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Sample records for 24-h recovery period

  1. Immune cell changes in response to a swimming training session during a 24-h recovery period.

    PubMed

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Joana F; Matias, Catarina; Seixas, Maria T; Alvim, Marta G; Bourbon, Mafalda; Laires, Maria J; Alves, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools. PMID:27028294

  2. Immune cell changes in response to a swimming training session during a 24-h recovery period.

    PubMed

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Joana F; Matias, Catarina; Seixas, Maria T; Alvim, Marta G; Bourbon, Mafalda; Laires, Maria J; Alves, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools.

  3. Analysis of the 24-h microfilarial periodicity of Mansonella perstans.

    PubMed

    Asio, Santa Maria; Simonsen, Paul E; Onapa, Ambrose W

    2009-03-01

    The Mansonella perstans microfilarial (mf) periodicity in peripheral blood was analysed in a group of 32 healthy individuals from an endemic community in Uganda. The majority of individuals had maximum mf intensity during the first and minimum during the last 12 h of the day. Mean mf ratios (i.e. time-specific counts in relation to mean count for the individual) indicated a weak but significant diurnal periodicity with peak intensity around 0800 h. Trigonometric analysis of the ratios, assuming a harmonic wave pattern of periodicity, gave a periodicity index of 11.1 and a peak time of 0645 h. The higher mf intensities in the early morning appeared to coincide with the preferred biting hour of the vectors. The observed weak pattern of mf periodicity indicates that the sampling time of blood specimens for diagnosis will have only minor effect on diagnostic sensitivity. PMID:19107522

  4. Intrinsic near-24-h pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. P. Jr; Hughes, R. J.; Kronauer, R. E.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks are robust regulators of physiology and behavior. Synchronization or entrainment of biological clocks to environmental time is adaptive and important for physiological homeostasis and for the proper timing of species-specific behaviors. We studied subjects in the laboratory for up to 55 days each to determine the ability to entrain the human clock to a weak circadian synchronizing stimulus [scheduled activity-rest cycle in very dim (approximately 1.5 lux in the angle of gaze) light-dark cycle] at three approximately 24-h periods: 23.5, 24.0, and 24.6 h. These studies allowed us to test two competing hypotheses as to whether the period of the human circadian pacemaker is near to or much longer than 24 h. We report here that imposition of a sleep-wake schedule with exposure to the equivalent of candle light during wakefulness and darkness during sleep is usually sufficient to maintain circadian entrainment to the 24-h day but not to a 23.5- or 24.6-h day. Our results demonstrate functionally that, in normally entrained sighted adults, the average intrinsic circadian period of the human biological clock is very close to 24 h. Either exposure to very dim light and/or the scheduled sleep-wake cycle itself can entrain this near-24-h intrinsic period of the human circadian pacemaker to the 24-h day.

  5. Comprehensive Mapping of Regional Expression of the Clock Protein PERIOD2 in Rat Forebrain across the 24-h Day

    PubMed Central

    Harbour, Valerie L.; Weigl, Yuval; Robinson, Barry; Amir, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, a light-entrainable clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) regulates circadian rhythms by synchronizing oscillators throughout the brain and body. Notably, the nature of the relation between the SCN clock and subordinate oscillators in the rest of the brain is not well defined. We performed a high temporal resolution analysis of the expression of the circadian clock protein PERIOD2 (PER2) in the rat forebrain to characterize the distribution, amplitude and phase of PER2 rhythms across different regions. Eighty-four LEW/Crl male rats were entrained to a 12-h: 12-h light/dark cycle, and subsequently perfused every 30 min across the 24-h day for a total of 48 time-points. PER2 expression was assessed with immunohistochemistry and analyzed using automated cell counts. We report the presence of PER2 expression in 20 forebrain areas important for a wide range of motivated and appetitive behaviors including the SCN, bed nucleus, and several regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, striatum, and cortex. Eighteen areas displayed significant PER2 rhythms, which peaked at different times of day. Our data demonstrate a previously uncharacterized regional distribution of rhythms of a clock protein expression in the brain that provides a sound basis for future studies of circadian clock function in animal models of disease. PMID:24124556

  6. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake.

    PubMed

    Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M E; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H; Slimani, Nadia

    2012-03-01

    Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomarkers for protein and K intake and whether the BMI effect differs between six European countries. Between 1995 and 1999, 1086 men and women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition completed a single 24-HDR, a DQ and one 24 h urine collection. In regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, education and country, each unit (1 kg/m²) increase in BMI predicted an approximately 1·7 and 1·3 % increase in protein under-reporting on 24-HDR and DQ, respectively (both P < 0·0001). Exclusion of individuals who probably misreported energy intake attenuated BMI-related bias on both instruments. The BMI effect on protein under-reporting did not differ for men and women and neither between countries on both instruments as tested by interaction (all P>0·15). In women, but not in men, the DQ yielded higher mean intakes of protein that were closer to the biomarker-based measurements across BMI groups when compared with 24-HDR. Results for K were similar to those of protein, although BMI-related under-reporting of K was of a smaller magnitude, suggesting differential misreporting of foods. Under-reporting of protein and K appears to be predicted by BMI, but this effect may be driven by 'low-energy reporters'. The BMI effect on under-reporting seems to be the same across countries.

  7. Synchronous high-resolution phenotyping of leaf and root growth in Nicotiana tabacum over 24-h periods with GROWMAP-plant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Root growth is highly responsive to temporal changes in the environment. On the contrary, diel (24 h) leaf expansion in dicot plants is governed by endogenous control and therefore its temporal pattern does not strictly follow diel changes in the environment. Nevertheless, root and shoot are connected with each other through resource partitioning and changing environments for one organ could affect growth of the other organ, and hence overall plant growth. Results We developed a new technique, GROWMAP-plant, to monitor growth processes synchronously in leaf and root of the same plant with a high resolution over the diel period. This allowed us to quantify treatment effects on the growth rates of the treated and non-treated organ and the possible interaction between them. We subjected the root system of Nicotiana tabacum seedlings to three different conditions: constant darkness at 22°C (control), constant darkness at 10°C (root cooling), and 12 h/12 h light–dark cycles at 22°C (root illumination). In all treatments the shoot was kept under the same 12 h/12 h light–dark cycles at 22°C. Root growth rates were found to be constant when the root-zone environment was kept constant, although the root cooling treatment significantly reduced root growth. Root velocity was decreased after light-on and light-off events of the root illumination treatment, resulting in diel root growth rhythmicity. Despite these changes in root growth, leaf growth was not affected substantially by the root-zone treatments, persistently showing up to three times higher nocturnal growth than diurnal growth. Conclusion GROWMAP-plant allows detailed synchronous growth phenotyping of leaf and root in the same plant. Root growth was very responsive to the root cooling and root illumination, while these treatments altered neither relative growth rate nor diel growth pattern in the seedling leaf. Our results that were obtained simultaneously in growing leaves and roots of the same

  8. 24-h Efficacy of Glaucoma Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Konstas, Anastasios G P; Quaranta, Luciano; Bozkurt, Banu; Katsanos, Andreas; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian; Rossetti, Luca; Shaarawy, Tarek; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Miglior, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Current management of glaucoma entails the medical, laser, or surgical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) to a predetermined level of target IOP, which is commensurate with either stability or delayed progression of visual loss. In the published literature, the hypothesis is often made that IOP control implies a single IOP measurement over time. Although the follow-up of glaucoma patients with single IOP measurements is quick and convenient, such measurements often do not adequately reflect the untreated IOP characteristics, or indeed the quality of treated IOP control during the 24-h cycle. Since glaucoma is a 24-h disease and the damaging effect of elevated IOP is continuous, it is logical that we should aim to understand the efficacy of all treatment options throughout the 24-h period. This article first reviews the concept and value of diurnal and 24-h IOP monitoring. It then critically evaluates selected available evidence on the 24-h efficacy of medical, laser and surgical therapy options. During the past decade several controlled trials have significantly enhanced our understanding on the 24-h efficacy of all glaucoma therapy options. Nevertheless, more long-term evidence is needed to better evaluate the 24-h efficacy of glaucoma therapy and the precise impact of IOP characteristics on glaucomatous progression and visual prognosis.

  9. Serotonin turnover in different duration of sleep recovery in discrete regions of young rat brain after 24 h REM sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Senthilvelan, M; Ravindran, R; Samson, J; Devi, R Sheela

    2006-09-01

    Sleep plays an important role in restorative function and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5HT) equally plays important roles in sleep. Though various studies have revealed the roles of 5HT in sleep/wake cycle, the mechanism involved is yet unclear. In the present study we investigated alteration of the 5HT turnover in various regions of the young rat brains after 24 hours (h) REM sleep (sREM) deprivation to elucidate the roles of 5HT in sleep restoration function in the these regions. The 5HT turnover was evaluated by the ratio of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid against 5HT. The sREM deprivation was performed by the inverted flowerpot technique. The 5HT turnover showed significant alteration in the all regions of the brain examined after 24h sREM deprivation, particular depending on the brain region. These results revealed that sREM modulates the 5HT turnover in the brain with region specificity and this may be one of the restorative functions of sleep indicating that sREM is regionally generated.

  10. An integrated approach based on uniform quantization for the evaluation of complexity of short-term heart period variability: Application to 24 h Holter recordings in healthy and heart failure humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porta, A.; Faes, L.; Masé, M.; D'Addio, G.; Pinna, G. D.; Maestri, R.; Montano, N.; Furlan, R.; Guzzetti, S.; Nollo, G.; Malliani, A.

    2007-03-01

    We propose an integrated approach based on uniform quantization over a small number of levels for the evaluation and characterization of complexity of a process. This approach integrates information-domain analysis based on entropy rate, local nonlinear prediction, and pattern classification based on symbolic analysis. Normalized and non-normalized indexes quantifying complexity over short data sequences (˜300 samples) are derived. This approach provides a rule for deciding the optimal length of the patterns that may be worth considering and some suggestions about possible strategies to group patterns into a smaller number of families. The approach is applied to 24h Holter recordings of heart period variability derived from 12 normal (NO) subjects and 13 heart failure (HF) patients. We found that: (i) in NO subjects the normalized indexes suggest a larger complexity during the nighttime than during the daytime; (ii) this difference may be lost if non-normalized indexes are utilized; (iii) the circadian pattern in the normalized indexes is lost in HF patients; (iv) in HF patients the loss of the day-night variation in the normalized indexes is related to a tendency of complexity to increase during the daytime and to decrease during the nighttime; (v) the most likely length L =3 indicates that stable patterns (i.e., those with no variations) are more present during the daytime, while highly variable patterns (i.e., those with two unlike variations) are more frequent during the nighttime; (vii) during the daytime in HF patients, the percentage of highly variable patterns increases with respect to NO subjects, while during the nighttime, the percentage of patterns with one or two like variations decreases.

  11. National Weatherization Assistance Program Characterization Describing the Recovery Act Period

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Hawkins, Beth A.

    2015-10-01

    This report characterizes the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) during the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) period. This research was one component of the Recovery Act evaluation of WAP. The report presents the results of surveys administered to Grantees (i.e., state weatherization offices) and Subgrantees (i.e., local weatherization agencies). The report also documents the ramp up and ramp down of weatherization production and direct employment during the Recovery Act period and other challenges faced by the Grantees and Subgrantees during this period. Program operations during the Recovery Act (Program Year 2010) are compared to operations during the year previous to the Recovery Act (Program Year 2008).

  12. Enhanced vagal baroreflex response during 24 h after acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Adams, W. C.

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated carotid-cardiac baroreflex responses in eight normotensive men (25-41 yr) on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested before and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after graded supine cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, this 24-h protocol was repeated with no exercise (control). Beat-to-beat R-R intervals were measured during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses from 40 to -65 mmHg; changes of R-R intervals were plotted against carotid pressure (systolic pressure minus neck chamber pressure). The maximum slope of the response relationship increased (P less than 0.05) from preexercise to 12 h (3.7 +/- 0.4 to 7.1 +/- 0.7 ms/mmHg) and remained significantly elevated through 24 h. The range of the R-R response was also increased from 217 +/- 24 to 274 +/- 32 ms (P less than 0.05). No significant differences were observed during the control 24-h period. An acute bout of graded exercise designed to elicit exhaustion increases the sensitivity and range of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response for 24 h and enhances its capacity to buffer against hypotension by increasing heart rate. These results may represent an underlying mechanism that contributes to blood pressure stability after intense exercise.

  13. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, P<0.05) with ephedrine than with placebo, but mechanical work was not different between the ephedrine and placebo periods. Noradrenaline excretion was lower with ephedrine (0.032+/-0.011 microg/mg creatinine) compared with placebo (0.044+/-0.012 microg/mg creatinine) (P<0.05). (+/-)Ephedrine is a relatively weak partial agonist of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors, and had no detectable activity at human beta3-adrenoreceptors. Ephedrine (50 mg thrice daily) modestly increases energy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  14. Health in a 24-h society.

    PubMed

    Rajaratnam, S M; Arendt, J

    2001-09-22

    With increasing economic and social demands, we are rapidly evolving into a 24-h society. In any urban economy, about 20% of the population are required to work outside the regular 0800-1700 h working day and this figure is likely to increase. Although the increase in shiftwork has led to greater flexibility in work schedules, the ability to provide goods and services throughout the day and night, and possibly greater employment opportunities, the negative effects of shiftwork and chronic sleep loss on health and productivity are now being appreciated. For example, sleepiness surpasses alcohol and drugs as the greatest identifiable and preventable cause of accidents in all modes of transport. Industrial accidents associated with night work are common, perhaps the most famous being Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and Bhopal. PMID:11583769

  15. Creatinine adjustment of spot urine samples and 24 h excretion of iodine, selenium, perchlorate, and thiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-ichi; Kirk, Andrea B; Dyke, Jason V; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2008-12-15

    Creatinine (CR) adjustment is widely used for the estimation of urinary 24 h excretion from spot urine samples. We have compared CR-adjusted values for urinary iodine, selenium, perchlorate, and thiocyanate to measured 24 h excretion. The urine samples were collected from a cohort of 14 breastfeeding mothers with both spot samples and 24 h collection, 52 24 h and spot sample pairs where the 24 h CR value fell within the "normal" adult female CR excretion range of 0.6-1.6 g/day were considered for this analysis. In addition, a nonlactating female and a male subject provided all micturitions for 1 and 5 days, respectively. Creatinine was analyzed with a Jáffe reaction-based automated analyzer. Iodine and selenium were determined with induction coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Perchlorate and thiocyanate were measured with ion chromatography (IC)-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Creatinine-adjusted values were poor substitutes of the actual 24 h excretion values (average deviation +/-69, 78, 105, and 104% for iodine, selenium, perchlorate, and thiocyanate, respectively.). Over a 5 day period, the 24 h iodine excretion predicted based on creatinine adjustment of spot samples for the same individual deviated between -83.5 to +101% from the actual measured value, the minimum absolute error being 2.5%. Creatinine adjustment for estimation of 24 h excretion from spot samples was not effective for iodine, selenium, perchlorate, or thiocyanate.

  16. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11–24 Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N. S.; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J.; Foster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11–24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11–24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. PMID:27294952

  17. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-06-09

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults.

  18. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. PMID:27294952

  19. The impact of weight loss on the 24-h profile of circulating peptide YY and its association with 24-h ghrelin in normal weight premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hill, Brenna R; De Souza, Mary Jane; Wagstaff, David A; Williams, Nancy I

    2013-11-01

    Peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin exhibit a reciprocal association and antagonistic physiological effects in the peripheral circulation. Research has yet to clarify the effect of weight loss on the 24h profile of PYY or its association to 24h ghrelin. We sought to determine if diet- and exercise-induced weight loss affects the 24h profile of PYY and its association with 24h ghrelin in normal weight, premenopausal women. Participants (n = 13) were assessed at baseline (BL) and after a 3-month diet and exercise intervention (post). Blood samples obtained q10 min for 24h were assayed for total PYY and total ghrelin q60 min from 0800 to 1000 h and 2000 to 0800 h and q20 min from 1000 to 2000 h. The ghrelin/PYY ratio was used as an index of hormonal exposure. Statistical analyses included paired t-tests and linear mixed effects modeling. Body weight (-1.85 ± 0.67 kg; p = 0.02), and body fat (-2.53 ± 0.83%; p = 0.01) decreased from BL to post. Ghrelin AUC (5252 ± 2177 pg/ml/24h; p=0.03), 24h mean (216 ± 90 pg/ml; p = 0.03) and peak (300 ± 134 pg/ml; p = 0.047) increased from BL to post. No change occurred in PYY AUC (88.2 ± 163.7 pg/ml; p = 0.60), 24h mean (4.8 ± 6.9 pg/ml; p = 0.50) or peak (3.6 ± 6.4 pg/ml; p = 0.58). The 24h association between PYY and ghrelin at baseline (p = 0.04) was weakened at post (p = 0.14); however, the ghrelin/PYY lunch ratio increased (p = 0.01) indicating the potential for ghrelin predominance over PYY in the circulation. PYY and ghrelin are reciprocally associated during a period of weight stability, but not following weight loss. An "uncoupling" may have occurred, particularly at lunch, due to factors that modulate ghrelin in response to weight loss.

  20. Comparing 14-day adhesive patch with 24-h Holter monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Christopher C; Kerr, Charles R; Krahn, Andrew D

    2014-05-01

    Barrett PM, Komatireddy R, Haaser S et al. Comparison of 24-hour Holter monitoring with 14-day novel adhesive patch electrocardiographic monitoring. Am. J. Med. 127(1), 95.e11–95.e17 (2014). The investigation of cardiac arrhythmias in the outpatient ambulatory setting has traditionally been initiated with the Holter monitor. Using the continuous recording over 24 or 48 h, the Holter monitor permits the detection of baseline rhythm, dysrhythmia and conduction abnormalities, including heart block and changes in the ST segment that may indicate myocardial ischemia. However, apart from the bulkiness and inconvenience of the device itself, the lack of extended monitoring results in a diagnostic yield of typically less than 20%. In this study by Barrett et al., 146 patients referred for the evaluation of cardiac arrhythmia were prospectively enrolled to wear both the 24-h Holter monitor and 14-day adhesive patch monitor (Zio Patch) simultaneously. The primary outcome was the detection of any one of six arrhythmias: supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation/flutter, pause >3 s, atrioventricular block, ventricular tachycardia, or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation. The adhesive patch monitor detected more arrhythmia events compared with the Holter monitor over the total wear time (96 vs. 61 events; p < 0.001), although the Holter monitor detected more events during the initial 24-h monitoring period (61 vs. 52 events; p = 0.013). Novel, single-lead, intermediate-duration, user-friendly adhesive patch monitoring devices, such as the Zio Patch, represent the changing face of ambulatory ECG monitoring. However, the loss of quality, automated rhythm analysis and inability to detect myocardial ischemia continue to remain important issues that will need to be addressed prior to the implementation of these new devices.

  1. 42 CFR 412.76 - Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims. 412.76 Section 412.76 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.76 Recovery of excess transition period payment...

  2. 42 CFR 412.76 - Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims. 412.76 Section 412.76 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.76 Recovery of excess transition period payment...

  3. 42 CFR 412.76 - Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims. 412.76 Section 412.76 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.76 Recovery of excess transition period payment...

  4. 24-h hydration status: parameters, epidemiology and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Manz, F; Wentz, A

    2003-12-01

    Hydration of individuals and groups is characterised by comparing actual urine osmolality (Uosm) with maximum Uosm. Data of actual, maximum and minimum Uosm in infants, children and adults and its major influencing factors are reviewed. There are remarkable ontogenetic, individual and cultural differences in Uosm. In the foetus and the breast-fed infant Uosm is much lower than plasma osmolality, whereas in children and adults it is usually much higher. Individuals and groups may show long-term differences in Uosm. In industrialised countries, the gender difference of Uosm is common. There are large intercultural differences of mean 24-h Uosm ranging from 860 mosm/kg in Germany, 649 mosm/kg in USA to 392 mosm/kg in Poland. A new physiologically based concept called 'free-water reserve' quantifies differences in 24-h euhydration. In 189 boys of the DONALD Study aged 4.0-6.9 y, median urine volume was 497 ml/24-h and median Uosm 809 mosm/kg. Considering mean-2 s.d. of actual maximum 24-h Uosm of 830 mosm/kg as upper level of euhydration and physiological criterion of adequate hydration in these boys, median free-water reserve was 11 ml/24-h. Based on median total water intake of 1310 ml/24-h and the third percentile of free-water volume of -156 ml/24-h, adequate total water intake was 1466 ml/24-h or 1.01 ml/kcal. Data of Uosm in 24-h urine samples and corresponding free-water reserve values of homogeneous groups of healthy subjects from all over the world might be useful parameters in epidemiology to investigate the health effects of different levels of 24-h euhydration. PMID:14681708

  5. Recovery of cortical binocularity and orientation selectivity after the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity.

    PubMed

    Liao, David S; Krahe, Thomas E; Prusky, Glen T; Medina, Alexandre E; Ramoa, Ary S

    2004-10-01

    Cortical binocularity is abolished by monocular deprivation (MD) during a critical period of development lasting from approximately postnatal day (P) 35 to P70 in ferrets. Although this is one of the best-characterized models of neural plasticity and amblyopia, very few studies have examined the requirements for recovery of cortical binocularity and orientation selectivity of deprived eye responses. Recent studies indicating that different mechanisms regulate loss and recovery of binocularity raise the possibility that different sensitive periods characterize loss and recovery of deprived eye responses. In this report, we have examined whether the potential for recovery of binocularity and orientation selectivity is restricted to the critical period. Quantitative single unit recordings revealed recovery of cortical binocularity and full recovery of orientation selectivity of deprived eye responses following prolonged periods of MD (i.e., >3 wk) starting at P49, near the peak of plasticity. Surprisingly, recovery was present when binocular vision was restored after the end of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity, as late as P83. In contrast, ferrets that had never received visual experience through the deprived eye failed to recover binocularity even though normal binocular vision was restored at P50, halfway through the critical period. Collectively, these results indicate that there is potential for recovery of cortical binocularity and deprived eye orientation selectivity after the end of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity.

  6. Effects of daily walking on office, home and 24-h blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yuko; Kawano, Yuhei; Minami, Junichi; Iwashima, Yoshio; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Nakamura, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been recommended in the management of hypertension. However, few studies have examined the effect of walking on ambulatory blood pressure (BP), and no studies have employed home BP monitoring. We investigated the effects of daily walking on office, home, and 24-h ambulatory BP in hypertensive patients. Sixty-five treated or untreated patients with essential hypertension (39 women and 26 men, 60 ± 9 years) were examined in a randomized cross-over design. The patients were asked to take a daily walk of 30-60 min to achieve 10 000 steps/d for 4 weeks, and to maintain usual activities for another 4 weeks. The number of steps taken and home BP were recorded everyday. Measurement of office and ambulatory BP, and sampling of blood and urine were performed at the end of each period. The average number of steps were 5349 ± 2267/d and 10 049 ± 3403/d in the control and walking period, respectively. Body weight and urinary sodium excretion did not change. Office, home, and 24-h BP in the walking period were lower compared to the control period by 2.6 ± 9.4/1.3 ± 4.9 mmHg (p < 0.05), 1.6 ± 6.8/1.5 ± 3.7 mmHg (p < 0.01), and 2.4 ± 7.6/1.8 ± 5.3 mmHg (p < 0.01), respectively. Average 24-h heart rate and serum triglyceride also decreased significantly. The changes in 24-h BP with walking significantly correlated with the average 24-h BP in the control period. In conclusion, daily walking lowered office, home, and 24-h BP, and improved 24-h heart rate and lipid metabolism in hypertensive patients. However, the small changes in BP may limit the value of walking as a non-pharmacologic therapy for hypertension. PMID:25815710

  7. 42 CFR 412.76 - Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.76 Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims. If a hospital's base-year costs, as estimated for purposes of determining... penalty or assessment, to include costs that were unlawfully claimed, the hospital's base-period costs...

  8. Design and scheduling for periodic concurrent error detection and recovery in processor arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Chung, Pi-Yu; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1992-01-01

    Periodic application of time-redundant error checking provides the trade-off between error detection latency and performance degradation. The goal is to achieve high error coverage while satisfying performance requirements. We derive the optimal scheduling of checking patterns in order to uniformly distribute the available checking capability and maximize the error coverage. Synchronous buffering designs using data forwarding and dynamic reconfiguration are described. Efficient single-cycle diagnosis is implemented by error pattern analysis and direct-mapped recovery cache. A rollback recovery scheme using start-up control for local recovery is also presented.

  9. Identification of 24h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lauren A; Radulović, Željko M; Kim, Tae K; Porter, Lindsay M; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ∼19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ∼81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ∼18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (∼3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (∼6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (∼31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (∼24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted.

  10. Identification of 24 h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Lauren A.; Radulović, Željko M.; Kim, Tae K.; Porter, Lindsay M.; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24 h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24 h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24 h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24 h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ~19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ~81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ~18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (~3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (~6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (~31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (~24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24 h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted. PMID:25825233

  11. 42 CFR 412.76 - Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims. 412.76 Section 412.76 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Determination...

  12. The Measurement of the Sensory Recovery Period in Zygoma and Blow-Out Fractures with Neurometer Current Perception Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Daemyung; Yun, Taebin; Choi, Jaehoon; Jeong, Woonhyeok; Chu, Hojun; Lee, Soyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background Facial hypoesthesia is one of the most troublesome complaints in the management of facial bone fractures. However, there is a lack of literature on facial sensory recovery after facial trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the facial sensory recovery period for facial bone fractures using Neurometer. Methods Sixty-three patients who underwent open reduction of zygomatic and blowout fractures between December 2013 and July 2015 were included in the study. The facial sensory status of the patients was repeatedly examined preoperatively and postoperatively by Neurometer current perception threshold (CPT) until the results were normalized. Results Among the 63 subjects, 30 patients had normal Neurometer results preoperatively and postoperatively. According to fracture types, 17 patients with blowout fracture had a median recovery period of 0.25 months. Twelve patients with zygomatic fracture had a median recovery period of 1.00 month. Four patients with both fracture types had a median recovery period of 0.625 months. The median recovery period of all 33 patients was 0.25 months. There was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period between types and subgroups of zygomatic and blowout fractures. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period according to Neurometer results and the patients' own subjective reports. Conclusions Neurometer CPT is effective for evaluating and comparing preoperative and postoperative facial sensory status and evaluating the sensory recovery period in facial bone fracture patients. PMID:27689047

  13. The Measurement of the Sensory Recovery Period in Zygoma and Blow-Out Fractures with Neurometer Current Perception Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Daemyung; Yun, Taebin; Choi, Jaehoon; Jeong, Woonhyeok; Chu, Hojun; Lee, Soyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background Facial hypoesthesia is one of the most troublesome complaints in the management of facial bone fractures. However, there is a lack of literature on facial sensory recovery after facial trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the facial sensory recovery period for facial bone fractures using Neurometer. Methods Sixty-three patients who underwent open reduction of zygomatic and blowout fractures between December 2013 and July 2015 were included in the study. The facial sensory status of the patients was repeatedly examined preoperatively and postoperatively by Neurometer current perception threshold (CPT) until the results were normalized. Results Among the 63 subjects, 30 patients had normal Neurometer results preoperatively and postoperatively. According to fracture types, 17 patients with blowout fracture had a median recovery period of 0.25 months. Twelve patients with zygomatic fracture had a median recovery period of 1.00 month. Four patients with both fracture types had a median recovery period of 0.625 months. The median recovery period of all 33 patients was 0.25 months. There was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period between types and subgroups of zygomatic and blowout fractures. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the sensory recovery period according to Neurometer results and the patients' own subjective reports. Conclusions Neurometer CPT is effective for evaluating and comparing preoperative and postoperative facial sensory status and evaluating the sensory recovery period in facial bone fracture patients.

  14. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  15. Recovery of partial differential operators on classes of periodic functions with mixed smoothness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balgimbayeva, Sholpan

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of optimal linear recovery for mixed partial differential operator A on the unit ball SBpθ r(Tn) of the Nikol'skii-Besov space of periodic functions with mixed smoothness. We find error bounds sharp in order for optimal linear recovery of operator A on class SBpθ r(Tn) . As information IMδ(f ) about the functions f from class SBpθ r(Tn) we shall use Fourier coefficients with numbers from step "hyperbolic" cross. As the linear method using the information about Fourier coefficients, we shall consider action of the mixed partial differential operator A on the special "private" sum of decomposition on system (type as wavelets) trigonometric polynomials.

  16. Investigating the recovery period of rat brain tissue after electrolytic and 980-nm laser induced lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkulak, Ozguncem; Tabakoglu, H. Ozgur; Aksoy, Ayla; Canbeyli, Resit; Bilgin, Nes'e.; Kurtkaya, Ozlem; Sav, Aydin; Gulsoy, Murat

    2003-10-01

    The effects of 980-nm diode laser and electrolytic lesions in Wistar rat brain tissue were observed by immunohistochemical staining for CD68 marker and Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E). Bilateral lesions; laser lesions (2W/2sec) in the right hemispheres, and electrolytic lesions (1.5mA/20sec) in the left hemispheres were done through in vivo stereotaxic neurosurgical procedure. Subjects were classified into three groups due to the recovery period. Subjects in Group I, II, and III were sacrificed after 0, 2 and 7 days of recovery period respectively. After saline perfusion their brains were dislocated, and paraffin embedded sections were taken. One section for H&E and one for CD68 were cut consecutively in 3μm thickness by examining the lesion in every 30-μm thickness. CD68 was found more efficient marker than H&E in observing the after-effects of both types of lesions. The total damage of laser was smaller than that of electrosurgical unit. The shape of the ablated area in laser induced lesions was more spherical than that of electrosurgical unit. The number of macrophages increased as the recovery period increased for all subjects. Group III showed the highest number of macrophages in three, and the number of macrophages around electrolytic lesion is nearly 1.5 times higher than that of laser lesion. The remarkable ablating ability, the damage zone created and the healing of nearby tissue clearly showed that the 980-nm diode laser is an effective and useful alternative to electrosurgical unit in neurosurgery.

  17. State of the mineral component of rat bone tissue during hypokinesia and the recovery period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volozhin, A. I.; Stupakov, G. P.; Pavlova, M. N.; Muradov, I. S.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on young growing rats. Hypokinesia lasting from 20 to 200 days caused retarded gain in weight and volume of the femur and delayed development of the cortical layer of the diaphysis. In contrast, the density of the cortical layer of the femoral diaphysis increased due to elevation of the mineral saturation of the bone tissue microstructures. Incorporation of Ca into the bone tissue in hypokinesia had a tendency to reduce. Partial normalization of the bone tissue mineral component occurred during a 20 day recovery period following hypokinesia.

  18. Effects of sleep fragmentation on appetite and related hormone concentrations over 24 h in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Martens, Eveline A P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-02-28

    In addition to short sleep duration, reduced sleep quality is also associated with appetite control. The present study examined the effect of sleep fragmentation, independent of sleep duration, on appetite profiles and 24 h profiles of hormones involved in energy balance regulation. A total of twelve healthy male subjects (age 23 (sd 4) years, BMI 24·4 (sd 1·9) kg/m²) completed a 24 h randomised crossover study in which sleep (23.30-07.30 hours) was either fragmented or non-fragmented. Polysomnography was used to determine rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and total sleep time (TST). Blood samples were taken at baseline and continued hourly for the 24 h period to measure glucose, insulin, ghrelin, leptin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and melatonin concentrations. In addition, salivary cortisol levels were measured. Visual analogue scales were used to score appetite-related feelings. Sleep fragmentation resulted in reduced REM sleep (69·4 min compared with 83·5 min; P< 0·05) and preservation of SWS without changes in TST. In fragmented v. non-fragmented sleep, glucose concentrations did not change, while insulin secretion was decreased in the morning, and increased in the afternoon (P< 0·05), and GLP-1 concentrations and fullness scores were lower (P< 0·05). After dinner, desire-to-eat ratings were higher after fragmented sleep (P< 0·05). A single night of fragmented sleep, resulting in reduced REM sleep, induced a shift in insulin concentrations, from being lower in the morning and higher in the afternoon, while GLP-1 concentrations and fullness scores were decreased. These results may lead to increased food intake and snacking, thus contributing to a positive energy balance.

  19. Glucocorticoids Affect 24 h Clock Genes Expression in Human Adipose Tissue Explant Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Abellán, Purificación; Díez-Noguera, Antoni; Madrid, Juan A.; Luján, Juan A.; Ordovás, José M.; Garaulet, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Aims to examine firstly whether CLOCK exhibits a circadian expression in human visceral (V) and subcutaneous (S) adipose tissue (AT) in vitro as compared with BMAL1 and PER2, and secondly to investigate the possible effect of the glucocorticoid analogue dexamethasone (DEX) on positive and negative clock genes expression. Subjects and Methods VAT and SAT biopsies were obtained from morbid obese women (body mass index≥40 kg/m2) (n = 6). In order to investigate rhythmic expression pattern of clock genes and the effect of DEX on CLOCK, PER2 and BMAL1 expression, control AT (without DEX) and AT explants treated with DEX (2 hours) were cultured during 24 h and gene expression was analyzed at the following times: 10:00 h, 14:00 h, 18:00 h, 22:00 h, 02:00 h and 06:00 h, using qRT-PCR. Results CLOCK, BMAL1 and PER2 expression exhibited circadian patterns in both VAT and SAT explants that were adjusted to a typical 24 h sinusoidal curve. PER2 expression (negative element) was in antiphase with respect to CLOCK and in phase with BMAL1 expression (both positive elements) in the SAT (situation not present in VAT). A marked effect of DEX exposure on both positive and negative clock genes expression patterns was observed. Indeed, DEX treatment modified the rhythmicity pattern towards altered patterns with a period lower than 24 hours in all genes and in both tissues. Conclusions 24 h patterns in CLOCK and BMAL1 (positive clock elements) and PER2 (negative element) mRNA levels were observed in human adipose explants. These patterns were altered by dexamethasone exposure. PMID:23251369

  20. Critical periods after stroke study: translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dromerick, Alexander W.; Edwardson, Matthew A.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Giannetti, Margot L.; Barth, Jessica; Brady, Kathaleen P.; Chan, Evan; Tan, Ming T.; Tamboli, Irfan; Chia, Ruth; Orquiza, Michael; Padilla, Robert M.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Mapstone, Mark E.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Federoff, Howard J.; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS) is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 h of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2–3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 1 year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial. PMID

  1. Water Recovery System Design to Accommodate Dormant Periods for Manned Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabb, David; Carter, Layne

    2015-01-01

    Future manned missions beyond lower Earth orbit may include intermittent periods of extended dormancy. Under the NASA Advanced Exploration System (AES) project, NASA personnel evaluated the viability of the ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) to support such a mission. The mission requirement includes the capability for life support systems to support crew activity, followed by a dormant period of up to one year, and subsequently for the life support systems to come back online for additional crewed missions. Dormancy could be a critical issue due to concerns with microbial growth or chemical degradation that might prevent water systems from operating properly when the crewed mission began. As such, it is critical that the water systems be designed to accommodate this dormant period. This paper details the results of this evaluation, which include identification of dormancy issues, results of testing performed to assess microbial stability of pretreated urine during dormancy periods, and concepts for updating to the WRS architecture and operational concepts that will enable the ISS WRS to support the dormancy requirement.

  2. Alterations in amino acid concentrations in the plasma and muscle in human subjects during 24 h of simulated adventure racing.

    PubMed

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Nordin, Marie; Mikael Mattsson, C; Enqvist, Jonas K; Blomstrand, Eva; Ekblom, Björn

    2012-10-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate changes in plasma and muscle levels of free amino acids during an ultra-endurance exercise and following recovery. Nine male ultra-endurance trained athletes participated in a 24-h standardized endurance trial with controlled energy intake. The participants performed 12 sessions of running, kayaking and cycling (4 × each discipline). Blood samples were collected before, during and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken before the test and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. During the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of branched-chain (BCAA), essential amino acids (EAA) and glutamine fell 13, 14 and 19% (P < 0.05), respectively, whereas their concentrations in muscle were unaltered. Simultaneously, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels rose 38 and 50% (P < 0.05) in the plasma and 66 and 46% (P < 0.05) in muscle, respectively. After the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of BCAA were positively correlated with muscle levels of glycogen (r (2) = 0.73, P < 0.05), as was the combined concentrations of muscle tyrosine and phenylalanine with plasma creatine kinase (R (2) = 0.55, P < 0.05). Following 28-h of recovery, plasma and muscle levels of amino acids had either returned to their initial levels or were elevated. In conclusion, ultra-endurance exercise caused significant changes elevations in plasma and muscle levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine, which suggest an increase in net muscle protein breakdown during exercise. There was a reduction in plasma concentrations of EAA and glutamine during exercise, whereas no changes were detected in their muscle concentration after exercise. PMID:22350359

  3. Effects of varying recovery periods on muscle enzymes, soreness, and performance in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Potteiger, J A; Blessing, D L; Wilson, G D

    1992-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of varied recovery time on serum creatine kinase (CK), serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), muscle soreness, and pitch velocity in baseball pitchers. Ten males who had pitching experience participated in the study. After an 18-day training period, subjects pitched three simulated games. Game A and Game B were separated by four days of rest, while Game B and Game C were separated by two days of rest. CK, LDH, and muscle soreness were evaluated at the following times: before and immediately after exercise, and six, 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. Muscle performance was evaluated by measuring pitch velocity during the games. The CK level was elevated after each game (Game A - 249 U/l; Game B - 243 U/l; and Game C - 240 U/l); then it dropped toward baseline (precovery time typically scheduled between games.

  4. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, reporting period March--August 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Activities of DOE's Oil Implementation Task Force for the period March--August 1991 are reviewed. Contracts for fields projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery are discussed, with a list of related publications given. Enhanced recovery processes covered include chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, and microbial recovery.

  5. Effects of different doses of nandrolone decanoate on estrous cycle and ovarian tissue of rats after treatment and recovery periods.

    PubMed

    Simão, Vinícius Augusto; Berloffa Belardin, Larissa; Araújo Leite, Gabriel Adan; de Almeida Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo; Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici

    2015-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that different doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND) will cause changes in the estrous cycle and ovarian tissue of adult rats; and investigated the duration of the recovery period that is sufficient to restore the damage in the animals treated with different doses. Wistar rats were treated with ND at doses of 1.87, 3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg body weight, or received mineral oil (control group) for 15 days, subcutaneously. All animals were divided into three groups according to the treatment periods: (i) ND treatment for 15 days; (ii) ND treatment followed by a 30-day recovery; and (iii) ND treatment followed by a 60-day recovery. Estrous cycle was monitored daily, and at the end of each period, the animals were euthanized for histopathological analysis. During ND treatment and after 30-day recovery, all animals exhibited persistent diestrus. After a 60-day recovery, persistent diestrus was only maintained in the group that had received the highest dose. Ovarian weight was decreased significantly after the 30-day recovery, regardless of ND doses, compared with the control group. There was a reduction (P < 0.05) in the number of corpora lutea and antral and growing follicles, in contrast to an increase (P < 0.05) in atretic follicles in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Remarkable histopathological changes occurred in the ovaries of all ND-treated groups. In conclusion, the different doses of ND caused changes in the estrous cycle and ovarian tissue of rats, and recovery periods (30 and 60 days) were insufficient to completely restore the damage in the animals treated with the highest dose. PMID:26575430

  6. Temporal and topographic profiles of cyclooxygenase-2 expression during 24 h of focal brain ishemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Chiaki; Kaji, Tomohito; Kuge, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Tamaki, Nagara; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2004-03-11

    Substantial increases in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and protein levels were demonstrated in the peri-infarct and focal ischemic areas after 3-24 and 12-24 h, respectively, in rats. In the ischemic core, significant increases in COX-2 mRNA followed 6 h of ischemia, though the peak level was about one-third of that in the peri-infarct area. Increases in COX-2 protein in the ischemic core were not observed during ischemic periods. Diffuse, neuronal COX-2 staining was found in peri-infarct areas as well as in discrete, immunoreactive neurons in the ischemic core. Robust increases in prostaglandin E2 levels in the peri-infarct area were demonstrated following 24 h of ischemia. Prostaglandin production as well as COX-2 expression in ischemic tissues depended on the degree and duration of the reduction in cerebral blood flow.

  7. Cerebral blood flow velocity in humans exposed to 24 h of head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, Y.; Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Deroshia, C. W.; Hargens, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in humans before, during, and after 24 h of 6 deg head-down tilt (HDT), which is a currently accepted experimental model to simulate microgravity. CBF velocity was measured by use of the transcranial Doppler technique in the right middle cerebral artery of eight healthy male subjects. Mean CBF velocity increased from the pre-HDT upright seated baseline value of 55.5 +/- 3.7 (SE) cm/s to 61.5 +/- 3.3 cm/s at 0.5 h of HDT, reached a peak value of 63.2 +/- 4.1 cm/s at 3 h of HDT, and remained significantly above the pre-HDT baseline for over 6 h of HDT. During upright seated recovery, mean CBF velocity decreased to 87 percent of the pre-HDT baseline value. Mean CBF velocity correlated well with calculated intracranial arterial pressure (IAP). As analyzed by linear regression, mean CBF velocity = 29.6 + 0.32IAP. These results suggest that HDT increases CBF velocity by increasing IAP during several hours after the onset of microgravity. Importantly, the decrease in CBF velocity after HDT may be responsible, in part, for the increased risk of syncope observed in subjects after prolonged bed rest and also in astronauts returning to Earth.

  8. Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video discusses the recovery events that occur in high-power rocketry and the various devices used in safely recovering the rocket. The video includes a discussion of black powder and ejection...

  9. [Recovery].

    PubMed

    Estingoy, Pierrette; Gilliot, Élodie; Parisot, Clément

    2015-01-01

    The historical fatalism of the impossibility of recovering from psychosis eased from the 1970s with the shaping of the idea of a possible recovery. Recovery is today the objective for the patient and caregivers. The key to achieving this lies in the encounter with Others. A collective approach, on the level of the institution, must be established. The aim is to create opportunities for the patient to express their doubts and feelings. PMID:26363659

  10. Normal values for 24-h urinary protein excretion: total and low molecular weight proteins with a sex-related difference.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, H; Murakami, T; Kajii, T

    1990-05-01

    Urinary excretion of total and low molecular weight (LMW) (less than 40,000) proteins for a 24-h period was determined in 60 normal individuals, 30 men and 30 women, aged 21 to 44 years. 24-h urinary total protein excretion in men was 91.2 +/- 25.1 mg (mean +/- SD) (range: 40.2-146.8 mg), while that in women was 62.5 +/- 23.6 mg (range: 28.4-130.9 mg), as measured by a biuret method using bicinchoninic acid as a reagent. 24-h urinary LMW protein excretion in men was 37.3 +/- 13.6 mg (range: 12.7-62.7 mg), while that in women was 23.2 +/- 11.8 mg (range: 7.2-54.2 mg), as estimated by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of concentrated urine samples. Thus, a significantly higher (t-test, p less than 0.01) excretion of both the total and LMW proteins was found in men than in women. However, the percentage of the LMW proteins among the total proteins did not differ between the sexes: 40.3 +/- 7.5% (range: 21.7-54.9%) for men and 36.5 +/- 9.9% (range: 20.1-56.7%) for women.

  11. Time course of the MAPK and PI3-kinase response within 24 h of skeletal muscle overload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, C. J.; Fan, Z.; Gordon, S. E.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which skeletal muscle hypertrophies in response to increased mechanical loading may lead to the discovery of novel treatment strategies for muscle wasting and frailty. To gain insight into potential early signaling mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the temporal pattern of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity during the first 24 h of muscle overload was determined in the rat slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles after ablation of the gastrocnemius muscle. p38alpha MAPK phosphorylation was elevated for the entire 24-h overload period in both muscles. In contrast, Erk 2 and p54 JNK phosphorylation were transiently increased by overload, returning to the levels of sham-operated controls by 24 h. PI3-kinase activity was increased by muscle overload only at 12 h of overload and only in the plantaris muscle. In summary, sustained elevation of p38alpha MAPK phosphorylation occurred early in response to muscle overload, identifying this pathway as a potential candidate for mediating early hypertrophic signals in response to skeletal muscle overload.

  12. Simultaneous recording of blood pressure and ST-segment with combined, triggered ambulatory 24-h devices.

    PubMed

    Uen, Sakir; Vetter, Hans; Mengden, Thomas

    2003-02-01

    Silent myocardial ischemia is defined as an ischemic episode without chest pain but with transient ST abnormalities during stress testing or Holter monitoring. With Holter monitoring the prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia in hypertensive patients without coronary artery disease is between 25% and 73%. Simultaneous recording of ambulatory 24-h ECG and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) with the option of additional ST-triggered blood pressure measurement is useful to detect silent ischemia and triggers of silent ischaemia. It is surprising that only a few combined 24-h Holter/ABPM devices are on the market, and in turn only three devices allow additional triggered blood pressure measurements. The paper provides an overview of studies investigating hypertensive patients with Holter monitoring for the detection of ST segment depression indicating myocardial ischaemia. Furthermore, requirements for combined devices allowing simultaneous ambulatory 24-h ECG and ABPM are defined.

  13. Impact of percentile computation method on PM 24-h air quality standard.

    PubMed

    Salako, Gbenga Oladoyin; Hopke, Philip K

    2012-09-30

    In 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) introduced a percentile form of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). Studies had shown that a specified percentile in the frequency distribution of measured values of PM increased the probability of detecting non-attainment areas (power) and decreased the likelihood of misclassification of attainment areas as being non-attainment (type 2 error). However, this new NAAQS used a percentile form that was different from a standard percentile in a distribution. Instead of taking the percentile of the distribution of the required 3 years of measurements, the PM(2.5) values for the selected percentile for each year were determined and the average of these 3 values was used as the NAAQS indicator value. However, no studies have been made of this average of the 3 years method and compared to a standard percentile in the multiyear data. The relationships between the values obtained using these two approaches have been explored. PM data measured at selected US EPA Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) website from January 2004 to December 2008 at 20 sites in 20 different states in United States were utilized. PM samples were collected for 24-h periods from midnight to midnight every third day for PM(2.5) and every sixth day for PM(10). At some sites, continuous measurements of PM(2.5) were made and averaged to provide 24-hr values. Using these data, the NAAQS percentile values were compared with the actual 98th percentile values of the three years of data. Regression and t-test analyses were used to compare these two methods and found high correlation coefficients and no significant difference in most cases. Overall, the two methods showed substantial agreement such that either of the two approaches could serve as the statistical form of the 24-h standard. In exploring the PM(10) standard, an arbitrarily chosen standard value of 85 μg/m(3) was used to explore the

  14. Physiological and biological factors associated with a 24 h treadmill ultra-marathon performance.

    PubMed

    Millet, G Y; Banfi, J C; Kerherve, H; Morin, J B; Vincent, L; Estrade, C; Geyssant, A; Feasson, L

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and biological factors associated with ultra-endurance performance. Fourteen male runners volunteered to run on a treadmill as many kilometers as possible over a 24-h period (24TR). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), velocity associated with VO(2max)(VO(2max)) and running economy (RE) at 8 km/h were measured. A muscle biopsy was also performed in the vastus lateralis muscle. The subjects ran 149.2 ± 15.7 km in 18 h 39 ± 41 min of effective attendance on the treadmill, corresponding to 39.4 ± 4.2% of . Standard multiple-regression analysis showed that performance was significantly (R(2) = 0.82; P = 0.005) related to VO(2max) and specific endurance, i.e. the average speed sustained over the 24TR expressed in . VO(2max) was associated with a high capillary tortuosity (R(2) = 0.66; P = 0.01). Specific endurance was significantly related to RE and citrate synthase activity. It is concluded that a high VO(2max) and an associated developed capillary network are essential for ultra-endurance running performance. The ability to maintain a high %VO(2max) over a 24TR is another factor associated with performance and is mainly related to RE and high mitochondrial oxidative capacity in the vastus lateralis. PMID:19883385

  15. Spectroscopic characterization of bone tissue of experimental animals after glucocorticoid treatment and recovery period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitić, Žarko J.; Najman, Stevo J.; Cakić, Milorad D.; Ajduković, Zorica R.; Ignjatović, Nenad L.; Nikolić, Ružica S.; Nikolić, Goran M.; Stojanović, Sanja T.; Vukelić, Marija Đ.; Trajanović, Miroslav D.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of glucocorticoids on the composition and mineral/organic content of the mandible in tested animals after recovery and healing phase was investigated in this work. The results of FTIR analysis demonstrated that bone tissue composition was changed after glucocorticoid treatment. The increase of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus content and mineral part of bones was statistically significant in recovery phase and in treatment phase that included calcitonin and thymus extract. Some changes also happened in the organic part of the matrix, as indicated by intensity changes for already present IR bands and the appearance of new IR bands in the region 3500-1300 cm-1.

  16. Risk factors for stillbirths and mortality during the first 24h of life on dairy farms in Hokkaido, Japan 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Kayano, M; Kadohira, M; Stevenson, M A

    2016-05-01

    This was a retrospective cohort study using data from the insurance scheme provided by the Japanese Mutual Aid Association (NOSAI). The population of interest comprised all cattle born on NOSAI-client farms in the Japanese prefecture of Hokkaido, Japan for the period 1 April 2005-31 March 2009. The outcome of interest was whether or not at least one calf was stillborn, had died during delivery or died during the first 24 hours of life for a given calving event, termed first 24h mortality risk. A mixed-effects logistic regression model was developed to identify explanatory variables associated with first 24h mortality risk. The final data set comprised details of 1,281,737 calving events on a total of 5172 dairy herds from 19 NOSAI branches located throughout the prefecture of Hokkaido. Throughout the study period 7.68 (95% CI 7.64-7.73) of every 100 calving events had at least one calf that was either stillborn, dead at the time of delivery or dead during the first 24h of life. Factors that were positively associated with an increase in first 24h mortality risk included delivery during the colder months of the year (November-March), being of Wagyu breed, having a multipara dam, multiple (as opposed to single) birth deliveries, and delivery in larger herds. ​After adjusting for the fixed effects included in our multilevel model, 89% of the unexplained variation in first 24h mortality risk was at the calving event level. We propose that the data recording requirements of the NOSAI scheme are extended to include details of calving events (e.g. the presence or absence of dystocia) and details of the way in which calves are managed post delivery. This would allow more subtle risk factors for calf mortality to be identified which, in turn, will lead to refinement of recommendations for calf management during the first 24h of life in this area of Japan.

  17. Functional lateral deviation of the mandible and its positional recovery on the rat condylar cartilage during the growth period.

    PubMed

    Sato, Chu; Muramoto, Takeshi; Soma, Kunimichi

    2006-07-01

    The objective was to examine the effects of a lateral functional shift of the rat mandible and the effects of a shift release on the condylar cartilage during the growth period. Fifty 5-week-old male Wistar rats were initially divided into three groups: shift, recovery, and control. At 5 weeks of age, each animal in the shift and recovery groups received an appliance designed to produce a lateral functional shift of the mandible to the left side. For the recovery group, the appliance was removed after 2 weeks. For the shift group, the appliance was used for 4 weeks. Total cartilage thickness, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeling index, and toluidine blue and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cell number in the condylar cartilage at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks were compared with those in age-matched controls that had no appliances. In the shift group at 2 weeks, the cartilage thickness and labeling index increased in the central region on the contralateral side, whereas these decreased in the lateral region on the ipsilateral side. However, in the recovery group, 1 to 2 weeks after appliance removal, the cartilage thickness and labeling index in both investigated regions became similar to the control groups. These results emphasize the importance of early treatment to normalize occlusion and create appropriate conditions for normal occlusal development.

  18. Does an Adolescent's Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Deborah A; Wright, Janine L; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Boushey, Carol J

    2015-05-13

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents' accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents' accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days.

  19. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A.; Wright, Janine L.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  20. Analysis of Thermal and Chemical Effets on Negative Valve Overlap Period Energy Recovery for Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ekoto, Dr Isaac; Peterson, Dr. Brian; Szybist, James P; Northrop, Dr. William

    2015-01-01

    A central challenge for efficient auto-ignition controlled low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines has been achieving the combustion phasing needed to reach stable performance over a wide operating regime. The negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy has been explored as a way to improve combustion stability through a combination of charge heating and altered reactivity via a recompression stroke with a pilot fuel injection. The study objective was to analyze the thermal and chemical effects on NVO-period energy recovery. The analysis leveraged experimental gas sampling results obtained from a single-cylinder LTGC engine along with cylinder pressure measurements and custom data reduction methods used to estimate period thermodynamic properties. The engine was fueled by either iso-octane or ethanol, and operated under sweeps of NVO-period oxygen concentration, injection timing, and fueling rate. Gas sampling at the end of the NVO period was performed via a custom dump-valve apparatus, with detailed sample speciation by in-house gas chromatography. The balance of NVO-period input and output energy flows was calculated in terms of fuel energy, work, heat loss, and change in sensible energy. Experiment results were complemented by detailed chemistry single-zone reactor simulations performed at relevant mixing and thermodynamic conditions, with results used to evaluate ignition behavior and expected energy recovery yields. For the intermediate bulk-gas temperatures present during the NVO period (900-1100 K), weak negative temperature coefficient behavior with iso-octane fueling significantly lengthened ignition delays relative to similar ethanol fueled conditions. Faster ethanol ignition chemistry led to lower recovered fuel intermediate yields relative to similar iso-octane fueled conditions due to more complete fuel oxidation. From the energy analysis it was found that increased NVO-period global equivalence ratio, either from lower NVOperiod oxygen

  1. Involvement of protein synthesis in recovery from refractory period of electrical depolarization induced by osmotic stimulation in Chara corallina.

    PubMed

    Shimmen, Teruo

    2011-09-01

    Upon addition of sorbitol to the external medium of an internodal cell of Chara corallina, a transient depolarization is induced at its nodal end (Shimmen in Plant Cell Physiol 44:1215-1224, 2003). In the present study, refractory period was found to be very long, 2-4 h. Recovery from refractoriness was completely inhibited by inhibitors of eukaryote-type protein synthesis, cycloheximide or anisomysin, but not by inhibitors of prokaryote-type protein synthesis. This suggested that proteinous factor(s) responsible for generation of the depolarization is lost or inactivated upon depolarization and synthesized during the resting state. Low temperature, which is supposed to inhibit protein synthesis, also inhibited recovery from refractoriness. When unstimulated internodal cells were incubated in the medium containing an inhibitor of eukaryote-type protein synthesis, generation of the depolarization was almost completely inhibited. This result suggested that the factor is slowly turning over even in the absence of osmotic stimulation.

  2. Semi-annual report for the unconventional gas recovery program, period ending September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Manilla, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    Progress is reported in research on methane recovery from coalbeds, eastern gas shales, western gas sands, and geopressured aquifers. In the methane from coalbeds project, data on information evaluation and management, resource and site assessment and characterization, model development, instrumentation, basic research, and production technology development are reported. In the methane from eastern gas shales project, data on resource characterization and inventory, extraction technology, and technology testing and verification are presented. In the western gas sands project, data on resource assessments, field tests and demonstrations and project management are reported. In the methane from geopressured aquifers project, data on resource assessment, supporting research, field tests and demonstrations, and technology transfer are reported.

  3. Evaluation of reduction of Fraser incubation by 24h in the EN ISO 11290-1 standard on detection and diversity of Listeria species.

    PubMed

    Gnanou Besse, Nathalie; Favret, Sandra; Desreumaux, Jennifer; Decourseulles Brasseur, Emilie; Kalmokoff, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The EN ISO 11290-1 method for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from food is carried out using a double enrichment in Fraser broths. While the method is effective it is also quite long requiring 4-7 days to process a contaminated food, and may be adversely affected by inter-strain and/or inter-species competition in samples containing mixed Listeria populations. Currently, we have little information on the impact of competition on food testing under routine conditions. Food samples (n=130) were analyzed using the standard method and the evolution of Listeria populations in 89 naturally contaminated samples followed over the entire enrichment process. In most instances, maximum increase in L. monocytogenes population occurred over the first 24h following sub-culture in Full Fraser broth and strain recovery was similar at both 24 and 48 h, indicating that the second enrichment step can be reduced by 24h without impacting the recovery of L. monocytogenes or affecting the sensitivity of the method. In approximately 6% of naturally contaminated samples the presence of competing Listeria species adversely impacted L. monocytogenes population levels. Moreover, these effects were more pronounced during the latter 24h of the Fraser enrichment, and potentially could affect or complicate the isolation of these strains.

  4. Evaluation of reduction of Fraser incubation by 24h in the EN ISO 11290-1 standard on detection and diversity of Listeria species.

    PubMed

    Gnanou Besse, Nathalie; Favret, Sandra; Desreumaux, Jennifer; Decourseulles Brasseur, Emilie; Kalmokoff, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The EN ISO 11290-1 method for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from food is carried out using a double enrichment in Fraser broths. While the method is effective it is also quite long requiring 4-7 days to process a contaminated food, and may be adversely affected by inter-strain and/or inter-species competition in samples containing mixed Listeria populations. Currently, we have little information on the impact of competition on food testing under routine conditions. Food samples (n=130) were analyzed using the standard method and the evolution of Listeria populations in 89 naturally contaminated samples followed over the entire enrichment process. In most instances, maximum increase in L. monocytogenes population occurred over the first 24h following sub-culture in Full Fraser broth and strain recovery was similar at both 24 and 48 h, indicating that the second enrichment step can be reduced by 24h without impacting the recovery of L. monocytogenes or affecting the sensitivity of the method. In approximately 6% of naturally contaminated samples the presence of competing Listeria species adversely impacted L. monocytogenes population levels. Moreover, these effects were more pronounced during the latter 24h of the Fraser enrichment, and potentially could affect or complicate the isolation of these strains. PMID:26913375

  5. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  6. Parabens in 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Moos, Rebecca K; Koch, Holger M; Angerer, Jürgen; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Brüning, Thomas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care and consumer products, food and pharmaceuticals. Due to their ubiquity, humans are constantly exposed to these chemicals. We assessed exposure to nine parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, n- and iso-propyl-, n- and iso-butyl-, benzyl-, pentyl- and heptyl paraben) in the German population from 1995 to 2012 based on 660 24h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) using on-line HPLC coupled to isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg/L for all parabens. We detected methyl-, ethyl- and n-propyl paraben in 79-99% of samples, followed by n-butyl paraben in 40% of samples. We infrequently detected iso-butyl-, iso-propyl- and benzyl paraben in 24%, 4% and 1.4% of samples, respectively. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 39.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 319 μg/L) followed by n-propyl paraben (4.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 74.0 μg/L) and ethyl paraben (2.1 μg/L; 95th percentile 39.1 μg/L). Women had significantly higher urinary levels for all parabens than men, except for benzyl paraben. Samples from the ESB revealed that over the investigation period of nearly 20 years urinary paraben levels remained surprisingly constant; only methyl paraben had a significant increase, for both men and women. We found strong correlations between methyl- and n-propyl paraben and between n- and iso-butyl paraben. These results indicate that parabens are used in combination and arise from common sources of exposure. Urinary excretion factors are needed to extrapolate from individual urinary concentrations to actual doses.

  7. Sensitive Period for the Recovery of the Response Rate of the Wind-Evoked Escape Behavior of Unilaterally Cercus-Ablated Crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus).

    PubMed

    Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Kanou, Masamichi

    2015-04-01

    We examined the compensational recovery of the response rate (relative occurrence) of the wind-evoked escape behavior in unilaterally cercus-ablated crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) and elucidated the existence of a sensitive period for such recovery by rearing the crickets under different conditions. In one experiment, each cricket was reared in an apparatus called a walking inducer (WI) to increase the sensory input to the remaining cercus, i.e., the self-generated wind caused by walking. In another experiment, each cricket was reared in a small plastic case separate from the outside atmosphere (wind-free: WF). In this rearing condition, the cricket did not experience self-generated wind as walking was prohibited. During the recovery period after the unilateral cercus ablation, the crickets were reared under either the WI or WF condition to investigate the role of the sensory inputs on the compensational recovery of the response rate. The compensational recovery of the response rate occurred only in the crickets reared under the WI condition during the early period after the ablation. In particular, WI rearing during the first three days after the ablation resulted in the largest compensational recovery in the response rate. In contrast, no compensational recovery was observed in the crickets reared under the WF condition during the first three days. These results suggest that a sensitive period exists in which sensory inputs from the remaining cercus affect the compensational recovery of the response rate more effectively than during other periods.

  8. The plasmapause period of magnetic recovery. Combined study of OGO 4, OGO 5 data and of grounded whistler reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcuff, P.; Corcuff, Y.; Carpenter, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Vigneron, J.; Kleimenova, N.

    1972-01-01

    The equatorial structure and dynamics of the plasmasphere during the period of magnetic recovery, lasting from the 13 to 23 of September 1968, are studied. The H(+) ions density profiles measured in the night and afternoon sectors by the excentered orbital satellite OGO 5 and L sub p positions of the plasmapause deduced from the VLF records of the polar orbital satellite OGO 4, are included. Electron densities are calculated from the whistlers received at Kerguelen (L approximately 3, 7) and Byrd (L approximately 7), ground stations 150 degrees of longitude apart.

  9. NQRS Data for C24H20BK (Subst. No. 1576)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BK (Subst. No. 1576)

  10. Differences in 24-h blood pressure profile of Japanese hypertensive patients under ARB treatment.

    PubMed

    Kita, Toshihiro; Sakima, Atsushi; Yokota, Naoto; Tamaki, Noboru; Etoh, Takuma; Shimokubo, Toru; Nakada, Seigo; Takishita, Shuichi; Ohya, Yusuke; Kitamura, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) control throughout the entire day is recommended for cardiovascular protection. Angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely used in hypertensive patients because of beneficial class effects. It is uncertain, however, whether are there any differences in 24-h BP profiles among ARBs. We examined ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) among 211 Japanese hypertensive patients (age, 69.4 ± 9.6 years; female, 59.2%) under treatment with five different ARBs. Patients were divided into five groups according to ARBs prescribed. Patient backgrounds were almost identical in all the groups and there were no differences in office, 24-h and daytime BP; however, nighttime BP with olmesartan was significantly lower than with other ARBs. Office BPs with candesartan and telmisartan, but not other ARBs, correlated well with 24-h BP (p < 0.01). Also, there were higher correlations between daytime and nighttime BP with candesartan and telmisartan. In all patients, pulse pressure with office BP was significantly correlated with ambulatory arterial stiffness index (p = 0.001) and fluctuation of systolic BP on ABPM (p = 0.002). In conclusion, different ARB treatments produced meaningful differences in 24-h profiles.

  11. Taste of a 24-h diet and its effect on subsequent food preferences and satiety.

    PubMed

    Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Mars, Monica; Finlayson, Graham; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of taste of a 24-h diet on subsequent food preferences (food choice and intake of specific food categories) and satiety. We used a crossover design, consisting of a 24-h fully controlled dietary intervention, during which 39 healthy subjects consumed diets that were predominantly sweet tasting, savory tasting, or a mixture. The diets were similar in energy content, macronutrient composition, and number of different products used. Following the intervention an ad libitum lunch buffet was offered the next day, consisting of food items differing in taste (sweet/savory) and protein content (low/high) and intake was measured. The results showed that the taste of the diet significantly altered preference for food according to their taste properties (p<0.0001); after the savory diet, intake of sweet foods was higher than of savory foods. After the sweet diet, savory foods tended to be preferred (p=0.07). No interaction was seen between the taste of the diet and food preference according to their protein content (p=0.67). No differences in total energy intake (kJ) at the ad libitum lunch buffet were observed (p=0.58). It appears that in healthy subjects, taste of a 24-h diet largely affects subsequent food preferences in terms of sensory appetite, whereby savory taste exerts the strongest modulating effect. Taste of a 24-h diet has no effect on macronutrient appetite.

  12. NQRS Data for C24H20BCs (Subst. No. 1575)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BCs (Subst. No. 1575)

  13. NQRS Data for C24H24BN (Subst. No. 1583)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H24BN (Subst. No. 1583)

  14. Probable maximum precipitation for 24-h duration over an equatorial region: Part 2-Johor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desa M., M. N.; Rakhecha, P. R.

    2007-03-01

    Probable maximum precipitation (PMP) is a characteristic of rainfall at a particular location that can be used in designing water impounding structures. The PMP for rainfall stations in Malaysia by Hershfield statistical method in earlier studies was estimated using a frequency factor of 15 which is the highest value in the world. The value of 15 as frequency was found to be too high for a humid country like Malaysia. The objective of this study therefore was to provide a fresh and reliable estimates of PMP in Malaysia using historical rainfall data. In this updating study, annual maximum 1-day rainfall data from 39 rainfall stations with records longer than 15 years found in the state of Johor, Malaysia, were analysed to obtain estimates of 24-h point PMP using an appropriate frequency factor calculated. Results of the 24-h PMP are presented in the mapped form. It was found that 24-h PMP over Johor varied from about 400 mm to over 1000 mm and there is a tendency for PMP to be higher on the east coast while decreasing westwards. The average ratio of the 24-h PMP to the highest observed rainfall was found to be about 2.0.

  15. Recovery of systems with a linear filter and nonlinear delay feedback in periodic regimes.

    PubMed

    Ponomarenko, V I; Prokhorov, M D

    2008-12-01

    We propose a set of methods for the estimation of the parameters of time-delay systems with a linear filter and nonlinear delay feedback performing periodic oscillations. The methods are based on an analysis of the system response to regular external perturbations and are valid only for systems whose dynamics can be perturbed. The efficiency of the methods is illustrated using both numerical and experimental data.

  16. 24-h Fluid Kinetics and Perception of Sweat Losses Following a 1-h Run in a Temperate Environment

    PubMed Central

    O’Neal, Eric K.; Caufield, Christina R.; Lowe, Jordan B.; Stevenson, Mary C.; Davis, Brett A.; Thigpen, Lauren K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men = 12, women = 8) after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature = 19.9 ± 3.0 °C). Sweat losses (1353 ± 422 mL; 1.9% ± 0.5% of body mass) were significantly greater (p < 0.001) than perceived losses (686 ± 586 mL). Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876 ± 1133 mL (218 ± 178 mL during) with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450 ± 678 mL). Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554 ± 669 mL at 12 h and +1186 ± 735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG) = 1.018 ± 0.008) with no changes (p = 0.33) at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p = 0.004) at 12 h post-run for men (1.025 ± 0.0070 vs. 1.014 ± 0.007), who consumed 171% ± 40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268% ± 88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses. PMID:24451307

  17. 24-h fluid kinetics and perception of sweat losses following a 1-h run in a temperate environment.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Eric K; Caufield, Christina R; Lowe, Jordan B; Stevenson, Mary C; Davis, Brett A; Thigpen, Lauren K

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men=12, women=8) after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature=19.9±3.0 °C). Sweat losses (1353±422 mL; 1.9%±0.5% of body mass) were significantly greater (p<0.001) than perceived losses (686±586 mL). Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876±1133 mL (218±178 mL during) with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450±678 mL). Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554±669 mL at 12 h and +1186±735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG)=1.018±0.008) with no changes (p=0.33) at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p=0.004) at 12 h post-run for men (1.025±0.0070 vs. 1.014±0.007), who consumed 171%±40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268%±88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses.

  18. 24-h fluid kinetics and perception of sweat losses following a 1-h run in a temperate environment.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Eric K; Caufield, Christina R; Lowe, Jordan B; Stevenson, Mary C; Davis, Brett A; Thigpen, Lauren K

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men=12, women=8) after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature=19.9±3.0 °C). Sweat losses (1353±422 mL; 1.9%±0.5% of body mass) were significantly greater (p<0.001) than perceived losses (686±586 mL). Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876±1133 mL (218±178 mL during) with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450±678 mL). Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554±669 mL at 12 h and +1186±735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG)=1.018±0.008) with no changes (p=0.33) at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p=0.004) at 12 h post-run for men (1.025±0.0070 vs. 1.014±0.007), who consumed 171%±40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268%±88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses. PMID:24451307

  19. [Does flumazenil, a benzodiazepine antagonist used during the anesthesia recovery period, have an anxiogenic effect?].

    PubMed

    Beauvoir, C; Peschaud, J L; Pares-Herbute, N; du Cailar, J

    1989-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the degree of postoperative anxiety flumazenil might provide in patients when used to reverse the sedation induced by midazolam. Twenty-four patients, aged 18 to 60 yrs, and scheduled for elective orthopaedic surgery of the upper limb, were included in the study Regional anaesthesia (brachial plexus block) was carried out 20 min after the patient had been premedicated with 0.15 mg.kg-1 intramuscular midazolam. When the block was clinically complete, 0.12 mg.kg-1 midazolam was given intravenously. Sedation was maintained throughout surgery using 0.03 mg.kg-1 midazolam every quarter of an hour (mean total dose 0.206 mg.kg-1). At the end of the procedure, the patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups: A+, the patients were given 0.1 mg intravenous flumazenil repeated every min until the patient was fully awake (mean 4.5 +/- 2.6 micrograms.kg-1); and A-, the patients were allowed to recover spontaneously. A wakefulness, and a determination just before premedication (E1, P1, H1 respectively). The degree of recovery was assessed in both groups, and, when the value of the wakefulness test had returned to that of E1 (E2) (E2 = E1), P2 and H2 were carried out. There were no statistically significant differences between P1 and P2, and between H1 and H2, and this for either group of patients. So, the doses of flumazenil used, which awoke all the patients within 3 min, did not create any anxiety. In accordance with most of the recently published studies, flumazenil can be safely used to reverse benzodiazepine induced sedation.

  20. [Continuous spectrum analysis during anesthesia and the recovery period in infants under 1 year of age].

    PubMed

    Meyer, P; Bensouda, A; Mayer, M N; Barrier, G

    1989-01-01

    Continuous spectral EEG activity monitoring has been used in adults as a monitor of brain activity during anesthesia. It has not been used in infants. We studied 22 infants less than 7 months old undergoing minor surgery. Halothane alone or minimal Halothane anesthesia associated with caudal epidural anesthesia were used. Life-Scan analysis, in spite of wide individual variations, allowed us to detect infraclinical hypoxia episodes, it provided informations about operative confort, depth of anesthesia and added in the post-operative period an objective criteria to clinical evaluation of pain. A wide use of such a monitoring is warranted in infants.

  1. [Continuous spectrum analysis during anesthesia and the recovery period in infants under 1 year of age].

    PubMed

    Meyer, P; Bensouda, A; Mayer, M N; Barrier, G

    1989-01-01

    Continuous spectral EEG activity monitoring has been used in adults as a monitor of brain activity during anesthesia. It has not been used in infants. We studied 22 infants less than 7 months old undergoing minor surgery. Halothane alone or minimal Halothane anesthesia associated with caudal epidural anesthesia were used. Life-Scan analysis, in spite of wide individual variations, allowed us to detect infraclinical hypoxia episodes, it provided informations about operative confort, depth of anesthesia and added in the post-operative period an objective criteria to clinical evaluation of pain. A wide use of such a monitoring is warranted in infants. PMID:2631593

  2. Clinical and Laboratory Responses of Cross-Country Skiing for a 24-H World Record: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, Markus; Juvonen, Jukka; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Niemelä, Onni; Juvonen, Tatu

    2015-12-01

    The physiological consequences of ultra-endurance cross-country skiing in cold conditions are poorly known. We report here clinical, echocardiographic and laboratory findings from a 41-y old male elite skier in a world record trial for 24-h skiing. The athlete completed a total of 406.8 km outdoors with the temperature ranging between -24°C and -5°C during the 24-h period. Post exercise, notable increases from baseline values were observed in myoglobin (50-fold), creatinine kinase (30-fold) and proBNP (6-fold), whereas troponin T or troponin I levels remained unchanged. At baseline, echocardiographic findings showed cardiac hypertrophy and after skiing, a 5% reduction of left-ventricular end-diastolic dimension. Increases in markers of kidney (creatinine) and liver function (alanine aminotransferase), serum uric acid, C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts were also noted. In addition, electrolyte disturbances including hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia and hypocalcaemia were noted during the follow-up. The data indicates that a prolonged period of high-intensity skiing leads to muscle, heart and kidney affection and activation of inflammation even in an experienced elite skier. The observed health effects underscore the need for strict medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration. Key pointsAn elite athlete was able to ski over 400 km during 24 hours with an outdoor temperature ranging between -5 °C and -24 °C.Several postrace abnormalities occurred in biomarkers of muscle, heart, kidney, liver and inflammation status.Serum troponins, specific markers of myocardial cell damage, remained stable.The report supports careful medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration.

  3. Clinical and Laboratory Responses of Cross-Country Skiing for a 24-H World Record: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Niemelä, Markus; Juvonen, Jukka; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Niemelä, Onni; Juvonen, Tatu

    2015-01-01

    The physiological consequences of ultra-endurance cross-country skiing in cold conditions are poorly known. We report here clinical, echocardiographic and laboratory findings from a 41-y old male elite skier in a world record trial for 24-h skiing. The athlete completed a total of 406.8 km outdoors with the temperature ranging between -24°C and –5°C during the 24-h period. Post exercise, notable increases from baseline values were observed in myoglobin (50-fold), creatinine kinase (30-fold) and proBNP (6-fold), whereas troponin T or troponin I levels remained unchanged. At baseline, echocardiographic findings showed cardiac hypertrophy and after skiing, a 5% reduction of left-ventricular end-diastolic dimension. Increases in markers of kidney (creatinine) and liver function (alanine aminotransferase), serum uric acid, C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts were also noted. In addition, electrolyte disturbances including hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia and hypocalcaemia were noted during the follow-up. The data indicates that a prolonged period of high-intensity skiing leads to muscle, heart and kidney affection and activation of inflammation even in an experienced elite skier. The observed health effects underscore the need for strict medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration. Key points An elite athlete was able to ski over 400 km during 24 hours with an outdoor temperature ranging between –5 °C and –24 °C. Several postrace abnormalities occurred in biomarkers of muscle, heart, kidney, liver and inflammation status. Serum troponins, specific markers of myocardial cell damage, remained stable. The report supports careful medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration. PMID:26664265

  4. High-intensity interval exercise induces 24-h energy expenditure similar to traditional endurance exercise despite reduced time commitment.

    PubMed

    Skelly, Lauren E; Andrews, Patricia C; Gillen, Jenna B; Martin, Brian J; Percival, Michael E; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Subjects performed high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (END) to evaluate 24-h oxygen consumption. Oxygen consumption during HIIT was lower versus END; however, total oxygen consumption over 24 h was similar. These data demonstrate that HIIT and END induce similar 24-h energy expenditure, which may explain the comparable changes in body composition reported despite lower total training volume and time commitment.

  5. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time

    PubMed Central

    Erwin; Gunanti; Handharyani, Ekowati; Noviana, Deni

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Materials and Methods: Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days), Group II (for 4 days), and Group III (for 6 days). In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. Result: The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. Conclusion: The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III. PMID:27284224

  6. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8–53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7–45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885–4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654–4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4–23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1–4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33–1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34–2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49–2.53, P < 0

  7. Cytomembrane ATP-sensitive K+ channels in neurovascular unit targets of ischemic stroke in the recovery period

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Pan, Sipei; Zheng, Xiaolu; Wan, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The present study was to analyze the mechanism of cytomembrane ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP) in the neurovascular unit treatment of ischemic stroke in the recovery period. A total of 24 healthy adult male Wistar rats of 5–8 weeks age, weighing 160–200 g were randomly divided into the control (sham-operation group), model, KATP blocker and KATP opener groups (n=6 rats per group). Nylon cerebral artery occlusion was conducted using nylon monofilament coated with Poly-L-lysine, which was used to produce a cerebral infarction model. After feeding normally for 3 days, 5-hydroxydecanoate (40 mg/Kg), and diazoxide (40 mg/Kg) were injected to the abdominal cavity in the blocker, and opener groups, respectively. The control received an equivalent normal saline that was injected into the sham-operation and model groups. The animals were mutilated and samples were collected after 3 days. RT-PCR was used to detect the expression levels of the three subunits of KATP, i.e., kir6.1, and sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) 1 and SUR2 mRNA, as well as to calculate infarct size in tetrazolium chloride staining. The expression level of mRNA in the opener group were significantly higher, followed by the model and blocker groups, with the control group being the lowest (P<0.05). Infarct size in the opener group was markedly smaller than the model and blocker groups, and infarct size in the blocker group was significantly larger (P<0.05). Thus, the target treatment on KATP may improve the prognosis of ischemic stroke during the recovery period. PMID:27446320

  8. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate with 24-h urinalysis and stone composition.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Daniel M; Friedlander, Justin I; Hartman, Christopher; Gershman, Boris; Smith, Arthur D; Okeke, Zeph

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with 24-h urine analysis and stone composition. We performed a retrospective review of 1060 stone formers with 24-h urinalysis, of which 499 had stone composition analysis available. Comparisons of baseline patient characteristics and urinary abnormalities across eGFR groups (<60, 60-89.9, ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) were performed using Fisher's exact test for categorical data and analysis of variance for continuous variables. Analyses of 24-h urinalysis and stone composition across eGFR groups were performed using linear regression with eGFR groups as a continuous variable to evaluate trends. Of the 1060 patients in the study, 595 (56 %) were males. The mean age was 53.8 years. A total of 38 (4 %), 77 (7 %), and 945 (89 %) patients had eGFR <60, 60-89.9, and ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower body-mass index, and female gender (all P < 0.05). Lower eGFR was also associated with lower urinary volume, calcium, citrate, uric acid, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfate, and creatinine on both univariable and multivariable analyses, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities and medication use (all P < 0.05). The prevalence of hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria was associated with decreased eGFR, while hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and hyperphosphaturia were associated with higher eGFR (all P < 0.05). Stone composition was similar across eGFR groups (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, lower eGFR was associated with lower excretion of urinary elements in a routine 24-h urinalysis, but similar stone composition. PMID:26573808

  9. Exercise Increases 24-h Fat Oxidation Only When It Is Performed Before Breakfast

    PubMed Central

    Iwayama, Kaito; Kurihara, Reiko; Nabekura, Yoshiharu; Kawabuchi, Ryosuke; Park, Insung; Kobayashi, Masashi; Ogata, Hitomi; Kayaba, Momoko; Satoh, Makoto; Tokuyama, Kumpei

    2015-01-01

    Background As part of the growing lifestyle diversity in modern society, there is wide variation in the time of day individuals choose to exercise. Recent surveys in the US and Japan have reported that on weekdays, more people exercise in the evening, with fewer individuals exercising in the morning or afternoon. Exercise performed in the post-prandial state has little effect on accumulated fat oxidation over 24 h (24-h fat oxidation) when energy intake is matched to energy expenditure (energy-balanced condition). The present study explored the possibility that exercise increases 24-h fat oxidation only when performed in a post-absorptive state, i.e. before breakfast. Methods Indirect calorimetry using a metabolic chamber was performed in 10 young, non-obese men over 24 h. Subjects remained sedentary (control) or performed 60-min exercise before breakfast (morning), after lunch (afternoon), or after dinner (evening) at 50% of VO2max. All trials were designed to be energy balanced over 24 h. Time course of energy and substrate balance relative to the start of calorimetry were estimated from the differences between input (meal consumption) and output (oxidation). Findings Fat oxidation over 24 h was increased only when exercise was performed before breakfast (control, 456 ± 61; morning, 717 ± 64; afternoon, 446 ± 57; and evening, 432 ± 44 kcal/day). Fat oxidation over 24 h was negatively correlated with the magnitude of the transient deficit in energy and carbohydrate. Interpretation Under energy-balanced conditions, 24-h fat oxidation was increased by exercise only when performed before breakfast. Transient carbohydrate deficits, i.e., glycogen depletion, observed after morning exercise may have contributed to increased 24-h fat oxidation. PMID:26844280

  10. Nqrs Data for C24H20MnO4P (Subst. No. 1581)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20MnO4P (Subst. No. 1581)

  11. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate with 24-h urinalysis and stone composition.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Daniel M; Friedlander, Justin I; Hartman, Christopher; Gershman, Boris; Smith, Arthur D; Okeke, Zeph

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with 24-h urine analysis and stone composition. We performed a retrospective review of 1060 stone formers with 24-h urinalysis, of which 499 had stone composition analysis available. Comparisons of baseline patient characteristics and urinary abnormalities across eGFR groups (<60, 60-89.9, ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) were performed using Fisher's exact test for categorical data and analysis of variance for continuous variables. Analyses of 24-h urinalysis and stone composition across eGFR groups were performed using linear regression with eGFR groups as a continuous variable to evaluate trends. Of the 1060 patients in the study, 595 (56 %) were males. The mean age was 53.8 years. A total of 38 (4 %), 77 (7 %), and 945 (89 %) patients had eGFR <60, 60-89.9, and ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower body-mass index, and female gender (all P < 0.05). Lower eGFR was also associated with lower urinary volume, calcium, citrate, uric acid, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfate, and creatinine on both univariable and multivariable analyses, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities and medication use (all P < 0.05). The prevalence of hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria was associated with decreased eGFR, while hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and hyperphosphaturia were associated with higher eGFR (all P < 0.05). Stone composition was similar across eGFR groups (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, lower eGFR was associated with lower excretion of urinary elements in a routine 24-h urinalysis, but similar stone composition.

  12. Nqrs Data for C24H42Li2N4 (Subst. No. 1587)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H42Li2N4 (Subst. No. 1587)

  13. Transcriptomic response of Arabidopsis thaliana after 24 h incubation with the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Morán-Diez, Eugenia; Rubio, Belén; Domínguez, Sara; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Nicolás, Carlos

    2012-04-15

    Trichoderma harzianum is a fungus used as biocontrol agent using its antagonistic abilities against phytopathogenic fungi, although it has also direct effects on plants, increasing or accelerating their growth and resistance to diseases and the tolerance to abiotic stresses. We analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression changes after 24 h of incubation in the presence of T. harzianum T34 using the Affymetrix GeneChip Arabidopsis ATH1. Because this microarray contains more than 22,500 probe sets representing approximately 24,000 genes, we were able to construct a global picture of the molecular physiology of the plant at 24 h of T. harzianum-Arabidopsis interaction. We identified several differentially expressed genes that are involved in plant responses to stress, regulation of transcription, signal transduction or plant metabolism. Our data support the hypothesis that salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-related genes were down-regulated in A. thaliana after 24 h of incubation in the presence of T. harzianum T34, while several genes related to abiotic stress responses were up-regulated. These systemic changes elicited by T. harzianum in Arabidopsis are discussed.

  14. Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michelle C; Albar, Salwa A; Morris, Michelle A; Mulla, Umme Z; Hancock, Neil; Evans, Charlotte E; Alwan, Nisreen A; Greenwood, Darren C; Hardie, Laura J; Frost, Gary S; Wark, Petra A; Cade, Janet E

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a food diary), has been developed for use in the UK population. Development of myfood24 was a multi-stage process. Focus groups conducted with three age groups, adolescents (11-18 years) (n = 28), adults (19-64 years) (n = 24) and older adults (≥ 65 years) (n = 5) informed the development of the tool, and usability testing was conducted with beta (adolescents n = 14, adults n = 8, older adults n = 1) and live (adolescents n = 70, adults n = 20, older adults n = 4) versions. Median system usability scale (SUS) scores (measured on a scale of 0-100) in adolescents and adults were marginal for the beta version (adolescents median SUS = 66, interquartile range (IQR) = 20; adults median SUS = 68, IQR = 40) and good for the live version (adolescents median SUS = 73, IQR = 22; adults median SUS = 80, IQR = 25). Myfood24 is the first online 24-h dietary recall tool for use with different age groups in the UK. Usability testing indicates that myfood24 is suitable for use in UK adolescents and adults. PMID:26024292

  15. Effects of insufficient sleep on blood pressure in hypertensive patients: a 24-h study.

    PubMed

    Lusardi, P; Zoppi, A; Preti, P; Pesce, R M; Piazza, E; Fogari, R

    1999-01-01

    The influence of acute sleep deprivation during the first part of the night on 24-h blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was studied in 36 never-treated mild to moderate hypertensive patients. According to a crossover design, they were randomized to have either sleep deprivation or a full night's sleep 1 week apart, during which they were monitored with ABPM. Urine samples for analysis of nocturnal urinary excretion of norepinephrine were collected. During the sleep-deprivation day, both mean 24-h blood pressure and mean 24-h heart rate were higher in comparison with those recorded during the routine workday, the difference being more pronounced during the nighttime (P < .01). Urinary excretion of norepinephrine showed a significant increase at night during sleep deprivation (P < .05). Blood pressure and heart rate significantly increased in the morning after a sleep-insufficient night (P < .05). These data suggest that lack of sleep in hypertensive patients may increase sympathetic nervous activity during the night and the following morning, leading to increased blood pressure and heart rate. This situation might represent an increased risk for both target organ damage and acute cardiovascular diseases. PMID:10075386

  16. Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michelle C.; Albar, Salwa A.; Morris, Michelle A.; Mulla, Umme Z.; Hancock, Neil; Evans, Charlotte E.; Alwan, Nisreen A.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Frost, Gary S.; Wark, Petra A.; Cade, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a food diary), has been developed for use in the UK population. Development of myfood24 was a multi-stage process. Focus groups conducted with three age groups, adolescents (11–18 years) (n = 28), adults (19–64 years) (n = 24) and older adults (≥65 years) (n = 5) informed the development of the tool, and usability testing was conducted with beta (adolescents n = 14, adults n = 8, older adults n = 1) and live (adolescents n = 70, adults n = 20, older adults n = 4) versions. Median system usability scale (SUS) scores (measured on a scale of 0–100) in adolescents and adults were marginal for the beta version (adolescents median SUS = 66, interquartile range (IQR) = 20; adults median SUS = 68, IQR = 40) and good for the live version (adolescents median SUS = 73, IQR = 22; adults median SUS = 80, IQR = 25). Myfood24 is the first online 24-h dietary recall tool for use with different age groups in the UK. Usability testing indicates that myfood24 is suitable for use in UK adolescents and adults. PMID:26024292

  17. Metabolic effects of altering the 24 h energy intake in man, using direct and indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Dauncey, M J

    1980-03-01

    1. The metabolic effects of increasing or decreasing the usual energy intake for only 1 d were assessed in eight adult volunteers. Each subject lived for 28 h in a whole-body calorimeter at 26 degrees on three separate occasions of high, medium or low energy intake. Intakes (mean +/- SEM) of 13830 +/- 475 (high), 8400 +/- 510 (medium) and 3700 +/- 359 (low) kj/24 h were eaten in three meals of identical nutrient composition. 2. Energy expenditure was measured continuously by two methods: direct calorimetry, as total heat loss partitioned into its evaporative and sensible components: and indirect calorimetry, as heat production calculated from oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. For the twenty-four sessions there was a mean difference of only 1.2 +/- 0.14 (SEM) % between the two estimates of 24 h energy expenditure, with heat loss being less than heat production. Since experimental error was involved in both estimates it would be wrong to ascribe greater accuracy to either one of the measures of energy expenditure. 3. Despite the wide variation in the metabolic responses of the subjects to over-eating and under-eating, in comparison with the medium intake the 24 h heat production increased significantly by 10% on the high intake and decreased by 6% on the low intake. Mean (+/- SEM) values for 24 h heat production were 8770 +/- 288, 7896 +/- 297 and 7495 +/- 253 kJ on the high, medium and low intakes respectively. The effects of over-eating were greatest at night and the resting metabolic rate remained elevated by 12% 14 h after the last meal. By contrast, during under-eating the metabolic rate at night decreased by only 1%. 4. Evaporative heat loss accounted for an average of 25% of the total heat loss at each level of intake. Changes in evaporative heat loss were +14% on the high intake and -10% on the low intake. Sensible heat loss altered by +9 and -5% on the high and low intakes respectively. 5. It is concluded that (a) the effects on 24 h energy

  18. Pulse Arrival Time Based Cuff-Less and 24-H Wearable Blood Pressure Monitoring and its Diagnostic Value in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yali; Poon, Carmen C Y; Yan, Bryan P; Lau, James Y W

    2016-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Current standard ABPM devices use an oscillometric cuff-based method which can cause physical discomfort to the patients with repeated inflations and deflations, especially during nighttime leading to sleep disturbance. The ability to measure ambulatory BP accurately and comfortably without a cuff would be attractive. This study validated the accuracy of a cuff-less approach for ABPM using pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements on both healthy and hypertensive subjects for potential use in hypertensive management, which is the first of its kind. The wearable cuff-less device was evaluated against a standard cuff-based device on 24 subjects of which 15 have known hypertension. BP measurements were taken from each subject over a 24-h period by the cuff-less and cuff-based devices every 15 to 30 minutes during daily activities. Mean BP of each subject during daytime, nighttime and over 24-h were calculated. Agreement between mean nighttime systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measured by the two devices evaluated using Bland-Altman plot were -1.4 ± 6.6 and 0.4 ± 6.7 mmHg, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) statistics was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the cuff-less approach in the detection of BP above the hypertension threshold during nighttime (>120/70 mmHg). The area under ROC curves were 0.975/0.79 for nighttime. The results suggest that PAT-based approach is accurate and promising for ABPM without the issue of sleep disturbances associated with cuff-based devices. PMID:27447469

  19. The acceptability of repeat Internet-based hybrid diet assessment of previous 24-h dietary intake: administration of the Oxford WebQ in UK Biobank.

    PubMed

    Galante, Julieta; Adamska, Ligia; Young, Alan; Young, Heather; Littlejohns, Thomas J; Gallacher, John; Allen, Naomi

    2016-02-28

    Although dietary intake over a single 24-h period may be atypical of an individual's habitual pattern, multiple 24-h dietary assessments can be representative of habitual intake and help in assessing seasonal variation. Web-based questionnaires are convenient for the participant and result in automatic data capture for study investigators. This study reports on the acceptability of repeated web-based administration of the Oxford WebQ--a 24-h recall of frequency from a set food list suitable for self-completion from which energy and nutrient values can be automatically generated. As part of the UK Biobank study, four invitations to complete the Oxford WebQ were sent by email over a 16-month period. Overall, 176 012 (53% of those invited) participants completed the online version of the Oxford WebQ at least once and 66% completed it more than once, although only 16% completed it on all four occasions. The response rate for any one round of invitations varied between 34 and 26%. On most occasions, the Oxford WebQ was completed on the same day that they received the invitation, although this was less likely if sent on a weekend. Participants who completed the Oxford WebQ tended to be white, female, slightly older, less deprived and more educated, which is typical of health-conscious volunteer-based studies. These findings provide preliminary evidence to suggest that repeated 24-h dietary assessment via the Internet is acceptable to the public and a feasible strategy for large population-based studies. PMID:26652593

  20. NaV1.4 mutations cause hypokalaemic periodic paralysis by disrupting IIIS4 movement during recovery.

    PubMed

    Groome, James R; Lehmann-Horn, Frank; Fan, Chunxiang; Wolf, Markus; Winston, Vern; Merlini, Luciano; Jurkat-Rott, Karin

    2014-04-01

    Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis is typically associated with mutations of voltage sensor residues in calcium or sodium channels of skeletal muscle. To date, causative sodium channel mutations have been studied only for the two outermost arginine residues in S4 voltage sensor segments of domains I to III. These mutations produce depolarization of skeletal muscle fibres in response to reduced extracellular potassium, owing to an inward cation-selective gating pore current activated by hyperpolarization. Here, we describe mutations of the third arginine, R3, in the domain III voltage sensor i.e. an R1135H mutation which was found in two patients in separate families and a novel R1135C mutation identified in a third patient in another family. Muscle fibres from a patient harbouring the R1135H mutation showed increased depolarization tendency at normal and reduced extracellular potassium compatible with the diagnosis. Additionally, amplitude and rise time of action potentials were reduced compared with controls, even for holding potentials at which all NaV1.4 are fully recovered from inactivation. These findings may be because of an outward omega current activated at positive potentials. Expression of R1135H/C in mammalian cells indicates further gating defects that include significantly enhanced entry into inactivation and prolonged recovery that may additionally contribute to action potential inhibition at the physiological resting potential. After S4 immobilization in the outward position, mutant channels produce an inward omega current that most likely depolarizes the resting potential and produces the hypokalaemia-induced weakness. Gating current recordings reveal that mutations at R3 inhibit S4 deactivation before recovery, and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that this defect is caused by disrupted interactions of domain III S2 countercharges with S4 arginines R2 to R4 during repolarization of the membrane. This work reveals a novel mechanism of disrupted S

  1. Oxidative fuel selection and shivering thermogenesis during a 12- and 24-h cold-survival simulation.

    PubMed

    Haman, François; Mantha, Olivier L; Cheung, Stephen S; DuCharme, Michel B; Taber, Michael; Blondin, Denis P; McGarr, Gregory W; Hartley, Geoffrey L; Hynes, Zach; Basset, Fabien A

    2016-03-15

    Because the majority of cold exposure studies are constrained to short-term durations of several hours, the long-term metabolic demands of cold exposure, such as during survival situations, remain largely unknown. The present study provides the first estimates of thermogenic rate, oxidative fuel selection, and muscle recruitment during a 24-h cold-survival simulation. Using combined indirect calorimetry and electrophysiological and isotopic methods, changes in muscle glycogen, total carbohydrate, lipid, protein oxidation, muscle recruitment, and whole body thermogenic rate were determined in underfed and noncold-acclimatized men during a simulated accidental exposure to 7.5 °C for 12 to 24 h. In noncold-acclimatized healthy men, cold exposure induced a decrease of ∼0.8 °C in core temperature and a decrease of ∼6.1 °C in mean skin temperature (range, 5.4-6.9 °C). Results showed that total heat production increased by approximately 1.3- to 1.5-fold in the cold and remained constant throughout cold exposure. Interestingly, this constant rise in Ḣprod and shivering intensity was accompanied by a large modification in fuel selection that occurred between 6 and 12 h; total carbohydrate oxidation decreased by 2.4-fold, and lipid oxidation doubled progressively from baseline to 24 h. Clearly, such changes in fuel selection dramatically reduces the utilization of limited muscle glycogen reserves, thus extending the predicted time to muscle glycogen depletion to as much as 15 days rather than the previous estimates of approximately 30-40 h. Further research is needed to determine whether this would also be the case under different nutritional and/or colder conditions. PMID:26718783

  2. Monitoring training load, recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in elite female basketball players during a periodized training program.

    PubMed

    Nunes, João A; Moreira, Alexandre; Crewther, Blair T; Nosaka, Ken; Viveiros, Luis; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of a periodized training program on internal training load (ITL), recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in 19 elite female basketball players. The participants were monitored across a 12-week period before an international championship, which included 2 overloading and tapering phases. The first overloading phase (fourth to sixth week) was followed by a 1-week tapering, and the second overloading phase (eighth to 10th week) was followed by a 2-week tapering. ITL (session rating of perceived exertion method) and recovery-stress state (RESTQ-76 Sport questionnaire) were assessed weekly and bi-weekly, respectively. Pretraining and posttraining assessments included measures of salivary IgA, testosterone and cortisol concentrations, strength, jumping power, running endurance, and agility. Internal training load increased across all weeks from 2 to 11 (p ≤ 0.05). After the first tapering period (week 7), a further increase in ITL was observed during the second overloading phase (p ≤ 0.05). After the second tapering period, a decrease in ITL was detected (p ≤ 0.05). A disturbance in athlete stress-recovery state was noted during the second overloading period (p ≤ 0.05), before returning to baseline level in end of the second tapering period. The training program led to significant improvements in the physical performance parameters evaluated. The salivary measures did not change despite the fluctuations in ITL. In conclusion, a periodized training program evoked changes in ITL in elite female basketball players, which appeared to influence their recovery-stress state. The training plan was effective in preparing participants for competition, as indicated by improvements in recovery-stress state and physical performance after tapering.

  3. The impact of a 24-h ultra-marathon on salivary antimicrobial protein responses.

    PubMed

    Gill, S K; Teixeira, A M; Rosado, F; Hankey, J; Wright, A; Marczak, S; Murray, A; Costa, R J S

    2014-10-01

    Depressed oral respiratory mucosal immunity and increased incidence of upper respiratory symptoms are commonly reported after bouts of prolonged exercise. The current study observed the impact of a 24-h continuous overnight ultra-marathon competition (distance range: 122-208 km; ambient temperature range: 0-20 °C) on salivary antimicrobial protein responses and incidence of upper respiratory symptoms. Body mass, unstimulated saliva and venous blood samples were taken from ultra-endurance runners (n=25) and controls (n=17), before and immediately after competition. Upper respiratory symptoms were assessed during and until 4-weeks after event completion. Samples were analyzed for salivary IgA, lysozyme, α-amylase and cortisol in addition to plasma osmolality. Decreased saliva flow rate (p<0.001), salivary IgA (p<0.001) and lysozyme (p=0.015) secretion rates, and increased salivary α-amylase secretion rate (p<0.001) and cortisol responses (p<0.001) were observed post-competition in runners, with no changes being observed in controls. No incidences of upper respiratory symptoms were reported by participants. A 24-h continuous overnight ultra-marathon resulted in the depression of some salivary antimicrobial protein responses, but no incidences of upper respiratory symptoms were evident during or following competition. Salivary antimicrobial protein synergism, effective management of non-infectious episodes, maintaining euhydration, and (or) favourable environmental influences could have accounted for the low prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms. PMID:24886918

  4. 24-h blood pressure in Space: The dark side of being an astronaut.

    PubMed

    Karemaker, John M; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke

    2009-10-01

    Inflight 24-h profiles of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded in 2 ESA-astronauts by automatic upper arm cuff measurements. In one astronaut this was combined with Portapres continuous finger blood pressure recordings. It was the intention to contrast the latter to 24-h recordings in an earlier Head-Down-Tilted (HDT) bed rest study [Voogel, A.J., Stok, W.J., Pretorius, P.J., Van Montfrans, G.A., Langewouters, G.J., Karemaker, J.M., 1997. Circadian blood pressure and systemic haemodynamics during 42 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt. Acta Physiol. Scand. 161, pp. 71-80]. BP-levels in Space were not very much changed from preflight; the circadian BP-rhythm seemed dampened. Only daytime diastolic pressures (both subjects) and nighttime HR (one subject) were significantly lower in Space. However, compared to the effect of a control tilt manoeuvre on the ground, even lower BP values might have been expected. Striking were the BP- and HR-surges during the working days in Space, often related to stressful moments like live appearances on public TV. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) dropped during the night, unlike HDT. Thus, actual spaceflight refuted our earlier findings in HDT both for BP-levels and for daytime to nighttime changes. The combined observations lead to the hypothesis that short-lasting spaceflight may induce strong psychological stress in astronauts. When interpreting space-physiological observations this must be taken into account.

  5. Preliminary estimation of deoxynivalenol excretion through a 24 h pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Mañes, Jordi; Berrada, Houda; Font, Guillermina

    2015-02-25

    A duplicate diet study was designed to explore the occurrence of 15 Fusarium mycotoxins in the 24 h-diet consumed by one volunteer as well as the levels of mycotoxins in his 24 h-collected urine. The employed methodology involved solvent extraction at high ionic strength followed by dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography determination coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem. Satisfactory results in method performance were achieved. The method's accuracy was in a range of 68%-108%, with intra-day relative standard deviation and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 12% and 15%, respectively. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.1 to 8 µg/Kg. The matrix effect was evaluated and matrix-matched calibrations were used for quantitation. Only deoxynivalenol (DON) was quantified in both food and urine samples. A total DON daily intake amounted to 49.2 ± 5.6 µg whereas DON daily excretion of 35.2 ± 4.3 µg was determined. DON daily intake represented 68.3% of the established DON provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI). Valuable preliminary information was obtained as regards DON excretion and needs to be confirmed in large-scale monitoring studies.

  6. Preliminary Estimation of Deoxynivalenol Excretion through a 24 h Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Mañes, Jordi; Berrada, Houda; Font, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    A duplicate diet study was designed to explore the occurrence of 15 Fusarium mycotoxins in the 24 h-diet consumed by one volunteer as well as the levels of mycotoxins in his 24 h-collected urine. The employed methodology involved solvent extraction at high ionic strength followed by dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography determination coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem. Satisfactory results in method performance were achieved. The method’s accuracy was in a range of 68%–108%, with intra-day relative standard deviation and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 12% and 15%, respectively. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.1 to 8 µg/Kg. The matrix effect was evaluated and matrix-matched calibrations were used for quantitation. Only deoxynivalenol (DON) was quantified in both food and urine samples. A total DON daily intake amounted to 49.2 ± 5.6 µg whereas DON daily excretion of 35.2 ± 4.3 µg was determined. DON daily intake represented 68.3% of the established DON provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI). Valuable preliminary information was obtained as regards DON excretion and needs to be confirmed in large-scale monitoring studies. PMID:25723325

  7. Nocturnal sleep-related variables from 24-h free-living waist-worn accelerometry: International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tudor-Locke, C; Mire, E F; Barreira, T V; Schuna, J M; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kurpad, A; Kuriyan, R; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Zhao, P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We describe the process of identifying and defining nocturnal sleep-related variables (for example, movement/non-movement indicators of sleep efficiency, waking episodes, midpoint and so on) using the unique 24-h waist-worn free-living accelerometer data collected in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE). Methods: Seven consecutive days of 24-h waist-worn accelerometer (GT3X+, ActiGraph LLC) data were collected from over 500 children at each site. An expert subgroup of the research team with accelerometry expertize, frontline data collectors and data managers met on several occasions to categorize and operationally define nocturnal accelerometer signal data patterns. The iterative process was informed by the raw data drawn from a sub set of the US data, and culminated in a refined and replicable delineated definition for each identified nocturnal sleep-related variable. Ultimately based on 6318 participants from all 12 ISCOLE sites with valid total sleep episode time (TSET), we report average clock times for nocturnal sleep onset, offset and midpoint in addition to sleep period time, TSET and restful sleep efficiency (among other derived variables). Results: Nocturnal sleep onset occurred at 2218 hours and nocturnal sleep offset at 0707 hours. The mean midpoint was 0243 hours. The sleep period time of 529.6 min (8.8 h) was typically accumulated in a single episode, making the average TSET very similar in duration (529.0 min). The mean restful sleep efficiency ranged from 86.8% (based on absolute non-movement of 0 counts per minute) to 96.0% (based on relative non-movement of <100 counts per minute). Conclusions: These variables extend the potential of field-based 24-h waist-worn accelerometry to distinguish and categorize the underlying robust patterns of movement/non-movement signals conveying magnitude, duration, frequency and periodicity during the nocturnal sleep period. PMID:27152185

  8. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Chen, Hui; Bo, Jian; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    24-h urinary sodium excretion is the gold standard for evaluating dietary sodium intake, but it is often not feasible in large epidemiological studies due to high participant burden and cost. Three methods—Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka—have been proposed to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these methods have not been validated in the general Chinese population. This aim of this study was to assess the validity of three methods for estimating 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples against measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion in a Chinese sample population. Data are from a substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study that enrolled 120 participants aged 35 to 70 years and collected their morning fasting urine and 24-h urine specimens. Bias calculations (estimated values minus measured values) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity of the three estimation methods. 116 participants were included in the final analysis. Mean bias for the Kawasaki method was -740 mg/day (95% CI: -1219, 262 mg/day), and was the lowest among the three methods. Mean bias for the Tanaka method was -2305 mg/day (95% CI: -2735, 1875 mg/day). Mean bias for the INTERSALT method was -2797 mg/day (95% CI: -3245, 2349 mg/day), and was the highest of the three methods. Bland-Altman plots indicated that all three methods underestimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urines all underestimated true 24-h urinary sodium excretion in this sample of Chinese adults. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was least biased, but was still relatively inaccurate. A more accurate method is needed to estimate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine for assessment of dietary sodium intake in China. PMID:26895296

  9. The Effect of Active versus Passive Recovery Periods during High Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Local Tissue Oxygenation in 18 – 30 Year Old Sedentary Men

    PubMed Central

    Kerhervé, Hugo A.; Askew, Christopher D.; Solomon, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient format of exercise to reduce the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Changes in oxygen utilisation at the local tissue level during an acute session of HIIT could be the primary stimulus for the health benefits associated with this format of exercise. The recovery periods of HIIT effect the physiological responses that occur during the session. It was hypothesised that in sedentary individuals, local and systemic oxygen utilisation would be higher during HIIT interspersed with active recovery periods, when compared to passive recovery periods. Methods Twelve sedentary males (mean ± SD; age 23 ± 3 yr) completed three conditions on a cycle ergometer: 1) HIIT with passive recovery periods between four bouts (HIITPASS) 2) HIIT with active recovery periods between four bouts (HIITACT) 3) HIITACT with four HIIT bouts replaced with passive periods (REC). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius (GN) muscles and the pre-frontal cortex (FH), oxygen consumption (VO2), power output and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously during the three conditions. Results There was a significant increase in HHb at VL during bouts 2 (p = 0.017), 3 (p = 0.035) and 4 (p = 0.035) in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS. Mean power output was significantly lower in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS (p < 0.001). There was a significant main effect for site in both HIITPASS (p = 0.029) and HIITACT (p = 0.005). There were no significant differences in VO2 and HR between HIITPASS and HIITACT. Conclusions The increase in HHb at VL and the lower mean power output during HIITACT could indicate that a higher level of deoxygenation contributes to decreased mechanical power in sedentary participants. The significant differences in HHb between sites indicates the specificity of oxygen utilisation. PMID:27677081

  10. Temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolite levels in bedtime, morning, and 24-h urine samples for 50 adults in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Marsha K; Sobus, Jon R; Barr, Dana Boyd; Croghan, Carry W; Chen, Fu-Lin; Walker, Richard; Alston, Lillian; Andersen, Erik; Clifton, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insects in both agricultural and residential settings worldwide. Few data are available on the temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolites in the urine of non-occupationally exposed adults. In this work, we describe the study design and sampling methodology for the Pilot Study to Estimate Human Exposures to Pyrethroids using an Exposure Reconstruction Approach (Ex-R study). Two major objectives were to quantify the concentrations of several pyrethroid metabolites in bedtime, first morning void (FMV), and 24-h urine samples as concentration (wet weight), specific-gravity (SG) corrected, creatinine (CR) corrected, and excretion rate values for 50 Ex-R adults over a six-week monitoring period and to determine if these correction approaches for urine dilution reduced the variability of the biomarker levels. The Ex-R study was conducted at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Human Studies Facility in Chapel Hill, North Carolina USA and at participants' homes within a 40-mile radius of this facility. Recruitment of participants and field activities occurred between October 2009 and May 2011. Participants, ages 19-50 years old, provided daily food, activity, and pesticide-use diaries and collected their own urine samples (bedtime, FMV, and 24-h) during weeks 1, 2, and 6 of a six-week monitoring period. A total of 2503 urine samples were collected from the study participants. These samples were analyzed for the pyrethroid metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), cis/trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis/trans-DCCA), and 2-methyl-3-phenylbenzoic acid (MPA) using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Only 3-PBA was frequently detected (>50%) in the adult urine samples. Median urinary 3-PBA levels were 0.88 ng/mL, 0.96 ng/mL-SG, 1.04 ng/mg, and 1.04 ng/min for concentration, SG-corrected, CR-corrected, and excretion rate values, respectively

  11. Glucose enhancement of 24-h memory retrieval in healthy elderly humans.

    PubMed

    Manning, C A; Stone, W S; Korol, D L; Gold, P E

    1998-06-01

    When administered soon before or after training, glucose facilitates memory in rodents and in several populations of humans, including healthy elderly people. Thus, glucose appears to enhance memory formation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. By assessing the effects of glucose at the time of memory tests, the present experiment examined the role of glucose on memory retrieval in healthy elderly people. On four sessions separated by a week, glucose or saccharin were administered immediately before hearing a narrative prose passage, as in previous experiments, or immediately before being tested for recall of the passage (24 h after training). Subjects recalled significantly more information after glucose ingestion than after saccharin ingestion whether the glucose was given before acquisition or memory tests. In addition, recall was significantly better in the preacquisition glucose condition relative to recall in the retrieval glucose condition. These findings provide evidence that glucose enhances both memory storage and retrieval.

  12. Master runners dominate 24-h ultramarathons worldwide—a retrospective data analysis from 1998 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were to examine (a) participation and performance trends and (b) the age of peak running performance in master athletes competing in 24-h ultra-marathons held worldwide between 1998 and 2011. Methods Changes in both running speed and the age of peak running speed in 24-h master ultra-marathoners (39,664 finishers, including 8,013 women and 31,651 men) were analyzed. Results The number of 24-h ultra-marathoners increased for both women and men across years (P < 0.01). The age of the annual fastest woman decreased from 48 years in 1998 to 35 years in 2011. The age of peaking running speed remained unchanged across time at 42.5 ± 5.2 years for the annual fastest men (P > 0.05). The age of the annual top ten women decreased from 42.6 ± 5.9 years (1998) to 40.1 ± 7.0 years (2011) (P < 0.01). For the annual top ten men, the age of peak running speed remained unchanged at 42 ± 2 years (P > 0.05). Running speed remained unchanged over time at 11.4 ± 0.4 km h-1 for the annual fastest men and 10.0 ± 0.2 km/h for the annual fastest women, respectively (P > 0.05). For the annual ten fastest women, running speed increased over time by 3.2% from 9.3 ± 0.3 to 9.6 ± 0.3 km/h (P < 0.01). Running speed of the annual top ten men remained unchanged at 10.8 ± 0.3 km/h (P > 0.05). Women in age groups 25–29 (r2 = 0.61, P < 0.01), 30–34 (r2 = 0.48, P < 0.01), 35–39 (r2 = 0.42, P = 0.01), 40–44 (r2 = 0.46, P < 0.01), 55–59 (r2 = 0.41, P = 0.03), and 60–64 (r2 = 0.57, P < 0.01) improved running speed; while women in age groups 45–49 and 50–54 maintained running speed (P > 0.05). Men improved running speed in age groups 25–29 (r2 = 0.48, P = 0.02), 45–49 (r2 = 0.34, P = 0.03), 50–54 (r2 = 0.50, P < 0.01), 55–59 (r2 = 0.70, P < 0.01), and 60–64 (r2 = 0.44, P = 0.03); while runners in age groups 30–34, 35–39, and 40–44 maintained running speed (P > 0.05). Conclusions Female and male age group runners improved

  13. Reduced efficiency, but increased fat oxidation, in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24-h ultraendurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Fernström, Maria; Bakkman, Linda; Tonkonogi, Michail; Shabalina, Irina G; Rozhdestvenskaya, Zinaida; Mattsson, C Mikael; Enqvist, Jonas K; Ekblom, Björn; Sahlin, Kent

    2007-05-01

    The hypothesis that ultraendurance exercise influences muscle mitochondrial function has been investigated. Athletes in ultraendurance performance performed running, kayaking, and cycling at 60% of their peak O(2) consumption for 24 h. Muscle biopsies were taken preexercise (Pre-Ex), postexercise (Post-Ex), and after 28 h of recovery (Rec). Respiration was analyzed in isolated mitochondria during state 3 (coupled to ATP synthesis) and state 4 (noncoupled respiration), with fatty acids alone [palmitoyl carnitine (PC)] or together with pyruvate (Pyr). Electron transport chain activity was measured with NADH in permeabilized mitochondria. State 3 respiration with PC increased Post-Ex by 39 and 41% (P < 0.05) when related to mitochondrial protein and to electron transport chain activity, respectively. State 3 respiration with Pyr was not changed (P > 0.05). State 4 respiration with PC increased Post-Ex but was lower than Pre-Ex at Rec (P < 0.05 vs. Pre-Ex). Mitochondrial efficiency [amount of added ADP divided by oxygen consumed during state 3 (P/O ratio)] decreased Post-Ex by 9 and 6% (P < 0.05) with PC and PC + Pyr, respectively. P/O ratio remained reduced at Rec. Muscle uncoupling protein 3, measured with Western blotting, was not changed Post-Ex but tended to decrease at Rec (P = 0.07 vs. Pre-Ex). In conclusion, extreme endurance exercise decreases mitochondrial efficiency. This will increase oxygen demand and may partly explain the observed elevation in whole body oxygen consumption during standardized exercise (+13%). The increased mitochondrial capacity for PC oxidation indicates plasticity in substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, which may be of advantage during prolonged exercise.

  14. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-08-02

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  15. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-01-01

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  16. 24-h blood pressure monitoring in normal tension glaucoma: night-time blood pressure variability.

    PubMed

    Plange, N; Kaup, M; Daneljan, L; Predel, H G; Remky, A; Arend, O

    2006-02-01

    Systemic arterial hypotension, hypertension and altered ocular blood flow are known risk factors in glaucoma. In this study, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and controls to evaluate blood pressure variability. In all, 51 patients with NTG and 28 age-matched controls were included in this prospective study. A 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (SpaceLabs Medical Inc., Redmond, USA) was performed and systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures were measured every 30 min during daytime (0800-2000) and night time (0000-0600). To evaluate blood pressure variability a variability index was defined as the s.d. of blood pressure measurements. Night-time blood pressure depression ('dip') was calculated (in percent of the daytime blood pressures). Patients with NTG exhibited higher night-time diastolic (P = 0.01) and mean arterial blood pressure values (P = 0.02) compared to controls, whereas systolic blood pressure data were not significantly different. The variability indices of night-time systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure measurements were significantly increased in patients with NTG compared to controls (P < 0.05). The night-time blood pressure depression of systolic (P = 0.47), diastolic (P = 0.11) and mean arterial blood pressures (P = 0.28) was not significantly different between patients with NTG and controls. In conclusion, patients with NTG showed increased variability of night-time blood pressure measurements compared to controls. Increased fluctuation of blood pressure may lead to ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation and may cause ischaemic episodes at the optic nerve head. PMID:16239898

  17. Sleep-like behavior and 24-h rhythm disruption in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heise, I; Fisher, S P; Banks, G T; Wells, S; Peirson, S N; Foster, R G; Nolan, P M

    2015-02-01

    Down syndrome is a common disorder associated with intellectual disability in humans. Among a variety of severe health problems, patients with Down syndrome exhibit disrupted sleep and abnormal 24-h rest/activity patterns. The transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome, Tc1, is a trans-species mouse model for Down syndrome, carrying most of human chromosome 21 in addition to the normal complement of mouse chromosomes and expresses many of the phenotypes characteristic of Down syndrome. To date, however, sleep and circadian rhythms have not been characterized in Tc1 mice. Using both circadian wheel-running analysis and video-based sleep scoring, we showed that these mice exhibited fragmented patterns of sleep-like behaviour during the light phase of a 12:12-h light/dark (LD) cycle with an extended period of continuous wakefulness at the beginning of the dark phase. Moreover, an acute light pulse during night-time was less effective in inducing sleep-like behaviour in Tc1 animals than in wild-type controls. In wheel-running analysis, free running in constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) showed no changes in the circadian period of Tc1 animals although they did express subtle behavioural differences including a reduction in total distance travelled on the wheel and differences in the acrophase of activity in LD and in DD. Our data confirm that Tc1 mice express sleep-related phenotypes that are comparable with those seen in Down syndrome patients with moderate disruptions in rest/activity patterns and hyperactive episodes, while circadian period under constant lighting conditions is essentially unaffected.

  18. Sleep-like behavior and 24-h rhythm disruption in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Heise, I; Fisher, S P; Banks, G T; Wells, S; Peirson, S N; Foster, R G; Nolan, P M

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome is a common disorder associated with intellectual disability in humans. Among a variety of severe health problems, patients with Down syndrome exhibit disrupted sleep and abnormal 24-h rest/activity patterns. The transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome, Tc1, is a trans-species mouse model for Down syndrome, carrying most of human chromosome 21 in addition to the normal complement of mouse chromosomes and expresses many of the phenotypes characteristic of Down syndrome. To date, however, sleep and circadian rhythms have not been characterized in Tc1 mice. Using both circadian wheel-running analysis and video-based sleep scoring, we showed that these mice exhibited fragmented patterns of sleep-like behaviour during the light phase of a 12:12-h light/dark (LD) cycle with an extended period of continuous wakefulness at the beginning of the dark phase. Moreover, an acute light pulse during night-time was less effective in inducing sleep-like behaviour in Tc1 animals than in wild-type controls. In wheel-running analysis, free running in constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) showed no changes in the circadian period of Tc1 animals although they did express subtle behavioural differences including a reduction in total distance travelled on the wheel and differences in the acrophase of activity in LD and in DD. Our data confirm that Tc1 mice express sleep-related phenotypes that are comparable with those seen in Down syndrome patients with moderate disruptions in rest/activity patterns and hyperactive episodes, while circadian period under constant lighting conditions is essentially unaffected. PMID:25558895

  19. Irritancy ranking of 31 cleansers in the Indian market in a 24-h patch test.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, C; Srinivas, C R; Anand, C V; Mathew, A C

    2008-08-01

    Cleansing trends promise freshness, sensory and health benefits but may also be accompanied by an increase in soap-induced skin irritation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the irritant effect of 31 cleansers (28 bar soaps and 3 liquid cleansers) available in the Indian market. Eight percent w/v solutions of the soaps/cleansers were made and 30 microL of each of the solutions were applied to Finn chambers and occluded for 24 h along with distilled water (negative control) and 20% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as positive control. The sites were graded for erythema and scaling 30 min after removing the patches. The pH of each of the soap solutions was determined. Mean with SD and ANOVA (F-value) was computed separately for each soap/cleanser with respect to the two parameters, erythema and scaling. The total of the means for both the parameters, erythema and scaling was also computed. The cleansers were listed based on this total from the least irritant to the most irritant. The differences between soaps (F-value) was significant for erythema and scaling [erythema = 4.106 (P = 0.000); scaling = 6.006 (P = 0.000)]. Cetaphil cleansing lotion had the lowest erythema score of 0.25. Lowest scaling score of zero was recorded for Cetaphil cleansing lotion and Elovera moisturizing body wash. Aquasoft and Lifebuoy soaps had the highest erythema score of 2.13. Acnex had the highest scaling score of 1.75; Aquasoft, Hamam scrub bath soap and Naturepower sandal soaps were the next with a scaling score of 1.63. Cetaphil cleansing lotion, Aquaderm liquid soap, Dove bar soap and Elovera moisturizing body wash proved to be the least irritant cleansers with a total score of less than 1. The four most irritant soaps/cleansers had an average score of 3.65. The irritant potential of the majority of the cleansers fell between these extremes. The pH of all the soap/cleanser solutions was neutral to alkaline (pH 7-9) except that of Dove bar, Cetaphil cleansing lotion, Aquaderm liquid

  20. Tuberculosis in hospitalized patients: clinical characteristics of patients receiving treatment within the first 24 h after admission*

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise Rossato; da Silva, Larissa Pozzebon; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients hospitalized for tuberculosis, comparing those in whom tuberculosis treatment was started within the first 24 h after admission with those who did not. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving new tuberculosis cases in patients aged ≥ 18 years who were hospitalized after seeking treatment in the emergency room. Results: We included 305 hospitalized patients, of whom 67 (22.0%) received tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission ( ≤24h group) and 238 (88.0%) did not (>24h group). Initiation of tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission was associated with being female (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.06-3.74; p = 0.032) and with an AFB-positive spontaneous sputum smear (OR = 4.19; 95% CI: 1.94-9.00; p < 0.001). In the ≤24h and >24h groups, respectively, the ICU admission rate was 22.4% and 15.5% (p = 0.258); mechanical ventilation was used in 22.4% and 13.9% (p = 0.133); in-hospital mortality was 22.4% and 14.7% (p = 0.189); and a cure was achieved in 44.8% and 52.5% (p = 0.326). Conclusions: Although tuberculosis treatment was initiated promptly in a considerable proportion of the inpatients evaluated, the rates of in-hospital mortality, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation use remained high. Strategies for the control of tuberculosis in primary care should consider that patients who seek medical attention at hospitals arrive too late and with advanced disease. It is therefore necessary to implement active surveillance measures in the community for earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25029651

  1. Altered cortical activation patterns associated with baroreflex unloading following 24 h of physical deconditioning.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, J K; Usselman, C W; Rothwell, A; Wong, S W

    2012-12-01

    Cardiovascular arousal is associated with patterned cortical activity changes. Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) dimishes the baroreflex-mediated cardiac control. The present study tested the hypothesis that HDBR deconditioning would modify the forebrain organization for heart rate (HR) control during baroreflex unloading. Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure and plasma hormones were analysed at rest, whereas HR and cortical autonomic activation patterns (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were measured during graded and randomly assigned lower body negative pressure treatments (LBNP, -15 and -35 mmHg) both before (Pre) and after (Post) a 24 h HDBR protocol (study 1; n = 8). An additional group was tested before and following diuretic-induced hypovolaemia (study 2; n = 9; spironolactone, 100 mg day(-1) for 3 days) that mimicked the plasma volume lost during HDBR (-15% in both studies; P < 0.05). Head-down bed rest with hypovolaemia did not affect baseline HR, mean arterial pressure, HRV or plasma catecholamines. Head-down bed rest augmented the LBNP-induced HR response (P < 0.05), and this was associated with bed-rest-induced development of the following changes: (i) enhanced activation within the genual anterior cingulate cortex and the right anterior insular cortex; and (ii) deactivation patterns within the subgenual regions of the anterior cingulate cortex. Diuretic treatment (without HDBR) did not affect baseline HR and mean arterial pressure, but did reduce resting HRV and elevated circulating noradrenaline and plasma renin activity (P < 0.05). The greater HR response to LBNP following diuretic (P < 0.05) was associated with diminished activation of the right anterior insula. Our findings indicate that 24 h of HDBR minimized the impact of diuretic treatment on baseline autonomic and cardiovascular variables. The findings also indicate that despite the similar augmentation of HR responses to LBNP and despite similar pre-intervention cortical activation

  2. Baroreflex-mediated heart rate and vascular resistance responses 24 h after maximal exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Plasma volume, heart rate (HR) variability, and stimulus-response relationships for baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance (FVR) and HR were studied in eight healthy men after and without performing a bout of maximal exercise to test the hypotheses that acute expansion of plasma volume is associated with 1) reduction in baroreflex-mediated HR response, and 2) altered operational range for central venous pressure (CVP). METHODS: The relationship between stimulus (DeltaCVP) and vasoconstrictive reflex response (DeltaFVR) during unloading of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors was assessed with lower-body negative pressure (LBNP, 0, -5, -10, -15, -20 mm Hg). The relationship between stimulus (Deltamean arterial pressure (MAP)) and cardiac reflex response (DeltaHR) during loading of arterial baroreceptors was assessed with steady-state infusion of phenylephrine (PE) designed to increase MAP by 15 mm Hg alone and during application of LBNP (PE+LBNP) and neck pressure (PE+LBNP+NP). Measurements of vascular volume and autonomic baroreflex responses were conducted on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested 24 h after graded cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, measurement of baroreflex response was repeated with no exercise (control). The order of exercise and control treatments was counterbalanced. RESULTS: Baseline CVP was elevated (P = 0.04) from a control value of 10.5 +/- 0.4 to 12.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg 24 h after exercise. Average DeltaFVR/DeltaCVP during LBNP was not different (P = 0.942) between the exercise (-1.35 +/- 0.32 pru x mm Hg-1) and control (-1.32 +/- 0.36 pru x mm Hg-1) conditions. However, maximal exercise caused a shift along the reflex response relationship to a higher CVP and lower FVR. HR baroreflex response (DeltaHR/DeltaMAP) to PE+LBNP+NP was lower (P = 0.015) after maximal exercise (-0.43 +/- 0.15 beats x min-1 x mm Hg-1) compared with the control

  3. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Antônio F. M.; Moresco, James; Yates, John R.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick

  4. Altered cortical activation patterns associated with baroreflex unloading following 24 h of physical deconditioning.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, J K; Usselman, C W; Rothwell, A; Wong, S W

    2012-12-01

    Cardiovascular arousal is associated with patterned cortical activity changes. Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) dimishes the baroreflex-mediated cardiac control. The present study tested the hypothesis that HDBR deconditioning would modify the forebrain organization for heart rate (HR) control during baroreflex unloading. Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure and plasma hormones were analysed at rest, whereas HR and cortical autonomic activation patterns (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were measured during graded and randomly assigned lower body negative pressure treatments (LBNP, -15 and -35 mmHg) both before (Pre) and after (Post) a 24 h HDBR protocol (study 1; n = 8). An additional group was tested before and following diuretic-induced hypovolaemia (study 2; n = 9; spironolactone, 100 mg day(-1) for 3 days) that mimicked the plasma volume lost during HDBR (-15% in both studies; P < 0.05). Head-down bed rest with hypovolaemia did not affect baseline HR, mean arterial pressure, HRV or plasma catecholamines. Head-down bed rest augmented the LBNP-induced HR response (P < 0.05), and this was associated with bed-rest-induced development of the following changes: (i) enhanced activation within the genual anterior cingulate cortex and the right anterior insular cortex; and (ii) deactivation patterns within the subgenual regions of the anterior cingulate cortex. Diuretic treatment (without HDBR) did not affect baseline HR and mean arterial pressure, but did reduce resting HRV and elevated circulating noradrenaline and plasma renin activity (P < 0.05). The greater HR response to LBNP following diuretic (P < 0.05) was associated with diminished activation of the right anterior insula. Our findings indicate that 24 h of HDBR minimized the impact of diuretic treatment on baseline autonomic and cardiovascular variables. The findings also indicate that despite the similar augmentation of HR responses to LBNP and despite similar pre-intervention cortical activation

  5. The friction coefficient of shoulder joints remains remarkably low over 24 h of loading.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian K; Durney, Krista M; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-11-01

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Eight human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean±standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (p<0.0001). The value in LCMS was significantly lower than in hHCMS and bHCMS (p<0.01). No visual damage was observed in any of the specimens. These are the first results to demonstrate that the friction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction.

  6. Optical excitation energies, Stokes shift, and spin-splitting of C24H72Si14.

    PubMed

    Zope, Rajendra R; Baruah, Tunna; Richardson, Steven L; Pederson, Mark R; Dunlap, Brett I

    2010-07-21

    As an initial step toward the synthesis and characterization of sila-diamondoids, such as sila-adamantane (Si(10)H(16),T(d)), the synthesis of a fourfold silylated sila-adamantane molecule (C(24)H(72)Si(14),T(d)) has been reported in literature [Fischer et al., Science 310, 825 (2005)]. We present the electronic structure, ionization energies, quasiparticle gap, and the excitation energies for the Si(14)(CH(3))(24) and the exact silicon analog of adamantane Si(10)H(16) obtained at the all-electron level using the delta-self-consistent-field and transitional state methods within two different density functional models: (i) Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation and (ii) fully analytic density functional (ADFT) implementation with atom dependent potential. The ADFT is designed so that molecules separate into atoms having exact atomic energies. The calculations within the two models agree well, to within 0.25 eV for optical excitations. The effect of structural relaxation in the presence of electron-hole-pair excitations is examined to obtain its contribution to the luminescence Stokes shift. The spin-influence on exciton energies is also determined. Our calculations indicate overall decrease in the absorption, emission, quasiparticle, and highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gaps, ionization energies, Stokes shift, and exciton binding energy when passivating hydrogens in the Si(10)H(16) are replaced with electron donating groups such as methyl (Me) and trimehylsilyl (-Si(Me)(3)).

  7. Gender differences in the impact of daily sadness on 24-h heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Verkuil, Bart; Brosschot, Jos F; Marques, Andrea H; Kampschroer, Kevin; Sternberg, Esther M; Thayer, Julian F

    2015-12-01

    Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) is proposed to mediate the relation between depressive symptoms and cardiovascular health problems. Yet, several studies have found that in women depression is associated with higher HRV levels, whereas in men depression is associated with lower HRV levels. So far, these studies have only examined gender differences in HRV levels using a single assessment. This study aimed to test the interactive effects of gender and sadness on ambulatory-assessed HRV levels. A sample of 60 (41 women) employees participated in an ambulatory study. HRV levels (mean of successive differences; MSD) were continuously measured for 24 h. During the daytime, hourly assessments of sadness and other mood states were taken, while depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D). Gender differences were observed when examining the impact of average daily sadness on MSD. In women, but not in men, the total amount of sadness experienced during the day was associated with higher circadian MSD levels. These findings suggest that researchers need to take gender differences into account when examining the relation between sadness, HRV, and cardiovascular problems. PMID:26338472

  8. Fasting for 24 h improves nasal chemosensory performance and food palatability in a related manner.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jameason D; Goldfield, Gary S; Doucet, Éric

    2012-06-01

    Changes in smell function can modify feeding behaviour but there is little evidence of how acute negative energy balance may impact olfaction and palatability. In a within-subjects repeated measures design, 15 subjects (nine male; six female) aged 28.6±4.5 years with initial body weight (BW) 74.7±4.9 kg and body mass index (BMI) 25.3±1.4 kg/m(2) were randomized and tested at baseline (FED) and Post Deprivation (FASTED) for nasal chemosensory performance (Sniffin' Sticks) and food palatability (visual analogue scale). Significant main effects for time indicated improvements in the FASTED session for odor threshold, odor discrimination, and total odor scores (TDI), and for increased palatability. There were significant positive correlations between initial BW and the change in odor threshold (r=.52) and TDI scores (r=.53). Positive correlations were also noted between delta identification score and delta palatability (r=.68). When the sample was split by sex, only for females were there significant correlations between delta palatability and: delta BW (r=.88); delta odor identification (r=.94); and delta TDI score (r=.85). Fasting for 24h improved smell function and this was related to increased palatability ratings and initial BW. Further studies should confirm the role of BW and sex in the context of olfaction, energy deprivation and palatability.

  9. Combined solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants - An approach to 24h solar electricity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzer, Werner J.

    2016-05-01

    Solar thermal power plants have the advantage of being able to provide dispatchable renewable electricity even when the sun is not shining. Using thermal energy strorage (TES) they may increase the capacity factor (CF) considerably. However in order to increase the operating hours one has to increase both, thermal storage capacity and solar field size, because the additional solar field is needed to charge the storage. This increases investment cost, although levelised electricity cost (LEC) may decrease due to the higher generation. Photovoltaics as a fluctuating source on the other side has arrived at very low generation costs well below 10 ct/kWh even for Central Europe. Aiming at a capacity factor above 70% and at producing dispatchable power it is shown that by a suitable combination of CSP and PV we can arrive at lower costs than by increasing storage and solar field size in CSP plants alone. Although a complete baseload power plant with more than 90% full load hours may not be the most economic choice, power plants approaching a full 24h service in most days of the year seem to be possible at reasonably low tariffs.

  10. Effects of different periods of paradoxical sleep deprivation and sleep recovery on lipid and glucose metabolism and appetite hormones in rats.

    PubMed

    Brianza-Padilla, Malinalli; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda; Almanza-Pérez, Julio César; López-López, Ana Laura; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Vázquez-Palacios, Gonzalo

    2016-03-01

    Sleep has a fundamental role in the regulation of energy balance, and it is an essential and natural process whose precise impacts on health and disease have not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of different periods of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and recovery from PSD on lipid profile, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results, and changes in insulin, corticosterone, ghrelin, and leptin concentrations. Three-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 250-350 g were submitted to 24, 96, or 192 h of PSD or 192 h of PSD with 480 h of recovery. The PSD was induced by the multiple platforms method. Subsequently, the animals were submitted to an OGTT. One day later, the animals were killed and the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, lipoproteins (low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein), insulin, ghrelin, leptin, and corticosterone in plasma were quantified. There was a progressive decrease in body weight with increasing duration of PSD. The PSD induced basal hypoglycemia over all time periods evaluated. Evaluation of areas under the curve revealed progressive hypoglycemia only after 96 and 192 h of PSD. There was an increase in corticosterone levels after 192 h of PSD. We conclude that PSD induces alterations in metabolism that are reversed after a recovery period of 20 days.

  11. Sex difference in the 24-h acetylcholine release profile in the premotor/supplementary motor area of behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Takase, Kenkichi; Mitsushima, Dai; Funabashi, Toshiya; Kimura, Fukuko

    2007-06-18

    The sex differences in various motor functions suggest a sex-specific neural basis in the nonprimary or primary motor area. To examine the sex difference in the 24-h profile of acetylcholine (ACh) release in the rostral frontal cortex area 2 (rFr2), which is equivalent to the premotor/supplementary motor area in primates, we performed an in vivo microdialysis study in both sexes of rats fed pelleted or powdered diet. The dialysate was automatically collected from the rFr2 for 24 h under freely moving conditions. Moreover, the number of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) was examined. Further, to confirm the relation between ACh release in the rFr2 and motor function, the spontaneous locomotor activity was monitored for 24 h. Both sexes showed a distinct 24-h rhythm of ACh release, which was high during the dark phase and low during the light phase. Female rats, however, showed a greater ACh release and more cholinergic neurons in the NBM than male rats. Similarly, spontaneous locomotor activity also showed a 24-h rhythm, which paralleled the changes in ACh release in both sexes, and these changes were again greater in female rats than in male rats. In addition, feeding with powdered diet significantly increased the ACh release and spontaneous locomotor activity. The present study is the first to report the sex difference in the 24-h profile of ACh release in the rFr2 in rats. The sex specific ACh release in the rFr2 may partly contribute to the sex difference in motor function in rats.

  12. [Validity of the 24-h previous day physical activity recall (PDPAR-24) in Spanish adolescents].

    PubMed

    Cancela, José María; Lago, Joaquín; Ouviña, Lara; Ayán, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: El control del nivel de práctica de actividad física que realizan los adolescentes, de sus factores determinantes y susceptibilidad al cambio resulta indispensable para intervenir sobre la epidemia de obesidad que afecta a la sociedad española. Sin embargo, el número de cuestionarios validados para valorar la actividad física en adolescentes españoles es escaso. Objetivos: Evaluar la validez del cuestionario24hPrevious Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR-24) cuando es aplicado a la población de adolescentes españoles. Método: Participaron en este estudio estudiantes de 14-15 años de dos centros de educación secundaria del norte de Galicia. Como criterio objetivo de la actividad física realizada se utilizó el registro proporcionado por el acelerómetro Actigraph GT3X.Se monitorizó a los sujetos durante un día por medio del acelerómetro y al día siguiente se administró el cuestionario de auto-informe. Resultados: Un total de 79 alumnos (15.16 ± 0.81 años, 39% mujeres) finalizaron el estudio. Se observan correlaciones positivas estadísticamente significativas de tamaño medio a grande en ambos sexos (r=0.50-0.98), para la actividad física ligera y moderada. Las correlaciones observadas son más elevadas a medida que aumenta la intensidad de la actividad física realizada. Conclusiones: El cuestionario de auto-informe PDPAR-24 puede ser considerado como una herramienta válida a la hora de valorar el nivel de actividad física en adolescentes españoles.

  13. Effects of leptin on sperm count and morphology in Sprague-Dawley rats and their reversibility following a 6-week recovery period.

    PubMed

    Almabhouh, F A; Osman, K; Siti Fatimah, I; Sergey, G; Gnanou, J; Singh, H J

    2015-09-01

    Altered epididymal sperm count and morphology following leptin treatment has been reported recently. This study examined the effects of 42 days of leptin treatment on sperm count and morphology and their reversibility during a subsequent 56-day recovery period. Twelve-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into four leptin and four saline-treated control groups (n = 6). Intraperitoneal injections of leptin were given daily (60 μg Kg(-1) body weight) for 42 days. Controls received 0.1 ml of 0.9% saline. Leptin-treated animals and their respective age-matched controls were euthanised on either day 1, 21, 42 or 56 of recovery for collection of epididymal spermatozoa. Sperm concentration was determined using a Makler counting chamber. Spermatozoa were analysed for 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and DNA fragmentation (Comet assay). Data were analysed using anova. Sperm concentration was significantly lower but fraction of abnormal spermatozoa, and levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine were significantly higher in leptin-treated rats on day 1 of recovery. Comet assays revealed significant DNA fragmentation in leptin-treated rats. These differences were reduced by day 56 of recovery. It appears that 42 days of leptin treatment to Sprague-Dawley rats has significant adverse effects on sperm count and morphology that reverse following discontinuation of leptin treatment.

  14. Why 24-h Urine Albumin Excretion Rate Method Still is Used for Screening of Diabetic Nephropathy in Isfahan Laboratories?

    PubMed Central

    Teimoury, Azam; Iraj, Bijan; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Amini, Massoud; Hosseiny, Seyed-Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: The first step in diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is measurement of albumin in a spot urine sample. The aim of this study was assessment of the accuracy of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) in random urine specimens (RUS) for microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria screening in Iranian diabetic patients. Methods: A total of 200 diabetic patients participated to our study. 24 h timed urine specimens followed by RUS were collected. 24-h urine albumin excretion (24-h urinary albumin excretion (UAE)) and UACR in RUS were measured. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and McNemar test. Results: A total of 165 patients finalized the study. Pearson's correlation of coefficient for 24-h UAE versus UACR was 0.64. The area under ROC curve for UACR was 0.83 in microalbuminuria and 0.91 in macroalbuminuria. The cutoff point of 30 mg/g in UACR method had 86% sensitivity and 60% specificity for microalbuminuria screening and cut-off point of 300 mg/g had 75% sensitivity and 99% specificity for macroalbuminuria screening respectively. Conclusions: UACR in RUS showed acceptable performance as a screening test for diagnosis of both micro and macroalbuminuria in Iranian diabetic patients. PMID:24829719

  15. [Use of customer relationship management to improve healthcare for citizens. The 24h Andalusian Health Service: Healthline].

    PubMed

    Quero, Manuel; Ramos, María Belén; López, Wilfredo; Cubillas, Juan José; González, José María; Castillo, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Salud Responde (in English: Healthline) is a Health Service and Information Centre of the taxpayer-funded Andalusian Health System (AHS) that offers a Telephone Health Advisory Service called SA24h, among other services. The main objective of SA24h is to inform and advise citizens on health issues and the available health resources of the AHS. SA24h has a Customer Relationship Management information technology tool that organises information at various levels of specialization. Depending on the difficulty of the query, the citizen is attended by professionals with distinct profiles, providing a consensual response within the professionals working within Salud Responde or within other healthcare levels of the AHS. SA24h provided responses to 757,168 patient queries from late 2008 to the end of 01/12/2015. A total of 9.38% of the consultations were resolved by the non-health professionals working at Salud Responde. The remaining 84.07% were resolved by health staff. A total of 6.5% of users were referred to accident and emergency facilities while 88.77% did not need to attend their general practitioner within the next 24hours, thus avoiding unnecessary visits to health care facilities. PMID:26900101

  16. [Use of customer relationship management to improve healthcare for citizens. The 24h Andalusian Health Service: Healthline].

    PubMed

    Quero, Manuel; Ramos, María Belén; López, Wilfredo; Cubillas, Juan José; González, José María; Castillo, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Salud Responde (in English: Healthline) is a Health Service and Information Centre of the taxpayer-funded Andalusian Health System (AHS) that offers a Telephone Health Advisory Service called SA24h, among other services. The main objective of SA24h is to inform and advise citizens on health issues and the available health resources of the AHS. SA24h has a Customer Relationship Management information technology tool that organises information at various levels of specialization. Depending on the difficulty of the query, the citizen is attended by professionals with distinct profiles, providing a consensual response within the professionals working within Salud Responde or within other healthcare levels of the AHS. SA24h provided responses to 757,168 patient queries from late 2008 to the end of 01/12/2015. A total of 9.38% of the consultations were resolved by the non-health professionals working at Salud Responde. The remaining 84.07% were resolved by health staff. A total of 6.5% of users were referred to accident and emergency facilities while 88.77% did not need to attend their general practitioner within the next 24hours, thus avoiding unnecessary visits to health care facilities.

  17. Sex-specific responses to self-paced, high-intensity interval training with variable recovery periods.

    PubMed

    Laurent, C Matthew; Vervaecke, Lauren S; Kutz, Matthew R; Green, J Matthew

    2014-04-01

    This study examined sex-specific responses during self-paced, high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Sixteen (8 men and 8 women) individuals completed a peak oxygen uptake test and 3 treadmill HIIT sessions on separate days. The HIIT sessions consisted of six 4-minute intervals performed at the highest self-selected intensity individuals felt they could maintain. Recovery between intervals was counterbalanced and consisted of 1-, 2-, or 4-minute recovery during each trial. Relative measures of intensity, including percentage of velocity at VO2peak (vVO2peak), %VO2peak, %HRmax, and blood lactate concentration ([La]), were observed during the trials. Perceived readiness was recorded immediately before and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded at the end of each interval with session RPE recorded after each trial. Results revealed a significant effect of sex on %vVO2peak (p < 0.01) and %HRmax (p < 0.01). Data show that across trials, men self-select higher %vVO2peak (84.5 vs. 80.7%), whereas women produce higher %HRmax (96.9 vs. 92.1%) and %VO2peak (89.6 vs. 86.1%) with no difference in [La] or perceptual responses. These findings support the notion that women may demonstrate improved recovery during high-intensity exercise, as they will self-select intensities resulting in greater cardiovascular strain. Moreover, results confirm previous findings suggesting that a 2:1 work-to-rest ratio is optimal during HIIT for both men and women.

  18. 24-h ambulatory recording of aortic pulse wave velocity and central systolic augmentation: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Luzardo, Leonella; Lujambio, Inés; Sottolano, Mariana; da Rosa, Alicia; Thijs, Lutgarde; Noboa, Oscar; Staessen, Jan A; Boggia, José

    2012-10-01

    We assessed the feasibility of ambulatory pulse wave analysis by comparing this approach with an established tonometric technique. We investigated 35 volunteers (45.6 years; 51.0% women) exclusively at rest (R study) and 83 volunteers (49.9 years; 61.4% women) at rest and during daytime (1000-2000 h) ambulatory monitoring (R+A study). We recorded central systolic (cSP), diastolic (cDP) and pulse (cPP) pressures, augmentation index (cAI) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) by brachial oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph 24h PWA Monitor) and radial tonometry (SphygmoCor). We applied the Bland and Altman's statistics. In the R study, tonometric and oscillometric estimates of cSP (105.6 vs. 106.9 mm Hg), cDP (74.6 vs. 74.7 mm Hg), cPP (31.0 vs. 32.1 mm Hg), cAI (21.1 vs. 20.6%) and PWV (7.3 vs. 7.0 m s(-1)) were similar (P0.11). In the R+A study, tonometric vs. oscillometric assessment yielded similar values for cSP (115.4 vs. 113.9 mm Hg; P=0.19) and cAI (26.5 vs. 25.3%; P=0.54), but lower cDP (77.8 vs. 81.9 mm Hg; P<0.0001), so that cPP was higher (37.6 vs. 32.1 mm Hg; P<0.0001). PWV (7.9 vs. 7.4 m s(-1)) was higher (P=0.0002) on tonometric assessment. The differences between tonometric and oscillometric estimates increased (P0.004) with cSP (r=0.37), cAI (r=0.39) and PWV (r=0.39), but not (P0.17) with cDP (r=0.15) or cPP (r=0.13). Irrespective of measurement conditions, brachial oscillometry compared with an established tonometric method provided similar estimates for cSP and systolic augmentation, but slightly underestimated PWV. Pending further validation, ambulatory assessment of central hemodynamic variables is feasible.

  19. Prevalence and determinants of misreporting among European children in proxy-reported 24 h dietary recalls.

    PubMed

    Börnhorst, C; Huybrechts, I; Ahrens, W; Eiben, G; Michels, N; Pala, V; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Barba, G; Bel-Serrat, S; Moreno, L A; Papoutsou, S; Veidebaum, T; Loit, H-M; Lissner, L; Pigeot, I

    2013-04-14

    Dietary assessment is strongly affected by misreporting (both under- and over-reporting), which results in measurement error. Knowledge about misreporting is essential to correctly interpret potentially biased associations between diet and health outcomes. In young children, dietary data mainly rely on proxy respondents but little is known about determinants of misreporting here. The present analysis was conducted within the framework of the multi-centre IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study and is based on 6101 children aged 2-9 years with 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) and complete covariate information. Adapted Goldberg cut-offs were applied to classify the 24-HDR as 'over-report', 'plausible report' or 'under-report'. Backward elimination in the course of multi-level logistic regression analyses was conducted to identify factors significantly related to under- and over-reporting. Next to characteristics of the children and parents, social factors and parental concerns/perceptions concerning their child's weight status were considered. Further selective misreporting was addressed, investigating food group intakes commonly perceived as more or less socially desirable. Proportions of under-, plausible and over-reports were 8.0, 88.6 and 3.4 %, respectively. The risk of under-reporting increased with age (OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.05, 1.83), BMI z-score of the child (OR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.10, 1.37) and household size (OR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.25), and was higher in low/medium income groups (OR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.13, 1.86). Over-reporting was negatively associated with BMI z-scores of the child (OR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.69, 0.88) and higher in girls (OR 1.70, 95 % CI 1.27, 2.28). Further social desirability and parental concerns/perceptions seemed to influence the reporting behaviour. Future studies should involve these determinants of misreporting when investigating diet-disease relationships in children

  20. Validation of web-based, multiple 24-h recalls combined with nutritional supplement intake questionnaires against nitrogen excretions to determine protein intake in Dutch elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Wardenaar, F C; Steennis, J; Ceelen, I J M; Mensink, M; Witkamp, R; de Vries, J H M

    2015-12-28

    Information on dietary composition is vitally important for elite athletes to optimise their performance and recovery, which requires valid tools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of assessing protein intake using three web-based 24-h recalls and questionnaires, by comparing these with three urinary N excretions on the same day. A total of forty-seven Dutch elite top athletes, both disabled and non-disabled, aged between 18 and 35 years, with a BMI of 17·5-31 kg/m2, exercising >12 h/week were recruited. Estimated mean dietary protein intake was 109·6 (sd 33·0) g/d by recalls and questionnaires v. 141·3 (sd 38·2) g/d based on N excretions in urine; the difference was 25·5 (sd 21·3) % between the methods (P<0·05). We found a reasonably good association between methods for protein intake of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·79). On an individual level, under-reporting was larger with higher protein intakes than with lower intakes. No significant differences were found in reporting absolute differences between subcategories (sex, under-reporting, BMI, collection of recalls within a certain amount of time and using protein supplements or not). In conclusion, combined, multiple, 24-h recalls and questionnaires underestimated protein intake in these young elite athletes more than that reported for non-athlete populations. The method proved to be suitable for ranking athletes according to their protein intake as needed in epidemiological studies. On an individual level, the magnitude of underestimation was about equal for all athletes except for those with very high protein intakes.

  1. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    PubMed

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  2. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children’s discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother’s 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child’s salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  3. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    PubMed

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake.

  4. Using generalized linear models to estimate selectivity from short-term recoveries of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: Effects of gear, fate, and regulation period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacheler, N.M.; Hightower, J.E.; Burdick, S.M.; Paramore, L.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Pollock, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the selectivity patterns of various fishing gears is a critical component of fisheries stock assessment due to the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from most gears. We used short-term recoveries (n = 3587) of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus to directly estimate age- and length-based selectivity patterns using generalized linear models. The most parsimonious models were selected using AIC, and standard deviations were estimated using simulations. Selectivity of red drum was dependent upon the regulation period in which the fish was caught, the gear used to catch the fish (i.e., hook-and-line, gill nets, pound nets), and the fate of the fish upon recovery (i.e., harvested or released); models including all first-order interactions between main effects outperformed models without interactions. Selectivity of harvested fish was generally dome-shaped and shifted toward larger, older fish in response to regulation changes. Selectivity of caught-and-released red drum was highest on the youngest and smallest fish in the early and middle regulation periods, but increased on larger, legal-sized fish in the late regulation period. These results suggest that catch-and-release mortality has consistently been high for small, young red drum, but has recently become more common in larger, older fish. This method of estimating selectivity from short-term tag recoveries is valuable because it is simpler than full tag-return models, and may be more robust because yearly fishing and natural mortality rates do not need to be modeled and estimated. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Using generalized linear models to estimate selectivity from short-term recoveries of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: Effects of gear, fate, and regulation period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Bacheler, Nathan M.; Paramore, Lee M.; Buckel, Jeffrey A.; Pollock, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the selectivity patterns of various fishing gears is a critical component of fisheries stock assessment due to the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from most gears. We used short-term recoveries (n = 3587) of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus to directly estimate age- and length-based selectivity patterns using generalized linear models. The most parsimonious models were selected using AIC, and standard deviations were estimated using simulations. Selectivity of red drum was dependent upon the regulation period in which the fish was caught, the gear used to catch the fish (i.e., hook-and-line, gill nets, pound nets), and the fate of the fish upon recovery (i.e., harvested or released); models including all first-order interactions between main effects outperformed models without interactions. Selectivity of harvested fish was generally dome-shaped and shifted toward larger, older fish in response to regulation changes. Selectivity of caught-and-released red drum was highest on the youngest and smallest fish in the early and middle regulation periods, but increased on larger, legal-sized fish in the late regulation period. These results suggest that catch-and-release mortality has consistently been high for small, young red drum, but has recently become more common in larger, older fish. This method of estimating selectivity from short-term tag recoveries is valuable because it is simpler than full tag-return models, and may be more robust because yearly fishing and natural mortality rates do not need to be modeled and estimated.

  6. Environmental impact on crew of armoured vehicles: Effects of 24 h combat exercise in a hot desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. P.; Majumdar, D.; Bhatia, M. R.; Srivastava, K. K.; Selvamurthy, W.

    1995-06-01

    A field study was undertaken to investigate the effects of combined noise, vibration and heat stress on the physiological functions of the crew of armoured vehicles during prolonged combat exercise in a desert. The sound pressure level of noise was measured with a sound level meter and accelerations by vibration analyser. The thermal load on the crew was evaluated by calculating the wet bulb globe temperature index. The physiological responses of the subjects ( n=9), included significant increases in the heart rate, 24 h water intake and urinary catecholamine concentration. A significant decrease was recorded in body mass, peak expiratory flow rate and 24 h urinary output. The high heat load on the crew resulted in a hypohydration of 3% body mass and appeared to be the dominant factor in producing the physiological strain.

  7. Long-term blood pressure changes induced by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: assessment by 24 h ambulatory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Petrarca, Marco; Petrazzi, Luisa; Pasqualetti, Paolo; Properzi, Giuliana; Desideri, Giovambattista; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    An increased rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been described during and immediately after earthquakes. In this regard, few data are available on long-term blood pressure control in hypertensive outpatients after an earthquake. We evaluated the long-term effects of the April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake on blood pressure levels, as detected by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Before/after (mean±s.d. 6.9±4.5/14.2±5.1 months, respectively) the earthquake, the available 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data for the same patients were extracted from our database. Quake-related daily life discomforts were evaluated through interviews. We enrolled 47 patients (25 female, age 52±14 years), divided into three groups according to antihypertensive therapy changes after versus before the earthquake: unchanged therapy (n=24), increased therapy (n=17) and reduced therapy (n=6). Compared with before the quake, in the unchanged therapy group marked increases in 24 h (P=0.004), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.02) systolic blood pressure were observed after the quake. Corresponding changes in 24 h (P=0.005), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.009) diastolic blood pressure were observed. Daily life discomforts were reported more frequently in the unchanged therapy and increased therapy groups than the reduced therapy group (P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that patients with unchanged therapy display marked blood pressure increments up to more than 1 year after an earthquake, as well as long-term quake-related discomfort. Our data suggest that particular attention to blood pressure levels and adequate therapy modifications should be considered after an earthquake, not only early after the event but also months later.

  8. Shock in the first 24 h of intensive care unit stay: observational study of protocol-based fluid management.

    PubMed

    See, Kay Choong; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Lau, Samuel Chuan-Xian; Tan, Sandra Ming-Yien; Lim, Tow Keang; Phua, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Precision in fluid management for shock could lead to better clinical outcomes. We evaluated the association of protocol-based fluid management with intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital mortality. We performed an observational study of mechanically ventilated patients admitted directly from our emergency department to the ICU from August 2011 to December 2013, who had circulatory shock in the first 24 h of ICU stay (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg at ICU admission or lactate >4 mmol/L). Patients with onset of shock beyond 24 h of ICU stay were excluded. Protocol-based fluid management required close physician-nurse cooperation and computerized documentation, checking for fluid response (≥10% arterial pulse pressure or stroke volume increase after two consecutive 250-mL crystalloid boluses), and fluid loading with repeated 500-mL boluses until fluid response became negative. Six hundred twelve mechanically ventilated patients with shock (mean [±SD] age, 63.0 years [16.5]; 252 or 41.2% females; mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, 30.2 [8.8]) were studied. The fluid management protocol was used 455 times for 242 patients (39.5% of 612 patients) within the first 24 h of ICU stay, with 244 (53.6% of 455) positive responses. Adjusted for age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, comorbidity, and admission year, protocol use was associated with reduced ICU mortality (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.94; P = 0.025) but not hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.23; P = 0.369). Among mechanically ventilated patients with shock within the first 24 h of ICU stay, about half had positive fluid responses. Adherence to protocol-based fluid management was associated with improved ICU survival.

  9. Changes in the oral health-related quality of life 24 h following insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Noorhanizar; Saub, Roslan; Othman, Siti Adibah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess changes in the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances 24 h after insertion. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients aged between 14 and 24 years (29 males and 31 females; mean age, 17.8 years; SD 3.1 years) were recruited from the Postgraduate Clinic, Department of Children's Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. The oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was measured before treatment and 24 h after insertion of the orthodontic appliance. The instrument used to measure OHRQoL was a modified self-administered short version of Malaysian Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-16[M]) questionnaire. The higher the score, the poorer is the OHRQoL. Results: Overall score of OHRQoL increased significantly 24 h after insertion (mean 43.5±10.9) as compared to before insertion (mean 34.1±9.2) (P<0.001). Significant changes were found for the following items: Difficulties in chewing, bad breath, difficulties in pronunciation, discomfort in eating, ulcer, pain, avoidances of eating certain foods, difficulties in cleaning, embarrassment, avoid smiling, disturbed sleep, concentration affected, difficulty carrying out daily activities, and lack of self-confidence (P<0.05). Significant changes were also found in the mean difference of OHRQoL for gender (P<0.001). Conclusion: OHRQoL was found to deteriorate 24 h after insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances in almost all domains, with significant changes in gender. This information can be used as “informed consent”, which might increase patient's compliance as they are aware of what to expect from initial orthodontic treatment. PMID:24987635

  10. A pilot study on the effect of telmisartan & ramipril on 24 h blood pressure profile & dipping pattern in type 1 diabetes patients with nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Anantharaman, R.; Bhansali, Anil; Bhadada, Sanjay K.; Kohli, Harbir S.; Walia, Rama; Shanmugasundar, G.; Jayaprakash, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been used to normalize the blood pressure and the dipping pattern in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and nephropathy. However, there are no data on the effect of the dual blockade on the dipping pattern in these subjects. We therefore, carried out this study to evaluate the effect of administrating an ACEI followed by ARB in the optimum doses in T1DM patients with nephropathy on 24 h blood pressure (BP) profile and nocturnal dipping pattern. Methods: An open label interventional pilot study was done during a one year period involving 30 consecutive patients who were treated with telmisartan 80 mg (0800-1000 h) for eight weeks followed by addition of ramipril 10 mg (1200-1400 h) for the next eight weeks. Ambulatory BP, dipping pattern and albumin excretion rate were studied after each phase. Twenty patients were hypertensive and 10 patients had macro- and 20 patients had microalbuminuria. Results: Telmisartan produced a fall in the clinic BP by 4/1.3 mm Hg (P<0.05 and P<0.362, respectively), 2/1.9 mm Hg in the mean 24 h BP, 1.4/1.1 mm Hg in the day BP and 3.7/3 mm Hg in the trough BP. Addition of ramipril to telmisartan produced a further reduction of 6.3/5.9 mm Hg in the clinic BP (P<0.001 for both), 4.3/4.2 mm Hg in the mean 24 h BP (P<0.01 and P<0.0001, respectively), 5.8/3.9 mm Hg in the day BP (P<0.01 for both), 4.2/2.5 mm Hg in the trough BP, with a reduction of clinic SBP and DBP of 10.3/7.2 mm Hg from the baseline. Telmisartan restored normal systolic dipping pattern in 33.3 per cent of the nondippers (P<0.01) but addition of ramipril was not complimentary. Hyperkalamia (>5.5 mmol/l) was observed only in 2 patients towards the end of the study. Interpretation & conclusions: The dual blockade with telmisartan and ramipril had complimentary effect on lowering of the BP, however, similar beneficial effect on the nocturnal dipping

  11. Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-h shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Laura K.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Burke, Tina M.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration space missions depends on the ability of crewmembers and mission support specialists to be alert and maintain high levels of cognitive function while operating complex, technical equipment. We examined sleep, nocturnal melatonin levels and cognitive function of crewmembers and the sleep and cognitive function of mission controllers who participated in a high-fidelity 105-day simulated spaceflight mission at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (Moscow). Crewmembers were required to perform daily mission duties and work one 24-h extended duration work shift every sixth day. Mission controllers nominally worked 24-h extended duration shifts. Supplemental lighting was provided to crewmembers and mission controllers. Participants' sleep was estimated by wrist-actigraphy recordings. Overall, results show that crewmembers and mission controllers obtained inadequate sleep and exhibited impaired cognitive function, despite countermeasure use, while working extended duration shifts. Crewmembers averaged 7.04±0.92 h (mean±SD) and 6.94±1.08 h (mean±SD) in the two workdays prior to the extended duration shifts, 1.88±0.40 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h work shift, and then slept 10.18±0.96 h (mean±SD) the day after the night shift. Although supplemental light was provided, crewmembers' average nocturnal melatonin levels remained elevated during extended 24-h work shifts. Naps and caffeine use were reported by crewmembers during ˜86% and 45% of extended night work shifts, respectively. Even with reported use of wake-promoting countermeasures, significant impairments in cognitive function were observed. Mission controllers slept 5.63±0.95 h (mean±SD) the night prior to their extended duration work shift. On an average, 89% of night shifts included naps with mission controllers sleeping an average of 3.4±1.0 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h extended duration work shift. Mission controllers also showed impaired cognitive function during extended

  12. Glycogen supercompensation in rat soleus muscle during recovery from nonweight bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, Erik J.; Kirby, Christopher R.; Tischler, Marc E.

    1989-01-01

    Events leading to the normalization of the glycogen metabolism in the soleus muscle of rat, altered by 72-h three days of hind-limb suspension, were investigated during the 72-h recovery period when the animals were allowed to bear weight on all four limbs. Relative importance of the factors affecting glycogen metabolism in skeletal muscle during the recovery period was also examined. Glycogen concentration was found to decrease within 15 min and up to 2 h of recovery, while muscle glucose 6-phosphate, and the fractional activities of glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen synthase increased. From 2 to 4 h, when the glycogen synthase activity remained elevated and the phosphorylase activity declined, glycogen concentration increased, until it reached maximum values at about 24 h, after which it started to decrease, reaching control values by 72 h. At 12 and 24 h, the inverse relationship between glycogen concentration and the synthase activity ratio was lost, indicating that the reloading transiently uncoupled glycogen control of this enzyme.

  13. Rhythmic 24 h variation of core body temperature and locomotor activity in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the tuco-tuco.

    PubMed

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents.

  14. Rhythmic 24 h Variation of Core Body Temperature and Locomotor Activity in a Subterranean Rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the Tuco-Tuco

    PubMed Central

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents. PMID:24454916

  15. Relationship between salt consumption measured by 24-h urine collection and blood pressure in the adult population of Vitória (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, S.L.; Souza, P.R.; Pimentel, E.B.; Baldo, M.P.; Malta, D.C.; Mill, J.G.; Szwarcwald, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    High salt intake is related to an increase in blood pressure and development of hypertension. However, currently, there are no national representative data in Brazil using the gold standard method of 24-h urine collection to measure sodium consumption. This study aimed to determine salt intake based on 24-h urine collection in a sample of 272 adults of both genders and to correlate it with blood pressure levels. We used a rigorous protocol to assure an empty bladder prior to initiating urine collection. We excluded subjects with a urine volume <500 mL, collection period outside of an interval of 23-25 h, and subjects with creatinine excretion that was not within the range of 14.4-33.6 mg/kg (men) and 10.8-25.2 mg/kg (women). The mean salt intake was 10.4±4.1 g/day (d), and 94% of the participants (98% of men and 90% of women) ingested more than the recommended level of 5 g/d. We found a positive association between salt and body mass index (BMI) categories, as well as with salt and blood pressure, independent of age and BMI. The difference in systolic blood pressure reached 13 mmHg between subjects consuming less than 6 g/d of salt and those ingesting more than 18 g/d. Subjects with hypertension had a higher estimated salt intake than normotensive subjects (11.4±5.0 vs 9.8±3.6 g/d, P<0.01), regardless of whether they were under treatment. Our data indicate the need for interventions to reduce sodium intake, as well the need for ongoing, appropriate monitoring of salt consumption in the general population. PMID:26132095

  16. Processing and damage recovery of intrinsic self-healing glass fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordo, Federica; Michaud, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    Glass fiber reinforced composites with a self-healing, supramolecular hybrid network matrix were produced using a modified vacuum assisted resin infusion moulding process adapted to high temperature processing. The quality and fiber volume fraction (50%) of the obtained materials were assessed through microscopy and matrix burn-off methods. The thermo-mechanical properties were quantified by means of dynamic mechanical analysis, revealing very high damping properties compared to traditional epoxy-based glass fiber reinforced composites. Self-healing properties were assessed by three-point bending tests. A high recovery of the flexural properties, around 72% for the elastic modulus and 65% of the maximum flexural stress, was achieved after a resting period of 24 h at room temperature. Recovery after low velocity impact events was also visually observed. Applications for this intrinsic and autonomic self-healing highly reinforced composite material point towards semi-structural applications where high damping and/or integrity recovery after impact are required.

  17. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and treated wastewater on water relations and leaf structure alterations of Viburnum tinus L. plants during both saline and recovery periods.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bellot, María José; Nortes, Pedro Antonio; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Romero, Cristina; Fernández-García, Nieves; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays, irrigation with low quality water is becoming an alternative to satisfy the needs of crops. However, some plant species have to deal with high salinity of reclaimed water, by adapting their physiological behaviour during both saline and recovery periods and developing morphological changes in their leaves. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could also be a suitable option to mitigate the negative effects of this kind of water, although the effectiveness of plant-AMF association is influenced by many factors. In this work, during forty weeks, the combined effect of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum and two types of water: control, C, EC<0.9 dS m(-1) and reclaimed water, RW (with EC: 4 dS m(-1) during a first saline period and EC: 6 dS m(-1) during a second saline period) was evaluated for laurustinus plants (Viburnum tinus L.) transplanted in soil. This was followed by a recovery period of eight weeks, when all the plants were irrigated in the control irrigation conditions. Seasonal and daily changes in stem water potential (Ψstem), stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis (Pn) and leaf internal CO2 concentration (Ci) of laurustinus plants were evaluated. Leaf structure alterations, nutrient imbalance, height and leaf hydraulic conductivity (Kleaf) were also determined. Due to the high difficulty of absorbing water from the soil, RW plants showed a high volumetric water content (θv) in soil. The stem water potential and the stomatal conductance (gs) values were reduced in RW plants throughout the second saline period. These decreases were also found during the day. Leaf Ca(2+)/Na(+) and K(+)/Na(+) ratios diminished in RW plants respect to the C plants due to the Na(+) accumulation, although height and chlorophyll content values did not show statistical differences. Leaves from RW plants showed a significantly thicker mesophyll than Control leaves as a consequence of high EC. The area of palisade parenchyma (PP) increased while the

  18. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and treated wastewater on water relations and leaf structure alterations of Viburnum tinus L. plants during both saline and recovery periods.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bellot, María José; Nortes, Pedro Antonio; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Romero, Cristina; Fernández-García, Nieves; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays, irrigation with low quality water is becoming an alternative to satisfy the needs of crops. However, some plant species have to deal with high salinity of reclaimed water, by adapting their physiological behaviour during both saline and recovery periods and developing morphological changes in their leaves. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could also be a suitable option to mitigate the negative effects of this kind of water, although the effectiveness of plant-AMF association is influenced by many factors. In this work, during forty weeks, the combined effect of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum and two types of water: control, C, EC<0.9 dS m(-1) and reclaimed water, RW (with EC: 4 dS m(-1) during a first saline period and EC: 6 dS m(-1) during a second saline period) was evaluated for laurustinus plants (Viburnum tinus L.) transplanted in soil. This was followed by a recovery period of eight weeks, when all the plants were irrigated in the control irrigation conditions. Seasonal and daily changes in stem water potential (Ψstem), stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis (Pn) and leaf internal CO2 concentration (Ci) of laurustinus plants were evaluated. Leaf structure alterations, nutrient imbalance, height and leaf hydraulic conductivity (Kleaf) were also determined. Due to the high difficulty of absorbing water from the soil, RW plants showed a high volumetric water content (θv) in soil. The stem water potential and the stomatal conductance (gs) values were reduced in RW plants throughout the second saline period. These decreases were also found during the day. Leaf Ca(2+)/Na(+) and K(+)/Na(+) ratios diminished in RW plants respect to the C plants due to the Na(+) accumulation, although height and chlorophyll content values did not show statistical differences. Leaves from RW plants showed a significantly thicker mesophyll than Control leaves as a consequence of high EC. The area of palisade parenchyma (PP) increased while the

  19. 24-h Langendorff-perfused neonatal rat heart used to study the impact of adenoviral gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Wiechert, S; El-Armouche, A; Rau, T; Zimmermann, W-H; Eschenhagen, T

    2003-08-01

    The human genome project has increased the demand for simple experimental systems that allow the impact of gene manipulations to be studied under controlled ex vivo conditions. We hypothesized that, in contrast to adult hearts, neonatal hearts allow long-term perfusion and efficient gene transfer ex vivo. A Langendorff perfusion system was modified to allow perfusion for >24 h with particular emphasis on uncompromised contractile activity, sterility, online measurement of force of contraction, inotropic response to beta-adrenergic stimulation, and efficient gene transfer. The hearts were perfused with serum-free medium (DMEM + medium 199, 4 + 1) supplemented with hydrocortisone, triiodothyronine, ascorbic acid, insulin, pyruvate, l-carnitine, creatine, taurine, l-glutamine, mannitol, and antibiotics recirculating (500 ml/2 hearts) at 1 ml/min. Hearts from 2 day-old rats beat constantly at 135-155 beats/min and developed active force of 1-2 mN. During 24 h of perfusion, twitch tension increased to approximately 165% of initial values (P < 0.05), whereas the inotropic response to isoprenaline remained constant. A decrease in total protein content of 10% and histological examination indicated moderate edema, but actin and calsequestrin concentration remained unchanged and perfusion pressure remained constant at 7-11 mmHg. Perfusion with a LacZ-encoding adenovirus at 3 x 108 active virus particles yielded homogeneous transfection of approximately 80% throughout the heart and did not affect heart rate, force of contraction, or response to isoprenaline compared with uninfected controls (n = 7 each). Taken together, the 24-h Langendorff-perfused neonatal rat heart is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and robust new heart model that appears feasible as a test bed for functional genomics.

  20. Effect of non-drug interventions on arterial properties determined from 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements.

    PubMed

    Gavish, Benjamin; Alter, Ariela; Barkai, Yael; Rachima-Maoz, Carmit; Peleg, Edna; Rosenthal, Talma

    2011-11-01

    Measures derived from the slope of the linear relationship between systolic and diastolic pressures obtained by 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) measurements incorporate clinical and prognostic information, and are believed to be vascular markers. Using post hoc analysis, we investigated potential changes of these 'slope-related measures' in three different studies conducted in hypertensive patients with before and after 24-h ABP measurements, and also evaluated the sensitivity of the results to the analysis method. Two interventional studies included 8-week device-guided breathing (DGB) exercised by 13 patients with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP), and a 6-month mineral potassium chloride-enriched diet administered to 20 elderly patients. One study was observational and involved winter-to-summer change experienced by 13 patients with controlled BP. Slope-related measures included systolic-on-diastolic slope and its equivalent 1-(diastolic-on-systolic slope) called Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index, and were determined using three different BP-averaging methods and two types of regression procedures. Results demonstrated sensitivity of slope-related measures to the analysis method, the most significant changes were found when the before and after 24-h ABP profiles included hourly averaged BP further averaged over the patient population, and slope-related measures were determined using symmetric (and not standard) regression. DGB was found to reduce significantly all these measures. The changes in the slope-related variables for individual patients correlated negatively with its baseline value and positively with the observed pulse pressure changes. In conclusion, the study provides evidence that DGB can affect positively vascular markers associated with cardiovascular risk, and suggests improved analysis methods for the determination of slope-related measures in interventional studies.

  1. Variations in 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate of type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Shipra; Verma, Narsingh; Anjum, Baby; Bhardwaj, Kshitij

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Diabetes has profound consequences on the cardiovascular system leading to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Blood pressure (BP) has a characteristic and reproducible circadian pattern, with high values during the day and low values at night. A 7-day timed analysis of BP through ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been used not only to diagnose day and night dipping patterns of blood pressure, but also to measure day-to-day variability and the circadian hyper-amplitude-tension, a condition in which excessive circadian BP amplitude precedes the chronic established hypertension. Our objective was to assess the 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of BP and heart rate in diabetic patients, as it could be helpful in the diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular morbidity. Materials and Methods A total of 50 diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes and 50 non-diabetic participants were recruited for the study. General health records were individually maintained, and 7-day/24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor was carried out. Results The rhythmic parameters of systolic and diastolic BP, heart rate, double amplitude, acrophase and 3-h fractionated hyperbaric index were found to be significantly high in diabetic patients. A total of 12 participants were diagnosed with circadian hyper-amplitude-tension. These data suggest that diabetic patients have certain variations in the circadian pattern of blood pressure and heart rate, which can result in disturbed vascular events, and thus are at greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Conclusion Seven-day/24-h monitoring might be useful as an early predictive tool in assessing future cardiovascular risk, guiding treatment and management of these patients. PMID:25422775

  2. Evaluation of repolarization dynamics using the QT-RR regression line slope and intercept relationship during 24-h Holter ECG.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Akira; Yoshioka, Ryozo; Sakabe, Masao

    2015-03-01

    QT-RR linear regression consists of two parameters, slope and intercept, and the aim of this study was to evaluate repolarization dynamics using the QT-RR linear regression slope and intercept relationship during 24-h Holter ECG. This study included 466 healthy subjects (54.6 ± 14.6 years; 200 men and 266 women) and 17 patients with ventricular arrhythmias, consisted of 10 patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) and 7 patients with torsades de pointes (TDP). QT and RR intervals were measured from ECG waves based on a 15-s averaged ECG during 24-h Holter recording using an automatic QT analyzing system. The QT interval dependence on the RR interval was analyzed using a linear regression line for each subject ([QT] = A[RR] + B; where A is the slope and B is the y-intercept). The slope of the QT-RR regression line in healthy subjects was significantly greater in women than in men (0.185 ± 0.036 vs. 0.161 ± 0.033, p < 0.001) and the intercept was significantly smaller in women than in men (0.229 ± 0.028 vs. 0.240 ± 0.027, p < 0.001). A scatter diagram of the QT-RR regression line slope and intercept among healthy subjects demonstrated a statistically significant negative correlation (B = -0.62A + 0.34, r = -0.79). Distribution of both scatter diagrams of the slope and the intercept of the QT-RR regression line in patients with IVF and TDP was different from healthy subjects (left corner for IVF and upward shift for TDP). The slope and intercept relationship of the QT-RR linear regression line based on 24-h Holter ECG may become a simple useful marker for abnormality of ventricular repolarization dynamics.

  3. Restructuring and redistribution of actinides in Am-MOX fuel during the first 24 h of irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Miwa, Shuhei; Sekine, Shin-ichi; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shin-ichi

    2013-09-01

    In order to confirm the effect of minor actinide additions on the irradiation behavior of MOX fuel pellets, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.% americium-containing MOX (Am-MOX) fuels were irradiated for 10 min at 43 kW/m and for 24 h at 45 kW/m in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. Two nominal values of the fuel pellet oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M), 1.95 and 1.98, were used as a test parameter. Emphasis was placed on the behavior of restructuring and redistribution of actinides which directly affect the fuel performance and the fuel design for fast reactors. Microstructural evolutions in the fuels were observed by optical microscopy and the redistribution of constituent elements was determined by EPMA using false color X-ray mapping and quantitative point analyses. The ceramography results showed that structural changes occurred quickly in the initial stage of irradiation. Restructuring of the fuel from middle to upper axial positions developed and was almost completed after the 24-h irradiation. No sign of fuel melting was found in any of the specimens. The EPMA results revealed that Am as well as Pu migrated radially up the temperature gradient to the center of the fuel pellet. The increase in Am concentration on approaching the edge of the central void and its maximum value were higher than those of Pu after the 10-min irradiation and the difference was more pronounced after the 24-h irradiation. The increment of the Am and Pu concentrations due to redistribution increased with increasing central void size. In all of the specimens examined, the extent of redistribution of Am and Pu was higher in the fuel of O/M ratio of 1.98 than in that of 1.95.

  4. Different mechanisms drive the performance of native and invasive woody species in response to leaf phosphorus supply during periods of drought stress and recovery.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marciel Teixeira; Medeiros, Camila Dias; Frosi, Gabriella; Santos, Mauro Guida

    2014-09-01

    The effects of drought stress and leaf phosphorus (Pi) supply on photosynthetic metabolism in woody tropical species are not known, and given the recent global environmental change models that forecast lower precipitation rates and periods of prolonged drought in tropical areas, this type of study is increasingly important. The effects of controlled drought stress and Pi supply on potted young plants of two woody species, Anadenanthera colubrina (native) and Prosopis juliflora (invasive), were determined by analyzing leaf photosynthetic metabolism, biochemical properties and water potential. In the maximum stress, both species showed higher leaf water potential (Ψl) in the treatment drought +Pi when compared with the respective control -Pi. The native species showed higher gas exchange under drought +Pi than under drought -Pi conditions, while the invasive species showed the same values between drought +Pi and -Pi. Drought affected the photochemical part of photosynthetic machinery more in the invasive species than in the native species. The invasive species showed higher leaf amino acid content and a lower leaf total protein content in both Pi treatments with drought. The two species showed different responses to the leaf Pi supply under water stress for several variables measured. In addition, the strong resilience of leaf gas exchange in the invasive species compared to the native species during the recovery period may be the result of higher efficiency of Pi use. The implications of this behavior for the success of this invasive species in semiarid environments are discussed.

  5. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on serum electrolytes in rats: A 24-h time-course study.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, A; Khan, H A; Manthiri, R A

    2016-03-01

    Black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) belongs to the family Buthidae and is one of the most venomous scorpions in the world. The effects of A. bicolor venom on serum electrolytes were not known and therefore investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with five animals in each group. One of the groups served as control and received vehicle only. The animals in the remaining groups received a single subcutaneous injection of crude A. bicolor venom (200 μg/kg bodyweight) and were killed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after venom injection. The results showed that scorpion venom caused significant increase in serum sodium levels within 30 min after injection which slightly subsided after 1 h and then persisted over 24 h. Serum potassium levels continued to significantly increase until 4 h and then slightly subsided. There were significant decreases in serum magnesium (Mg(+)) levels following scorpion venom injection, at all the time points during the course of study. Serum calcium levels were significantly increased during the entire course of study, whereas serum chloride was significantly decreased. In conclusion, A. bicolor envenomation in rats caused severe and persistent hypomagnesemia with accompanied hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia. It is important to measure serum Mg(+) levels in victims of scorpion envenomation, and patients with severe Mg(+) deficiency should be treated accordingly.

  6. Microdialysis in the Rat Striatum: Effects of 24 h Dexamethasone Retrodialysis on Evoked Dopamine Release and Penetration Injury

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The power of microdialysis for in vivo neurochemical monitoring is a result of intense efforts to enhance microdialysis procedures, the probes themselves, and the analytical systems used for the analysis of dialysate samples. Our goal is to refine microdialysis further by focusing attention on what happens when the probes are implanted into brain tissue. It is broadly acknowledged that some tissue damage occurs, such that the tissue nearest the probes is disrupted from its normal state. We hypothesize that mitigating such disruption would refine microdialysis. Herein, we show that the addition of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug, to the perfusion fluid protects evoked dopamine responses as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry next to the probes after 24 h. We also show that dexamethasone stabilizes evoked dopamine responses measured at the probe outlet over a 4–24 h postimplantation interval. The effects of dexamethasone are attributable to its anti-inflammatory actions, as dexamethasone had no significant effect on two histochemical markers for dopamine terminals, tyrosine hydroxylase and the dopamine transporter. Using histochemical assays, we confirmed that the actions of dexamethasone are tightly confined to the immediate, local vicinity of the probe. PMID:25491242

  7. Parallel assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes: validation against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; De Marees, Markus; Fusch, Gerhard; Fusch, Christoph; Mester, Joachim; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2010-11-01

    The assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes requires accurate and precise methods. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for parallel assessment of diet and exercise against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and respiratory gas exchange. The participants were 14 male triathletes under normal training conditions. Energy intake and doubly labelled water were weakly associated with each other (r = 0.69, standard error of estimate [SEE] = 304 kcal x day(-1)). Protein intake was strongly correlated with 24-h urea (r = 0.89) but showed considerable individual variation (SEE = 0.34 g kg(-1) x day(-1)). Total energy expenditure based on recorded activities was highly correlated with doubly labelled water (r = 0.95, SEE = 195 kcal x day(-1)) but was proportionally biased. During running and cycling, estimated exercise energy expenditure was highly correlated with gas exchange (running: r = 0.89, SEE = 1.6 kcal x min(-1); cycling: r = 0.95, SEE = 1.4 kcal x min(-1)). High exercise energy expenditure was slightly underestimated during running. For nutrition data, variations appear too large for precise measurements in individual athletes, which is a common problem of dietary assessment methods. Despite the high correlations of total energy expenditure and exercise energy expenditure with reference methods, a correction for systematic errors is necessary for the valid estimation of energetic requirements in individual athletes. PMID:20967672

  8. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on serum electrolytes in rats: A 24-h time-course study.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, A; Khan, H A; Manthiri, R A

    2016-03-01

    Black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) belongs to the family Buthidae and is one of the most venomous scorpions in the world. The effects of A. bicolor venom on serum electrolytes were not known and therefore investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with five animals in each group. One of the groups served as control and received vehicle only. The animals in the remaining groups received a single subcutaneous injection of crude A. bicolor venom (200 μg/kg bodyweight) and were killed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after venom injection. The results showed that scorpion venom caused significant increase in serum sodium levels within 30 min after injection which slightly subsided after 1 h and then persisted over 24 h. Serum potassium levels continued to significantly increase until 4 h and then slightly subsided. There were significant decreases in serum magnesium (Mg(+)) levels following scorpion venom injection, at all the time points during the course of study. Serum calcium levels were significantly increased during the entire course of study, whereas serum chloride was significantly decreased. In conclusion, A. bicolor envenomation in rats caused severe and persistent hypomagnesemia with accompanied hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia. It is important to measure serum Mg(+) levels in victims of scorpion envenomation, and patients with severe Mg(+) deficiency should be treated accordingly. PMID:25964378

  9. Arterial stiffness and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in young healthy volunteers: the early vascular ageing Aristotle University Thessaloniki Study (EVA-ARIS Study).

    PubMed

    Kotsis, Vasilios; Stabouli, Stella; Karafillis, Ioannis; Papakatsika, Sofia; Rizos, Zoe; Miyakis, Spiros; Goulopoulou, Sofia; Parati, Gianfranco; Nilsson, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Differences in 24 h blood pressure (BP) monitoring parameters such as average 24 h BP, day to night BP ratio and BP variability could have an impact in arterial stiffness. The study hypothesis was that despite similar average BP values in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring subjects with increased 24 h BP variability may have increased arterial stiffness. The study population consisted of 115 consecutive young healthy volunteers. Carotid-femoral PWV was measured in all subjects. Clinic BP was measured and an appropriate cuff was fitted on the non-dominant arm of each subject for a 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring session. Waist to hip ratio as well as BMI was measured. Family history and smoking habits were recorded. In univariate analysis, estimated carotid-femoral PWV showed a significant correlation with age, weight, waist circumference, height, clinic systolic and diastolic BP, 24-h systolic and diastolic BP, 24-h pulse pressure, 24-h systolic and diastolic BP variability, daytime systolic and diastolic BP, daytime pulse pressure, daytime systolic and diastolic BP variability, nighttime systolic BP, nighttime pulse pressure and nighttime systolic BP variability. In multivariate regression analysis, age (B=0.95, P<0.001) and 24 h systolic BP variability (B=0.28, P<0.001) were independent determinanats of arterial stiffness. In conclusions, increased 24 h systolic BP variability is associated with arterial stiffness in young healthy volunteers. Pulse wave velocity in a young healthy population is useful to identify determinants of premature arterial stiffness, thus further elucidating the aspects of early vascular ageing.

  10. Slow recovery of blood glucose in the insulin tolerance test during the prepartum transition period negatively impacts the nutritional status and reproductive performance postpartum of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsu-Hsun; Kida, Katsuya; Miura, Ryotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Miyamoto, Akio; Kawashima, Chiho; Haneda, Shingo; Miyake, Yoh-Ichi; Matsui, Motozumi

    2012-04-01

    In peripartum dairy cows, insulin resistance (IR) increases to adjust the direction of energy to lactation after calving. To investigate the effect of prepartum IR on postpartum reproductive performance, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) was applied to 15 cows at 3 weeks (Pre21) and 10 days (Pre10) before the predicted calving date. Blood glucose area under the curve (AUC(glu)) within 120 min after administration of 0.05 IU/kg-BW insulin was calculated. The occurrence of first ovulation, days to first artificial insemination (AI) and first AI conception rate were recorded. Nutritional status postpartum was evaluated by blood chemical analysis. Based on AUC(glu) changes from Pre21 to Pre10, cows were classified into either the AUC-up group (AUC(glu) increase, n=5) or the AUC-down group (AUC(glu) decrease, n=10). There was no difference in the decrease in blood glucose at 30 min after insulin injection between groups, although glucose recovery from 30 to 60 min during the ITT was slow at Pre10 in the AUC-up group. The AUC-up group had a higher number of days to first AI and high glucose, total protein, globulin, γ-glutamyltransferase, triacylglycerol levels and a low albumin-globulin ratio at the 14th day postpartum. The present study infers that prepartum slow glucose recovery rather than insulin sensitivity might increase the potential for subclinical health problems postpartum and thus suppress reproductive performance. During the prepartum transition period, glucose dynamics in the ITT can be considered as a new indicator for the postpartum metabolic status and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

  11. A Comparision of the Effect of Sugammadex on the Recovery Period and Postoperative Residual Block in Young Elderly and Middle-Aged Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yazar, Emine; Yılmaz, Canan; Bilgin, Hülya; Karasu, Derya; Bayraktar, Selcan; Apaydın, Yılmaz; Sayan, Halil Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The importance of the characteristics of anesthesia and postoperative residual curarization (PORC) in the elderly population should be a growing concern in this century. Aims: To investigate the effect of sugammadex on the duration of the recovery from neuromuscular blocking agents and postoperative residual curarization in the young elderly and middle-aged elderly patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, followed by a train of four (TOF) watch monitorization. Study Design: Prospective clinical trial study. Methods: Sixty patients over the age of 65 with American Society of Anesthesiologists I–III were divided into two groups according to their age (65–74 years old and ≥75 years old). Patients received sugammadex (2.0 mg/kg iv) at the reappearance of the second twitch of the TOF as an agent for reversal of neuromuscular blockage at the end of surgery. Patients were extubated at the time of TOF ≥0.9. The patients’ TOF responses were evaluated with regards to PORC in at the 5th minute and were followed up for one hour in the recovery room. Reintubation was applied for those patients who developed PORC and had peripheric oxygen saturation <90% despite being given 6 L oxygen per min with a face mask. Results: The onset time of neuromuscular blocking agent and time from T2 to achieve TOF ratio 90% (the duration of sugammadex effect) or over were found to be longer in the middle-aged elderly group than in the young elderly group. A statistically significant relationship was found between age and the duration of TOF ratio to reach 0.9 in the same direction. The PORC incidence and rate of reintubation were found to be 1.7% in all patients. Conclusion: In our opinion, it is necessary to remember that the duration of sugammadex effect on the recovery period is prolonged for patients who are aged ≥75 years compared to patients aged between 65–74 years. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ACTRN12615000758505) PMID:27403387

  12. Effects of aerobic exercise intensity on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes and prehypertension

    PubMed Central

    Karoline de Morais, Pâmella; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Alves de Almeida, Jeeser; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Victor de Sousa, Caio; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To verify the effects of different intensities of aerobic exercise on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) responses in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and prehypertension. [Subjects and Methods] Ten individuals with T2D and prehypertension (55.8 ± 7.7 years old; blood glucose 133.0 ± 36.7 mg·dL−1 and awake BP 130.6 ± 1.6/ 80.5 ± 1.8 mmHg) completed three randomly assigned experiments: non-exercise control (CON) and exercise at moderate (MOD) and maximal (MAX) intensities. Heart rate (HR), BP, blood lactate concentrations ([Lac]), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at rest, during the experimental sessions, and during the 60 min recovery period. After this period, ambulatory blood pressure was monitored for 24 h. [Results] The results indicate that [Lac] (MAX: 6.7±2.0 vs. MOD: 3.8±1.2 mM), RPE (MAX: 19±1.3 vs. MOD: 11±2.3) and VO2peak (MAX: 20.2±4.1 vs. MOD: 14.0±3.0 mL·kg−1·min−1) were highest following the MAX session. Compared with CON, only MAX elicited post-exercise BP reduction that lasted for 8 h after exercise and during sleep. [Conclusion] A single session of aerobic exercise resulted in 24 h BP reductions in individuals with T2D, especially while sleeping, and this reduction seems to be dependent on the intensity of the exercise performed. PMID:25642036

  13. Addressing the recovery of feeding rates in post-exposure feeding bioassays: Cyathura carinata as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Pais-Costa, Antonia Juliana; Acevedo, Pelayo; Marques, João Carlos; Martinez-Haro, Mónica

    2015-02-15

    Post-exposure bioassays are used in environmental assessment as a cost-effective tool, but the effects of organism's recovery after exposure to pollutant has not yet been addressed in detail. The recoveries of post-exposure feeding rates after being exposed to two sublethal concentrations of cadmium during two different exposure periods (48 h and 96 h) were evaluated under laboratory conditions using the estuarine isopod Cyathura carinata. Results showed that feeding depression was a stable endpoint up to 24 h after cadmium exposure, which is useful for ecotoxicological bioassays. - Highlights: • We studied recovery of post-exposure feeding rates 48–96 h after cadmium exposure. • The assay is based on the isopod Cyathura carinata. • Post-exposure feeding inhibition is a stable sublethal endpoint.

  14. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, D.N.; Micca, P.L.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1986-03-11

    A stable boronated (/sup 10/B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/, at a dose of about 200 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight. The infusion is preformed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of /sup 10/B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of /sup 10/B in the tumor. 1 tab.

  15. Effects of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor evacetrapib on lipoproteins, apolipoproteins and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Suico, Jeffrey G; Wang, Ming-Dauh; Friedrich, Stuart; Cannady, Ellen A; Konkoy, Christopher S; Ruotolo, Giacomo; Krueger, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of evacetrapib. Methods Healthy volunteers received multiple daily doses of evacetrapib (10–600 mg) administered for up to 15 days in a placebo-controlled study. Key findings Mean peak plasma concentrations of evacetrapib occurred at 4–6 h and terminal half-life ranged 24–44 h. Steady state was achieved at approximately 10 days; all subjects had undetectable levels of evacetrapib 3 weeks after their last dose. The trough inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity was 65 and 84% at 100 and 300 mg, respectively. At the highest dose (600 mg), evacetrapib significantly inhibited CETP activity (91%), increased HDL-C (87%) and apo AI (42%), and decreased LDL-C (29%) and apo B (26%) relative to placebo. For the highest dose tested, levels of evacetrapib, CETP activity, CETP mass, HDL-C and LDL-C returned to levels at or near baseline after a 2-week washout period. Evacetrapib at the highest dose tested did not produce any significant effect on 24-h ambulatory systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions Multiple doses of evacetrapib potently inhibited CETP activity, leading to substantial elevations in HDL-C and lowering of LDL-C. Evacetrapib was devoid of clinically relevant effects on blood pressure and mineralocorticoid levels. PMID:24961753

  16. Variants in the LEPR gene are nominally associated with higher BMI and lower 24-h energy expenditure in Pima Indians.

    PubMed

    Traurig, Michael T; Perez, Jessica M; Ma, Lijun; Bian, Li; Kobes, Sayuko; Hanson, Robert L; Knowler, William C; Krakoff, Jonathan A; Bogardus, Clifton; Baier, Leslie J

    2012-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been used to search for susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes and obesity in the Pima Indians, a population with a high prevalence of both diseases. In these studies, a variant (rs2025804) in the LEPR gene was nominally associated with BMI in 1,082 subjects (P = 0.03 adjusted for age, sex, birth year, and family membership). Therefore the LEPR and leptin overlapping transcript (LEPROT) genes were selected for further sequencing and genotyping in larger population-based samples for association analyses with obesity-related phenotypes. Selected variants (n = 80) spanning these genes were genotyped in a sample of full-heritage Pima Indians (n = 2,842) and several common variants including rs2025804 were nominally associated with BMI (P = 0.05-0.003 adjusted for age, sex, birth year, and family membership). Four common tag variants associated with BMI in the full-heritage Pima Indian sample were genotyped in a second sample of mixed-heritage Native Americans (n = 2,969) and three of the variants showed nominal replication (P = 0.03-0.006 adjusted as above and additionally for Indian heritage). Combining both samples provided the strongest evidence for association (adjusted P = 0.0003-0.0001). A subset of these individuals (n = 403) had been metabolically characterized for predictors of obesity and the BMI risk alleles for the variants tagged by rs2025804 were also associated with lower 24-h energy expenditure (24hEE) as assessed in a human respiratory chamber (P = 0.0007 adjusted for age, sex, fat mass, fat-free mass, activity, and family membership). We conclude that common noncoding variation in the LEPR gene is associated with higher BMI and lower energy expenditure in Native Americans. PMID:22810975

  17. A neonatal model of intravenous Staphylococcus epidermidis infection in mice <24 h old enables characterization of early innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kronforst, Kenny D; Mancuso, Christy J; Pettengill, Matthew; Ninkovic, Jana; Power Coombs, Melanie R; Stevens, Chad; Otto, Michael; Mallard, Carina; Wang, Xiaoyang; Goldmann, Donald; Levy, Ofer

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) causes late onset sepsis and significant morbidity in catheterized preterm newborns. Animal models of SE infection are useful in characterizing disease mechanisms and are an important approach to developing improved diagnostics and therapeutics. Current murine models of neonatal bacterial infection employ intraperitoneal or subcutaneous routes at several days of age, and may, therefore, not accurately reflect distinct features of innate immune responses to bacteremia. In this study we developed, validated, and characterized a murine model of intravenous (IV) infection in neonatal mice <24 hours (h) old to describe the early innate immune response to SE. C57BL/6 mice <24 h old were injected IV with 10(6), 10(7), 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) of SE 1457, a clinical isolate from a central catheter infection. A prospective injection scoring system was developed and validated, with only high quality injections analyzed. Newborn mice were euthanized between 2 and 48 h post-injection and spleen, liver, and blood collected to assess bacterial viability, gene expression, and cytokine production. High quality IV injections demonstrated inoculum-dependent infection of spleen, liver and blood. Within 2 h of injection, SE induced selective transcription of TLR2 and MyD88 in the liver, and increased systemic production of plasma IL-6 and TNF-α. Despite clearance of bacteremia and solid organ infection within 48 h, inoculum-dependent impairment in weight gain was noted. We conclude that a model of IV SE infection in neonatal mice <24 h old is feasible, demonstrating inoculum-dependent infection of solid organs and a pattern of bacteremia, rapid and selective innate immune activation, and impairment of weight gain typical of infected human neonates. This novel model can now be used to characterize immune ontogeny, evaluate infection biomarkers, and assess preventative and therapeutic modalities.

  18. Synchronicity of frequently sampled, 24-h concentrations of circulating leptin, luteinizing hormone, and estradiol in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Licinio, J; Negrão, A B; Mantzoros, C; Kaklamani, V; Wong, M L; Bongiorno, P B; Mulla, A; Cearnal, L; Veldhuis, J D; Flier, J S; McCann, S M; Gold, P W

    1998-03-01

    Leptin, an adipocyte hormone, is a trophic factor for the reproductive system; however, it is still unknown whether there is a dynamic relation between fluctuations in circulating leptin and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis hormones. To test the hypothesis that fluctuations in plasma leptin concentrations are related to the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol, we sampled plasma from six healthy women every 7 min for 24 h during days 8-11 of the menstrual cycle. Cross-correlation analysis throughout the 24-h cycle revealed a relation between release patterns of leptin and LH, with a lag of 42-84 min but no significant cross-correlation between LH and estradiol. The ultradian fluctuations in leptin levels showed pattern synchrony with those of both LH and estradiol as determined by cross-approximate entropy (cross-ApEn). At night, as leptin levels rose to their peak, the pulsatility profiles of LH changed significantly and became synchronous with those of leptin. LH pulses were fewer, of longer duration, higher amplitude, and larger area than during the day. Moreover, the synchronicity of LH and leptin occurred late at night, at which time estradiol and leptin also exhibited significantly stronger pattern coupling than during the day. We propose that leptin may regulate the minute-to-minute oscillations in the levels of LH and estradiol, and that the nocturnal rise in leptin may determine the change in nocturnal LH profile in the mid-to-late follicular phase that precedes ovulation. This may explain the disruption of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function that is characteristic of states of low leptin release, such as anorexia nervosa and cachexia.

  19. Characterization of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma NPY levels in normal volunteers over a 24-h timeframe.

    PubMed

    Baker, Dewleen G; Bertram, Tobias Moeller; Patel, Piyush M; Barkauskas, Donald A; Clopton, Paul; Patel, Sejal; Geracioti, Thomas D; Haji, Uzair; O'Connor, Daniel T; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Hauger, Richard L

    2013-10-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundant in mammals, where it contributes to diverse behavioral and physiological functions, centrally and peripherally, but little information is available in regard to NPY cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/plasma concentration relationships and dynamics. Since plasma NPY levels are commonly used as proxy "biomarkers" for central NPY activity in stress and mental health research in humans this study aims to better characterize the CSF/plasma NPY relationships. Subjects were eleven healthy male volunteers, admitted to the clinical research center for placement of an indwelling CSF catheter, as well as venous catheter, for 24-h collection of CSF NPY (cNPY) and plasma NPY (pNPY) samples. As observed in prior studies, group mean (SE) cNPY concentrations [792.1 (7.80) pg/mL] were higher than pNPY concentrations [220.0 (3.63) pg/mL]. For the eleven normal volunteers who had sufficient common (hourly) pNPY and cNPY data points, analysis of pNPY/cNPY concentration ratios and lagged cross-correlation analysis was completed. Average pNPY/cNPY concentration ratios ranged from .20 to .40 across study subjects, with a mean of .29. pNPY/cNPY cross correlation analyses, computed at varying time lags, were non-significant. An attempt was made to analyze the circadian rhythmicity of NPY secretion, but circadian components were not detectable. Using 24-h data collection, we characterized CSF/plasma NPY relationships, including presentation of evidence of weak CSF and plasma correlations, an important consideration for study design of NPY in stress or mental health.

  20. The 24-h recall instrument for home nursing to measure the activity profile of home nurses: development and psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    De Vliegher, Kristel; Aertgeerts, Bert; Declercq, Anja; Gosset, Christiane; Heyden, Isabelle; Van Geert, Michel; Moons, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Home health care today is challenged by a shift from an acute to a chronic health-care model, moving the focus of care from the hospital to home-care setting. This increased focus on care at home emphasizes the need for an efficient, effective, and transparent management of home health care. However, it is not precisely known what home-care nurses do; what kind of care is received by patients; what the performance of home nurses is; and what the impact of the increasing need for home nursing is on the current and future role of home nurses. In this respect, it is necessary to gain a clear insight into the activity profile of home nurses, but there is no gold standard to measure their activities. This study reports on the development and psychometric testing of the '24-hour recall instrument for home nursing' to measure the activity profile of home nurses. Five home nurses in Belgium, simultaneously with the researcher, registered the performed activities in a total of 69 patients, using the 24-h recall instrument for home nursing. The validity and the interrater reliability of this instrument were high: the proportions that observed agreement were very high; the strength of kappa agreement was substantial to almost perfect; the prevalence index showed great variety; and the bias index was low. The findings in this study support the validity evidence based on test content and the interrater reliability of the 24-h recall instrument. This instrument can help to shape practice and policy by making the home nursing profession more transparent: a clear insight into the kind of care that is provided by home nurses and is received by the patients in primary care contributes to the development of a clear definition of the role of home nurses in health care.

  1. 24-h urinary sodium excretion is associated with obesity in a cross-sectional sample of Australian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2016-03-28

    Emerging evidence indicates that dietary Na may be linked to obesity; however it is unclear whether this relationship is independent of energy intake (EI). The aim of this study was to assess the association between Na intake and measures of adiposity, including BMI z score, weight category and waist:height ratio (WHtR), in a sample of Australian schoolchildren. This was a cross-sectional study of schoolchildren aged 4-12 years. Na intake was assessed via one 24-h urine collection. BMI was converted to age- and sex-specific z scores, and WHtR was used to define abdominal obesity. In children aged ≥8 years, EI was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Of the 666 children with valid urine samples 55 % were male (average age 9·3 (sd 1·8) years). In adjusted models an additional 17 mmol/d of Na was associated with a 0·10 higher BMI z score (95 % CI 0·07, 0·13), a 23 % (OR 1·23; 95 % CI 1·16, 1·31) greater risk of being overweight/obese and a 15 % (OR 1·15; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·23) greater risk of being centrally obese. In the subsample of 8-12-year-old children (n 458), adjustment for EI did not markedly alter the associations between Na and adiposity outcomes. Using a robust measure of daily Na intake we found a positive association between Na intake and obesity risk in Australian schoolchildren, which could not be explained by total energy consumption. To determine whether this is a causal relationship, longitudinal studies, with high-quality measures of Na and EI, are required.

  2. Effect of catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Völz, Sebastian; Andersson, Bert; Manhem, Karin; Haraldsson, Inger; Rundqvist, Bengt

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the effect of renal denervation on office blood pressure (OBP) and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurement (ABPM) at baseline and 6 months after intervention in 25 consecutive patients with resistant hypertension. Mean baseline 24-h ABPM and OBP were 158/88 mmHg and 169/96 mmHg, respectively. Patients were treated with an average of 4 ± 1 antihypertensive drugs. Among the 22 patients included in data analysis, mean ambulatory systolic and diastolic BP were reduced by 6 mmHg from 158 ± 17 to 152 ± 20 mmHg (p < 0.05) and by 3 mmHg from 88 ± 12 to 85 ± 14 mmHg (p = ns) after 6 months follow-up, respectively. Blood pressure reduction was most pronounced during daytime with a decrease of 9 mmHg from 164 ± 17 to 155 ± 19 (p < 0.05) in systolic (SBP) and 6 mmHg from 94 ± 14 to 88 ± 14 mmHg in diastolic BP (DBP) (p < 0.05). Night-time SBP mmHg and DBP were similar at baseline compared with follow-up. Systolic and diastolic OBP during follow-up were significantly reduced by 17 mmHg from 169 ± 20 to 152 ± 21 (p < 0.05) and by 9 mmHg from 96 ± 16 to 87 ± 13 mmHg (p < 0.05), respectively. These results provide new insight into the effect of renal denervation on ABPM day- and night-time blood pressure profile in comparison with OBP. The decrease in ABPM was identified during daytime registration and was less pronounced compared with reduction of OBP.

  3. Intracranial Pressure Elevation 24 h after Ischemic Stroke in Aged Rats Is Prevented by Early, Short Hypothermia Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Murtha, Lucy A.; Beard, Daniel J.; Bourke, Julia T.; Pepperall, Debbie; McLeod, Damian D.; Spratt, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is predominantly a senescent disease, yet most preclinical studies investigate treatment in young animals. We recently demonstrated that short-duration hypothermia-treatment completely prevented the dramatic intracranial pressure (ICP) rise seen post-stroke in young rats. Here, our aim was to investigate whether a similar ICP rise occurs in aged rats and to determine whether short-duration hypothermia is an effective treatment in aged animals. Experimental middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo-3 h occlusion) was performed on male Wistar rats aged 19–20 months. At 1 h after stroke-onset, rats were randomized to 2.5 h hypothermia-treatment (32.5°C) or normothermia (37°C). ICP was monitored at baseline, for 3.5 h post-occlusion, and at 24 h post-stroke. Infarct and edema volumes were calculated from histology. Baseline pre-stroke ICP was 11.2 ± 3.3 mmHg across all animals. Twenty-four hours post-stroke, ICP was significantly higher in normothermic animals compared to hypothermia-treated animals (27.4 ± 18.2 mmHg vs. 8.0 ± 5.0 mmHg, p = 0.03). Infarct and edema volumes were not significantly different between groups. These data demonstrate ICP may also increase 24 h post-stroke in aged rats, and that short-duration hypothermia treatment has a profound and sustained preventative effect. These findings may have important implications for the use of hypothermia in clinical trials of aged stroke patients. PMID:27303291

  4. The 24-h recall instrument for home nursing to measure the activity profile of home nurses: development and psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    De Vliegher, Kristel; Aertgeerts, Bert; Declercq, Anja; Gosset, Christiane; Heyden, Isabelle; Van Geert, Michel; Moons, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Home health care today is challenged by a shift from an acute to a chronic health-care model, moving the focus of care from the hospital to home-care setting. This increased focus on care at home emphasizes the need for an efficient, effective, and transparent management of home health care. However, it is not precisely known what home-care nurses do; what kind of care is received by patients; what the performance of home nurses is; and what the impact of the increasing need for home nursing is on the current and future role of home nurses. In this respect, it is necessary to gain a clear insight into the activity profile of home nurses, but there is no gold standard to measure their activities. This study reports on the development and psychometric testing of the '24-hour recall instrument for home nursing' to measure the activity profile of home nurses. Five home nurses in Belgium, simultaneously with the researcher, registered the performed activities in a total of 69 patients, using the 24-h recall instrument for home nursing. The validity and the interrater reliability of this instrument were high: the proportions that observed agreement were very high; the strength of kappa agreement was substantial to almost perfect; the prevalence index showed great variety; and the bias index was low. The findings in this study support the validity evidence based on test content and the interrater reliability of the 24-h recall instrument. This instrument can help to shape practice and policy by making the home nursing profession more transparent: a clear insight into the kind of care that is provided by home nurses and is received by the patients in primary care contributes to the development of a clear definition of the role of home nurses in health care. PMID:24479985

  5. Holter monitor (24h)

    MedlinePlus

    Electrodes (small conducting patches) are stuck onto your chest. These are attached by wires to a small ... can match them with your Holter monitor findings. Electrodes must be firmly attached to the chest so ...

  6. DFT study of structural, electronic, and spectroscopic properties of D6d endohedral fullerenes: X@C24H12 (X=Li+, Na+, K+).

    PubMed

    Peng, Sheng; Li, Xiao Jun

    2009-07-01

    Based on the D6d-symmetrical C24H12, the equilibrium geometries, electronic structures, Infrared and Raman spectra, reaction energies, the energy gaps, and BSSE- and Zero-Point-corrected binding energies of endohedral fullerenes X@C24H12 (X=Li+, Na+, K+) have been calculated by first-principle density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The results suggest that the average bond lengths of endohedral fullerenes are longer than those of the empty cage. And in the endohedral fullerenes, Li+@C24H12 is only favorable in energy, and can stably exist. The stable order of three endohedral fullerenes is Li+@C24H12>Na+@C24H12>K+@C24H12, this indicates that the reaction energies and binding energies are in excellent agreement with the energy gaps between the frontier orbitals in the aspect of stability. All may provide a theoretical reference for further applications in the fields of materials physics and chemistry.

  7. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  8. Comparison of the Block Kid's Food Frequency Questionnaire with a 24 h dietary recall methodology among Hmong-American children, 9-18 years of age.

    PubMed

    Mulasi-Pokhriyal, Urvashi; Smith, Chery

    2013-01-28

    Hmong are one of the immigrant Asian subgroups with increasing rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and CVD. Despite their population growth in the USA and declining health status, no research has investigated the appropriateness of dietary assessment measures, including FFQ and 24 h dietary recalls among Hmong. The present study compared the nutrient information obtained through a 24 h dietary recall method with that collected using the Block Kid's Food Frequency Questionnaire (Block FFQ) among Hmong-American children (n 335) of 9-18 years of age. For this purpose, two 24 h dietary recalls were collected during non-consecutive days and averaged for comparison. The Block FFQ was administered on the day of the second 24 h recall and the two methodologies were also compared using t tests. Among all children, Block FFQ nutrient estimates for vitamin A, vitamin C and food group servings for vegetables and fruits were significantly higher than those assessed through the 24 h dietary recalls (P< 0.001). Nutrient estimates for protein and food group servings for grains and meat and beans were significantly higher among all participants when assessed through the 24 h dietary recalls than through the Block FFQ (P< 0.05). The results suggest that the Block FFQ does not appear to be a good measure of protein, grain, and meat and bean intake among Hmong children of 9-18 years of age, and the 24 h dietary recall offers a better account of the Hmong diet and is inclusive of ethnic food options otherwise missed in the Block FFQ. We recommend the modification of the current Block FFQ to appropriately reflect cultural food/beverage items of the population in interest.

  9. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as well as speeded 2-choice finger motor responses. Different groups of subjects were trained on a standard prosaccade gap paradigm before periods of nocturnal sleep and sleep deprivation. Saccade performance was retested in the next morning and again 24 h later. The rate of express saccades was not affected by sleep after training, but slightly increased after sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, this increase augmented even further after recovery sleep and was still present 4 weeks later. Additional experiments revealed that the short testing after sleep deprivation was sufficient to increase express saccades across recovery sleep. An increase in speeded responses across recovery sleep was likewise found for finger motor responses. Our findings indicate that recovery sleep can consolidate motor disinhibition for behaviors practiced during prior sleep deprivation, thereby persistently enhancing response automatization.

  10. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D.; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as well as speeded 2-choice finger motor responses. Different groups of subjects were trained on a standard prosaccade gap paradigm before periods of nocturnal sleep and sleep deprivation. Saccade performance was retested in the next morning and again 24 h later. The rate of express saccades was not affected by sleep after training, but slightly increased after sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, this increase augmented even further after recovery sleep and was still present 4 weeks later. Additional experiments revealed that the short testing after sleep deprivation was sufficient to increase express saccades across recovery sleep. An increase in speeded responses across recovery sleep was likewise found for finger motor responses. Our findings indicate that recovery sleep can consolidate motor disinhibition for behaviors practiced during prior sleep deprivation, thereby persistently enhancing response automatization. PMID:26048955

  11. Relationship between salt intake as estimated by a brief self-administered diet-history questionnaire (BDHQ) and 24-h urinary salt excretion in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Satoko; Tsuchihashi, Takuya; Oniki, Hideyuki; Tominaga, Mitsuhiro; Arakawa, Kimika; Sakaki, Minako; Kitazono, Takanari

    2015-08-01

    Assessing an individual's salt intake is necessary for providing guidance with respect to salt restriction. However, the methods that exist for assessing salt intake have both merits and limitations. Therefore, the evaluation methods should be selected for their appropriateness to the patients and the environment of the medical facilities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity of a brief self-administered diet-history questionnaire (BDHQ) by comparing the responses with 24-h urinary salt excretion. A total of 136 hypertensive outpatients (54 men and 82 women) were included in this study. All subjects were given the BDHQ and performed 24-h home urine collection. The energy-adjusted salt intake as assessed by the BDHQ was 12.3 (95% confidence interval: 11.8-12.9) g per day, and the urinary salt excretion evaluated by 24-h urinary collection was 9.0 (8.4-9.5) g per day. The energy-adjusted salt intake assessed by the BDHQ correlated significantly with the urinary salt excretion evaluated by 24-h urinary collection (r=0.34, P<0.001). In conclusion, the estimated salt intake evaluated by the BDHQ weakly, but significantly, correlated with 24-h urinary salt excretion. In clinical practice, it seems important to utilize both methods to assess an individual's salt intake in order to provide adequate guidance for salt restriction.

  12. Measurement of C{sub 24}H{sub 14} polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with a size-segregated urban aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.O.; Dookeran, N.M.; Sarofim, A.F.; Smith, K.A.; Taghizadeh, K.; Plummer, E.F.; Lafleur, A.L.; Durant, J.L.

    1998-07-01

    Six-ring C{sub 24}H{sub 14} (MW 302) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which are potent mutagens, are present in urban aerosols. Size-segregated atmospheric aerosol samples from Boston, MA, were analyzed for C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Eleven peaks were found with mass to charge ratios of 302; of these, eight were identified using authentic standards. Five of the peaks were quantified. For each of these five, the distributions with respect to particle size were bimodal with the majority of the mass associated with accumulation mode particles and a smaller fraction of the mass associated with ultrafine mode particles. These distributions are similar to those observed for PAH of molecular weight 252--278 in the same sample but different from those of benzo[ghi]perylene and coronene which were associated to a greater degree with ultrafine particles. The data suggest that C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH repartition to larger particles by vaporization and sorption more rapidly than do benzo[ghi]perylene and coronene. The total concentration of C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH was comparable to that of benzo[a]pyrene in the same sample. Because of their mutagenicities, C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH may make a contribution to the genotoxicity of urban aerosols comparable to that of benzo[a]pyrene.

  13. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)amide and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide secretion in response to nutrient ingestion in man: acute post-prandial and 24-h secretion patterns.

    PubMed

    Elliott, R M; Morgan, L M; Tredger, J A; Deacon, S; Wright, J; Marks, V

    1993-07-01

    The acute effects of different macronutrients on the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1(7-36)amide) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) were compared in healthy human subjects. Circulating levels of the two hormones were measured over a 24-h period during which subjects consumed a mixed diet. In the first study, eight subjects consumed three equicaloric (375 kcal) test meals of carbohydrate, fat and protein. Small increases in plasma GLP-1(7-36) amide were found after all meals. Levels reached a maximum 30 min after the carbohydrate and 150 min after the fat load. Ingestion of both carbohydrate and fat induced substantial rises in GIP secretion, but the protein meal had no effect. In a second study, eight subjects consumed 75 g glucose or the equivalent portion of complex carbohydrate as boiled brown rice or barley. Plasma GIP, insulin and glucose levels increased after all three meals, the largest increase being observed following glucose and the smallest following the barley meal. Plasma GLP-1(7-36)amide levels rose only following the glucose meal. In the 24-h study, plasma GLP-1(7-36)amide and GIP concentrations were increased following every meal and remained elevated throughout the day, only falling to fasting levels at night. The increases in circulating GLP-1(7-36)amide and GIP levels following carbohydrate or a mixed meal are consistent with their role as incretins. The more sustained rises observed in the daytime during the 24-h study are consistent with an anabolic role in lipid metabolism.

  14. The importance of utilizing 24-h Holter monitoring as a non-invasive method of predicting the mechanism of supraventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Al Mehairi, M; Al Ghamdi, S A; Dagriri, K; Al Fagih, A

    2011-10-01

    Despite the emergence of advanced invasive technology in identifying the various types of arrhythmia mechanisms, 24-h ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring as a non-invasive method remains an invaluable informative tool in delineating such mechanisms. Furthermore, one observational study has supported the utilization of 24-h Holter monitoring in exploring AV Node (AVN) characteristics sufficiently in correlation with invasive studies when limited to patients without Wolf Parkinson White syndrome showing a positive predictive value of 98% in their supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) assessment (Fukuda et al., 2005). We describe in this report suspected tachycardia initiation mechanism in three SVT cases based on 24-h Holter recordings. Premature atrial contraction with subsequent AVN fast pathway conduction block initiated the common type AVN re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT). Dual AVN physiology was documented during the electrophysiological studies in all three cases and a definitive therapy was achieved by the AVN slow pathway modification.

  15. The 24-h Energy Intake of Obese Adolescents Is Spontaneously Reduced after Intensive Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Calorimetric Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Thivel, David; Isacco, Laurie; Montaurier, Christophe; Boirie, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical exercise can modify subsequent energy intake and appetite and may thus be of particular interest in terms of obesity treatment. However, it is still unclear whether an intensive bout of exercise can affect the energy consumption of obese children and adolescents. Objective To compare the impact of high vs. moderate intensity exercises on subsequent 24-h energy intake, macronutrient preferences, appetite sensations, energy expenditure and balance in obese adolescent. Design This randomized cross-over trial involves 15 obese adolescent boys who were asked to randomly complete three 24-h sessions in a metabolic chamber, each separated by at least 7 days: (1) sedentary (SED); (2) Low-Intensity Exercise (LIE) (40% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max); (3) High-Intensity Exercise (HIE) (75%VO2max). Results Despite unchanged appetite sensations, 24-h total energy intake following HIE was 6–11% lower compared to LIE and SED (p<0.05), whereas no differences appeared between SED and LIE. Energy intake at lunch was 9.4% and 8.4% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.05). At dinner time, it was 20.5% and 19.7% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.01). 24-h energy expenditure was not significantly altered. Thus, the 24-h energy balance was significantly reduced during HIE compared to SED and LIE (p<0.01), whereas those of SED and LIE did not differ. Conclusions In obese adolescent boys, HIE has a beneficial impact on 24-h energy balance, mainly due to the spontaneous decrease in energy intake during lunch and dinner following the exercise bout. Prescribing high-intensity exercises to promote weight loss may therefore provide effective results without affecting appetite sensations and, as a result, food frustrations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01036360 PMID:22272251

  16. Twice Daily Melatonin Peaks in Siberian but not Syrian Hamsters under 24 h Light:Dark:Light:Dark Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Raiewski, Evan E.; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Evans, Jennifer A.; Glickman, Gena L.; Gorman, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The daily pattern of blood borne melatonin varies seasonally under the control of a multi-oscillator circadian pacemaker. Here we examine patterns of melatonin secretion and locomotor activity in Siberian and Syrian hamsters entrained to bimodal LDLD8:4:8:4 and LD20:4 lighting schedules that facilitate novel temporal arrangements of component circadian oscillators. Under LDLD, both species robustly bifurcated wheel-running activity in distinct day scotophase (DS) and night scotophase (NS) bouts. Siberian hamsters displayed significant melatonin increases during each scotophase in LDLD, and in the single daily scotophase of LD20:4. The bimodal melatonin secretion pattern persisted in acutely extended 16 h scotophases. Syrian hamsters, in contrast, showed no significant increases in plasma melatonin during either scotophase of LDLD8:4:8:4 or in LD20:4. In this species, detectable levels were observed only when the day scotophase of LDLD was acutely extended to yield 16 h of darkness. Established species differences in the phase lag of nocturnal melatonin secretion relative to activity onset may underlie the above contrast: In non-bifurcated entrainment to 24 h LD cycles, Siberian hamsters show increased melatonin secretion within ~ 2 h after activity onset, whereas in Syrian hamsters, detectable melatonin secretion phase lags activity onset and the L/D transition by at least 4 h. The present results provide new evidence indicating multi-oscillator regulation of the waveform of melatonin secretion, specifically, the circadian control of the onset, offset, and duration of nocturnal secretion. PMID:23003567

  17. Long-term invariant parameters obtained from 24-h Holter recordings: A comparison between different analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Esposti, Federico; Ferrario, Manuela; Sassi, Roberto; Signorini, Maria Gabriella

    2007-03-01

    Over the last two decades, a large number of different methods had been used to study the fractal-like behavior of the heart rate variability (HRV). In this paper some of the most used techniques were reviewed. In particular, the focus is set on those methods which characterize the long memory behavior of time series (in particular, periodogram, detrended fluctuation analysis, rescale range analysis, scaled window variance, Higuchi dimension, wavelet-transform modulus maxima, and generalized structure functions). The performances of the different techniques were tested on simulated self-similar noises (fBm and fGn) for values of α, the slope of the spectral density for very small frequency, ranging from -1 to 3 with a 0.05 step. The check was performed using the scaling relationships between the various indices. DFA and periodogram showed the smallest mean square error from the expected values in the range of interest for HRV. Building on the results obtained from these tests, the effective ability of the different methods in discriminating different populations of patients from RR series derived from Holter recordings, was assessed. To this extent, the Noltisalis database was used. It consists of a set of 30, 24-h Holter recordings collected from healthy subjects, patients suffering from congestive heart failure, and heart transplanted patients. All the methods, with the exception at most of rescale range analysis, were almost equivalent in distinguish between the three groups of patients. Finally, the scaling relationships, valid for fBm and fGn, when empirically used on HRV series, also approximately held.

  18. Twice daily melatonin peaks in Siberian but not Syrian hamsters under 24 h light:dark:light:dark cycles.

    PubMed

    Raiewski, Evan E; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Evans, Jennifer A; Glickman, Gena L; Gorman, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    The daily pattern of blood-borne melatonin varies seasonally under the control of a multi-oscillator circadian pacemaker. Here we examine patterns of melatonin secretion and locomotor activity in Siberian and Syrian hamsters entrained to bimodal LDLD8:4:8:4 and LD20:4 lighting schedules that facilitate novel temporal arrangements of component circadian oscillators. Under LDLD, both species robustly bifurcated wheel-running activity in distinct day scotophase (DS) and night scotophase (NS) bouts. Siberian hamsters displayed significant melatonin increases during each scotophase in LDLD, and in the single daily scotophase of LD20:4. The bimodal melatonin secretion pattern persisted in acutely extended 16 h scotophases. Syrian hamsters, in contrast, showed no significant increases in plasma melatonin during either scotophase of LDLD8:4:8:4 or in LD20:4. In this species, detectable levels were observed only when the DS of LDLD was acutely extended to yield 16 h of darkness. Established species differences in the phase lag of nocturnal melatonin secretion relative to activity onset may underlie the above contrast: In non-bifurcated entrainment to 24 h LD cycles, Siberian hamsters show increased melatonin secretion within ≈ 2 h after activity onset, whereas in Syrian hamsters, detectable melatonin secretion phase lags activity onset and the L/D transition by at least 4 h. The present results provide new evidence indicating multi-oscillator regulation of the waveform of melatonin secretion, specifically, the circadian control of the onset, offset and duration of nocturnal secretion.

  19. Identification of trends in rainfall, rainy days and 24 h maximum rainfall over subtropical Assam in Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhajharia, Deepak; Yadav, Brijesh K.; Maske, Sunil; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Kar, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Trends in rainfall, rainy days and 24 h maximum rainfall are investigated using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test at twenty-four sites of subtropical Assam located in the northeastern region of India. The trends are statistically confirmed by both the parametric and non-parametric methods and the magnitudes of significant trends are obtained through the linear regression test. In Assam, the average monsoon rainfall (rainy days) during the monsoon months of June to September is about 1606 mm (70), which accounts for about 70% (64%) of the annual rainfall (rainy days). On monthly time scales, sixteen and seventeen sites (twenty-one sites each) witnessed decreasing trends in the total rainfall (rainy days), out of which one and three trends (seven trends each) were found to be statistically significant in June and July, respectively. On the other hand, seventeen sites witnessed increasing trends in rainfall in the month of September, but none were statistically significant. In December (February), eighteen (twenty-two) sites witnessed decreasing (increasing) trends in total rainfall, out of which five (three) trends were statistically significant. For the rainy days during the months of November to January, twenty-two or more sites witnessed decreasing trends in Assam, but for nine (November), twelve (January) and eighteen (December) sites, these trends were statistically significant. These observed changes in rainfall, although most time series are not convincing as they show predominantly no significance, along with the well-reported climatic warming in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons may have implications for human health and water resources management over bio-diversity rich Northeast India.

  20. Adapting a standardised international 24 h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet software) for research and dietary surveillance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Kyung; Park, Jin Young; Nicolas, Geneviève; Paik, Hee Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-06-14

    During the past decades, a rapid nutritional transition has been observed along with economic growth in the Republic of Korea. Since this dramatic change in diet has been frequently associated with cancer and other non-communicable diseases, dietary monitoring is essential to understand the association. Benefiting from pre-existing standardised dietary methodologies, the present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and describe the development of a Korean version of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (GloboDiet software) and its complementary tools, developed at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO. Following established international Standard Operating Procedures and guidelines, about seventy common and country-specific databases on foods, recipes, dietary supplements, quantification methods and coefficients were customised and translated. The main results of the present study highlight the specific adaptations made to adapt the GloboDiet software for research and dietary surveillance in Korea. New (sub-) subgroups were added into the existing common food classification, and new descriptors were added to the facets to classify and describe specific Korean foods. Quantification methods were critically evaluated and adapted considering the foods and food packages available in the Korean market. Furthermore, a picture book of foods/dishes was prepared including new pictures and food portion sizes relevant to Korean diet. The development of the Korean version of GloboDiet demonstrated that it was possible to adapt the IARC-WHO international dietary tool to an Asian context without compromising its concept of standardisation and software structure. It, thus, confirms that this international dietary methodology, used so far only in Europe, is flexible and robust enough to be customised for other regions worldwide.

  1. Characteristics of genes up-regulated and down-regulated after 24 h starvation in the head of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Kazuyo; Takahashi, Aya; Nishimura, Azusa; Itoh, Masanobu; Takano-Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2009-10-01

    Starvation is a common experience under fluctuating food conditions in nature, and response to it is vital for many organisms. Many studies have investigated the response at physiological and behavioral level, whereas the studies on starvation-induced transcriptional changes in the brain and the surrounding tissues are still limited. We here investigated global changes in transcript abundance in the head after 24 h starvation by microarray expression profiling of 2 wild-derived inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster, and identified a core set of 65 up-regulated and 48 down-regulated genes upon starvation. Among these up-regulated genes, 22 genes were circadian oscillating genes previously identified in the head of Drosophila. Interestingly, most (86%) of these circadian genes show their expression peak in a narrow time range of ZT7.0-12.0, when flies are relatively restless and less feeding in the normal condition. Among the down-regulated genes, 2 genes with highest fold-differences, fit and CG8147, are known to have female-biased expression in the head, and 1 gene, Obp99b, is known to be male-biased. Together with the realtime qPCR experiments on female and male transcripts, our data suggest that these sex-specific genes are candidate genes mediating a possible trade-off between starvation resistance and reproduction. Eleven down-regulated genes are known to be involved in the immune response. These changes in head transcriptome upon starvation reflect modulation of expression in some normally oscillating rhythmic genes and reduction in the resource allocation toward sexual activity and immunity.

  2. Dose-finding and 24-h monitoring for efficacy and safety of aerosolized Nacystelyn in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    App, E M; Baran, D; Dab, I; Malfroot, A; Coffiner, M; Vanderbist, F; King, M

    2002-02-01

    The aim of the present studies was to investigate the tolerability and activity of a novel mucolytic drug, Nacystelyn (NAL), for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. In study 1, involving 10 CF patients, the main objective was to determine the tolerability and potential efficacy of a range of single doses of NAL in comparison to a placebo, in order to establish an optimal dose for further testing. On five consecutive scheduled treatment days, patients inhaled either from two (4 mg) to eight puffs (16 mg) of a single dose of NAL from the range, administered in an open-label fashion, or 12 puffs of active NAL (24 mg) versus 12 puffs of placebo, administered in a randomized double-blind fashion. Pulmonary function data were unaffected and clinically-adverse effects were limited to wheezing in some patients that inhaled 12 puffs of either placebo or active drug. Subsequent rheological analysis of their sputum showed a dose-dependent decrease in sputum viscoelasticity, accompanied by a decrease in sputum solids content and an increase in chloride and sodium concentrations. In study 2, involving 12 CF patients, the clinical safety and mucolytic activity of a single dose of NAL was monitored over 24 h. On different scheduled treatment days, 7 days apart, patients inhaled a single dose of 12 puffs of active NAL (24 mg) or 12 puffs of placebo drug in a randomized, double-blind sequence, with sputum samples taken at intervals before and after inhalation. Mucus rigidity decreased following NAL inhalation, with the maximum effect observed at 4 h; the 1-, 2- and 4-h NAL rheology results were significantly different from placebo. No adverse effects were observed. The drug was well tolerated in both studies. Sputum results were predictive of improved clearability by ciliary and cough transport mechanisms. PMID:11866009

  3. Around-the-clock: parent work schedules and children's well-being in a 24-h economy.

    PubMed

    Strazdins, Lyndall; Korda, Rosemary J; Lim, Lynette L-Y; Broom, Dorothy H; D'Souza, Rennie M

    2004-10-01

    Family life in developed economies has undergone a fundamental change--shifting from single-breadwinner households (typical of the post war decades) to families where both parents are employed. Equally dramatic has been the emergence of around-the-clock economies, altering the way work is organised, especially working time. Many more children now live in households where one or both parents work non-standard hours (evenings, nights or on weekends). Are there any implications for children's well-being when parents work non-standard schedules? There has been virtually no investigation of how children are faring in these around-the-clock households, despite evidence that non-standard work times affect family functioning and are stressful for parents. Using data from a representative sample of 4433 dual-earner Canadian families and their 2--11-year-old children (N children=6361), we compared families where both parents worked standard hours, with families where one or both worked non-standard times (evenings, nights or weekends). In nearly three-quarters of the families one or both parents regularly worked non-standard times. We found associations between children's well-being and parent work schedules, with higher odds ratios for child difficulties when parents worked non-standard times. These associations persisted after adjusting for several confounding factors including socio-economic status, parent part-time or full-time work, and childcare use, and were evident whether mothers, fathers or both parents worked non-standard times. The findings raise questions about the implications for children of the 24-h economy. PMID:15246179

  4. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53), 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002

  5. Adapting a standardised international 24 h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet software) for research and dietary surveillance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Kyung; Park, Jin Young; Nicolas, Geneviève; Paik, Hee Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-06-14

    During the past decades, a rapid nutritional transition has been observed along with economic growth in the Republic of Korea. Since this dramatic change in diet has been frequently associated with cancer and other non-communicable diseases, dietary monitoring is essential to understand the association. Benefiting from pre-existing standardised dietary methodologies, the present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and describe the development of a Korean version of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (GloboDiet software) and its complementary tools, developed at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO. Following established international Standard Operating Procedures and guidelines, about seventy common and country-specific databases on foods, recipes, dietary supplements, quantification methods and coefficients were customised and translated. The main results of the present study highlight the specific adaptations made to adapt the GloboDiet software for research and dietary surveillance in Korea. New (sub-) subgroups were added into the existing common food classification, and new descriptors were added to the facets to classify and describe specific Korean foods. Quantification methods were critically evaluated and adapted considering the foods and food packages available in the Korean market. Furthermore, a picture book of foods/dishes was prepared including new pictures and food portion sizes relevant to Korean diet. The development of the Korean version of GloboDiet demonstrated that it was possible to adapt the IARC-WHO international dietary tool to an Asian context without compromising its concept of standardisation and software structure. It, thus, confirms that this international dietary methodology, used so far only in Europe, is flexible and robust enough to be customised for other regions worldwide. PMID:25899045

  6. Reproducibility of 24-h post-exercise changes in energy intake in overweight and obese women using current methodology.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gemma L; Lean, Michael E; Hankey, Catherine R

    2012-07-01

    Direct observation(s) of energy intake (EI) via buffet meals served in the laboratory are often carried out within short-term exercise intervention studies. The reproducibility of values obtained has not been assessed either under resting control conditions or post-exercise, in overweight and obese females. A total of fourteen sedentary, pre-menopausal females (BMI 30.0 (SD 5.1) kg/m²) completed four trials; two exercise and two control. Each trial lasted 24 h spanning over 2 d; conducted from afternoon on day 1 and morning on day 2. An exercise session to expend 1.65 MJ was completed on day 1 of exercise trials, and three buffet meals were served during each trial. Reproducibility of post-exercise changes in energy and macronutrient intakes was assessed at each individual buffet meal by intraclass correlation coefficient (r(i)). Only the r(i) values for post-exercise changes in energy (r(i) 0.44 (95 % CI - 0.03, 0.77), P = 0.03) and fat intake (r(i) 0.51 (95 % CI 0.04, 0.81), P = 0.02) at the lunch buffet meal achieved statistical significance; however, these r i values were weak and had large associated 95 % CI, which indicates a large degree of variability associated with these measurements. Energy and macronutrient intakes at the breakfast and evening buffet meals were not reproducible. This study concludes that the frequently used laboratory-based buffet meal method of assessing EI does not produce reliable, reproducible post-exercise changes in EI in overweight and obese women.

  7. Role of activation of cholinergic influences in recovery of electrical activity of the stomach and small intestine during the early postoperative period in rats.

    PubMed

    Tropskaya, N S; Solov'yova, G I; Popova, T S

    2007-02-01

    The effects of neostigmine and calcium pantothenate on electrical activity of the stomach and small intestine were studied in chronic experiments on rats after laparotomy with implantation of a probe into the jejunum and electrodes into different portions of the gastrointestinal tract. At the early terms after surgery, stimulation of endogenous acetylcholine release intensified electrical activity of the stomach, duodenum, and jejunum. Treatment with neostigmine and calcium pantothenate did not accelerate the recovery of the migrating myoelectrical complex, but promoted the recovery of the general intensity of action potential generation in the stomach and small intestine. PMID:17970199

  8. Three 15-min bouts of moderate postmeal walking significantly improves 24-h glycemic control in older people at risk for impaired glucose tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three 15-min bouts of postmeal walking with 45 min of sustained walking on 24-h glycemic control in older persons at risk for glucose intolerance. Inactive older (=60 years of age) participants (N = 10) were recruited from the community a...

  9. COMPARISON OF 24H AVERAGE VOC MONITORING RESULTS FOR RESIDENTIAL INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR USING CARBOPACK X-FILLED DIFFUSIVE SAMPLERS AND ACTIVE SAMPLING - A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical results obtained by thermal desorption GC/MS for 24h diffusive sampling of 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compared with results of time-averaged active sampling at a known constant flow rate. Air samples were collected with co-located duplicate diffusive samp...

  10. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE), and its components-ba...

  11. Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men.

    PubMed

    Bérubé-Parent, Sonia; Pelletier, Catherine; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo

    2005-09-01

    It has been reported that green tea has a thermogenic effect, due to its caffeine content and probably also to the catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The main aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a mixture of green tea and Guarana extracts containing a fixed dose of caffeine and variable doses of EGCG on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Fourteen subjects took part to this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. Each subject was tested five times in a metabolic chamber to measure 24 h energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure. During each stay, the subjects ingested a capsule of placebo or capsules containing 200 mg caffeine and a variable dose of EGCG (90, 200, 300 or 400 mg) three times daily, 30 min before standardized meals. Twenty-four hour energy expenditure increased significantly by about 750 kJ with all EGCG-caffeine mixtures compared with placebo. No effect of the EGCG-caffeine mixture was observed for lipid oxidation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by about 7 and 5 mmHg, respectively, with the EGCG-caffeine mixtures compared with placebo. This increase was significant only for 24 h diastolic blood pressure. The main finding of the study was the increase in 24 h energy expenditure with the EGCG-caffeine mixtures. However, this increase was similar with all doses of EGCG in the mixtures.

  12. Associations of daytime, nighttime, and 24 h heart rate with four distinct markers of inflammation in hypertensive patients: the Styrian Hypertension Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Gaksch, Martin; Kienreich, Katharina; Grübler, Martin R; Verheyen, Nicolas; März, Winfried; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Gill, Thomas M.; Pilz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The current study assessed which measure of heart rate (HR) is most associated with inflammatory activity. Among 368 hypertensive patients (mean age±SD, 60.6±10.8; 52.9% women), mean daytime (from 06:00–22:00 h), nighttime (from 22:00–06:00 h), and 24 h HR were recorded using a continuous 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring portable device. Associations of daytime, nighttime, and 24 h HR with leukocytes, platelets, C-reactive protein [CRP], and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were calculated using multivariate linear regression, reporting unstandardized coefficients (B) with standard errors (SE). Mean daytime, nighttime, and 24 h HR were 73, 64, and 71 beats/min, respectively. All HR measures were positively associated with leukocytes after adjustment. Nighttime HR was additionally related with higher CRP. When all HR measures were simultaneously added to a single multivariate model, only the positive associations of nighttime HR with leukocytes (B [SE] = 0.06 [0.03], P =0.04), as well as with CRP (B [SE] = 0.20 [0.07], P =0.005) persisted. Nighttime HR was more closely associated with inflammatory activity. These observations lend some insight towards the pathophysiological mechanisms that implicate HR in cardiovascular risk, and afford valuable direction for forthcoming investigations. PMID:25266946

  13. Airway reactivity to inhaled spasmogens 18-24 h after antigen-challenge in sensitized anaesthetized guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A; Broadley, K J

    1997-11-01

    The anaesthetized allergic guinea-pig was used to assess changes in airway reactivity to four different inhaled spasmogens: methacholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), histamine and the thromboxane A2 mimetic, 9,11-dideoxy-9 alpha,11 alpha-methano-epoxy-PGF2 alpha (U-46619). Reactivity was determined 18 to 24 h after challenge of ovalbumin-sensitized guinea-pigs with inhaled ovalbumin. This time coincides with the appearance of a late-phase bronchoconstriction in these animals. Sensitivity to the spasmogen was assessed from the concentration-response curve for the increase in pulmonary inflation pressure (PIP) in ovalbumin- and saline-challenged sensitized animals. When methacholine, 5-HT or histamine were the spasmogens there was no hyper-reactivity. The geometric mean EC50 values (i.e. the concentrations inducing half the maximum effect) obtained from the dose-response curves for methacholine (73 (42-129) and 94 (66-134) micrograms mL-1), 5-HT (1.5 (0.81-3.03) and 1.1 (0.51-2.24 micrograms mL-1) and histamine (39 (21-75) and 72 (32-162) micrograms mL-1) did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between saline- and ovalbumin-challenged animals, respectively. However, when U-46619 was the spasmogen, ovalbumin-induced airway hyper-reactivity was observed as a leftwards shift of the concentration-response curve and the EC50 value for ovalbumin-challenged animals (8.1 (5.1-13) ng mL-1) was significantly (P < 0.05) less than the value for control animals (39 (21-75) ng mL-1). Our findings suggest that airway hyper-reactivity is not 'non-specific', but instead depends on the chosen spasmogen. The absence of hyper-reactivity with certain spasmogens was not a result of poor delivery, because all spasmogens caused a bronchoconstriction by the inhaled route. It was also not associated with the model because ozone has been shown to induce hyper-reactivity to inhaled methacholine and 5-HT. Because airway hyper-reactivity to both inhaled histamine and agonists at muscarinic

  14. Preliminary nutritional assessment of the Ecuadorian diet based on a 24-h food recall survey in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Llaguno, S N; Neira-Mosquera, J A; Pérez-Rodríguez, F; Moreno Rojas, R

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Realizar una evaluación nutricional de la dieta ecuatoriana y determinar el porcentaje de contribución de la ingesta de diferentes nutrientes en función del tipo de comida (desayuno, almuerzo, comida, merienda, y cena) y de la Referencia de Ingesta Dietética (RID). Métodos: Se realizó una encuesta piloto basada en el método del recordatorio de alimentación de 24 h en tres regiones concretas de Ecuador y se procesó la información recogida, se analizó y se comparó con las RID establecidas para la población latinoamericana. Resultados: El estudio encontró diferencias significativas para energía y ciertas vitaminas en hombres y en mujeres, además de determinar que la mayor contribución energética se obtenía en la comida, seguida de la merienda y el desayuno. Las comidas intermedias (almuerzo, merienda y cena) contribuían de una manera significativamente menor en la dieta diaria en comparación con otros tipos de comidas. Además, se observó que las ingestas analizadas no alcanzaban las RID para hidratos de carbono, algunas vitaminas (tiamina, ácido pantoténico, biotina, folato, vitamina D y vitamina E) y minerales (Ca, K, Cu, Mn, I y Fe). La ingesta de NA estaba bastante por encima de las RID y el Límite Superior Tolerable proporcionado por la USDA, lo que indica un problema de salud pública en relación con este electrolito. Conclusiones: Esta encuesta piloto puede considerarse como un punto de partida para obtener una visión más profunda de la dieta ecuatoriana. Esto permitirá determinar los patrones de consumo que afectan al bienestar de la población y establecer efectos positivos y efectos adversos del patrón de consumo en Ecuador.

  15. Perturbed energy balance and hydration status in ultra-endurance runners during a 24 h ultra-marathon.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ricardo J S; Gill, Samantha K; Hankey, Joanne; Wright, Alice; Marczak, Slawomir

    2014-08-14

    The present study aimed to assess the adequacy of energy, macronutrients and water intakes of ultra-endurance runners (UER) competing in a 24 h ultra-marathon (distance range: 122-208 km). The ad libitum food and fluid intakes of the UER (n 25) were recorded throughout the competition and analysed using dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM), urinary ketone presence, plasma osmolality (POsmol) and volume change were determined at pre- and post-competition time points. Data were analysed using appropriate t tests, with significance set at P <0·05. The total energy intake and expenditure of the UER were 20 (sd 12) and 55 (sd 11) MJ, respectively (control (CON) (n 17): 12 (sd 1) and 14 (sd 5) MJ, respectively). The protein, carbohydrate and fat intakes of the UER were 1·1 (sd 0·4), 11·3 (sd 7·0) and 1·5 (sd 0·7) g/kg BM, respectively. The rate of carbohydrate intake during the competition was 37 (sd 24) g/h. The total water intake of the UER was 9·1 (sd 4·0) litres (CON: 2·1 (sd 1·0) litres), while the rate of water intake was 378 (sd 164) ml/h. Significant BM loss occurred at pre- to post-competition time points (P =0·001) in the UER (1·6 (sd 2·0) %). No significant changes in POsmol values were observed at pre- (285 (sd 11) mOsmol/kg) to post-competition (287 (sd 10) mOsmol/kg) time points in the UER and were lower than those recorded in the CON group (P <0·05). However, plasma volume (PV) increased at post-competition time points in the UER (10·2 (sd 9·7) %; P <0·001). Urinary ketones were evident in the post-competition samples of 90 % of the UER. Energy deficit was observed in all the UER, with only one UER achieving the benchmark recommendations for carbohydrate intake during endurance exercise. Despite the relatively low water intake rates recorded in the UER, hypohydration does not appear to be an issue, considering increases in PV values observed in the majority (80 %) of the UER. Population-specific dietary recommendations may be

  16. Photodissociation of [Fe(x)(C24H12)y]+ complexes in the PIRENEA setup: iron-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon clusters as candidates for very small interstellar grains.

    PubMed

    Simon, Aude; Joblin, Christine

    2009-04-30

    Astronomical observations suggest that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that emit at the surface of molecular clouds in the interstellar medium are locally produced by photodestruction of very small grains (VSGs). In this paper, we investigate [Fex(PAH)y]+ clusters as candidates for these VSGs. [FeC24H12]+ and [Fex(C24H12)2]+ (x = 1-3) complexes were formed by laser ablation of a solid target in the PIRENEA setup, a cold ion trap dedicated to astrochemistry. Their photodissociation was studied under continuous visible irradiation. Photodissociation pathways are identified and characteristic time scales for photostability are provided. [Fex(C24H12)2]+ (x = 1-3) complexes sequentially photodissociate by losing iron atoms and coronene units under laboratory irradiation conditions with C24H12+ as the smallest photofragment. The study of the dissociation kinetics gives interesting insights into the structures of the complexes. The dissociation rate is found to increase with the complex size. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations show that the increase of the number of Fe atoms leads to an increased stability of the complex but also to an increased heating rate in the experimental conditions, due to the presence of strong electronic excitations in the visible. The modeling of the dissociation kinetics of the smallest complex [FeC24H12]+ by using a kinetic Monte Carlo code allows derivation of the dissociation parameters and the internal energy for this complex, showing in particular that it could dissociate under interstellar irradiation conditions. First insights into the dissociation of larger complexes in these conditions are also given.

  17. The use of recovery methods post-exercise.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Thomas; Ekblom, Bjorn

    2005-06-01

    Competitive soccer engages many of the body's systems to a major extent. The musculoskeletal, nervous, immune and metabolic systems are stressed to a point where recovery strategies post-exercise become influential in preparing for the next match. Intense activity at a 7-day training camp causes participants to experience lowered concentrations of non-killer cells and T-helper cells. Two consecutive games in 24 h produce disturbances in the testosterone-cortisol ratio. When competitive schedules are congested, the recovery process should be optimized for performance capabilities to be restored to normal as soon as possible. There is evidence that glycogen stores are reduced near to depletion at the end of a soccer game and that a diet high in carbohydrates can aid recovery. Water alone is not the best means of restoring body fluids, since carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks display better intestinal absorption and reduce urine output. Some relief from muscle soreness may be achieved by means of a warm-down. Deep-water running regimens can replace conventional physical training in the days after competition. Massage, cryotherapy and alternative therapies have not been shown to be consistently effective. It is concluded that optimizing recovery post-exercise depends on a combination of factors that incorporate a consideration of individual differences and lifestyle factors. The procedures to facilitate recovery processes should start immediately the game or training finishes. Match administrators and tournament planners should consider the stressful consequences for players in periods of congested fixtures and alleviate the physiological strain as far as possible by allowing 72 h between competitive games. This frequency of competition is unlikely to be sustainable in the long term.

  18. Modification over time of pulse wave velocity parallel to changes in aortic BP, as well as in 24-h ambulatory brachial BP.

    PubMed

    Oliveras, A; Segura, J; Suarez, C; García-Ortiz, L; Abad-Cardiel, M; Vigil, L; Gómez-Marcos, M A; Sans Atxer, L; Martell-Claros, N; Ruilope, L M; de la Sierra, A

    2016-03-01

    Arterial stiffness as assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is a marker of preclinical organ damage and a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes, independently of blood pressure (BP). However, limited evidence exists on the association between long-term variation (Δ) on aortic BP (aoBP) and ΔcfPWV. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of ΔBP with ΔcfPWV over time, as assessed by office and 24-h ambulatory peripheral BP, and aoBP. AoBP and cfPWV were evaluated in 209 hypertensive patients with either diabetes or metabolic syndrome by applanation tonometry (Sphygmocor) at baseline(b) and at 12 months of follow-up(fu). Peripheral BP was also determined by using validated oscillometric devices (office(o)-BP) and on an outpatient basis by using a validated (Spacelabs-90207) device (24-h ambulatory BP). ΔcfPWV over time was calculated as follows: ΔcfPWV=[(cfPWVfu-cfPWVb)/cfPWVb] × 100. ΔBP over time resulted from the same formula applied to BP values obtained with the three different measurement techniques. Correlations (Spearman 'Rho') between ΔBP and ΔcfPWV were calculated. Mean age was 62 years, 39% were female and 80% had type 2 diabetes. Baseline office brachial BP (mm Hg) was 143±20/82±12. Follow-up (12 months later) office brachial BP (mm Hg) was 136±20/79±12. ΔcfPWV correlated with ΔoSBP (Rho=0.212; P=0.002), Δ24-h SBP (Rho=0.254; P<0.001), Δdaytime SBP (Rho=0.232; P=0.001), Δnighttime SBP (Rho=0.320; P<0.001) and ΔaoSBP (Rho=0.320; P<0.001). A multiple linear regression analysis included the following independent variables: ΔoSBP, Δ24-h SBP, Δdaytime SBP, Δnighttime SBP and ΔaoSBP. ΔcfPWV was independently associated with Δ24-h SBP (β-coefficient=0.195; P=0.012) and ΔaoSBP (β-coefficient= 0.185; P=0.018). We conclude that changes in both 24-h SBP and aoSBP more accurately reflect changes in arterial stiffness than do office BP measurements. PMID:26108366

  19. Effects of a quercetin-rich onion skin extract on 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and endothelial function in overweight-to-obese patients with (pre-)hypertension: a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Brüll, Verena; Burak, Constanze; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Wolffram, Siegfried; Nickenig, Georg; Müller, Cornelius; Langguth, Peter; Alteheld, Birgit; Fimmers, Rolf; Naaf, Stefanie; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stehle, Peter; Egert, Sarah

    2015-10-28

    The polyphenol quercetin may prevent CVD due to its antihypertensive and vasorelaxant properties. We investigated the effects of quercetin after regular intake on blood pressure (BP) in overweight-to-obese patients with pre-hypertension and stage I hypertension. In addition, the potential mechanisms responsible for the hypothesised effect of quercetin on BP were explored. Subjects (n 70) were randomised to receive 162 mg/d quercetin from onion skin extract powder or placebo in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over trial with 6-week treatment periods separated by a 6-week washout period. Before and after the intervention, ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and office BP were measured; urine and blood samples were collected; and endothelial function was measured by EndoPAT technology. In the total group, quercetin did not significantly affect 24 h ABP parameters and office BP. In the subgroup of hypertensives, quercetin decreased 24 h systolic BP by -3·6 mmHg (P=0·022) when compared with placebo (mean treatment difference, -3·9 mmHg; P=0·049). In addition, quercetin significantly decreased day-time and night-time systolic BP in hypertensives, but without a significant effect in inter-group comparison. In the total group and also in the subgroup of hypertensives, vasoactive biomarkers including endothelin-1, soluble endothelial-derived adhesion molecules, asymmetric dimethylarginine, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, endothelial function, parameters of oxidation, inflammation, lipid and glucose metabolism were not affected by quercetin. In conclusion, supplementation with 162 mg/d quercetin from onion skin extract lowers ABP in patients with hypertension, suggesting a cardioprotective effect of quercetin. The mechanisms responsible for the BP-lowering effect remain unclear.

  20. Effect of lactose administration in drinking water prior to and during feed withdrawal on Salmonella recovery from broiler crops and ceca.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, E T; Caldwell, D J; Crouch, M C; Byrd, J A; Corrier, D E; Hargis, B M

    1999-02-01

    Salmonella contamination of the chicken crop has been reported to increase markedly and significantly during feed withdrawal, probably due to coprophagy, and may contribute to carcass contamination at processing. The effect of prolonged lactose administration (2.5%) in the drinking water on the incidence of Salmonella recovery from broiler crops or ceca was evaluated in seven experiments. In these experiments, all or a percentage (providing seeders and contacts) of 7-wk-old broilers were challenged with approximately 1 x 108 cfu Salmonella enteritidis and provided lactose for 5 or 11 d prior to and during an 18 or 24 h feed withdrawal period. A small but significant lactose-mediated reduction in Salmonella contamination of crops was observed in one of two identical experiments with 18 h feed withdrawal. Extending the feed withdrawal period to 24 h did not improve the ability of lactose to affect Salmonella recovery from crops or ceca. Similarly, lactose did not affect Salmonella recovery when the percentage of birds challenged was reduced to 3 out of 16 and Salmonella recovery from crops or ceca of unchallenged, contact broilers was measured. Extending the duration of exposure to 2.5% lactose in the drinking water from 5 to 11 d did not improve the ability of lactose to affect Salmonella recovery. Taken together, these data suggest that provision of 2.5% lactose in the drinking water during the last 5 to 11 d of growout prior to slaughter will not be useful in an integrated Salmonella control program under commercial conditions.

  1. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: The 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8-53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7-45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885-4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654-4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4-23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1-4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33-1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34-2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49-2.53, P < 0.001) in women. In this

  2. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems in space. III - Productivity at successive harvest dates under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.

    1987-01-01

    Efficient crop production for controlled ecological life support systems requires near-optimal growing conditions with harvests taken when production per unit area per unit time is maximum. This maximum for potato was determined using data on Norland plants which were grown in walk-in growth rooms under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods at 16 C. Results show that high tuber production can be obtained from potatoes grown under a continuous light regime. The dry weights (dwt) of tuber and of the entire plants were found to increase under both photoperiods until the final harvest date (148 days), reaching 5732 g tuber dwt and 704 g total dwt under 12-h, and 791 g tuber dwt and 972 g total dwt under 24-h.

  3. Central amygdala opioid transmission is necessary for increased high-fat intake following 24-h food deprivation, but not following intra-accumbens opioid administration.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kyle E; Johns, Howard W; Floros, Ted G; Will, Matthew J

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a dissociation of certain neural mediators that contribute to the increased consumption of a high-fat diet that follows intra-accumbens (Acb) administration of μ-opioid receptor agonists vs. 24-h food deprivation. These two models, both which induce rapid consumption of the diet, have been shown to involve a distributed corticolimbic circuitry, including the amygdala. Specifically, the central amygdala (CeA) has been shown to be involved in high-fat feeding within both opioid and food-deprivation driven models. The present experiments were conducted to examine the more specific role of CeA opioid transmission in mediating high-fat feeding driven by either intra-Acb administration of the μ-opioid agonist d-Ala2-NMe-Phe4-Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) or 24-h home cage food deprivation. Injection of DAMGO into the Acb (0.25 μg/0.5 μl/side) increased consumption of the high-fat diet, but this feeding was unaffected by administration of opioid antagonist, naltrexone (5 μg/0.25 μl/side) administered into the CeA. In contrast, intra-CeA naltrexone administration attenuated high-fat intake driven by 24-h food deprivation, demonstrating a specific role for CeA opioid transmission in high-fat consumption. Intra-CeA naltrexone administration alone had no effect on baseline feeding levels within either feeding model. These findings suggest that CeA opioid transmission mediates consumption of a palatable high-fat diet driven by short-term negative-energy balance (24-h food deprivation), but not intra-Acb opioid receptor activation.

  4. How acute is the acute stress response? Baseline corticosterone and corticosteroid-binding globulin levels change 24h after an acute stressor in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Malisch, Jessica L; Satterlee, Daniel G; Cockrem, John F; Wada, Haruka; Breuner, Creagh W

    2010-01-15

    Changes in plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) capacity can alter free plasma concentration and tissue availability of glucocorticoids (GC) and hence alter the organismal response to stress. However, CBG change in response to stress has not been extensively studied. While it is clear that chronic stress can causes CBG decline and in some species acute stressors can reduce CBG during the 30-60 min of the stressor, more long-term changes in CBG following an acute stressor has received less attention. Here we investigated corticosterone (CORT: the primary GC in birds) and CBG levels 24h after an acute stressor in a unique study system: Japanese quail divergently selected for CORT reactivity to acute stress. Using this model, we examined the interaction of selected CORT reactivity with CBG response to determine if CBG shows a delayed decline in response to an acute stressor and if that decline varies by selected genetic background. We found lowered CBG capacity, elevated total CORT and free CORT 24h after acute stress in all three quail groups. These results demonstrate for the first time in an avian species that exposure to an acute stressor can affect CBG and CORT 24h later.

  5. [CELLULAR COMPOSITION OF THE LAMINA PROPRIA OF JEJUNAL MUCOUS MEMBRANE IN C57BL/6 MICE DURING THE RECOVERY PERIOD AFTER PROLONGED SPACE FLIGHT].

    PubMed

    Aminova, G G

    2015-01-01

    The jejunum of C57 BL/6 mice (n = 5) was examined 7 days after a 30-day-long space flight and in vivarium control animals (n = 6). The cellular composition of the lamina propria of the mucous membranes of the villi and crypt region was studied using histological and morphometric methods. It was found that on Day 7 the recovery of normal cellular composition of the lamina propria was incomplete. In the villi, the number of medium and small lymphocytes, as well as of the plasma cells was reduced. In the crypt region, the changes were less pronounced. In the lamina propria in experimental animals the number of large lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, disintegrating cells and stromal cells was increased. The number of eosinophils was reduced.

  6. Ozone recovery as seen in perspective of the Dobson spectrophotometer measurements at Belsk (52°N, 21°E) in the period 1963-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzyścin, Janusz W.; Rajewska-Więch, Bonawentura

    2009-12-01

    The total ozone monthly means derived from measurements by the Dobson spectrophotometer at Belsk (52°N, 21°E) and satellite observations over central and midlatitudinal Europe are analyzed for the long-term changes between 1995 and 2008. Standard explanatory variables representing physical and chemical processes known to influence the ozone distribution are considered. The potential proxies are: atmospheric loading by the ozone depleting substances characterized by the equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) time series, various drivers of ozone dynamical variability including solar cycle, teleconnection patterns, temperature at 50 hPa, and pressure at the tropopause level. The multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) methodology is used to find optimal set of the explanatory variables and shape of the anthropogenic trend curve. Following options for the trend curve are examined: proportional to EESC, piecewise linear (with the turning points in 1980 and 1995), and selected from a smooth curve fit to the total ozone time series having "natural variations" removed. Statistical estimates and their uncertainties are calculated using block bootstrapping. The analyses indicate that ozone over Belsk, in central Europe, and in midlatitudinal Europe reaches at least first stage of recovery as defined by the World Meteorological Organization: a statistically significant reduction in the rate of decline. Model using the EESC time series as a proxy for the anthropogenic trend pattern yields even the second stage, i.e., a positive trend in time series that remains after removal dynamical signal from the analyzed data. Substantial seasonal dependent long-term ozone oscillations by the dynamical drivers are revealed causing estimation of the ozone recovery time even more uncertain.

  7. Increased prostaglandins E2 and F2α in human skin at 6 and 24 h after ultraviolet B irradiation (290-320 nm)

    PubMed Central

    Kobza Black, A.; Greaves, M. W.; Hensby, C. N.; Plummer, N. A.

    1978-01-01

    1 Abdominal skin of 25 human subjects was irradiated with three times its minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet (u.v.) B radiation. Erythema appeared after 2 h, was of moderate degree at 6 h, and maximal at 24 and 48 h. 2 Exudate was recovered by a suction bulla technique from the subject's normal and erythematous skin either at 6, 24 or 48 h after irradiation. 3 Superfusion cascade bioassay of exudate showed increased prostaglandin (PG)-like activity, measured in PGE2 equivalents, at 6 and 24 h after irradiation. The maximum rise was at 24 h, coinciding with the peak of the erythema. However, prostaglandin concentrations were not significantly above that of controls at 48 h when the erythema was still maximal. 4 Radioimmunoassay for PGF2α yielded values in close agreement with the bioassay results. 5 Gel partition chromatography, after conversion of extracted residues from the exudate to 14C methyl esters, showed increased incorporation of radioactivity at 6 h, maximal at 24 h. At 48 h there was no significant difference from control levels. The major increased activity, maximal at 24 h, co-chromatographed with arachidonic acid and PGE2 and PGF2α. The materials provisionally identified as the latter three compounds also co-chromatographed with their corresponding methyl esters on t.l.c., although the arachidonic acid-like material contained at least two peaks. No evidence was obtained for the 1 or 3 series of PGs. On g.l.c. the material obtained from the PGF2α zone co-chromatographed with authentic PGF2α as the methyl ester trimethylsilyl ether. The PGE2 zone converted to methyl ester n-butyloxime trimethylsilyl ether also co-chromatographed with authentic PGE2, but with some distinct shouldering. 6 The evidence presented provides support for the presence of increased amounts of arachidonic acid, PGE2 and PGF2α-like compounds during the first 24 h of u.v.B erythema, with concordance of the erythema and prostaglandin levels. At 48 h this relationship could not

  8. Accuracy of GFR estimation formula in determination of glomerular filtration rate in kidney donors: Comparison with 24 h urine creatinine clearance.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Abdul Rauf; Idrees, Muhammad Khalid; Akhtar, Syed Fazal

    2016-03-01

    To determine the accuracy of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), Cockcroft-Gault (CG), and chronic kidney disease epidemiology (CKD-EPI) formulas in potential kidney donors compared with 24-h urine creatinine clearance, we studied 207 potential live kidney donors in our center. There were 126 (60.9%) males and 81 (39.1%) females. Male:female ratio was 1.6:1. The age of the donors ranged from 18-58 years, with mean age of 35.30 ± 9.23 years and most of the individuals were below 40 years of age. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated and venous blood samples were obtained for the measurement of serum creatinine and every study participant was instructed to collect 24-h urine. GFR was calculated based on 24-h urine creatinine clearance and the formulas. The accuracy of GFR estimation formula was taken as positive if the GFR calculated by the formulas and urine creatinine clearance fell between 90-120 mL/min/1.73 m(2). The accuracy of the MDRD formula was 48.8% and the CG formula was 41.5% whereas the accuracy of the CKD-EPI formula was 78.2%. The accuracy of the eGFR using the MDRD formula was significantly higher in males than females (57.9% vs. 33.3% P = 0.001), while there was no statistically significant difference in the eGFR between them in case of the use of the CG and the CKD-EPI formulas. BMI and obesity had no effect on the accuracy of eGFR by the use of the different formulas. The performance of GFR estimation formulas was sub optimal and these either underestimated and/or over-estimated the GFR in healthy subjects. CKD-EPI is closer to 24 -h urinary creatinine clearance in the calculation of eGFR. However, none of the eGFR formulas can be used in renal transplant donors because of their low accuracy, and 24-h urine creatinine clearance should be used for evaluation of the GFR in this population.

  9. What a Nostril Knows: Olfactory Nerve-Evoked AMPA Responses Increase while NMDA Responses Decrease at 24-h Post-Training for Lateralized Odor Preference Memory in Neonate Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Qi; Harley, Carolyn W.

    2012-01-01

    Increased AMPA signaling is proposed to mediate long-term memory. Rat neonates acquire odor preferences in a single olfactory bulb if one nostril is occluded at training. Memory testing here confirmed that only trained bulbs support increased odor preference at 24 h. Olfactory nerve field potentials were tested at 24 h in slices from trained and…

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989 - Volume 1 - Text

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality.

  11. Enhanced oil recovery utilizing high-angle wells in the Frontier Formation, Badger Basin Field, Park County, Wyoming. Final report for the period October 1992--October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.P.; Fortmann, R.G.

    1994-12-01

    Badger Basin Field, discovered in 1931, produces at stripper rates from low-permeability fractured sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation. Only 15% of the estimated 25 million barrels of oil originally in-place will be produced from the twenty-two attempted vertical completions. This project will increase recoverable reserves through a better understanding of the reservoir and factors which control production. Characterization of the reservoir has been accomplished through an integrated engineering, geological and geophysical approach. Production data, drilling and completion techniques, and relative location of wells on the anticline were reviewed and related to productivity. Literature was reviewed for interpretations on preferred flow directions on anticlinal structures. A structure map of the producing Frontier reservoir was constructed. Porosity development and its relationship to fracture networks was examined petrographically. Fractures in core were described and oriented using paleomagnetic techniques. Azimuths of fractures in outcrop were compared to fracture azimuths measured in the core. A 17 square-mile 3D seismic survey was designed, acquired and processed. Interpretation is being performed on a Sun workstation using Landmark Graphics software. Time-structure and amplitude-distribution maps will be constructed on three Frontier horizons. A location for a high-angle well will be chosen. The slant/horizontal test will be drilled and completed to increase recovery of reserves. Transfer of successful technologies will be accomplished by technical publications and presentations, and access to project materials, data, and field facilities.

  12. Enhanced oil recovery by surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency: First annual report for the period September 30, 1985-September 30, 1986. [Sandpacks

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, J H; Scamehorn, J F

    1987-05-01

    Surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency is a novel EOR method which utilizes precipitation/coacervation of surfactants to plug the most permeable regions of the reservoir, improving the efficiency of a waterflooding operation. This technique does not rely on reduction of interfacial tension between aqueous and oleic phases to enhance oil recovery. Therefore, even though surfactants are involved, this new technique is not a substitute or improvement on classical surfactant flooding; however, it has the potantial to compete with polymer flooding as an alternative sweep efficiency improvement method. In surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency, a slug containing one kind of surfactant is injected into the reservoir, followed by a brine spacer. This is followed by injection of a second kind of surfactant which has lower adsorption than the first surfactant used. Anionic and cationic surfactants are one possible combination for this application. These may form either a precipitate or a coacervate upon mixing. Phase boundaries for some specific systems of this type have been determined over a wide range of conditions and a model developed to describe this behavior. Another possibility is the use of nonionic surfactants, which may form coacervate under proper conditions. The adsorption behavior of mixtures of anionic and nonionic surfactants was measured to aid in modeling the chromatographic effects with these surfactants in the reservoir. Studies with sandpacks of different permeabilities in parallel configuration using mixtures of anionic and cationic surfactants have demonstrated the capability of this method to reduce flow rates through a more permeable sandpack more than that through a less permeable sandpack. 4 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. TNF-α and TNFR1 responses to recovery therapies following acute resistance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Jeremy R.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Fragala, Maren S.; Jajtner, Adam R.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Wells, Adam J.; Mangine, Gerald T.; Fukuda, David H.; Stout, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effect of two commonly used therapeutic modalities (a) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and (b) cold water immersion (CWI) on circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte TNF-α receptor (TNFR1) expression following intense acute resistance exercise and subsequent recovery. Thirty (n = 30) resistance trained men (22.5 ± 2.7 y) performed an acute heavy resistance exercise protocol on three consecutive days followed by one of three recovery methods (CON, NMES, and CWI). Circulating TNF-α levels were assayed and TNFR1 expression on CD14+ monocytes was measured by flow cytometry measured PRE, immediately post (IP), 30-min post (30M), 24 h post (24H), and 48 h post (48H) exercise. Circulating TNF-α was elevated at IP (p = 0.001) and 30M (p = 0.005) and decreased at 24H and 48H recovery from IP in CON (p = 0.015) and CWI (p = 0.011). TNF-α did not significantly decrease from IP during recovery in NMES. TNFR1 expression was elevated (p < 0.001) at 30M compared to PRE and all other time points. No significant differences between groups were observed in TNFR1 expression. During recovery (24H, 48H) from muscle damaging exercise, NMES treatment appears to prevent the decline in circulating TNF-α observed during recovery in those receiving no treatment or CWI. PMID:25741287

  14. Resource conservation and recovery act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988: Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-02-01

    This is Volume 2 of a two-volume set of documents that describes the progress of 12 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988. This volume provides those drilling logs and well inspection/completion reports inadvertently left out of last quarter's report for the 216-A-36B Crib (Appendix A) and as-built diagrams, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled this quarter near the 2101-M Pond. Volume 1 discusses the 12 projects.

  15. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period October 1 to December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1990-03-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 15 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period October 1 to December 31, 1989. This volume discusses the projects. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the samples aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality. 51 refs., 35 figs., 86 tabs.

  16. High fructose diets increase 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in liver and visceral adipose in rats within 24-h exposure.

    PubMed

    London, Edra; Castonguay, Thomas W

    2011-05-01

    The increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States during the past three decades coincides with a trend of increased sugar intake, especially fructose, leading to speculation that the two trends may be linked. The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), that regulates intracellular tissue-specific glucocorticoid levels, is increased in adipose and suppressed in liver of obese humans and animals. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) is colocalized with 11β-HSD1 and generates nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate, the required cofactor for 11β-HSD1 reductase activity that converts inert glucocorticoid metabolite into active hormone. We examined the acute effects of ad lib access to 16% solutions of sucrose, fructose, or glucose and chow and water. Diets high in fructose, but not glucose or sucrose increased 11β-HSD1 mRNA within 24 h in liver and adipose by greater than two- and threefold, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). After 1 week, hepatic 11β-HSD1 mRNA and protein were suppressed by >60% in all sugar-fed groups, a phenomenon not previously reported in the absence of obesity. Sucrose- and fructose-fed rats had higher plasma triglycerides than did control or glucose-fed rats at both 24 h and 1 week (P ≤ 0.02), consistent with previously reported effects of fructose on lipid metabolism. We conclude that high-sugar diets initiate glucocorticoid dysregulation associated with obesity prior to the onset of phenotypic changes, and that high fructose diets specifically induce changes in 11β-HSD1 within 24-h exposure.

  17. O. 35 ppm O/sub 3/ exposure induces hyperresponsiveness on 24-h reexposure to 0. 20 ppm O/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect

    Brookes, K.A.; Adams, W.C.; Schelegle, E.S.

    1989-06-01

    Pulmonary function hyperresponsiveness, defined as enhanced response on reexposure to O3, compared with initial O3 exposure, has been previously noted in consecutive day exposures to high ambient O3 concentrations (i.e., 0.32-0.42 ppm). Effects of consecutive-day exposure to lower O3 concentrations (0.20-0.25 ppm) have yielded equivocal results. To examine the occurrence of hyperresponsiveness at two levels of O3 exposure, 15 aerobically trained males completed seven 1-h exposures of continuous exercise at work rates eliciting a mean minute ventilation of 60 1/min. Three sets of consecutive-day exposures, involving day 1/day 2 exposures to 0.20/0.20 ppm O3, 0.35/0.20 ppm O3, and 0.35/0.35 ppm O3, were randomly delivered via an obligatory mouthpiece inhalation system. A filtered-air exposure was randomly placed 24 h before one of the three sets. Treatment effects were assessed by standard pulmonary function tests, exercise ventilatory pattern (i.e., respiratory frequency, f; and tidal volume, VT) changes and subjective symptom (SS) response. Initial O3 exposures to 0.35 and 0.20 ppm had a statistically significant effect, compared with filtered air, on all measurements. On reexposure to 0.35 ppm O3 24 h after an initial 0.35 ppm O3 exposure, significant hyperresponsiveness was demonstrated for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), f, VT, and total SS score. Exposure to 0.20 ppm O3 24 h after 0.35 ppm O3 exposure, however, resulted in significantly enhanced responses (compared with initial 0.20 ppm O3 exposure) only for FEV1, f, and VT.

  18. A Model for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks in an Age-Structured Forest: Predicting Severity and Outbreak-Recovery Cycle Period.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Jacob P; Powell, James A; Gordillo, Luis F; Eason, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), a tree-killing bark beetle, has historically been part of the normal disturbance regime in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests. In recent years, warm winters and summers have allowed MPB populations to achieve synchronous emergence and successful attacks, resulting in widespread population outbreaks and resultant tree mortality across western North America. We develop an age-structured forest demographic model that incorporates temperature-dependent MPB infestations. Stability of fixed points is analyzed as a function of (thermally controlled) MPB population growth rates and indicates the existence of periodic outbreaks that intensify as growth rates increase. We devise analytical methods to predict outbreak severity and duration as well as outbreak return time. After incorporating a spatial aspect and controlling initial stand demographic variation, the model predicts cycle periods that fall within observed outbreak return time ranges. To assess future MPB impact on forests, we use climate model projected temperatures with our model-based approximation methods to predict potential severity of future outbreaks that reflect the effects of changing climate. PMID:25976694

  19. A Model for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks in an Age-Structured Forest: Predicting Severity and Outbreak-Recovery Cycle Period.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Jacob P; Powell, James A; Gordillo, Luis F; Eason, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), a tree-killing bark beetle, has historically been part of the normal disturbance regime in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests. In recent years, warm winters and summers have allowed MPB populations to achieve synchronous emergence and successful attacks, resulting in widespread population outbreaks and resultant tree mortality across western North America. We develop an age-structured forest demographic model that incorporates temperature-dependent MPB infestations. Stability of fixed points is analyzed as a function of (thermally controlled) MPB population growth rates and indicates the existence of periodic outbreaks that intensify as growth rates increase. We devise analytical methods to predict outbreak severity and duration as well as outbreak return time. After incorporating a spatial aspect and controlling initial stand demographic variation, the model predicts cycle periods that fall within observed outbreak return time ranges. To assess future MPB impact on forests, we use climate model projected temperatures with our model-based approximation methods to predict potential severity of future outbreaks that reflect the effects of changing climate.

  20. Isotope concentrations from 24-h urine and 3-h serum samples can be used to measure intestinal magnesium absorption in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karen E; Nabak, Andrea C; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S; Shafer, Martin M; Abrams, Steven A

    2014-04-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ≥6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ∼23 mg of oral ²⁶Mg and ∼11 mg of i.v. ²⁵Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0-24 h urine MgA value alone (ρ = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0-24 h urine and the 3-h (ρ = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (ρ = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (-0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection.

  1. Isotope Concentrations from 24-h Urine and 3-h Serum Samples Can Be Used to Measure Intestinal Magnesium Absorption in Postmenopausal Women123

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Karen E.; Nabak, Andrea C.; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Shafer, Martin M.; Abrams, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ≥6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ∼23 mg of oral 26Mg and ∼11 mg of i.v. 25Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0–24 h urine MgA value alone (ρ = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0–24 h urine and the 3-h (ρ = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (ρ = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (−0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0–24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0–24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01593501. PMID:24500940

  2. Cadmium-Induced Disruption in 24-h Expression of Clock and Redox Enzyme Genes in Rat Medial Basal Hypothalamus: Prevention by Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cano-Barquilla, Pilar; Scacchi, Pablo A.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Esquifino, Ana I.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study we reported that a low daily p.o. dose of cadmium (Cd) disrupted the circadian expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). To assess whether melatonin could counteract Cd activity, male Wistar rats (45 days of age) received CdCl2 (5 ppm) and melatonin (3 μg/mL) or vehicle (0.015% ethanol) in drinking water. Groups of animals receiving melatonin or vehicle alone were also included. After 1 month, MBH mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR analysis at six time intervals in a 24-h cycle. In control MBH Bmal1 expression peaked at early scotophase, Per1 expression at late afternoon, and Per2 and Cry2 expression at mid-scotophase, whereas neither Clock nor Cry1 expression showed significant 24-h variations. This pattern was significantly disrupted (Clock, Bmal1) or changed in phase (Per1, Per2, Cry2) by CdCl2 while melatonin counteracted the changes brought about by Cd on Per1 expression only. In animals receiving melatonin alone the 24-h pattern of MBH Per2 and Cry2 expression was disrupted. CdCl2 disrupted the 24-h rhythmicity of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-1, NOS-2, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and HO-2 gene expression, most of the effects being counteracted by melatonin. In particular, the co-administration of melatonin and CdCl2 increased Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression and decreased that of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GSR), and HO-2. In animals receiving melatonin alone, significant increases in mean Cu/Zn and Mn-SOD gene expression, and decreases in that of GPx, GSR, NOS-1, NOS-2, HO-1, and HO-2, were found. The results indicate that the interfering effect of melatonin on the activity of a low dose of CdCl2 on MBH clock and redox enzyme genes is mainly exerted at the level of redox enzyme gene expression. PMID:21442002

  3. Variability of urinary concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolite in general population and comparison of spot, first-morning, and 24-h void sampling.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Lewin, Michael D; Porter, Erin N; Trinidad, Debra A; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G; Sjödin, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    Urinary mono-hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) are commonly used in biomonitoring to assess exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Similar to other biologically non-persistent chemicals, OH-PAHs have relatively short biological half-lives (4.4-35 h). Little information is available on their variability in urinary concentrations over time in non-occupationally exposed subjects. This study was designed to (i) examine the variability of nine urinary OH-PAH metabolite concentrations over time and (ii) calculate sample size requirements for future epidemiological studies on the basis of spot urine, first-morning void, and 24-h void sampling. Individual urine samples (n=427) were collected during 1 week from 8 non-occupationally exposed adults. We recorded the time and volume of each urine excretion, dietary details, and driving activities of the participants. Within subjects, the coefficients of variation (CVs) for the wet-weight concentration of OH-PAHs in all samples ranged from 45% to 297%; creatinine adjustment reduced the CV to 19-288% (P<0.001; paired t-test). The simulated 24-h void concentrations were the least variable measure, with CVs ranging from 13% to 182% for the 9 OH-PAHs. Within-day variability contributed on average 84%, and between-day variability accounted for 16% of the total variance of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR). Intraclass correlation coefficients of 1-PYR levels were 0.55 for spot urine samples, 0.65 [corrected] for first-morning voids, and 0.77 [corrected] for 24-h voids, indicating a high degree of correlation between urine measurements collected from the same subject over time. Sample size calculations were performed to estimate the number of subjects required for detecting differences in the geometric mean at a statistical power of 80% for spot urine, first-morning, and 24-h void sampling. These data will aid in the design of future studies of PAHs and possibly other biologically non-persistent chemicals and in

  4. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A. Compton); "Reading Recovery in Arizona--A…

  5. Recovery of function after vagus nerve stimulation initiated 24 hours after fluid percussion brain injury.

    PubMed

    Smith, Douglas C; Tan, Arlene A; Duke, Andrea; Neese, Steven L; Clough, Richard W; Browning, Ronald A; Jensen, Robert A

    2006-10-01

    Recent evidence from our laboratory demonstrated in laboratory rats that stimulation of the vagus nerve (VNS) initiated 2 h after lateral fluid percussion brain injury (FPI) accelerates the rate of recovery on a variety of behavioral and cognitive tests. VNS animals exhibited a level of performance comparable to that of sham-operated uninjured animals by the end of a 2-week testing period. The effectiveness of VNS was further evaluated in the present study in which initiation of stimulation was delayed until 24 h post-injury. Rats were subjected to a moderate FPI and tested on the beam walk, skilled forelimb reaching, locomotor placing, forelimb flexion and Morris water maze tasks for 2 weeks following injury. VNS (30 sec trains of 0.5 mA, 20.0-Hz biphasic pulses) was initiated 24 h post-injury and continued at 30-min intervals for the duration of the study, except for brief periods when the animals were detached for behavioral assessments. Consistent with our previous findings when stimulation was initiated 2 h post-injury, VNS animals showed significantly faster rates of recovery compared to controls. By the last day of testing (day 14 post-injury), the FPI-VNS animals were performing significantly better than the FPI-no-VNS animals and were not significantly different from shams in all motor and sensorimotor tasks. Performance in the Morris water maze indicated that the VNS animals acquired the task more rapidly on days 11-13 post-injury. On day 14, the FPI-VNS animals did not differ in the latency to find the platform from sham controls, whereas the injured controls did; however, the FPI-VNS animals and injured controls were not significantly different. Despite the lack of significant histological differences between the FPI groups, VNS, when initiated 24 h following injury, clearly attenuated the ensuing behavioral deficits and enhanced acquisition of the cognitive task. The results are discussed with respect to the norepinephrine hypothesis. PMID:17020489

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress Report for the Period April 1 to June 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1989. These projects are for the 300 area process trenches (300 area), 183-H solar evaporation basins (100-H area), 200 areas low-level burial grounds, nonradioactive dangerous waste landfill (southeast of the 200 areas), 1301-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 1324-N surface impoundment and 1324-NA percolation pond (100-N area), 1325-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 216-A-10 crib (200-east area), 216-A-29 ditch (200-east area), 216-A-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-3 pond (east of the 200-east area), 2101-M pond (200-east area), grout treatment facility (200-east area).

  7. The ozone recovery in the NH extratropics: The trend analyses of the SBUV/SBUV-2 merged ozone data in the 1979-2012 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzyścin, Janusz W.

    2014-12-01

    Regulations of the Montreal Protocol (MP) 1987 and its subsequent amendments resulted in a decreasing tendency of the ozone depleting substances (ODS) concentration in the stratosphere since the mid 1990s after few decades of the ODS increasing tendency. The long-term changes of the stratospheric ozone might be also effected by a number of factors (e.g., anthropogenic CH4 and N2O, the stratospheric cooling due to CO2), which are not controlled by MP. A statistical model is developed to evaluate the residual long-term variability of ozone in the period 1979-2012 due to combined effect of factors other than ODS. The SBUV/SBUV-2 merged ozone data ver.8.6 including the column ozone, the ozone content in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (1013-25.45 hPa), and in the upper stratosphere (4.034-1.013 hPa) are examined for the 5 degree wide zonal belts in the 30°-80°N region. The residual trend pattern is calculated for each zonal belt, i.e., the difference between the observed long-term ozone variability having dynamical effects removed and the trend curve due to ODS changes estimated from the standard multivariate trend model. The calculations are carried out separately for the four seasons of the year. The observed long-term change in the upper stratosphere O3 follows that due to ODS changes for all seasons of the year. The trend pattern of the ozone content in the troposphere and lower stratosphere starts to differ from that forced by the ODS changes since about 2005. At the end of considered time period (2012), the ozone content in this layer appears ˜2-3% below the reference level calculated from the ODS changes. It seems that this decline is somewhat related to short-term fluctuations in the atmosphere dynamics appearing in 2011-2012.

  8. Light period regulation of carbohydrate partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janes, Harry W.

    1994-01-01

    We have shown that the photosynthetic period is important in regulating carbon partitioning. Even when the same amount of carbon is fixed over a 24h period considerably more is translocated out of the leaf under the longer photosynthetic period. This is extremely important when parts of the plant other than the leaves are to be sold. It is also important to notice the amount of carbon respired in the short photosynthetic period. The light period effect on carbohydrate fixation, dark respiration, and translocation is shown in this report.

  9. Eplerenone restores 24-h blood pressure circadian rhythm and reduces advanced glycation end-products in rhesus macaques with spontaneous hypertensive metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Yuli; Wang, Jue; Peng, Ying; Shang, Haibao; Hou, Ning; Hu, Xiaomin; Ding, Yi; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Can; Zeng, Fanxin; Mao, Jiaming; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Dongwei; Sun, Xueting; Li, Chuanyun; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Zhang, Xiuqin

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is often associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and serves as a risk factor of MetS and its complications. Blood pressure circadian rhythm in hypertensive patients has been suggested to contribute to cardiovascular consequences and organ damage of hypertension. But circadian changes of BP and their response to drugs have not been clearly investigated in non-human primates (NHPs) of MetS with hypertension. Here, we identified 16 elderly, hypertensive MetS rhesus monkeys from our in-house cohort. With implanted telemetry, we investigate BP changes and its circadian rhythm, together with the effect of antihypertensive drugs on BP and its diurnal fluctuation. MetS hypertensive monkeys displayed higher BP, obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. We also confirmed impaired 24-h BP circadian rhythm in MetS hypertensive monkeys. Importantly, Eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, exerts multiple beneficial effects in MetS hypertensive monkeys, including BP reduction, 24-h BP circadian rhythm restoration, and decreased plasma concentration of inflammation factors and advanced glycation end-products. In summary, we identified a naturally-developed hypertensive MetS NHP model, which is of great value in the studies on pathogenesis of MetS-associated hypertension and development of novel therapeutic strategies. We also provided multiple novel mechanistic insights of the beneficial effect of Eplerenone on MetS with hypertension. PMID:27032687

  10. Nanoscale probing of the lateral homogeneity of donors concentration in nitridated SiO2/4H-SiC interfaces.

    PubMed

    Fiorenza, Patrick; Di Franco, Salvatore; Giannazzo, Filippo; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, nanoscale resolution scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) and local capacitance-voltage measurements were used to probe the interfacial donor concentration in SiO2/4H-SiC systems annealed in N2O. Such nitrogen-based annealings are commonly employed to passivate SiO2/SiC interface traps, and result both in the incorporation of N-related donors in SiC and in the increase of the mobility in the inversion layer in 4H-SiC MOS-devices. From our SCM measurements, a spatially inhomogeneous donor distribution was observed in the SiO2/4H-SiC system subjected to N2O annealing. Hence, the effect of a phosphorus implantation before the oxide deposition and N2O annealing was also evaluated. In this case, besides an increased average donor concentration, an improvement of the lateral homogeneity of the active doping was also detected. The possible implications of such a pre-implantation doping of the near-interface region on 4H-SiC MOS-devices are discussed. PMID:27324844

  11. Eplerenone restores 24-h blood pressure circadian rhythm and reduces advanced glycation end-products in rhesus macaques with spontaneous hypertensive metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Yuli; Wang, Jue; Peng, Ying; Shang, Haibao; Hou, Ning; Hu, Xiaomin; Ding, Yi; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Can; Zeng, Fanxin; Mao, Jiaming; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Dongwei; Sun, Xueting; Li, Chuanyun; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Zhang, Xiuqin

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension is often associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and serves as a risk factor of MetS and its complications. Blood pressure circadian rhythm in hypertensive patients has been suggested to contribute to cardiovascular consequences and organ damage of hypertension. But circadian changes of BP and their response to drugs have not been clearly investigated in non-human primates (NHPs) of MetS with hypertension. Here, we identified 16 elderly, hypertensive MetS rhesus monkeys from our in-house cohort. With implanted telemetry, we investigate BP changes and its circadian rhythm, together with the effect of antihypertensive drugs on BP and its diurnal fluctuation. MetS hypertensive monkeys displayed higher BP, obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. We also confirmed impaired 24-h BP circadian rhythm in MetS hypertensive monkeys. Importantly, Eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, exerts multiple beneficial effects in MetS hypertensive monkeys, including BP reduction, 24-h BP circadian rhythm restoration, and decreased plasma concentration of inflammation factors and advanced glycation end-products. In summary, we identified a naturally-developed hypertensive MetS NHP model, which is of great value in the studies on pathogenesis of MetS-associated hypertension and development of novel therapeutic strategies. We also provided multiple novel mechanistic insights of the beneficial effect of Eplerenone on MetS with hypertension.

  12. Effects of extended exposure to cadmium and subsequent recovery period on growth, antioxidant status and polyamine pattern in in vitro cultured carnation.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Martínez, Francisco; Casas, José Luis

    2011-10-01

    The effect of different doses of Cd (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mM) and subsequent period in a Cd-free medium on growth, the antioxidant status and the polyamine (PA) pattern was studied using in vitro cultured nodal segments of carnation. The Cd within the tissues increased in parallel with its concentration in the culture medium, inhibited growth, altered the concentration of some minerals and decreased the levels of pigments and the total antioxidants. However, the concentration of ascorbate (Asc) + dehydroascorbate (DHA) and the Asc redox status remained unaffected, and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased only with 0.2 mM Cd. Cd also affected PA metabolism, decreasing the total PA concentration and disturbing the relative predominance of each PA fraction. Cd exposure increased the total putrescine (Put)/(spermidine (Spd) + spermine (Spm)) ratio, and an opposite pattern was recorded during the phase in Cd-free medium. Regarding individual amines, Cd induced significant changes mainly in the free Put levels. Our results suggest that Cd produces oxidative stress and that PA (especially free Put and the total Put/(Spd+Spm) ratio), are good indicators of the stress caused by Cd.

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-02-01

    This report describes the progress of 12 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988. During this quarter, field activities at the 300 Area process trenches, the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, the 1324-N/NA Surface Impoundment and Percolation Ponds, the 1301-N and 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facilities, and the 216-A-36B Crib consisted of ground-water sampling and analyses, and water-level monitoring. The 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds section includes well development data, sediment analysis, and water-level measurements. Ground-water sampling was begun at this site, and results will be included in next quarter's report. Twelve new wells were installed during the quarter, two at the 216-A-29 Ditch, size at the 216-A-10 Crib, and four at the 216-B-3 Pond. Preliminary characterization data for these new wells are included in this report. Driller's logs and other drilling and site characterization data will be provided in the next quarterly report. At the 2101-M Pond, construction was completed on four wells, and initial ground-water samples were taken. The drilling logs, geophysical logging data, and as-built diagrams are included in this report in Volume 2. 19 refs., 24 figs., 39 tabs.

  14. Recovery of Salmonella by Using Selenite Brilliant Green Sulfa Enrichment Broth

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chiao-tang; Yuo, Chung-Yee; Shen, Hui-Ching; Li, A-Mai; Chen, Chao-yu; Chou, Jui-ling; Huang, Shiao-ping

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy and sensitivity of selenite brilliant green sulfa enrichment (SBG) broth for the isolation of Salmonella from fecal specimens were evaluated by using both clinical and artificially infected (artificial) fecal specimens. An examination of 1,588 clinical fecal specimens found Salmonella in 296 specimens, including 89 cases detected by the direct-plating xylose-lysine-desoxycholate method and an additional 207 cases detected after enrichment with SBG broth. Therefore, the recovery of Salmonella with SBG broth is increased 3.3-fold over that by the direct-plating method alone. Furthermore, the isolation rate of Salmonella is higher when using SBG broth than when using gram-negative (GN) broth or GN broth supplemented with sodium selenite. To determine the sensitivity for the recovery of Salmonella, artificial specimens containing various amounts of Salmonella were prepared and analyzed. The results indicated that the sensitivity is also higher with SBG broth than with GN broth. Moreover, the optimal incubation period for SBG broth can be extended to 24 h. In conclusion, the SBG enrichment method provides a higher recovery rate of Salmonella from fecal specimens. PMID:10565941

  15. Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep Prior to a Noxious Inflammatory Insult Influence Characteristics and Duration of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vanini, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insufficient sleep and chronic pain are public health epidemics. Sleep loss worsens pain and predicts the development of chronic pain. Whether previous, acute sleep loss and recovery sleep determine pain levels and duration remains poorly understood. This study tested whether acute sleep deprivation and recovery sleep prior to formalin injection alter post-injection pain levels and duration. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) underwent sleep deprivation or ad libitum sleep for 9 hours. Thereafter, rats received a subcutaneous injection of formalin or saline into a hind paw. In the recovery sleep group, rats were allowed 24 h between sleep deprivation and the injection of formalin. Mechanical and thermal nociception were assessed using the von Frey test and Hargreaves' method. Nociceptive measures were performed at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17 and 21 days post-injection. Results: Formalin caused bilateral mechanical hypersensitivity (allodynia) that persisted for up to 21 days post-injection. Sleep deprivation significantly enhanced bilateral allodynia. There was a synergistic interaction when sleep deprivation preceded a formalin injection. Rats allowed a recovery sleep period prior to formalin injection developed allodynia only in the injected limb, with higher mechanical thresholds (less allodynia) and a shorter recovery period. There were no persistent changes in thermal nociception. Conclusion: The data suggest that acute sleep loss preceding an inflammatory insult enhances pain and can contribute to chronic pain. The results encourage studies in a model of surgical pain to test whether enhancing sleep reduces pain levels and duration. Citation: Vanini G. Sleep deprivation and recovery sleep prior to a noxious inflammatory insult influence characteristics and duration of pain. SLEEP 2016;39(1):133–142. PMID:26237772

  16. The relationship between serum albumin levels and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring recordings in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahbap, Elbis; Sakaci, Tamer; Kara, Ekrem; Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Koc, Yener; Basturk, Taner; Sevinc, Mustafa; Akgol, Cuneyt; Kayalar, Arzu O.; Ucar, Zuhal A.; Bayraktar, Feyza; Unsal, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum albumin levels and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (24-h ABPM) recordings in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients. METHODS: A total of 354 patients (mean [SD] age: 55.5 [14.3] years, 50% females) with essential hypertension and 24-h ABPM recordings were included. Patient 24-h nighttime and daytime ABPM values, systolic and diastolic dipping status and average nocturnal dipping were recorded. The correlations between serum albumin levels and nocturnal systolic and diastolic dipping were evaluated, and correlates of average nocturnal systolic dipping were determined via a linear regression model. RESULTS: Overall, 73.2% of patients were determined to be non-dippers. The mean (SD) levels of serum albumin (4.2 [0.3] g/dL vs. 4.4 [0.4] g/dL, p<0.001) and the average nocturnal systolic (15.2 [4.8] mmHg vs. 0.3 [6.6] mmHg, p<0.001) and diastolic dipping (4.2 [8.6] mmHgvs. 18.9 [7.0] mmHg, p<0.001) were significantly lower in non-dippers than in dippers. A significant positive correlation was noted between serum albumin levels and both systolic (r=0.297, p<0.001) and diastolic dipping (r=0.265, p<0.001). The linear regression analysis revealed that for each one-unit increase in serum albumin, the average nocturnal dip in systolic BP increased by 0.17 mmHg (p=0.033). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate an association between serum albumin levels and the deterioration of circadian BP rhythm among essential hypertensive patients along with the identification of a non-dipper pattern in more than two-thirds of patients. Our findings emphasize the importance of serum albumin levels, rather than urinary albumin excretion, as an independent predictor of nocturnal systolic dipping, at least in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients with moderate proteinuria. PMID:27276394

  17. Cathodoluminescence study of radiative interface defects in thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, Yuta; Chanthaphan, Atthawut; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2015-06-29

    Radiative defects in thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) structures and their location in depth were investigated by means of cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. It was found that while luminescence peaks ascribed to oxygen vacancy and nonbridging oxygen hole centers were observed both from thermal oxides grown on (0001) Si-face and C-face surfaces as with thermal oxides on Si, intense yellow luminescence at a wavelength of around 600 nm was identified only from the oxide interface on the Si-face substrate regardless of the oxide thickness and dopant type. Possible physical origins of the radiative centers localized near an oxide interface of a few nm thick are discussed on the basis of visible light emission from Si backbone structures.

  18. The effects of 24-h exposure to carbaryl or atrazine on the locomotor performance and overwinter growth and survival of juvenile spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum).

    PubMed

    Mitchkash, Matthew G; McPeek, Tammy; Boone, Michelle D

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the effects of pesticide exposure on organisms throughout their life cycle is critical to predict population-level effects. For many taxa, including amphibians, juveniles are the main dispersal stage and are disproportionally important to population persistence when compared with other life stages. In the present study, we examined the effects of a single 24-h exposure to the insecticide carbaryl or the herbicide atrazine on locomotor performance (endurance, distance traveled, speed, and fatigue) in the laboratory and terrestrial growth and survival through overwintering in field enclosures using recent metamorphs of spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum). We found that neither atrazine nor carbaryl impacted endurance, but fatigue increased with carbaryl exposure, which could leave salamanders less able to escape repeated attacks by predators. Terrestrial growth and overwinter survival were not affected by short-term exposure to carbaryl or atrazine, suggesting that when individuals can overcome acute effects, no long-term consequences result for the endpoints measured.

  19. Fabrication of SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC (0001) interface with nearly ideal capacitance-voltage characteristics by thermal oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Richard Heihachiro; Kita, Koji

    2014-07-21

    We fabricated SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC (0001) metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with nearly ideal capacitance-voltage characteristics, simply by the control of thermal oxidation conditions which were selected based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations of SiC oxidation. The interface with low interface defect state density <10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} for the energy range of 0.1–0.4 eV below the conduction band of SiC was obtained by thermal oxidation at 1300 °C in a ramp-heating furnace with a short rise/fall time, followed by low temperature O{sub 2} anneal at 800 °C.

  20. Entropy, pattern entropy, and related methods for the analysis of data on the time intervals between heartbeats from 24-h electrocardiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żebrowski, J. J.; Popławska, W.; Baranowski, R.

    1994-11-01

    Sequences of the time intervals between heartbeats-medically termed RR intervals-extracted from 24-h electrocardiogram recordings are examined as three-dimensional return map images. The recordings were made in humans by means of the medically widely used portable electrocardiograph (Holter system). A time window measured in the number of heartbeats is used and different types of behavior are classified. Bifurcations between the types of dynamics of the heart are noted and a form of intermittency is found. An alternative quantitative measure-a form pattern entropy of the return map image-is defined that characterizes the dynamics of the RR interval sequence. It is shown that this is a measure of the degree of ordering of the RR interval sequence and as such it is a good novel medical diagnostic tool for analyzing heart rate variability which distinguishes between illness and health where other diagnostics fail.

  1. Bis-(2-propylheptyl)phthalate (DPHP) metabolites emerging in 24h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (1999-2012).

    PubMed

    Schütze, A; Gries, W; Kolossa-Gehring, M; Apel, P; Schröter-Kermani, C; Fiddicke, U; Leng, G; Brüning, T; Koch, H M

    2015-08-01

    Bis-(2-propylheptyl)-phthalate (DPHP) has been introduced as a substitute for other high molecular weight phthalates primarily used in high temperature applications (e.g. cable wires, roofing membranes). The aim of this study was to investigate how the increased usage of DPHP is reflected in urine samples collected over the last 14 years and to evaluate the current extent of exposure. We analyzed 300 urine samples (24h voids) from the German Environmental Specimen Bank collected in the years 1999, 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012, 60 samples per year, from 30 male and 30 female volunteers (age: 20-30 years) for three specific, secondary oxidized DPHP metabolites (with hydroxy, oxo and carboxy modifications of the alkyl side chain). We determined DPHP metabolites with a previously developed GC-HRMS method, enabling us to unambiguously distinguish DPHP metabolites from co-eluting, structurally isomeric di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP) metabolites. All samples were blinded before analysis. We detected no DPHP metabolites in urine samples from the years 1999, 2003 and 2006. Thereafter, detection rates increased from 3.3% in 2009 to 21.7% in 2012. Mono-oxo-propylheptylphthalate (oxo-MPHP) was the most abundant metabolite, with concentrations between 24h urine samples we calculated a maximum daily DPHP intake of 0.32μg/kg body weight. Our results show that the general German population is increasingly exposed to DPHP. However, exposure is considerably lower than for DIDP or other high molecular weight phthalates. Future measurements will enable us to monitor the development of DPHP exposure and advise risk management steps, if warranted. PMID:26077891

  2. The role of birth weight on litter size and mortality within 24h of life in purebred dogs: What aspects are involved?

    PubMed

    Groppetti, D; Ravasio, G; Bronzo, V; Pecile, A

    2015-12-01

    In humans, scientific evidence emphasizes the role of birth weight on neonatal welfare, morbidity and mortality. In canine species, defining normal ranges of birth weight is a harder issue due to a great morphological variability in size, body weight and breed. The aim of this study was to correlate birth weight with litter size and mortality within 24h of life in 789 pups from 140 litters of purebred dogs and to investigate the aspects that might affect these factors. Birth weight was influenced by maternal size, weight and age (P<0.001). The lightest pups were from toy sized or weighing up to 10 kg bitches. Conversely, bitches aged 2-8 years whelped heavier pups than younger and older mothers. Birth weight was also related both to litter size, with heavier pups in smaller rather than in larger litters from medium sized bitches, and breed (P<0.05). Unexpectedly, birth weight did not differ between live born and stillborn pups. However, birth weight was lower in pups dying within 24h of life (P<0.05). High mortality of pups was related both to short pregnancies (P<0.05), also showing lighter litters (P<0.001), and to dystocic parturitions (P<0.001). Litter size was associated with parity, type and number of mating, and length of pregnancy (P<0.001). Low birth weight appears to predispose to early neonatal mortality suggesting a predominant role of the breed rather than size and weight in determining birth weight in pups.

  3. Absolute 24 h quantification of 99Tcm-DMSA uptake in patients with severely reduced kidney function: a comparison with 51Cr-EDTA clearance.

    PubMed

    van de Wiele, C; van den Eeckhaut, A; Verweire, W; van Haelst, J P; Versijpt, J; Dierckx, R A

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether absolute 24 h DMSA uptake measurements (%DMSA) correlate well with 51Cr-EDTA clearance measurements in patients with severely reduced kidney function (SRKF). Between 1990 and 1997, 55 of 482 patients who underwent EDTA clearance measurements also underwent %DMSA within 1 week. Of these, 31 were women and 24 were men (mean age 60 years; range 19-77 years). EDTA clearance was determined using the slope-intercept method. Absolute depth- and background-corrected %DMSA were determined 24 h following the injection of 185 MBq per 1.73 m2 freshly prepared 99Tcm-DMSA. All patients had EDTA clearance < or = 60 ml.min-1. Eighteen patients (group A: 9 men and 9 women, mean age 55.8 years, range 28-73 years) had EDTA clearance > 20 ml.min-1 (mean +/- S.D. = 30.9 +/- 13.8 ml.min-1), whereas 37 patients (group B: 22 women and 15 men, mean age 62.0 years, range 19-77 years) had EDTA clearance < 20 ml.min-1 (mean +/- S.D. = 10.2 +/- 6.6 ml.min-1). EDTA clearance correlated well with %DMSA for the patients as a whole and for group A (r = 0.87, P = 0.73; r = 0.79, P = 0.0001 respectively). The regression equation suggests that %DMSA is not a marker of early renal dysfunction. In group B, the r-value (r = 0.48, P = 0.004) suggests that %DMSA is reliable as a marker of severe renal dysfunction to the extent that it provides rough information. In conclusion, %DMSA may not be used as a marker of early renal impairment. Additionally, in patients with severely reduced kidney function (EDTA clearance < 20 ml.min-1), it only provides a rough estimate.

  4. The role of birth weight on litter size and mortality within 24h of life in purebred dogs: What aspects are involved?

    PubMed

    Groppetti, D; Ravasio, G; Bronzo, V; Pecile, A

    2015-12-01

    In humans, scientific evidence emphasizes the role of birth weight on neonatal welfare, morbidity and mortality. In canine species, defining normal ranges of birth weight is a harder issue due to a great morphological variability in size, body weight and breed. The aim of this study was to correlate birth weight with litter size and mortality within 24h of life in 789 pups from 140 litters of purebred dogs and to investigate the aspects that might affect these factors. Birth weight was influenced by maternal size, weight and age (P<0.001). The lightest pups were from toy sized or weighing up to 10 kg bitches. Conversely, bitches aged 2-8 years whelped heavier pups than younger and older mothers. Birth weight was also related both to litter size, with heavier pups in smaller rather than in larger litters from medium sized bitches, and breed (P<0.05). Unexpectedly, birth weight did not differ between live born and stillborn pups. However, birth weight was lower in pups dying within 24h of life (P<0.05). High mortality of pups was related both to short pregnancies (P<0.05), also showing lighter litters (P<0.001), and to dystocic parturitions (P<0.001). Litter size was associated with parity, type and number of mating, and length of pregnancy (P<0.001). Low birth weight appears to predispose to early neonatal mortality suggesting a predominant role of the breed rather than size and weight in determining birth weight in pups. PMID:26520054

  5. Impact of hypobaric hypoxia in pressurized cabins of simulated long-distance flights on the 24 h patterns of biological variables, fatigue, and clinical status.

    PubMed

    Coste, Olivier; Van Beers, Pascal; Touitou, Yvan

    2007-01-01

    Long-distance flights can cause a number of clinical problems in both passengers and crewmembers. Jet lag as well as mild hypoxia resulting from incomplete cabin pressurization could contribute to these problems. The objective of this study was to assess, using a chronobiological approach, the clinical impact of diurnal hypobaric, hypoxic exposure on fatigue and other common symptoms encountered during high-altitude exposure and to measure changes in blood chemistry (i.e., plasma creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, glycemia, and lipids). Fourteen healthy, diurnally active (from 07:00 to 23:00 h) male volunteers, aged 23 to 39 yrs, spent 8.5 h in a hypobaric chamber (08:00 to 16:30 h), at a simulated altitude of 8,000 ft (2,438 m). This was followed by an additional 8.5 h of study four weeks later at a simulated altitude of 12,000 ft (3,658 m). Clinical data were collected every 2 h between 08:00 and 18:00 h, and biological variables were assayed every 2 h over two (control and hypoxic-exposure) 24 h cycles. Clinical symptoms were more frequent with the 12,000 ft exposure. Wide interindividual variability was observed in the clinical tolerance to prolonged hypobaric hypoxia. The 24 h profiles of most biochemical variables were significantly altered at each altitude, with changes in mean plasma levels and a tendency toward phase delay, except for uric acid, which showed a phase advance. Changes in appetite mainly occurred with the simulated 12,000 ft exposure and may have been associated with changes in the postprandial glycemia profile. Finally, though the observed biochemical changes were significant, their clinical relevance must be clarified in studies involving actual long-distance flights. PMID:18075804

  6. Sex-specific 24-h acetylcholine release profile in the medial prefrontal cortex: simultaneous measurement of spontaneous locomotor activity in behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Takase, K; Kimura, F; Yagami, T; Mitsushima, D

    2009-03-01

    The difference in visual object recognition by males and females suggests a sex-specific function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In the present study, we performed an in vivo microdialysis study in three groups of rats (males, diestrous females, and proestrous females) to examine the potential sex difference in acetylcholine (ACh) release in the mPFC. The dialysate was automatically collected from the mPFC every 20 min for 24 h under freely moving conditions and the spontaneous locomotor activity was simultaneously monitored. Although ACh release in the mPFC during the dark phase was significantly greater than during the light phase in both sexes, the female rats consistently exhibited a significantly greater mean ACh release than the males. Spontaneous locomotor activity during the dark phase was also significantly greater than during the light phase in both sexes, but the females exhibited significantly greater spontaneous locomotor activity than the males. In addition, both sexes of rats were found to have significant positive correlations between ACh release and spontaneous locomotor activity, but females were found to have significantly greater correlation coefficients than males. Stereological methods were used to examine the number of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis and the horizontal diagonal band of Broca. The number of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis was also greater in females than males, suggesting a contribution to the higher ACh release in females. In contrast, no sex difference in the choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells was observed in the horizontal diagonal band of Broca. This is the first report to show a sex difference in the 24-h ACh release profile in the mPFC of behaving rats.

  7. Sex-specific 24-h acetylcholine release profile in the medial prefrontal cortex: simultaneous measurement of spontaneous locomotor activity in behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Takase, K; Kimura, F; Yagami, T; Mitsushima, D

    2009-03-01

    The difference in visual object recognition by males and females suggests a sex-specific function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In the present study, we performed an in vivo microdialysis study in three groups of rats (males, diestrous females, and proestrous females) to examine the potential sex difference in acetylcholine (ACh) release in the mPFC. The dialysate was automatically collected from the mPFC every 20 min for 24 h under freely moving conditions and the spontaneous locomotor activity was simultaneously monitored. Although ACh release in the mPFC during the dark phase was significantly greater than during the light phase in both sexes, the female rats consistently exhibited a significantly greater mean ACh release than the males. Spontaneous locomotor activity during the dark phase was also significantly greater than during the light phase in both sexes, but the females exhibited significantly greater spontaneous locomotor activity than the males. In addition, both sexes of rats were found to have significant positive correlations between ACh release and spontaneous locomotor activity, but females were found to have significantly greater correlation coefficients than males. Stereological methods were used to examine the number of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis and the horizontal diagonal band of Broca. The number of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis was also greater in females than males, suggesting a contribution to the higher ACh release in females. In contrast, no sex difference in the choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells was observed in the horizontal diagonal band of Broca. This is the first report to show a sex difference in the 24-h ACh release profile in the mPFC of behaving rats. PMID:19162130

  8. Agreement between an online dietary assessment tool (myfood24) and an interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall in British adolescents aged 11-18 years.

    PubMed

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Greenwood, Darren C; Cade, Janet E

    2016-05-01

    myfood24 Is an online 24-h dietary assessment tool developed for use among British adolescents and adults. Limited information is available regarding the validity of using new technology in assessing nutritional intake among adolescents. Thus, a relative validation of myfood24 against a face-to-face interviewer-administered 24-h multiple-pass recall (MPR) was conducted among seventy-five British adolescents aged 11-18 years. Participants were asked to complete myfood24 and an interviewer-administered MPR on the same day for 2 non-consecutive days at school. Total energy intake (EI) and nutrients recorded by the two methods were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots (using between and within-individual information) and weighted κ to assess the agreement. Energy, macronutrients and other reported nutrients from myfood24 demonstrated strong agreement with the interview MPR data, and ICC ranged from 0·46 for Na to 0·88 for EI. There was no significant bias between the two methods for EI, macronutrients and most reported nutrients. The mean difference between myfood24 and the interviewer-administered MPR for EI was -230 kJ (-55 kcal) (95 % CI -490, 30 kJ (-117, 7 kcal); P=0·4) with limits of agreement ranging between 39 % (3336 kJ (-797 kcal)) lower and 34 % (2874 kJ (687 kcal)) higher than the interviewer-administered MPR. There was good agreement in terms of classifying adolescents into tertiles of EI (κ w =0·64). The agreement between day 1 and day 2 was as good for myfood24 as for the interviewer-administered MPR, reflecting the reliability of myfood24. myfood24 Has the potential to collect dietary data of comparable quality with that of an interviewer-administered MPR.

  9. Agreement between an online dietary assessment tool (myfood24) and an interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall in British adolescents aged 11-18 years.

    PubMed

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Greenwood, Darren C; Cade, Janet E

    2016-05-01

    myfood24 Is an online 24-h dietary assessment tool developed for use among British adolescents and adults. Limited information is available regarding the validity of using new technology in assessing nutritional intake among adolescents. Thus, a relative validation of myfood24 against a face-to-face interviewer-administered 24-h multiple-pass recall (MPR) was conducted among seventy-five British adolescents aged 11-18 years. Participants were asked to complete myfood24 and an interviewer-administered MPR on the same day for 2 non-consecutive days at school. Total energy intake (EI) and nutrients recorded by the two methods were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots (using between and within-individual information) and weighted κ to assess the agreement. Energy, macronutrients and other reported nutrients from myfood24 demonstrated strong agreement with the interview MPR data, and ICC ranged from 0·46 for Na to 0·88 for EI. There was no significant bias between the two methods for EI, macronutrients and most reported nutrients. The mean difference between myfood24 and the interviewer-administered MPR for EI was -230 kJ (-55 kcal) (95 % CI -490, 30 kJ (-117, 7 kcal); P=0·4) with limits of agreement ranging between 39 % (3336 kJ (-797 kcal)) lower and 34 % (2874 kJ (687 kcal)) higher than the interviewer-administered MPR. There was good agreement in terms of classifying adolescents into tertiles of EI (κ w =0·64). The agreement between day 1 and day 2 was as good for myfood24 as for the interviewer-administered MPR, reflecting the reliability of myfood24. myfood24 Has the potential to collect dietary data of comparable quality with that of an interviewer-administered MPR. PMID:26975650

  10. Number of spermatozoa in the crypts of the sperm reservoir at about 24 h after a low-dose intrauterine and deep intrauterine insemination in sows.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, P; Tienthai, P

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number of spermatozoa in the crypts of the utero-tubal junction (UTJ) and the oviduct of sows approximately 24 h after intrauterine insemination (IUI) and deep intrauterine insemination (DIUI) and compared with that of conventional artificial insemination (AI). Fifteen crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire (LY) multiparous sows were used in the experiment. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed every 4 h to examine the time of ovulation in relation to oestrous behaviour. The sows were inseminated with a single dose of diluted fresh semen by the AI (n = 5), IUI (n = 5) and DIUI (n = 5) at approximately 6-8 h prior to the expected time of ovulation, during the second oestrus after weaning. The sperm dose contained 3000 x 10(6) spermatozoa in 100 ml for AI, 1,000 x 10(6) spermatozoa in 50 ml for IUI and 150 x 10(6) spermatozoa in 5 ml for DIUI. The sows were anaesthetized and ovario-hysterectomized approximately 24 h after insemination. The oviducts and the proximal part of the uterine horns (1 cm) on each side of the reproductive tracts were collected. The section was divided into four parts, i.e. UTJ, caudal isthmus, cranial isthmus and ampulla. The spermatozoa in the lumen in each part were flushed several times with phosphate buffer solution. After flushing, the UTJ and all parts of the oviducts were immersed in a 10% neutral buffered formalin solution. The UTJ and each part of the oviducts were cut into four equal parts and embedded in a paraffin block. The tissue sections were transversely sectioned to a thickness of 5 mum. Every fifth serial section was mounted and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The total number of spermatozoa from 32 sections in each parts of the tissue (16 sections from the left side and 16 sections from the right side) was determined under light microscope. The results reveal that most of the spermatozoa in the histological section were located in groups in the epithelial crypts. The means of

  11. Enhanced Glycogen Storage of a Subcellular Hot Spot in Human Skeletal Muscle during Early Recovery from Eccentric Contractions.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Joachim; Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; Vissing, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise is accompanied by muscle damage and impaired glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis during subsequent recovery. Recently, it was shown that the role and regulation of glycogen in skeletal muscle are dependent on its subcellular localization, and that glycogen synthesis, as described by the product of glycogen particle size and number, is dependent on the time course of recovery after exercise and carbohydrate availability. In the present study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of glycogen in fibers with high (type I) and low (type II) mitochondrial content during post-exercise recovery from eccentric contractions. Analysis was completed on five male subjects performing an exercise bout consisting of 15 x 10 maximal eccentric contractions. Carbohydrate-rich drinks were subsequently ingested throughout a 48 h recovery period and muscle biopsies for analysis included time points 3, 24 and 48 h post exercise from the exercising leg, whereas biopsies corresponding to prior to and at 48 h after the exercise bout were collected from the non-exercising, control leg. Quantitative imaging by transmission electron microscopy revealed an early (post 3 and 24 h) enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen (defined as glycogen particles located within the myofibrils) of type I fibers, which was associated with an increase in the number of particles. In contrast, late in recovery (post 48 h), intermyofibrillar, intramyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal glycogen in both type I and II fibers were lower in the exercise leg compared with the control leg, and this was associated with a smaller size of the glycogen particles. We conclude that in the carbohydrate-supplemented state, the effect of eccentric contractions on glycogen metabolism depends on the subcellular localization, muscle fiber's oxidative capacity, and the time course of recovery. The early enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen after the eccentric contractions may

  12. Enhanced Glycogen Storage of a Subcellular Hot Spot in Human Skeletal Muscle during Early Recovery from Eccentric Contractions.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Joachim; Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; Vissing, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise is accompanied by muscle damage and impaired glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis during subsequent recovery. Recently, it was shown that the role and regulation of glycogen in skeletal muscle are dependent on its subcellular localization, and that glycogen synthesis, as described by the product of glycogen particle size and number, is dependent on the time course of recovery after exercise and carbohydrate availability. In the present study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of glycogen in fibers with high (type I) and low (type II) mitochondrial content during post-exercise recovery from eccentric contractions. Analysis was completed on five male subjects performing an exercise bout consisting of 15 x 10 maximal eccentric contractions. Carbohydrate-rich drinks were subsequently ingested throughout a 48 h recovery period and muscle biopsies for analysis included time points 3, 24 and 48 h post exercise from the exercising leg, whereas biopsies corresponding to prior to and at 48 h after the exercise bout were collected from the non-exercising, control leg. Quantitative imaging by transmission electron microscopy revealed an early (post 3 and 24 h) enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen (defined as glycogen particles located within the myofibrils) of type I fibers, which was associated with an increase in the number of particles. In contrast, late in recovery (post 48 h), intermyofibrillar, intramyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal glycogen in both type I and II fibers were lower in the exercise leg compared with the control leg, and this was associated with a smaller size of the glycogen particles. We conclude that in the carbohydrate-supplemented state, the effect of eccentric contractions on glycogen metabolism depends on the subcellular localization, muscle fiber's oxidative capacity, and the time course of recovery. The early enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen after the eccentric contractions may

  13. Continuous versus discontinuous drinking of an ethanol liquid diet in peripubertal rats: effect on 24-h variation of lymph node and splenic mitogenic responses and lymphocyte subset populations.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Fernández-Mateos, María P; Barquilla, Pilar Cano; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2011-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption continues to be a major public health problem, particularly in the adolescent and young adult populations. Generally, such a behavior tends to be confined to the weekends, to attain frequently binge drinking. This study in peripubertal male rats compares the effect of the discontinuous feeding of a liquid diet containing a moderate amount of ethanol (6.2% wt/vol) to that of continuous ethanol administration or a control diet, taking as end points the 24-h variations of plasma prolactin levels and mitogenic responses and lymphocyte subset populations in submaxillary lymph nodes and spleen. Animals received the ethanol liquid diet starting on day 35 of life, the diet being similar to that given to controls except for that maltose was isocalorically replaced by ethanol. Ethanol provided 36% of the total caloric content. Every week, the discontinuous ethanol group received the ethanol diet for 3 days and the control liquid diet for the remaining 4 days. After 4 weeks, rats were killed at six time intervals, beginning at 0900 h. A significant decrease of splenic cells' response to concanavalin A, and of lymph node and splenic cells' response to lipopolysaccharide was found in rats under the discontinuous ethanol regime, when compared with control- or ethanol-chronic rats. Under discontinuous ethanol feeding, mean values of lymph node and splenic CD8(+) and CD4(+)-CD8(+) cells decreased, whereas those of lymph node and splenic T cells, and splenic B cells, augmented. In rats chronically fed with ethanol, splenic mean levels of CD8(+) and CD4(+)-CD8(+) cells augmented. Both modalities of ethanol administration disrupted the 24 h variation in immune function seen in controls. Mean plasma prolactin levels increased by 3.6-fold and 8.5-fold in rats chronically or discontinuously fed with alcohol, respectively. The immune parameters examined in an additional group of rats fed regular chow and water ad libitum did not differ significantly from

  14. Recovery Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  15. Effects of sodium ions on trapping and transport of electrons at the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, A. F. Mooney, P. M.; Ahyi, A. C.; Williams, J. R.; Feldman, L. C.

    2014-01-21

    Capacitance-voltage (C-V) and Deep-Level-Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were performed on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors fabricated on 4H-SiC with the SiO{sub 2} layer grown by Sodium-Enhanced Oxidation. This technique has yielded 4H-SiC MOS transistors with record channel mobility, although with poor bias stability. The effects of the mobile positive charge on the C-V characteristics and DLTS spectra were investigated by applying a sequence of positive and negative bias-temperature stresses, which drifted the sodium ions toward and away from the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface, respectively. Analytical modeling of the C-V curves shows that the drift of sodium ions in the SiO{sub 2} layer during the voltage sweep can explain the temperature dependence of the C-V curves. The effects of lateral fluctuations of the surface potential (due to a non-uniform charge distribution) on the inversion layer mobility of MOS transistors are discussed within a two-dimensional percolation model.

  16. Successful outcome after endovascular thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke with basis on perfusion-diffusion mismatch after 24 h of symptoms onset

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Tobias A.; Rehman, Azeem A.; Goulart, Carlos R.; Sória, Marília G.; Rizelio, Vanessa; Meneses, Murilo S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although intravenous thrombolysis is the Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within 3 h, combined intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis with endovascular techniques may be able to extend this traditional time window. Case Description: We present the clinical evolution of a 45-year-old male presenting with acute left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small diffusion restriction at the right basal ganglia with perfusion compromise in the entire right middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Angiography revealed a complete occlusion of MCA at its M1 segment. The patient underwent endovascular mechanical thrombectomy with additional intra-arterial thrombolysis more than 24 hours after the onset of the initial symptoms and experienced complete vessel recanalization. At 1 year, the patient had global independence with minor residual motor impairment in the left arm. Conclusions: We report the case of a successful thrombolytic therapy following AIS performed more than 24 h after the initial symptoms based on the presence of a perfusion-diffusion mismatch. This report is expected to stimulate the development of future prospective studies with special focus on the role of perfusion-diffusion mismatch in patient selection for treatment of AIS, especially in those presenting outside the traditional time window. PMID:27313971

  17. Safety and Efficacy of 24-h Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery in Well-Controlled Pregnant Women With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Helen R.; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M.; Caldwell, Karen; Biagioni, Martina; Simmons, David; Dunger, David B.; Nodale, Marianna; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Amiel, Stephanie A.; Hovorka, Roman

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery in well-controlled pregnant women with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 12 women with type 1 diabetes (aged 32.9 years, diabetes duration 17.6 years, BMI 27.1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 6.4%) were randomly allocated to closed-loop or conventional CSII. They performed normal daily activities (standardized meals, snacks, and exercise) for 24 h on two occasions at 19 and 23 weeks’ gestation. Plasma glucose time in target (63–140 mg/dL) and time spent hypoglycemic were calculated. RESULTS Plasma glucose time in target was comparable for closed-loop and conventional CSII (median [interquartile range]: 81 [59–87] vs. 81% [54–90]; P = 0.75). Less time was spent hypoglycemic (<45 mg/dL [0.0 vs. 0.3%]; P = 0.04), with a lower low blood glucose index (2.4 [0.9–3.5] vs. 3.3 [1.9–5.1]; P = 0.03), during closed-loop insulin delivery. CONCLUSIONS Closed-loop insulin delivery was as effective as conventional CSII, with less time spent in extreme hypoglycemia. PMID:22011408

  18. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  19. Structural and electronic properties of the transition layer at the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dejun; Zhao, Jijun

    2015-01-15

    Using first-principles methods, we generate an amorphous SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface with a transition layer. Based this interface model, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of the interfacial transition layer. The calculated Si 2p core-level shifts for this interface are comparable to the experimental data, indicating that various SiC{sub x}O{sub y} species should be present in this interface transition layer. The analysis of the electronic structures reveals that the tetrahedral SiC{sub x}O{sub y} structures cannot introduce any of the defect states at the interface. Interestingly, our transition layer also includes a C-C=C trimer and SiO{sub 5} configurations, which lead to the generation of interface states. The accurate positions of Kohn-Sham energy levels associated with these defects are further calculated within the hybrid functional scheme. The Kohn-Sham energy levels of the carbon trimer and SiO{sub 5} configurations are located near the conduction and valence band of bulk 4H-SiC, respectively. The result indicates that the carbon trimer occurred in the transition layer may be a possible origin of near interface traps. These findings provide novel insight into the structural and electronic properties of the realistic SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface.

  20. Comparison of 24 h averaged VOC monitoring results for residential indoor and outdoor air using Carbopack X-filled diffusive samplers and active sampling--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    McClenny, William A; Jacumin, Henry H; Oliver, Karen D; Daughtrey, E Hunter; Whitaker, Donald A

    2006-02-01

    Analytical results obtained by thermal desorption GC/MS for 24 h diffusive sampling of 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compared with results of time-averaged active sampling at a known constant flow rate. Air samples were collected with co-located duplicate diffusive sampling tubes and one passivated canister. A total of eight multiple-component sampling events took place at fixed positions inside and outside three private homes. Subsequently, a known amount of sample air was transferred from the canister to an adsorbent tube for analysis by thermal desorption GC/MS. Results for the 11 most prevalent compounds--Freon 11, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, tetrachloroethene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, 4-ethyltoluene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, and p-dichlorobenzene--show that the ratio of average study values (diffusive sampling to active sampling) is 0.92 with 0.70 and 1.14 extreme ratios. Absolute percent difference for duplicate samples using diffusive sampling was <10% for the four most prevalent compounds. Agreement between the two sampling approaches indicates that the prediction of approximately constant diffusive sampling rates based on previous laboratory studies is valid under the field conditions.

  1. Insights into ultraviolet-induced electrical degradation of thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeguchi, Daisuke; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji; Nakano, Yuki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2014-01-06

    The harmful impact of ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation on thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC structures was investigated by means of electrical measurements of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. Unlike Si-based MOS devices, significant electrical degradation, such as positive flatband voltage (V{sub FB}) shift and hysteresis in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves of SiC-MOS capacitors was induced by UV irradiation with a low-pressure mercury lamp. The interfacial fixed charge density increased with UV-irradiation (22.6 mW/cm{sup 2} for 16 h) to 1.7 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}, which was an order of magnitude larger than that of the as-grown SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface. A detailed study based on single wavelength solid-state UV lasers revealed that there was a threshold photon energy at around 5 eV and a moderate dependence of UV-induced degradation on temperature. These experimental findings imply that pre-existing inactive defects accumulated at the thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface were transformed to active carrier traps with high-energy UV irradiation through transparent SiO{sub 2} layers.

  2. Compound stimulus extinction reduces spontaneous recovery in humans.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Cesar A O; Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Fear-related behaviors are prone to relapse following extinction. We tested in humans a compound extinction design ("deepened extinction") shown in animal studies to reduce post-extinction fear recovery. Adult subjects underwent fear conditioning to a visual and an auditory conditioned stimulus (CSA and CSB, respectively) separately paired with an electric shock. The target CS (CSA) was extinguished alone followed by compound presentations of the extinguished CSA and nonextinguished CSB. Recovery of conditioned skin conductance responses to CSA was reduced 24 h after compound extinction, as compared with a group who received an equal number of extinction trials to the CSA alone. PMID:26572649

  3. Compound stimulus extinction reduces spontaneous recovery in humans.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Cesar A O; Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Fear-related behaviors are prone to relapse following extinction. We tested in humans a compound extinction design ("deepened extinction") shown in animal studies to reduce post-extinction fear recovery. Adult subjects underwent fear conditioning to a visual and an auditory conditioned stimulus (CSA and CSB, respectively) separately paired with an electric shock. The target CS (CSA) was extinguished alone followed by compound presentations of the extinguished CSA and nonextinguished CSB. Recovery of conditioned skin conductance responses to CSA was reduced 24 h after compound extinction, as compared with a group who received an equal number of extinction trials to the CSA alone.

  4. Investigation of chemical-free nutrient removal and recovery from CO2-rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jordaan, Elsie M; Rezania, Babak; Ciçek, Nazim

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of a bench-scale system for removal and recovery of phosphorus (P) as struvite from CO2-rich wastewater was tested. A continuous 12 L reactor system combining a fluidized seedbed and aeration for pH increase was developed and tested using synthetic feed. For a 100 mL min(-1) influent rate, an aeration and recycle rate combination of 7 L min(-1) and 700 mL min(-1) was sufficient for increasing and maintaining the reactor pH from 6.7 to between 7.6 and 8.0. Significant P removal was achieved in 6 h runs without a seedbed (91-92%), while neither the struvite nor sand seedbeds improved P removal (91-96%). Struvite was recovered in all runs, with additional calcium (Ca) precipitation in the seedbed runs. Reactor operation was possible for an extended period of time, up to 46 h without any major adjustment during long-term run. The average P removal was 88%, and precipitate collected after 24 h was found to be mainly struvite, while the final precipitate had a Ca: total phosphorus molar ratio of 0.56 and also contained calcite. This study has demonstrated the technical feasibility of an aerated crystallization reactor system for chemical-free struvite removal and recovery from CO2-rich wastewater such as stored livestock manure.

  5. Untreated Recovery from Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This retrospective study explored the experience of recovery from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa without professional treatment. A nine-question open-ended electronic survey was posted for a period of four months at a mid-western university. Sixteen female and two male respondents reported recovery from adolescent-onset full syndrome…

  6. Infrared spectroscopy of [XFeC24H12]+ (X = C5H5, C5(CH3)5) complexes in the gas phase: experimental and computational studies of astrophysical interest.

    PubMed

    Simon, Aude; Joblin, Christine; Polfer, Nick; Oomens, Jos

    2008-09-18

    We report the first experimental mid-infrared (700-1600 cm (-1)) multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra of [XFeC 24H 12] (+) (X = C 5H 5 or Cp, C 5(CH 3) 5 or Cp*) complexes in the gas phase obtained using the free electron laser for infrared experiments. The experimental results are complemented with theoretical infrared (IR) absorption spectra calculated with methods based on density functional theory. The isomers in which the XFe unit is coordinated to an outer ring of C 24H 12 (+) (Out isomers) were calculated to be the most stable ones. From the comparison between the experimental and calculated spectra, we could derive that, (i) for [CpFeC 24H 12] (+) complexes, the (1)A Out isomer appears to be the best candidate to be formed in the experiment but the presence of the (1)A In higher energy isomer in minor abundance is also plausible; and (ii) for [Cp*FeC 24H 12] (+) complexes, the three calculated Out isomers of similar energy are likely to be present simultaneously, in qualitative agreement with the observed dissociation patterns. This study also emphasizes the threshold effect in the IRMPD spectrum below which IR bands cannot be observed and evidence strong mode coupling effects in the [XFeC 24H 12] (+) species. The effect of the coordination of Fe in weakening the bands of C 24H 12 (+) in the 1000-1600 cm (-1) region is confirmed, which is of interest to search for such complexes in interstellar environments.

  7. Effects of cold water immersion on the recovery of physical performance and muscle damage following a one-off soccer match.

    PubMed

    Ascensão, António; Leite, Marco; Rebelo, António N; Magalhäes, Sérgio; Magalhäes, José

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a single session of cold or thermoneutral water immersion after a one-off match on muscular dysfunction and damage in soccer players. Twenty-male soccer players completed one match and were randomly divided into cryotherapy (10 min cold water immersion, 10°C, n = 10) and thermoneutral (10 min thermoneutral water immersion, 35°C, n = 10) groups. Muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin), inflammation (C-reactive protein), neuromuscular function (jump and sprint abilities and maximal isometric quadriceps strength), and delayed-onset muscle soreness were evaluated before, within 30 min of the end, and 24 and 48 h after the match. After the match, the players in both groups showed increased plasma creatine kinase activity (30 min, 24 h, 48 h), myoglobin (30 min) and C-reactive protein (30 min, 24 h) concentrations. Peak jump ability and maximal strength were decreased and delayed-onset muscle soreness increased in both groups. However, differential alterations were observed between thermoneutral water and cold water immersion groups in creatine kinase (30 min, 24 h, 48 h), myoglobin (30 min), C-reactive protein (30 min, 24 h, 48 h), quadriceps strength (24 h), and quadriceps (24 h), calf (24 h) and adductor (30 min) delayed-onset muscle soreness. The results suggest that cold water immersion immediately after a one-off soccer match reduces muscle damage and discomfort, possibly contributing to a faster recovery of neuromuscular function. PMID:21170794

  8. Spatial variation in inversion-focused vs 24-h integrated samples of PM2.5 and black carbon across Pittsburgh, PA

    PubMed Central

    Tunno, Brett J; Michanowicz, Drew R; Shmool, Jessie L C; Kinnee, Ellen; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Gillooly, Sara; Roper, Courtney; Chubb, Lauren; Clougherty, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature explores intra-urban variation in pollution concentrations. Few studies, however, have examined spatial variation during “peak” hours of the day (e.g., rush hours, inversion conditions), which may have strong bearing for source identification and epidemiological analyses. We aimed to capture “peak” spatial variation across a region of complex terrain, legacy industry, and frequent atmospheric inversions. We hypothesized stronger spatial contrast in concentrations during hours prone to atmospheric inversions and heavy traffic, and designed a 2-year monitoring campaign to capture spatial variation in fine particles (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC). Inversion-focused integrated monitoring (0600–1100 hours) was performed during year 1 (2011–2012) and compared with 1-week 24-h integrated results from year 2 (2012–2013). To allocate sampling sites, we explored spatial distributions in key sources (i.e., traffic, industry) and potential modifiers (i.e., elevation) in geographic information systems (GIS), and allocated 37 sites for spatial and source variability across the metropolitan domain (~388 km2). Land use regression (LUR) models were developed and compared by pollutant, season, and sampling method. As expected, we found stronger spatial contrasts in PM2.5 and BC using inversion-focused sampling, suggesting greater differences in peak exposures across urban areas than is captured by most integrated saturation campaigns. Temporal variability, commercial and industrial land use, PM2.5 emissions, and elevation were significant predictors, but did not more strongly predict concentrations during peak hours. PMID:25921079

  9. Spatial variation in inversion-focused vs 24-h integrated samples of PM2.5 and black carbon across Pittsburgh, PA.

    PubMed

    Tunno, Brett J; Michanowicz, Drew R; Shmool, Jessie L C; Kinnee, Ellen; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Gillooly, Sara; Roper, Courtney; Chubb, Lauren; Clougherty, Jane E

    2016-06-01

    A growing literature explores intra-urban variation in pollution concentrations. Few studies, however, have examined spatial variation during "peak" hours of the day (e.g., rush hours, inversion conditions), which may have strong bearing for source identification and epidemiological analyses. We aimed to capture "peak" spatial variation across a region of complex terrain, legacy industry, and frequent atmospheric inversions. We hypothesized stronger spatial contrast in concentrations during hours prone to atmospheric inversions and heavy traffic, and designed a 2-year monitoring campaign to capture spatial variation in fine particles (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC). Inversion-focused integrated monitoring (0600-1100 hours) was performed during year 1 (2011-2012) and compared with 1-week 24-h integrated results from year 2 (2012-2013). To allocate sampling sites, we explored spatial distributions in key sources (i.e., traffic, industry) and potential modifiers (i.e., elevation) in geographic information systems (GIS), and allocated 37 sites for spatial and source variability across the metropolitan domain (~388 km(2)). Land use regression (LUR) models were developed and compared by pollutant, season, and sampling method. As expected, we found stronger spatial contrasts in PM2.5 and BC using inversion-focused sampling, suggesting greater differences in peak exposures across urban areas than is captured by most integrated saturation campaigns. Temporal variability, commercial and industrial land use, PM2.5 emissions, and elevation were significant predictors, but did not more strongly predict concentrations during peak hours. PMID:25921079

  10. Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, Marion; Landais, Edwige; Bastard, Guillaume; Carriquiry, Alicia; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls) and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal. PMID:27775598

  11. Synthesis and antiproliferative evaluation of novel 2-(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio)acetamide derivatives as inducers of apoptosis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kulabaş, Necla; Tatar, Esra; Bingöl Özakpınar, Özlem; Özsavcı, Derya; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik; Küçükgüzel, İlkay

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a series of thiosemicarbazide derivatives 12-14, 1,2,4-triazol-3-thione derivatives 15-17 and compounds bearing 2-(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio)acetamide structure 18-32 have been synthesized starting from phenolic compounds such as 2-naphthol, paracetamol and thymol. Structures and purity of the target compounds were confirmed by the use of their chromatographic and spectral data besides microanalysis. All of the synthesized new compounds 12-32 were evaluated for their anti-HIV activity. Among these compounds, three representatives 18, 19 and 25 were selected and evaluated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) against the full panel of 60 human cancer cell lines derived from nine different cancer types. Antiproliferative effects of the selected compounds were demonstrated in human tumor cell lines K-562, A549 and PC-3. These compounds inhibited cell growth assessed by MTT assay. Compound 18, 19 and 25 exhibited anti-cancer activity with IC50 values of 5.96 μM (PC-3 cells), 7.90 μM (A549/ATCC cells) and 7.71 μM (K-562 cells), respectively. After the cell viability assay, caspase activation and Bcl-2 activity of the selected compounds were measured and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was detected. Compounds 18, 19 and 25 showed a significant increase in caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. This was not observed for caspase-8 activity with compound 18 and 25, while compound 19 was significantly elevated only at the dose of 50 μM. In addition, all three compounds significantly decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of Bcl-2.

  12. Customers' exposure to PM2.5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoking/nonsmoking sections of 24-h coffee shops in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Wu, Min-Ju; Lin, Chin-Chieh

    2004-11-01

    In Taiwan 24-h coffee shops have become popular gathering areas for young people. This study assesses customers' exposures to PM(2.5) and gaseous/particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in such an environment. Potential influential factors were also evaluated. Two coffee shops with different types of smoking/nonsmoking divisions were selected. Sampling was conducted from 1300 to 2100 hours on Saturdays and Sundays during December 2000 and January 2001. Personal environmental monitors mounted with Teflon filters and polyurethane foams were used for particulate and gaseous sampling. PAHs were analyzed with GC-FID. Principal component analysis was used to explore the differences in the patterns of gaseous and particulate PAHs. Stepwise regression analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of various factors. The geometric mean (GM) of PM(2.5), particulate and gaseous PAH exposures were 83.7, 0.46 and 1.01 microg/m(3), respectively. Their exposure concentrations were about two to five times those of residential indoor environments in Taiwan. Smoking and vehicle exhaust were two major exposure sources. The gaseous PAH concentrations in the two sections of both shops were significantly correlated. The divisions between smoking and nonsmoking sections in neither of the coffee shops were effective to prevent dispersion of gaseous pollutants. In both shops, the concentrations of PM(2.5) and associated PAHs, respectively, were about 22-28 microg/m(3) and 0.07 microg/m(3) higher in smoking areas compared to nonsmoking areas. It was also found that each additional cigarette resulted in a 0.22-0.42 microg/m(3) PM(2.5) incremental increase in nonsmoking customers' exposure in the smoking section. PMID:15039796

  13. Effects of living at two ambient temperatures on 24-h blood pressure and neuroendocrine function among obese and non-obese humans: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2013-05-01

    The effects of environmental temperature on blood pressure and hormones in obese subjects in Japan were compared in two seasons: summer vs winter. Five obese (BMI, 32 ± 5 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23 ±3 kg/m2) men participated in this experiment at latitude 35°10' N and longitude 136°57.9' E. The average environmental temperature was 29 ± 1 °C in summer and 3 ± 1 °C in winter. Blood samples were analyzed for leptin, ghrelin, catecholamines, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and glucose. Blood pressure was measured over the course of 24 h in summer and winter. A Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire was also administered each season. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures in obese men were significantly higher in winter (lower environmental temperatures) than in summer (higher environmental temperatures). Noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations were also significantly higher at lower environmental temperatures in obese subjects, but ghrelin, TSH, fT3, fT4, insulin and glucose were not significantly different in summer and winter between obese and non-obese subjects. Leptin, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in winter in obese than non-obese men. Results from the POMS questionnaire showed a significant rise in Confusion at lower environmental temperatures (winter) in obese subjects. In this pilot study, increased blood pressure may have been due to increased secretion of noradrenaline in obese men in winter, and the results suggest that blood pressure control in obese men is particularly important in winter.

  14. Effect of L-arginine and L-NAME on Kidney Tissue Damage in Rats after 24 h of Bilateral Ureteral Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Tirani, Shahnaz Amani; Pezeshki, Zahra; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Nasri, Hamid; Talebi, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bilateral ureteral obstruction (BUO) affects renal function adversely. Previous investigations have implied that nitric oxide (NO) improves renal function in obstructive nephropathy. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of NO precursor, L-arginine, and NO blocker agent, L-NAME on kidney tissue damage in rats after 24 h of BUO. Methods: Forty Wistar rats (18 male, 22 female) were divided into four groups as follows; group 1: Sham or negative control group that received saline 3 days prior to the sham operation, group 2: Vehicle or positive control group that received saline 3 days prior to BUO, and groups 3 and 4: L-arginine and L-NAME groups that were treated same as group 2 except L-arginine (300 mg/kg) and L-NAME (4 mg/kg) instead of saline, respectively. Twenty-four hours after obstruction, the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), nitrite, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as kidney tissue levels of nitrite and MDA were measured and histopathological studies were done on left kidney. Results: The serum levels of BUN and Cr and kidney and body weights increased and the tissue levels of MDA and nitrite decreased significantly in all BUO groups (P < 0.05). However, the tissue damage score was significantly lower in the L-arginine treated group in comparison to the vehicle and L-NAME groups (P < 0.05). As expected, the serum level of nitrite significantly increased in the L-arginine group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Endogenous NO donor; L-arginine, may protect the kidney tissue against BUO. However, this renoprotective role of L-arginine did not attenuate the increased kidney function markers (BUN and Cr) induced by obstruction. PMID:26288704

  15. Exploring the physiologic role of human gastroesophageal reflux by analyzing time-series data from 24-h gastric and esophageal pH recordings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Luo; Mu, John C; Sloan, Sheldon; Miner, Philip B; Gardner, Jerry D

    2014-07-16

    Our previous finding of a fractal pattern for gastric pH and esophageal pH plus the statistical association of sequential pH values for up to 2 h led to our hypothesis that the fractal pattern encodes information regarding gastric acidity and that depending on the value of gastric acidity, the esophagus can signal the stomach to alter gastric acidity by influencing gastric secretion of acid or bicarbonate. Under our hypothesis values of gastric pH should provide information regarding values of esophageal pH and vice versa. We used vector autoregression, a theory-free set of inter-related linear regressions used to measure relationships that can change over time, to analyze data from 24-h recordings of gastric pH and esophageal pH. We found that in pH records from normal subjects, as well as from subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease alone and after treatment with a proton pump inhibitor, gastric pH values provided important information regarding subsequent values of esophageal pH and values of esophageal pH provided important information regarding subsequent values of gastric pH. The ability of gastric pH and esophageal pH to provide information regarding subsequent values of each other was reduced in subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease compared to normal subjects. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that depending on the value of gastric acidity, the esophagus can signal the stomach to alter gastric acidity, and that this ability is impaired in subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  16. The use of multiple imputation method for the validation of 24-h food recalls by part-time observation of dietary intake in school.

    PubMed

    Kupek, Emil; de Assis, Maria Alice A

    2016-09-01

    External validation of food recall over 24 h in schoolchildren is often restricted to eating events in schools and is based on direct observation as the reference method. The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intake out of school, and consequently the bias in such research design based on only part-time validated food recall, using multiple imputation (MI) conditioned on the information on child age, sex, BMI, family income, parental education and the school attended. The previous-day, web-based questionnaire WebCAAFE, structured as six meals/snacks and thirty-two foods/beverage, was answered by a sample of 7-11-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren (n 602) from five public schools. Food/beverage intake recalled by children was compared with the records provided by trained observers during school meals. Sensitivity analysis was performed with artificial data emulating those recalled by children on WebCAAFE in order to evaluate the impact of both differential and non-differential bias. Estimated bias was within ±30 % interval for 84·4 % of the thirty-two foods/beverages evaluated in WebCAAFE, and half of the latter reached statistical significance (P<0·05). Rarely (<3 %) consumed dietary items were often under-reported (fish/seafood, vegetable soup, cheese bread, French fries), whereas some of those most frequently reported (meat, bread/biscuits, fruits) showed large overestimation. Compared with the analysis restricted to fully validated data, MI reduced differential bias in sensitivity analysis but the bias still remained large in most cases. MI provided a suitable statistical framework for part-time validation design of dietary intake over six daily eating events. PMID:27452779

  17. The use of multiple imputation method for the validation of 24-h food recalls by part-time observation of dietary intake in school.

    PubMed

    Kupek, Emil; de Assis, Maria Alice A

    2016-09-01

    External validation of food recall over 24 h in schoolchildren is often restricted to eating events in schools and is based on direct observation as the reference method. The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intake out of school, and consequently the bias in such research design based on only part-time validated food recall, using multiple imputation (MI) conditioned on the information on child age, sex, BMI, family income, parental education and the school attended. The previous-day, web-based questionnaire WebCAAFE, structured as six meals/snacks and thirty-two foods/beverage, was answered by a sample of 7-11-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren (n 602) from five public schools. Food/beverage intake recalled by children was compared with the records provided by trained observers during school meals. Sensitivity analysis was performed with artificial data emulating those recalled by children on WebCAAFE in order to evaluate the impact of both differential and non-differential bias. Estimated bias was within ±30 % interval for 84·4 % of the thirty-two foods/beverages evaluated in WebCAAFE, and half of the latter reached statistical significance (P<0·05). Rarely (<3 %) consumed dietary items were often under-reported (fish/seafood, vegetable soup, cheese bread, French fries), whereas some of those most frequently reported (meat, bread/biscuits, fruits) showed large overestimation. Compared with the analysis restricted to fully validated data, MI reduced differential bias in sensitivity analysis but the bias still remained large in most cases. MI provided a suitable statistical framework for part-time validation design of dietary intake over six daily eating events.

  18. Glycolytic potential and activity of adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK), glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) in steer carcasses with normal (<5.8) or high (>5.9) 24h pH determined in M. longissimus dorsi.

    PubMed

    Apaoblaza, A; Galaz, A; Strobel, P; Ramírez-Reveco, A; Jeréz-Timaure, N; Gallo, C

    2015-03-01

    Muscle glycogen concentration (MGC) and lactate (LA), activity of glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE), glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) were determined at 0.5h (T0) and 24h (T24) post-mortem in Longissimus dorsi samples from 38 steers that produced high pH (>5.9) and normal pH (<5.8) carcasses at 24h postmortem. MGC, LA and glycolytic potential were higher (P<0.05) in normal pH carcasses. GDE activity was similar (P>0.05) in both pH categories. GP activity increased between T0 and T24 only in normal pH carcasses. AMPK activity was four times higher in normal pH v/s high pH carcasses, without changing its activity over time. Results reinforce the idea that differences in postmortem glycogenolytic/glycolytic flow in L. dorsi of steers showing normal v/s high muscle pH at 24h, could be explained not only by the higher initial MGC in normal pH carcasses, but also by a high and sustained activity of AMPK and an increased GP activity at 24h postmortem.

  19. Validation of soy protein estimates from a food-frequency questionnaire with repeated 24-h recalls and isoflavonoid excretion in overnight urine in a Western population with a wide range of soy intakes2

    PubMed Central

    Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fraser, Gary E; Chan, Jacqueline; Franke, Adrian; Sabaté, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence of the benefits of soy on cancer risk in Western populations is inconsistent, in part because of the low intake of soy in these groups. Objective We assessed the validity of soy protein estimates from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) in a sample of Adventist Health Study-2 participants with a wide range of soy intakes. Design We obtained dietary intake data from 100 men and women (43 blacks and 57 nonblacks). Soy protein estimates from FFQs were compared against repeated 24-h recalls and urinary excretion of daidzein, genistein, total isoflavonoids (TIFLs), and equol (measured by HPLC/photodiode array/mass spectrometry) as reference criteria. We calculated Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients (with 95% CIs) for FFQ–24-h recall, 24 h-recall–urinary excretion, and FFQ–urinary excretion pairs. Results Among soy users, mean (± SD) soy protein values were 12.12 ± 10.80 g/d from 24-h recalls and 9.43 ± 7.83 g/d from FFQs. The unattenuated correlation (95% CI) between soy protein estimates from 24-h recalls and FFQs was 0.57 (0.32, 0.75). Correlation coefficients between soy protein intake from 24-h recalls and urinary isoflavonoids were 0.72 (0.43, 0.96) for daidzein, 0.67 (0.43, 0.91) for genistein, and 0.72 (0.47, 0.98) for TIFLs. Between FFQs and urinary excretion, these were 0.50 (0.32, 0.65), 0.48 (0.29, 0.61), and 0.50 (0.32, 0.64) for daidzein, genistein, and TIFLs, respectively. Conclusions Soy protein estimates from questionnaire were significantly correlated with soy protein from 24-h recalls and urinary excretion of daidzein, genistein, and TIFLs. The Adventist Health Study-2 FFQ is a valid instrument for assessing soy protein in a population with a wide range of soy intakes. PMID:18469267

  20. Renal denervation in treatment-resistant essential hypertension. A randomized, SHAM-controlled, double-blinded 24-h blood pressure-based trial

    PubMed Central

    Mathiassen, Ole N.; Vase, Henrik; Bech, Jesper N.; Christensen, Kent L.; Buus, Niels H.; Schroeder, Anne P.; Lederballe, Ole; Rickers, Hans; Kampmann, Ulla; Poulsen, Per L.; Hansen, Klavs W.; B⊘tker, Hans E.; Peters, Christian D.; Engholm, Morten; Bertelsen, Jannik B.; Lassen, Jens F.; Langfeldt, Sten; Andersen, Gratien; Pedersen, Erling B.; Kaltoft, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal denervation (RDN), treating resistant hypertension, has, in open trial design, been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) dramatically, but this was primarily with respect to office BP. Method: We conducted a SHAM-controlled, double-blind, randomized, single-center trial to establish efficacy data based on 24-h ambulatory BP measurements (ABPM). Inclusion criteria were daytime systolic ABPM at least 145 mmHg following 1 month of stable medication and 2 weeks of compliance registration. All RDN procedures were carried out by an experienced operator using the unipolar Medtronic Flex catheter (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, California, USA). Results: We randomized 69 patients with treatment-resistant hypertension to RDN (n = 36) or SHAM (n = 33). Groups were well balanced at baseline. Mean baseline daytime systolic ABPM was 159 ± 12 mmHg (RDN) and 159 ± 14 mmHg (SHAM). Groups had similar reductions in daytime systolic ABPM compared with baseline at 3 months [−6.2 ± 18.8 mmHg (RDN) vs. −6.0 ± 13.5 mmHg (SHAM)] and at 6 months [−6.1 ± 18.9 mmHg (RDN) vs. −4.3 ± 15.1 mmHg (SHAM)]. Mean usage of antihypertensive medication (daily defined doses) at 3 months was equal [6.8 ± 2.7 (RDN) vs. 7.0 ± 2.5 (SHAM)]. RDN performed at a single center and by a high-volume operator reduced ABPM to the same level as SHAM treatment and thus confirms the result of the HTN3 trial. Conclusion: Further, clinical use of RDN for treatment of resistant hypertension should await positive results from double-blinded, SHAM-controlled trials with multipolar ablation catheters or novel denervation techniques. PMID:27228432

  1. Role for c-Jun N-terminal kinase in beta-cell recovery from nitric oxide-mediated damage.

    PubMed

    Scarim, Anna L; Nishimoto, Sheri Y; Weber, Sarah M; Corbett, John A

    2003-08-01

    Treatment of rat islets with the cytokine IL-1 results in the inhibition of mitochondrial function and insulin secretion, events that are mediated by beta-cell expression of iNOS [inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase] and production of NO. beta-Cells recover from the inhibitory actions of NO, produced following 24 h incubation with IL-1, on islet oxidative metabolism and insulin secretion if iNOS enzymatic activity is inhibited and the islets are cultured (in the presence of IL-1 and iNOS inhibitors) for a brief period of 8 h. Islet recovery from cytokine- and NO-mediated damage is an active process that requires new gene expression, and NO itself is one activator of this recovery process. In this study, the mechanism by which NO stimulates islet recovery has been examined. Incubation of rat islets or RINm5F cells with the NO donor compound, sodium (Z)-1(N,N-diethylamino) diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DEA-NO) for 1 h results in a 60% inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity. beta-Cells completely recover aconitase activity if the cells are washed to remove the NO donor compound and incubated for an additional 5 h in the absence of DEA-NO. The recovery of mitochondrial aconitase activity correlates with a 4-fold increase in cyclic GMP accumulation and is prevented by the inhibition of guanylate cyclase. The recovery of aconitase activity also correlates with the activation of members of the MAPKs, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and ERK, and the activation p38 and JNK is attenuated by inhibition of guanylate cyclase. ERK and p38 do not appear to participate in the recovery process as selective inhibition of these kinases fails to prevent recovery of aconitase activity; however, transduction of beta-cells with a dominant negative mutant JNK prevents beta-cell recovery from NO-mediated damage. These findings support a role for guanylate cyclase and JNK in the recovery of beta-cells from NO-mediated damage. PMID:12865320

  2. Spontaneous Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Spontaneous recovery from extinction is one of the most basic phenomena of Pavlovian conditioning. Although it can be studied by using a variety of designs, some procedures are better than others for identifying the involvement of underlying learning processes. A wide range of different learning mechanisms has been suggested as being engaged by…

  3. Recovery of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaves from continuous light induced injury.

    PubMed

    Haque, Mohammad Sabibul; Heinsvig Kjaer, Katrine; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-08-01

    Continuous light (CL) causes leaf injuries in tomato plants, but very little has been done to study the nature of recovery from these leaf injuries. To facilitate this, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. 'Aromata') were first exposed to CL for 11 days in order to study the development of the leaf injuries. Afterwards, the plants were exposed to a photoperiodic treatment with a dark period of eight hours to study the nature of recovery of the leaves. Plants were grown in two photoperiodic treatments in climate chambers; a control treatment with a 16/8h light/dark and a CL treatment with 24h light. The two treatments had different light intensities to maintain a similar daily light integral (15 mol m(-2)d(-1)). The temperature and humidity were adjusted to maintain a similar vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 1kPa in the two treatments. After 11 days of CL, 12% of the total leaflet area appeared light green in spots on the leaf surface aligned with lower total leaf chlorophyll content. The light green spots partially reversed while the leaf chlorophyll content increased to similar levels as seen in control leaves after 11 days of recovery. The CL significantly reduced the stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthesis (PN) and altered the carbohydrate content in the leaves. These negative effects of CL were also rapidly restored to the control levels when the plants were returned to the 16h photoperiodic conditions. The results demonstrate that, though leaf discoloration is only partially recovered, tomato plants can be grown for 11 days in CL conditions with the development of chlorotic discoloration of the leaves covering 12% of the leaf surface and rapidly recover physiological processes affected by CL by shortening the photoperiod to 16h.

  4. Nitrate leaching and nitrogen recovery following application of polyolefin-coated urea to potato.

    PubMed

    Zvomuya, Francis; Rosen, Carl J; Russelle, Michael P; Gupta, Satish C

    2003-01-01

    High N fertilizer and irrigation amounts applied to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on coarse-textured soils often result in nitrate (NO3) leaching and low recovery of applied fertilizer N. This 3-yr study compared the effects of two rates (140 and 280 kg N ha(-1)) of a single polyolefin-coated urea (PCU) application versus split applications of urea on 'Russet Burbank' potato yield and on NO3 leaching and N recovery efficiency (RE) on a loamy sand. Standard irrigation was applied in all years and excessive irrigation was used in another experiment in the third year. At the recommended rate of 280 kg N ha(-1), NO3 leaching during the growing season was 34 to 49% lower with PCU than three applications of urea. Under standard irrigation in the third year, leaching from five applications of urea (280 kg N ha(-1)) was 38% higher than PCU. Under leaching conditions in the first year (> or = 25 mm drainage water in at least one 24-h period) and excessive irrigation in the third year, PCU at 280 kg N ha(-1) improved total and marketable tuber yields by 12 to 19% compared with three applications of urea. Fertilizer N RE estimated by the difference and 15N isotope methods at the 280 kg N ha(-1) rate was, on average, higher with PCU (mean 50%) than urea (mean 43%). Fertilizer N RE values estimated by the isotope method (mean 51%) were greater than those estimated by the difference method (mean 47%). Results from this study indicate that PCU can reduce leaching and improve N recovery and tuber yield during seasons with high leaching.

  5. Nitrate leaching and nitrogen recovery following application of polyolefin-coated urea to potato.

    PubMed

    Zvomuya, Francis; Rosen, Carl J; Russelle, Michael P; Gupta, Satish C

    2003-01-01

    High N fertilizer and irrigation amounts applied to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on coarse-textured soils often result in nitrate (NO3) leaching and low recovery of applied fertilizer N. This 3-yr study compared the effects of two rates (140 and 280 kg N ha(-1)) of a single polyolefin-coated urea (PCU) application versus split applications of urea on 'Russet Burbank' potato yield and on NO3 leaching and N recovery efficiency (RE) on a loamy sand. Standard irrigation was applied in all years and excessive irrigation was used in another experiment in the third year. At the recommended rate of 280 kg N ha(-1), NO3 leaching during the growing season was 34 to 49% lower with PCU than three applications of urea. Under standard irrigation in the third year, leaching from five applications of urea (280 kg N ha(-1)) was 38% higher than PCU. Under leaching conditions in the first year (> or = 25 mm drainage water in at least one 24-h period) and excessive irrigation in the third year, PCU at 280 kg N ha(-1) improved total and marketable tuber yields by 12 to 19% compared with three applications of urea. Fertilizer N RE estimated by the difference and 15N isotope methods at the 280 kg N ha(-1) rate was, on average, higher with PCU (mean 50%) than urea (mean 43%). Fertilizer N RE values estimated by the isotope method (mean 51%) were greater than those estimated by the difference method (mean 47%). Results from this study indicate that PCU can reduce leaching and improve N recovery and tuber yield during seasons with high leaching. PMID:12708671

  6. Near interface traps in SiO2/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors monitored by temperature dependent gate current transient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorenza, Patrick; La Magna, Antonino; Vivona, Marilena; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    This letter reports on the impact of gate oxide trapping states on the conduction mechanisms in SiO2/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). The phenomena were studied by gate current transient measurements, performed on n-channel MOSFETs operated in "gate-controlled-diode" configuration. The measurements revealed an anomalous non-steady conduction under negative bias (VG > |20 V|) through the SiO2/4H-SiC interface. The phenomenon was explained by the coexistence of a electron variable range hopping and a hole Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunnelling. A semi-empirical modified FN model with a time-depended electric field is used to estimate the near interface traps in the gate oxide (Ntrap ˜ 2 × 1011 cm-2).

  7. Arabidopsis Hsa32, a Novel Heat Shock Protein, Is Essential for Acquired Thermotolerance during Long Recovery after Acclimation1[W

    PubMed Central

    Charng, Yee-yung; Liu, Hsiang-chin; Liu, Nai-yu; Hsu, Fu-chiun; Ko, Swee-suak

    2006-01-01

    Plants and animals share similar mechanisms in the heat shock (HS) response, such as synthesis of the conserved HS proteins (Hsps). However, because plants are confined to a growing environment, in general they require unique features to cope with heat stress. Here, we report on the analysis of the function of a novel Hsp, heat-stress-associated 32-kD protein (Hsa32), which is highly conserved in land plants but absent in most other organisms. The gene responds to HS at the transcriptional level in moss (Physcomitrella patens), Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and rice (Oryza sativa). Like other Hsps, Hsa32 protein accumulates greatly in Arabidopsis seedlings after HS treatment. Disruption of Hsa32 by T-DNA insertion does not affect growth and development under normal conditions. However, the acquired thermotolerance in the knockout line was compromised following a long recovery period (>24 h) after acclimation HS treatment, when a severe HS challenge killed the mutant but not the wild-type plants, but no significant difference was observed if they were challenged within a short recovery period. Quantitative hypocotyl elongation assay also revealed that thermotolerance decayed faster in the absence of Hsa32 after a long recovery. Similar results were obtained in Arabidopsis transgenic plants with Hsa32 expression suppressed by RNA interference. Microarray analysis of the knockout mutant indicates that only the expression of Hsa32 was significantly altered in HS response. Taken together, our results suggest that Hsa32 is required not for induction but rather maintenance of acquired thermotolerance, a feature that could be important to plants. PMID:16500991

  8. Evaluation of the antihistamine effects of olopatadine and levocetirizine during a 24-h period: a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled comparison in skin responses induced by histamine iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Takeo, Tomohiro; Kasugai, Chikatoshi; Tanaka, Rui; Ando, Takashi; Ogawa, Akina; Akita, Yoichi; Watanabe, Daisuke

    2013-12-01

    The antihistamine effects of olopatadine and levocetirizine, in standard-dose application described in their information (5 mg twice a day for olopatadine; 5 mg once daily for levocetirizine), were examined from 11.5 to 24 h after application. The test was designed in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study of 12 healthy volunteers on histamine-induced flare and wheal response using an iontophoresis technique. The suppressive effect of olopatadine on the wheals induced by a 0.1-mA histamine iontophoresis lasted for 24 h after dosing. Both drugs inhibited flare induced by histamine iontophoresis almost completely until 24 h after the first administration. Suppression of the 0.2-mA-induced wheal response by levocetirizine, taken once daily, decreased with time, although 0.1-mA-induced flare was almost completely suppressed by the drug. Olopatadine completely suppressed even the wheal response induced by a 0.2-mA histamine iontophoresis. Compared with the placebo, the two drugs significantly suppressed the subjective itching assessed by visual analog scale at all intervals. There were no significant differences in subjective drowsiness and objective cognitive function between drug- and placebo-treated subjects. These results demonstrate that olopatadine seems to be more potent than levocetirizine when administrated in a standard dose. In conclusion, mild to moderate urticaria could be controlled by standard application as described in their information. On the other hand, severe urticaria could be managed by a standard application of olopatadine, but levocetirizine may need an additional dose to control severe urticaria. PMID:24303975

  9. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  10. Habitual sleep length and patterns of recovery sleep after 24 hour and 36 hour sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Benoit, O; Foret, J; Bouard, G; Merle, B; Landau, J; Marc, M E

    1980-12-01

    Five long sleepers (LS) and 5 short sleepers (SS) were selected from 310 medical students. Nine regular sleepers (RS) were used as a control. The sleep was recorded during 3 reference nights, one recovery night after a 36 h sleep deprivation (R2), one morning sleep after a 24 h sleep deprivation (D1) and the night following D1(R1). According to previous data slow wave sleep (SWS) amounts were the same in the 3 groups while stage 2 and paradoxical sleep (PS) amounts increased with the sleep duration. The hourly distribution of intervening wakefulness and SWS were similar for all groups. When compared to RS or SS the hourly distribution in LS of PS was lower until the sixth hour. As a function of experimental conditions, sleep patterns of LS were the most affected. In R2 the sleep of LS more closely resembled that of RS or SS than in reference nights, while in R1 LS' sleep was the most disturbed. Morning sleep durations were very similar for all groups, but in LS intervening wakefulness was increased and PS was decreased when compared to RS and SS. Negative correlations (Spearman rank test) were found between the morning increase of body temperature after a sleep-deprived night and both TST and PS durations. In all recorded sleep periods, SWS amounts were positively correlated with prior wakefulness duration and the PS amount with TST. PMID:6160990

  11. Short report: Recovery of jump performance after a simulated cricket batting innings.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Laurence; Dawson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The time-course of physical recovery was determined after a 2-h 20-min, simulated cricket batting innings. Several vertical jump measures were assessed before (baseline), immediately after, 24 h after and 48 h after simulated batting. Six, male, academy cricketers (20 ± 2 years) completed a previously developed simulated batting innings (BATEX) at an outdoor net facility. At each assessment point, participants completed countermovement-jumps, squat-jumps and 5-repeated reactive-jumps on a contact mat. Compared with baseline, countermovement flight time was similar immediately after, but decreased 24 h after batting (-3.0 ± 1.8%, p < 0.05, effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval [CI]: -1.38 ± 0.52). At 48 h post, countermovement-jump flight time was similar to baseline. A similar pattern occurred in the squat-jump and the decrease in squat-jump flight time 24 h after simulated batting approached significance (p = 0.053, ES ± CI -0.80 ± 0.51). The 5-repeated reactive-jump measures (flight time, contact time and reactive-strength-index) did not decrease after simulated batting (p > 0.05), but there were moderate effect sizes calculated (0.64-0.96). These findings support the continued use of countermovement flight time to assess recovery in cricket, since full recovery of jump performance occurred 48 h after a simulated, prolonged and high intensity-batting century.

  12. The Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Post-Training Recovery in Jiu-Jitsu Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Jonatas Ferreira da Silva; Esteves, João Victor Del Conti

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of using hyperbaric oxygen therapy during post-training recovery in jiu-jitsu athletes. Methods Eleven experienced Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes were investigated during and following two training sessions of 1h30min. Using a cross-over design, the athletes were randomly assigned to passive recovery for 2 hours or to hyperbaric oxygen therapy (OHB) for the same duration. After a 7-day period, the interventions were reversed. Before, immediately after, post 2 hours and post 24 hours, blood samples were collected to examine hormone concentrations (cortisol and total testosterone) and cellular damage markers [creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)]. Moreover, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and recovery (RPR) scales were applied. Results Final lactate [La] values (control: 11.9 ± 1.4 mmol/L, OHB: 10.2 ± 1.4 mmol/L) and RPE [control: 14 (13–17 a.u.), OHB: 18 (17–20 a.u.)] were not significantly different following the training sessions. Furthermore, there was no difference between any time points for blood lactate and RPE in the two experimental conditions (P>0.05). There was no effect of experimental conditions on cortisol (F1,20 = 0.1, P = 0.793, η2 = 0.00, small), total testosterone (F1,20 = 0.03, P = 0.877, η2 = 0.00, small), CK (F1,20 = 0.1, P = 0.759, η2 = 0.01, small), AST (F1,20 = 0.1, P = 0.761, η2 = 0.01, small), ALT (F1,20 = 0.0, P = 0.845, η2 = 0.00, small) or LDH (F1,20 = 0.7, P = 0.413, η2 = 0.03, small). However, there was a difference between the two experimental conditions in RPR with higher values at post 2 h and 24 h in OHB when compared to the control condition (P<0.05). Conclusions Thus, it can be concluded that OHB exerts no influence on the recovery of hormonal status or cellular damage markers. Nonetheless, greater perceived recovery, potentially due to the placebo effect, was evident

  13. Global Patterns of Drought Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalm, C.; Anderegg, W.; Biondi, F.; Koch, G. W.; Litvak, M. E.; Shaw, J.; Wolf, A.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Schaefer, K. M.; Fisher, J. B.; Cook, R. B.; Wei, Y.; Fang, Y.; Hayes, D. J.; Huang, M.; Jain, A. K.; Tian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the impacts of drought on carbon metabolism is crucial to elucidate how global environmental change will alter the climate regulation ecosystem service provided by terrestrial vegetation. Notwithstanding past and anticipated future changes in drought regime the interplay between hydrologic (amelioration of precipitation deficit) and functional (return to pre-drought levels of carbon metabolism) post-drought recovery is not well understood. Recovery time is however a prime determinant of whether ecosystems revert to their initial state or transition to a new equilibrium. Here we quantify post-drought recovery time of gross primary productivity (GPP) at grid cell (0.5° spatial resolution) to global scales using three reconstructions: MODIS, upscaled FLUXNET, and an ensemble of state-of-the-art standardized land surface model runs taken from MsTMIP (Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project). Drought is tracked using the multiscalar Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index drought metric where the integration period (the retrospective window used to calculate the metric) is varied from 1 to 24-months. We define recovery time as a function of both hydrologic and GPP recovery, i.e., both must attain pre-drought levels for recovery to occur. Despite the diverse provenance of the reconstructions, different reconstruction periods, and variable integration lengths several consistent patterns emerge across the c. 4 000 000 drought events and subsequent recovery times cataloged. Recovery time scales with drought severity and drought length. Biological productivity and biodiversity exhibit response surfaces with large amplitudes and clear thresholds whereas soil fertility is a weak constraint. In general, GPP-based descriptors of drought events serve as key boundary conditions for drought recovery. The longest recovery times occur on marginal lands--non-forested, mixed tree-grass, and boreal systems--with a slight uptick for

  14. Assessment of carprofen and buprenorphine on recovery of mice after surgical removal of the mammary fat pad.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Trinka W; Kendall, Lon V; Goss, Sherri; Grayson, Kevin; Touma, Chadi; Palme, Rupert; Chen, Jane Q; Borowsky, Alexander D

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of pain elicited by mammary fat pad removal surgery and the effects of postoperative analgesics on recovery. Female FVB mice were anesthetized, and mammary fat pad removal was performed. After surgery, mice received carprofen, buprenorphine, a combination of carprofen and buprenorphine, or saline treatment. Additional mice received anesthesia but no surgery or treatment. Food and water intake, body weight, wheel running activity, and a visual assessment score were recorded daily for 4 d after surgery and compared with presurgical findings. Corticosterone metabolites in fecal samples were analyzed at 12 and 24 h postsurgically and compared with baseline values. All surgical groups had significantly decreased food intake at 24 h, with a return to baseline by 48 h. The combination treatment resulted in a significantly decreased water intake and body weight at 24 h. All surgical groups had significantly decreased wheel running activity at 24 h only. The visual assessment scores indicated mild pain for all surgical groups, with the buprenorphine treated mice showing the highest pain index scores, as compared with nonsurgical controls. Fecal corticosterone metabolite levels did not differ significantly between any of the groups or across time. The parameters used in this study did not indicate that administration of these analgesic regimens improved recovery as compared with that of saline-treated mice. Care should be taken when using visual assessment scores to evaluate pain in mice, given that analgesics may have side effects that inadvertently elevate the score. PMID:20858363

  15. Assessment of carprofen and buprenorphine on recovery of mice after surgical removal of the mammary fat pad.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Trinka W; Kendall, Lon V; Goss, Sherri; Grayson, Kevin; Touma, Chadi; Palme, Rupert; Chen, Jane Q; Borowsky, Alexander D

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of pain elicited by mammary fat pad removal surgery and the effects of postoperative analgesics on recovery. Female FVB mice were anesthetized, and mammary fat pad removal was performed. After surgery, mice received carprofen, buprenorphine, a combination of carprofen and buprenorphine, or saline treatment. Additional mice received anesthesia but no surgery or treatment. Food and water intake, body weight, wheel running activity, and a visual assessment score were recorded daily for 4 d after surgery and compared with presurgical findings. Corticosterone metabolites in fecal samples were analyzed at 12 and 24 h postsurgically and compared with baseline values. All surgical groups had significantly decreased food intake at 24 h, with a return to baseline by 48 h. The combination treatment resulted in a significantly decreased water intake and body weight at 24 h. All surgical groups had significantly decreased wheel running activity at 24 h only. The visual assessment scores indicated mild pain for all surgical groups, with the buprenorphine treated mice showing the highest pain index scores, as compared with nonsurgical controls. Fecal corticosterone metabolite levels did not differ significantly between any of the groups or across time. The parameters used in this study did not indicate that administration of these analgesic regimens improved recovery as compared with that of saline-treated mice. Care should be taken when using visual assessment scores to evaluate pain in mice, given that analgesics may have side effects that inadvertently elevate the score.

  16. Periods found in heat measurements obtained by calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, K.C.

    1984-02-28

    During a span of 640 days, a periodicity of 1.5158 +- 0.0008 days was discovered in successive heater equilibria on Calorimeter No. 127. Measurements were taken at 12-h intervals, with occasional changes of exactly 3 or 6 h in the schedule of measurements. This schedule eliminated all other possible periods except a period of 0.150156 days. Periods of 1.519125 and 1.511283 days were discovered in data on the excess length of day as obtained by the US Naval Observatory over a period of 24 y. These two periods could equally well represent periods of 0.150189 and 0.150112 days, since measurements were obtained only once every 24 h. It is suggested that periods observed in sensitive calorimeters and in length of day data may be related. 1 reference, 6 figures, 5 tables.

  17. Crystal structure, magnetic, thermal behavior, and spectroscopic studies of two new bimetallic hydrogenselenites: [Cu2-xNix (HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O], (x = 0.62; 0.91)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentech, I.; Zehani, K.; Kabadou, A.; Ben Salah, A.; Loukil, M.; Bessais, L.

    2016-08-01

    Two new iso-structural bimetallic hydrogenselenites [Cu2-xNix(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O] (x = 0.62; 0.91) have been synthesized from solution and characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. They crystallized in the orthorhombic Pnma space group with the following lattice parameters: for Cu1.09Ni0.91(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O: a = 9.0931 (2) Å, b = 17.7717 (4) Å, c = 7.1620 (2) Å, Z = 4, and for Cu1.38Ni0.62(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O: a = 9.0931 (4) Å, b = 17.7467 (7) Å, c = 7.1717 (3) Å; Z = 4. The crystal structure of this compound consists by a three-dimensional framework, but it may be described as a bi-dimensional structure consisting of layers, parallel to the (010) plane formed by two types of (Cu/Ni) octahedral and (HSeO3)- trigonal pyramids. The magnetic measurement, thermal and spectroscopic studies were performed for these compounds. The magnetic results reveal the appearance of a weak ferromagnetic behavior at low temperature (Tc = 16 K for x = 0.91 and 18.8 K for x = 0.62). The DSC analysis enabled us to locate two endothermic peaks. The first peak can be attributed to a completely dehydration of the material, in this transformation, the compounds undergo a structural phase transition which can favor a non-centrosymmetric phase at high temperature confirmed by the thermodiffractograms measurement. The second peak for these samples is due to the ferro-paraelectric phase transition which can be explained by an order- disorder transition.

  18. Enhancement of ethylenethiourea recoveries in food analyses by addition of cysteine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sack, C A

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of cysteine hydrochloride (Cys-HCl) as a preservative of ethylenethiourea (ETU) in product matrixes and during analysis was studied. ETU recoveries were adversely affected by certain product matrixes when fortified directly into the product. Recoveries in 8 selected food items were 0-92% when analyzed 30 min after fortification and 0-51% when analyzed after 24 h. When Cys-HCl was added to product prior to fortification, recoveries increased to 71-95% even after frozen storage for 2-4 weeks. Cys-HCl was added during analysis of 53 untreated items. Recoveries improved an average of 15% with Cys-HCl. Without Cys-HCl, recoveries were erratic (20-98%), but with Cys-HCl, recoveries were 68-113%. Other antioxidants (sodium sulfite, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, and vitamins A and C) also were evaluated as ETU preservatives. When lettuce was treated first with sodium sulfite and then fortified with ETU, recoveries averaged 86%; without sodium sulfite, they averaged 1%. The other antioxidants were less effective for preserving ETU in lettuce, giving only 8-46% recoveries. The effect of oxidizers (potassium bromate, sodium hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide) on ETU recovery was also determined. Recovery of ETU from a baby food product (pears and pineapple) was 82%; with oxidizers, recoveries were 0-8%.

  19. Reading Recovery. [Fact Sheets].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    This set of 10 fact sheets (each 2 to 4 pages long) addresses aspects of Reading Recovery, a program that helps children to be proficient readers and writers by the end of the first grade. It discusses the basic facts of Reading Recovery; Reading Recovery for Spanish literacy; Reading Recovery lessons; Reading Recovery professional development;…

  20. The postanesthetic period. Complications.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F

    1987-01-01

    Postanesthetic complications can occur even in the best of circumstances. Proper preparation of the staff, aggressive monitoring of the recovering patient, and early recognition and management of the complications are essential if the outcome is to be successful. In reviewing postanesthetic complications, two factors are present in the overwhelming majority of situations--hypoxia and hypercarbia--often the direct result of inadequate monitoring during the postanesthetic period. The anesthetic procedure is not over once the anesthetic agents are discontinued. The skillful anesthetist is aware of the possibilities of postoperative complications and prevents problems by employing enhanced monitoring techniques during the recovery phase.

  1. Ad libitum food intake on a "cafeteria diet" in Native American women: relations with body composition and 24-h energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Larson, D E; Tataranni, P A; Ferraro, R T; Ravussin, E

    1995-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies consistently report associations between obesity and dietary fat but not total energy intake. We measured ad libitum food intake in a laboratory setting and evaluated its relation to body weight and composition, energy expenditure, and macronutrient utilization in 28 women of Pima-Papago heritage (aged 27 +/- 7 y, 85.3 +/- 19.0 kg, 44 +/- 6% body fat; means +/- SD). All women were studied during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. After a 4-d weight-maintenance period, the volunteers selected their food for 5 d from computerized vending machines offering a variety of familiar and preferred foods, ie, a "cafeteria diet". Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were measured in a respiratory chamber on the 4th d o weight maintenance and the 5th d of ad libitum intake. Average ad libitum intake was 13,732 +/- 4238 kJ/d (11 +/- 1% protein, 40 +/- 1% fat, 49 +/- 4% carbohydrate), ie, moderate overeating by 27 +/- 37% above weight maintenance requirements (range: -27% to 124%). Percent body fat correlated with daily energy intake (r = 0.53, P < 0.01), the degree of overeating (r = 0.41, P < 0.05), and the selection of a diet higher in fat and lower in carbohydrate (r = 0.70 and r = -0.63, respectively, P < 0.001). Excess carbohydrate intake caused an increase in carbohydrate oxidation (r = 0.51, P < 0.01), whereas excess fat intake resulted in a decrease in fat oxidation (r = -0.53, P < 0.01) and thus a positive fat balance of 85 +/- 65 g/d. The positive relations among degrees of obesity, dietary fat intake and overeating, and the fact that dietary fat does not induce fat oxidation, support the hypothesis that dietary fat promotes obesity in women. PMID:7572735

  2. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Aug 24,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  3. Electrical and physical characterizations of the effects of oxynitridation and wet oxidation at the interface of SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) and (000\\bar{1})

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, Hiromu; Kitai, Hidenori; Tsujimura, Masatoshi; Kiuchi, Yuji; Nakata, Daisuke; Ono, Shuichi; Kojima, Kazutoshi; Fukuda, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kunihiro; Yamasaki, Kimiyohi; Okumura, Hajime

    2016-04-01

    The effects of oxynitridation and wet oxidation at the interface of SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) and (000\\bar{1}) were investigated using both electrical and physical characterization methods. Hall measurements and split capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements revealed that the difference in field-effect mobility between wet oxide and dry oxynitride interfaces was mainly attributed to the ratio of the mobile electron density to the total induced electron density. The surface states close to the conduction band edge causing a significant trapping of inversion carriers were also evaluated. High-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (HR-RBS) analysis and high-resolution elastic recoil detection analysis (HR-ERDA) were employed to show the nanometer-scale compositional profile of the SiC-MOS interfaces for the first time. These analyses, together with cathode luminescence (CL) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), suggested that the deviations of stoichiometry and roughness at the interface defined the effects of oxynitridation and wet oxidation at the interface of SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) and (000\\bar{1}).

  4. Association between 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zeng; Guo, Xiaolei; Chen, Xiaorong; Tang, Junli; Yan, Liuxia; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Jiyu; Lu, Zilong; Dong, Jing; Xu, Jianwei; Cai, Xiaoning; Liang, Hao; Ma, Jixiang

    2015-03-28

    The association of 24 h urinary Na and potassium excretion with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been studied in China. The aim of the present study was to examine this association by analysing the data from 1906 study participants living in north China. To this end, 24 h urine samples were collected. Of the 1906 participants, 471 (24·7 %) had the MetS. The mean urinary Na and K excretion was 228·7 and 40·8 mmol/d, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the odds of the MetS significantly increased across the increasing tertiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·40 and 1·54, respectively). For the components of the MetS, the odds of central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG, but not the odds of low HDL-cholesterol and elevated fasting glucose, significantly increased with the successive tertiles of urinary Na excretion. Furthermore, for every 100 mmol/d increase in urinary Na excretion, the odds of the MetS, central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG was significantly increased by 29, 63, 22 and 21 %, respectively. However, urinary K excretion was not significantly associated with the risk of the MetS. These findings suggest that high Na intake might be an important risk factor for the MetS in Chinese adults.

  5. REACTIONS FORMING C{sub n=2,10}{sup (0,+)}, C{sub n=2,4}H{sup (0,+)}, AND C{sub 3}H{sub 2}{sup (0,+)} IN THE GAS PHASE: SEMIEMPIRICAL BRANCHING RATIOS

    SciTech Connect

    Chabot, M.; Jallat, A.; Beroff, K.; Gratier, P.; Wakelam, V.

    2013-07-10

    The aim of this paper is to provide a new set of branching ratios (BRs) for interstellar and planetary chemical networks based on a semiempirical model. We applied, instead of zero-order theory (i.e., only the most exoergic decaying channel is considered), a statistical microcanonical model based on the construction of breakdown curves and using experimental high velocity collision BRs for their parameterization. We applied the model to ion-molecule, neutral-neutral, and ion-pair reactions implemented in the few popular databases for astrochemistry, such as KIDA, OSU, and UMIST. We studied the reactions of carbon and hydrocarbon species with electrons, He{sup +}, H{sup +}, CH{sup +}, CH, C, and C{sup +} leading to intermediate complexes of the type C{sub n=2,10}, C{sub n=2,4}H, C{sub 3}H{sub 2}, C{sub n=2,10}{sup +}, C{sub n=2,4}H{sup +}, or C{sub 3}H{sub 2}{sup +}. Comparison of predictions with measurements supports the validity of the model. Huge deviations with respect to database values are often obtained. Effects of the new BRs in time-dependent chemistry for dark clouds and for photodissociation region chemistry with conditions similar to those found in the Horsehead Nebula are discussed.

  6. A Review of OIE Country Status Recovery Using Vaccinate-to-Live Versus Vaccinate-to-Die Foot-and-Mouth Disease Response Policies II: Waiting Periods After Emergency Vaccination in FMD Free Countries.

    PubMed

    Geale, D W; Barnett, P V; Clarke, G W; Davis, J; Kasari, T R

    2015-08-01

    For countries with OIE status, FMD free country where vaccination is not practised, vaccinate-to-live policies have a significant economic disincentive as the trade restriction waiting period is double that of vaccinate-to-die policies. The disposal of healthy vaccinated animals strictly for the purpose of regaining markets with debatable scientific justification is a global concern. The feasibility of aligning the waiting periods to facilitate vaccinate-to-live is explored. The first article of this two-part review (Barnett et al., 2015) explored the qualities of higher potency Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) vaccines, performance of differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) diagnostic assays particularly in vaccinates and carriers, as well as aspects of current limitations of post-outbreak surveillance. Here, the history behind the OIE waiting periods for FMD free status is reviewed as well as whether the risk of vaccinated animals and their subsequent products differ appreciably at 3 versus 6 months. It is concluded that alignment is feasible for vaccinate-to-live using higher potency FMD vaccines within the current OIE waiting period framework of 3 and 6 months blocks of time. These waiting periods reflect precedence, historical practicalities and considered expert opinion rather than a specific scientific rationale. The future lies in updated epidemiological and diagnostic technology to establish an acceptable level of statistical certainty for surveillance or target probability of freedom of FMDV (infection or circulation) not time restricted waiting periods. The OIE Terrestrial Code limits trade from a FMD free country where vaccination is not practiced to animal products and live non-vaccinated animals. The risk of FMDV in products derived from higher potency vaccinated animals is appreciably less than for countries with infected FMD status or even from a FMD free country where vaccination is practised for which the Code has Articles with

  7. The extent, time course, and fraction size dependence of mouse spinal cord recovery from radiation injury

    SciTech Connect

    Lavey, R.S.; Taylor, M.G.; Tward, J.D.

    1994-10-15

    This experiment was designed to assess: (a) the influence of fraction size and time interval between fractions on the tolerance of the spinal cord to high cumulative doses of radiation; and (b) the influence of the long-term recovery process on the tolerance of the spinal cord to reirradiation. The T10-L2 level of the spinal cord of C3Hf mice was irradiated using a conventionally fractionated regimen of 2.0 Gy once daily, a prolonged fractionated regimen of 1.2 Gy once daily, a hyperfractionated regimen of 1.2 Gy twice daily, or a single dose of 12 Gy followed 0-190 days later by a second dose of 5-20 Gy. Mice in the multifractionated regimen groups were given a single 15 Gy top-up- dose 24 h after reaching a cumulative fractionated dose of 24-70 Gy. Hind limb strength was measured weekly for 2 years after the completion of irradiation. Paralysis occurred in a bimodal time distribution, with peaks at 5-10 months and 15-23 months after the completion of irradiation. The cumulative radiation dose was directly associated with the incidence of paralysis in each radiation schedule (p<0.0001) and inversely associated with the time to onset of paralysis in the 1.2 Gy b.i.d. (p = 0.0001) and 2.0 Gy q.d. schedules (p = 0.03). The median latency of paralysis in each group was inversely associated with the incidence of paralysis in that group (p =<0.001). Decreasing the fraction size from 2.0 to 1.2 Gy once daily markedly increased the radiation tolerance of the spinal cord (p <0.0001), consistent with a very small alpha-beta value of -0.30 Gy ({approximately}95% confidence interval -0.72, +0.18) in the linear-quadratic model. Decreasing the time interval from 24 h to alternating 8 and 16 h periods produced an offsetting diminuation in cord tolerance (p <0.0001). 36 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Sex difference in the near-24-hour intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Jeanne F.; Cain, Sean W.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Phillips, Andrew J. K.; Münch, Mirjam Y.; Gronfier, Claude; Wyatt, James K.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    The circadian rhythms of melatonin and body temperature are set to an earlier hour in women than in men, even when the women and men maintain nearly identical and consistent bedtimes and wake times. Moreover, women tend to wake up earlier than men and exhibit a greater preference for morning activities than men. Although the neurobiological mechanism underlying this sex difference in circadian alignment is unknown, multiple studies in nonhuman animals have demonstrated a sex difference in circadian period that could account for such a difference in circadian alignment between women and men. Whether a sex difference in intrinsic circadian period in humans underlies the difference in circadian alignment between men and women is unknown. We analyzed precise estimates of intrinsic circadian period collected from 157 individuals (52 women, 105 men; aged 18–74 y) studied in a month-long inpatient protocol designed to minimize confounding influences on circadian period estimation. Overall, the average intrinsic period of the melatonin and temperature rhythms in this population was very close to 24 h [24.15 ± 0.2 h (24 h 9 min ± 12 min)]. We further found that the intrinsic circadian period was significantly shorter in women [24.09 ± 0.2 h (24 h 5 min ± 12 min)] than in men [24.19 ± 0.2 h (24 h 11 min ± 12 min); P < 0.01] and that a significantly greater proportion of women have intrinsic circadian periods shorter than 24.0 h (35% vs. 14%; P < 0.01). The shorter average intrinsic circadian period observed in women may have implications for understanding sex differences in habitual sleep duration and insomnia prevalence. PMID:21536890

  9. Recovery of cholinesterase activity in mallard ducklings administered organophosphorus pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Bradbury, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Oral doses of the organophosphorus pesticides acephate, dicrotophos, fensulfothion, fonofos, malathion, and parathion were administered to mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos), and brain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activities were determined for up to 77 d after dosing. In vivo recovery of brain ChE activity to within 2 standard deviations of the mean activity of undosed birds occurred within 8 d, after being depressed an average of 25-58% at 24 h after dosing. In vivo recovery of plasma ChE appeared as fast as or faster than that of brain, but the pattern of recovery was more erratic and therefore statistical comparison with brain ChE recovery was not attempted. In vitro tests indicated that the potential for dephosphorylation to contribute to in vivo recovery of inhibited brain ChE differed among chemical treatments. Some ducklings died as a result of organophosphate dosing. In an experiment in which ducklings within each treatment group received the same dose (mg/kg), the brain ChE activity in birds that died was less than that in birds that survived. Brain ChE activities in ducklings that died were significantly different among pesticide treatments: fensulfothion > parathion> acephate > malathion (p < 0.05).

  10. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. End of budget period report, August 3, 1994--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.R.; Hinterlong, G.; Watts, G.; Justice, J.; Brown, K.; Hickman, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The Oxy West Welch project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. The research and design phase primarily involves advanced reservoir characterization and accelerating the production response. The demonstration phase will implement the reservoir management plan based on an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood as designed in the initial phase. During Budget Period 1, work was completed on the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments and the hydraulic fracture design. Analysis of the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatment provided a methodology for predicting results. The hydraulic fracture treatment proved up both the fracture design approach a and the use of passive seismic for mapping the fracture wing orientation. Although the 3-D seismic interpretation is still being integrated into the geologic model and interpretation of borehole seismic is still underway, the simulator has been enhanced to the point of giving good waterflood history matches. The simulator-forecasted results for an optimal designed miscible CO{sub 2} flood in the demonstration area gave sufficient economics to justify continuation of the project into Budget Period 2.

  11. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  12. The effects of compression garments on performance of prolonged manual-labour exercise and recovery.

    PubMed

    Chan, Val; Duffield, Rob; Watsford, Mark

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of wearing compression garments during and 24 h following a 4-h exercise protocol simulating manual-labour tasks. Ten physically trained male participants, familiar with labouring activities, undertook 4 h of work tasks characteristic of industrial workplaces. Participants completed 2 testing sessions, separated by at least 1 week. In the experimental condition, participants wore a full-length compression top and compression shorts during the exercise protocol and overnight recovery, with normal work clothes worn in the control condition. Testing for serum creatine kinase and C-reactive protein, handgrip strength, knee flexion and extension torque, muscle stiffness, perceived muscle soreness and fatigue as well as heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to 4-min cycling were performed before, following, and 24 h after exercise. Creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and rating of perceived fatigue increased following the exercise protocol (p < 0.05) as did RPE to a standardised cycling warm-up bout. Conversely, no postexercise changes were observed in C-reactive protein, handgrip strength, peak knee flexion torque, or stiffness measures (p > 0.05). Knee extension torque was significantly higher in the control condition at 24 h postexercise (3.1% ± 5.4% change; compression: 2.2% ± 11.1% change), although no other variables were different between conditions at any time. However, compression demonstrated a moderate-large effect (d > 0.60) to reduce perceived muscle soreness, fatigue, and RPE from standardised warm-up at 24 h postexercise. The current findings suggest that compression may assist in perceptual recovery from manual-labour exercise with implications for the ability to perform subsequent work bouts.

  13. Kinetic Post-match Fatigue in Professional and Youth Soccer Players During the Competitive Period

    PubMed Central

    Djaoui, Leo; Diaz-Cidoncha Garcia, Jorge; Hautier, Christophe; Dellal, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background No previous research has analysed kinetic fatigue of elite adult players and elite youth players during the competitive period. Objectives The aim of the present study was to analyse kinetic post-match fatigue in professional and youth soccer players during the competitive period. Materials and Methods resting heart rate (HRrest), post-effort recovery heart rate (HRrecovery), rate of perceived exertion fatigue (RPEf), muscle soreness and blood samples with creatine kinase (CK) and resting lactate (La) from nine professional soccer players were measured immediately before, 24 hour and 48 hour after two official French first league matches (Ligue 1) whereas RPEf, HRrest, and 20m speed performance (speed-20 m) were measured in ten U-17 elite players immediately before, 24 hour and 48h after a friendly match. Results for professionals, a soccer match elevated all physiological markers during the next 24 hours (P < 0.05); only HRrecovery remained significantly different 48 hours after the match (P < 0.05) whereas there was no variation of HRrest, RPEf, and speed-20m, which were elevated until 24h and got back to reference values 48 hours after the match (P < 0.05) for the U17 players. Comparing the two groups, HRrest results remained lower all the time for professionals, and RPEf was lower for U-17, 24 hours after the match (P < 0.05). Conclusions Independent of their level, professional soccer players, need 48 hours to recover after an official match. Professionals gain more fatigue than young players after a match, but recover as fast. Thus, they recover more efficiently especially due to a better physical condition and fitness training. It is expected that the results showed in the study help elite soccer and fitness coaches to manage the training load of the team according to the match. PMID:27217927

  14. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24 h postmain shock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014 M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Tom; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-12-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  15. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24h post mainshock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014M=6.0 West Napa earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Ned; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M= 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  16. Periodic peristalsis releasing constrained water in high solids enzymatic hydrolysis of steam exploded corn stover.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Hong-Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Periodic peristalsis was used to release water constraint and increase high solids enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. Glucan and xylan conversion in periodic peristalsis enzymatic hydrolysis (PPEH) at 21% solid loading increased by 5.2-6.4% and 6.8-8.8% compared with that in incubator shaker enzymatic hydrolysis (ISEH), respectively. Hydrolysis kinetics suggested that sugars conversion significantly increased within 24h in PPEH compared with ISEH. The peak height of main water pool increased by 7.7-43.1% within 24h in PPEH compared with ISEH. The increases in peak height of main water pool were consistent with the increases in glucan conversion. Submicroscopic particulates and macro granule residues contributed greatly to water constraint compared with glucose, xylose, ethanol, and Tween 80. Smaller particle size and longer residence time resulted in lower water constraint and facilitated the enzymatic hydrolysis performance. Periodic peristalsis was an effective method to reduce water constraint and increase high solids enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency.

  17. Periodic peristalsis releasing constrained water in high solids enzymatic hydrolysis of steam exploded corn stover.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Hong-Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Periodic peristalsis was used to release water constraint and increase high solids enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. Glucan and xylan conversion in periodic peristalsis enzymatic hydrolysis (PPEH) at 21% solid loading increased by 5.2-6.4% and 6.8-8.8% compared with that in incubator shaker enzymatic hydrolysis (ISEH), respectively. Hydrolysis kinetics suggested that sugars conversion significantly increased within 24h in PPEH compared with ISEH. The peak height of main water pool increased by 7.7-43.1% within 24h in PPEH compared with ISEH. The increases in peak height of main water pool were consistent with the increases in glucan conversion. Submicroscopic particulates and macro granule residues contributed greatly to water constraint compared with glucose, xylose, ethanol, and Tween 80. Smaller particle size and longer residence time resulted in lower water constraint and facilitated the enzymatic hydrolysis performance. Periodic peristalsis was an effective method to reduce water constraint and increase high solids enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. PMID:26826953

  18. Nutrition for recovery in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Mujika, Iñigo

    2014-08-01

    Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost-benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs. PMID:24901517

  19. Nutrition for recovery in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Mujika, Iñigo

    2014-08-01

    Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost-benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs.

  20. Recovery of discarded sulfated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Hassan; Asadi, Raziyeh

    The aim of this research is to recover discarded sulfated lead-acid batteries. In this work, the effect of two methods (inverse charge and chemical charge) on the reactivation of sulfated active materials was investigated. At the inverse charge, the battery is deeply discharged and the electrolyte of battery is replaced with a new sulfuric acid solution of 1.28 g cm -3. Then, the battery is inversely charged with constant current method (2 A for the battery with the nominal capacity of 40 Ah) for 24 h. At the final stage, the inversely charged battery is directly charged for 48 h. Through these processes, a discarded battery can recover its capacity to more than 80% of a similar fresh and non-sulfated battery. At the chemical charge method, there are some effective parameters that including ammonium persulfate [(NH 4) 2S 2O 8] concentration, recovery temperature and recovery time. The effect of all parameters was optimized by one at a time method. The sulfated battery is deeply discharged and then, its electrolyte was replaced by a 40% ammonium persulfate solution (as oxidant) at temperature of 50 °C. By adding of oxidant solution, the chemical charging of positive and negative plates was performed for optimum time of 1 h. The chemically charged batteries were charged with constant voltage method (2.66 V for the battery with nominal voltage and nominal capacity of 2 V and 10 Ah, respectively) for 24 h. By performing of these processes, a discarded battery can recovers its capacity to more than 84% of the similar fresh and non-sulfated battery. Discharge and cyclelife behaviors of the recovered batteries were investigated and compared with similar healthy battery. The morphology and structure of plates was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after recovery.

  1. Ascorbic acid regulation in stress responses during acute cold exposure and following recovery in juvenile Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-jian; Niu, Cui-juan; Yuan, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Intense temperature change often leads to increased oxidative stress in many animals with a few exceptions, including the turtle. To date, little is known about the mechanism of protective antioxidative defenses in turtles during acute temperature change, specifically the role that the antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) plays. In this study, Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) were initially acclimated at 28°C (3 wks), exposed to acute cold condition (8°C, 8 h) and finally placed in recovery (28°C, 24 h). L-Gulonolactone oxidase (GLO) mRNA exhibited a stable transcription pattern during the intense thermal fluctuation. GLO activity also remained stable, which validated the mRNA expression pattern. The similar Q10 values for GLO activity in the different treatment groups at incubation temperatures of 28°C and 8°C indicated that the GLO activity response to thermal change exhibited a temperature-dependent enzymatic kinetic characteristic. The AA storage was tissue-specific as well as the AA re-supply in the recovery period, with brain as the priority. Despite the insufficient transport during cold exposure, the plasma AA reservoir greatly contributed to the redistribution of AA during recovery. Depending on the prominent GLO activity, the high level of tissue-specific AA storage and the extraordinary plasma AA transport potential, the Chinese soft-shelled turtle endured severe thermal fluctuations with no apparent oxidative stress. However, the significant decrease in AA concentration in the brain tissue during acute cold exposure suggested that such a strategy may not be sufficient for prolonged cold exposure.

  2. Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Webb, M L; Spickler, J L; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Wilson, J L; Buhr, R J

    2014-08-01

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using 3 sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10(1), 10(2), or 10(3) cfu/eggshell of Salmonella Enteritidis and allowed to dry at room temperature for 1 or 24 h. For the shell rinse groups, each inoculated egg was rinsed with buffered peptone water. These rinsed eggs were used for the shell crush with previous rinse groups, and each egg was aseptically cracked, the contents discarded, and the eggshell and membranes crushed with buffered peptone water. This same crush procedure was used for the shell crush without previous shell rinse eggs. The recovery of Salmonella 1 h after inoculation for shell rinse sampled eggs was 16% positive at 10(1), 49% at 10(2), and 93% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. For the shell crush with previous shell rinse, sampled egg recovery was 0% positive at 10(1), 3% at 10(2), and 17% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell. For the shell crush, sampled eggs had recovery of 23% positive at 10(1), 69% at 10(2), and 96% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. The recovery of Salmonella 24 h after inoculation for the shell rinse eggs was 3% positive at 10(1), 12% at 10(2), and 22% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; recovery for shell crush with previous shell rinse sampling was 2% positive at 10(1), 8% at 10(2), and 5% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; and for the shell crush sampling recovery was 2% at 10(1), 32% at 10(2), and 42% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. Eggshell crush was a more sensitive (∼10 percentage points) sampling method than eggshell rinse at both 1 and 24 h, but both methods were equally optimal when the inoculum was at 10(3) and samples were collected after 1 h. Waiting 24 h after inoculation to sample significantly lowered the recovery for both the shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods by ∼40 percentage points. PMID:24931964

  3. Recovery Act Milestones

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2016-07-12

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  4. Recovery Act Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  5. Tapered progesterone withdrawal promotes long-term recovery following brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Sarah M; Vanlandingham, Jacob W; Stein, Donald G

    2006-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that after traumatic brain injury (TBI), acute progesterone withdrawal (AW) causes an increase in anxiety behaviors and cerebro-cellular inflammation compared to tapered progesterone withdrawal (TW). Our current study investigates the behavioral and cellular effects of AW two weeks after termination of treatments to determine the longer-term influence of withdrawal after injury. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats received either bilateral frontal cortex contusion (L) or sham (S) surgery. Rats were injected at 1 and 6 h post-injury, then every 24 h for six days. Vehicle (V)-treated rats were given 9 injections of 22.5% cyclodextrin, whereas AW rats received 9 injections of 16 mg/kg progesterone and TW rats received 7 injections of P at 16 mg/kg, followed by one at 8 mg/kg and one at 4 mg/kg. On day 8, sensory neglect and locomotor activity tests were initiated. Animals were killed 22 days post-TBI and the brains prepared for either molecular or histological analysis. Western blotting revealed increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in TW vs. AW animals. P53 was increased in VL animals, whereas all progesterone-treated groups were equivalent to shams. TW animals had markedly decreased sensory neglect compared to AW animals and increased center time in locomotor activity assays. In addition, lesion reconstruction revealed a decreased lesion size for TWL over AWL over VL animals. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunofluorescent staining followed this pattern as well. In conclusion, after TBI, AW affects select behaviors and molecular markers in the chronic recovery period. PMID:16797538

  6. Recovery of otoacoustic emissions after high-level noise exposure in the American bullfrog.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Dwayne D; Lohr, Rachel; Wotring, Helena; Burton, Miriam D; Hooper, Rebecca A; Baird, Richard A

    2014-05-01

    The American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) has an amphibian papilla (AP) that senses airborne, low-frequency sound and generates distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) similar to other vertebrate species. Although ranid frogs are typically found in noisy environments, the effects of noise on the AP have not been studied. First, we determined the noise levels that diminished DPOAE at 2f1-f2 using an f2 stimulus level at 80 dB SPL and that also produced morphological damage of the sensory epithelium. Second, we compared DPOAE (2f1-f2) responses with histopathologic changes occurring in bullfrogs after noise exposure. Consistent morphological damage, such as fragmented hair cells and missing bundles, as well as elimination of DPOAE responses were seen only after very high-level (>150 dB SPL) sound exposures. The morphological response of hair cells to noise differed along the mediolateral AP axis: medial hair cells were sensitive to noise and lateral hair cells were relatively insensitive to noise. Renewed or repaired hair cells were not observed until 9 days post-exposure. Following noise exposure, DPOAE responses disappeared within 24 h and then recovered to normal pre-exposure levels within 3-4 days. Our results suggest that DPOAEs in the bullfrog are sensitive to the initial period of hair cell damage. After noise-induced damage, the bullfrog AP has functional recovery mechanisms that do not depend on substantial hair cell regeneration or repair. Thus, the bullfrog auditory system might serve as an interesting model for investigation of ways to prevent noise damage. PMID:24501139

  7. Recovery facilitation with Montmorency cherries following high-intensity, metabolically challenging exercise.

    PubMed

    Bell, Phillip G; Walshe, Ian H; Davison, Gareth W; Stevenson, Emma J; Howatson, Glyn

    2015-04-01

    The impact of Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) concentrate (MC) on physiological indices and functional performance was examined following a bout of high-intensity stochastic cycling. Trained cyclists (n = 16) were equally divided into 2 groups (MC or isoenergetic placebo (PLA)) and consumed 30 mL of supplement, twice per day for 8 consecutive days. On the fifth day of supplementation, participants completed a 109-min cycling trial designed to replicate road race demands. Functional performance (maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), cycling efficiency, 6-s peak cycling power) and delayed onset muscle soreness were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial. Blood samples collected at baseline, immediately pre- and post-trial, and at 1, 3, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial were analysed for indices of inflammation (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)), oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides), and muscle damage (creatine kinase). MVIC (P < 0.05) did not decline in the MC group (vs. PLA) across the 72-h post-trial period and economy (P < 0.05) was improved in the MC group at 24 h. IL-6 (P < 0.001) and hsCRP (P < 0.05) responses to the trial were attenuated with MC (vs. PLA). No other blood markers were significantly different between MC and PLA groups. The results of the study suggest that Montmorency cherry concentrate can be an efficacious functional food for accelerating recovery and reducing exercise-induced inflammation following strenuous cycling exercise. PMID:25794236

  8. Recovery of otoacoustic emissions after high-level noise exposure in the American bullfrog

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Dwayne D.; Lohr, Rachel; Wotring, Helena; Burton, Miriam D.; Hooper, Rebecca A.; Baird, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) has an amphibian papilla (AP) that senses airborne, low-frequency sound and generates distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) similar to other vertebrate species. Although ranid frogs are typically found in noisy environments, the effects of noise on the AP have not been studied. First, we determined the noise levels that diminished DPOAE at 2f1–f2 using an f2 stimulus level at 80 dB SPL and that also produced morphological damage of the sensory epithelium. Second, we compared DPOAE (2f1–f2) responses with histopathologic changes occurring in bullfrogs after noise exposure. Consistent morphological damage, such as fragmented hair cells and missing bundles, as well as elimination of DPOAE responses were seen only after very high-level (>150 dB SPL) sound exposures. The morphological response of hair cells to noise differed along the mediolateral AP axis: medial hair cells were sensitive to noise and lateral hair cells were relatively insensitive to noise. Renewed or repaired hair cells were not observed until 9 days post-exposure. Following noise exposure, DPOAE responses disappeared within 24 h and then recovered to normal pre-exposure levels within 3–4 days. Our results suggest that DPOAEs in the bullfrog are sensitive to the initial period of hair cell damage. After noise-induced damage, the bullfrog AP has functional recovery mechanisms that do not depend on substantial hair cell regeneration or repair. Thus, the bullfrog auditory system might serve as an interesting model for investigation of ways to prevent noise damage. PMID:24501139

  9. Recovery of otoacoustic emissions after high-level noise exposure in the American bullfrog.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Dwayne D; Lohr, Rachel; Wotring, Helena; Burton, Miriam D; Hooper, Rebecca A; Baird, Richard A

    2014-05-01

    The American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) has an amphibian papilla (AP) that senses airborne, low-frequency sound and generates distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) similar to other vertebrate species. Although ranid frogs are typically found in noisy environments, the effects of noise on the AP have not been studied. First, we determined the noise levels that diminished DPOAE at 2f1-f2 using an f2 stimulus level at 80 dB SPL and that also produced morphological damage of the sensory epithelium. Second, we compared DPOAE (2f1-f2) responses with histopathologic changes occurring in bullfrogs after noise exposure. Consistent morphological damage, such as fragmented hair cells and missing bundles, as well as elimination of DPOAE responses were seen only after very high-level (>150 dB SPL) sound exposures. The morphological response of hair cells to noise differed along the mediolateral AP axis: medial hair cells were sensitive to noise and lateral hair cells were relatively insensitive to noise. Renewed or repaired hair cells were not observed until 9 days post-exposure. Following noise exposure, DPOAE responses disappeared within 24 h and then recovered to normal pre-exposure levels within 3-4 days. Our results suggest that DPOAEs in the bullfrog are sensitive to the initial period of hair cell damage. After noise-induced damage, the bullfrog AP has functional recovery mechanisms that do not depend on substantial hair cell regeneration or repair. Thus, the bullfrog auditory system might serve as an interesting model for investigation of ways to prevent noise damage.

  10. Recovery facilitation with Montmorency cherries following high-intensity, metabolically challenging exercise.

    PubMed

    Bell, Phillip G; Walshe, Ian H; Davison, Gareth W; Stevenson, Emma J; Howatson, Glyn

    2015-04-01

    The impact of Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) concentrate (MC) on physiological indices and functional performance was examined following a bout of high-intensity stochastic cycling. Trained cyclists (n = 16) were equally divided into 2 groups (MC or isoenergetic placebo (PLA)) and consumed 30 mL of supplement, twice per day for 8 consecutive days. On the fifth day of supplementation, participants completed a 109-min cycling trial designed to replicate road race demands. Functional performance (maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), cycling efficiency, 6-s peak cycling power) and delayed onset muscle soreness were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial. Blood samples collected at baseline, immediately pre- and post-trial, and at 1, 3, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial were analysed for indices of inflammation (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)), oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides), and muscle damage (creatine kinase). MVIC (P < 0.05) did not decline in the MC group (vs. PLA) across the 72-h post-trial period and economy (P < 0.05) was improved in the MC group at 24 h. IL-6 (P < 0.001) and hsCRP (P < 0.05) responses to the trial were attenuated with MC (vs. PLA). No other blood markers were significantly different between MC and PLA groups. The results of the study suggest that Montmorency cherry concentrate can be an efficacious functional food for accelerating recovery and reducing exercise-induced inflammation following strenuous cycling exercise.

  11. Landfill gas recovery: An analysis of results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, J. M.

    1982-02-01

    Aspects of landfill gas recovery including the range of gas recovery, production rates, corrosion, medium-Btu industrial applications, and conversion to electricity via an internal combustion engine were investigated. It is estimated that the landfill site studied is capable of producing more than 2.17 x 10 to the 13th power Btu's of gas per year for a period of over eight years.

  12. Enhanced oil recovery update

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.V

    1989-03-01

    Technology continues to grow in the realm of enhanced oil recovery. Since 1950 several processes have proven economic for oil recovery. Others are still in their infancy and must be custom designed for each reservoir. This paper gives a general overview of these processes. The author focuses on the latest technology and the outlook for enhanced oil recovery operations.

  13. What Is "No Recovery?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Thanatologists, as Balk recently commented (Balk, 2004), have been saying that there is no recovery from bereavement, or that we should not speak of bereavement as leading to a recovery. The term recovery has a high level of plasticity and can be shaped to fit diverse meanings, including contradictory meanings. We will sort our way through some of…

  14. Youth in Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Miranda, John; Williams, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Young people are entering long-term recovery probably in greater numbers than ever before. A key word here is "probably" because we know precious little about the phenomenon of young people who recover from alcohol and drug addition. This article is a preliminary exploration of youth in recovery. It reviews several types of recovery support…

  15. 24 CFR 902.75 - Referral to a Troubled Agency Recovery Center (TARC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Recovery Center (TARC). 902.75 Section 902.75 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... § 902.75 Referral to a Troubled Agency Recovery Center (TARC). (a) General. Upon a PHA's designation of... of the preliminary MOA. (d) Maximum recovery period—(1) Expiration of one-year recovery period....

  16. Periodic properties of the histaminergic system of the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Rozov, Stanislav V; Zant, Janneke C; Karlstedt, Kaj; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Panula, Pertti

    2014-01-01

    Brain histamine is involved in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle and alertness. Despite the widespread use of the mouse as an experimental model, the periodic properties of major markers of the mouse histaminergic system have not been comprehensively characterized. We analysed the daily levels of histamine and its first metabolite, 1-methylhistamine, in different brain structures of C57BL/6J and CBA/J mouse strains, and the mRNA level and activity of histidine decarboxylase and histamine-N-methyltransferase in C57BL/6J mice. In the C57BL/6J strain, histamine release, assessed by in vivo microdialysis, underwent prominent periodic changes. The main period was 24 h peaking during the activity period. Additional 8 h periods were also observed. The release was highly positively correlated with active wakefulness, as shown by electroencephalography. In both mouse strains, tissue histamine levels remained steady for 24 h in all structures except for the hypothalamus of CBA/J mice, where 24-h periodicity was observed. Brain tissue 1-methylhistamine levels in both strains reached their maxima in the periods of activity. The mRNA level of histidine decarboxylase in the tuberomamillary nucleus and the activities of histidine decarboxylase and histamine-N-methyltransferase in the striatum and cortex did not show a 24-h rhythm, whereas in the hypothalamus the activities of both enzymes had a 12-h periodicity. These results show that the activities of histamine-metabolizing enzymes are not under simple direct circadian regulation. The complex and non-uniform temporal patterns of the histaminergic system of the mouse brain suggest that histamine is strongly involved in the maintenance of active wakefulness.

  17. Correlation of brain levels of progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone with neurological recovery after traumatic brain injury in female mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Acaz-Fonseca, Estefania; Giatti, Silvia; Caruso, Donatella; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Melcangi, Roberto C; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of disability in humans. Neuroactive steroids, such as progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), are neuroprotective in TBI models. However in order to design potential neuroprotective strategies based on neuroactive steroids it is important to determine whether its brain levels are altered by TBI. In this study we have used a weight-drop model of TBI in young adult female mice to determine the levels of neuroactive steroids in the brain and plasma at 24h, 72 h and 2 weeks after injury. We have also analyzed whether the levels of neuroactive steroids after TBI correlated with the neurological score of the animals. TBI caused neurological deficit detectable at 24 and 72 h, which recovered by 2 weeks after injury. Brain levels of progesterone, tetrahydroprogesterone (THP), isopregnanolone and 17β-estradiol were decreased 24h, 72 h and 2 weeks after TBI. DHEA and brain testosterone levels presented a transient decrease at 24h after lesion. Brain levels of progesterone and DHEA showed a positive correlation with neurological recovery. Plasma analyses showed that progesterone was decreased 72 h after lesion but, in contrast with brain progesterone, its levels did not correlate with neurological deficit. These findings indicate that TBI alters the levels of neuroactive steroids in the brain with independence of its plasma levels and suggest that the pharmacological increase in the brain of the levels of progesterone and DHEA may result in the improvement of neurological recovery after TBI.

  18. Crystal structure of [Rb0.24(H2O)0.76]VO(H2O)(PO4), a new monoclinic variety in the series of layered vanadyl phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakubovich, O. V.; Yakovleva, E. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Dimitrova, O. V.

    2014-03-01

    The crystal structure of a new monoclinic variety of hydrous rubidium vanadyl phosphate [Rb0.24(H2O)0.76]VO(H2O)(PO4) doped with Al3+ ions is studied by X-ray ( R = 0.054) diffraction: a = 6.2655(4) Å, b = 6.2712(3) Å, c = 6.8569(5) Å, β = 107.805(7)°, space group P21/ m, Z = 2, and D x = 2.792 g/cm3. The new phase obtained by the hydrothermal synthesis in the V2O5-Rb2CO3-AlPO4-H2O system has a layer-type structure in which Rb atoms and water molecules are located between layers of vertexsharing [VO5(H2O)] octahedra and [PO4] tetrahedra. Rb intercalates based on VOPO4 · 2H2O are described by general formula [Rb x (H2O)1 - x ]V{1-/x V}V{/x IV}O(H2O)(PO4), where x ≤ 0.5, and the amount of reduced vanadium and interlayer water molecules is determined by the amount of introduced rubidium atoms.

  19. Effect of pH(24h), curing salts and muscle types on the oxidative stability, free amino acids profile and vitamin B2, B3 and B6 content of dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Gratacós-Cubarsí, M; Sárraga, C; Castellari, M; Valero, A; García Regueiro, J A; Arnau, J

    2013-12-01

    The effects of a curing salt composition (with and without nitrifying salts), and the pH at 24h postmortem (pH24>6.0, 5.5

  20. Analysis of Latvian familial melanoma patients shows novel variants in the noncoding regions of CDKN2A and that the CDK4 mutation R24H is a founder mutation.

    PubMed

    Veinalde, Rūta; Ozola, Aija; Azarjana, Kristīne; Molven, Anders; Akslen, Lars A; Doniņa, Simona; Proboka, Guna; Cēma, Ingrīda; Baginskis, Ainārs; Pjanova, Dace

    2013-06-01

    Hereditary cutaneous melanoma is associated with mutations in the high-risk CDKN2A gene in about 40% of melanoma-prone families. Mutations in the CDK4 gene are the cause in only a few pedigrees. In this study, we analyzed 20 Latvian familial melanoma probands and carried out a comprehensive analysis of CDKN2A including sequencing of its promoter/intronic regions and deletion screening. We also analyzed the critical second exon of the CDK4 gene. One novel intronic variant (IVS2+82C>T) of the CDKN2A gene and a small deletion (c.-20677_-20682delGTACGC) in its promoter region were found. Genotyping of the novel variants in larger melanoma and control groups indicated that the deletion increases the risk of melanoma (odds ratio=6.353, 95% confidence interval: 1.34-30.22, P=0.0168). The CDK4 gene analysis showed a Latvian melanoma family with the mutation R24H carried on the same haplotype as in two previously described Latvian CDK4-positive families. Our study suggests that the main risk gene in Latvian families with a strong family history of melanoma is CDK4 and that most of the other cases analyzed could be sporadic or associated with low-penetrance risk genes.

  1. Analysis of Latvian familial melanoma patients shows novel variants in the noncoding regions of CDKN2A and that the CDK4 mutation R24H is a founder mutation.

    PubMed

    Veinalde, Rūta; Ozola, Aija; Azarjana, Kristīne; Molven, Anders; Akslen, Lars A; Doniņa, Simona; Proboka, Guna; Cēma, Ingrīda; Baginskis, Ainārs; Pjanova, Dace

    2013-06-01

    Hereditary cutaneous melanoma is associated with mutations in the high-risk CDKN2A gene in about 40% of melanoma-prone families. Mutations in the CDK4 gene are the cause in only a few pedigrees. In this study, we analyzed 20 Latvian familial melanoma probands and carried out a comprehensive analysis of CDKN2A including sequencing of its promoter/intronic regions and deletion screening. We also analyzed the critical second exon of the CDK4 gene. One novel intronic variant (IVS2+82C>T) of the CDKN2A gene and a small deletion (c.-20677_-20682delGTACGC) in its promoter region were found. Genotyping of the novel variants in larger melanoma and control groups indicated that the deletion increases the risk of melanoma (odds ratio=6.353, 95% confidence interval: 1.34-30.22, P=0.0168). The CDK4 gene analysis showed a Latvian melanoma family with the mutation R24H carried on the same haplotype as in two previously described Latvian CDK4-positive families. Our study suggests that the main risk gene in Latvian families with a strong family history of melanoma is CDK4 and that most of the other cases analyzed could be sporadic or associated with low-penetrance risk genes. PMID:23546221

  2. Intrathecal morphine attenuates recovery of function after a spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hook, Michelle A; Moreno, Georgina; Woller, Sarah; Puga, Denise; Hoy, Kevin; Balden, Robyn; Grau, James W

    2009-05-01

    Prior work has shown that a high dose (20 mg/kg) of systemic morphine, required to produce significant analgesia in the acute phase of a contusion injury, undermines the long-term health of treated subjects and increases lesion size. Moreover, a single dose of systemic morphine in the early stage of injury (24 h post-injury) led to symptoms of neuropathic pain 3 weeks later, in the chronic phase. The present study examines the locus of the effects using intrathecal morphine administration. Subjects were treated with one of three doses (0, 30, or 90 microg) of intrathecal morphine 24 h after a moderate contusion injury. The 90-microg dose produced significant analgesia when subjects were exposed to noxious stimuli (thermal and incremented shock) below the level of injury. Yet, despite analgesic efficacy, intrathecal morphine significantly attenuated the recovery of locomotor function and increased lesion size rostral to the injury site. A single dose of 30 or 90 microg of intrathecal morphine also decreased weight gain, and more than doubled the incidence of mortality and autophagia when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Morphine is one of the most effective pharmacological agents for the treatment of neuropathic pain and, therefore, is indispensable for the spinally injured. Treatment can, however, adversely affect the recovery process. A morphine-induced attenuation of recovery may result from increases in immune cell activation and, subsequently, pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the contused spinal cord. PMID:19388818

  3. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, Daniel

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  4. Recovery and Identification of Anaerobes: a System Suitable for the Routine Clinical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Ellner, Paul D.; Granato, Paul A.; May, Carolyn B.

    1973-01-01

    A system for the isolation of anaerobes based upon the use of reducible solid media is described. Plates of reducible media prepared and stored aerobically were reduced before use by incubation in a GasPak jar for 24 h. Clinical specimens for culture were carefully selected. The value of Amies transport medium was confirmed. Selective and nonselective formulations of reducible media were used for primary isolation. Abbreviated identification schemes based in part on gas-liquid chromatography are presented. The suitability of this system for improving the recovery and identification of anaerobes in a routine clinical laboratory is documented. PMID:4588198

  5. Gait pattern in the early recovery period after stroke.

    PubMed

    De Quervain, I A; Simon, S R; Leurgans, S; Pease, W S; McAllister, D

    1996-10-01

    The gait patterns of eighteen patients who had had a single infarct due to obstruction of the middle cerebral artery were evaluated within one week after the patients had resumed independent walking and before a gait rehabilitation program had been initiated. Gait was analyzed with use of motion analysis, force-plate recordings, and dynamic surface electromyographic studies of the muscles of the lower extremities. The patterns of motion of the lower extremity on the hemiplegic side had a stronger association with the clinical severity of muscle weakness than with the degree of spasticity, balance control, or phasic muscle activity. There was a delay in the initiation of flexion of the hip during the pre-swing phase, and flexion of the hip and knee as well as dorsiflexion of the ankle progressed only slightly during the swing phase. During the stance phase, there was decreased extension of the hip that was related to decreased muscle effort and a coupling between flexion of the knee and dorsiflexion of the ankle. The abnormal patterns of motion altered the velocity, the length of the stride, the cadence, and all phases of the gait cycle. The duration of the pre-swing phase was prolonged for the patients who had the slowest gait velocities. There also were abnormal movements of the upper extremity, the trunk, the pelvis, and the lower extremity on the unaffected side in an effort to compensate for the decreased velocity on the hemiplegic side. As velocity improved, these abnormal movements decreased. Therefore, the goal of therapy should be to improve muscle strength and coordination on the hemiplegic side, especially during the pre-swing phase.

  6. Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy vs. Far-Infrared vs. Passive Modalities on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly-Trained Runners

    PubMed Central

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Bieuzen, François; Pournot, Hervé; Fournier, Jean; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities. PMID:22163272

  7. Nutritional status of elderly patients during recovery from chest infection and the role of nutritional supplementation assessed by a prospective randomized single-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Woo, J; Ho, S C; Mak, Y T; Law, L K; Cheung, A

    1994-01-01

    We examined changes in the nutritional status of elderly patients with chest infection for a period of 3 months after discharge from hospital, including the effects of nutritional supplementation on well-being and functional status as well as on nutritional indices. Eighty-one subjects admitted to an acute medical ward aged 65 years and over with chest infection were recruited consecutively, and randomized to receive supplement (500 ml of Ensure liquid daily) for 1 month, or no supplement, on discharge. Assessment at baseline, 1, 2 and 3 months included a questionnaire to determine health, mental and functional status, and anthropometric measurements. Biochemical nutritional status was assessed at baseline, 1 and 3 months, and dietary intake (24 h recall method) at 1 and 3 months. During recovery, both supplement and non-supplement groups showed improvement in various measures of well-being and biochemical status. In addition, the former group showed improvement in more anthropometric measurements, in thiamine and pyridoxine status, while the non-supplement group showed a lower level of functional ability after 3 months. Various measures of well-being and biochemical status of the water-soluble vitamins were better in the supplement groups. We conclude that nutritional supplementation may have a role in helping elderly patients to recover from chest infections.

  8. Curcumin effects on inflammation and performance recovery following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Davis, J Mark; Murphy, E Angela; Carmichael, Martin D; Zielinski, Mark R; Groschwitz, Claire M; Brown, Adrienne S; Gangemi, J David; Ghaffar, Abdul; Mayer, Eugene P

    2007-06-01

    Downhill running is associated with fiber damage, inflammation, delayed-onset muscle soreness, and various functional deficits. Curcumin, a constituent of the Indian spice turmeric has been investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity and may offset some of the damage and functional deficits associated with downhill running. This study examined the effects of curcumin on inflammation and recovery of running performance following downhill running in mice. Male mice were assigned to downhill placebo (Down-Plac), downhill curcumin (Down-Cur), uphill placebo (Up-Plac), or uphill curcumin (Up-Cur) groups and run on a treadmill at 22 m/min at -14% or +14% grade, for 150 min. At 48 h or 72 h after the up/downhill run, mice (experiment 1) underwent a treadmill performance run to fatigue. Another subset of mice was placed in voluntary activity wheel cages following the up/downhill run (experiment 2) and their voluntary activity (distance, time and peak speed) was recorded. Additional mice (experiment 3) were killed at 24 h and 48 h following the up/downhill run, and the soleus muscle was harvested for analysis of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha), and plasma was collected for creatine kinase analysis. Downhill running decreased both treadmill run time to fatigue (48 h and 72 h) and voluntary activity (24 h) (P < 0.05), and curcumin feedings offset these effects on running performance. Downhill running was also associated with an increase in inflammatory cytokines (24 h and 48 h) and creatine kinase (24 h) (P < 0.05) that were blunted by curcumin feedings. These results support the hypothesis that curcumin can reduce inflammation and offset some of the performance deficits associated with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.

  9. Rhythmicity, Recurrence, and Recovery of Flagellar Beating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Kirsty Y.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2014-12-01

    The eukaryotic flagellum beats with apparently unfailing periodicity, yet responds rapidly to stimuli. Like the human heartbeat, flagellar oscillations are now known to be noisy. Using the alga C. reinhardtii, we explore three aspects of nonuniform flagellar beating. We report the existence of rhythmicity, waveform noise peaking at transitions between power and recovery strokes, and fluctuations of interbeat intervals that are correlated and even recurrent, with memory extending to hundreds of beats. These features are altered qualitatively by physiological perturbations. Further, we quantify the recovery of periodic breaststroke beating from transient hydrodynamic forcing. These results will help constrain microscopic theories on the origins and regulation of flagellar beating.

  10. Rhythmicity, recurrence, and recovery of flagellar beating.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kirsty Y; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2014-12-01

    The eukaryotic flagellum beats with apparently unfailing periodicity, yet responds rapidly to stimuli. Like the human heartbeat, flagellar oscillations are now known to be noisy. Using the alga C. reinhardtii, we explore three aspects of nonuniform flagellar beating. We report the existence of rhythmicity, waveform noise peaking at transitions between power and recovery strokes, and fluctuations of interbeat intervals that are correlated and even recurrent, with memory extending to hundreds of beats. These features are altered qualitatively by physiological perturbations. Further, we quantify the recovery of periodic breaststroke beating from transient hydrodynamic forcing. These results will help constrain microscopic theories on the origins and regulation of flagellar beating.

  11. Recovery from ultraviolet tight-induced depression of ribosomal RNA synthesis in normal human, xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome cells.

    PubMed

    Ayaki, H; Hara, R; Ikenaga, M

    1996-06-01

    The rate of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis was analyzed at different times after ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation in normal human, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS) cells. In normal cells, the rate of rRNA synthesis, as measured by the incorporation of 3H-uridine into 18S and 28S rRNAs, decreased immediately after UV irradiation to about half of that of unirradiated cells, and then recovered significantly at 24 h after UV. However, the rate of synthesis continued to decrease during post-UV incubation in XP cells belonging to groups A, D, E, F and G, as well as in CS cells of groups A and B. In contrast, group C XP cells showed a slight recovery at 24 h after UV, suggesting that they have the capacity to repair UV lesions in rRNA genes. PMID:8840721

  12. Thresholds for impaired species recovery

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on small and declining populations dominate research in conservation biology. This emphasis reflects two overarching frameworks: the small-population paradigm focuses on correlates of increased extinction probability; the declining-population paradigm directs attention to the causes and consequences of depletion. Neither, however, particularly informs research on the determinants, rate or uncertainty of population increase. By contrast, Allee effects (positive associations between population size and realized per capita population growth rate, rrealized, a metric of average individual fitness) offer a theoretical and empirical basis for identifying numerical and temporal thresholds at which recovery is unlikely or uncertain. Following a critique of studies on Allee effects, I quantify population-size minima and subsequent trajectories of marine fishes that have and have not recovered following threat mitigation. The data suggest that threat amelioration, albeit necessary, can be insufficient to effect recovery for populations depleted to less than 10% of maximum abundance (Nmax), especially when they remain depleted for lengthy periods of time. Comparing terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, life-history analyses suggest that population-size thresholds for impaired recovery are likely to be comparatively low for marine fishes but high for marine mammals. Articulation of a ‘recovering population paradigm’ would seem warranted. It might stimulate concerted efforts to identify generic impaired recovery thresholds across species. It might also serve to reduce the confusion of terminology, and the conflation of causes and consequences with patterns currently evident in the literature on Allee effects, thus strengthening communication among researchers and enhancing the practical utility of recovery-oriented research to conservation practitioners and resource managers. PMID:26213739

  13. Recovery technologies for building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karu, Veiko; Nurme, Martin; Valgma, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Mining industry provides building materials for construction. Civil engineers have settled the quality parameters for construction materials. When we produce high quality building materials from carbonate rock (limestone, dolostone), then the estimated waste share is 25% to 30%, depending on crushing principles and rock quality. The challenge is to find suitable technology for waste recovery. During international mining waste related cooperation project MIN-NOVATION (www.min-novation.eu), partners mapped possibilities for waste recovery in mining industry and pointed out good examples and case studies. One example from Estonia showed that when we produce limestone aggregate, then we produce up to 30% waste material (fines with size 0-4mm). This waste material we can see as secondary raw material for building materials. Recovery technology for this fine grained material has been achieved with CDE separation plant. During the process the plant washes out minus 63 micron material from the limestone fines. This technology allows us to use 92% of all limestone reserves. By-product from 63 microns to 4 mm we can use as filler in concrete or as fine limestone aggregate for building or building materials. MIN-NOVATION project partners also established four pilot stations to study other mineral waste recovery technologies and solutions. Main aims on this research are to find the technology for recovery of mineral wastes and usage for new by-products from mineral mining waste. Before industrial production, testing period or case studies are needed. This research is part of the study of Sustainable and environmentally acceptable Oil shale mining No. 3.2.0501.11-0025 http://mi.ttu.ee/etp and the project B36 Extraction and processing of rock with selective methods - http://mi.ttu.ee/separation; http://mi.ttu.ee/miningwaste/

  14. Thresholds for impaired species recovery.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-22

    Studies on small and declining populations dominate research in conservation biology. This emphasis reflects two overarching frameworks: the small-population paradigm focuses on correlates of increased extinction probability; the declining-population paradigm directs attention to the causes and consequences of depletion. Neither, however, particularly informs research on the determinants, rate or uncertainty of population increase. By contrast, Allee effects (positive associations between population size and realized per capita population growth rate, r(realized), a metric of average individual fitness) offer a theoretical and empirical basis for identifying numerical and temporal thresholds at which recovery is unlikely or uncertain. Following a critique of studies on Allee effects, I quantify population-size minima and subsequent trajectories of marine fishes that have and have not recovered following threat mitigation. The data suggest that threat amelioration, albeit necessary, can be insufficient to effect recovery for populations depleted to less than 10% of maximum abundance (N(max)), especially when they remain depleted for lengthy periods of time. Comparing terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, life-history analyses suggest that population-size thresholds for impaired recovery are likely to be comparatively low for marine fishes but high for marine mammals.Articulation of a 'recovering population paradigm' would seem warranted. It might stimulate concerted efforts to identify generic impaired recovery thresholds across species. It might also serve to reduce the confusion of terminology, and the conflation of causes and consequences with patterns currently evident in the literature on Allee effects, thus strengthening communication among researchers and enhancing the practical utility of recovery-oriented research to conservation practitioners and resource managers. PMID:26213739

  15. Recovery of neurofilament following early monocular deprivation

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Timothy P.; Kutcher, Matthew R.; Mitchell, Donald E.; Duffy, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal development of the mammalian geniculostriate visual pathway is partly guided by visually driven activity. Disruption of normal visual input during certain critical periods can alter the structure of neurons, as well as their connections and functional properties. Within the layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), a brief early period of monocular deprivation can alter the structure and soma size of neurons within deprived-eye-receiving layers. This modification of structure is accompanied by a marked reduction in labeling for neurofilament protein, a principle component of the stable cytoskeleton. This study examined the extent of neurofilament recovery in monocularly deprived cats that either had their deprived eye opened (binocular recovery), or had the deprivation reversed to the fellow eye (reverse occlusion). The loss of neurofilament and the reduction of soma size caused by monocular deprivation were ameliorated equally and substantially in both recovery conditions after 8 days. The degree to which this recovery was dependent on visually driven activity was examined by placing monocularly deprived animals in complete darkness. Though monocularly deprived animals placed in darkness showed recovery of soma size in deprived layers, the manipulation catalyzed a loss of neurofilament labeling that extended to non-deprived layers as well. Overall, these results indicate that both recovery of soma size and neurofilament labeling is achieved by removal of the competitive disadvantage of the deprived eye. However, while the former occurred even in the absence of visually driven activity, recovery of neurofilament did not. The finding that a period of darkness produced an overall loss of neurofilament throughout the dLGN suggests that this experiential manipulation may cause the visual pathways to revert to an earlier more plastic developmental stage. It is possible that short periods of darkness could be incorporated as a component of

  16. Intermediate water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

  17. Investigation of Leakage Current Mechanisms in La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC MOS Capacitors with Varied SiO2 Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yucheng; Jia, Renxu; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Chengzhan; Zhang, Yuming

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the material and electrical properties of La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors are systematically characterized. Thermal oxidization SiO2 with varying thickness (0 nm, 3.36 nm, 5 nm, 8 nm, and 30 nm) were coated with La2O3 using atomic layer deposition on n-type 4H-SiC. The stacking oxides were measured using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the MOS capacitors were measured by capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements. The results demonstrate that the main gate current leakage mechanisms are dependent on the thickness of the SiO2 oxide under the applied electric field. The primary mechanism for current leakage from the La2O3/4H-SiC MOS capacitor follows the Schottky emission mechanism due to its low conduction band offset. In contrast, the current leakage mechanism for the capacitor with a 3.36 nm SiO2 layer follows the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism on account of its high trap charge density in the gate dielectric and at the interface. When the thickness of the SiO2 layer increases to 8 nm, lower leakage current is observed by reason of the low trap charge density and high conduction band offset when E ≤ 5 MV/cm. As the electric field strength increases to 5 MV/cm and 5.88 MV/cm (30 nm SiO2: 4.8 MV/cm), the main current leakage mechanism changes to the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism, which indicates that the La2O3/SiO2 stacking structure can improve the properties of MOS capacitors.

  18. Investigation of Leakage Current Mechanisms in La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC MOS Capacitors with Varied SiO2 Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yucheng; Jia, Renxu; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Chengzhan; Zhang, Yuming

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the material and electrical properties of La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors are systematically characterized. Thermal oxidization SiO2 with varying thickness (0 nm, 3.36 nm, 5 nm, 8 nm, and 30 nm) were coated with La2O3 using atomic layer deposition on n-type 4H-SiC. The stacking oxides were measured using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the MOS capacitors were measured by capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements. The results demonstrate that the main gate current leakage mechanisms are dependent on the thickness of the SiO2 oxide under the applied electric field. The primary mechanism for current leakage from the La2O3/4H-SiC MOS capacitor follows the Schottky emission mechanism due to its low conduction band offset. In contrast, the current leakage mechanism for the capacitor with a 3.36 nm SiO2 layer follows the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism on account of its high trap charge density in the gate dielectric and at the interface. When the thickness of the SiO2 layer increases to 8 nm, lower leakage current is observed by reason of the low trap charge density and high conduction band offset when E ≤ 5 MV/cm. As the electric field strength increases to 5 MV/cm and 5.88 MV/cm (30 nm SiO2: 4.8 MV/cm), the main current leakage mechanism changes to the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism, which indicates that the La2O3/SiO2 stacking structure can improve the properties of MOS capacitors.

  19. Children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-h dietary recalls): conventional and reporting-error-sensitive measures show inconsistent accuracy results for retention interval and breakfast location.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Guinn, Caroline H; Smith, Albert F; Hitchcock, David B; Royer, Julie A; Puryear, Megan P; Collins, Kathleen L; Smith, Alyssa L

    2016-04-14

    Validation-study data were analysed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on the accuracy of fourth-grade children's reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-h recalls), and the accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly selected fourth-grade children at ten schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and were interviewed under one of eight conditions created by crossing two RIs ('short'--prior-24-hour recall obtained in the afternoon and 'long'--previous-day recall obtained in the morning) with four prompts ('forward'--distant to recent, 'meal name'--breakfast, etc., 'open'--no instructions, and 'reverse'--recent to distant). Each condition had sixty children (half were girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure--report rate--and reporting-error-sensitive measures--correspondence rate and inflation ratio--were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio--but not report rate--showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short RI than with the long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than for cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than for breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select a short RI to maximise accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended. PMID

  20. Daily expression patterns for mRNAs of GH, PRL, SL, IGF-I and IGF-II in juvenile rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, during 24-h light and dark cycles.

    PubMed

    Ayson, Felix G; Takemura, Akihiro

    2006-12-01

    Most animals respond to changes in the external environment in a rhythmic fashion. In teleost fishes, daily rhythms are observed in plasma concentrations of some hormones but it is not clear whether these rhythms are exogenous or are entrained by predictable cues. We investigated whether the expression patterns for the mRNAs of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL) in the pituitary gland, and insulin-like growth factor-I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) in the liver, follow a daily rhythm when juvenile rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) are reared under a normal 24-h light and dark cycle (LD), and when they are exposed to either continuous light (LL) or darkness (DD). Hormone mRNA levels were determined by real time PCR. Under LD conditions, GH mRNA expression in the pituitary was significantly lower during the light phase than during the dark phase suggesting a diurnal rhythm of expression. The rhythm disappeared when fish were exposed to LL or DD conditions. PRL mRNA expression pattern was irregular in all 3 conditions. Very low levels of SL mRNA were observed during the mid day under LD conditions. The expression pattern of SL mRNA became irregular under LL and DD conditions. No pattern could be observed in the expression profile of IGF-I and II mRNA in the liver during LD and LL conditions but a single peak in mRNA level was observed under DD conditions in both IGF-I and II. The results indicate that except for GH, the daily expression pattern for the mRNAs of the hormones examined do not seem to follow a rhythm according to light and dark cycles.

  1. Apollo Recovery Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Describe the organization of recovery force command and control and landing areas; b) Describe the function and timeline use of the Earth Landing System (ELS); c) Describe Stable 1 vs Stable 2 landing configurations and the function of the Command Module Uprighting System; d) Explain the activities of the helicopter and swimmer teams in egress and recovery of the crew; e)Explain the activities of the swimmer teams and primary recovery ship in recovery of the Command Module; and f) Describe several landing incidents that occurred during Apollo.

  2. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits.

    PubMed

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-13

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR.

  3. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits.

    PubMed

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-13

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR. PMID:24298076

  4. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits

    PubMed Central

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR. PMID:24298076

  5. Recovery After Prolonged Bed-Rest Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Quach, David T.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery data were analyzed from normal healthy test subjects maintained in the horizontal or head-down body position in well-controlled bed rest (BR) studies in which adherence to the well-designed protocol was monitored. Because recovery data were almost always of secondary importance to the data collected during the BR period, there was little consistency in the recovery experimental designs regarding control factors (e.g., diet or exercise), duration, or timing of data collection. Thus, only about half of the BR studies that provided appropriate data were analyzed here. These recovery data were sorted into two groups: those from BR protocols of less than 37 days, and those from protocols greater than 36 days. There was great disparity in the unchanged responses at the end of BR in these two groups. Likewise with the variables that required more than 40 days for recovery; for example, some immune variables required more than 180 days. Knowledge of the recovery process after BR in healthy people should assist rehabilitation workers in differentiating "healthy" BR recovery responses from those of the infirmity of sick or injured patients; this should result in more appropriate and efficient health care.

  6. Lessons learned from a school for stroke recovery.

    PubMed

    Roman, Marian W

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a multiple case study tracing the long-term (3-10 years post event) recovery patterns of 8 stroke survivors who had participated in an unusually enriched recovery environment for at least 2 years. Data sources included extended interviews as well as archival records from that period. Shared aspects across cases included the following: (a) the singular importance of this social educational environment to their respective recoveries, (b) extended grief and new anxiety problems co-occurring with recovery during the first years, and (c) shared temporal patterns of recovery trajectory, including the multi-year duration of functional improvement. Findings are discussed within the context of recent research in mental health, adult education, and neuroscience. Recovery models that embrace the dynamic interplay of real-life environments, events, and goals situated in an individualized yet social context suggest the potential for an integrated recovery paradigm within the rehabilitation sciences.

  7. Tracing recovery from acidification in the western Norwegian Nausta watershed.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Godtfred A; Heegaard, Einar; Fjellheim, Arne; Raddum, Gunnar G

    2003-04-01

    A novel method, redundancy analysis (RDA), has been used to examine whether chemical recovery from acidification in the western Norwegian Nausta watershed produces detectable recovery within the community structure of the macro-zoobenthos. The RDA results have been compared with measures of recovery based on the changes detected using highly specialized and regionally defined biological acidity indices. We found that the beginning of biological recovery in the Nausta watershed was recognizable during the period 1989-1998. Recovery occurred in the upper reaches and in the tributaries. The multivariate approach proved to complement the acidity indices approach, and much biological information can be gained by their combined use. The RDA method is conservative, i.e. does not overestimate biological recovery, and it is not geographically constrained as are the acidity indices. We also found that seasonal climatic factors strongly influence the benthic community, and may confound the detection of the biological recovery process.

  8. Energy recovery injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, V.; Petrov, V. M.; Atkinson, T.; Matveenko, A.

    2016-10-01

    This article presents a novel design for a superconducting rf electron injector that incorporates energy recovery. This concept relaxes the demands of high power input couplers, improves essential beam parameters and energy efficiency and reduces the overall cost of a compact energy recovery linac machine.

  9. Does short-term potassium fertilization improve recovery from drought stress in laurel?

    PubMed

    Oddo, Elisabetta; Inzerillo, Simone; Grisafi, Francesca; Sajeva, Maurizio; Salleo, Sebastiano; Nardini, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Xylem hydraulic conductance varies in response to changes in sap solute content, and in particular of potassium (K(+)) ion concentration. This phenomenon, known as the 'ionic effect', is enhanced in embolized stems, where it can compensate for cavitation-induced loss of hydraulic conductance. Previous studies have shown that in well-watered laurel plants (Laurus nobilis L.), potassium concentration of the xylem sap and plant hydraulic conductance increased 24 h after fertilization with KCl. The aim of this work was to test whether water-stressed laurel plants, grown under low potassium availability, could recover earlier from stress when irrigated with a KCl solution instead of potassium-free water. Two-year-old potted laurel seedlings were subjected to water stress by suspending irrigation until leaf conductance to water vapour (g(L)) dropped to ∼30% of its initial value and leaf water potential (ψ(L)) reached the turgor loss point (ψ(TLP)). Plants were then irrigated either with water or with 25 mM KCl and monitored for water status, gas exchange and plant hydraulics recovery at 3, 6 and 24 h after irrigation. No significant differences were found between the two experimental groups in terms of ψ(L), g(L), plant transpiration, plant hydraulic conductance or leaf-specific shoot hydraulic conductivity. Analysis of xylem sap potassium concentration showed that there were no significant differences between treatments, and potassium levels were similar to those of potassium-starved but well-watered plants. In conclusion, potassium uptake from the soil solution and/or potassium release to the xylem appeared to be impaired in water-stressed plants, at least up to 24 h after relief from water stress, so that fertilization after the onset of stress did not result in any short-term advantage for recovery from drought. PMID:24488799

  10. Temporally chimeric mice reveal flexibility of circadian period-setting in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Smyllie, Nicola J.; Chesham, Johanna E.; Hamnett, Ryan; Maywood, Elizabeth S.; Hastings, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the master circadian clock controlling daily behavior in mammals. It consists of a heterogeneous network of neurons, in which cell-autonomous molecular feedback loops determine the period and amplitude of circadian oscillations of individual cells. In contrast, circuit-level properties of coherence, synchrony, and ensemble period are determined by intercellular signals and are embodied in a circadian wave of gene expression that progresses daily across the SCN. How cell-autonomous and circuit-level mechanisms interact in timekeeping is poorly understood. To explore this interaction, we used intersectional genetics to create temporally chimeric mice with SCN containing dopamine 1a receptor (Drd1a) cells with an intrinsic period of 24 h alongside non-Drd1a cells with 20-h clocks. Recording of circadian behavior in vivo alongside cellular molecular pacemaking in SCN slices in vitro demonstrated that such chimeric circuits form robust and resilient circadian clocks. It also showed that the computation of ensemble period is nonlinear. Moreover, the chimeric circuit sustained a wave of gene expression comparable to that of nonchimeric SCN, demonstrating that this circuit-level property is independent of differences in cell-intrinsic periods. The relative dominance of 24-h Drd1a and 20-h non-Drd1a neurons in setting ensemble period could be switched by exposure to resonant or nonresonant 24-h or 20-h lighting cycles. The chimeric circuit therefore reveals unanticipated principles of circuit-level operation underlying the emergent plasticity, resilience, and robustness of the SCN clock. The spontaneous and light-driven flexibility of period observed in chimeric mice provides a new perspective on the concept of SCN pacemaker cells. PMID:26966234

  11. Temporally chimeric mice reveal flexibility of circadian period-setting in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Smyllie, Nicola J; Chesham, Johanna E; Hamnett, Ryan; Maywood, Elizabeth S; Hastings, Michael H

    2016-03-29

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the master circadian clock controlling daily behavior in mammals. It consists of a heterogeneous network of neurons, in which cell-autonomous molecular feedback loops determine the period and amplitude of circadian oscillations of individual cells. In contrast, circuit-level properties of coherence, synchrony, and ensemble period are determined by intercellular signals and are embodied in a circadian wave of gene expression that progresses daily across the SCN. How cell-autonomous and circuit-level mechanisms interact in timekeeping is poorly understood. To explore this interaction, we used intersectional genetics to create temporally chimeric mice with SCN containing dopamine 1a receptor (Drd1a) cells with an intrinsic period of 24 h alongside non-Drd1a cells with 20-h clocks. Recording of circadian behavior in vivo alongside cellular molecular pacemaking in SCN slices in vitro demonstrated that such chimeric circuits form robust and resilient circadian clocks. It also showed that the computation of ensemble period is nonlinear. Moreover, the chimeric circuit sustained a wave of gene expression comparable to that of nonchimeric SCN, demonstrating that this circuit-level property is independent of differences in cell-intrinsic periods. The relative dominance of 24-h Drd1a and 20-h non-Drd1a neurons in setting ensemble period could be switched by exposure to resonant or nonresonant 24-h or 20-h lighting cycles. The chimeric circuit therefore reveals unanticipated principles of circuit-level operation underlying the emergent plasticity, resilience, and robustness of the SCN clock. The spontaneous and light-driven flexibility of period observed in chimeric mice provides a new perspective on the concept of SCN pacemaker cells. PMID:26966234

  12. Stress and Recovery during Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Michel

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 60-day head-down tilt long-term bed rest (HDT) on stress and recovery in sixteen healthy female volunteers during the WISE-2005 study (Women International Space Simulation for Exploration). Participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise group (Exe) that followed a training program combining resistive and aerobic exercises, or to a no-exercise control group (Ctl). Psychological states were assessed using the Rest-Q, a validated questionnaire based on stress-recovery responses. A longitudinal analysis revealed significant changes in the general and specific stress scales for all participants throughout the experiment with a critical stage from supine to standing posture leading to a significant decrease in physical recovery. During HDT, Exe reported higher scores in stress subscales, as well as lower recovery scores compared to the Ctl. During the post HDT ambulatory recovery period, the exercisers still reported higher scores than the non-exercisers on the Lack of energy stress related scale, along with lower scores in general well-being and personal accomplishment. The present findings show that simulated weightlessness such as HDT may induce psychological stress and lead to subsequent alterations in perceived recovery. Exercise did not reduce HDT impaired effects on stress and recovery states. In the perspective of spaceflights of long-duration such as the future missions to Mars, there is a need for additional experiments to further investigate spaceflight-induced changes of stress and recovery parameters and the effects of exercise on these parameters. Further studies might determine and analyze the psychological factors involved, but also how to intervene concerning these factors with efficient psychological preparation which, although not yet fully investigated, may reduce stress, promote recovery and support adaptive responses to such extreme environments.

  13. Toxicity and recovery studies of two ayurvedic preparations of iron.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, P K; Prajapati, P K; Shukla, V J; Ravishankar, B; Choudhary, A K

    2009-12-01

    Lauha Bhasma and Mandura Bhasma in 55 mg/kg dose (5 times the therapeutic effective dose) for 60 days exhibited no serious toxic effects in Charles Foster albino rats. Both the drugs showed significant recovery from chronic toxic effect after 45 days of recovery period. PMID:20329703

  14. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Capital Recovery Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Two papers consider the capital recovery difficulties of telephone companies in the current deregulatory environment. The first, "Capital Recovery in the Transition Period" (Gail Garfield Schwartz, New York State Public Service Commission) describes the process determining depreciation in both regulated and deregulated environments, and argues…

  15. Soil temperature extrema recovery rates after precipitation cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    From a one dimensional view of temperature alone variations at the Earth's surface manifest themselves in two cyclic patterns of diurnal and annual periods, due principally to the effects of diurnal and seasonal changes in solar heating as well as gains and losses of available moisture. Beside these two well known cyclic patterns, a third cycle has been identified which occurs in values of diurnal maxima and minima soil temperature extrema at 10 cm depth usually over a mesoscale period of roughly 3 to 14 days. This mesoscale period cycle starts with precipitation cooling of soil and is followed by a power curve temperature recovery. The temperature recovery clearly depends on solar heating of the soil with an increased soil moisture content from precipitation combined with evaporation cooling at soil temperatures lowered by precipitation cooling, but is quite regular and universal for vastly different geographical locations, and soil types and structures. The regularity of the power curve recovery allows a predictive model approach over the recovery period. Multivariable linear regression models alloy predictions of both the power of the temperature recovery curve as well as the total temperature recovery amplitude of the mesoscale temperature recovery, from data available one day after the temperature recovery begins.

  16. Delayed intramuscular human neurotrophin-3 improves recovery in adult and elderly rats after stroke.

    PubMed

    Duricki, Denise A; Hutson, Thomas H; Kathe, Claudia; Soleman, Sara; Gonzalez-Carter, Daniel; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Shine, H David; Chen, Qin; Wood, Tobias C; Bernanos, Michel; Cash, Diana; Williams, Steven C R; Gage, Fred H; Moon, Lawrence D F

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a therapy that reverses disability after stroke when initiated in a time frame suitable for the majority of new victims. We show here that intramuscular delivery of neurotrophin-3 (NT3, encoded by NTF3) can induce sensorimotor recovery when treatment is initiated 24 h after stroke. Specifically, in two randomized, blinded preclinical trials, we show improved sensory and locomotor function in adult (6 months) and elderly (18 months) rats treated 24 h following cortical ischaemic stroke with human NT3 delivered using a clinically approved serotype of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV1). Importantly, AAV1-hNT3 was given in a clinically-feasible timeframe using a straightforward, targeted route (injections into disabled forelimb muscles). Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed that recovery was not due to neuroprotection, as expected given the delayed treatment. Rather, treatment caused corticospinal axons from the less affected hemisphere to sprout in the spinal cord. This treatment is the first gene therapy that reverses disability after stroke when administered intramuscularly in an elderly body. Importantly, phase I and II clinical trials by others show that repeated, peripherally administered high doses of recombinant NT3 are safe and well tolerated in humans with other conditions. This paves the way for NT3 as a therapy for stroke.

  17. Delayed intramuscular human neurotrophin-3 improves recovery in adult and elderly rats after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Duricki, Denise A.; Hutson, Thomas H.; Kathe, Claudia; Soleman, Sara; Gonzalez-Carter, Daniel; Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Shine, H. David; Chen, Qin; Wood, Tobias C.; Bernanos, Michel; Cash, Diana; Williams, Steven C. R.; Gage, Fred H.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a therapy that reverses disability after stroke when initiated in a time frame suitable for the majority of new victims. We show here that intramuscular delivery of neurotrophin-3 (NT3, encoded by NTF3) can induce sensorimotor recovery when treatment is initiated 24 h after stroke. Specifically, in two randomized, blinded preclinical trials, we show improved sensory and locomotor function in adult (6 months) and elderly (18 months) rats treated 24 h following cortical ischaemic stroke with human NT3 delivered using a clinically approved serotype of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV1). Importantly, AAV1-hNT3 was given in a clinically-feasible timeframe using a straightforward, targeted route (injections into disabled forelimb muscles). Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed that recovery was not due to neuroprotection, as expected given the delayed treatment. Rather, treatment caused corticospinal axons from the less affected hemisphere to sprout in the spinal cord. This treatment is the first gene therapy that reverses disability after stroke when administered intramuscularly in an elderly body. Importantly, phase I and II clinical trials by others show that repeated, peripherally administered high doses of recombinant NT3 are safe and well tolerated in humans with other conditions. This paves the way for NT3 as a therapy for stroke. PMID:26614754

  18. Effect of the period of resting in elite judo athletes: hematological indices and copper/ zinc-dependent antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely C; de Oliveira, Cyntia F; Portella, Emilson S; Oliveira, Astrogildo V; Donangelo, Carmen M

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the resting period on hematological and copper-zinc-dependent antioxidant indices in Brazilian elite judo athletes (n = 7). Venous blood samples were collected after 24-h and 5-d periods of resting following a competition, with an interval of 30 d between collections. Two months prior to and during the study, each athlete received an individualized adequate diet. Body composition was determined at both study periods. The following were analyzed: in whole blood, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width, and white cell count; in plasma, zinc, copper, iron, ceruloplasmin, and total iron-binding capacity; in erythrocytes, metallothionein, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, and osmotic fragility. Dietary intake and body composition did not affect the biochemical measurements. A significant reduction in ceruloplasmin and superoxide dismutase activity was found after 5 d compared to 24 h of resting. A significant correlation between erythrocyte metallothionein and red cell distribution width was observed after 24 h of resting (r = -0.83, p = 0.02), whereas positive correlations of metallothionein with hemoglobin, red cell count, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed after 5 d of resting (r >/= 0.76, p period favors homeostatic adjustments in the erythrocyte population and in the copper/zinc-dependent antioxidant system in elite judo athletes. PMID:16286676

  19. Recovery of gait after quadriceps muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Beretta, Stephannie Spiandor; Pereira, Vinicius A I; Simieli, Lucas; Orcioli-Silva, Diego; dos Santos, Paulo Cezar Rocha; van Dieën, Jaap H; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of recovery time after quadriceps muscle fatigue on gait in young adults. Forty young adults (20-40 years old) performed three 8-m gait trials at preferred velocity before and after muscle fatigue, and after 5, 10 and 20min of passive rest. In addition, at each time point, two maximal isometric voluntary contractions were preformed. Muscle fatigue was induced by repeated sit-to-stand transfers until task failure. Spatio-temporal, kinetic and muscle activity parameters, measured in the central stride of each trial, were analyzed. Data were compared between before and after the muscle fatigue protocol and after the recovery periods by one-way repeated measures ANOVA. The voluntary force was decreased after the fatigue protocol (p<0.001) and after 5, 10 and 20min of recovery compared to before the fatigue protocol. Step width (p<0.001) and RMS of biceps femoris (p<0.05) were increased immediately after the fatigue protocol and remained increased after the recovery periods. In addition, stride duration was decreased immediately after the fatigue protocol compared to before and to after 10 and 20min of rest (p<0.001). The anterior-posterior propulsive impulse was also decreased after the fatigue protocol (p<0.001) and remained low after 5, 10 and 20min of rest. We conclude that 20min is not enough to see full recovery of gait after exhaustive quadriceps muscle fatigue.

  20. Cerebrolysin enhances cognitive recovery of mild traumatic brain injury patients: double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chung; Wei, Sung-Tai; Tsaia, Shiu-Chiu; Chen, Xian-Xiu; Cho, Der-Yang

    2013-12-01

    In adults, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) frequently results in impairments of cognitive functions which would lead to psychological consequences in the future. Cerebrolysin is a nootropic drug, and can significantly improve cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease and stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Cerebrolysin therapy enhances cognitive recovery for mild traumatic brain injury patients using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized phase II pilot study. Patients having head injury within 24 h sent to our hospital were screened and recruited if patients were alert and conscious, and had intracranial contusion haemorrhage. From July 2009 to June 2010, totally, thirty-two patients were recruited in the double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and randomized study. Patients were randomized to receive Cerebrolysin (Group A, once daily intravenous infusion of 30 mL Cerebrolysin over a 60-min period for 5 days) or placebo (Group B, same dosage and administration of normal saline as Group A). The primary outcome measures were differences of cognitive function including Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) scores between baseline and week 1, between baseline and week 4, and between baseline and week 12. Thirty-two patients completed the trial. For Group A, the CASI score difference between baseline and week 12 was 21.0 ± 20.4, a significantly greater change than that of Group B (7.6 ± 12.1) (p = 0.0461). Besides, drawing function (one of the domains of CASI; p = 0.0066) on week 4 and both drawing function (p = 0.0472) and long-term memory (one of the domains of CASI; p = 0.0256) on week 12 were also found to be significantly improved in the patients receiving Cerebrolysin treatment. Our results suggest that Cerebrolysin improves the cognitive function of the MTBI in patients at 3rd month after injury, especially for long-term memory and drawing function.

  1. Solvent recycle/recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  2. Recovery of Elemental Palladium by Shewanella putrefaciens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasaka, S.; Xia, X.; Sawada, K.; Enokida, Y.; Yamamoto, I.; Ohnuki, T.

    2006-12-01

    Microbial reduction of metals plays an important role in environmental behavior and provides a technique for the recovery of metals from industrial wastewater. Recently, demand for platinum group metals (PGMs) increases by their catalytic properties. The extreme rarity of PGMs have led to a growing interest in their recovery. Palladium, one of PGMs, has different oxidation states of Pd(II) and Pd(0). The oxidized form of Pd(II) is soluble, while the reduced form of Pd(0) is insoluble. In this study, microbial reduction of palladium by Fe(III)- reducing bacterium, Shewanella putrefaceins was conducted. This bacterium is known to be capable of reducing metals, such as Mn(IV), U(VI), or Tc(VII) with organic C or H2 as an electron donor. In order to investigate the potential of S. putrefaciens to reduce Pd(II) in solution, resting cells or heat-killed cells were suspended under anaerobic conditions with lactate or H2 as an electron donor. The cells of S. putrefaciens (NBRC3908) were grown in aerobic medium, harvested by centrifugation, and then washed with 25 mmol/dm3 HEPES and 100 mmol/dm3 NaCl (HEPES-NaCl) solution (pH 7.0). The heat-killed cells were autoclaved for 20 min at 121 degrees C. The cell suspension (21.5 mg in dry weight) was resuspended in the HEPES-NaCl solution which contained 1.0 mmol/dm3 Na2PdCl4 (Wako Pure chemical Industries, Ltd). The suspensions were bubbled with N2 for 15 min before 10 mmol/dm3 lactate or 4.8 v/v% H2 was added. The suspensions were then incubated at 30 degrees C. Redox potential (Eh) and pH of the solutions were measured in an inert glove box with Ar gas. Concentration of Pd(II) was measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). Deposited Pd and cells were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Approximately 86% of Pd(II) of the initial concentration was removed from solution by the resting cells within 24 h when

  3. Sleep deprivation worsens inflammation and delays recovery in a mouse model of colitis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yueming; Preuss, Fabian; Turek, Fred W.; Jakate, Shriram; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim We recently showed that patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) report significantly more sleep disturbances. To determine whether disrupted sleep can affect the severity of inflammation and the course of IBD, we used an animal model of colonic inflammation to determine the effects of acute and chronic intermittent sleep deprivation on the severity of colonic inflammation and tissue damage in colitis and recovery from this damage. Methods Acute sleep deprivation (ASD) consisted of 24 h of forced locomotor activity in a mechanical wheel rotating at a constant speed. Chronic intermittent sleep deprivation (CISD) consisted of an acute sleep deprivation episode, followed by additional sleep deprivation periods in the wheel for 6 h every other day throughout the 10 day study period. To induce colitis, mice were given 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in their daily drinking water for 7 days. The development and severity of colitis were monitored by measuring weight loss and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity daily and colon histology scores 10 days after initiation of colitis. Results ASD or CISD did not cause colonic inflammation in vehicle-treated mice. Changes in daily body weight, tissue MPO levels and colon histopathology score were similar between mice that were sleep deprived and controls. Daily DSS ingestion caused colitis in mice. ASD worsened colonic inflammation: tissue MPO levels in ASD/DSS-treated mice were significantly higher than in DSS-treated mice that were not sleep deprived. However, the worsening of colonic inflammation by ASD was not enough to exacerbate clinical manifestations of colitis such as weight loss. In contrast, the deleterious effects of CISD were severe enough to cause worsening of histological and clinical manifestations of colitis. The deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on severity of colitis appeared to be due to both increased colonic inflammation and a decrease in the ability of mice to recover from

  4. Carbohydrate vs protein supplementation for recovery of neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study examined the effect of carbohydrate and whey protein supplements on recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage. Methods Ten male participants (body mass: 81.5 ± 10.5 kg, age: 28 ± 9 years, O2max: 55.0 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) completed three treadmill walking tests (2 hr, 6.5 km·h-1), carrying a 25 kg backpack consuming 500 ml of either: (1) Placebo (flavoured water) [PLA], (2) 6.4% Carbohydrate Solution [CHO] or (3) 7.0% Whey Protein Solution [PRO]. For three days after load carriage, participants consumed two 500 ml supplement boluses. Muscle performance was measured before and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after load carriage, during voluntary and electrically stimulated contractions. Results Isometric knee extension force decreased immediately after load carriage with no difference between conditions. During recovery, isometric force returned to pre-exercise values at 48 h for CHO and PRO but at 72 h for PLA. Voluntary activation decreased immediately after load carriage and returned to pre-exercise values at 24 h in all conditions (P = 0.086). During recovery, there were no differences between conditions for the change in isokinetic peak torque. Following reductions immediately after load carriage, knee extensor and flexor peak torque (60°·s-1) recovered to pre-exercise values at 72 h. Trunk extensor and flexor peak torque (15°·s-1) recovered to pre-exercise values at 24 h (P = 0.091) and 48 h (P = 0.177), respectively. Conclusion Recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage is improved with either carbohydrate or whey protein supplementation for isometric contractions but not for isokinetic contractions. PMID:20157419

  5. RECOVERY OF RUTHENIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Grummitt, W.E.; Hardwick, W.H.

    1961-01-01

    A process is given for the recovery of ruthenium from its aqueous solutions by oxidizing the ruthenium to the octavalent state and subsequently extracting the ruthenium into a halogen-substituted liquid paraffin.

  6. Silver recovery system data

    SciTech Connect

    Boulineau, B.

    1991-08-26

    In August of 1990 the Savannah River Site Photography Group began testing on a different type of silver recovery system. This paper describes the baseline study and the different phases of installation and testing of the system.

  7. Refuse recycling and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sanitary landfill of domestic, commercial, and industrial wastes is the predominant method of waste disposal in the United Kingdom. Although there was various waste disposal processes at various stages of design and test, landfill and incineration are still the only reliable methods of waste processing. Methods of recovery and use of refuse are examined in this book together with various separation processes, waste derived fuels, refuse composting, and glass and metal recovery. (Refs. 39).

  8. Recovery cycle of the masseter inhibitory reflex in man.

    PubMed

    Cruccu, G; Agostino, R; Fornarelli, M; Inghilleri, M; Manfredi, M

    1984-08-24

    The masseter inhibitory reflex from stimulation of the mental nerve has been recorded electromyographically in 10 healthy subjects. The recovery cycle of the two silent periods interrupting the tonic contraction of the masseter muscles have been studied with the paired shock technique. There was a clear dissociation between the recovery of early and late inhibition, the latter being far more affected by a preceding impulse. It is concluded that the two silent periods are mediated by separate neural nets. The differences with the recovery curves of the two components of the blink reflex are discussed.

  9. Circadian periodicity in salivary carbonic anhydrase VI concentration.

    PubMed

    Parkkila, S; Parkkila, A K; Rajaniemi, H

    1995-06-01

    Carbonic anhydrase VI (CA VI) is secreted into the saliva by the serous acinar cells of the parotid and submandibular glands. Saliva samples from six healthy male volunteers were analysed for concentrations of CA VI throughout the 24 h period by means of a specific time-resolved immunofluorometric assay and the levels were compared with amylase activity. The sleeping period was from 00.10 h to 07.30 h and the subjects had breakfast at 07.30 h and regular meals at 13.30 h and 19.30 h. Saliva secretion decreased markedly during the sleeping period in all the subjects except one. The levels of both CA VI and amylase activity varied greatly among the subjects, but in a parallel manner, and declined to a very low level during the sleeping period. Dexamethasone intake at midnight had no effect on the morning rise in either enzyme. When the sleeping period was postponed from 06.10 h to 11.30 h both enzyme concentrations declined during the night and continued to be low until the subjects awoke at 11.30 h, whereas salivary secretion was low only during the sleeping period. Our results suggest that CA VI secretion follows a circadian periodicity that is comparable to amylase secretion but independent of salivary secretion.

  10. Influence of apologies and trait hostility on recovery from anger.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeremy C; Linden, Wolfgang; Habra, Martine E

    2006-08-01

    While there is growing evidence that quick recovery from stress is health-protective, relatively little is known about what factors affect recovery rates. We tested whether recovery from anger can be diffused with apologies. 184 participants performed a stress task involving verbal harassment and apologies. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: non-harassed control, good apology, pseudo-apology, or no apology. Measures of blood pressure and heart rate were taken at baseline, task and recovery periods. Participants scoring high in trait hostility displayed faster systolic blood pressure recovery when they received a genuine apology, but recovered more slowly when they received a pseudo-apology or no apology. Apologies did not influence subjective anger ratings. It was concluded that apologies may accelerate cardiovascular anger recovery among those with hostile personality predispositions.

  11. A solid agar overlay method for recovery of heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhinong; Gurtler, Joshua B; Kornacki, Jeffrey L

    2006-02-01

    A solid agar overlay method was developed for recovery of heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes. Presolidified nonselective tryptic soy agar with 0.6% yeast extract (TSAYE, 2% agar) was overlaid on top of solidified modified Oxford agar (MOX). Heat injury of L. monocytogenes was conducted at 58 degrees C for 6 min in a jacketed flask filled with tryptic soy broth. Both noninjured and heat-treated L. monocytogenes cells were plated onto TSAYE, MOX, and TSAYE-MOX plates. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in recovery were found among the three media for noninjured bacterial cells. Recovery of heat-injured L. monocytogenes cells on TSAYE-MOX overlay plates was equivalent to that on the nonselective TSAYE medium, whereas recovery on the selective MOX medium was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with both TSAYE and the overlay plates. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) among the overlay plates prepared 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, and 24 h prior to plating heat-injured bacterial cells. The TSAYE-MOX overlay also allowed differentiation of L. monocytogenes from a mixture of four other types of foodborne pathogens. This solid agar overlay method for recovery of heat-injured L. monocytogenes cells is less time-consuming and less complicated than the conventional overlay-underlay technique and the double overlay modification of the thin agar layer method and may allow for greater laboratory plating efficiencies.

  12. Quality of Recovery after Anesthesia: Validation of the Portuguese Version of the 'Quality of Recovery 15' Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Sá, Ana Carolina; Sousa, Gabriela; Santos, Alice; Santos, Cristina; Abelha, Fernando José

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: O questionário "Quality of Recovery 15" tem sido utilizado para o estudo da qualidade de recuperação após anestesia. O objetivo deste estudo foi validar a versão Portuguesa do questionário "Quality of Recovery 15". Material e Métodos: Após aprovação pela Comissão de ética institucional, foi realizado um estudo de coorte prospectivo em doentes submetidos a cirurgia eletiva de junho a agosto de 2013. A versão portuguesa do "Quality of Recovery 15" foi aplicada antes da cirurgia (T0) e 24 h após a cirurgia (T1) em 170 doentes. Os doentes incapazes de dar consentimento informado ou com comprometimento cognitivo foram excluídos. Má qualidade de recuperação foi definida para pontuações de "Quality of Recovery 15" em T1 inferiores à média das pontuações de "Quality of Recovery 15" menos 1 desvio padrão. Confiabilidade e discordãncia entre observadores foram avaliadas por meio da correlação intraclasse. Testes não-paramétricos foram utilizados para comparações. Resultados: Observou-se uma correlação negativa entre pontuações de "Quality of Recovery 15" e tempo de internamento na Unidade Pós-Anestésica (p = -0,264, p = 0,004) e tempo de internamento hospitalar (p = -0,274, p = 0,004). Trinta e dois doentes (19%) tiveram má qualidade de recuperação. Os doentes com má qualidade de recuperação tinham mais frequentemente diabetes mellitus e hipertensão arterial e estavam medicados com antidepressivos com mais frequência. Os doentes com má qualidade de recuperação foram mais frequentemente submetidos a anestesia combinada e menos frequente a anestesia geral e locorregional (p = 0,008). O questionário teve boa consistência interna; a confiabilidade do teste-reteste foi boa. Discussão: A versão portuguesa do "Quality of Recovery 15" mostrou boa correlação com a versão original. Conclusão: Este questionário parece ser uma avaliação precisa e confiável para a qualidade de recuperação.

  13. 40 CFR 65.156 - General monitoring requirements for control and recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... control and recovery devices. 65.156 Section 65.156 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... control and recovery devices. (a) General monitoring requirement applicability. (1) This section applies... parameters is outside the permitted range. (ii) When the period of control or recovery device operation is...

  14. 40 CFR 65.156 - General monitoring requirements for control and recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... control and recovery devices. 65.156 Section 65.156 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... control and recovery devices. (a) General monitoring requirement applicability. (1) This section applies... parameters is outside the permitted range. (ii) When the period of control or recovery device operation is...

  15. 40 CFR 65.156 - General monitoring requirements for control and recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... control and recovery devices. 65.156 Section 65.156 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... control and recovery devices. (a) General monitoring requirement applicability. (1) This section applies... parameters is outside the permitted range. (ii) When the period of control or recovery device operation is...

  16. Historical Reconstruction Reveals Recovery in Hawaiian Coral Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Kittinger, John N.; Pandolfi, John M.; Blodgett, Jonathan H.; Hunt, Terry L.; Jiang, Hong; Maly, Kepā; McClenachan, Loren E.; Schultz, Jennifer K.; Wilcox, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are declining worldwide, yet regional differences in the trajectories, timing and extent of degradation highlight the need for in-depth regional case studies to understand the factors that contribute to either ecosystem sustainability or decline. We reconstructed social-ecological interactions in Hawaiian coral reef environments over 700 years using detailed datasets on ecological conditions, proximate anthropogenic stressor regimes and social change. Here we report previously undetected recovery periods in Hawaiian coral reefs, including a historical recovery in the MHI (∼AD 1400–1820) and an ongoing recovery in the NWHI (∼AD 1950–2009+). These recovery periods appear to be attributed to a complex set of changes in underlying social systems, which served to release reefs from direct anthropogenic stressor regimes. Recovery at the ecosystem level is associated with reductions in stressors over long time periods (decades+) and large spatial scales (>103 km2). Our results challenge conventional assumptions and reported findings that human impacts to ecosystems are cumulative and lead only to long-term trajectories of environmental decline. In contrast, recovery periods reveal that human societies have interacted sustainably with coral reef environments over long time periods, and that degraded ecosystems may still retain the adaptive capacity and resilience to recover from human impacts. PMID:21991311

  17. Historical reconstruction reveals recovery in Hawaiian coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Kittinger, John N; Pandolfi, John M; Blodgett, Jonathan H; Hunt, Terry L; Jiang, Hong; Maly, Kepā; McClenachan, Loren E; Schultz, Jennifer K; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are declining worldwide, yet regional differences in the trajectories, timing and extent of degradation highlight the need for in-depth regional case studies to understand the factors that contribute to either ecosystem sustainability or decline. We reconstructed social-ecological interactions in Hawaiian coral reef environments over 700 years using detailed datasets on ecological conditions, proximate anthropogenic stressor regimes and social change. Here we report previously undetected recovery periods in Hawaiian coral reefs, including a historical recovery in the MHI (~AD 1400-1820) and an ongoing recovery in the NWHI (~AD 1950-2009+). These recovery periods appear to be attributed to a complex set of changes in underlying social systems, which served to release reefs from direct anthropogenic stressor regimes. Recovery at the ecosystem level is associated with reductions in stressors over long time periods (decades+) and large spatial scales (>10(3) km(2)). Our results challenge conventional assumptions and reported findings that human impacts to ecosystems are cumulative and lead only to long-term trajectories of environmental decline. In contrast, recovery periods reveal that human societies have interacted sustainably with coral reef environments over long time periods, and that degraded ecosystems may still retain the adaptive capacity and resilience to recover from human impacts. PMID:21991311

  18. Recovery of Interdependent Networks

    PubMed Central

    Di Muro, M. A.; La Rocca, C. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Havlin, S.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy for nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery γ, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction 1 − p of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane γ − p of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot prevent system collapse. PMID:26956773

  19. Bacterial responses to periodic micropillar array.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiang; Leng, Yang; Lu, Xiong; Ren, Fuzeng; Wang, Kefeng; Ding, Yonghui; Yang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    For a basic understanding and potential biomedical applications of surface topographical effects on bacterial responses, this study focuses on not only the bacterial retention but also the bacterial growth, proliferation, and viability that are significant post-retentive behaviors playing critical roles in infections of medical implants. Specifically, periodic micropillar arrays (SiPA ) with nine different feature sizes were fabricated on silicon substrates with photolithography and dry etching methods. The SiPA was cultured with Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli for different periods to investigate the bacterial retention, growth and proliferation behavior on a patterned surface. The experimental results show that a significant reduction of bacterial retention, growth, and proliferation can be achieved when the pillar size is reduced to the submicrometer level. However, micropillars have no obvious influence on the viability of the bacteria within 24 h. On the basis of the bacterial experiment results, it is inferred that the topographical effects may have resulted from bacterial confinement by micropillars, either limiting the attachment area for individual bacterium or trapping a bacterium between pillars. Furthermore, the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theoretical analysis indicates the effects might have come from the topographic induced surface property changes, mainly hydrophobicity, which is represented by the changes in the interaction free energy of Lifshitz-van der Waals among different periodic micropillar arrays. This study could help to deepen the understanding about the surface topographical effects on bacterial responses and may provide a guidance for the future medical implant surface design to decrease the infection risk by avoiding the surface topography which could attract more bacteria.

  20. Enhanced coalbed methane recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzotti, M.; Pini, R.; Storti, G.

    2009-01-15

    The recovery of coalbed methane can be enhanced by injecting CO{sub 2} in the coal seam at supercritical conditions. Through an in situ adsorption/desorption process the displaced methane is produced and the adsorbed CO{sub 2} is permanently stored. This is called enhanced coalbed methane recovery (ECBM) and it is a technique under investigation as a possible approach to the geological storage of CO{sub 2} in a carbon dioxide capture and storage system. This work reviews the state of the art on fundamental and practical aspects of the technology and summarizes the results of ECBM field tests. These prove the feasibility of ECBM recovery and highlight substantial opportunities for interdisciplinary research at the interface between earth sciences and chemical engineering.

  1. Topography of retinal recovery processes in humans

    PubMed Central

    Mazinani, Babac E; Merx, Elke; Plange, Niklas; Walter, Peter; Roessler, Gernot F

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine retinal recovery processes to pographically by the application of three flash sequences with specific interstimulus intervals. Methods Twelve healthy subjects underwent multifocal electroretinography with a light-emitting diode stimulator. Every flash sequence consisted of three flashes with 25 msec between the first and the second flash and 35 msec between the second and the third flash. The interval between the third and the first flash of the next step was 85 msec. The interstimulus interval-dependent amplitude reductions of the multifocal electroretinographic response for these three intervals yielded three data points that were used to determine the complete curve of the recovery kinetics. Results Amplitude reductions were higher with shorter interstimulus intervals. The mean half-life periods of the recovery kinetics for the different concentric rings and all subjects were: ring 1, 29.3±5.9 msec; ring 2, 24.2±6.4 msec; ring 3, 23±4.1 msec; ring 4, 23.1±4.6 msec; and ring 5, 22.3±4.4 msec. The differences between the first and all other rings were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion The kinetics of the amplitude recovery after short interstimulus intervals showed a spatial distribution, with faster recovery toward the macular periphery. PMID:25349472

  2. Recovery from vestibular ototoxicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Gianna-Poulin, C.; Pesznecker, S. C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Determine whether subjects with documented vestibular ototoxicity recover vestibular function and, if so, investigate the recovery dynamics. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective and retrospective reviews and repeated measures. SETTING: Clinical research and technology center. SUBJECTS: Twenty-eight subjects who received vestibulotoxic medications were followed for at least 12 months after initial treatment. CONTROLS: Our subject sample was compared with a published database of normal individuals. INTERVENTIONS: All 28 subjects received systemically administered medications known to be ototoxic. The subjects' treating physicians controlled medication, dosage, and administration schedules. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tests of horizontal canal vestibulo-ocular function were performed. Subjects' auditory and vestibular symptoms were recorded. RESULTS: Eleven subjects (39%) showed changes in horizontal canal vestibulo-ocular gain constant (GC) and/or time constant (TC) consistent with vestibular ototoxicity. When tested 1 year after ototoxic drug administration, eight of the nine subjects who experienced ototoxic decrease in GC showed a recovery of GC to normal limits. Only one of the eight subjects who experienced ototoxic decrease in TC showed recovery of TC to within normal limits. Ototoxicity onset and recovery were independent of baseline vestibular function, and ototoxicity onset did not correlate with cumulative dose of ototoxic medication. There was no relationship between subjective symptoms and ototoxicity onset. CONCLUSIONS: Recovery of GC after vestibular ototoxicity is more commonly observed than recovery of TC. Because ototoxic changes developed and continued in an unpredictable time and manner in relation to ototoxic drug administration, we propose that once ototoxic changes in vestibulo-ocular reflex are detected, ototoxic medications should be discontinued as soon as possible.

  3. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  4. Psychosocial Recovery and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Antai-Otong, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses a psychosocial recovery and rehabilitation recovery model that uses an intensive case management approach. The approach offers an interdisciplinary model that integrates pharmacotherapy, social skills training, cognitive remediation, family involvement, and community integration. This evidence-based plan of care instills hope and nurtures one's capacity to learn and improve function and quality of life. It is cost-effective and offers psychiatric nurses opportunities to facilitate symptomatic remission, facilitate self-efficacy, and improve communication and social cognition skills. Nurses in diverse practice settings must be willing to plan and implement innovative treatment models that provide seamless mental health care across the treatment continuum. PMID:27229282

  5. Rockets for spin recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The potential effectiveness of rockets as an auxiliary means for an aircraft to effect recovery from spins was investigated. The advances in rocket technology produced by the space effort suggested that currently available systems might obviate many of the problems encountered in earlier rocket systems. A modern fighter configuration known to exhibit a flat spin mode was selected. An analytical study was made of the thrust requirements for a rocket spin recovery system for the subject configuration. These results were then applied to a preliminary systems study of rocket components appropriate to the problem. Subsequent spin tunnel tests were run to evaluate the analytical results.

  6. JLAB Hurricane recovery

    SciTech Connect

    A. Hutton; D. Arenius; J. Benesch; S. Chattopadhyay; E. F. Daly; O. Garza; R. Kazimi; R. Lauzi; L. Merminga; W. Merz; R. Nelson; W. Oren; M. Poelker; P. Powers; J. Preble; V. Ganni; C. R. Reece; R. Rimmer; M. Spata; S. Suhring

    2004-07-01

    Hurricane Isabel, originally a Category 5 storm, arrived at Jefferson Lab on September 18, 2003 with winds of only 75 mph, creating little direct damage to the infrastructure. However, electric power was lost for four days allowing the superconducting cryomodules to warm up and causing a total loss of the liquid helium. The subsequent recovery of the cryomodules and the impact of the considerable amount of opportunistic preventive maintenance provides important lessons for all accelerator complexes, not only those with superconducting elements. The details of how the recovery process was structured and the resulting improvement in accelerator availability will be discussed in detail.

  7. Wash water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.

  8. Rhythmicity, recurrence, and recovery of flagellar beating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Kirsty; Goldstein, Raymond

    2015-03-01

    The eukaryotic flagellum beats with apparently unfailing periodicity, yet responds rapidly to stimuli. Like the human heartbeat, flagellar oscillations are now known to be noisy. Using the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we explore three aspects of nonuniform flagellar beating. We report the existence of rhythmicity, waveform noise peaking at transitions between power and recovery strokes, and fluctuations of interbeat intervals that are correlated and even recurrent, with memory extending to hundreds of beats. These features are altered qualitatively by physiological perturbations. Further, we quantify the recovery of periodic breaststroke beating from transient hydrodynamic forcing. These results will help constrain microscopic theories on the origins and regulation of flagellar beating. Financial support is acknowledged from the EPSRC, ERC Advanced Investigator Grant No. 247333, and a Senior Investigator Award from the Wellcome Trust.

  9. Cogeneration from glass furnace waste heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hnat, J.G.; Cutting, J.C.; Patten, J.S.

    1982-06-01

    In glass manufacturing 70% of the total energy utilized is consumed in the melting process. Three basic furnaces are in use: regenerative, recuperative, and direct fired design. The present paper focuses on secondary heat recovery from regenerative furnaces. A diagram of a typical regenerative furnace is given. Three recovery bottoming cycles were evaluated as part of a comparative systems analysis: steam Rankine Cycle (SRC), Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), and pressurized Brayton cycle. Each cycle is defined and schematicized. The net power capabilities of the three different systems are summarized. Cost comparisons and payback period comparisons are made. Organic Rankine cycle provides the best opportunity for cogeneration for all the flue gas mass flow rates considered. With high temperatures, the Brayton cycle has the shortest payback period potential, but site-specific economics need to be considered.

  10. ONSITE SOLVENT RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery. The technologies were (1) atmospheric batch distillation, (2) vacuum heat-pump distillation, and (3) low-emission vapor degreas...

  11. Monkey Able After Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    On May 28, 1959, a Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile provided by a U.S. Army team in Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, launched a nose cone carrying Baker, A South American squirrel monkey and Able, An American-born rhesus monkey. This photograph shows Able after recovery of the nose cone of the Jupiter rocket by U.S.S. Kiowa.

  12. Recovery of EUVL substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, S.P.; Baker, S.L.

    1995-01-19

    Mo/Si multilayers, were removed from superpolished zerodur and fused silica substrates with a dry etching process that, under suitable processing conditions, produces negligible change in either the substrate surface figure or surface roughness. Full recovery of the initial normal incidence extreme ultra-violet (EUV) reflectance response has been demonstrated on reprocessed substrates.

  13. Cost Recovery Through Depreciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.

    1983-01-01

    The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…

  14. Recovery post ICU.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christina

    2014-10-01

    Many ICU patients struggle to recovery following critical illness and may be left with physical, cognitive and psychological problems, which have a negative impact on their quality of life. Gross muscle mass loss and weakness can take some months to recover after the patients' Intensive Care Unit (ICU) discharge, in addition critical illness polyneuropathies can further complicate physical recovery. Psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common and have an negative impact on the patients' ability to engage in rehabilitation after ICU discharge. Finally cognitive deficit affecting memory can be a significant problem. The first step in helping patients to recover from such a devastating illness is to recognise those who have the greatest need and target interventions. Research now suggests that there are interventions that can accelerate physical recovery and reduce the incidence of psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and PTSD. Cognitive rehabilitation, however, is still in its infancy. This review will look at the research into patients' recovery and what can be done to improve this where needed.

  15. Pulmonary haemodynamics during recovery from maximum incremental cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rudolf K F; Waxman, Aaron B; Agarwal, Manyoo; Badr Eslam, Roza; Systrom, David M

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of cardiac function during exercise can be technically demanding, making the recovery period a potentially attractive diagnostic window. However, the validity of this approach for exercise pulmonary haemodynamics has not been validated.The present study, therefore, evaluated directly measured pulmonary haemodynamics during 2-min recovery after maximum invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients evaluated for unexplained exertional intolerance. Based on peak exercise criteria, patients with exercise pulmonary hypertension (ePH; n=36), exercise pulmonary venous hypertension (ePVH; n=28) and age-matched controls (n=31) were analysed.By 2-min recovery, 83% (n=30) of ePH patients had a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) <30 mmHg and 96% (n=27) of ePVH patients had a pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP) <20 mmHg. Sensitivity of pulmonary hypertension-related haemodynamic measurements during recovery for ePH and ePVH diagnosis was ≤25%. In ePVH, pulmonary vascular compliance (PVC) returned to its resting value by 1-min recovery, while in ePH, elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and decreased PVC persisted throughout recovery.In conclusion, we observed that mPAP and PAWP decay quickly during recovery in ePH and ePVH, compromising the sensitivity of recovery haemodynamic measurements in diagnosing pulmonary hypertension. ePH and ePVH had different PVR and PVC recovery patterns, suggesting differences in the underlying pulmonary hypertension pathophysiology. PMID:27126692

  16. 40 CFR 35.928-4 - Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments. 35.928-4 Section 35.928-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... industrial cost recovery charges incurred for accounting periods or portions of periods ending before...

  17. 40 CFR 35.928-4 - Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments. 35.928-4 Section 35.928-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... industrial cost recovery charges incurred for accounting periods or portions of periods ending before...

  18. 40 CFR 35.928-4 - Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments. 35.928-4 Section 35.928-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... industrial cost recovery charges incurred for accounting periods or portions of periods ending before...

  19. DNA repair and recovery of RNA synthesis following exposure to ultraviolet light are delayed in long genes.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Lima, Leonardo C; Veloso, Artur; Paulsen, Michelle T; Menck, Carlos F M; Ljungman, Mats

    2015-03-11

    The kinetics of DNA repair and RNA synthesis recovery in human cells following UV-irradiation were assessed using nascent RNA Bru-seq and quantitative long PCR. It was found that UV light inhibited transcription elongation and that recovery of RNA synthesis occurred as a wave in the 5'-3' direction with slow recovery and TC-NER at the 3' end of long genes. RNA synthesis resumed fully at the 3'-end of genes after a 24 h recovery in wild-type fibroblasts, but not in cells deficient in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) or global genomic NER (GG-NER). Different transcription recovery profiles were found for individual genes but these differences did not fully correlate to differences in DNA repair of these genes. Our study gives the first genome-wide view of how UV-induced lesions affect transcription and how the recovery of RNA synthesis of large genes are particularly delayed by the apparent lack of resumption of transcription by arrested polymerases.

  20. Evaluating post-Katrina recovery in Mississippi using repeat photography.

    PubMed

    Burton, Christopher; Mitchell, Jerry T; Cutter, Susan L

    2011-07-01

    Hurricane Katrina of August 2005 had extensive consequences for the state of Mississippi in the United States. Widespread infrastructure and property damage, massive social dislocation, and ecological loss remain among the many challenges faced by communities as they work towards 'normalcy'. This study employs repeat photography to understand differential recovery from Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi. Revealing change with conventional landscape photography, a process known as repeat photography, is common in the natural sciences. Simply stated, repeat photography is the practice of re-photographing the same scene as it appears in an earlier photograph. Photographs were taken at 131 sites every six months over a three-year period. Each photograph was assigned a recovery score and a spatially interpolated recovery surface was generated for each time period. The mapped and graphed results show disparities in the progression of recovery: some communities quickly entered the rebuilding process whereas others have lagged far behind.

  1. Growth inhibition and recovery of Lemna gibba after pulse exposure to sulfonylurea herbicides.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke T; Baun, Anders; Kusk, K Ole

    2013-03-01

    The exposure of non-target aquatic organisms to pesticides often happens as short-term, high exposure events (pulses) and effects of these must be addressed in the current regulation in the EU. It is, however, questionable whether the effects of pulse exposures are adequately covered by the standardized ecotoxicological tests used in environmental effect assessments, since these aim at maintaining constant exposure concentrations during the incubation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of four sulfonylurea herbicides (flupyrsulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, rimsulfuron, and thifensulfuron-methyl) on the growth of Lemna gibba over a 6-day period after 24h of pulse exposure, and compared with effects observed in standard OECD tests with continuous exposure. It was observed that concentrations around the E(y)C50-values found in OECD tests did not affect the growth in the 6 days post-exposure period. Slightly higher concentrations initially resulted in lower growth in pulse exposure tests, but the growth rate of the plants reached the level of untreated plants during the 6 days post-exposure period. The 24h pulse exposure tests gave 2-6 times higher E(y)C50-values than the OECD 7-d continuous exposure tests. The approach of this study enables experimentally based comparisons between observations of effects between the two exposure regimes. We propose that results obtained in this way be applied in effect assessments for intermittent releases. PMID:23276408

  2. Spinal cord fusion with PEG-GNRs (TexasPEG): Neurophysiological recovery in 24 hours in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C-Yoon; Sikkema, William K. A.; Hwang, In-Kyu; Oh, Hanseul; Kim, Un Jeng; Lee, Bae Hwan; Tour, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The GEMINI spinal cord fusion protocol has been developed to achieve a successful cephalosomatic anastomosis. Here, for the first time, we report the effects of locally applied water-soluble, conductive PEG(polyethylene glycol)ylated graphene nanoribbons (PEG-GNRs) on neurophysiologic conduction after sharp cervical cord transection in rats. PEG-GNRs were produced by the polymerization of ethylene oxide from anion-edged graphene nanoribbons. These combine the fusogenic potential of PEG with the electrical conducting properties of the graphene nanoribbons. Methods: Laminectomy and transection of cervical spinal cord (C5) was performed on Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. After applying PEG-GNR on the severed part, electrophysiological recovery of the reconstructed cervical spinal cord was confirmed by somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) at 24 h after surgery. Results: While no SSEPs were detected in the control group, PEG-GNR treated group showed fast recovery of SSEPs at 24 h after the surgery. Conclusion: In this preliminary dataset, for the first time, we report the effect of a novel form of PEG with the goal of rapid reconstruction of a sharply severed spinal cord. PMID:27656326

  3. Spinal cord fusion with PEG-GNRs (TexasPEG): Neurophysiological recovery in 24 hours in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C-Yoon; Sikkema, William K. A.; Hwang, In-Kyu; Oh, Hanseul; Kim, Un Jeng; Lee, Bae Hwan; Tour, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The GEMINI spinal cord fusion protocol has been developed to achieve a successful cephalosomatic anastomosis. Here, for the first time, we report the effects of locally applied water-soluble, conductive PEG(polyethylene glycol)ylated graphene nanoribbons (PEG-GNRs) on neurophysiologic conduction after sharp cervical cord transection in rats. PEG-GNRs were produced by the polymerization of ethylene oxide from anion-edged graphene nanoribbons. These combine the fusogenic potential of PEG with the electrical conducting properties of the graphene nanoribbons. Methods: Laminectomy and transection of cervical spinal cord (C5) was performed on Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. After applying PEG-GNR on the severed part, electrophysiological recovery of the reconstructed cervical spinal cord was confirmed by somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) at 24 h after surgery. Results: While no SSEPs were detected in the control group, PEG-GNR treated group showed fast recovery of SSEPs at 24 h after the surgery. Conclusion: In this preliminary dataset, for the first time, we report the effect of a novel form of PEG with the goal of rapid reconstruction of a sharply severed spinal cord.

  4. Quantification of biofilm exopolysaccharides using an in situ assay with periodic acid-Schiff reagent.

    PubMed

    Randrianjatovo-Gbalou, I; Girbal-Neuhauser, E; Marcato-Romain, C-E

    2016-05-01

    A novel approach to the quantification of extracellular polysaccharides in miniaturized biofilms presenting a wide variety of extracellular matrices was developed. The assay used the periodic acid-Schiff reagent and was first calibrated on dextran and alginate solutions. Then it was implemented on 24-h and 48-h biofilms from three strains known to produce different exopolymeric substances (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Weissella confusa). The assay allowed quantification of the total exopolysaccharides, taking into account possible interferences due to cells or other main expolymers of the matrix (eDNA, proteins).

  5. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Stevenson, J.W.; Werkema, R.G.

    1959-07-28

    The recovery of uranium from magnesium fluoride slag obtained as a by- product in the production of uranium metal by the bomb reduction prccess is presented. Generally the recovery is accomplished by finely grinding the slag, roasting ihe ground slag air, and leaching the roasted slag with a hot, aqueous solution containing an excess of the sodium bicarbonate stoichiometrically required to form soluble uranium carbonate complex. The roasting is preferably carried out at between 425 and 485 deg C for about three hours. The leaching is preferably done at 70 to 90 deg C and under pressure. After leaching and filtration the uranium may be recovered from the clear leach liquor by any desired method.

  6. Gasoline Vapor Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.

  7. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  8. Designer drilling increases recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Eck-Olsen, J.; Drevdal, K.E.

    1995-04-01

    Implementation of a new designer-well profile has resulted in increased recovery and production rates. The geologically complex Gullfaks field, located in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, required a new type of well profile to increase total recovery and production rates from Gullfaks A, B and C platforms. Advances in steerable technology and directional drilling performance enabled a 3-D horizontal, extended-reach well profile, now designated as a designer well, to penetrate multiple targets. This article presents the concept, implementation and conclusions drawn from designer well application. Gullfaks field, in Norwegian North Sea Block 34/10, is the first license ever run by a fully Norwegian joint venture corporation. The license group consists of Statoil (operator), Norsk Hydro and Saga Petroleum. The field currently produces more than 535,000 bopd from three main Jurassic reservoirs.

  9. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Hu, Zhicheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

  10. A critical period for functional vestibular development in zebrafish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorman, Stephen J.; Cordova, Rodolfo; Davies, Sarah A.

    2002-01-01

    We have determined a critical period for vestibular development in zebrafish by using a bioreactor designed by NASA to simulate microgravity for cells in culture. A critical period is defined as the briefest period of time during development when stimulus deprivation results in long lasting or permanent sensory deficits. Zebrafish eggs were collected within 3 hours of being laid and fertilized. In experiment 1, eggs were placed in the bioreactor at 3, 24, 30, 36, 48, or 72 hours postfertilization (hPF) and maintained in the bioreactor until 96 hPF. In experiment 2, eggs were placed in the bioreactor immediately after they were collected and maintained in the bioreactor until 24, 36, 48, 60, 66, 72, or 96 hPF. Beginning at 96 hPF, all larvae had their vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) evaluated once each day for 5 days. Only larvae that hatched from eggs that were placed in the bioreactor before 30 hPF in experiment 1 or removed from the bioreactor later than 66 hPF in experiment 2 had VOR deficits that persisted for at least 5 days. These data suggest a critical period for vestibular development in the zebrafish that begins before 30 hPF and ends after 66 hPF. To confirm this, zebrafish eggs were placed in the bioreactor at 24 hPF and removed at 72 hPF. VORs were evaluated in these larvae once each day for 5 days beginning at 96 hPF. These larvae had VOR deficits that persisted for at least 5 days. In addition, larvae that had been maintained in the bioreactor from 24 to 66 hPF or from 30 to 72 hPF, had only temporary VOR deficits. In a final experiment, zebrafish eggs were placed in the bioreactor at 3 hPF and removed at 96 hPF but the bioreactor was turned off from 24 hPF to 72 hPF. These larvae had normal VORs when they were removed from the bioreactor at 96 hPF. Taken as a whole, these data support the idea that there is a critical period for functional maturation of the zebrafish vestibular system. The developmental period identified includes the timeframe

  11. Recovery, spirituality and psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Drobin, Frederick

    2014-06-01

    This article concerns the relationship between addiction recovery, spirituality and psychotherapy. Since its founding, members of AA have been encouraged to pursue a spiritual life. They have also sought psychotherapy. A paradox obtains, because 51 % of therapists are atheists. Others have little awareness of the dynamics of the spiritual life. The developmental process of the spiritual life is discussed, and suggestions are made regarding how a therapist might be helpful in this process.

  12. Energy Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Cogeneration system is one in which the energy ordinarily wasted in an industrial process is recovered and reused to create a second form of energy. Such an energy recovery system is in use at Crane Company's plant in Ferguson, KY, which manufactures ceramic bathroom fixtures. Crane's system captures hot stack gases from the company's four ceramic kilns and uses them to produce electrical power for plant operations.

  13. Superconducting energy recovery linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2016-10-01

    High-average-power and high-brightness electron beams from a combination of laser photocathode electron guns and a superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL) is an emerging accelerator science with applications in ERL light sources, high repetition rate free electron lasers , electron cooling, electron ion colliders and more. This paper reviews the accelerator physics issues of superconducting ERLs, discusses major subsystems and provides a few examples of superconducting ERLs.

  14. Energy recovery device

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, V.

    1982-08-31

    The energy recovery device includes a housing having a central shaft which is connected to a lever operating a work-load system capable of generating work-load forces. The central shaft is also connected to a disk having four posts generally parallel to the shaft and initially located at positions corresponding to the four major points of a compass. Within each corner of the housing, a helically coiled spring is positioned over a support post. Each spring has two extending arms which contact two respective adjacent posts on the disk so as to maintain the spring under tension. When the lever is at the neutral position, I.E., when no work-load forces are generated, the recovery forces generated by the four springs within the housing are generally balanced. As the lever is displaced from the neutral position by a driving force, the disk rotates whereby the angular displacement between the arms of any spring decreases. Once the disk is displaced, the spring forces aid in continuing displacement of the disk. Simultaneously the work-load system generates forces which oppose any displacement. The springs are preferably configured and dimensioned so that, at any given displacement of the lever from the neutral position, the recovery forces generally counterbalance the work-load forces. Thus the lever will remain at a given displacement when the driving force applied to the lever is removed. Additionally, the counterbalancing of forces permits continued displacement of the lever with a minimal and constant driving force.

  15. Recovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve; Schauffler, Sue; Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Pawson, Steven; Nielsen, J. Eric

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the TOMS and OMI instruments. The severity of the hole has been assessed using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole), the average size during the September-October period, and the ozone mass deficit. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. We use two methods to estimate ozone hole recovery. First, we use projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates in a parametric model. Second, we use a coupled chemistry climate model to assess recovery. We find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. Furthermore, full recovery to 1980 levels will not occur until approximately 2068. We will also show some error estimates of these dates and the impact of climate change on the recovery.

  16. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  17. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  18. The Effect of Preoperative Oral Carbohydrate or Oral Rehydration Solution on Postoperative Quality of Recovery: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Ayako; Mihara, Takahiro; Goto, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of preoperative administration of oral carbohydrate (CHO) or oral rehydration solution (ORS). However, the effects of preoperative CHO or ORS on postoperative quality of recovery after anesthesia remain unclear. Consequently, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative CHO or ORS on patient recovery, using the Quality of Recovery 40 questionnaire (QoR-40). Methods This prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial included American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status 1 and 2 adult patients, who were scheduled to undergo a surgical procedure of body surface. Subjects were randomized to one of the three groups: 1) preoperative CHO group, 2) preoperative ORS group, and 3) control group. The primary outcome was the global QoR-40 administered 24 h after surgery. Intraoperative use of vasopressor, intraoperative body temperature changes, and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) were also evaluated. Results We studied 134 subjects. The median [interquartile range (IQR)] global QoR-40 scores 24 h after the surgery were 187 [177–197], 186 [171–200], and 184 [171–198] for the CHO, ORS, and control groups, respectively (p = 0.916). No significant differences existed between the groups regarding intraoperative vasopressor use during the surgery (p = 0.475). Conclusions Results of the current study indicated that the preoperative administration of either CHO or ORS did not improve the quality of recovery in patients undergoing minimally invasive body surface surgery. Trial Registration www.umin.ac.jp UMIN000009388 https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&type=summary&recptno=R000011029&language=E PMID:26317629

  19. Proteomic changes in the roots of germinating Phaseolus vulgaris seeds in response to chilling stress and post-stress recovery.

    PubMed

    Badowiec, Anna; Weidner, Stanisław

    2014-03-15

    Plants respond to different environmental cues in a complex way, entailing changes at the cellular and physiological levels. An important step to understand the molecular foundation of stress response in plants is the analysis of stress-responsive proteins. In this work we attempted to investigate and compare changes in the abundance of proteins in the roots of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germinating under long continuous chilling conditions (10°C, 16 days), exposed to short rapid chilling during germination (10°C, 24h), as well as subjected to recovery from stress (25°C, 24h). The results we obtained indicate that germination under continuous chilling causes alterations in the accumulation of the proteins involved in stress response, energy production, translation, vesicle transport, secondary metabolism and protein degradation. The subsequent recovery influences the accumulation of the proteins implicated in calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways, secondary metabolism and those promoting cell division and expansion. Subjecting the germinating bean seeds to short rapid chilling stress resulted in a transient changes in the relative content of the proteins taking part in energy production, DNA repair, RNA processing and translation. Short stress triggers also the mechanisms of protection against oxidative stress and promotes expression of anti-stress proteins. Subjecting bean seeds to the subsequent recovery influences the abundance of the proteins involved in energy metabolism, protection against stress and production of phytohormones. The exposure to long and short chilling did not result in the alterations of any proteins common to both treatments. The same situation was observed with respect to the recovery after stresses. Bean response to chilling is therefore strongly correlated with the manner and length of exposure to low temperature, which causes divergent proteomic alterations in the roots.

  20. Recovery capacity of glial progenitors after in vivo fission-neutron or X irradiation: age dependence, fractionation and low-dose-rate irradiations.

    PubMed

    Philippo, H; Winter, E A M; van der Kogel, A J; Huiskamp, R

    2005-06-01

    Previous experiments on the radiosensitivity of O-2A glial progenitors determined for single-dose fission-neutron and X irradiation showed log-linear survival curves, suggesting a lack of accumulation of recovery of sublethal damage. In the present study, we addressed this question and further characterized the radiobiological properties of these glial stem cells by investigating the recovery capacity of glial stem cells using either fractionated or protracted whole-body irradiation. Irradiations were performed on newborn, 2-week-old or 12-week-old rats. Fractionated irradiations (four fractions) were performed with 24-h intervals, followed by cell isolations 16- 24 h after the last irradiation. Single-dose irradiations were followed by cell isolation 16-24 h after irradiation or delayed cell isolation (4 days after irradiation) of the O-2A progenitor cells from either spinal cord (newborns) or optic nerve (2- and 12-week-old rats). Results for neonatal progenitor cell survival show effect ratios for both fractionated fission-neutron and X irradiation of the order of 1.8 when compared with single-dose irradiation. A similar ratio was found after single-dose irradiation combined with delayed plating. Comparable results were observed for juvenile and adult optic nerve progenitors, with effect ratios of the order of 1.2. The present investigation clearly shows that fractionated irradiation regimens using X rays or fission neutrons and CNS tissue from rats of various ages results in an increase in O-2A progenitor cell survival while repair is virtually absent. This recovery of the progenitor pool after irradiation can be observed at all ages but is greatest in the neonatal spinal cord and can probably be attributed to repopulation. PMID:15913395

  1. Impact of dispersed coupling strength on the free running periods of circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Gu, Changgui; Rohling, Jos H T; Liang, Xiaoming; Yang, Huijie

    2016-03-01

    The dominant endogenous clock, named the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), regulates circadian rhythms of behavioral and physiological activity in mammals. One of the main characteristics of the SCN is that the animal maintains a circadian rhythm with a period close to 24 h in the absence of a daily light-dark cycle (called the free running period). The free running period varies among species due to heterogeneity of the SCN network. Previous studies have shown that the heterogeneity in cellular coupling as well as in intrinsic neuronal periods shortens the free running period. Furthermore, as derived from experiments, one neuron's coupling strength is negatively associated with its period. It is unknown what the effects of this association between coupling strength and period are on the free running period and how the heterogeneity in coupling strength influences this free running period. In the present study we found that in the presence of a negative relationship between one neuron's coupling strength and its period, surprisingly, the dispersion of coupling strengths increases the free running period. Our present finding may shed new light on the understanding of the heterogeneous SCN network and provides an alternative explanation for the diversity of free running periods between species. PMID:27078397

  2. Impact of dispersed coupling strength on the free running periods of circadian rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Changgui; Rohling, Jos H. T.; Liang, Xiaoming; Yang, Huijie

    2016-03-01

    The dominant endogenous clock, named the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), regulates circadian rhythms of behavioral and physiological activity in mammals. One of the main characteristics of the SCN is that the animal maintains a circadian rhythm with a period close to 24 h in the absence of a daily light-dark cycle (called the free running period). The free running period varies among species due to heterogeneity of the SCN network. Previous studies have shown that the heterogeneity in cellular coupling as well as in intrinsic neuronal periods shortens the free running period. Furthermore, as derived from experiments, one neuron's coupling strength is negatively associated with its period. It is unknown what the effects of this association between coupling strength and period are on the free running period and how the heterogeneity in coupling strength influences this free running period. In the present study we found that in the presence of a negative relationship between one neuron's coupling strength and its period, surprisingly, the dispersion of coupling strengths increases the free running period. Our present finding may shed new light on the understanding of the heterogeneous SCN network and provides an alternative explanation for the diversity of free running periods between species.

  3. Ethanol consumption in mice: relationships with circadian period and entrainment

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Jennifer L.; Do, David T.; Grahame, Nicholas J.; Roberts, Amanda J.; Gorman, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    A functional connection between the circadian timing system and alcohol consumption is suggested by multiple lines of converging evidence. Ethanol consumption perturbs physiological rhythms in hormone secretion, sleep and body temperature, and conversely, genetic and environmental perturbations of the circadian system can alter alcohol intake. A fundamental property of the circadian pacemaker, the endogenous period of its cycle under free-running conditions, was previously shown to differ between selectively bred High- (HAP) and Low- (LAP) Alcohol Preferring replicate 1 mice. To test whether there is a causal relationship between circadian period and ethanol intake, we induced experimental, rather than genetic, variations in free-running period. Male inbred C57Bl/6J mice and replicate 2 male and female HAP2 and LAP2 mice were entrained to light:dark cycles of 26 h or 22 h or remained in a standard 24 h cycle. Upon discontinuation of the light:dark cycle, experimental animals exhibited longer and shorter free-running periods, respectively. Despite robust effects on circadian period and clear circadian rhythms in drinking, these manipulations failed to alter the daily ethanol intake of the inbred strain or selected lines. Likewise, driving the circadian system at long and short periods produced no change in alcohol intake. In contrast with replicate 1 HAP and LAP lines, there was no difference in free-running period between ethanol naïve HAP2 and LAP2 mice. HAP2 mice, however, were significantly more active than LAP2 mice as measured by general home-cage movement and wheel running, a motivated behavior implicating a selection effect on reward systems. Despite a marked circadian regulation of drinking behavior, the free-running and entrained period of the circadian clock does not determine daily ethanol intake. PMID:20880659

  4. Crystal structure, magnetic, thermal behavior, and spectroscopic studies of two new bimetallic hydrogenselenites: [Cu2-xNix (HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O], (x = 0.62; 0.91)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentech, I.; Zehani, K.; Kabadou, A.; Ben Salah, A.; Loukil, M.; Bessais, L.

    2016-08-01

    Two new iso-structural bimetallic hydrogenselenites [Cu2-xNix(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O] (x = 0.62; 0.91) have been synthesized from solution and characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. They crystallized in the orthorhombic Pnma space group with the following lattice parameters: for Cu1.09Ni0.91(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O: a = 9.0931 (2) Å, b = 17.7717 (4) Å, c = 7.1620 (2) Å, Z = 4, and for Cu1.38Ni0.62(HSeO3)2Cl2.4H2O: a = 9.0931 (4) Å, b = 17.7467 (7) Å, c = 7.1717 (3) Å; Z = 4. The crystal structure of this compound consists by a three-dimensional framework, but it may be described as a bi-dimensional structure consisting of layers, parallel to the (010) plane formed by two types of (Cu/Ni) octahedral and (HSeO3)- trigonal pyramids. The magnetic measurement, thermal and spectroscopic studies were performed for these compounds. The magnetic results reveal the appearance of a weak ferromagnetic behavior at low temperature (Tc = 16 K for x = 0.91 and 18.8 K for x = 0.62). The DSC analysis enabled us to locate two endothermic peaks. The first peak can be attributed to a completely dehydration of the material, in this transformation, the compounds undergo a structural phase transition which can favor a non-centrosymmetric phase at high temperature confirmed by the thermodiffractograms measurement. The second peak for these samples is due to the ferro-paraelectric phase transition which can be explained by an order- disorder transition.

  5. Predicting behavior of Staphylococcus aureus, salmonella serovars, and Escherichia coli O157: H7 in pork products during single and repeated temperature abuse periods.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Steven C; Vang, Song; Levey, Ben; Fahey, Lisa; Norback, John P; Fanslau, Melody A; Senecal, Andre G; Burnham, Greg M; Ingham, Barbara H

    2009-10-01

    Tools for predicting growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (THERM; temperature history evaluation for raw meats) have been developed using ground pork and sausage. THERM tools have been tested with three types of pork sausage but not with other pork products or during sequential temperature abuse periods. We conducted inoculation studies (five strains each of S. aureus and/or Salmonella plus E. coli O157:H7) with simulated cooling of warm sausages, inprocess warming of bratwurst, isothermal temperature abuse of pork frankfurter batter, and two sequential periods of 13, 15.6, or 21.1 degrees C temperature abuse of breakfast sausage, natural (additive-free) chops, and enhanced (phosphate solution-injected) loins. In sequential temperature abuse studies, a temperature abuse period (> or =24 h) occurred before and after either refrigeration (5 degrees C for 24 h), or freezing (-20 degrees C for 24 h) and thawing (24 h at 5 degrees C). Pathogen growth predictions from THERM developed using ground pork and sausage were compared with experimental results of 0 to 3.0 log CFU of growth. Across all temperature abuse conditions, qualitative predictions (growth versus no growth) made using the pork tool (n = 133) and the sausage tool (n = 115) were accurate (51 and 50%, respectively), fail-safe (44 and 50%), or fail-dangerous (5 and 0%). Quantitative predictions from the two tools were accurate (29 and 22% , respectively), fail-safe (59 and 73%), or fail-dangerous (12 and 5%). Pathogen growth was greater during the second sequential temperature abuse period but not significantly so (P > 0.05). Both THERM tools provide useful qualitative predictions of pathogen growth in pork products during isolated or sequential temperature abuse events.

  6. The process of recovery in eating disorder sufferers' own words: an Internet-based study.

    PubMed

    Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Tozzi, Federica

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory Internet-based study attempts to understand what eating disorder sufferers suggest when they mention the word recovery. All messages (N = 685) posted in a Finnish-language eating disorders discussion group during a 3-month period were analyzed for the contexts of the word recovery using text analysis software and qualitative methods. The discussion group participants' views of recovery changed according to their current stage of change. Mentioning recovery was least likely during precontemplation and relapse. Internet discussion group was seen as helpful in the early stages of change, but as impeding recovery in the last stages. Willpower and ceasing to identify with eating disorders were viewed as essential to recovery. The value of professional help in recovery was viewed as conditional on the eating disorders sufferer's own willingness to change. Internet-based support groups have many potential therapeutic applications. Motivational aspects need to be taken into account in promoting recovery.

  7. One day of motor training with amphetamine impairs motor recovery following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jamie K; Steward, Oswald

    2012-02-01

    It has previously been reported that a single dose of amphetamine paired with training on a beam walking task can enhance locomotor recovery following brain injury (Feeney et al., 1982). Here, we investigated whether this same drug/training regimen could enhance functional recovery following either thoracic (T9) or cervical (C5) spinal cord injury. Different groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on a beam walking task, and in a straight alley for assessment of hindlimb locomotor recovery using the BBB locomotor scale. For rats that received C5 hemisections, forelimb grip strength was assessed using a grip strength meter. Three separate experiments assessed the consequences of training rats on the beam walking task 24 h following a thoracic lateral hemisection with administration of either amphetamine or saline. Beginning 1 h following drug administration, rats either received additional testing/retraining on the beam hourly for 6 h, or they were returned to their home cages without further testing/retraining. Rats with thoracic spinal cord injuries that received amphetamine in conjunction with testing/retraining on the beam at 1 day post injury (DPI) exhibited significantly impaired recovery on the beam walking task and BBB. Rats with cervical spinal cord injuries that received training with amphetamine also exhibited significant impairments in beam walking and locomotion, as well as impairments in gripping and reaching abilities. Even when administered at 14 DPI, the drug/training regimen significantly impaired reaching ability in cervical spinal cord injured rats. Impairments were not seen in rats that received amphetamine without training. Histological analyses revealed that rats that received training with amphetamine had significantly larger lesions than saline controls. These data indicate that an amphetamine/training regimen that improves recovery after cortical injury has the opposite effect of impairing recovery following spinal cord injury

  8. Pyrolysis with staged recovery

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.; Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Lumpkin, Robert E.; Winter, Bruce L.

    1979-03-20

    In a continuous process for recovery of values contained in a solid carbonaceous material, the carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to flash pyrolysis in the presence of a particulate heat source fed over an overflow weir to form a pyrolysis product stream containing a carbon containing solid residue and volatilized hydrocarbons. After the carbon containing solid residue is separated from the pyrolysis product stream, values are obtained by condensing volatilized hydrocarbons. The particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing carbon in the solid residue.

  9. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.; Warner, R.; Dill, B.; Huffman, G.; McLoughlin, F.; Mills, R.; Miller, R.

    1994-03-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  10. Deepwater pipeline recovery

    SciTech Connect

    McStravick, D.M.; Baugh, B.F.

    1997-07-01

    The paper gives a presentation of the tooling concepts used for the recovery of steel and flexible flowlines in the Gulf of Mexico Shell Tahoe I area in the summer of 1996 in 1,370 ft. of sea water. This offshore operation required a Global Grabber to engage and retrieve 4 1/2-in. steel pipelines, an ROV Pipeline Spear to internally engage the end of the 4 1/2-in. steel pipelines, and a FlexGrip Assembly to wrap and grab 5.566-in. OD flexible pipe. The design of the tooling emphasized the use of API 17D ROV interfaces.

  11. Resource recovery utility

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a resource recovery utility comprising: (i) a landfill; (ii) a continuous wall surrounding the perimeter of the landfill; (iii) a containment structure extending completely over the landfill and affixed to the continuous wall; (iv) means for introducing refuse into the landfill; (v) means for compacting the refuse; (vi) means for removing and recovering methane generated by anaerobic bacterial digestion of organic materials contained in the refuse; and (vii) means for removing at least a portion of the compacted refuse from the landfill.

  12. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.; Olson, R.S.; Kerlinger, H.O.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for recovering uranium values from uranium bearing phosphate solutions such as are encountered in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. The solution is first treated with a reducing agent to obtain all the uranium in the tetravalent state. Following this reduction, the solution is treated to co-precipitate the rcduced uranium as a fluoride, together with other insoluble fluorides, thereby accomplishing a substantially complete recovery of even trace amounts of uranium from the phosphate solution. This precipitate usually takes the form of a complex fluoride precipitate, and after appropriate pre-treatment, the uranium fluorides are leached from this precipitate and rccovered from the leach solution.

  13. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  14. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  15. Boron recovery from clay waste using Diaion CRB-02 resin.

    PubMed

    Kipçak, I; Ozdemir, M

    2010-03-01

    A two-step process for boron recovery from clay waste is proposed in the present work. The leachate obtained after the clay waste was leached with sulphuric acid solution was treated with Diaion CRB-02 - a boron-specific resin for the separation of boron from the alkaline species in the leachate. The batch studies showed that a maximum boron recovery of about 95% was obtained at a pH value of 8.0, an initial boron concentration of 50 mg L(-1), a contact time of 24 h and a temperature of 25 degrees C. Equilibrium sorption data fitted the Langmuir isotherm. Column studies were carried out using different inlet boron concentrations and flow rates at a pH value of 8.0 and a temperature of 25 degrees C. The Yoon-Nelson and Thomas models were used to describe the dynamic behaviour of the column and to determine the column kinetic parameters. By these models and graphical integration, the column capacity values were found to be 7.3-8.5 mg g(-1) and 7.1-8.5 mg g(-1), respectively, and the 50% breakthrough time values were found to be 21-155 min and 19-149 min, respectively, depending on the inlet concentration and flow rate. It was observed that about 76% of the boron in the leachate solution could be recovered at an inlet boron concentration of 250 mg L(-1), a flow rate of 2.5 mL min(-1), a pH value of 8.0 and a temperature of 25 degrees C.