopes changed significantly with introduction of drops (S1 to S2, p<0.024) while they did not in a mixed group combining the 3 other classes (S1 to S2, p=0.060). Overall, cosinor amplitudes were 98.4±46.5 mVeq (S1), 113.0±35.6 mVeq (S2), and 109.6±58.3 mVeq (S3) (S1–S2, p=0.23; S1–S3, p=0.66; S2–S3, p=0.93). AUC was 91.8±63.0 mVeq (S1), 76.3±102.7mVeq (S2), and 19.9±135.8 mVeq (S3). Differences between sessions were not statistically significant (S1–S2, p=0.541; S1–3, p=0.083; S2–S3, p=0.092). Conclusions Prostaglandin analogs but not other medications seem to flatten the IOP-related increase at transition of the wake/sitting to the sleep/supine period but do not seem to have an effect on acrophase and amplitude. PMID:26152693

  10. Rethinking Familiarity: Remember/Know Judgments in Free Recall

    PubMed Central

    Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a source memory/free-recall procedure. For each word that was recalled, participants were asked to (a) make a confidence rating on a 5-point scale, (b) make a Remember/Know judgment, and (c) recollect a source detail. The large majority of both Remember judgments and Know judgments were made with high confidence and high accuracy, but source memory was nevertheless higher for Remember judgments than for Know judgments. These source memory results correspond to what is found using recognition, and they raise the possibility that Know judgments in free recall identify the cue-dependent retrieval of item-only information from an episodic memory search set. In agreement with this idea, we also found that the temporal dynamics of free recall were similar for high-confidence Remember and high-confidence Know judgments (as if both judgments reflected retrieval from the same search set). If Know judgments in free recall do in fact reflect the episodic retrieval of item-only information, it seems reasonable to suppose that the same might be true of high-confidence Know judgments in recognition. If so, then a longstanding debate about the role of the hippocampus in recollection and familiarity may have a natural resolution. PMID:23637470

  11. Resting Brain Activity Varies with Dream Recall Frequency Between Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-01-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain ‘dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [15O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5±0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2±1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain ‘dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory. PMID:24549103

  12. Resting brain activity varies with dream recall frequency between subjects.

    PubMed

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-06-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5 ± 0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2 ± 1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory.

  13. Serial Recall, Word Frequency, and Mixed Lists: The Influence of Item Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leonie M.; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the effect of word frequency in the serial recall task show that lists of high-frequency words are better recalled than lists of low-frequency words; however, when high- and low-frequency words are alternated within a list, there is no difference in the level of recall for the two types of words, and recall is intermediate between lists…

  14. The effects of pasture availability for twin- and triplet-bearing ewes in mid and late pregnancy on ewe and lamb behaviour 12 to 24 h after birth.

    PubMed

    Corner, R A; Kenyon, P R; Stafford, K J; West, D M; Morris, S T; Oliver, M H

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of offering ewes two different feeding levels, during mid and late pregnancy, on ewe and lamb behaviour 12 to 24 h after birth. Romney ewes, bearing twin (n = 80) or triplet foetuses (n = 56), were allocated to a pasture sward height of 2 or 4 cm between 70 and 107 days of pregnancy. In late pregnancy (day 107 to 147), half of the ewes were reallocated the alternate sward height, which produced four treatments: 2-2, 2-4, 4-2 and 4-4. Ewes were weighed on days 65, 92, 107 and 130 of pregnancy and lamb live weights were recorded 12 to 24 h after birth. Twelve to 24 h after birth the maternal behaviour score (MBS) of the ewes were determined, whilst their lambs were tagged. After the lambs were released, the behaviour of each ewe and her lambs was observed for 5 min. Ewe treatment and litter size had no effect on ewe MBS. However, as MBS increased (ewes stayed closer to lambs during tagging), ewes bleated less in a high-pitch and were quicker to make contact with their lamb. During the observation period, ewes in the 4-4 treatment had a greater percentage of their bleats in a low pitch (P < 0.05) than ewes in the 2-2 and 4-2 treatment (61.3% v. 41.3% and 38.8% low bleats, respectively) and more lambs born to 4-4 ewes (95%) bleated than lambs born to 2-2 ewes (84%; P < 0.05). However, lambs born to ewes in the 2-2 treatment bleated earlier than lambs in all other treatments (P < 0.05). Lambs born to 4-4 ewes were less likely (P < 0.05) to move towards their dam in order to make contact than lambs born to 2-2 or 4-2 ewes (3.1% v. 16.9% and 16.7%, respectively). These findings suggest that under the conditions of the present study, ewe nutrition had little effect on maternal behaviour. However, lambs born to ewes offered 2 cm pasture sward heights during mid and/or late pregnancy (2-2, 2-4 and 4-2 treatments) displayed behaviour that demonstrated greater 'need' whereas lambs born to ewes offered 4 cm during mid and

  15. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Hiemke K.; Rothgangel, Martin; Grube, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After 1 week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments 1 week (r = 0.350) and 12 weeks (r = 0.316) later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments 1 week later (correlations between r = 0.194 and 0.394). Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics. PMID:26441702

  16. The fSAM Model of False Recall

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Daniel R.; Smith, Troy A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report a new theory of false memory building upon existing associative memory models and implemented in fSAM, the first fully specified quantitative model of false recall. Participants frequently intrude unstudied critical words while recalling lists comprising their strongest semantic associates but infrequently produce other extralist and prior-list intrusions. The authors developed the theory by simulating recall of such lists, using factorial combinations of semantic mechanisms operating at encoding, retrieval, or both stages. During encoding, unstudied words' associations to list context were strengthened in proportion to their strength of semantic association either to each studied word or to all co-rehearsed words. During retrieval, words received preference in proportion to their strength of semantic association to the most recently recalled single word or multiple words. The authors simulated all intrusion types and veridical recall for lists varying in semantic association strength among studied and critical words from the same and different lists. Multiplicative semantic encoding and retrieval mechanisms performed well in combination. Using such combined mechanisms, the authors also simulated several core findings from the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm literature, including developmental patterns, specific list effects, association strength effects, and true–false correlations. These results challenge existing false-memory theories. PMID:17907869

  17. Diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias in chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Serbic, Danijela; Pincus, Tamar

    2014-08-01

    Patients' beliefs about the origin of their pain and their cognitive processing of pain-related information have both been shown to be associated with poorer prognosis in low back pain (LBP), but the relationship between specific beliefs and specific cognitive processes is not known. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias in 2 groups of chronic LBP patients, those who were certain about their diagnosis and those who believed that their pain was due to an undiagnosed problem. Patients (N=68) endorsed and subsequently recalled pain, illness, depression, and neutral stimuli. They also provided measures of pain, diagnostic status, mood, and disability. Both groups exhibited a recall bias for pain stimuli, but only the group with diagnostic uncertainty also displayed a recall bias for illness-related stimuli. This bias remained after controlling for depression and disability. Sensitivity analyses using grouping by diagnosis/explanation received supported these findings. Higher levels of depression and disability were found in the group with diagnostic uncertainty, but levels of pain intensity did not differ between the groups. Although the methodology does not provide information on causality, the results provide evidence for a relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias for negative health-related stimuli in chronic LBP patients.

  18. Characterization and Conductivity Behavior of Magnetic Activated Carbon (MAC) from FeCl2.4H2O-Containing Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aripin, Department Of Physics, Faculty Of Mathematics; Natural Science, Haluoleo University, Kampus Bumi Tridharma Anduonohu Kendari 93232 Indonesia

    2007-05-01

    Activated carbons (AC) and magnetic-containing activated carbons (MAC) have been synthesized using coconut shells as carbon sources and FeCl2.4H2O as magnetic precursor. The samples were characterized by nitrogen sorption, XRD, and FTIR. The BET surface area and total pore volume of MAC increase as the temperature increased. AC has XRD peaks, which evidences an amorphous carbon framework and MAC shows that this material consists of an organized carbon with the nanocrystalline magnetite embedded in its structure. The FTIR spectrum of MAC shows that carboxyl groups decreased as the temperature increased. Absorption bands of MAC shows the stretching and torsional vibration modes of the magnetite Fe-O bond in tetrahedral and octahedral sites, respectively. The electrical conductivity studies showed that conductivity of MAC is more than the AC due to structural properties of carbons exists on a framework containing metal structures.

  19. Cathodoluminescence study of radiative interface defects in thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, Yuta; Chanthaphan, Atthawut; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2015-06-29

    Radiative defects in thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) structures and their location in depth were investigated by means of cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. It was found that while luminescence peaks ascribed to oxygen vacancy and nonbridging oxygen hole centers were observed both from thermal oxides grown on (0001) Si-face and C-face surfaces as with thermal oxides on Si, intense yellow luminescence at a wavelength of around 600 nm was identified only from the oxide interface on the Si-face substrate regardless of the oxide thickness and dopant type. Possible physical origins of the radiative centers localized near an oxide interface of a few nm thick are discussed on the basis of visible light emission from Si backbone structures.

  20. The effects of 24-h exposure to carbaryl or atrazine on the locomotor performance and overwinter growth and survival of juvenile spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum).

    PubMed

    Mitchkash, Matthew G; McPeek, Tammy; Boone, Michelle D

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the effects of pesticide exposure on organisms throughout their life cycle is critical to predict population-level effects. For many taxa, including amphibians, juveniles are the main dispersal stage and are disproportionally important to population persistence when compared with other life stages. In the present study, we examined the effects of a single 24-h exposure to the insecticide carbaryl or the herbicide atrazine on locomotor performance (endurance, distance traveled, speed, and fatigue) in the laboratory and terrestrial growth and survival through overwintering in field enclosures using recent metamorphs of spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum). We found that neither atrazine nor carbaryl impacted endurance, but fatigue increased with carbaryl exposure, which could leave salamanders less able to escape repeated attacks by predators. Terrestrial growth and overwinter survival were not affected by short-term exposure to carbaryl or atrazine, suggesting that when individuals can overcome acute effects, no long-term consequences result for the endpoints measured.

  1. A Potential Tool for Clinicians; Evaluating a Computer-Led Dietary Assessment Method in Overweight and Obese Women during Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Widaman, Adrianne M; Keim, Nancy L; Burnett, Dustin J; Miller, Beverly; Witbracht, Megan G; Widaman, Keith F; Laugero, Kevin D

    2017-03-01

    Many Americans are attempting to lose weight with the help of healthcare professionals. Clinicians can improve weight loss results by using technology. Accurate dietary assessment is crucial to effective weight loss. The aim of this study was to validate a computer-led dietary assessment method in overweight/obese women. Known dietary intake was compared to Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24) reported intake in women (n = 45), 19-50 years, with body mass index of 27-39.9 kg/m². Participants received nutrition education and reduced body weight by 4%-10%. Participants completed one unannounced dietary recall and their responses were compared to actual intake. Accuracy of the recall and characteristics of respondent error were measured using linear and logistic regression. Energy was underreported by 5% with no difference for most nutrients except carbohydrates, vitamin B12, vitamin C, selenium, calcium and vitamin D (p = 0.002, p < 0.0001, p = 0.022, p = 0.010, p = 0.008 and p = 0.001 respectively). Overall, ASA24 is a valid dietary assessment tool in overweight/obese women participating in a weight loss program. The automated features eliminate the need for clinicians to be trained, to administer, or to analyze dietary intake. Computer-led dietary assessment tools should be considered as part of clinician-supervised weight loss programs.

  2. A Potential Tool for Clinicians; Evaluating a Computer-Led Dietary Assessment Method in Overweight and Obese Women during Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Widaman, Adrianne M.; Keim, Nancy L.; Burnett, Dustin J.; Miller, Beverly; Witbracht, Megan G.; Widaman, Keith F.; Laugero, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    Many Americans are attempting to lose weight with the help of healthcare professionals. Clinicians can improve weight loss results by using technology. Accurate dietary assessment is crucial to effective weight loss. The aim of this study was to validate a computer-led dietary assessment method in overweight/obese women. Known dietary intake was compared to Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24) reported intake in women (n = 45), 19–50 years, with body mass index of 27–39.9 kg/m2. Participants received nutrition education and reduced body weight by 4%–10%. Participants completed one unannounced dietary recall and their responses were compared to actual intake. Accuracy of the recall and characteristics of respondent error were measured using linear and logistic regression. Energy was underreported by 5% with no difference for most nutrients except carbohydrates, vitamin B12, vitamin C, selenium, calcium and vitamin D (p = 0.002, p < 0.0001, p = 0.022, p = 0.010, p = 0.008 and p = 0.001 respectively). Overall, ASA24 is a valid dietary assessment tool in overweight/obese women participating in a weight loss program. The automated features eliminate the need for clinicians to be trained, to administer, or to analyze dietary intake. Computer-led dietary assessment tools should be considered as part of clinician-supervised weight loss programs. PMID:28257040

  3. The role of birth weight on litter size and mortality within 24h of life in purebred dogs: What aspects are involved?

    PubMed

    Groppetti, D; Ravasio, G; Bronzo, V; Pecile, A

    2015-12-01

    In humans, scientific evidence emphasizes the role of birth weight on neonatal welfare, morbidity and mortality. In canine species, defining normal ranges of birth weight is a harder issue due to a great morphological variability in size, body weight and breed. The aim of this study was to correlate birth weight with litter size and mortality within 24h of life in 789 pups from 140 litters of purebred dogs and to investigate the aspects that might affect these factors. Birth weight was influenced by maternal size, weight and age (P<0.001). The lightest pups were from toy sized or weighing up to 10 kg bitches. Conversely, bitches aged 2-8 years whelped heavier pups than younger and older mothers. Birth weight was also related both to litter size, with heavier pups in smaller rather than in larger litters from medium sized bitches, and breed (P<0.05). Unexpectedly, birth weight did not differ between live born and stillborn pups. However, birth weight was lower in pups dying within 24h of life (P<0.05). High mortality of pups was related both to short pregnancies (P<0.05), also showing lighter litters (P<0.001), and to dystocic parturitions (P<0.001). Litter size was associated with parity, type and number of mating, and length of pregnancy (P<0.001). Low birth weight appears to predispose to early neonatal mortality suggesting a predominant role of the breed rather than size and weight in determining birth weight in pups.

  4. The Association of Knowledge and Behaviours Related to Salt with 24-h Urinary Salt Excretion in a Population from North and South India

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J.; MacGregor, Graham A.; Webster, Jacqui; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Consumer knowledge is understood to play a role in managing risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and may be influenced by level of education. The association between population knowledge, behaviours and actual salt consumption was explored overall, and for more-educated compared to less-educated individuals. A cross-sectional survey was done in an age-and sex-stratified random sample of 1395 participants from urban and rural areas of North and South India. A single 24-h urine sample, participants’ physical measurements and questionnaire data were collected. The mean age of participants was 40 years, 47% were women and mean 24-h urinary salt excretion was 9.27 (8.87–9.69) g/day. Many participants reported favourable knowledge and behaviours to minimise risks related to salt. Several of these behaviours were associated with reduced salt intake—less use of salt while cooking, avoidance of snacks, namkeens, and avoidance of pickles (all p < 0.003). Mean salt intake was comparable in more-educated (9.21, 8.55–9.87 g/day) versus less-educated (9.34, 8.57–10.12 g/day) individuals (p = 0.82). There was no substantively different pattern of knowledge and behaviours between more-versus less-educated groups and no clear evidence that level of education influenced salt intake. Several consumer behaviours related to use of salt during food preparation and consumption of salty products were related to actual salt consumption and therefore appear to offer an opportunity for intervention. These would be a reasonable focus for a government-led education campaign targeting salt. PMID:28212309

  5. Examining the relationship between immediate serial recall and immediate free recall: common effects of phonological loop variables but only limited evidence for the phonological loop.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, Jessica; Ward, Geoff; Matthews, William J

    2014-07-01

    We examined the contribution of the phonological loop to immediate free recall (IFR) and immediate serial recall (ISR) of lists of between one and 15 words. Following Baddeley (1986, 2000, 2007, 2012), we assumed that visual words could be recoded into the phonological store when presented silently but that recoding would be prevented by concurrent articulation (CA; Experiment 1). We further assumed that the use of the phonological loop would be evidenced by greater serial recall for lists of phonologically dissimilar words relative to lists of phonologically similar words (Experiments 2A and 2B). We found that in both tasks, (a) CA reduced recall; (b) participants recalled short lists from the start of the list, leading to enhanced forward-ordered recall; (c) participants were increasingly likely to recall longer lists from the end of the list, leading to extended recency effects; (d) there were significant phonological similarity effects in ISR and IFR when both were analyzed using serial recall scoring; (e) these were reduced by free recall scoring and eliminated by CA; and (f) CA but not phonological similarity affected the tendency to initiate recall with the first list item. We conclude that similar mechanisms underpin ISR and IFR. Critically, the phonological loop is not strictly necessary for the forward-ordered recall of short lists on both tasks but may augment recall by increasing the accessibility of the list items (relative to CA), and in so doing, the order of later items is preserved better in phonologically dissimilar than in phonologically similar lists.

  6. Dissociation between recognition and recall in developmental amnesia.

    PubMed

    Adlam, Anna-Lynne R; Malloy, Megan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2009-09-01

    Developmental amnesia (DA) is a memory disorder due to hypoxia/ischaemia-induced damage to the hippocampus early in life. To test the hypothesis that this disorder is associated with a disproportionate impairment in recall vis-à-vis recognition, we examined a group of 10 patients with DA on the Doors and People test, which affords a quantitative comparison between measures of the two memory processes. The results supported the hypothesis in that the patients showed a sharp, though not complete, recall-recognition dissociation, exhibiting impairment on both measures relative to their matched controls, but with a far greater loss in recall than in recognition. Whether their relatively spared recognition ability is due to restriction of their medial temporal lobe damage to the hippocampus or whether it is due instead to their early age at injury is still uncertain.

  7. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall

    PubMed Central

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G.; Cooper, Janine M.; Dzieciol, Anna M.; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-01-01

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition. PMID:26417089

  8. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall.

    PubMed

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G; Cooper, Janine M; Dzieciol, Anna M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-13

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition.

  9. Age differences in learning, immediate and one week delayed recall.

    PubMed

    Schneider, N G; Gritz, E R; Jarvik, M E

    1975-01-01

    In an initial study, differences in learning and immediate recall were observed for groups of young and aged subjects on several measures. Retest date showed some differential loss for aged subjects after 1 week. Conclusions regarding long-term retention per se were not possible due to the nature of the design. In a second study, additional aged and young groups of subjects were run under delayed recall conditions. The data from these two groups were combined with data from the first study, with care taken to match subjects on a number of variables (health, education, intelligence). The results showed age-related differences for measures of learning and immediate recall but not for delayed 1 week retention.

  10. Agreement between Two Methods of Dietary Data Collection in Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Marc A.; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; Cockburn, Emma; Russell, Mark; Stevenson, Emma J.

    2015-01-01

    Collecting accurate and reliable nutritional data from adolescent populations is challenging, with current methods providing significant under-reporting. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of a combined dietary data collection method (self-reported weighed food diary, supplemented with a 24-h recall) when compared to researcher observed energy intake in male adolescent soccer players. Twelve Academy players from an English Football League club participated in the study. Players attended a 12 h period in the laboratory (08:00 h–20:00 h), during which food and drink items were available and were consumed ad libitum. Food was also provided to consume at home between 20:00 h and 08:00 h the following morning under free-living conditions. To calculate the participant reported energy intake, food and drink items were weighed and recorded in a food diary by each participant, which was supplemented with information provided through a 24-h recall interview the following morning. Linear regression, limits of agreement (LOA) and typical error (coefficient of variation; CV) were used to quantify agreement between observer and participant reported 24-h energy intake. Difference between methods was assessed using a paired samples t-test. Participants systematically under-reported energy intake in comparison to that observed (p < 0.01) but the magnitude of this bias was small and consistent (mean bias = −88 kcal·day−1, 95% CI for bias = −146 to −29 kcal·day−1). For random error, the 95% LOA between methods ranged between −1.11 to 0.37 MJ·day−1 (−256 to 88 kcal·day−1). The standard error of the estimate was low, with a typical error between measurements of 3.1%. These data suggest that the combined dietary data collection method could be used interchangeably with the gold standard observed food intake technique in the population studied providing that appropriate adjustment is made for the systematic under-reporting common to such

  11. The production effect: costs and benefits in free recall.

    PubMed

    Jones, Angela C; Pyc, Mary A

    2014-01-01

    The production effect, the memorial benefit for information read aloud versus silently, has been touted as a simple memory improvement tool. The current experiments were designed to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of production using a free recall paradigm. Results extend beyond prior work showing a production effect only when production is manipulated within subject, not between, using a free recall paradigm. Furthermore, the results also indicate that the production effect is primarily driven by decreased memory for items read silently, not increased memory for items read aloud.

  12. Increased Evoked Potentials to Arousing Auditory Stimuli during Sleep: Implication for the Understanding of Dream Recall

    PubMed Central

    Vallat, Raphael; Lajnef, Tarek; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Berthomier, Christian; Jerbi, Karim; Morlet, Dominique; Ruby, Perrine M.

    2017-01-01

    High dream recallers (HR) show a larger brain reactivity to auditory stimuli during wakefulness and sleep as compared to low dream recallers (LR) and also more intra-sleep wakefulness (ISW), but no other modification of the sleep macrostructure. To further understand the possible causal link between brain responses, ISW and dream recall, we investigated the sleep microstructure of HR and LR, and tested whether the amplitude of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) was predictive of arousing reactions during sleep. Participants (18 HR, 18 LR) were presented with sounds during a whole night of sleep in the lab and polysomnographic data were recorded. Sleep microstructure (arousals, rapid eye movements (REMs), muscle twitches (MTs), spindles, KCs) was assessed using visual, semi-automatic and automatic validated methods. AEPs to arousing (awakenings or arousals) and non-arousing stimuli were subsequently computed. No between-group difference in the microstructure of sleep was found. In N2 sleep, auditory arousing stimuli elicited a larger parieto-occipital positivity and an increased late frontal negativity as compared to non-arousing stimuli. As compared to LR, HR showed more arousing stimuli and more long awakenings, regardless of the sleep stage but did not show more numerous or longer arousals. These results suggest that the amplitude of the brain response to stimuli during sleep determine subsequent awakening and that awakening duration (and not arousal) is the critical parameter for dream recall. Notably, our results led us to propose that the minimum necessary duration of an awakening during sleep for a successful encoding of dreams into long-term memory is approximately 2 min. PMID:28377708

  13. Compliance to recall visits by patients with periodontitis — Is the practitioner responsible?

    PubMed Central

    Fenol, Angel; Mathew, Simi

    2010-01-01

    Context: Compliance to recall visit is directly related to the medium and long-term success of active periodontal therapy. Aims: To determine the percentage of patients who were compliant to recall visits by the practitioner and to find out the reasons for noncompliance by noncompliant patients. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Periodontology, Amrita School of Dentistry. The study participants were former patients of the Department of Periodontology. Patients and Methods: A total of 216 patients were selected for the study — 116 males and 100 females. They were divided according to their socioeconomic status — professionals and nonprofessionals. Nonprofessionals were divided into those who had completed high school education and those who had not. They were followed up to find out how many were compliant to recall visits and the reasons for noncompliance by noncompliant patients. Statistical Analysis: The data was entered into SPSS version 11.5. Descriptive statistics were used. The frequencies of responses were calculated. Result: Of the total study population, 48.1% was compliant, of which 58.6% and 37.6% of males and females were compliant, respectively. In terms of percentage, 60.6% of professionals, 52.4% of those who had completed high school education and 31.3% of those who had not completed high school education were compliant. Conclusion: Compliance to recall visits by the periodontitis patients depends largely on the practitioner. Inadequate motivation by the practitioner and inadequate education in general are responsible for noncompliance to periodontal treatment. PMID:21691547

  14. On the Sensitivity and Specificity of Nonword Repetition and Sentence Recall to Language and Memory Impairments in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the utility of 2 measures proposed as markers of specific language impairment (SLI) in identifying specific impairments in language or working memory in school-age children. Method: A group of 400 school-age children completed a 5-min screening consisting of nonword repetition and sentence recall. A subset of…

  15. How Effective Is the Cognitive Interview When Used with Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Specifically with Conversation Recall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Jason; Prescott, Katherine; Milne, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Background: The cognitive interview (CI) has been shown to increase correct memory recall of a diverse range of participant types, without an increase in the number of incorrect or confabulated details. However, it has rarely been examined for use with adults with intellectual disability. Measures and Method: This study compared the memory recall…

  16. The Relation of Moral Judgment Development and Educational Experience to Recall of Moral Narratives and Expository Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narvaez, Darcia; Gleason, Tracy

    2007-01-01

    Moral text processing was used as an ecologically valid method for assessing implicit and explicit moral understanding and development. The authors tested undergraduates, seminarians, and graduate students in political science and philosophy for recall of moral narratives and moral expository texts. Multivariate analyses of covariance using…

  17. On EMDR: eye movements during retrieval reduce subjective vividness and objective memory accessibility during future recall.

    PubMed

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Bartelski, Nicola; Engelhard, Iris M

    2013-01-01

    In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), patients make eye movements (EM) during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies found that EM during recall reduces memory vividness during future recalls, and this was taken as laboratory support for the underlying mechanism of EMDR. However, reduced vividness was assessed with self-reports that may be affected by demand characteristics. We tested whether recall+EM also reduces memory vividness on a behavioural reaction time (RT) task. Undergraduates (N=32) encoded two pictures, recalled them, and rated their vividness. In the EM group, one of the pictures was recalled again while making EM. In the no-EM group one of the pictures was recalled without EM. Then fragments from both the recalled and non-recalled pictures, and new fragments were presented and participants rated whether these were (or were not) seen before. Both pictures were rated again for vividness. In the EM group, self-rated vividness of the recalled+EM picture decreased, relative to the non-recalled picture. In the no-EM group there was no difference between the recalled versus non-recalled picture. The RT task showed the same pattern. Reduction of memory vividness due to recall+EM is also evident from non-self-report data.

  18. Number of spermatozoa in the crypts of the sperm reservoir at about 24 h after a low-dose intrauterine and deep intrauterine insemination in sows.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, P; Tienthai, P

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number of spermatozoa in the crypts of the utero-tubal junction (UTJ) and the oviduct of sows approximately 24 h after intrauterine insemination (IUI) and deep intrauterine insemination (DIUI) and compared with that of conventional artificial insemination (AI). Fifteen crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire (LY) multiparous sows were used in the experiment. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed every 4 h to examine the time of ovulation in relation to oestrous behaviour. The sows were inseminated with a single dose of diluted fresh semen by the AI (n = 5), IUI (n = 5) and DIUI (n = 5) at approximately 6-8 h prior to the expected time of ovulation, during the second oestrus after weaning. The sperm dose contained 3000 x 10(6) spermatozoa in 100 ml for AI, 1,000 x 10(6) spermatozoa in 50 ml for IUI and 150 x 10(6) spermatozoa in 5 ml for DIUI. The sows were anaesthetized and ovario-hysterectomized approximately 24 h after insemination. The oviducts and the proximal part of the uterine horns (1 cm) on each side of the reproductive tracts were collected. The section was divided into four parts, i.e. UTJ, caudal isthmus, cranial isthmus and ampulla. The spermatozoa in the lumen in each part were flushed several times with phosphate buffer solution. After flushing, the UTJ and all parts of the oviducts were immersed in a 10% neutral buffered formalin solution. The UTJ and each part of the oviducts were cut into four equal parts and embedded in a paraffin block. The tissue sections were transversely sectioned to a thickness of 5 mum. Every fifth serial section was mounted and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The total number of spermatozoa from 32 sections in each parts of the tissue (16 sections from the left side and 16 sections from the right side) was determined under light microscope. The results reveal that most of the spermatozoa in the histological section were located in groups in the epithelial crypts. The means of

  19. Continuous versus discontinuous drinking of an ethanol liquid diet in peripubertal rats: effect on 24-h variation of lymph node and splenic mitogenic responses and lymphocyte subset populations.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Fernández-Mateos, María P; Barquilla, Pilar Cano; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2011-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption continues to be a major public health problem, particularly in the adolescent and young adult populations. Generally, such a behavior tends to be confined to the weekends, to attain frequently binge drinking. This study in peripubertal male rats compares the effect of the discontinuous feeding of a liquid diet containing a moderate amount of ethanol (6.2% wt/vol) to that of continuous ethanol administration or a control diet, taking as end points the 24-h variations of plasma prolactin levels and mitogenic responses and lymphocyte subset populations in submaxillary lymph nodes and spleen. Animals received the ethanol liquid diet starting on day 35 of life, the diet being similar to that given to controls except for that maltose was isocalorically replaced by ethanol. Ethanol provided 36% of the total caloric content. Every week, the discontinuous ethanol group received the ethanol diet for 3 days and the control liquid diet for the remaining 4 days. After 4 weeks, rats were killed at six time intervals, beginning at 0900 h. A significant decrease of splenic cells' response to concanavalin A, and of lymph node and splenic cells' response to lipopolysaccharide was found in rats under the discontinuous ethanol regime, when compared with control- or ethanol-chronic rats. Under discontinuous ethanol feeding, mean values of lymph node and splenic CD8(+) and CD4(+)-CD8(+) cells decreased, whereas those of lymph node and splenic T cells, and splenic B cells, augmented. In rats chronically fed with ethanol, splenic mean levels of CD8(+) and CD4(+)-CD8(+) cells augmented. Both modalities of ethanol administration disrupted the 24 h variation in immune function seen in controls. Mean plasma prolactin levels increased by 3.6-fold and 8.5-fold in rats chronically or discontinuously fed with alcohol, respectively. The immune parameters examined in an additional group of rats fed regular chow and water ad libitum did not differ significantly from

  20. Forgetting in Immediate Serial Recall: Decay, Temporal Distinctiveness, or Interference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Three hypotheses of forgetting from immediate memory were tested: time-based decay, decreasing temporal distinctiveness, and interference. The hypotheses were represented by 3 models of serial recall: the primacy model, the SIMPLE (scale-independent memory, perception, and learning) model, and the SOB (serial order in a box) model, respectively.…

  1. The Effect of Concurrent Semantic Categorization on Delayed Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Postle, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of semantic processing on the serial ordering of items in short-term memory was explored using a novel dual-task paradigm. Participants engaged in 2 picture-judgment tasks while simultaneously performing delayed serial recall. List material varied in the presence of phonological overlap (Experiments 1 and 2) and in semantic content…

  2. Cognitive Effort Requirements in Recall, Recognition, and Lexical Decision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    ldeoiiy by block nuambor) Coqinitive effort requirement.-; durin7 ;tudiv "or free( recall ( i sa-v’ tes) ,reoontin ( * * nutiie hoi,~t\\’ etest ) , and an...65IS OSSOLIETE ~p ISECU"ITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS P- AGE (When Da$. Entered) %’ * SiCURIT V CL ASSIFICATION Of THISa PAG("- Dodo fP.E.Fn.d) ARI

  3. Associative Information in Memory: Evidence from Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aue, William R.; Criss, Amy H.; Fischetti, Nicholas W.

    2012-01-01

    The representation of item and associative information in episodic memory was investigated using cued recall and single item recognition. In the first four experiments, participants studied two lists constructed such that some items presented in a pair during List 1 were rearranged to create new pairs in List 2 and were accompanied by pairs…

  4. Color preference and familiarity in performance on brand logo recall.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Chin-Chiuan; Chiang, Shu-Ying

    2008-10-01

    Two experiments assessed effects of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on recall performance. Exp. 1 explored the color preferences, using a forced-choice technique, of 189 women and 63 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.4, SD = 1.5). The sequence of the three most preferred colors was white, light blue, and black and of the three least preferred colors was light orange, dark violet, and dark brown. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of color preference based on the results of Exp. 1 and brand-logo familiarity on recall. A total of 27 women and 21 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.2, SD = 1.2) participated. They memorized a list of 24 logos (four logos shown in six colors) and then performed sequential recall. Analyses showed color preference significantly affected recall accuracy. Accuracy for high color preference was significantly greater than that for low preferences. Results showed no significant effects of brand-logo familiarity or sex on accuracy. In addition, the interactive effect of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on accuracy was significant. These results have implications for the design of brand logos to create and sustain memory of brand images.

  5. The Impact of Interactive Storybook on Elementary School Students' Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyit, Ertem Ihsan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of animated interactive storybook on elementary school students' recall. This experiment utilized 77 fourth grade students in three groups. Each student was randomly assigned with one of the three conditions: (1) computer presentation of interactive storybooks with animation; (2) computer presentation of…

  6. 40 CFR 205.59 - Recall of noncomplying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... order to the manufacturer to recall and repair or modify any vehicle distributed in commerce not in... in commerce which do not conform to the regulations. Such determination may be based on: (1) A... issued only after notice and an opportunity for a hearing. (e) All costs, including labor and...

  7. The Disfluent Discourse: Effects of Filled Pauses on Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms by which fillers, such as "uh" and "um", affect memory for discourse. Participants listened to and attempted to recall recorded passages adapted from "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland". The type and location of interruptions were manipulated through digital splicing. In Experiment 1, we tested a processing time…

  8. The Production Effect: Costs and Benefits in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Angela C.; Pyc, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The production effect, the memorial benefit for information read aloud versus silently, has been touted as a simple memory improvement tool. The current experiments were designed to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of production using a free recall paradigm. Results extend beyond prior work showing a production effect only when production…

  9. Parietal lesion effects on cued recall following pair associate learning.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zvi, Shir; Soroker, Nachum; Levy, Daniel A

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the involvement of the posterior parietal cortex in episodic memory in a lesion-effects study of cued recall following pair-associate learning. Groups of patients who had experienced first-incident stroke, generally in middle cerebral artery territory, and exhibited damage that included lateral posterior parietal regions, were tested within an early post-stroke time window. In three experiments, patients and matched healthy comparison groups executed repeated study and cued recall test blocks of pairs of words (Experiment 1), pairs of object pictures (Experiment 2), or pairs of object pictures and environmental sounds (Experiment 3). Patients' brain CT scans were subjected to quantitative analysis of lesion volumes. Behavioral and lesion data were used to compute correlations between area lesion extent and memory deficits, and to conduct voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. These analyses implicated lateral ventral parietal cortex, especially the angular gyrus, in cued recall deficits, most pronouncedly in the cross-modal picture-sound pairs task, though significant parietal lesion effects were also found in the unimodal word pairs and picture pairs tasks. In contrast to an earlier study in which comparable parietal lesions did not cause deficits in item recognition, these results indicate that lateral posterior parietal areas make a substantive contribution to demanding forms of recollective retrieval as represented by cued recall, especially for complex associative representations.

  10. Training the Mind's Eye: "Brain Movies" Support Comprehension and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Explicit instruction on the skill of creating mental imagery from text supports reading comprehension and recall. This article shares a strategy for teaching students how to process what they read by comparing mental imagery to "brain movies." It emphasizes choosing appropriate fiction and nonfiction texts to encourage readers to build the skill…

  11. Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

  12. 27 CFR 1.55 - Recalling permits for correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... correction. 1.55 Section 1.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Miscellaneous § 1.55 Recalling permits for correction. Whenever it shall be discovered that any basic permit has... issuance thereof, the holder of such permit shall forthwith surrender the same for correction or...

  13. 27 CFR 1.55 - Recalling permits for correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... correction. 1.55 Section 1.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Miscellaneous § 1.55 Recalling permits for correction. Whenever it shall be discovered that any basic permit has... issuance thereof, the holder of such permit shall forthwith surrender the same for correction or...

  14. The Influence of Instruction on Verbatim and Content Text Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonpflug, Ute

    2008-01-01

    This investigation focuses on text recall in eight- and nine-year old children. The main focus was on whether two different sets of instructions had a differential influence: one set instructed students to focus on an orally presented text verbatim, and the other instructed students to focus on its content. A differential influence on verbatim and…

  15. Retrieval-Induced Forgetting in Recall: Competitor Interference Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verde, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Participants studied category-exemplar pairs ("FRUIT Cherry," "FRUIT Grape") and then practiced some of the items ("Cherry"). In Experiment 1, practice that involved retrieving the item from memory suppressed recall of related items ("Grape"), a finding known as the retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) effect.…

  16. Does illness experience influence the recall of medical information?

    PubMed

    Krishnan, B; Glazebrook, C; Smyth, A

    1998-12-01

    Recall of a storyboard description of an unfamiliar illness was assessed in 66 healthy children and 40 children with chronic illness (cystic fibrosis or asthma). A significant interaction between verbal intelligence quotient and illness experience (p < 0.001) suggested that more able sick children may be resistant to learning new medical information.

  17. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... public notification may cause unnecessary and harmful anxiety in patients and that initial...

  18. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... public notification may cause unnecessary and harmful anxiety in patients and that initial...

  19. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... public notification may cause unnecessary and harmful anxiety in patients and that initial...

  20. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... public notification may cause unnecessary and harmful anxiety in patients and that initial...

  1. Recall in Older Cancer Patients: Measuring Memory for Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Jesse; van Weert, Julia; van der Meulen, Nienke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Heeren, Thea; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient education preceding chemotherapy. Design and…

  2. The Impact of Formal Schemata on L3 Reading Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2010-01-01

    Rhetorical structure refers to a complex network of relationships and the way the underlying ideas are organized within a text. This study was conducted to see whether explicit instruction of descriptive and causative text organization positively affected L3 reading recall. 240 Turkish students of EFL who had Persian as their second language were…

  3. 40 CFR 94.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... as computer information storage devices or card files, the names and addresses of engine owners: (1... information as may be required to identify the engines recalled. (2) A description of the specific... which have not previously been submitted. (c) If the manufacturer determines that any of the...

  4. 40 CFR 94.404 - Voluntary emissions recall reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as computer information storage devices or card files, the names and addresses of engine owners: (1... information as may be required to identify the engines recalled. (2) A description of the specific... which have not previously been submitted. (c) If the manufacturer determines that any of the...

  5. Category Cued Recall Evokes a Generate-Recognize Retrieval Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Toth, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to replicate and extend McCabe, Roediger, and Karpicke's (2011) finding that retrieval in category cued recall involves both controlled and automatic processes. The extension entailed identifying whether distinctive encoding affected 1 or both of these 2 processes. The first experiment successfully…

  6. Individual Differences in False Recall: A Latent Variable Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between intrusions in several different recall tasks was examined in the current study. Intrusions from these tasks were moderately correlated and formed a unitary intrusion factor. This factor was related to other cognitive ability measures including working memory capacity, judgments of recency, and general source-monitoring…

  7. Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall: Constraints on Theories of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological…

  8. The Effect of Humor on Advertising Credibility and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, John C.

    A study examined the effect of humor on the perceived credibility, character, and authority of an advertisement and on the recall of that advertisement. Two groups of subjects each heard two radio spot announcements, one humorous and one serious. Two different products were advertised, so that the first group of subjects, 117 college advertising…

  9. 16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recall notice content requirements. 1115.27... recognize the product; (2) The product's intended or targeted use population (e.g., infants, children, or... information and belief, and in the sole discretion of the Commission for purposes of an order under section...

  10. 16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recall notice content requirements. 1115.27... recognize the product; (2) The product's intended or targeted use population (e.g., infants, children, or... information and belief, and in the sole discretion of the Commission for purposes of an order under section...

  11. 16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recall notice content requirements. 1115.27... recognize the product; (2) The product's intended or targeted use population (e.g., infants, children, or... information and belief, and in the sole discretion of the Commission for purposes of an order under section...

  12. 16 CFR 1115.27 - Recall notice content requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recall notice content requirements. 1115.27... recognize the product; (2) The product's intended or targeted use population (e.g., infants, children, or... information and belief, and in the sole discretion of the Commission for purposes of an order under section...

  13. Recall and Recognition in Industrial Technology Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Andrew E.

    A study determined whether sensate and intuitive learners differed in their capacity to recall and recognize images given two different times of exposure. The 158 subjects--elementary school technology teachers in Southern California--put themselves into 2 groups of 80 and 78 by registering for a first or second session of the Elementary Summer…

  14. Humiliation, Unfairness and Laughter: Students Recall Power Relations with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uitto, Minna

    2011-01-01

    A Finnish magazine published my request that people remember and write about their teachers. Many writers recalled teachers who, for example, had humiliated, favoured or laughed at their students. This article focuses on a study of such negative memories, examining what writers tell about teachers and students in power relationships and how…

  15. Aging and the Picture Superiority Effect in Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winograd, Eugene; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect. One experiment found an interaction between age and type of material. In other experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. Performing a semantic-orienting task had no effect on recall. (Author/RC)

  16. Gender Differences in the Recall of Performance Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia; Langenfeld, Kelly

    This study tested whether gender differences in recall of performance feedback exist. Participants were 88 female and 68 male undergraduate students enrolled in introductory psychology courses at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside. They were presented with eight comments each (evaluative feedback) for both an English paper and a computer…

  17. Readability as a Factor in Magazine Ad Copy Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship between advertising copy readability and advertising effectiveness. Finds that recall is improved when the copy style is either fairly easy or fairly hard to read. Suggests the value of considering copy readability as a potential contributor, though a minor one, to the success of magazine advertising. (RS)

  18. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  19. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, D.N.; Micca, P.L.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1986-03-11

    A stable boronated (/sup 10/B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/, at a dose of about 200 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight. The infusion is preformed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of /sup 10/B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of /sup 10/B in the tumor. 1 tab.

  20. Insights into ultraviolet-induced electrical degradation of thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeguchi, Daisuke; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji; Nakano, Yuki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2014-01-06

    The harmful impact of ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation on thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC structures was investigated by means of electrical measurements of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. Unlike Si-based MOS devices, significant electrical degradation, such as positive flatband voltage (V{sub FB}) shift and hysteresis in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves of SiC-MOS capacitors was induced by UV irradiation with a low-pressure mercury lamp. The interfacial fixed charge density increased with UV-irradiation (22.6 mW/cm{sup 2} for 16 h) to 1.7 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}, which was an order of magnitude larger than that of the as-grown SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface. A detailed study based on single wavelength solid-state UV lasers revealed that there was a threshold photon energy at around 5 eV and a moderate dependence of UV-induced degradation on temperature. These experimental findings imply that pre-existing inactive defects accumulated at the thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface were transformed to active carrier traps with high-energy UV irradiation through transparent SiO{sub 2} layers.