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Sample records for 24-h urinary albumin

  1. Urinary albumin in space missions.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina; Norsk, Peter; Elmann-Larsen, Benny; Bellini, Luigi; Stellato, Davide; Drummer, Christian

    2002-07-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity).

  2. Why 24-h Urine Albumin Excretion Rate Method Still is Used for Screening of Diabetic Nephropathy in Isfahan Laboratories?

    PubMed Central

    Teimoury, Azam; Iraj, Bijan; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Amini, Massoud; Hosseiny, Seyed-Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: The first step in diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is measurement of albumin in a spot urine sample. The aim of this study was assessment of the accuracy of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) in random urine specimens (RUS) for microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria screening in Iranian diabetic patients. Methods: A total of 200 diabetic patients participated to our study. 24 h timed urine specimens followed by RUS were collected. 24-h urine albumin excretion (24-h urinary albumin excretion (UAE)) and UACR in RUS were measured. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and McNemar test. Results: A total of 165 patients finalized the study. Pearson's correlation of coefficient for 24-h UAE versus UACR was 0.64. The area under ROC curve for UACR was 0.83 in microalbuminuria and 0.91 in macroalbuminuria. The cutoff point of 30 mg/g in UACR method had 86% sensitivity and 60% specificity for microalbuminuria screening and cut-off point of 300 mg/g had 75% sensitivity and 99% specificity for macroalbuminuria screening respectively. Conclusions: UACR in RUS showed acceptable performance as a screening test for diagnosis of both micro and macroalbuminuria in Iranian diabetic patients. PMID:24829719

  3. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Chen, Hui; Bo, Jian; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    24-h urinary sodium excretion is the gold standard for evaluating dietary sodium intake, but it is often not feasible in large epidemiological studies due to high participant burden and cost. Three methods—Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka—have been proposed to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these methods have not been validated in the general Chinese population. This aim of this study was to assess the validity of three methods for estimating 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples against measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion in a Chinese sample population. Data are from a substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study that enrolled 120 participants aged 35 to 70 years and collected their morning fasting urine and 24-h urine specimens. Bias calculations (estimated values minus measured values) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity of the three estimation methods. 116 participants were included in the final analysis. Mean bias for the Kawasaki method was -740 mg/day (95% CI: -1219, 262 mg/day), and was the lowest among the three methods. Mean bias for the Tanaka method was -2305 mg/day (95% CI: -2735, 1875 mg/day). Mean bias for the INTERSALT method was -2797 mg/day (95% CI: -3245, 2349 mg/day), and was the highest of the three methods. Bland-Altman plots indicated that all three methods underestimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urines all underestimated true 24-h urinary sodium excretion in this sample of Chinese adults. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was least biased, but was still relatively inaccurate. A more accurate method is needed to estimate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine for assessment of dietary sodium intake in China. PMID:26895296

  4. The relationship between serum albumin levels and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring recordings in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahbap, Elbis; Sakaci, Tamer; Kara, Ekrem; Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Koc, Yener; Basturk, Taner; Sevinc, Mustafa; Akgol, Cuneyt; Kayalar, Arzu O.; Ucar, Zuhal A.; Bayraktar, Feyza; Unsal, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum albumin levels and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (24-h ABPM) recordings in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients. METHODS: A total of 354 patients (mean [SD] age: 55.5 [14.3] years, 50% females) with essential hypertension and 24-h ABPM recordings were included. Patient 24-h nighttime and daytime ABPM values, systolic and diastolic dipping status and average nocturnal dipping were recorded. The correlations between serum albumin levels and nocturnal systolic and diastolic dipping were evaluated, and correlates of average nocturnal systolic dipping were determined via a linear regression model. RESULTS: Overall, 73.2% of patients were determined to be non-dippers. The mean (SD) levels of serum albumin (4.2 [0.3] g/dL vs. 4.4 [0.4] g/dL, p<0.001) and the average nocturnal systolic (15.2 [4.8] mmHg vs. 0.3 [6.6] mmHg, p<0.001) and diastolic dipping (4.2 [8.6] mmHgvs. 18.9 [7.0] mmHg, p<0.001) were significantly lower in non-dippers than in dippers. A significant positive correlation was noted between serum albumin levels and both systolic (r=0.297, p<0.001) and diastolic dipping (r=0.265, p<0.001). The linear regression analysis revealed that for each one-unit increase in serum albumin, the average nocturnal dip in systolic BP increased by 0.17 mmHg (p=0.033). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate an association between serum albumin levels and the deterioration of circadian BP rhythm among essential hypertensive patients along with the identification of a non-dipper pattern in more than two-thirds of patients. Our findings emphasize the importance of serum albumin levels, rather than urinary albumin excretion, as an independent predictor of nocturnal systolic dipping, at least in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients with moderate proteinuria. PMID:27276394

  5. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8–53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7–45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885–4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654–4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4–23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1–4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33–1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34–2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49–2.53, P < 0

  6. Normal values for 24-h urinary protein excretion: total and low molecular weight proteins with a sex-related difference.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, H; Murakami, T; Kajii, T

    1990-05-01

    Urinary excretion of total and low molecular weight (LMW) (less than 40,000) proteins for a 24-h period was determined in 60 normal individuals, 30 men and 30 women, aged 21 to 44 years. 24-h urinary total protein excretion in men was 91.2 +/- 25.1 mg (mean +/- SD) (range: 40.2-146.8 mg), while that in women was 62.5 +/- 23.6 mg (range: 28.4-130.9 mg), as measured by a biuret method using bicinchoninic acid as a reagent. 24-h urinary LMW protein excretion in men was 37.3 +/- 13.6 mg (range: 12.7-62.7 mg), while that in women was 23.2 +/- 11.8 mg (range: 7.2-54.2 mg), as estimated by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of concentrated urine samples. Thus, a significantly higher (t-test, p less than 0.01) excretion of both the total and LMW proteins was found in men than in women. However, the percentage of the LMW proteins among the total proteins did not differ between the sexes: 40.3 +/- 7.5% (range: 21.7-54.9%) for men and 36.5 +/- 9.9% (range: 20.1-56.7%) for women.

  7. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    PubMed

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  8. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children’s discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother’s 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child’s salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  9. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    PubMed

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake.

  10. Urinary Albumin Excretion and Vascular Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pieringer, Herwig; Brummaier, Tobias; Piringer, Bettina; Auer-Hackenberg, Lorenz; Hartl, Andreas; Puchner, Rudolf; Pohanka, Erich; Schmid, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion is a marker of CV risk. There are only few data on urinary albumin excretion in RA patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate urinary albumin excretion in RA patients and analyze, whether there is an association between urinary albumin excretion and vascular function as measured by the augmentation index (AIx). In a total of 341 participants (215 with RA, 126 without RA) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined and the AIx was measured. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test was used to cluster patient groups whose distributions of ACR can be considered to be equal. A crude analysis showed a median ACR of 6.6 mg/g in the RA group and 5.7 mg/g in patients without RA (P > 0.05). In order to account for diabetes (DM) we formed 4 distinct patient groups. Group 1: RA-/DM- (n = 74); group 2: RA+/DM- (n = 195); group 3: RA-/DM+ (n = 52); group 4: RA+/DM+ (n = 20). Clustering of these groups revealed two distinct patient groups: those without RA and DM, and those with either RA or DM or both. The latter group showed statistically significant higher ACR (median 8.1 mg/g) as the former (median 4.5 mg/g). We found no significant correlation between AIx and ACR. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with RA or DM or both is higher than in subjects without RA and DM. This can be seen as a sign of vascular alteration and increased CV risk in these patients. PMID:26955238

  11. Urinary Albumin Excretion and Vascular Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion is a marker of CV risk. There are only few data on urinary albumin excretion in RA patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate urinary albumin excretion in RA patients and analyze, whether there is an association between urinary albumin excretion and vascular function as measured by the augmentation index (AIx). In a total of 341 participants (215 with RA, 126 without RA) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined and the AIx was measured. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test was used to cluster patient groups whose distributions of ACR can be considered to be equal. A crude analysis showed a median ACR of 6.6 mg/g in the RA group and 5.7 mg/g in patients without RA (P > 0.05). In order to account for diabetes (DM) we formed 4 distinct patient groups. Group 1: RA-/DM- (n = 74); group 2: RA+/DM- (n = 195); group 3: RA-/DM+ (n = 52); group 4: RA+/DM+ (n = 20). Clustering of these groups revealed two distinct patient groups: those without RA and DM, and those with either RA or DM or both. The latter group showed statistically significant higher ACR (median 8.1 mg/g) as the former (median 4.5 mg/g). We found no significant correlation between AIx and ACR. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with RA or DM or both is higher than in subjects without RA and DM. This can be seen as a sign of vascular alteration and increased CV risk in these patients. PMID:26955238

  12. Relationship between salt intake as estimated by a brief self-administered diet-history questionnaire (BDHQ) and 24-h urinary salt excretion in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Satoko; Tsuchihashi, Takuya; Oniki, Hideyuki; Tominaga, Mitsuhiro; Arakawa, Kimika; Sakaki, Minako; Kitazono, Takanari

    2015-08-01

    Assessing an individual's salt intake is necessary for providing guidance with respect to salt restriction. However, the methods that exist for assessing salt intake have both merits and limitations. Therefore, the evaluation methods should be selected for their appropriateness to the patients and the environment of the medical facilities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity of a brief self-administered diet-history questionnaire (BDHQ) by comparing the responses with 24-h urinary salt excretion. A total of 136 hypertensive outpatients (54 men and 82 women) were included in this study. All subjects were given the BDHQ and performed 24-h home urine collection. The energy-adjusted salt intake as assessed by the BDHQ was 12.3 (95% confidence interval: 11.8-12.9) g per day, and the urinary salt excretion evaluated by 24-h urinary collection was 9.0 (8.4-9.5) g per day. The energy-adjusted salt intake assessed by the BDHQ correlated significantly with the urinary salt excretion evaluated by 24-h urinary collection (r=0.34, P<0.001). In conclusion, the estimated salt intake evaluated by the BDHQ weakly, but significantly, correlated with 24-h urinary salt excretion. In clinical practice, it seems important to utilize both methods to assess an individual's salt intake in order to provide adequate guidance for salt restriction.

  13. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  17. Albumin activation of urinary amylase as determined with the Du Pont aca.

    PubMed

    Garber, C C; Carey, R N

    1978-04-01

    Protein activation of urinary alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) activity was observed during an evaluation of the Du Pont aca procedure for the determination of urinary alpha-amylase. This activation effect became constant for urinary albumin concentrations exceeding 1.50 g/liter. It is recommended that urinary alpha-amylase be analyzed with sufficient albumin added to maximize this effect. The aca alpha-amylase procedure is compared to an amyloclastic method for both serum and urine analysis. Expected ranges are presented for the aca method for serum and urinary amylase, amylase clearance, and the amylase clearance/creatinine clearance ratio.

  18. Variability of urinary concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolite in general population and comparison of spot, first-morning, and 24-h void sampling.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Lewin, Michael D; Porter, Erin N; Trinidad, Debra A; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G; Sjödin, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    Urinary mono-hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) are commonly used in biomonitoring to assess exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Similar to other biologically non-persistent chemicals, OH-PAHs have relatively short biological half-lives (4.4-35 h). Little information is available on their variability in urinary concentrations over time in non-occupationally exposed subjects. This study was designed to (i) examine the variability of nine urinary OH-PAH metabolite concentrations over time and (ii) calculate sample size requirements for future epidemiological studies on the basis of spot urine, first-morning void, and 24-h void sampling. Individual urine samples (n=427) were collected during 1 week from 8 non-occupationally exposed adults. We recorded the time and volume of each urine excretion, dietary details, and driving activities of the participants. Within subjects, the coefficients of variation (CVs) for the wet-weight concentration of OH-PAHs in all samples ranged from 45% to 297%; creatinine adjustment reduced the CV to 19-288% (P<0.001; paired t-test). The simulated 24-h void concentrations were the least variable measure, with CVs ranging from 13% to 182% for the 9 OH-PAHs. Within-day variability contributed on average 84%, and between-day variability accounted for 16% of the total variance of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR). Intraclass correlation coefficients of 1-PYR levels were 0.55 for spot urine samples, 0.65 [corrected] for first-morning voids, and 0.77 [corrected] for 24-h voids, indicating a high degree of correlation between urine measurements collected from the same subject over time. Sample size calculations were performed to estimate the number of subjects required for detecting differences in the geometric mean at a statistical power of 80% for spot urine, first-morning, and 24-h void sampling. These data will aid in the design of future studies of PAHs and possibly other biologically non-persistent chemicals and in

  19. 24-h urinary sodium excretion is associated with obesity in a cross-sectional sample of Australian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2016-03-28

    Emerging evidence indicates that dietary Na may be linked to obesity; however it is unclear whether this relationship is independent of energy intake (EI). The aim of this study was to assess the association between Na intake and measures of adiposity, including BMI z score, weight category and waist:height ratio (WHtR), in a sample of Australian schoolchildren. This was a cross-sectional study of schoolchildren aged 4-12 years. Na intake was assessed via one 24-h urine collection. BMI was converted to age- and sex-specific z scores, and WHtR was used to define abdominal obesity. In children aged ≥8 years, EI was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Of the 666 children with valid urine samples 55 % were male (average age 9·3 (sd 1·8) years). In adjusted models an additional 17 mmol/d of Na was associated with a 0·10 higher BMI z score (95 % CI 0·07, 0·13), a 23 % (OR 1·23; 95 % CI 1·16, 1·31) greater risk of being overweight/obese and a 15 % (OR 1·15; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·23) greater risk of being centrally obese. In the subsample of 8-12-year-old children (n 458), adjustment for EI did not markedly alter the associations between Na and adiposity outcomes. Using a robust measure of daily Na intake we found a positive association between Na intake and obesity risk in Australian schoolchildren, which could not be explained by total energy consumption. To determine whether this is a causal relationship, longitudinal studies, with high-quality measures of Na and EI, are required.

  20. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a... are characterized by proteinuria or albuminuria. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  1. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: The 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8-53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7-45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885-4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654-4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4-23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1-4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33-1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34-2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49-2.53, P < 0.001) in women. In this

  2. Association between 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zeng; Guo, Xiaolei; Chen, Xiaorong; Tang, Junli; Yan, Liuxia; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Jiyu; Lu, Zilong; Dong, Jing; Xu, Jianwei; Cai, Xiaoning; Liang, Hao; Ma, Jixiang

    2015-03-28

    The association of 24 h urinary Na and potassium excretion with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been studied in China. The aim of the present study was to examine this association by analysing the data from 1906 study participants living in north China. To this end, 24 h urine samples were collected. Of the 1906 participants, 471 (24·7 %) had the MetS. The mean urinary Na and K excretion was 228·7 and 40·8 mmol/d, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the odds of the MetS significantly increased across the increasing tertiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·40 and 1·54, respectively). For the components of the MetS, the odds of central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG, but not the odds of low HDL-cholesterol and elevated fasting glucose, significantly increased with the successive tertiles of urinary Na excretion. Furthermore, for every 100 mmol/d increase in urinary Na excretion, the odds of the MetS, central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG was significantly increased by 29, 63, 22 and 21 %, respectively. However, urinary K excretion was not significantly associated with the risk of the MetS. These findings suggest that high Na intake might be an important risk factor for the MetS in Chinese adults.

  3. Urinary biomarkers in hexachloro-1:3-butadiene-induced acute kidney injury in the female Hanover Wistar rat; correlation of α-glutathione S-transferase, albumin and kidney injury molecule-1 with histopathology and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Swain, Aubrey; Turton, John; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Pereira, Ines; Viswanathan, Neeti; Smyth, Rosemary; Munday, Michael; McClure, Fiona; Gandhi, Mitul; Sondh, Surjit; York, Malcolm

    2011-05-01

    Hexachloro-1:3-butadiene (HCBD) causes kidney injury specific to the pars recta of the proximal tubule. In the present studies, injury to the nephron was characterized at 24 h following a single dose of HCBD, using a range of quantitative urinary measurements, renal histopathology and gene expression. Multiplexed renal biomarker measurements were performed using both the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) and Rules Based Medicine platforms. In a second study, rats were treated with a single nephrotoxic dose of HCBD and the time course release of a range of traditional and newer urinary biomarkers was followed over a 25 day period. Urinary albumin (a marker of both proximal tubular function and glomerular integrity) and α-glutathione S-transferase (α-GST, a proximal tubular cell marker of cytoplasmic leakage) showed the largest fold change at 24 h (day 1) after dosing. Most other markers measured on either the MSD or RBM platforms peaked on day 1 or 2 post-dosing, whereas levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), a marker of tubular regeneration, peaked on day 3/4. Therefore, in rat proximal tubular nephrotoxicity, the measurement of urinary albumin, α-GST and KIM-1 is recommended as they potentially provide useful information about the function, degree of damage and repair of the proximal tubule. Gene expression data provided useful confirmatory information regarding exposure of the kidney and liver to HCBD, and the response of these tissues to HCBD in terms of metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and regeneration and repair.

  4. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for estimation of urinary albumin.

    PubMed

    Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Kariya, Kiran P; Prasad, Pramod K V; Chaube, Shail K; Kumar, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Yearly estimation of urinary albumin is a prerequisite for predicting renal status in Diabetes Type II patients with negative dipstick results for overt proteinuria. A simple, sensitive, and cost-effective enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for urinary albumin has been developed using human serum albumin antiserum (HSA-antiserum), HSA-biotin, and streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase (SA-HRP) conjugates. To the antibody-coated wells, 100 μL of HSA standards followed by 1:100 diluted urine samples in duplicate were added and then 50 μL of HSA-biotin conjugates was added in all the wells. 100 μL of SA-HRP was added after washing. Bound enzyme activity was measured by adding 100 μL TMB/H2O2. The analytical sensitivity and ED50 of the developed method was found to be 0.01 μg/mL and 0.35 μg/mL, respectively. The percent recovery of the HSA from exogenously spiked urine pools were in the range of 98.13-100.29%. The intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation (CVs) ranged from 3.38-10.32 % and 4.22-11.01%, respectively. The antibody showed 4.4% and 3.2% cross reactivity with monkey and horse serum albumin, respectively. There was no cross reaction with human β2-microglobulin, γ-globulin, and haemoglobulin.

  5. Urinary Albumin Excretion is Increased in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Associated with Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Becetti, Karima; Oeser, Annette; Ormseth, Michelle; Solus, Joseph F.; Raggi, Paolo; Stein, C. Michael; Chung, Cecilia P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). High urinary albumin excretion is a risk factor for CVD in the general population, but its role in atherosclerosis in patients with RA is not well defined. Methods We determined the urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) in 136 patients with RA and 79 controls. Individuals with diabetes or a clinical history of CVD were excluded. We measured coronary artery calcium (CAC) with electron beam computer tomography and augmentation index (AIX) using pulse wave analysis. In patients with RA, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and concentrations of vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1), interleukin-10 (IL-10), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cystatin-C were measured and results correlated with UACR. Results Patients with RA had higher UACR [median (IQR): 7.6 (4.0-15.5) mg/g than control subjects: 5.6 (3.3-9.0)mg/g, p=0.02]. The presence of CAC was not associated with UACR in RA or control subjects. In patients with RA, UACR was significantly correlated with AIX (rho=0.24, p=0.01), higher levels of VCAM-1 (rho=0.2, p=0.01) and lower levels of IL-10 (rho=-0.2, p=0.02). The association between AIX and higher UACR remained significant in multivariate analysis [β coefficient of 1.9 (95% CI 0.4-3.4), p=0.01 that adjusted for age, sex, and race]. Conclusion Urinary albumin excretion was higher in RA patients than controls and correlated with increased arterial stiffness, higher VCAM-1, and lower IL-10 concentrations. PMID:25641887

  6. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Urinary Albumin Excretion in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Canales, Muna T.; Paudel, Misti L.; Taylor, Brent C.; Ishani, Areef; Mehra, Reena; Steffes, Michael; Stone, Katie L.; Redline, Susan; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Sleep-disordered breathing(SDB) may be deleterious to the cardiovascular system and other organs, including the kidney. Although older men are at increased risk for both kidney disease and SDB, it is unknown whether SDB is associated with higher urinary albumin excretion in this population. Methods We examined 507 community-dwelling men age ≥67 years(mean 76.0±5.3) enrolled in the MrOS Sleep study who underwent overnight polysomnography and gave a spot urine sample. SDB severity was categorized using the respiratory disturbance index and percent total sleep time <90% oxygen saturation(%time O2<90). Urinary albumin excretion was expressed using the albumin-to-creatinine ratio(ACR). Results There was a graded association between respiratory disturbance index and ACR (age and race-adjusted mean ACR=9.35 mg/gCr for respiratory disturbance index≥30 versus 6.72 mg/gCr for respiratory disturbance index<5, p=0.007). This association was attenuated after further adjustment for body mass index(BMI), hypertension and diabetes and no longer reached significance(p=0.129). However, even after adjustment for age, race, BMI, hypertension and diabetes, greater %time O2<90 was associated with higher ACR(10.35 mg/gCr for ≥10%time O2<90 versus 7.45 mg/gCr for <1%time O2<90, p=0.046). Conclusion SDB, measured by elevated respiratory disturbance index or nocturnal hypoxemia, was associated with higher ACR. The relationship between respiratory disturbance index and ACR was partially explained by higher BMI and greater prevalence of hypertension and diabetes among men with SDB. However, greater nocturnal hypoxemia was independently associated with higher ACR, suggesting that the hypoxia component of SDB may mediate any detrimental effect of SDB on the kidney. PMID:20186573

  7. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis. The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04). UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE. PMID:26496329

  8. Effects of topiroxostat and febuxostat on urinary albumin excretion and plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Murase, Takayo; Nampei, Mai; Morimoto, Nobutaka; Ashizawa, Naoki; Iwanaga, Takashi; Sakamoto, Ryusuke

    2016-06-01

    Topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor, has been shown to decrease the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio compared with placebo in hyperuricemic patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease. Thus, we aimed to ascertain the albuminuria-lowering effect of topiroxostat in diabetic mouse. Db/db mice were fed standard diets with or without topiroxostat (0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3mg/kg/day) and febuxostat (0.1, 0.3, and 1mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Urinary albumin and purine bodies levels, XOR activities, and drug concentrations in the liver, kidney, and plasma were measured. Moreover, the XOR inhibitory activity of each XOR inhibitor was evaluated with or without an exogenous protein in vitro. Topiroxostat decreased dose-dependently the urinary albumin excretion, but febuxostat did not show such a tendency. Treatment with topiroxostat inhibited plasma XOR activity with dose-dependent increase in plasma purine levels, which was not observed by febuxostat. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis revealed that topiroxostat and febuxostat concentration in each tissue showed a good correlation with both the hypouricemic effect and plasma drug concentration, whereas the change in albuminuria correlated neither with the change in uric acid nor with drug concentration in plasma. However, the change in urinary albumin and plasma XOR activity showed good correlation in topiroxostat group. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) of febuxostat against plasma XOR in vitro was 12-fold higher than that of topiroxostat, and increased by approximately 13-fold by interfering with an exogenous protein. Topiroxostat caused reduced urinary albumin excretion, in which potent inhibition of the plasma XOR activity might be involved.

  9. Significance of normal range urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in Chinese subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jing; Zhang, Jin-ping; Xie, Ling-ting; He, Yi-fan; Lv, Yan-yu; Jiang, Hong; Xing, Xiao-Yan

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate clinical features of Chinese metabolic syndrome (MS) subjects with normal urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) and to estimate independent correlation factor for UACR. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey in participants having MS. The patients with different grade of albuminuria were divided into 4 groups according to the value of UACR (<10, 10-20, 21-30, >30 mg/g). All underwent biochemical tests. Bioelectrical impedance body fat content, islet β-cell function and insulin sensitivity were measured. Multivariable linear regression models were applied to further determine association between UACR and clinical factors with adjustment. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), TG, fat mass, fat content and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were significantly higher in the group with UACR at 10-20 mg/g than those in the group with UACA lower than 10 mg/g (P<0.05). Multivariable linear regression showed that TG, HbA1c, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and SBP were independently associated with UACR. The patients with normal UACR had abnormal levels of MS components. The factors independently associated with UACR were TG, HbA1c, WHR and SBP. PMID:26670437

  10. Liver function tests and urinary albumin in house painters with previous heavy exposure to organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, I; Nise, G; Hedenborg, G; Högberg, M; Vesterberg, O

    1994-05-01

    The serum activities or concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (BIL), cholic acid (CHOL), chenodeoxycholic acid (CHENO), and transferrin with isoelectric point 5.7, and the urinary excretion of albumin were determined among male current or former house painters (n = 135) and house carpenters (n = 71) who had worked in their trades for at least 10 years before 1970. Workers who showed a value above the 90th percentile among the carpenters in at least one of the tests ASAT, ALAT, GGT, BIL, CHOL, or CHENO were regarded as showing "possible signs of liver dysfunction". Each participant's lifetime solvent exposure was evaluated by interview. The painters were divided into categories with low, intermediate, and heavy cumulative exposure during life (LTSE) or during the most exposed year (MEYSE). All participants stated none or slight recent exposure. The prevalence of possible signs of liver dysfunction increased with solvent exposure category according to LTSE as well as MEYSE with a numerically higher risk estimate in the heavy exposure category for MEYSE than for LTSE. ALP activity increased with exposure category according to both exposure estimates. This increase seemed to be due to an interaction between exposure to solvents and current or previous long term intake of medicines potentially toxic to the liver. None of these results was affected by whether or not the subjects had been exposed to solvents during the year before the investigation. The exposure to solvents was not significantly related to any other outcome variable. It is concluded that long term heavy exposure to solvents may elicit changes in conventional liver function tests indicative of a mild chronic effect on the liver. The findings also suggest that heavy solvent exposure during short time periods is a more likely cause of the findings than lifetime cumulative

  11. Octreotide administration in diabetic rats: effects on renal hypertrophy and urinary albumin excretion.

    PubMed

    Flyvbjerg, A; Marshall, S M; Frystyk, J; Hansen, K W; Harris, A G; Orskov, H

    1992-04-01

    Initial renal hypertrophy in experimental diabetes is prevented by administration of a long-acting somatostatin analogue octreotide (SMS). To investigate the long-term effects of SMS on renal hypertrophy and urinary albumin excretion (UAE), streptozotocin-diabetic and non-diabetic rats were treated with two daily subcutaneous injections of SMS (100 micrograms x 2) for six months. Untreated diabetic and non-diabetic animals were used as reference groups. No differences were seen between the two diabetic groups in respect to body weight, food intake, blood glucose levels, urinary glucose output, hemoglobin A1C(HbA1C), fructosamine, serum growth hormone (rGH) or creatinine clearance, but kidney weight (896 +/- 36 vs. 1000 +/- 24 mg, P less than 0.02), UAE (417 +/- 131 vs. 1098 +/- 187 micrograms/24 hr, P less than 0.02), kidney insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) (167 +/- 16 vs. 239 +/- 17 ng/g, P less than 0.01) and serum IGF-I (301 +/- 26 vs. 407 +/- 17 micrograms/liter, P less than 0.01) were all reduced in the SMS-treated diabetic animals when compared to the untreated diabetic group. In non-diabetic rats SMS reduced body weight (274 +/- 3 vs. 293 +/- 5 g, P less than 0.01), kidney weight (695 +/- 9 vs. 764 +/- 17 mg, P less than 0.01), UAE (83 +/- 29 vs. 364 +/- 114 micrograms/24 hr, P less than 0.02), kidney IGF-I (202 +/- 12 vs. 280 +/- 12 ng/g, P less than 0.01), serum IGF-I (428 +/- 21 vs. 601 +/- 54 micrograms/liter, P less than 0.01) and serum rGH (67 +/- 6 vs. 126 +/- 27 micrograms/liter, P less than 0.05) when compared to untreated controls. When kidney weights were expressed in relation to body weight no difference was found between SMS-treated and untreated controls, while the difference between SMS-treated and untreated diabetic animals was still present (P less than 0.01). In conclusion, chronic administration of SMS has abating effects on diabetic renal hypertrophy and UAE, and thus indicates that SMS may reduce development of diabetic kidney

  12. Spot urinary albumin-creatinine ratio predicts left ventricular hypertrophy in young hypertensive African-American men.

    PubMed

    Post, W S; Blumenthal, R S; Weiss, J L; Levine, D M; Thiemann, D R; Gerstenblith, G; Hill, M N

    2000-11-01

    Hypertensive patients with target organ damage are at increased cardiovascular risk, and should be treated most aggressively. The association between urinary albumin excretion and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in prior studies is inconsistent, and has not been described using a single, random spot urine specimen. Therefore, we evaluated the association between the urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) and left ventricular (LV) mass and also tested the hypothesis that a simple random, single-void urine ACR would identify high risk young, hypertensive, African-American men. We measured echocardiographic LV mass and a random spot urinary ACR in 109 untreated, hypertensive, young, inner city, African-American men. The mean age was 41 +/- 6 years and the mean blood pressure (BP) was 157 +/- 19/107 +/- 13 mm Hg. Microalbuminuria (ACR 30 to 300 mg/g) was present in 22% of subjects. The ACR is higher in the men with LVH than in the men without LVH (P < .05). Increased ACR is a predictor of increased LV mass index (P < .003) using multiple linear regression. An ACR >30 mg/g has a sensitivity of 33% and a specificity of 82% for the diagnosis of echocardiographic LVH. In conclusion, elevated random spot ACR is a marker of increased LV mass, independent of BP, in young urban African-American men with hypertension, and may help to determine the aggressiveness of antihypertensive therapy in this high-risk group.

  13. Effect of rosuvastatin or atorvastatin on urinary albumin excretion and renal function in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Sorof, Jonathan; Berne, Christian; Siewert-Delle, Annica; Jørgensen, Leif; Sager, Philip

    2006-04-01

    The effect of rosuvastatin or atorvastatin on urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was determined in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, response-based design compared rosuvastatin 10mg (titrated to 40 mg) with atorvastatin 10mg (titrated to 80 mg) in type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia, with dose titration to an LDL-C target of <3.0 mmol/L. Overnight timed urine collections were obtained at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks to UAE. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Patients with paired, UAE collections of at least 8h duration were analyzed (n=344). No significant change from baseline in UAE was observed for either treatment group or between-treatment groups at 16 weeks, and median UAE for both treatment groups remained within normal limits (rosuvastatin 4.5 microg/min, atorvastatin 5.0 microg/min). A similar absence of change from baseline was observed for 51 patients with UAE above the normal range at study entry (>20 microg/min). No significant change in GFR from baseline after 16 weeks was observed for either treatment group. These data provide reassurance that type 2 diabetic patients can be treated with higher efficacy statins without clinically meaningful effects on urinary albumin excretion. PMID:16246447

  14. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, P<0.05) with ephedrine than with placebo, but mechanical work was not different between the ephedrine and placebo periods. Noradrenaline excretion was lower with ephedrine (0.032+/-0.011 microg/mg creatinine) compared with placebo (0.044+/-0.012 microg/mg creatinine) (P<0.05). (+/-)Ephedrine is a relatively weak partial agonist of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors, and had no detectable activity at human beta3-adrenoreceptors. Ephedrine (50 mg thrice daily) modestly increases energy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  15. Effect of Pentoxifylline on Renal Function and Urinary Albumin Excretion in Patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease: The PREDIAN Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Fernández, Carmen; Muros de Fuentes, Mercedes; Chahin, Jesús; Méndez, María L.; Gallego, Eduardo; Macía, Manuel; del Castillo, Nieves; Rivero, Antonio; Getino, María A.; García, Patricia; Jarque, Ana; García, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of ESRD. We conducted an open-label, prospective, randomized trial to determine whether pentoxifylline (PTF), which reduces albuminuria, in addition to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade, can slow progression of renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and stages 3–4 CKD. Participants were assigned to receive PTF (1200 mg/d) (n=82) or to a control group (n=87) for 2 years. All patients received similar doses of RAS inhibitors. At study end, eGFR had decreased by a mean±SEM of 2.1±0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the PTF group compared with 6.5±0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the control group, with a between-group difference of 4.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.1 to 5.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2; P<0.001) in favor of PTF. The proportion of patients with a rate of eGFR decline greater than the median rate of decline (0.16 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per month) was lower in the PTF group than in the control group (33.3% versus 68.2%; P<0.001). Percentage change in urinary albumin excretion was 5.7% (95% CI, −0.3% to 11.1%) in the control group and −14.9% (95% CI, −20.4% to −9.4%) in the PTF group (P=0.001). Urine TNF-α decreased from a median 16 ng/g (interquartile range, 11–20.1 ng/g) to 14.3 ng/g (interquartile range, 9.2–18.4 ng/g) in the PTF group (P<0.01), with no changes in the control group. In this population, addition of PTF to RAS inhibitors resulted in a smaller decrease in eGFR and a greater reduction of residual albuminuria. PMID:24970885

  16. Creatinine adjustment of spot urine samples and 24 h excretion of iodine, selenium, perchlorate, and thiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-ichi; Kirk, Andrea B; Dyke, Jason V; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2008-12-15

    Creatinine (CR) adjustment is widely used for the estimation of urinary 24 h excretion from spot urine samples. We have compared CR-adjusted values for urinary iodine, selenium, perchlorate, and thiocyanate to measured 24 h excretion. The urine samples were collected from a cohort of 14 breastfeeding mothers with both spot samples and 24 h collection, 52 24 h and spot sample pairs where the 24 h CR value fell within the "normal" adult female CR excretion range of 0.6-1.6 g/day were considered for this analysis. In addition, a nonlactating female and a male subject provided all micturitions for 1 and 5 days, respectively. Creatinine was analyzed with a Jáffe reaction-based automated analyzer. Iodine and selenium were determined with induction coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Perchlorate and thiocyanate were measured with ion chromatography (IC)-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Creatinine-adjusted values were poor substitutes of the actual 24 h excretion values (average deviation +/-69, 78, 105, and 104% for iodine, selenium, perchlorate, and thiocyanate, respectively.). Over a 5 day period, the 24 h iodine excretion predicted based on creatinine adjustment of spot samples for the same individual deviated between -83.5 to +101% from the actual measured value, the minimum absolute error being 2.5%. Creatinine adjustment for estimation of 24 h excretion from spot samples was not effective for iodine, selenium, perchlorate, or thiocyanate.

  17. 24-h Efficacy of Glaucoma Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Konstas, Anastasios G P; Quaranta, Luciano; Bozkurt, Banu; Katsanos, Andreas; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian; Rossetti, Luca; Shaarawy, Tarek; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Miglior, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Current management of glaucoma entails the medical, laser, or surgical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) to a predetermined level of target IOP, which is commensurate with either stability or delayed progression of visual loss. In the published literature, the hypothesis is often made that IOP control implies a single IOP measurement over time. Although the follow-up of glaucoma patients with single IOP measurements is quick and convenient, such measurements often do not adequately reflect the untreated IOP characteristics, or indeed the quality of treated IOP control during the 24-h cycle. Since glaucoma is a 24-h disease and the damaging effect of elevated IOP is continuous, it is logical that we should aim to understand the efficacy of all treatment options throughout the 24-h period. This article first reviews the concept and value of diurnal and 24-h IOP monitoring. It then critically evaluates selected available evidence on the 24-h efficacy of medical, laser and surgical therapy options. During the past decade several controlled trials have significantly enhanced our understanding on the 24-h efficacy of all glaucoma therapy options. Nevertheless, more long-term evidence is needed to better evaluate the 24-h efficacy of glaucoma therapy and the precise impact of IOP characteristics on glaucomatous progression and visual prognosis.

  18. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-10-01

    Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis.The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04).UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE.

  19. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  20. Effect of the Direct Renin Inhibitor Aliskiren on Urinary Albumin Excretion in Spontaneous Type 2 Diabetic KK-Ay Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Masako; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Funabiki, Kazuhiko; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Although angiotensin II-mediated inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation are considered to be associated with the progression of diabetic nephropathy, these processes have not yet been sufficiently clarified. The objective of this study was to determine whether the correction of the abnormal renal expression of MMPs and its inhibitors (MMPs/TIMPs) and cytokines following the administration of aliskiren to KK-Ay mice results in a renoprotective effect. Methods. KK-Ay mice were divided into two groups, that is, untreated (saline) and treated (aliskiren) groups. Systolic BP, HbA1c levels, and the albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured. The renal expression of MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) was examined using real-time PCR and/or immunohistochemical staining. Renal MAPK and NF-κB activity were also examined by Western blot analyses and ELISA, respectively. Results. Significant decreases in systolic BP and ACR levels were observed in treated KK-Ay mice compared with the findings in untreated KK-Ay mice. Furthermore, increases in MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (P)RR expression, in addition to MAPK and NF-κB activity, were significantly attenuated by aliskiren administration. Conclusions. It appears that aliskiren improves albuminuria and renal fibrosis by regulating inflammation and the alteration of collagen synthesis and degradation. PMID:23819050

  1. Health in a 24-h society.

    PubMed

    Rajaratnam, S M; Arendt, J

    2001-09-22

    With increasing economic and social demands, we are rapidly evolving into a 24-h society. In any urban economy, about 20% of the population are required to work outside the regular 0800-1700 h working day and this figure is likely to increase. Although the increase in shiftwork has led to greater flexibility in work schedules, the ability to provide goods and services throughout the day and night, and possibly greater employment opportunities, the negative effects of shiftwork and chronic sleep loss on health and productivity are now being appreciated. For example, sleepiness surpasses alcohol and drugs as the greatest identifiable and preventable cause of accidents in all modes of transport. Industrial accidents associated with night work are common, perhaps the most famous being Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and Bhopal. PMID:11583769

  2. Relationship between urinary albumin excretion rate and renal histology in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: with reference to the clinical significance of microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Inomata, S; Nakamoto, Y; Inoue, M; Itoh, M; Ohsawa, Y; Masamune, O

    1989-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the relationship between urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) and renal structural changes in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) without clinical proteinuria. Resting AER in 30 control subjects and 67 NIDDM patients were 10.4 +/- 4.8 (mean +/- SD) micrograms/min (range 4.3-21.1 micrograms/min) and 26.4 +/- 32.3 micrograms/min (range 0.4-155 micrograms/min), respectively. Persistent normoalbuminuria (less than 20 micrograms/min) and microalbuminuria (20-200 micrograms/min) were found in 43 (Group A) and 24 (Group B) diabetics. There were significant differences in age, diabetes duration, and frequency of retinopathy (background and proliferative) as well as that of proliferative retinopathy between Groups A and B, but not in the other clinical parameters such as body mass index, HbA1, Ccr, or systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP). When compared with 11 normoalbuminuric patients of similar age and equal diabetes duration to those in Group B, the sole difference in clinical parameters was the existence of proliferative retinopathy in Group B. Renal structural changes were investigated by light microscopy in 14 people in Group A and 13 people in Group B, and additionally in 5 NIDDM patients with both macroalbuminuria (greater than or equal to 200 micrograms/min) and normal or nearly normal renal function (Group C). The diffuse glomerular lesion (Gellman's classification) was grade I or II in A, II or III in B, and III in C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Reduction in urinary albumin excretion with a moderate low-carbohydrate diet in patients with type 2 diabetes: a 12-month intervention

    PubMed Central

    Haimoto, Hajime; Sasakabe, Tae; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Wakai, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is a marker of the early phase of diabetic nephropathy. Although a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) has been shown to effectively improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), its effects on UAE remain unknown. Patients and methods A total of 124 patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 61.6 ± 9.2 years) with T2DM were instructed to consume a moderate LCD (1734 ± 416 kcal/d; % carbohydrate:fat:protein = 38:37:19) for 12 months. We measured the levels of UAE, hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin (IRI), and the serum lipid profiles in the patients and recorded their dosages of antidiabetic drugs during this 12-month period. Results Of the 124 patients, 68 were normoalbuminuric, 50 were microalbuminuric, and six were macroalbuminuric at baseline. The patients had relatively good compliance with the moderate LCD diet. After 12 months, the mean levels of hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, IRI, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance, and the body mass index of all participants significantly decreased (P = 0.003 for IRI and P < 0.001 for the other parameters). Among the microalbuminuric patients (n = 50), remission to normoalbuminuria was frequently achieved (52%) and the geometric mean UAE significantly decreased by 53% (95% confidence interval: 43, 62) over 12 months (P < 0.001). After patients taking an angiotensin 2 receptor blocker were excluded, the UAE significantly decreased by 41% (n = 26, 95% confidence interval: 25, 54; P < 0.001). Moreover, the reduction in UAE was significantly and positively correlated with a reduction in homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance levels (rs = 0.308; P = 0.031). Conclusion A moderate LCD (38% carbohydrate diet) achieved a remarkable reduction in UAE over 12 months in microalbuminuric patients with T2DM. PMID:22924004

  4. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate with 24-h urinalysis and stone composition.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Daniel M; Friedlander, Justin I; Hartman, Christopher; Gershman, Boris; Smith, Arthur D; Okeke, Zeph

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with 24-h urine analysis and stone composition. We performed a retrospective review of 1060 stone formers with 24-h urinalysis, of which 499 had stone composition analysis available. Comparisons of baseline patient characteristics and urinary abnormalities across eGFR groups (<60, 60-89.9, ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) were performed using Fisher's exact test for categorical data and analysis of variance for continuous variables. Analyses of 24-h urinalysis and stone composition across eGFR groups were performed using linear regression with eGFR groups as a continuous variable to evaluate trends. Of the 1060 patients in the study, 595 (56 %) were males. The mean age was 53.8 years. A total of 38 (4 %), 77 (7 %), and 945 (89 %) patients had eGFR <60, 60-89.9, and ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower body-mass index, and female gender (all P < 0.05). Lower eGFR was also associated with lower urinary volume, calcium, citrate, uric acid, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfate, and creatinine on both univariable and multivariable analyses, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities and medication use (all P < 0.05). The prevalence of hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria was associated with decreased eGFR, while hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and hyperphosphaturia were associated with higher eGFR (all P < 0.05). Stone composition was similar across eGFR groups (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, lower eGFR was associated with lower excretion of urinary elements in a routine 24-h urinalysis, but similar stone composition. PMID:26573808

  5. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate with 24-h urinalysis and stone composition.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Daniel M; Friedlander, Justin I; Hartman, Christopher; Gershman, Boris; Smith, Arthur D; Okeke, Zeph

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with 24-h urine analysis and stone composition. We performed a retrospective review of 1060 stone formers with 24-h urinalysis, of which 499 had stone composition analysis available. Comparisons of baseline patient characteristics and urinary abnormalities across eGFR groups (<60, 60-89.9, ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) were performed using Fisher's exact test for categorical data and analysis of variance for continuous variables. Analyses of 24-h urinalysis and stone composition across eGFR groups were performed using linear regression with eGFR groups as a continuous variable to evaluate trends. Of the 1060 patients in the study, 595 (56 %) were males. The mean age was 53.8 years. A total of 38 (4 %), 77 (7 %), and 945 (89 %) patients had eGFR <60, 60-89.9, and ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower body-mass index, and female gender (all P < 0.05). Lower eGFR was also associated with lower urinary volume, calcium, citrate, uric acid, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfate, and creatinine on both univariable and multivariable analyses, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities and medication use (all P < 0.05). The prevalence of hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria was associated with decreased eGFR, while hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and hyperphosphaturia were associated with higher eGFR (all P < 0.05). Stone composition was similar across eGFR groups (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, lower eGFR was associated with lower excretion of urinary elements in a routine 24-h urinalysis, but similar stone composition.

  6. Effects of insufficient sleep on blood pressure in hypertensive patients: a 24-h study.

    PubMed

    Lusardi, P; Zoppi, A; Preti, P; Pesce, R M; Piazza, E; Fogari, R

    1999-01-01

    The influence of acute sleep deprivation during the first part of the night on 24-h blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was studied in 36 never-treated mild to moderate hypertensive patients. According to a crossover design, they were randomized to have either sleep deprivation or a full night's sleep 1 week apart, during which they were monitored with ABPM. Urine samples for analysis of nocturnal urinary excretion of norepinephrine were collected. During the sleep-deprivation day, both mean 24-h blood pressure and mean 24-h heart rate were higher in comparison with those recorded during the routine workday, the difference being more pronounced during the nighttime (P < .01). Urinary excretion of norepinephrine showed a significant increase at night during sleep deprivation (P < .05). Blood pressure and heart rate significantly increased in the morning after a sleep-insufficient night (P < .05). These data suggest that lack of sleep in hypertensive patients may increase sympathetic nervous activity during the night and the following morning, leading to increased blood pressure and heart rate. This situation might represent an increased risk for both target organ damage and acute cardiovascular diseases. PMID:10075386

  7. 24-h hydration status: parameters, epidemiology and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Manz, F; Wentz, A

    2003-12-01

    Hydration of individuals and groups is characterised by comparing actual urine osmolality (Uosm) with maximum Uosm. Data of actual, maximum and minimum Uosm in infants, children and adults and its major influencing factors are reviewed. There are remarkable ontogenetic, individual and cultural differences in Uosm. In the foetus and the breast-fed infant Uosm is much lower than plasma osmolality, whereas in children and adults it is usually much higher. Individuals and groups may show long-term differences in Uosm. In industrialised countries, the gender difference of Uosm is common. There are large intercultural differences of mean 24-h Uosm ranging from 860 mosm/kg in Germany, 649 mosm/kg in USA to 392 mosm/kg in Poland. A new physiologically based concept called 'free-water reserve' quantifies differences in 24-h euhydration. In 189 boys of the DONALD Study aged 4.0-6.9 y, median urine volume was 497 ml/24-h and median Uosm 809 mosm/kg. Considering mean-2 s.d. of actual maximum 24-h Uosm of 830 mosm/kg as upper level of euhydration and physiological criterion of adequate hydration in these boys, median free-water reserve was 11 ml/24-h. Based on median total water intake of 1310 ml/24-h and the third percentile of free-water volume of -156 ml/24-h, adequate total water intake was 1466 ml/24-h or 1.01 ml/kcal. Data of Uosm in 24-h urine samples and corresponding free-water reserve values of homogeneous groups of healthy subjects from all over the world might be useful parameters in epidemiology to investigate the health effects of different levels of 24-h euhydration. PMID:14681708

  8. Effects of daily walking on office, home and 24-h blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yuko; Kawano, Yuhei; Minami, Junichi; Iwashima, Yoshio; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Nakamura, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been recommended in the management of hypertension. However, few studies have examined the effect of walking on ambulatory blood pressure (BP), and no studies have employed home BP monitoring. We investigated the effects of daily walking on office, home, and 24-h ambulatory BP in hypertensive patients. Sixty-five treated or untreated patients with essential hypertension (39 women and 26 men, 60 ± 9 years) were examined in a randomized cross-over design. The patients were asked to take a daily walk of 30-60 min to achieve 10 000 steps/d for 4 weeks, and to maintain usual activities for another 4 weeks. The number of steps taken and home BP were recorded everyday. Measurement of office and ambulatory BP, and sampling of blood and urine were performed at the end of each period. The average number of steps were 5349 ± 2267/d and 10 049 ± 3403/d in the control and walking period, respectively. Body weight and urinary sodium excretion did not change. Office, home, and 24-h BP in the walking period were lower compared to the control period by 2.6 ± 9.4/1.3 ± 4.9 mmHg (p < 0.05), 1.6 ± 6.8/1.5 ± 3.7 mmHg (p < 0.01), and 2.4 ± 7.6/1.8 ± 5.3 mmHg (p < 0.01), respectively. Average 24-h heart rate and serum triglyceride also decreased significantly. The changes in 24-h BP with walking significantly correlated with the average 24-h BP in the control period. In conclusion, daily walking lowered office, home, and 24-h BP, and improved 24-h heart rate and lipid metabolism in hypertensive patients. However, the small changes in BP may limit the value of walking as a non-pharmacologic therapy for hypertension. PMID:25815710

  9. Environmental impact on crew of armoured vehicles: Effects of 24 h combat exercise in a hot desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. P.; Majumdar, D.; Bhatia, M. R.; Srivastava, K. K.; Selvamurthy, W.

    1995-06-01

    A field study was undertaken to investigate the effects of combined noise, vibration and heat stress on the physiological functions of the crew of armoured vehicles during prolonged combat exercise in a desert. The sound pressure level of noise was measured with a sound level meter and accelerations by vibration analyser. The thermal load on the crew was evaluated by calculating the wet bulb globe temperature index. The physiological responses of the subjects ( n=9), included significant increases in the heart rate, 24 h water intake and urinary catecholamine concentration. A significant decrease was recorded in body mass, peak expiratory flow rate and 24 h urinary output. The high heat load on the crew resulted in a hypohydration of 3% body mass and appeared to be the dominant factor in producing the physiological strain.

  10. Enhanced vagal baroreflex response during 24 h after acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Adams, W. C.

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated carotid-cardiac baroreflex responses in eight normotensive men (25-41 yr) on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested before and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after graded supine cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, this 24-h protocol was repeated with no exercise (control). Beat-to-beat R-R intervals were measured during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses from 40 to -65 mmHg; changes of R-R intervals were plotted against carotid pressure (systolic pressure minus neck chamber pressure). The maximum slope of the response relationship increased (P less than 0.05) from preexercise to 12 h (3.7 +/- 0.4 to 7.1 +/- 0.7 ms/mmHg) and remained significantly elevated through 24 h. The range of the R-R response was also increased from 217 +/- 24 to 274 +/- 32 ms (P less than 0.05). No significant differences were observed during the control 24-h period. An acute bout of graded exercise designed to elicit exhaustion increases the sensitivity and range of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response for 24 h and enhances its capacity to buffer against hypotension by increasing heart rate. These results may represent an underlying mechanism that contributes to blood pressure stability after intense exercise.

  11. Parabens in 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Moos, Rebecca K; Koch, Holger M; Angerer, Jürgen; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Brüning, Thomas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care and consumer products, food and pharmaceuticals. Due to their ubiquity, humans are constantly exposed to these chemicals. We assessed exposure to nine parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, n- and iso-propyl-, n- and iso-butyl-, benzyl-, pentyl- and heptyl paraben) in the German population from 1995 to 2012 based on 660 24h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) using on-line HPLC coupled to isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg/L for all parabens. We detected methyl-, ethyl- and n-propyl paraben in 79-99% of samples, followed by n-butyl paraben in 40% of samples. We infrequently detected iso-butyl-, iso-propyl- and benzyl paraben in 24%, 4% and 1.4% of samples, respectively. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 39.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 319 μg/L) followed by n-propyl paraben (4.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 74.0 μg/L) and ethyl paraben (2.1 μg/L; 95th percentile 39.1 μg/L). Women had significantly higher urinary levels for all parabens than men, except for benzyl paraben. Samples from the ESB revealed that over the investigation period of nearly 20 years urinary paraben levels remained surprisingly constant; only methyl paraben had a significant increase, for both men and women. We found strong correlations between methyl- and n-propyl paraben and between n- and iso-butyl paraben. These results indicate that parabens are used in combination and arise from common sources of exposure. Urinary excretion factors are needed to extrapolate from individual urinary concentrations to actual doses.

  12. Identification of 24h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lauren A; Radulović, Željko M; Kim, Tae K; Porter, Lindsay M; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ∼19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ∼81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ∼18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (∼3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (∼6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (∼31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (∼24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted.

  13. Identification of 24 h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Lauren A.; Radulović, Željko M.; Kim, Tae K.; Porter, Lindsay M.; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24 h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24 h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24 h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24 h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ~19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ~81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ~18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (~3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (~6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (~31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (~24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24 h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted. PMID:25825233

  14. Albumin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a variety of conditions in addition to malnutrition , a decrease in albumin needs to be evaluated ... can also be seen in inflammation , shock, and malnutrition . They may be seen with conditions in which ...

  15. Effect of the Direct Renin Inhibitor Aliskiren on Urinary Albumin Excretion in Spontaneous Type 2 Diabetic KK-A (y) Mouse.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Masako; Gohda, Tomohito; Hagiwara, Shinji; Tanimoto, Mitsuo; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Funabiki, Kazuhiko; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Although angiotensin II-mediated inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation are considered to be associated with the progression of diabetic nephropathy, these processes have not yet been sufficiently clarified. The objective of this study was to determine whether the correction of the abnormal renal expression of MMPs and its inhibitors (MMPs/TIMPs) and cytokines following the administration of aliskiren to KK-A (y) mice results in a renoprotective effect. Methods. KK-A (y) mice were divided into two groups, that is, untreated (saline) and treated (aliskiren) groups. Systolic BP, HbA1c levels, and the albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured. The renal expression of MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) was examined using real-time PCR and/or immunohistochemical staining. Renal MAPK and NF- κ B activity were also examined by Western blot analyses and ELISA, respectively. Results. Significant decreases in systolic BP and ACR levels were observed in treated KK-A (y) mice compared with the findings in untreated KK-A (y) mice. Furthermore, increases in MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (P)RR expression, in addition to MAPK and NF- κ B activity, were significantly attenuated by aliskiren administration. Conclusions. It appears that aliskiren improves albuminuria and renal fibrosis by regulating inflammation and the alteration of collagen synthesis and degradation. PMID:23819050

  16. Reabsorption kinetics of albumin from pleural space of dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Miniati, M.; Parker, J.C.; Pistolesi, M.; Cartledge, J.T.; Martin, D.J.; Giuntini, C.; Taylor, A.E.

    1988-08-01

    The reabsorption of albumin from the pleural space was measured in eight dogs receiving 0.5 ml intrapleural injection of /sup 131/I-labeled albumin and a simultaneous intravenous injection of /sup 125/I-labeled albumin. Plasma curves for both tracers were obtained over 24 h. The /sup 125/I-albumin curve served as input function of albumin for interstitial spaces, including pleura, whereas the /sup 131/I-albumin curve represented the output function from pleural space. The frequency function of albumin transit times from pleural space to plasma was obtained by deconvolution of input-output plasma curves. Plasma recovery of /sup 131/I-albumin was complete by 24 h, and the mean transit time from pleura to plasma averaged 7.95 +/- 1.57 (SD) h. Albumin reabsorption occurred mainly via lymphatics as indicated by experiments in 16 additional dogs in which their right lymph ducts or thoracic ducts were ligated before intrapleural injection. A pleural lymph flow of 0.020 +/- 0.003 (SD) ml.kg-1.h-1 was estimated, which is balanced by a comparable filtration of fluid into the pleural space. This suggests that, under physiological conditions, the subpleural lymphatics represent an important control mechanism of pleural liquid pressure.

  17. Urinary excretion of zinc and metabolic control of patients with diabetes type 2.

    PubMed

    Marreiro, Dilina do Nascimento; do Perpetuo Socorro C Martins, Maria; de Sousa, Simone Sady Ribeiro; Ibiapina, Véritas; Torres, Silva; Pires, Liliane Viana; do Nascimento Nogueira, Nadir; Lima, José Maria Correia; do Monte, Semíramis Jamil Hadad

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess urinary excretion of zinc and evaluation parameters of metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients. Thirty-one type 2 diabetic patients, of both genders, with 5.8 +/- 5.6 years average time of the disease, age range 20-60 years, were selected. Evaluation of the nutritional status was performed using anthropometric measurements. To evaluate food consumption, the 3-day alimentary log method was used, and its analysis was performed using a software. Determination of urinary zinc was by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. From the obtained results, it was concluded that 51.6% of the patients were overweight. The mean of found waist circumference was 100.4 and 92.2 cm for men and women, respectively. Blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin values were higher than reference values, and plasma albumin concentration was adequate. The median of found urinary zinc excretion was 474.9 mug/24 h, within normal standards (300-600 mug/day). Regarding diet composition, calorie and protein concentration were above recommendation, while mean zinc concentration was adequate. This data allow the conclusion that the evaluated patients presented adequate urinary zinc excretion in comparison with reference values.

  18. Proximal Tubules Have the Capacity to Regulate Uptake of Albumin.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Mark C; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B; Chowdhury, Mahboob; Flores, Brittany; Lai, Xianyin; Myslinski, Jered; Pandit, Sweekar; Sandoval, Ruben M; Wean, Sarah E; Wei, Yuan; Satlin, Lisa M; Wiggins, Roger C; Witzmann, Frank A; Molitoris, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Evidence from multiple studies supports the concept that both glomerular filtration and proximal tubule (PT) reclamation affect urinary albumin excretion rate. To better understand these roles of glomerular filtration and PT uptake, we investigated these processes in two distinct animal models. In a rat model of acute exogenous albumin overload, we quantified glomerular sieving coefficients (GSC) and PT uptake of Texas Red-labeled rat serum albumin using two-photon intravital microscopy. No change in GSC was observed, but a significant decrease in PT albumin uptake was quantified. In a second model, loss of endogenous albumin was induced in rats by podocyte-specific transgenic expression of diphtheria toxin receptor. In these albumin-deficient rats, exposure to diphtheria toxin induced an increase in albumin GSC and albumin filtration, resulting in increased exposure of the PTs to endogenous albumin. In this case, PT albumin reabsorption was markedly increased. Analysis of known albumin receptors and assessment of cortical protein expression in the albumin overload model, conducted to identify potential proteins and pathways affected by acute protein overload, revealed changes in the expression levels of calreticulin, disabled homolog 2, NRF2, angiopoietin-2, and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. Taken together, these results suggest that a regulated PT cell albumin uptake system can respond rapidly to different physiologic conditions to minimize alterations in serum albumin level.

  19. Human podocytes perform polarized, caveolae-dependent albumin endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Okamura, Kayo; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Doctor, R Brian; Blaine, Judith

    2014-05-01

    The renal glomerulus forms a selective filtration barrier that allows the passage of water, ions, and small solutes into the urinary space while restricting the passage of cells and macromolecules. The three layers of the glomerular filtration barrier include the vascular endothelium, glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and podocyte epithelium. Podocytes are capable of internalizing albumin and are hypothesized to clear proteins that traverse the GBM. The present study followed the fate of FITC-labeled albumin to establish the mechanisms of albumin endocytosis and processing by podocytes. Confocal imaging and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of immortalized human podocytes showed FITC-albumin endocytosis occurred preferentially across the basal membrane. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis demonstrated that the majority of FITC-albumin entered podocytes through caveolae. Once internalized, FITC-albumin colocalized with EEA1 and LAMP1, endocytic markers, and with the neonatal Fc receptor, a marker for transcytosis. After preloading podocytes with FITC-albumin, the majority of loaded FITC-albumin was lost over the subsequent 60 min of incubation. A portion of the loss of albumin occurred via lysosomal degradation as pretreatment with leupeptin, a lysosomal protease inhibitor, partially inhibited the loss of FITC-albumin. Consistent with transcytosis of albumin, preloaded podocytes also progressively released FITC-albumin into the extracellular media. These studies confirm the ability of podocytes to endocytose albumin and provide mechanistic insight into cellular mechanisms and fates of albumin handling in podocytes.

  20. Comparing 14-day adhesive patch with 24-h Holter monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Christopher C; Kerr, Charles R; Krahn, Andrew D

    2014-05-01

    Barrett PM, Komatireddy R, Haaser S et al. Comparison of 24-hour Holter monitoring with 14-day novel adhesive patch electrocardiographic monitoring. Am. J. Med. 127(1), 95.e11–95.e17 (2014). The investigation of cardiac arrhythmias in the outpatient ambulatory setting has traditionally been initiated with the Holter monitor. Using the continuous recording over 24 or 48 h, the Holter monitor permits the detection of baseline rhythm, dysrhythmia and conduction abnormalities, including heart block and changes in the ST segment that may indicate myocardial ischemia. However, apart from the bulkiness and inconvenience of the device itself, the lack of extended monitoring results in a diagnostic yield of typically less than 20%. In this study by Barrett et al., 146 patients referred for the evaluation of cardiac arrhythmia were prospectively enrolled to wear both the 24-h Holter monitor and 14-day adhesive patch monitor (Zio Patch) simultaneously. The primary outcome was the detection of any one of six arrhythmias: supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation/flutter, pause >3 s, atrioventricular block, ventricular tachycardia, or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation. The adhesive patch monitor detected more arrhythmia events compared with the Holter monitor over the total wear time (96 vs. 61 events; p < 0.001), although the Holter monitor detected more events during the initial 24-h monitoring period (61 vs. 52 events; p = 0.013). Novel, single-lead, intermediate-duration, user-friendly adhesive patch monitoring devices, such as the Zio Patch, represent the changing face of ambulatory ECG monitoring. However, the loss of quality, automated rhythm analysis and inability to detect myocardial ischemia continue to remain important issues that will need to be addressed prior to the implementation of these new devices.

  1. Albumin Metabolism in Rabbits and Rats with Transplanted Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Wraight, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Albumin distributions and turnover rates have been studied using 131I labelled tracer material in rabbits with Vx2 carcinoma and rats bearing SP7 fibrosarcoma in comparison with control animals. Albumin concentrations were reduced in the tumour bearing animals but plasma volumes increased as the tumours developed. Relative increases were seen in the extravascular distribution of albumin, due partly to albumin pooling in and around the tumours and possibly also to general increases in capillary permeability. In the rats there was a considerable increase in the catabolic rate of albumin which was not related to urinary protein loss. The tumour bearing rabbits showed evidence both of increased catabolism and of decreased synthesis and the combination of the two effects resulted in a greater lowering of albumin concentration than was seen in the rats. Possible mechanisms for these findings and their significance in human malignant disease are discussed. PMID:5115834

  2. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-04-12

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth.

  3. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth. PMID:27067000

  4. Validation of soy protein estimates from a food-frequency questionnaire with repeated 24-h recalls and isoflavonoid excretion in overnight urine in a Western population with a wide range of soy intakes2

    PubMed Central

    Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fraser, Gary E; Chan, Jacqueline; Franke, Adrian; Sabaté, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence of the benefits of soy on cancer risk in Western populations is inconsistent, in part because of the low intake of soy in these groups. Objective We assessed the validity of soy protein estimates from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) in a sample of Adventist Health Study-2 participants with a wide range of soy intakes. Design We obtained dietary intake data from 100 men and women (43 blacks and 57 nonblacks). Soy protein estimates from FFQs were compared against repeated 24-h recalls and urinary excretion of daidzein, genistein, total isoflavonoids (TIFLs), and equol (measured by HPLC/photodiode array/mass spectrometry) as reference criteria. We calculated Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients (with 95% CIs) for FFQ–24-h recall, 24 h-recall–urinary excretion, and FFQ–urinary excretion pairs. Results Among soy users, mean (± SD) soy protein values were 12.12 ± 10.80 g/d from 24-h recalls and 9.43 ± 7.83 g/d from FFQs. The unattenuated correlation (95% CI) between soy protein estimates from 24-h recalls and FFQs was 0.57 (0.32, 0.75). Correlation coefficients between soy protein intake from 24-h recalls and urinary isoflavonoids were 0.72 (0.43, 0.96) for daidzein, 0.67 (0.43, 0.91) for genistein, and 0.72 (0.47, 0.98) for TIFLs. Between FFQs and urinary excretion, these were 0.50 (0.32, 0.65), 0.48 (0.29, 0.61), and 0.50 (0.32, 0.64) for daidzein, genistein, and TIFLs, respectively. Conclusions Soy protein estimates from questionnaire were significantly correlated with soy protein from 24-h recalls and urinary excretion of daidzein, genistein, and TIFLs. The Adventist Health Study-2 FFQ is a valid instrument for assessing soy protein in a population with a wide range of soy intakes. PMID:18469267

  5. The impact of weight loss on the 24-h profile of circulating peptide YY and its association with 24-h ghrelin in normal weight premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hill, Brenna R; De Souza, Mary Jane; Wagstaff, David A; Williams, Nancy I

    2013-11-01

    Peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin exhibit a reciprocal association and antagonistic physiological effects in the peripheral circulation. Research has yet to clarify the effect of weight loss on the 24h profile of PYY or its association to 24h ghrelin. We sought to determine if diet- and exercise-induced weight loss affects the 24h profile of PYY and its association with 24h ghrelin in normal weight, premenopausal women. Participants (n = 13) were assessed at baseline (BL) and after a 3-month diet and exercise intervention (post). Blood samples obtained q10 min for 24h were assayed for total PYY and total ghrelin q60 min from 0800 to 1000 h and 2000 to 0800 h and q20 min from 1000 to 2000 h. The ghrelin/PYY ratio was used as an index of hormonal exposure. Statistical analyses included paired t-tests and linear mixed effects modeling. Body weight (-1.85 ± 0.67 kg; p = 0.02), and body fat (-2.53 ± 0.83%; p = 0.01) decreased from BL to post. Ghrelin AUC (5252 ± 2177 pg/ml/24h; p=0.03), 24h mean (216 ± 90 pg/ml; p = 0.03) and peak (300 ± 134 pg/ml; p = 0.047) increased from BL to post. No change occurred in PYY AUC (88.2 ± 163.7 pg/ml; p = 0.60), 24h mean (4.8 ± 6.9 pg/ml; p = 0.50) or peak (3.6 ± 6.4 pg/ml; p = 0.58). The 24h association between PYY and ghrelin at baseline (p = 0.04) was weakened at post (p = 0.14); however, the ghrelin/PYY lunch ratio increased (p = 0.01) indicating the potential for ghrelin predominance over PYY in the circulation. PYY and ghrelin are reciprocally associated during a period of weight stability, but not following weight loss. An "uncoupling" may have occurred, particularly at lunch, due to factors that modulate ghrelin in response to weight loss.

  6. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11–24 Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N. S.; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J.; Foster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11–24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11–24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. PMID:27294952

  7. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-06-09

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults.

  8. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. PMID:27294952

  9. Urinary Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Urinary Dysfunction Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction ... dysfunction is normal following initial therapy for localized prostate cancer. But it’s important to realize that not all ...

  10. Urinary Adiponectin Excretion

    PubMed Central

    von Eynatten, Maximilian; Liu, Dan; Hock, Cornelia; Oikonomou, Dimitrios; Baumann, Marcus; Allolio, Bruno; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Morcos, Michael; Campean, Valentina; Amann, Kerstin; Lutz, Jens; Heemann, Uwe; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bierhaus, Angelika; Humpert, Per M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Markers reliably identifying vascular damage and risk in diabetic patients are rare, and reports on associations of serum adiponectin with macrovascular disease have been inconsistent. In contrast to existing data on serum adiponectin, this study assesses whether urinary adiponectin excretion might represent a more consistent vascular damage marker in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adiponectin distribution in human kidney biopsies was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and urinary adiponectin isoforms were characterized by Western blot analysis. Total urinary adiponectin excretion rate was measured in 156 patients with type 2 diabetes who had a history of diabetic nephropathy and 40 healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Atherosclerotic burden was assessed by common carotid artery intima-media-thickness (IMT). RESULTS A homogenous staining of adiponectin was found on the endothelial surface of glomerular capillaries and intrarenal arterioles in nondiabetic kidneys, whereas staining was decreased in diabetic nephropathy. Low-molecular adiponectin isoforms (∼30–70 kDa) were detected in urine by Western blot analysis. Urinary adiponectin was significantly increased in type 2 diabetes (7.68 ± 14.26 vs. control subjects: 2.91 ± 3.85 μg/g creatinine, P = 0.008). Among type 2 diabetic patients, adiponectinuria was associated with IMT (r = 0.479, P < 0.001) and proved to be a powerful independent predictor of IMT (β = 0.360, P < 0.001) in multivariable regression analyses. In a risk prediction model including variables of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study coronary heart disease risk engine urinary adiponectin, but not the albumin excretion rate, added significant value for the prediction of increased IMT (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS Quantification of urinary adiponectin excretion appears to be an independent indicator of vascular damage potentially identifying an increased risk for vascular events. PMID:19509019

  11. Simultaneous recording of blood pressure and ST-segment with combined, triggered ambulatory 24-h devices.

    PubMed

    Uen, Sakir; Vetter, Hans; Mengden, Thomas

    2003-02-01

    Silent myocardial ischemia is defined as an ischemic episode without chest pain but with transient ST abnormalities during stress testing or Holter monitoring. With Holter monitoring the prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia in hypertensive patients without coronary artery disease is between 25% and 73%. Simultaneous recording of ambulatory 24-h ECG and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) with the option of additional ST-triggered blood pressure measurement is useful to detect silent ischemia and triggers of silent ischaemia. It is surprising that only a few combined 24-h Holter/ABPM devices are on the market, and in turn only three devices allow additional triggered blood pressure measurements. The paper provides an overview of studies investigating hypertensive patients with Holter monitoring for the detection of ST segment depression indicating myocardial ischaemia. Furthermore, requirements for combined devices allowing simultaneous ambulatory 24-h ECG and ABPM are defined.

  12. Clinical values of urinary IL-6 in asymptomatic renal hematuria and renal hematuria with proteins

    PubMed Central

    SONG, MINGHUI; MA, LU; YANG, DAN; HE, ZHIJUN; LI, CHAOBO; PAN, TAO; LI, ANJUN

    2013-01-01

    Renal hematuria is caused by glomerular disease. Under pathological conditions, the distribution of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in kidney tissue is abnormal and urinary IL-6 levels are increased. Abnormal IL-6 secretion promotes the hyperplasia of mesangial cells and matrix and, thus, affects the permeability of the glomerular filtration membrane. Therefore, the detection of urinary IL-6 levels in patients with renal hematuria is beneficial for disease evaluation. A total of 82 patients with primary renal hematuria were divided into group 1 (UPr/24 h < 150 mg; pure hematuria group), group 2 (150 mg ≤ UPr/24 h ≤ 1,000 mg) and group 3 (UPr/24 h > 1,000 mg). A total of 30 normal individuals were selected as the controls. The urinary IL-6 levels were detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method and a renal biopsy was conducted. The urinary IL-6 levels and renal pathological damage scores in groups 1 and 2 were significantly reduced compared with those in group 3, (P<0.001 and 0.01, respectively), with no significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (P>0.05). The correlation coefficient (r) of urinary IL-6 with 24 h urinary protein (UPr/24 h) in groups 1, 2 and 3 was 0.017, 0.045 and 0.747, respectively, and that of urinary IL-6 with renal pathological damage score was 0.627, 0.199 and 0.119, respectively. The UPr/24 h was significantly correlated with IL-6 level (r=0.7320, P<0.000). In group 1, the urinary IL-6 levels were correlated with the degree of renal pathological damage. A positive correlation was observed between urinary IL-6 levels and UPr/24 h. PMID:24137196

  13. Temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolite levels in bedtime, morning, and 24-h urine samples for 50 adults in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Marsha K; Sobus, Jon R; Barr, Dana Boyd; Croghan, Carry W; Chen, Fu-Lin; Walker, Richard; Alston, Lillian; Andersen, Erik; Clifton, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insects in both agricultural and residential settings worldwide. Few data are available on the temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolites in the urine of non-occupationally exposed adults. In this work, we describe the study design and sampling methodology for the Pilot Study to Estimate Human Exposures to Pyrethroids using an Exposure Reconstruction Approach (Ex-R study). Two major objectives were to quantify the concentrations of several pyrethroid metabolites in bedtime, first morning void (FMV), and 24-h urine samples as concentration (wet weight), specific-gravity (SG) corrected, creatinine (CR) corrected, and excretion rate values for 50 Ex-R adults over a six-week monitoring period and to determine if these correction approaches for urine dilution reduced the variability of the biomarker levels. The Ex-R study was conducted at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Human Studies Facility in Chapel Hill, North Carolina USA and at participants' homes within a 40-mile radius of this facility. Recruitment of participants and field activities occurred between October 2009 and May 2011. Participants, ages 19-50 years old, provided daily food, activity, and pesticide-use diaries and collected their own urine samples (bedtime, FMV, and 24-h) during weeks 1, 2, and 6 of a six-week monitoring period. A total of 2503 urine samples were collected from the study participants. These samples were analyzed for the pyrethroid metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), cis/trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis/trans-DCCA), and 2-methyl-3-phenylbenzoic acid (MPA) using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Only 3-PBA was frequently detected (>50%) in the adult urine samples. Median urinary 3-PBA levels were 0.88 ng/mL, 0.96 ng/mL-SG, 1.04 ng/mg, and 1.04 ng/min for concentration, SG-corrected, CR-corrected, and excretion rate values, respectively

  14. Effect of glycation of albumin on its renal clearance in normal and diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, G.J.; Jerums, G.

    1988-03-01

    Two independent techniques have been used to study the renal clearances of nonenzymatically glycated albumin and nonglycated albumin in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, 16 to 24 weeks after the onset of diabetes. In the first technique, serum and urinary endogenous glycated and nonglycated albumin were separated using m-aminophenylboronate affinity chromatography and subsequently quantified by radioimmunoassay. Endogenous glycated albumin was cleared approximately twofold faster than nonglycated albumin in normal and diabetic rats. However, no difference was observed in the glycated albumin/nonglycated albumin clearance ratios (Cga/Calb) in normal and diabetic rats, respectively (2.18 +/- 0.39 vs 1.83 +/- 0.22, P greater than 0.05). The second technique measured the renal clearance of injected 125I-labelled glycated albumin and 125I-labelled albumin. The endogenous results were supported by the finding that 125I-labelled glycated albumin was cleared more rapidly than 125I-labelled albumin in normal (P less than 0.01) and diabetic (P less than 0.05) rats. The Cga/Calb ratio calculated for the radiolabelled albumins was 1.4 and 2.0 in normal and diabetic rats, respectively. This evidence suggests that nonenzymatic glycation of albumin increases its renal clearance to a similar degree in normal and diabetic rats.

  15. [Significance of low molecular weight urinary protein for assessment of early renal damage in patients with multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi-Jing; Zhai, Yong-Ping; Yu, Ya-Ping; Liu, Hai-Ning; Li, Feng; Song, Ping; Zhou, Xiao-Gang; An, Zhi-Ming; Shao, Jing-Jing; Yang, Xiao-Yan

    2013-04-01

    This study was purposed to evaluate the clinical significance of low molecular weight urinary proteins for diagnosis of early renal damage in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Medical records of 278 patients with MM in Nanjing School of Clinical Medicine from January 2004 to May 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. These patients were divided into 3 groups: glomerular damage group (n = 143), tubular damage group (n = 114) and normal group (n = 21). The clinical and laboratorial data were compared among them. The correlations of urinary retinol-binding protein (RBP) or urinary N-acetyl-β-D-amino-glucosaminidase (NAG) with blood urea nitrogen (BUN), Scr, blood cystatin-C (Cys-C), clearance of creatinine (Ccr), 24 h protein uria and 24 h urine light chains were further analyzed, and the correlation of renal tubulointerstitial lesion scores with low molecular weight urinary proteins in 61 patients were also analyzed. The area under curve (ROC curve) was used to evaluate and compare the discrimination of urinary RBP and urinary NAG. The results showed that glomerular damage group had higher urinary RBP than tubular damage group. However, glomerular damage group had lower urinary NAG than tubular damage group. The two groups had higher urinary RBP and urinary NAG than that in normal group. Urinary RBP related positively to the level of Scr, BUN, Cys-C, 24 h proteinurias and related negatively to the level of Ccr. Urinary NAG related positively to the level of 24 h proteinurias, Ccr and related negatively to the level of Cys-C. Renal tubulointerstitial lesions were significantly correlated with urinary RBP, but weakly correlated with urinary NAG. It is concluded that urinary RBP significantly correlates with renal tubular damage. Compared with urinary NAG, urinary RBP can better assess the extent of renal damage, and has higher specificity.

  16. Does an Adolescent's Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Deborah A; Wright, Janine L; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Boushey, Carol J

    2015-05-13

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents' accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents' accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days.

  17. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A.; Wright, Janine L.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  18. Protein Crystal Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As the most abundant protein in the circulatory system albumin contributes 80% to colloid osmotic blood pressure. Albumin is also chiefly responsible for the maintenance of blood pH. It is located in every tissue and bodily secretion, with extracellular protein comprising 60% of total albumin. Perhaps the most outstanding property of albumin is its ability to bind reversibly to an incredible variety of ligands. It is widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry that the overall distribution, metabolism, and efficiency of many drugs are rendered ineffective because of their unusually high affinity for this abundant protein. An understanding of the chemistry of the various classes of pharmaceutical interactions with albumin can suggest new approaches to drug therapy and design. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter/New Century Pharmaceuticals

  19. Structure of Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Ho, Joseph X.

    1994-01-01

    Because of its availability, low cost, stability, and unusual ligand-binding properties, serum albumin has been one of the mst extensively studied and applied proteins in biochemistry. However, as a protein, albumin is far from typical, and the widespread interest in and application of albumin have not been balanced by an understanding of its molecular structure. Indeed, for more than 30 years structural information was surmised based solely on techniques such as hydrodynamics, low-angle X-ray scattering, and predictive methods.

  20. Albumin infusion in humans does not model exercise induced hypervolaemia after 24 hours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, A.; Gillen, C. M.; Mack, G. W.; Nadel, E. R.

    1998-01-01

    We rapidly infused 234 +/- 3 mL of 5% human serum albumin in eight men while measuring haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, plasma volume (PV), albumin concentration, total protein concentration, osmolality, sodium concentration, renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and atrial natriuretic peptide concentration to test the hypotheses that plasma volume expansion and plasma albumin content expansion will not persist for 24 h. Plasma volume and albumin content were expanded for the first 6 h after infusion (44.3 +/- 1.9-47.2 +/- 2.0 mL kg-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.1-2.1 +/- 0.1 g kg-1 at pre-infusion and 1 h, respectively, P < 0.05), but by 24 h plasma volume and albumin content decreased significantly from 1 h post-infusion and were not different from pre-infusion (44.8 +/- 1.9 mL kg-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.1 g kg-1, respectively). Plasma aldosterone concentration showed a significant effect of time over the 24 h after infusion (P < 0.05), and showed a trend to decrease at 2 h after infusion (167.6 +/- 32.5(-1) 06.2 +/- 13.4 pg mL-1, P = 0.07). These data demonstrate that a 6.8% expansion of plasma volume and 10.5% expansion of plasma albumin content by infusion does not remain in the vascular space for 24 h and suggest a redistribution occurs between the intravascular space and interstitial fluid space.

  1. NQRS Data for C24H20BK (Subst. No. 1576)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BK (Subst. No. 1576)

  2. Differences in 24-h blood pressure profile of Japanese hypertensive patients under ARB treatment.

    PubMed

    Kita, Toshihiro; Sakima, Atsushi; Yokota, Naoto; Tamaki, Noboru; Etoh, Takuma; Shimokubo, Toru; Nakada, Seigo; Takishita, Shuichi; Ohya, Yusuke; Kitamura, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) control throughout the entire day is recommended for cardiovascular protection. Angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely used in hypertensive patients because of beneficial class effects. It is uncertain, however, whether are there any differences in 24-h BP profiles among ARBs. We examined ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) among 211 Japanese hypertensive patients (age, 69.4 ± 9.6 years; female, 59.2%) under treatment with five different ARBs. Patients were divided into five groups according to ARBs prescribed. Patient backgrounds were almost identical in all the groups and there were no differences in office, 24-h and daytime BP; however, nighttime BP with olmesartan was significantly lower than with other ARBs. Office BPs with candesartan and telmisartan, but not other ARBs, correlated well with 24-h BP (p < 0.01). Also, there were higher correlations between daytime and nighttime BP with candesartan and telmisartan. In all patients, pulse pressure with office BP was significantly correlated with ambulatory arterial stiffness index (p = 0.001) and fluctuation of systolic BP on ABPM (p = 0.002). In conclusion, different ARB treatments produced meaningful differences in 24-h profiles.

  3. Taste of a 24-h diet and its effect on subsequent food preferences and satiety.

    PubMed

    Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Mars, Monica; Finlayson, Graham; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of taste of a 24-h diet on subsequent food preferences (food choice and intake of specific food categories) and satiety. We used a crossover design, consisting of a 24-h fully controlled dietary intervention, during which 39 healthy subjects consumed diets that were predominantly sweet tasting, savory tasting, or a mixture. The diets were similar in energy content, macronutrient composition, and number of different products used. Following the intervention an ad libitum lunch buffet was offered the next day, consisting of food items differing in taste (sweet/savory) and protein content (low/high) and intake was measured. The results showed that the taste of the diet significantly altered preference for food according to their taste properties (p<0.0001); after the savory diet, intake of sweet foods was higher than of savory foods. After the sweet diet, savory foods tended to be preferred (p=0.07). No interaction was seen between the taste of the diet and food preference according to their protein content (p=0.67). No differences in total energy intake (kJ) at the ad libitum lunch buffet were observed (p=0.58). It appears that in healthy subjects, taste of a 24-h diet largely affects subsequent food preferences in terms of sensory appetite, whereby savory taste exerts the strongest modulating effect. Taste of a 24-h diet has no effect on macronutrient appetite.

  4. NQRS Data for C24H20BCs (Subst. No. 1575)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BCs (Subst. No. 1575)

  5. NQRS Data for C24H24BN (Subst. No. 1583)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H24BN (Subst. No. 1583)

  6. Probable maximum precipitation for 24-h duration over an equatorial region: Part 2-Johor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desa M., M. N.; Rakhecha, P. R.

    2007-03-01

    Probable maximum precipitation (PMP) is a characteristic of rainfall at a particular location that can be used in designing water impounding structures. The PMP for rainfall stations in Malaysia by Hershfield statistical method in earlier studies was estimated using a frequency factor of 15 which is the highest value in the world. The value of 15 as frequency was found to be too high for a humid country like Malaysia. The objective of this study therefore was to provide a fresh and reliable estimates of PMP in Malaysia using historical rainfall data. In this updating study, annual maximum 1-day rainfall data from 39 rainfall stations with records longer than 15 years found in the state of Johor, Malaysia, were analysed to obtain estimates of 24-h point PMP using an appropriate frequency factor calculated. Results of the 24-h PMP are presented in the mapped form. It was found that 24-h PMP over Johor varied from about 400 mm to over 1000 mm and there is a tendency for PMP to be higher on the east coast while decreasing westwards. The average ratio of the 24-h PMP to the highest observed rainfall was found to be about 2.0.

  7. Albumin - blood (serum) test

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions for which the test may be performed: Burns (widespread) Wilson disease If you are receiving large amounts of intravenous fluids, the result of this test may be inaccurate. Albumin will be decreased during pregnancy.

  8. Accuracy of GFR estimation formula in determination of glomerular filtration rate in kidney donors: Comparison with 24 h urine creatinine clearance.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Abdul Rauf; Idrees, Muhammad Khalid; Akhtar, Syed Fazal

    2016-03-01

    To determine the accuracy of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), Cockcroft-Gault (CG), and chronic kidney disease epidemiology (CKD-EPI) formulas in potential kidney donors compared with 24-h urine creatinine clearance, we studied 207 potential live kidney donors in our center. There were 126 (60.9%) males and 81 (39.1%) females. Male:female ratio was 1.6:1. The age of the donors ranged from 18-58 years, with mean age of 35.30 ± 9.23 years and most of the individuals were below 40 years of age. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated and venous blood samples were obtained for the measurement of serum creatinine and every study participant was instructed to collect 24-h urine. GFR was calculated based on 24-h urine creatinine clearance and the formulas. The accuracy of GFR estimation formula was taken as positive if the GFR calculated by the formulas and urine creatinine clearance fell between 90-120 mL/min/1.73 m(2). The accuracy of the MDRD formula was 48.8% and the CG formula was 41.5% whereas the accuracy of the CKD-EPI formula was 78.2%. The accuracy of the eGFR using the MDRD formula was significantly higher in males than females (57.9% vs. 33.3% P = 0.001), while there was no statistically significant difference in the eGFR between them in case of the use of the CG and the CKD-EPI formulas. BMI and obesity had no effect on the accuracy of eGFR by the use of the different formulas. The performance of GFR estimation formulas was sub optimal and these either underestimated and/or over-estimated the GFR in healthy subjects. CKD-EPI is closer to 24 -h urinary creatinine clearance in the calculation of eGFR. However, none of the eGFR formulas can be used in renal transplant donors because of their low accuracy, and 24-h urine creatinine clearance should be used for evaluation of the GFR in this population.

  9. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and CKD Progression.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Mills, Katherine T; Appel, Lawrence J; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Lee, Belinda T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Porter, Anna; Makos, Gail; Weir, Matthew R; Hamm, L Lee; Kusek, John W

    2016-04-01

    CKD is a major risk factor for ESRD, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Whether dietary sodium and potassium intake affect CKD progression remains unclear. We prospectively studied the association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with CKD progression and all-cause mortality among 3939 patients with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured using three 24-hour urine specimens, and CKD progression was defined as incident ESRD or halving of eGFR. During follow-up, 939 CKD progression events and 540 deaths occurred. Compared with the lowest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (<116.8 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (≥194.6 mmol/24 h) were 1.54 (1.23 to 1.92) for CKD progression, 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for all-cause mortality, and 1.43 (1.18 to 1.73) for the composite outcome of CKD progression and all-cause mortality after adjusting for multiple covariates, including baseline eGFR. Additionally, compared with the lowest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (<39.4 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios for the highest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (≥67.1 mmol/24 h) were 1.59 (1.25 to 2.03) for CKD progression, 0.98 (0.71 to 1.35) for all-cause mortality, and 1.42 (1.15 to 1.74) for the composite outcome. These data indicate that high urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with increased risk of CKD progression. Clinical trials are warranted to test the effect of sodium and potassium reduction on CKD progression.

  10. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can happen to anyone, but it becomes more common with age. Women experience ...

  11. High-intensity interval exercise induces 24-h energy expenditure similar to traditional endurance exercise despite reduced time commitment.

    PubMed

    Skelly, Lauren E; Andrews, Patricia C; Gillen, Jenna B; Martin, Brian J; Percival, Michael E; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Subjects performed high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (END) to evaluate 24-h oxygen consumption. Oxygen consumption during HIIT was lower versus END; however, total oxygen consumption over 24 h was similar. These data demonstrate that HIIT and END induce similar 24-h energy expenditure, which may explain the comparable changes in body composition reported despite lower total training volume and time commitment.

  12. Perturbed energy balance and hydration status in ultra-endurance runners during a 24 h ultra-marathon.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ricardo J S; Gill, Samantha K; Hankey, Joanne; Wright, Alice; Marczak, Slawomir

    2014-08-14

    The present study aimed to assess the adequacy of energy, macronutrients and water intakes of ultra-endurance runners (UER) competing in a 24 h ultra-marathon (distance range: 122-208 km). The ad libitum food and fluid intakes of the UER (n 25) were recorded throughout the competition and analysed using dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM), urinary ketone presence, plasma osmolality (POsmol) and volume change were determined at pre- and post-competition time points. Data were analysed using appropriate t tests, with significance set at P <0·05. The total energy intake and expenditure of the UER were 20 (sd 12) and 55 (sd 11) MJ, respectively (control (CON) (n 17): 12 (sd 1) and 14 (sd 5) MJ, respectively). The protein, carbohydrate and fat intakes of the UER were 1·1 (sd 0·4), 11·3 (sd 7·0) and 1·5 (sd 0·7) g/kg BM, respectively. The rate of carbohydrate intake during the competition was 37 (sd 24) g/h. The total water intake of the UER was 9·1 (sd 4·0) litres (CON: 2·1 (sd 1·0) litres), while the rate of water intake was 378 (sd 164) ml/h. Significant BM loss occurred at pre- to post-competition time points (P =0·001) in the UER (1·6 (sd 2·0) %). No significant changes in POsmol values were observed at pre- (285 (sd 11) mOsmol/kg) to post-competition (287 (sd 10) mOsmol/kg) time points in the UER and were lower than those recorded in the CON group (P <0·05). However, plasma volume (PV) increased at post-competition time points in the UER (10·2 (sd 9·7) %; P <0·001). Urinary ketones were evident in the post-competition samples of 90 % of the UER. Energy deficit was observed in all the UER, with only one UER achieving the benchmark recommendations for carbohydrate intake during endurance exercise. Despite the relatively low water intake rates recorded in the UER, hypohydration does not appear to be an issue, considering increases in PV values observed in the majority (80 %) of the UER. Population-specific dietary recommendations may be

  13. Exercise Increases 24-h Fat Oxidation Only When It Is Performed Before Breakfast

    PubMed Central

    Iwayama, Kaito; Kurihara, Reiko; Nabekura, Yoshiharu; Kawabuchi, Ryosuke; Park, Insung; Kobayashi, Masashi; Ogata, Hitomi; Kayaba, Momoko; Satoh, Makoto; Tokuyama, Kumpei

    2015-01-01

    Background As part of the growing lifestyle diversity in modern society, there is wide variation in the time of day individuals choose to exercise. Recent surveys in the US and Japan have reported that on weekdays, more people exercise in the evening, with fewer individuals exercising in the morning or afternoon. Exercise performed in the post-prandial state has little effect on accumulated fat oxidation over 24 h (24-h fat oxidation) when energy intake is matched to energy expenditure (energy-balanced condition). The present study explored the possibility that exercise increases 24-h fat oxidation only when performed in a post-absorptive state, i.e. before breakfast. Methods Indirect calorimetry using a metabolic chamber was performed in 10 young, non-obese men over 24 h. Subjects remained sedentary (control) or performed 60-min exercise before breakfast (morning), after lunch (afternoon), or after dinner (evening) at 50% of VO2max. All trials were designed to be energy balanced over 24 h. Time course of energy and substrate balance relative to the start of calorimetry were estimated from the differences between input (meal consumption) and output (oxidation). Findings Fat oxidation over 24 h was increased only when exercise was performed before breakfast (control, 456 ± 61; morning, 717 ± 64; afternoon, 446 ± 57; and evening, 432 ± 44 kcal/day). Fat oxidation over 24 h was negatively correlated with the magnitude of the transient deficit in energy and carbohydrate. Interpretation Under energy-balanced conditions, 24-h fat oxidation was increased by exercise only when performed before breakfast. Transient carbohydrate deficits, i.e., glycogen depletion, observed after morning exercise may have contributed to increased 24-h fat oxidation. PMID:26844280

  14. Nqrs Data for C24H20MnO4P (Subst. No. 1581)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20MnO4P (Subst. No. 1581)

  15. Nqrs Data for C24H42Li2N4 (Subst. No. 1587)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H42Li2N4 (Subst. No. 1587)

  16. Immune cell changes in response to a swimming training session during a 24-h recovery period.

    PubMed

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Joana F; Matias, Catarina; Seixas, Maria T; Alvim, Marta G; Bourbon, Mafalda; Laires, Maria J; Alves, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools. PMID:27028294

  17. Transcriptomic response of Arabidopsis thaliana after 24 h incubation with the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Morán-Diez, Eugenia; Rubio, Belén; Domínguez, Sara; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Nicolás, Carlos

    2012-04-15

    Trichoderma harzianum is a fungus used as biocontrol agent using its antagonistic abilities against phytopathogenic fungi, although it has also direct effects on plants, increasing or accelerating their growth and resistance to diseases and the tolerance to abiotic stresses. We analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression changes after 24 h of incubation in the presence of T. harzianum T34 using the Affymetrix GeneChip Arabidopsis ATH1. Because this microarray contains more than 22,500 probe sets representing approximately 24,000 genes, we were able to construct a global picture of the molecular physiology of the plant at 24 h of T. harzianum-Arabidopsis interaction. We identified several differentially expressed genes that are involved in plant responses to stress, regulation of transcription, signal transduction or plant metabolism. Our data support the hypothesis that salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-related genes were down-regulated in A. thaliana after 24 h of incubation in the presence of T. harzianum T34, while several genes related to abiotic stress responses were up-regulated. These systemic changes elicited by T. harzianum in Arabidopsis are discussed.

  18. Immune cell changes in response to a swimming training session during a 24-h recovery period.

    PubMed

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Joana F; Matias, Catarina; Seixas, Maria T; Alvim, Marta G; Bourbon, Mafalda; Laires, Maria J; Alves, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools.

  19. Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michelle C; Albar, Salwa A; Morris, Michelle A; Mulla, Umme Z; Hancock, Neil; Evans, Charlotte E; Alwan, Nisreen A; Greenwood, Darren C; Hardie, Laura J; Frost, Gary S; Wark, Petra A; Cade, Janet E

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a food diary), has been developed for use in the UK population. Development of myfood24 was a multi-stage process. Focus groups conducted with three age groups, adolescents (11-18 years) (n = 28), adults (19-64 years) (n = 24) and older adults (≥ 65 years) (n = 5) informed the development of the tool, and usability testing was conducted with beta (adolescents n = 14, adults n = 8, older adults n = 1) and live (adolescents n = 70, adults n = 20, older adults n = 4) versions. Median system usability scale (SUS) scores (measured on a scale of 0-100) in adolescents and adults were marginal for the beta version (adolescents median SUS = 66, interquartile range (IQR) = 20; adults median SUS = 68, IQR = 40) and good for the live version (adolescents median SUS = 73, IQR = 22; adults median SUS = 80, IQR = 25). Myfood24 is the first online 24-h dietary recall tool for use with different age groups in the UK. Usability testing indicates that myfood24 is suitable for use in UK adolescents and adults. PMID:26024292

  20. Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michelle C.; Albar, Salwa A.; Morris, Michelle A.; Mulla, Umme Z.; Hancock, Neil; Evans, Charlotte E.; Alwan, Nisreen A.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Frost, Gary S.; Wark, Petra A.; Cade, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a food diary), has been developed for use in the UK population. Development of myfood24 was a multi-stage process. Focus groups conducted with three age groups, adolescents (11–18 years) (n = 28), adults (19–64 years) (n = 24) and older adults (≥65 years) (n = 5) informed the development of the tool, and usability testing was conducted with beta (adolescents n = 14, adults n = 8, older adults n = 1) and live (adolescents n = 70, adults n = 20, older adults n = 4) versions. Median system usability scale (SUS) scores (measured on a scale of 0–100) in adolescents and adults were marginal for the beta version (adolescents median SUS = 66, interquartile range (IQR) = 20; adults median SUS = 68, IQR = 40) and good for the live version (adolescents median SUS = 73, IQR = 22; adults median SUS = 80, IQR = 25). Myfood24 is the first online 24-h dietary recall tool for use with different age groups in the UK. Usability testing indicates that myfood24 is suitable for use in UK adolescents and adults. PMID:26024292

  1. Metabolic effects of altering the 24 h energy intake in man, using direct and indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Dauncey, M J

    1980-03-01

    1. The metabolic effects of increasing or decreasing the usual energy intake for only 1 d were assessed in eight adult volunteers. Each subject lived for 28 h in a whole-body calorimeter at 26 degrees on three separate occasions of high, medium or low energy intake. Intakes (mean +/- SEM) of 13830 +/- 475 (high), 8400 +/- 510 (medium) and 3700 +/- 359 (low) kj/24 h were eaten in three meals of identical nutrient composition. 2. Energy expenditure was measured continuously by two methods: direct calorimetry, as total heat loss partitioned into its evaporative and sensible components: and indirect calorimetry, as heat production calculated from oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. For the twenty-four sessions there was a mean difference of only 1.2 +/- 0.14 (SEM) % between the two estimates of 24 h energy expenditure, with heat loss being less than heat production. Since experimental error was involved in both estimates it would be wrong to ascribe greater accuracy to either one of the measures of energy expenditure. 3. Despite the wide variation in the metabolic responses of the subjects to over-eating and under-eating, in comparison with the medium intake the 24 h heat production increased significantly by 10% on the high intake and decreased by 6% on the low intake. Mean (+/- SEM) values for 24 h heat production were 8770 +/- 288, 7896 +/- 297 and 7495 +/- 253 kJ on the high, medium and low intakes respectively. The effects of over-eating were greatest at night and the resting metabolic rate remained elevated by 12% 14 h after the last meal. By contrast, during under-eating the metabolic rate at night decreased by only 1%. 4. Evaporative heat loss accounted for an average of 25% of the total heat loss at each level of intake. Changes in evaporative heat loss were +14% on the high intake and -10% on the low intake. Sensible heat loss altered by +9 and -5% on the high and low intakes respectively. 5. It is concluded that (a) the effects on 24 h energy

  2. [Albumin in sepsis].

    PubMed

    Tamion, F

    2010-09-01

    Human serum albumin is a small (66kD) globular protein representing over 60 % of the total plasma protein content. It is made up of 585 amino 6 acids and contains 35 cysteine residues forming disulfide bridges that contribute to its overall tertiary structure. It has a free cysteine-derived thiol group at Cys-34, which accounts for 80 % of its redox activity. Physiologically, serum albumin exists in a reduced form with a free thiol contributing to its antioxidant properties. It is synthesized primarily in the liver and is an acute-phase protein. It is a multifunctional plasma protein ascribed ligand-binding and transport properties as well as antioxidants and enzymatic functions. It maintains colloid osmotic pressure, modulates inflammatory response and may influence oxidative damage. Hypoalbuminemia is common in the intensive care unit and may be due to decreased synthesis by the liver and/or to increased losses or increased proteolysis and clearance. Although albumin was long used to control vascular collapse in critically ill patients, the evidence suggests that it does not offer a benefit over crystalloid solutions in vascular collapse. However, human serum albumin is an important circulating antioxidant and it may be beneficial in critically ill patients to limit oxidative damage. A number of studies suggest that in specific groups of hypoalbuminemic critically ill patients, albumin administration may have beneficial effects on organ function, although the exact mechanisms remain undefined. Further trials are needed to confirm theses observations and to clearly demonstrate whether albumin should be administered in critically ill patients with hypoalbuminemia. PMID:20675098

  3. Transendothelial albumin flux: evidence against active transport of albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Siflinger-Birnboim, A.; Del Vecchio, P.J.; Cooper, J.A.; Malik, A.B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors studied whether albumin is actively transported across cultured pulmonary endothelium by comparing the transendothelial flux of /sup 125/I-albumin from the luminal-to-abluminal side to the flux from the abluminal-to-luminal side. Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were grown to confluence on gelatinized polycarbonated filters separating abluminal from luminal compartments. Each compartment had an albumin concentration of 1 g/100 ml to equalize oncotic pressure gradients. The effect of hydrostatic pressure was eliminated by maintaining an equal level of fluid in both compartments. The transendothelial flux of albumin across the monolayer was measured by placing /sup 125/I-albumin tracer either on the luminal or the abluminal side. Equal fluxes of /sup 125/I-albumin from luminal-to-abluminal side and from abluminal-to-luminal side were observed. The results indicate that the pulmonary endothelium behaves symmetrically for albumin, indicating the absence of active transport of albumin.

  4. Inhibition of the metabolic degradation of filtered albumin is a major determinant of albuminuria.

    PubMed

    Vuchkova, Julijana; Comper, Wayne D

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of the degradation of filtered albumin has been proposed as a widespread, benign form of albuminuria. There have however been recent reports that radiolabeled albumin fragments in urine are not exclusively generated by the kidney and that in albuminuric states albumin fragment excretion is not inhibited. In order to resolve this controversy we have examined the fate of various radiolabeled low molecular weight protein degradation products (LMWDPs) introduced into the circulation in rats. The influence of puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis on the processing and excretion of LMWDPs is also examined. The status and destinies of radiolabeled LMWDPs in the circulation are complex. A major finding is that LMWDPs are rapidly eliminated from the circulation (>97% in 2 h) but only small quantities (<4%) are excreted in urine. Small (<4%) but significant amounts of LMWDPs may have prolonged elimination (>24 h) due to binding to high molecular weight components in the circulation. If LMWDPs of albumin seen in the urine are produced by extra renal degradation it would require the degradation to far exceed the known catabolic rate of albumin. Alternatively, if an estimate of the role of extra renal degradation is made from the limit of detection of LMWDPs in plasma, then extra renal degradation would only contribute <1% of the total excretion of LMWDPs of albumin. We confirm that the degradation process for albumin is specifically associated with filtered albumin and this is inhibited in albuminuric states. This inhibition is also the primary determinant of the massive change in intact albuminuria in nephrotic states.

  5. Acute urinary retention among astronauts.

    PubMed

    Stepaniak, Philip C; Ramchandani, Suneil R; Jones, Jeffrey A

    2007-04-01

    Although acute urinary retention (AUR) is not commonly thought of as a life-threatening condition, its presentation in orbit can lead to a number of medical complications that could compromise a space mission. We report on a middle-aged astronaut who developed urinary retention during two spaceflights. On the first mission of note, the astronaut initially took standard doses of promethazine and scopolamine before launch, and developed AUR immediately after entering orbit. For the first 3 d, the astronaut underwent intermittent catheterizations with a single balloon-tipped catheter. Due to the lack of iodine solution on board and the need for the astronaut to complete certain duties without interruption, the catheter was left in place for a total of 4 d. Although the ability to void returned after day 7, a bout of AUR reemerged on day 10, 1 d before landing. On return to Earth, a cystometrogram was unremarkable. During the astronaut's next mission, AUR again recurred for the first 24 h of microgravity exposure, and the astronaut was subsequently able to void spontaneously while in space. This report details the presentation of this astronaut, the precautions that were taken for space travel subsequent to the initial episode of AUR, and the possible reasons why space travel can predispose astronauts to urinary retention while in orbit. The four major causes of AUR--obstructive, pharmacologic, psychogenic, and neurogenic-are discussed, with an emphasis on how these may have played a role in this case.

  6. Effects of sleep fragmentation on appetite and related hormone concentrations over 24 h in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Martens, Eveline A P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-02-28

    In addition to short sleep duration, reduced sleep quality is also associated with appetite control. The present study examined the effect of sleep fragmentation, independent of sleep duration, on appetite profiles and 24 h profiles of hormones involved in energy balance regulation. A total of twelve healthy male subjects (age 23 (sd 4) years, BMI 24·4 (sd 1·9) kg/m²) completed a 24 h randomised crossover study in which sleep (23.30-07.30 hours) was either fragmented or non-fragmented. Polysomnography was used to determine rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and total sleep time (TST). Blood samples were taken at baseline and continued hourly for the 24 h period to measure glucose, insulin, ghrelin, leptin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and melatonin concentrations. In addition, salivary cortisol levels were measured. Visual analogue scales were used to score appetite-related feelings. Sleep fragmentation resulted in reduced REM sleep (69·4 min compared with 83·5 min; P< 0·05) and preservation of SWS without changes in TST. In fragmented v. non-fragmented sleep, glucose concentrations did not change, while insulin secretion was decreased in the morning, and increased in the afternoon (P< 0·05), and GLP-1 concentrations and fullness scores were lower (P< 0·05). After dinner, desire-to-eat ratings were higher after fragmented sleep (P< 0·05). A single night of fragmented sleep, resulting in reduced REM sleep, induced a shift in insulin concentrations, from being lower in the morning and higher in the afternoon, while GLP-1 concentrations and fullness scores were decreased. These results may lead to increased food intake and snacking, thus contributing to a positive energy balance.

  7. Oxidative fuel selection and shivering thermogenesis during a 12- and 24-h cold-survival simulation.

    PubMed

    Haman, François; Mantha, Olivier L; Cheung, Stephen S; DuCharme, Michel B; Taber, Michael; Blondin, Denis P; McGarr, Gregory W; Hartley, Geoffrey L; Hynes, Zach; Basset, Fabien A

    2016-03-15

    Because the majority of cold exposure studies are constrained to short-term durations of several hours, the long-term metabolic demands of cold exposure, such as during survival situations, remain largely unknown. The present study provides the first estimates of thermogenic rate, oxidative fuel selection, and muscle recruitment during a 24-h cold-survival simulation. Using combined indirect calorimetry and electrophysiological and isotopic methods, changes in muscle glycogen, total carbohydrate, lipid, protein oxidation, muscle recruitment, and whole body thermogenic rate were determined in underfed and noncold-acclimatized men during a simulated accidental exposure to 7.5 °C for 12 to 24 h. In noncold-acclimatized healthy men, cold exposure induced a decrease of ∼0.8 °C in core temperature and a decrease of ∼6.1 °C in mean skin temperature (range, 5.4-6.9 °C). Results showed that total heat production increased by approximately 1.3- to 1.5-fold in the cold and remained constant throughout cold exposure. Interestingly, this constant rise in Ḣprod and shivering intensity was accompanied by a large modification in fuel selection that occurred between 6 and 12 h; total carbohydrate oxidation decreased by 2.4-fold, and lipid oxidation doubled progressively from baseline to 24 h. Clearly, such changes in fuel selection dramatically reduces the utilization of limited muscle glycogen reserves, thus extending the predicted time to muscle glycogen depletion to as much as 15 days rather than the previous estimates of approximately 30-40 h. Further research is needed to determine whether this would also be the case under different nutritional and/or colder conditions. PMID:26718783

  8. Glucocorticoids Affect 24 h Clock Genes Expression in Human Adipose Tissue Explant Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Abellán, Purificación; Díez-Noguera, Antoni; Madrid, Juan A.; Luján, Juan A.; Ordovás, José M.; Garaulet, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Aims to examine firstly whether CLOCK exhibits a circadian expression in human visceral (V) and subcutaneous (S) adipose tissue (AT) in vitro as compared with BMAL1 and PER2, and secondly to investigate the possible effect of the glucocorticoid analogue dexamethasone (DEX) on positive and negative clock genes expression. Subjects and Methods VAT and SAT biopsies were obtained from morbid obese women (body mass index≥40 kg/m2) (n = 6). In order to investigate rhythmic expression pattern of clock genes and the effect of DEX on CLOCK, PER2 and BMAL1 expression, control AT (without DEX) and AT explants treated with DEX (2 hours) were cultured during 24 h and gene expression was analyzed at the following times: 10:00 h, 14:00 h, 18:00 h, 22:00 h, 02:00 h and 06:00 h, using qRT-PCR. Results CLOCK, BMAL1 and PER2 expression exhibited circadian patterns in both VAT and SAT explants that were adjusted to a typical 24 h sinusoidal curve. PER2 expression (negative element) was in antiphase with respect to CLOCK and in phase with BMAL1 expression (both positive elements) in the SAT (situation not present in VAT). A marked effect of DEX exposure on both positive and negative clock genes expression patterns was observed. Indeed, DEX treatment modified the rhythmicity pattern towards altered patterns with a period lower than 24 hours in all genes and in both tissues. Conclusions 24 h patterns in CLOCK and BMAL1 (positive clock elements) and PER2 (negative element) mRNA levels were observed in human adipose explants. These patterns were altered by dexamethasone exposure. PMID:23251369

  9. Stimulation of albumin gene transcription by insulin in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, C.E.; Kalinyak, J.E.; Hutson, S.M.; Jefferson, L.S.

    1987-02-01

    The first goal of the work reported here was to prepare single-stranded DNA sequences for use in studies on the regulation of albumin gene expression. A double-stranded rat albumin cDNA clone was subcloned into the bacteriophage vector M13mp7. Single-stranded recombinant clones were screened for albumin sequences containing either the mRNA strand or the complementary strand. Two clones were selected that contained the 1200 nucleotide long 3' end of the albumin sequence. DNA from the clone containing the mRNA strand was used as a template for DNA polymerase I to prepare a radiolabeled, single-stranded cDNA to albumin mRNA. This radiolabeled cDNA probe was used to quantitate the relative abundance of albumin mRNA in samples of total cellular RNA. DNA from the clone containing the complementary strand was used to measure relative rates of albumin gene transcription in isolated nuclei. The second goal was to use the single-stranded DNA probes to investigate the mechanism of the insulin-mediated stimulation of albumin synthesis in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Addition of insulin to hepatocytes maintained in a chemically defined, serum-free medium for 40 h in the absence of any hormones resulted in a specific 1.5- to 2.5-fold stimulation of albumin gene transcription that was maximal at 3 h and was maintained above control values for at least 24 h. The rate of albumin gene transcription in nuclei isolated from livers of diabetic rats was reduced to 50% of the value recorded in control nuclei. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that insulin regulates synthesis of albumin at the level of gene transcription.

  10. The impact of a 24-h ultra-marathon on salivary antimicrobial protein responses.

    PubMed

    Gill, S K; Teixeira, A M; Rosado, F; Hankey, J; Wright, A; Marczak, S; Murray, A; Costa, R J S

    2014-10-01

    Depressed oral respiratory mucosal immunity and increased incidence of upper respiratory symptoms are commonly reported after bouts of prolonged exercise. The current study observed the impact of a 24-h continuous overnight ultra-marathon competition (distance range: 122-208 km; ambient temperature range: 0-20 °C) on salivary antimicrobial protein responses and incidence of upper respiratory symptoms. Body mass, unstimulated saliva and venous blood samples were taken from ultra-endurance runners (n=25) and controls (n=17), before and immediately after competition. Upper respiratory symptoms were assessed during and until 4-weeks after event completion. Samples were analyzed for salivary IgA, lysozyme, α-amylase and cortisol in addition to plasma osmolality. Decreased saliva flow rate (p<0.001), salivary IgA (p<0.001) and lysozyme (p=0.015) secretion rates, and increased salivary α-amylase secretion rate (p<0.001) and cortisol responses (p<0.001) were observed post-competition in runners, with no changes being observed in controls. No incidences of upper respiratory symptoms were reported by participants. A 24-h continuous overnight ultra-marathon resulted in the depression of some salivary antimicrobial protein responses, but no incidences of upper respiratory symptoms were evident during or following competition. Salivary antimicrobial protein synergism, effective management of non-infectious episodes, maintaining euhydration, and (or) favourable environmental influences could have accounted for the low prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms. PMID:24886918

  11. 24-h blood pressure in Space: The dark side of being an astronaut.

    PubMed

    Karemaker, John M; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke

    2009-10-01

    Inflight 24-h profiles of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded in 2 ESA-astronauts by automatic upper arm cuff measurements. In one astronaut this was combined with Portapres continuous finger blood pressure recordings. It was the intention to contrast the latter to 24-h recordings in an earlier Head-Down-Tilted (HDT) bed rest study [Voogel, A.J., Stok, W.J., Pretorius, P.J., Van Montfrans, G.A., Langewouters, G.J., Karemaker, J.M., 1997. Circadian blood pressure and systemic haemodynamics during 42 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt. Acta Physiol. Scand. 161, pp. 71-80]. BP-levels in Space were not very much changed from preflight; the circadian BP-rhythm seemed dampened. Only daytime diastolic pressures (both subjects) and nighttime HR (one subject) were significantly lower in Space. However, compared to the effect of a control tilt manoeuvre on the ground, even lower BP values might have been expected. Striking were the BP- and HR-surges during the working days in Space, often related to stressful moments like live appearances on public TV. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) dropped during the night, unlike HDT. Thus, actual spaceflight refuted our earlier findings in HDT both for BP-levels and for daytime to nighttime changes. The combined observations lead to the hypothesis that short-lasting spaceflight may induce strong psychological stress in astronauts. When interpreting space-physiological observations this must be taken into account.

  12. Preliminary estimation of deoxynivalenol excretion through a 24 h pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Mañes, Jordi; Berrada, Houda; Font, Guillermina

    2015-02-25

    A duplicate diet study was designed to explore the occurrence of 15 Fusarium mycotoxins in the 24 h-diet consumed by one volunteer as well as the levels of mycotoxins in his 24 h-collected urine. The employed methodology involved solvent extraction at high ionic strength followed by dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography determination coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem. Satisfactory results in method performance were achieved. The method's accuracy was in a range of 68%-108%, with intra-day relative standard deviation and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 12% and 15%, respectively. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.1 to 8 µg/Kg. The matrix effect was evaluated and matrix-matched calibrations were used for quantitation. Only deoxynivalenol (DON) was quantified in both food and urine samples. A total DON daily intake amounted to 49.2 ± 5.6 µg whereas DON daily excretion of 35.2 ± 4.3 µg was determined. DON daily intake represented 68.3% of the established DON provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI). Valuable preliminary information was obtained as regards DON excretion and needs to be confirmed in large-scale monitoring studies.

  13. Preliminary Estimation of Deoxynivalenol Excretion through a 24 h Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Mañes, Jordi; Berrada, Houda; Font, Guillermina

    2015-01-01

    A duplicate diet study was designed to explore the occurrence of 15 Fusarium mycotoxins in the 24 h-diet consumed by one volunteer as well as the levels of mycotoxins in his 24 h-collected urine. The employed methodology involved solvent extraction at high ionic strength followed by dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography determination coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem. Satisfactory results in method performance were achieved. The method’s accuracy was in a range of 68%–108%, with intra-day relative standard deviation and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 12% and 15%, respectively. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.1 to 8 µg/Kg. The matrix effect was evaluated and matrix-matched calibrations were used for quantitation. Only deoxynivalenol (DON) was quantified in both food and urine samples. A total DON daily intake amounted to 49.2 ± 5.6 µg whereas DON daily excretion of 35.2 ± 4.3 µg was determined. DON daily intake represented 68.3% of the established DON provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI). Valuable preliminary information was obtained as regards DON excretion and needs to be confirmed in large-scale monitoring studies. PMID:25723325

  14. A pilot study on the effect of telmisartan & ramipril on 24 h blood pressure profile & dipping pattern in type 1 diabetes patients with nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Anantharaman, R.; Bhansali, Anil; Bhadada, Sanjay K.; Kohli, Harbir S.; Walia, Rama; Shanmugasundar, G.; Jayaprakash, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been used to normalize the blood pressure and the dipping pattern in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and nephropathy. However, there are no data on the effect of the dual blockade on the dipping pattern in these subjects. We therefore, carried out this study to evaluate the effect of administrating an ACEI followed by ARB in the optimum doses in T1DM patients with nephropathy on 24 h blood pressure (BP) profile and nocturnal dipping pattern. Methods: An open label interventional pilot study was done during a one year period involving 30 consecutive patients who were treated with telmisartan 80 mg (0800-1000 h) for eight weeks followed by addition of ramipril 10 mg (1200-1400 h) for the next eight weeks. Ambulatory BP, dipping pattern and albumin excretion rate were studied after each phase. Twenty patients were hypertensive and 10 patients had macro- and 20 patients had microalbuminuria. Results: Telmisartan produced a fall in the clinic BP by 4/1.3 mm Hg (P<0.05 and P<0.362, respectively), 2/1.9 mm Hg in the mean 24 h BP, 1.4/1.1 mm Hg in the day BP and 3.7/3 mm Hg in the trough BP. Addition of ramipril to telmisartan produced a further reduction of 6.3/5.9 mm Hg in the clinic BP (P<0.001 for both), 4.3/4.2 mm Hg in the mean 24 h BP (P<0.01 and P<0.0001, respectively), 5.8/3.9 mm Hg in the day BP (P<0.01 for both), 4.2/2.5 mm Hg in the trough BP, with a reduction of clinic SBP and DBP of 10.3/7.2 mm Hg from the baseline. Telmisartan restored normal systolic dipping pattern in 33.3 per cent of the nondippers (P<0.01) but addition of ramipril was not complimentary. Hyperkalamia (>5.5 mmol/l) was observed only in 2 patients towards the end of the study. Interpretation & conclusions: The dual blockade with telmisartan and ramipril had complimentary effect on lowering of the BP, however, similar beneficial effect on the nocturnal dipping

  15. [Urinary bilharziasis].

    PubMed

    Gigase, P L

    1992-01-01

    A short account is given of present views on urinary schistosomiasis or bilharziasis. The incidence of infections is increasing in endemic areas of Africa and the near east, as a consequence of irrigation programs and hydroelectric power development. Urinary schistosomiasis is a disease of children and young adults. The serious consequences, obstructive uropathy due to more or less irreversible ureteral lesions, and cancer of the bladder, less directly related to the infection, appear but later in life. Diagnosis is still based on parasitology and serology but ultrasonography has proven to be an important means to evaluate the extent of lesions of the urinary tract, especially in developing countries. Praziquantel was a major development in the medical treatment and cures easily the infection. Some irreversible consequences have however to be treated surgically. Schistosomiasis is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in medically backward endemic countries. The control of the disease aims at reducing morbidity and mortality, consequences of the infection, rather than to avoid infection itself. It is based on mass treatment of school age children, together with focal molluscacides at places where people have contacts with water. Vaccination will be available in the near future and will be a welcome addition to other control measures, but will not be able to interrupt transmission on its own. Only economic development will solve in the long term this social African problem. PMID:1492630

  16. Assessing adrenocortical activity by determining levels of urinary free cortisol and urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Yakata, M

    1989-03-01

    A comparative study of urinary free cortisol and urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol levels as a diagnostic test for hypercortisolemic states was carried out by measuring the excretion in 24-h specimens from 289 apparently healthy subjects and 10 Cushing patients. The diurnal variations of both variables were examined in normal subjects and subjects with altered adrenal activities. Two of the 289 apparently normal subjects had high values of urinary free cortisol; one had a high, the other a normal 6 beta-hydroxycortisol level; they were later diagnosed as having Cushing's syndrome and infertility, respectively. Three other subjects had high values of the urinary variables, but during 5 years of follow-up did not show any clinical evidence of hypercortisolism. The two urinary variables gave no false-negative results in the Cushing patients. The diurnal variation revealed that levels of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol change in parallel with those of free cortisol in normal subjects and in subjects with altered adrenal activities. However, the ratio of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol to free cortisol during the diurnal variation varied from low values when free cortisol levels were high to high values when free cortisol levels were low. In normal subjects, 1 mg of dexamethasone taken orally at 23.00 h completely suppressed the levels of both variables on the following day. It is concluded that urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol is correlated to urinary free cortisol so that measurement of urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol levels can be used as a diagnostic test for hypercortisolism in a way comparable to the method using urinary free cortisol.

  17. Glucose enhancement of 24-h memory retrieval in healthy elderly humans.

    PubMed

    Manning, C A; Stone, W S; Korol, D L; Gold, P E

    1998-06-01

    When administered soon before or after training, glucose facilitates memory in rodents and in several populations of humans, including healthy elderly people. Thus, glucose appears to enhance memory formation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. By assessing the effects of glucose at the time of memory tests, the present experiment examined the role of glucose on memory retrieval in healthy elderly people. On four sessions separated by a week, glucose or saccharin were administered immediately before hearing a narrative prose passage, as in previous experiments, or immediately before being tested for recall of the passage (24 h after training). Subjects recalled significantly more information after glucose ingestion than after saccharin ingestion whether the glucose was given before acquisition or memory tests. In addition, recall was significantly better in the preacquisition glucose condition relative to recall in the retrieval glucose condition. These findings provide evidence that glucose enhances both memory storage and retrieval.

  18. Master runners dominate 24-h ultramarathons worldwide—a retrospective data analysis from 1998 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were to examine (a) participation and performance trends and (b) the age of peak running performance in master athletes competing in 24-h ultra-marathons held worldwide between 1998 and 2011. Methods Changes in both running speed and the age of peak running speed in 24-h master ultra-marathoners (39,664 finishers, including 8,013 women and 31,651 men) were analyzed. Results The number of 24-h ultra-marathoners increased for both women and men across years (P < 0.01). The age of the annual fastest woman decreased from 48 years in 1998 to 35 years in 2011. The age of peaking running speed remained unchanged across time at 42.5 ± 5.2 years for the annual fastest men (P > 0.05). The age of the annual top ten women decreased from 42.6 ± 5.9 years (1998) to 40.1 ± 7.0 years (2011) (P < 0.01). For the annual top ten men, the age of peak running speed remained unchanged at 42 ± 2 years (P > 0.05). Running speed remained unchanged over time at 11.4 ± 0.4 km h-1 for the annual fastest men and 10.0 ± 0.2 km/h for the annual fastest women, respectively (P > 0.05). For the annual ten fastest women, running speed increased over time by 3.2% from 9.3 ± 0.3 to 9.6 ± 0.3 km/h (P < 0.01). Running speed of the annual top ten men remained unchanged at 10.8 ± 0.3 km/h (P > 0.05). Women in age groups 25–29 (r2 = 0.61, P < 0.01), 30–34 (r2 = 0.48, P < 0.01), 35–39 (r2 = 0.42, P = 0.01), 40–44 (r2 = 0.46, P < 0.01), 55–59 (r2 = 0.41, P = 0.03), and 60–64 (r2 = 0.57, P < 0.01) improved running speed; while women in age groups 45–49 and 50–54 maintained running speed (P > 0.05). Men improved running speed in age groups 25–29 (r2 = 0.48, P = 0.02), 45–49 (r2 = 0.34, P = 0.03), 50–54 (r2 = 0.50, P < 0.01), 55–59 (r2 = 0.70, P < 0.01), and 60–64 (r2 = 0.44, P = 0.03); while runners in age groups 30–34, 35–39, and 40–44 maintained running speed (P > 0.05). Conclusions Female and male age group runners improved

  19. Validation of web-based, multiple 24-h recalls combined with nutritional supplement intake questionnaires against nitrogen excretions to determine protein intake in Dutch elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Wardenaar, F C; Steennis, J; Ceelen, I J M; Mensink, M; Witkamp, R; de Vries, J H M

    2015-12-28

    Information on dietary composition is vitally important for elite athletes to optimise their performance and recovery, which requires valid tools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of assessing protein intake using three web-based 24-h recalls and questionnaires, by comparing these with three urinary N excretions on the same day. A total of forty-seven Dutch elite top athletes, both disabled and non-disabled, aged between 18 and 35 years, with a BMI of 17·5-31 kg/m2, exercising >12 h/week were recruited. Estimated mean dietary protein intake was 109·6 (sd 33·0) g/d by recalls and questionnaires v. 141·3 (sd 38·2) g/d based on N excretions in urine; the difference was 25·5 (sd 21·3) % between the methods (P<0·05). We found a reasonably good association between methods for protein intake of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·79). On an individual level, under-reporting was larger with higher protein intakes than with lower intakes. No significant differences were found in reporting absolute differences between subcategories (sex, under-reporting, BMI, collection of recalls within a certain amount of time and using protein supplements or not). In conclusion, combined, multiple, 24-h recalls and questionnaires underestimated protein intake in these young elite athletes more than that reported for non-athlete populations. The method proved to be suitable for ranking athletes according to their protein intake as needed in epidemiological studies. On an individual level, the magnitude of underestimation was about equal for all athletes except for those with very high protein intakes.

  20. 24-h blood pressure monitoring in normal tension glaucoma: night-time blood pressure variability.

    PubMed

    Plange, N; Kaup, M; Daneljan, L; Predel, H G; Remky, A; Arend, O

    2006-02-01

    Systemic arterial hypotension, hypertension and altered ocular blood flow are known risk factors in glaucoma. In this study, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and controls to evaluate blood pressure variability. In all, 51 patients with NTG and 28 age-matched controls were included in this prospective study. A 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (SpaceLabs Medical Inc., Redmond, USA) was performed and systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures were measured every 30 min during daytime (0800-2000) and night time (0000-0600). To evaluate blood pressure variability a variability index was defined as the s.d. of blood pressure measurements. Night-time blood pressure depression ('dip') was calculated (in percent of the daytime blood pressures). Patients with NTG exhibited higher night-time diastolic (P = 0.01) and mean arterial blood pressure values (P = 0.02) compared to controls, whereas systolic blood pressure data were not significantly different. The variability indices of night-time systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure measurements were significantly increased in patients with NTG compared to controls (P < 0.05). The night-time blood pressure depression of systolic (P = 0.47), diastolic (P = 0.11) and mean arterial blood pressures (P = 0.28) was not significantly different between patients with NTG and controls. In conclusion, patients with NTG showed increased variability of night-time blood pressure measurements compared to controls. Increased fluctuation of blood pressure may lead to ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation and may cause ischaemic episodes at the optic nerve head. PMID:16239898

  1. Intrinsic near-24-h pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. P. Jr; Hughes, R. J.; Kronauer, R. E.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks are robust regulators of physiology and behavior. Synchronization or entrainment of biological clocks to environmental time is adaptive and important for physiological homeostasis and for the proper timing of species-specific behaviors. We studied subjects in the laboratory for up to 55 days each to determine the ability to entrain the human clock to a weak circadian synchronizing stimulus [scheduled activity-rest cycle in very dim (approximately 1.5 lux in the angle of gaze) light-dark cycle] at three approximately 24-h periods: 23.5, 24.0, and 24.6 h. These studies allowed us to test two competing hypotheses as to whether the period of the human circadian pacemaker is near to or much longer than 24 h. We report here that imposition of a sleep-wake schedule with exposure to the equivalent of candle light during wakefulness and darkness during sleep is usually sufficient to maintain circadian entrainment to the 24-h day but not to a 23.5- or 24.6-h day. Our results demonstrate functionally that, in normally entrained sighted adults, the average intrinsic circadian period of the human biological clock is very close to 24 h. Either exposure to very dim light and/or the scheduled sleep-wake cycle itself can entrain this near-24-h intrinsic period of the human circadian pacemaker to the 24-h day.

  2. Urinary catheter - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This article addresses urinary catheters in babies. WHY IS ...

  3. [Comprehensive analysis of urinary proteins for identification of renal disease markers].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Aki

    2014-07-01

    Urine can be obtained noninvasively and relatively easily to provide a large sample and it is an important source of biomarker discovery in kidney diseases. Today, urinary albumin screening is not only useful for detecting early kidney diseases, but also recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We have shown different kinds of post-translational modification of urinary albumin in patients with glomerulonephritis, such as high- and low-molecular mass forms of albumin and highly carbonylated albumin. These characteristic molecular forms of albumin are not detected in serum samples obtained from the same patients or urine of healthy subjects, reflecting the kidney diseases processes. Furthermore, measuring the levels of albumin and other urinary proteins enables comprehensive kidney examination. The urinary protein profile using cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis coupled with colloidal silver staining allows us to construct urinary protein profiles. Basically, urinary protein patterns in patients with glomerulonephritis show 5 fractions, the same as the serum pattern; however, characteristic bands of cathode β and anode β fractions, reflecting β2-microglobulin and retinol binding protein, appear in patients with tubular dysfunction. This method is useful to diagnose damaged portions of the kidney, and it provides supportive data for renal biopsy. Most recently, exosome-derived proteins are considered as a new marker source which reflects in-situ alterations in the urology and renal diseases. Different forms of electrophoresis reveal slight alterations in the protein profile on the analysis of urinary proteins including exosomes. This report introduces the electrophoresis-based urinary proteome results generated by our research group. PMID:25669044

  4. Irritancy ranking of 31 cleansers in the Indian market in a 24-h patch test.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, C; Srinivas, C R; Anand, C V; Mathew, A C

    2008-08-01

    Cleansing trends promise freshness, sensory and health benefits but may also be accompanied by an increase in soap-induced skin irritation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the irritant effect of 31 cleansers (28 bar soaps and 3 liquid cleansers) available in the Indian market. Eight percent w/v solutions of the soaps/cleansers were made and 30 microL of each of the solutions were applied to Finn chambers and occluded for 24 h along with distilled water (negative control) and 20% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as positive control. The sites were graded for erythema and scaling 30 min after removing the patches. The pH of each of the soap solutions was determined. Mean with SD and ANOVA (F-value) was computed separately for each soap/cleanser with respect to the two parameters, erythema and scaling. The total of the means for both the parameters, erythema and scaling was also computed. The cleansers were listed based on this total from the least irritant to the most irritant. The differences between soaps (F-value) was significant for erythema and scaling [erythema = 4.106 (P = 0.000); scaling = 6.006 (P = 0.000)]. Cetaphil cleansing lotion had the lowest erythema score of 0.25. Lowest scaling score of zero was recorded for Cetaphil cleansing lotion and Elovera moisturizing body wash. Aquasoft and Lifebuoy soaps had the highest erythema score of 2.13. Acnex had the highest scaling score of 1.75; Aquasoft, Hamam scrub bath soap and Naturepower sandal soaps were the next with a scaling score of 1.63. Cetaphil cleansing lotion, Aquaderm liquid soap, Dove bar soap and Elovera moisturizing body wash proved to be the least irritant cleansers with a total score of less than 1. The four most irritant soaps/cleansers had an average score of 3.65. The irritant potential of the majority of the cleansers fell between these extremes. The pH of all the soap/cleanser solutions was neutral to alkaline (pH 7-9) except that of Dove bar, Cetaphil cleansing lotion, Aquaderm liquid

  5. Tuberculosis in hospitalized patients: clinical characteristics of patients receiving treatment within the first 24 h after admission*

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise Rossato; da Silva, Larissa Pozzebon; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients hospitalized for tuberculosis, comparing those in whom tuberculosis treatment was started within the first 24 h after admission with those who did not. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving new tuberculosis cases in patients aged ≥ 18 years who were hospitalized after seeking treatment in the emergency room. Results: We included 305 hospitalized patients, of whom 67 (22.0%) received tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission ( ≤24h group) and 238 (88.0%) did not (>24h group). Initiation of tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission was associated with being female (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.06-3.74; p = 0.032) and with an AFB-positive spontaneous sputum smear (OR = 4.19; 95% CI: 1.94-9.00; p < 0.001). In the ≤24h and >24h groups, respectively, the ICU admission rate was 22.4% and 15.5% (p = 0.258); mechanical ventilation was used in 22.4% and 13.9% (p = 0.133); in-hospital mortality was 22.4% and 14.7% (p = 0.189); and a cure was achieved in 44.8% and 52.5% (p = 0.326). Conclusions: Although tuberculosis treatment was initiated promptly in a considerable proportion of the inpatients evaluated, the rates of in-hospital mortality, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation use remained high. Strategies for the control of tuberculosis in primary care should consider that patients who seek medical attention at hospitals arrive too late and with advanced disease. It is therefore necessary to implement active surveillance measures in the community for earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25029651

  6. Superior serum half life of albumin tagged TNF ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Nicole; Schneider, Britta; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Wajant, Harald

    2010-06-11

    Due to their immune stimulating and apoptosis inducing properties, ligands of the TNF family attract increasing interest as therapeutic proteins. A general limitation of in vivo applications of recombinant soluble TNF ligands is their notoriously rapid clearance from circulation. To improve the serum half life of the TNF family members TNF, TWEAK and TRAIL, we genetically fused soluble variants of these molecules to human serum albumin (HSA). The serum albumin-TNF ligand fusion proteins were found to be of similar bioactivity as the corresponding HSA-less counterparts. Upon intravenous injection (i.v.), serum half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins, as determined by ELISA, was around 15 h as compared to approximately 1 h for all of the recombinant control TNF ligands without HSA domain. Moreover, serum samples collected 6 or 24 h after i.v. injection still contained high TNF ligand bioactivity, demonstrating that there is only limited degradation/inactivation of circulating HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins in vivo. In a xenotransplantation model, significantly less of the HSA-TRAIL fusion protein compared to the respective control TRAIL protein was required to achieve inhibition of tumor growth indicating that the increased half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins translates into better therapeutic action in vivo. In conclusion, our data suggest that genetic fusion to serum albumin is a powerful and generally applicable mean to improve bioavailability and in vivo activity of TNF ligands.

  7. Altered cortical activation patterns associated with baroreflex unloading following 24 h of physical deconditioning.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, J K; Usselman, C W; Rothwell, A; Wong, S W

    2012-12-01

    Cardiovascular arousal is associated with patterned cortical activity changes. Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) dimishes the baroreflex-mediated cardiac control. The present study tested the hypothesis that HDBR deconditioning would modify the forebrain organization for heart rate (HR) control during baroreflex unloading. Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure and plasma hormones were analysed at rest, whereas HR and cortical autonomic activation patterns (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were measured during graded and randomly assigned lower body negative pressure treatments (LBNP, -15 and -35 mmHg) both before (Pre) and after (Post) a 24 h HDBR protocol (study 1; n = 8). An additional group was tested before and following diuretic-induced hypovolaemia (study 2; n = 9; spironolactone, 100 mg day(-1) for 3 days) that mimicked the plasma volume lost during HDBR (-15% in both studies; P < 0.05). Head-down bed rest with hypovolaemia did not affect baseline HR, mean arterial pressure, HRV or plasma catecholamines. Head-down bed rest augmented the LBNP-induced HR response (P < 0.05), and this was associated with bed-rest-induced development of the following changes: (i) enhanced activation within the genual anterior cingulate cortex and the right anterior insular cortex; and (ii) deactivation patterns within the subgenual regions of the anterior cingulate cortex. Diuretic treatment (without HDBR) did not affect baseline HR and mean arterial pressure, but did reduce resting HRV and elevated circulating noradrenaline and plasma renin activity (P < 0.05). The greater HR response to LBNP following diuretic (P < 0.05) was associated with diminished activation of the right anterior insula. Our findings indicate that 24 h of HDBR minimized the impact of diuretic treatment on baseline autonomic and cardiovascular variables. The findings also indicate that despite the similar augmentation of HR responses to LBNP and despite similar pre-intervention cortical activation

  8. Impact of percentile computation method on PM 24-h air quality standard.

    PubMed

    Salako, Gbenga Oladoyin; Hopke, Philip K

    2012-09-30

    In 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) introduced a percentile form of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). Studies had shown that a specified percentile in the frequency distribution of measured values of PM increased the probability of detecting non-attainment areas (power) and decreased the likelihood of misclassification of attainment areas as being non-attainment (type 2 error). However, this new NAAQS used a percentile form that was different from a standard percentile in a distribution. Instead of taking the percentile of the distribution of the required 3 years of measurements, the PM(2.5) values for the selected percentile for each year were determined and the average of these 3 values was used as the NAAQS indicator value. However, no studies have been made of this average of the 3 years method and compared to a standard percentile in the multiyear data. The relationships between the values obtained using these two approaches have been explored. PM data measured at selected US EPA Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) website from January 2004 to December 2008 at 20 sites in 20 different states in United States were utilized. PM samples were collected for 24-h periods from midnight to midnight every third day for PM(2.5) and every sixth day for PM(10). At some sites, continuous measurements of PM(2.5) were made and averaged to provide 24-hr values. Using these data, the NAAQS percentile values were compared with the actual 98th percentile values of the three years of data. Regression and t-test analyses were used to compare these two methods and found high correlation coefficients and no significant difference in most cases. Overall, the two methods showed substantial agreement such that either of the two approaches could serve as the statistical form of the 24-h standard. In exploring the PM(10) standard, an arbitrarily chosen standard value of 85 μg/m(3) was used to explore the

  9. Baroreflex-mediated heart rate and vascular resistance responses 24 h after maximal exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Plasma volume, heart rate (HR) variability, and stimulus-response relationships for baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance (FVR) and HR were studied in eight healthy men after and without performing a bout of maximal exercise to test the hypotheses that acute expansion of plasma volume is associated with 1) reduction in baroreflex-mediated HR response, and 2) altered operational range for central venous pressure (CVP). METHODS: The relationship between stimulus (DeltaCVP) and vasoconstrictive reflex response (DeltaFVR) during unloading of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors was assessed with lower-body negative pressure (LBNP, 0, -5, -10, -15, -20 mm Hg). The relationship between stimulus (Deltamean arterial pressure (MAP)) and cardiac reflex response (DeltaHR) during loading of arterial baroreceptors was assessed with steady-state infusion of phenylephrine (PE) designed to increase MAP by 15 mm Hg alone and during application of LBNP (PE+LBNP) and neck pressure (PE+LBNP+NP). Measurements of vascular volume and autonomic baroreflex responses were conducted on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested 24 h after graded cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, measurement of baroreflex response was repeated with no exercise (control). The order of exercise and control treatments was counterbalanced. RESULTS: Baseline CVP was elevated (P = 0.04) from a control value of 10.5 +/- 0.4 to 12.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg 24 h after exercise. Average DeltaFVR/DeltaCVP during LBNP was not different (P = 0.942) between the exercise (-1.35 +/- 0.32 pru x mm Hg-1) and control (-1.32 +/- 0.36 pru x mm Hg-1) conditions. However, maximal exercise caused a shift along the reflex response relationship to a higher CVP and lower FVR. HR baroreflex response (DeltaHR/DeltaMAP) to PE+LBNP+NP was lower (P = 0.015) after maximal exercise (-0.43 +/- 0.15 beats x min-1 x mm Hg-1) compared with the control

  10. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Antônio F. M.; Moresco, James; Yates, John R.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick

  11. Altered cortical activation patterns associated with baroreflex unloading following 24 h of physical deconditioning.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, J K; Usselman, C W; Rothwell, A; Wong, S W

    2012-12-01

    Cardiovascular arousal is associated with patterned cortical activity changes. Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) dimishes the baroreflex-mediated cardiac control. The present study tested the hypothesis that HDBR deconditioning would modify the forebrain organization for heart rate (HR) control during baroreflex unloading. Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure and plasma hormones were analysed at rest, whereas HR and cortical autonomic activation patterns (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were measured during graded and randomly assigned lower body negative pressure treatments (LBNP, -15 and -35 mmHg) both before (Pre) and after (Post) a 24 h HDBR protocol (study 1; n = 8). An additional group was tested before and following diuretic-induced hypovolaemia (study 2; n = 9; spironolactone, 100 mg day(-1) for 3 days) that mimicked the plasma volume lost during HDBR (-15% in both studies; P < 0.05). Head-down bed rest with hypovolaemia did not affect baseline HR, mean arterial pressure, HRV or plasma catecholamines. Head-down bed rest augmented the LBNP-induced HR response (P < 0.05), and this was associated with bed-rest-induced development of the following changes: (i) enhanced activation within the genual anterior cingulate cortex and the right anterior insular cortex; and (ii) deactivation patterns within the subgenual regions of the anterior cingulate cortex. Diuretic treatment (without HDBR) did not affect baseline HR and mean arterial pressure, but did reduce resting HRV and elevated circulating noradrenaline and plasma renin activity (P < 0.05). The greater HR response to LBNP following diuretic (P < 0.05) was associated with diminished activation of the right anterior insula. Our findings indicate that 24 h of HDBR minimized the impact of diuretic treatment on baseline autonomic and cardiovascular variables. The findings also indicate that despite the similar augmentation of HR responses to LBNP and despite similar pre-intervention cortical activation

  12. The friction coefficient of shoulder joints remains remarkably low over 24 h of loading.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian K; Durney, Krista M; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-11-01

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Eight human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean±standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (p<0.0001). The value in LCMS was significantly lower than in hHCMS and bHCMS (p<0.01). No visual damage was observed in any of the specimens. These are the first results to demonstrate that the friction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction.

  13. Urinary thiosulfate determined by suppressed ion chromatography with conductimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Cole, D E; Evrovski, J; Pirone, R

    1995-10-01

    Thiosulfate is a naturally occurring product of sulfur metabolism. Assays of urinary thiosulfate have been based on the reaction with cyanide to form thiocyanate. However, matrix interferences and background variation in endogenous thiocyanate excretion place serious constraints on this method for determination of physiological amounts of thiosulfate in urine. We describe a column-switching ion chromatographic separation for urinary thiosulfate that allows for sensitive and accurate detection by ion conductimetry. In 20 adult volunteers, we found a lower urinary thiosulfate (8.50 +/- 7.39 mumol/24 h, mean +/- S.D.) than others have described, although the upward skew of the results (median, 6.90; range, 0.84-32 mumol/24 h) was similar. However, we have not observed any of the interferences and the sensitivity of our technique (< 0.2 mumol/24 h) allows for detection of thiosulfate in all control samples. This sort of methodological improvement will be essential for any study of physiological thiosulfate metabolism.

  14. Development of albumin-based nanoparticles for the delivery of abacavir.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Barnabas; Paladugu, Latishkumar; Priyadarshini, S R Brahmani; Jenita, J Josephine Leno

    2015-11-01

    The study was designed to prepare and evaluate albumin nanoparticles containing antiviral drug abacavir sulphate. Various batches of albumin nanoparticles containing abacavir sulphate were prepared by desolvation method. The abacavir loaded particles were characterized for their yield, percentage of drug loading, surface morphology, particle size, surface charge, pattern of in vitro drug release and release mechanism studies. Drug loading ranged from 1.2 to 5.9%w/w. The mean particle size and the surface charge were 418.2nm and -40.8mV respectively. The in vitro drug release varied between 38.73 and 51.36%w/w for 24h. The n value for Korsmeyer-Peppas was 0.425 indicating Fickian type drug release. The preliminary findings indicated that albumin nanoparticles of abacavir can be prepared by desolvation method with good yield, high drug loading and sustained release.

  15. Optical excitation energies, Stokes shift, and spin-splitting of C24H72Si14.

    PubMed

    Zope, Rajendra R; Baruah, Tunna; Richardson, Steven L; Pederson, Mark R; Dunlap, Brett I

    2010-07-21

    As an initial step toward the synthesis and characterization of sila-diamondoids, such as sila-adamantane (Si(10)H(16),T(d)), the synthesis of a fourfold silylated sila-adamantane molecule (C(24)H(72)Si(14),T(d)) has been reported in literature [Fischer et al., Science 310, 825 (2005)]. We present the electronic structure, ionization energies, quasiparticle gap, and the excitation energies for the Si(14)(CH(3))(24) and the exact silicon analog of adamantane Si(10)H(16) obtained at the all-electron level using the delta-self-consistent-field and transitional state methods within two different density functional models: (i) Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation and (ii) fully analytic density functional (ADFT) implementation with atom dependent potential. The ADFT is designed so that molecules separate into atoms having exact atomic energies. The calculations within the two models agree well, to within 0.25 eV for optical excitations. The effect of structural relaxation in the presence of electron-hole-pair excitations is examined to obtain its contribution to the luminescence Stokes shift. The spin-influence on exciton energies is also determined. Our calculations indicate overall decrease in the absorption, emission, quasiparticle, and highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gaps, ionization energies, Stokes shift, and exciton binding energy when passivating hydrogens in the Si(10)H(16) are replaced with electron donating groups such as methyl (Me) and trimehylsilyl (-Si(Me)(3)).

  16. Gender differences in the impact of daily sadness on 24-h heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Verkuil, Bart; Brosschot, Jos F; Marques, Andrea H; Kampschroer, Kevin; Sternberg, Esther M; Thayer, Julian F

    2015-12-01

    Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) is proposed to mediate the relation between depressive symptoms and cardiovascular health problems. Yet, several studies have found that in women depression is associated with higher HRV levels, whereas in men depression is associated with lower HRV levels. So far, these studies have only examined gender differences in HRV levels using a single assessment. This study aimed to test the interactive effects of gender and sadness on ambulatory-assessed HRV levels. A sample of 60 (41 women) employees participated in an ambulatory study. HRV levels (mean of successive differences; MSD) were continuously measured for 24 h. During the daytime, hourly assessments of sadness and other mood states were taken, while depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D). Gender differences were observed when examining the impact of average daily sadness on MSD. In women, but not in men, the total amount of sadness experienced during the day was associated with higher circadian MSD levels. These findings suggest that researchers need to take gender differences into account when examining the relation between sadness, HRV, and cardiovascular problems. PMID:26338472

  17. Cerebral blood flow velocity in humans exposed to 24 h of head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, Y.; Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Deroshia, C. W.; Hargens, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in humans before, during, and after 24 h of 6 deg head-down tilt (HDT), which is a currently accepted experimental model to simulate microgravity. CBF velocity was measured by use of the transcranial Doppler technique in the right middle cerebral artery of eight healthy male subjects. Mean CBF velocity increased from the pre-HDT upright seated baseline value of 55.5 +/- 3.7 (SE) cm/s to 61.5 +/- 3.3 cm/s at 0.5 h of HDT, reached a peak value of 63.2 +/- 4.1 cm/s at 3 h of HDT, and remained significantly above the pre-HDT baseline for over 6 h of HDT. During upright seated recovery, mean CBF velocity decreased to 87 percent of the pre-HDT baseline value. Mean CBF velocity correlated well with calculated intracranial arterial pressure (IAP). As analyzed by linear regression, mean CBF velocity = 29.6 + 0.32IAP. These results suggest that HDT increases CBF velocity by increasing IAP during several hours after the onset of microgravity. Importantly, the decrease in CBF velocity after HDT may be responsible, in part, for the increased risk of syncope observed in subjects after prolonged bed rest and also in astronauts returning to Earth.

  18. Fasting for 24 h improves nasal chemosensory performance and food palatability in a related manner.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jameason D; Goldfield, Gary S; Doucet, Éric

    2012-06-01

    Changes in smell function can modify feeding behaviour but there is little evidence of how acute negative energy balance may impact olfaction and palatability. In a within-subjects repeated measures design, 15 subjects (nine male; six female) aged 28.6±4.5 years with initial body weight (BW) 74.7±4.9 kg and body mass index (BMI) 25.3±1.4 kg/m(2) were randomized and tested at baseline (FED) and Post Deprivation (FASTED) for nasal chemosensory performance (Sniffin' Sticks) and food palatability (visual analogue scale). Significant main effects for time indicated improvements in the FASTED session for odor threshold, odor discrimination, and total odor scores (TDI), and for increased palatability. There were significant positive correlations between initial BW and the change in odor threshold (r=.52) and TDI scores (r=.53). Positive correlations were also noted between delta identification score and delta palatability (r=.68). When the sample was split by sex, only for females were there significant correlations between delta palatability and: delta BW (r=.88); delta odor identification (r=.94); and delta TDI score (r=.85). Fasting for 24h improved smell function and this was related to increased palatability ratings and initial BW. Further studies should confirm the role of BW and sex in the context of olfaction, energy deprivation and palatability.

  19. Combined solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants - An approach to 24h solar electricity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzer, Werner J.

    2016-05-01

    Solar thermal power plants have the advantage of being able to provide dispatchable renewable electricity even when the sun is not shining. Using thermal energy strorage (TES) they may increase the capacity factor (CF) considerably. However in order to increase the operating hours one has to increase both, thermal storage capacity and solar field size, because the additional solar field is needed to charge the storage. This increases investment cost, although levelised electricity cost (LEC) may decrease due to the higher generation. Photovoltaics as a fluctuating source on the other side has arrived at very low generation costs well below 10 ct/kWh even for Central Europe. Aiming at a capacity factor above 70% and at producing dispatchable power it is shown that by a suitable combination of CSP and PV we can arrive at lower costs than by increasing storage and solar field size in CSP plants alone. Although a complete baseload power plant with more than 90% full load hours may not be the most economic choice, power plants approaching a full 24h service in most days of the year seem to be possible at reasonably low tariffs.

  20. Physiological and biological factors associated with a 24 h treadmill ultra-marathon performance.

    PubMed

    Millet, G Y; Banfi, J C; Kerherve, H; Morin, J B; Vincent, L; Estrade, C; Geyssant, A; Feasson, L

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and biological factors associated with ultra-endurance performance. Fourteen male runners volunteered to run on a treadmill as many kilometers as possible over a 24-h period (24TR). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), velocity associated with VO(2max)(VO(2max)) and running economy (RE) at 8 km/h were measured. A muscle biopsy was also performed in the vastus lateralis muscle. The subjects ran 149.2 ± 15.7 km in 18 h 39 ± 41 min of effective attendance on the treadmill, corresponding to 39.4 ± 4.2% of . Standard multiple-regression analysis showed that performance was significantly (R(2) = 0.82; P = 0.005) related to VO(2max) and specific endurance, i.e. the average speed sustained over the 24TR expressed in . VO(2max) was associated with a high capillary tortuosity (R(2) = 0.66; P = 0.01). Specific endurance was significantly related to RE and citrate synthase activity. It is concluded that a high VO(2max) and an associated developed capillary network are essential for ultra-endurance running performance. The ability to maintain a high %VO(2max) over a 24TR is another factor associated with performance and is mainly related to RE and high mitochondrial oxidative capacity in the vastus lateralis. PMID:19883385

  1. Akt Links Insulin Signaling to Albumin Endocytosis in Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Sam; Costacou, Tina; Orchard, Trevor; Erkan, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become an epidemic, causing a significant decline in quality of life of individuals due to its multisystem involvement. Kidney is an important target organ in DM accounting for the majority of patients requiring renal replacement therapy at dialysis units. Microalbuminuria (MA) has been a valuable tool to predict end-organ damage in DM but its low sensitivity has driven research efforts to seek other alternatives. Albumin is taken up by albumin receptors, megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule epithelial cells. We demonstrated that insulin at physiological concentrations induce albumin endocytosis through activation of protein kinase B (Akt) in proximal tubule epithelial cells. Inhibition of Akt by a phosphorylation deficient construct abrogated insulin induced albumin endocytosis suggesting a role for Akt in insulin-induced albumin endocytosis. Furthermore we demonstrated a novel interaction between Akt substrate 160kDa (AS160) and cytoplasmic tail of megalin. Mice with type 1 DM (T1D) displayed decreased Akt, megalin, cubilin and AS160 expression in their kidneys in association with urinary cubilin shedding preceding significant MA. Patients with T1D who have developed MA in the EDC (The Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications) study demonstrated urinary cubilin shedding prior to development of MA. We hypothesize that perturbed insulin-Akt cascade in DM leads to alterations in trafficking of megalin and cubilin, which results in urinary cubilin shedding as a prelude to MA in early diabetic nephropathy. We propose that utilization of urinary cubilin shedding, as a urinary biomarker, will allow us to detect and intervene in diabetic nephropathy (DN) at an earlier stage. PMID:26465605

  2. Sex difference in the 24-h acetylcholine release profile in the premotor/supplementary motor area of behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Takase, Kenkichi; Mitsushima, Dai; Funabashi, Toshiya; Kimura, Fukuko

    2007-06-18

    The sex differences in various motor functions suggest a sex-specific neural basis in the nonprimary or primary motor area. To examine the sex difference in the 24-h profile of acetylcholine (ACh) release in the rostral frontal cortex area 2 (rFr2), which is equivalent to the premotor/supplementary motor area in primates, we performed an in vivo microdialysis study in both sexes of rats fed pelleted or powdered diet. The dialysate was automatically collected from the rFr2 for 24 h under freely moving conditions. Moreover, the number of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) was examined. Further, to confirm the relation between ACh release in the rFr2 and motor function, the spontaneous locomotor activity was monitored for 24 h. Both sexes showed a distinct 24-h rhythm of ACh release, which was high during the dark phase and low during the light phase. Female rats, however, showed a greater ACh release and more cholinergic neurons in the NBM than male rats. Similarly, spontaneous locomotor activity also showed a 24-h rhythm, which paralleled the changes in ACh release in both sexes, and these changes were again greater in female rats than in male rats. In addition, feeding with powdered diet significantly increased the ACh release and spontaneous locomotor activity. The present study is the first to report the sex difference in the 24-h profile of ACh release in the rFr2 in rats. The sex specific ACh release in the rFr2 may partly contribute to the sex difference in motor function in rats.

  3. [Validity of the 24-h previous day physical activity recall (PDPAR-24) in Spanish adolescents].

    PubMed

    Cancela, José María; Lago, Joaquín; Ouviña, Lara; Ayán, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: El control del nivel de práctica de actividad física que realizan los adolescentes, de sus factores determinantes y susceptibilidad al cambio resulta indispensable para intervenir sobre la epidemia de obesidad que afecta a la sociedad española. Sin embargo, el número de cuestionarios validados para valorar la actividad física en adolescentes españoles es escaso. Objetivos: Evaluar la validez del cuestionario24hPrevious Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR-24) cuando es aplicado a la población de adolescentes españoles. Método: Participaron en este estudio estudiantes de 14-15 años de dos centros de educación secundaria del norte de Galicia. Como criterio objetivo de la actividad física realizada se utilizó el registro proporcionado por el acelerómetro Actigraph GT3X.Se monitorizó a los sujetos durante un día por medio del acelerómetro y al día siguiente se administró el cuestionario de auto-informe. Resultados: Un total de 79 alumnos (15.16 ± 0.81 años, 39% mujeres) finalizaron el estudio. Se observan correlaciones positivas estadísticamente significativas de tamaño medio a grande en ambos sexos (r=0.50-0.98), para la actividad física ligera y moderada. Las correlaciones observadas son más elevadas a medida que aumenta la intensidad de la actividad física realizada. Conclusiones: El cuestionario de auto-informe PDPAR-24 puede ser considerado como una herramienta válida a la hora de valorar el nivel de actividad física en adolescentes españoles.

  4. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Anita; Bonny, Olivier; Guessous, Idris; Suter, Paolo M.; Conen, David; Erne, Paul; Binet, Isabelle; Gabutti, Luca; Gallino, Augusto; Muggli, Franco; Hayoz, Daniel; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. Design, settings, participants, & measurements Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root–transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dependent variable with a focus on month-specific vitamin D tertiles and serum calcium in the Swiss Survey on Salt Study. Results In total, 624 men and 669 women were studied with mean ages of 49.2 and 47.0 years, respectively (age range=15–95 years). Mean urinary calcium excretion was higher in men than in women (183.05 versus 144.60 mg/24 h; P<0.001). In adjusted models, the association (95% confidence interval) of square root urinary calcium excretion with protein–corrected serum calcium was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.34) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in women and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, −0.11 to 1.29) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in men. Men in the third 25(OH)D3 tertile had higher square root urinary calcium excretion than men in the first tertile (0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 1.63 mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter), and the corresponding association was 0.32 (95% confidence interval, −0.22 to 0.85) mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter in women. These sex differences were more marked under conditions of high urinary sodium or urea excretions. Conclusions There was a positive association of serum calcium with urinary calcium excretion in women but not men. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 was associated with urinary calcium excretion in men but not women. These results suggest important sex differences in the hormonal and dietary control of urinary calcium excretion. PMID:25518946

  5. In vivo biocompatibility, clearance, and biodistribution of albumin vehicles for pulmonary drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Woods, A; Patel, A; Spina, D; Riffo-Vasquez, Y; Babin-Morgan, A; de Rosales, R T M; Sunassee, K; Clark, S; Collins, H; Bruce, K; Dailey, L A; Forbes, B

    2015-07-28

    The development of clinically acceptable albumin-based nanoparticle formulations for use in pulmonary drug delivery has been hindered by concerns about the toxicity of nanomaterials in the lungs combined with a lack of information on albumin nanoparticle clearance kinetics and biodistribution. In this study, the in vivo biocompatibility of albumin nanoparticles was investigated following a single administration of 2, 20, and 390μg/mouse, showing no inflammatory response (TNF-α and IL-6, cellular infiltration and protein concentration) compared to vehicle controls at the two lower doses, but elevated mononucleocytes and a mild inflammatory effect at the highest dose tested. The biodistribution and clearance of (111)In labelled albumin solution and nanoparticles over 48h following a single pulmonary administration to mice was investigated by single photon emission computed tomography and X-ray computed tomography imaging and terminal biodistribution studies. (111)In labelled albumin nanoparticles were cleared more slowly from the mouse lung than (111)In albumin solution (64.1±8.5% vs 40.6±3.3% at t=48h, respectively), with significantly higher (P<0.001) levels of albumin nanoparticle-associated radioactivity located within the lung tissue (23.3±4.7%) compared to the lung fluid (16.1±4.4%). Low amounts of (111)In activity were detected in the liver, kidneys, and intestine at time points >24h indicating that small amounts of activity were cleared from the lungs both by translocation across the lung mucosal barrier, as well as mucociliary clearance. This study provides important information on the fate of albumin vehicles in the lungs, which may be used to direct future formulation design of inhaled nanomedicines.

  6. [Use of customer relationship management to improve healthcare for citizens. The 24h Andalusian Health Service: Healthline].

    PubMed

    Quero, Manuel; Ramos, María Belén; López, Wilfredo; Cubillas, Juan José; González, José María; Castillo, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Salud Responde (in English: Healthline) is a Health Service and Information Centre of the taxpayer-funded Andalusian Health System (AHS) that offers a Telephone Health Advisory Service called SA24h, among other services. The main objective of SA24h is to inform and advise citizens on health issues and the available health resources of the AHS. SA24h has a Customer Relationship Management information technology tool that organises information at various levels of specialization. Depending on the difficulty of the query, the citizen is attended by professionals with distinct profiles, providing a consensual response within the professionals working within Salud Responde or within other healthcare levels of the AHS. SA24h provided responses to 757,168 patient queries from late 2008 to the end of 01/12/2015. A total of 9.38% of the consultations were resolved by the non-health professionals working at Salud Responde. The remaining 84.07% were resolved by health staff. A total of 6.5% of users were referred to accident and emergency facilities while 88.77% did not need to attend their general practitioner within the next 24hours, thus avoiding unnecessary visits to health care facilities. PMID:26900101

  7. [Use of customer relationship management to improve healthcare for citizens. The 24h Andalusian Health Service: Healthline].

    PubMed

    Quero, Manuel; Ramos, María Belén; López, Wilfredo; Cubillas, Juan José; González, José María; Castillo, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Salud Responde (in English: Healthline) is a Health Service and Information Centre of the taxpayer-funded Andalusian Health System (AHS) that offers a Telephone Health Advisory Service called SA24h, among other services. The main objective of SA24h is to inform and advise citizens on health issues and the available health resources of the AHS. SA24h has a Customer Relationship Management information technology tool that organises information at various levels of specialization. Depending on the difficulty of the query, the citizen is attended by professionals with distinct profiles, providing a consensual response within the professionals working within Salud Responde or within other healthcare levels of the AHS. SA24h provided responses to 757,168 patient queries from late 2008 to the end of 01/12/2015. A total of 9.38% of the consultations were resolved by the non-health professionals working at Salud Responde. The remaining 84.07% were resolved by health staff. A total of 6.5% of users were referred to accident and emergency facilities while 88.77% did not need to attend their general practitioner within the next 24hours, thus avoiding unnecessary visits to health care facilities.

  8. 24-h ambulatory recording of aortic pulse wave velocity and central systolic augmentation: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Luzardo, Leonella; Lujambio, Inés; Sottolano, Mariana; da Rosa, Alicia; Thijs, Lutgarde; Noboa, Oscar; Staessen, Jan A; Boggia, José

    2012-10-01

    We assessed the feasibility of ambulatory pulse wave analysis by comparing this approach with an established tonometric technique. We investigated 35 volunteers (45.6 years; 51.0% women) exclusively at rest (R study) and 83 volunteers (49.9 years; 61.4% women) at rest and during daytime (1000-2000 h) ambulatory monitoring (R+A study). We recorded central systolic (cSP), diastolic (cDP) and pulse (cPP) pressures, augmentation index (cAI) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) by brachial oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph 24h PWA Monitor) and radial tonometry (SphygmoCor). We applied the Bland and Altman's statistics. In the R study, tonometric and oscillometric estimates of cSP (105.6 vs. 106.9 mm Hg), cDP (74.6 vs. 74.7 mm Hg), cPP (31.0 vs. 32.1 mm Hg), cAI (21.1 vs. 20.6%) and PWV (7.3 vs. 7.0 m s(-1)) were similar (P0.11). In the R+A study, tonometric vs. oscillometric assessment yielded similar values for cSP (115.4 vs. 113.9 mm Hg; P=0.19) and cAI (26.5 vs. 25.3%; P=0.54), but lower cDP (77.8 vs. 81.9 mm Hg; P<0.0001), so that cPP was higher (37.6 vs. 32.1 mm Hg; P<0.0001). PWV (7.9 vs. 7.4 m s(-1)) was higher (P=0.0002) on tonometric assessment. The differences between tonometric and oscillometric estimates increased (P0.004) with cSP (r=0.37), cAI (r=0.39) and PWV (r=0.39), but not (P0.17) with cDP (r=0.15) or cPP (r=0.13). Irrespective of measurement conditions, brachial oscillometry compared with an established tonometric method provided similar estimates for cSP and systolic augmentation, but slightly underestimated PWV. Pending further validation, ambulatory assessment of central hemodynamic variables is feasible.

  9. Prevalence and determinants of misreporting among European children in proxy-reported 24 h dietary recalls.

    PubMed

    Börnhorst, C; Huybrechts, I; Ahrens, W; Eiben, G; Michels, N; Pala, V; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Barba, G; Bel-Serrat, S; Moreno, L A; Papoutsou, S; Veidebaum, T; Loit, H-M; Lissner, L; Pigeot, I

    2013-04-14

    Dietary assessment is strongly affected by misreporting (both under- and over-reporting), which results in measurement error. Knowledge about misreporting is essential to correctly interpret potentially biased associations between diet and health outcomes. In young children, dietary data mainly rely on proxy respondents but little is known about determinants of misreporting here. The present analysis was conducted within the framework of the multi-centre IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study and is based on 6101 children aged 2-9 years with 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) and complete covariate information. Adapted Goldberg cut-offs were applied to classify the 24-HDR as 'over-report', 'plausible report' or 'under-report'. Backward elimination in the course of multi-level logistic regression analyses was conducted to identify factors significantly related to under- and over-reporting. Next to characteristics of the children and parents, social factors and parental concerns/perceptions concerning their child's weight status were considered. Further selective misreporting was addressed, investigating food group intakes commonly perceived as more or less socially desirable. Proportions of under-, plausible and over-reports were 8.0, 88.6 and 3.4 %, respectively. The risk of under-reporting increased with age (OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.05, 1.83), BMI z-score of the child (OR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.10, 1.37) and household size (OR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.25), and was higher in low/medium income groups (OR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.13, 1.86). Over-reporting was negatively associated with BMI z-scores of the child (OR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.69, 0.88) and higher in girls (OR 1.70, 95 % CI 1.27, 2.28). Further social desirability and parental concerns/perceptions seemed to influence the reporting behaviour. Future studies should involve these determinants of misreporting when investigating diet-disease relationships in children

  10. Renal FcRn reclaims albumin but facilitates elimination of IgG.

    PubMed

    Sarav, Menaka; Wang, Ying; Hack, Bradley K; Chang, Anthony; Jensen, Mark; Bao, Lihua; Quigg, Richard J

    2009-09-01

    The widely distributed neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) contributes to maintaining serum levels of albumin and IgG in adults. In the kidney, FcRn is expressed on the podocytes and the brush border of the proximal tubular epithelium. Here, we evaluated the role of renal FcRn in albumin and IgG metabolism. Compared with wild-type controls, FcRn(-/-) mice had a lower t((1/2)) for albumin (28.7 versus 39.9 h) and IgG (29.5 versus 66.1 h). Renal loss of albumin could account for the former, suggested by the progressive development of hypoalbuminemia in wild-type mice transplanted with FcRn-deficient kidneys. Furthermore, serum albumin levels returned to normal in FcRn(-/-) recipients of wild-type kidneys after removing the native FcRn-deficient kidneys. In contrast, renal loss could not account for the enhanced elimination of IgG in FcRn(-/-) mice. These mice had minimal urinary excretion of native and labeled IgG, which increased to wild-type levels in FcRn(-/-) recipients of a single FcRn-sufficient kidney (t((1/2)) of IgG was 21.7 h). Taken together, these data suggest that renal FcRn reclaims albumin, thereby maintaining the serum concentration of albumin, but facilitates the loss of IgG from plasma protein pools.

  11. Evaluation of Salt Intake, Urinary Sodium Excretion and Their Relationship to Overhydration in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Hallvass, Andrea E C; Claro, Lígia Maria; Gonçalves, Simone; Olandoski, Márcia; Nerbass, Fabiana Baggio; Aita, Carlos Alberto Mayora; de Moraes, Thyago Proença; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate sodium intake in a group of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to correlate the results with the urinary excretion values of sodium and signs of fluid overload. We included patients with CKD in different stages. Urinary sodium was measured in 24 h urine samples. Body composition monitor (BCM) was used to estimate the hydration status. Sixty patients (38 ± 15 ml/min of GFR) presented 4.14 ± 1.71 g/24 h of urinary sodium excretion. Overhydration was detected in 50% of the patients by the BCM. There was a positive correlation between the measured sodium excretion values and BCM, ICW, ECW and TBW. In conclusion, markers of overhydration evaluated by BCM were positively correlated with urinary sodium excretion.

  12. Urinary excretion of methaqualone-N-oxide in man.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, C N; Wilson, K; Burnett, D

    1976-02-01

    1. Oral administration of therapeutic doses (250 mg) of methaqualone (Melsed) to adult human subjects gives rise to the urinary excretion of methaqualone-N-oxide. This metabolite has been identified by chromatography and mass spectrometry and quantitatively determined by reduction with titanium trichloride to methaqualone which was then determined by g.l.c. 2. The N-oxide accounts for 5-9% of the dose in 24 h. 3. 2-Nitrobenzo-o-toluidide, a possible oxidation product of methaqualone-N-oxide, has not been detected. 4. The urinary excretion of unchanged methaqualone is less than 0-3% of the dose. The ease with which methaqualone-N-oxide is thermally converted to methaqualone casts doubts on the previously published figures for the urinary excretion of methaqualone.

  13. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... RR, Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  14. Monthly urinary LH and FSH secretory patterns in normal children and patients with sexual disorders.

    PubMed

    Maesaka, H; Suwa, S; Tachibana, K; Kikuchi, N

    1990-10-01

    Urinary gonadotropin concentrations were determined by polyclonal double antibody RIA after ammonium sulfate extraction. Good correlation was observed between urinary gonadotropin/creatinine ratios in first morning voided and full 24-h urine collections. Using consecutive 30-d first morning voided urine specimens from normal children and from patients with sexual disorders, we have studied the monthly patterns of nighttime gonadotropin secretion. In normal prepubertal girls, the levels of urinary LH were low with few variations and those of urinary FSH were higher with episodic fluctuations. In early pubertal girls, the levels of urinary LH increased with striking, rhythmic fluctuations. The same changes were seen in urinary FSH. A single big surge of urinary gonadotropins was observed in postmenarcheal girls. In normal boys, the secretory patterns of urinary gonadotropins were similar to those of normal girls, but varied less. In patients with idiopathic precocious puberty, the patterns of urinary gonadotropins were similar to those of normal subjects matched for sexual stage. The measurement of 30-d first morning voided urinary gonadotropins can provide a simple and physiologic test of gonadotropin function in children.

  15. [Infection and urinary lithiasis].

    PubMed

    Bruyere, F; Traxer, O; Saussine, C; Lechevallier, E

    2008-12-01

    Urinary infection is a risk factor for lithiasis. Urinary tract infection is a factor of gravity of urinary stone. The stone can exist before the infection which colonizes the stone, infected stone. The infection can be the cause of the stone, infectious stone (struvite stone). Infectious stones can be secondary to a non urinary infectious agent, oxalobacter formigenes (OF) and nanobacteria. The first-line treatment of struvite stone is percutaneous surgery. Perioperative antibiotics, renal urines and stone cultures are obligatory. PMID:19033073

  16. Urinary calcium, sodium, and bone mass of young females.

    PubMed

    Matkovic, V; Ilich, J Z; Andon, M B; Hsieh, L C; Tzagournis, M A; Lagger, B J; Goel, P K

    1995-08-01

    Calcium is an important determinant of peak bone mass in young adults because of its influence on skeletal development during growth. Attainment of maximum peak bone mass requires optimal positive balance between calcium intake and obligatory losses of calcium, primarily in urine and feces. Urinary excretion is an important determinant of calcium retention in the body. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of various nutrients on urinary calcium excretion, and to assess their impact on bone mass of young females, aged 8-13 y, during early puberty. The study was conducted in 381 healthy white females in pubertal stage 2. From each participant we collected basic anthropometric measurements, a 3-d food record, blood, a 24-h urine sample, and bone mass measurements of the total body and forearm by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Urinary sodium was found to be one of the most important determinants of urinary calcium excretion: [urinary calcium (mmol/d) = 0.01154 x urinary sodium (mmol/d) + 0.823], whereas calcium intake had relatively little impact: [urinary calcium (mmol/d) = 0.02252 x calcium intake (mmol/d) + 1.5261]. Urinary calcium was much higher at a calcium intake of approximately 37.5 mmol/d (1500 mg/d), supporting the notion that calcium is a threshold nutrient. Calcium intake had a significant positive influence on the bone mineral content and density of the whole body and radius shaft whereas urinary calcium had a negative influence, presumably by reducing calcium accretion into the skeleton.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. The relationship between kidney and urinary kininogenase

    PubMed Central

    Nustad, K.

    1970-01-01

    1. Rat kidneys which were perfused with saline contained both kininogenase (KGA) and kininase activity. These activities were separated by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column. The kininase activity was excluded from the column whereas the KGA activity was retained. Kidney KGA activity was primarily found in the sedimentable fraction of the homogenate. 2. The kidney KGA activity was compared with the urinary KGA activity, and the following properties were found to be the same: molecular dimension, pH optimum, effect of inhibitors, and ability to liberate kinins from kininogens. 3. A urinary sample collected over 24 h contained about 8 times the KGA activity found in the corresponding kidneys at the end of the collection period. The urine: kidney ratio for alkaline phosphatase was about 0·01. 4. The ability of kidney and urinary samples to hydrolyse N-α-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (BAEE) at pH 8·5 paralleled the KGA activity. PMID:5420147

  18. Temporal and topographic profiles of cyclooxygenase-2 expression during 24 h of focal brain ishemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Chiaki; Kaji, Tomohito; Kuge, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Tamaki, Nagara; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2004-03-11

    Substantial increases in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and protein levels were demonstrated in the peri-infarct and focal ischemic areas after 3-24 and 12-24 h, respectively, in rats. In the ischemic core, significant increases in COX-2 mRNA followed 6 h of ischemia, though the peak level was about one-third of that in the peri-infarct area. Increases in COX-2 protein in the ischemic core were not observed during ischemic periods. Diffuse, neuronal COX-2 staining was found in peri-infarct areas as well as in discrete, immunoreactive neurons in the ischemic core. Robust increases in prostaglandin E2 levels in the peri-infarct area were demonstrated following 24 h of ischemia. Prostaglandin production as well as COX-2 expression in ischemic tissues depended on the degree and duration of the reduction in cerebral blood flow.

  19. Long-term blood pressure changes induced by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: assessment by 24 h ambulatory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Petrarca, Marco; Petrazzi, Luisa; Pasqualetti, Paolo; Properzi, Giuliana; Desideri, Giovambattista; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    An increased rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been described during and immediately after earthquakes. In this regard, few data are available on long-term blood pressure control in hypertensive outpatients after an earthquake. We evaluated the long-term effects of the April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake on blood pressure levels, as detected by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Before/after (mean±s.d. 6.9±4.5/14.2±5.1 months, respectively) the earthquake, the available 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data for the same patients were extracted from our database. Quake-related daily life discomforts were evaluated through interviews. We enrolled 47 patients (25 female, age 52±14 years), divided into three groups according to antihypertensive therapy changes after versus before the earthquake: unchanged therapy (n=24), increased therapy (n=17) and reduced therapy (n=6). Compared with before the quake, in the unchanged therapy group marked increases in 24 h (P=0.004), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.02) systolic blood pressure were observed after the quake. Corresponding changes in 24 h (P=0.005), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.009) diastolic blood pressure were observed. Daily life discomforts were reported more frequently in the unchanged therapy and increased therapy groups than the reduced therapy group (P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that patients with unchanged therapy display marked blood pressure increments up to more than 1 year after an earthquake, as well as long-term quake-related discomfort. Our data suggest that particular attention to blood pressure levels and adequate therapy modifications should be considered after an earthquake, not only early after the event but also months later.

  20. Shock in the first 24 h of intensive care unit stay: observational study of protocol-based fluid management.

    PubMed

    See, Kay Choong; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Lau, Samuel Chuan-Xian; Tan, Sandra Ming-Yien; Lim, Tow Keang; Phua, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Precision in fluid management for shock could lead to better clinical outcomes. We evaluated the association of protocol-based fluid management with intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital mortality. We performed an observational study of mechanically ventilated patients admitted directly from our emergency department to the ICU from August 2011 to December 2013, who had circulatory shock in the first 24 h of ICU stay (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg at ICU admission or lactate >4 mmol/L). Patients with onset of shock beyond 24 h of ICU stay were excluded. Protocol-based fluid management required close physician-nurse cooperation and computerized documentation, checking for fluid response (≥10% arterial pulse pressure or stroke volume increase after two consecutive 250-mL crystalloid boluses), and fluid loading with repeated 500-mL boluses until fluid response became negative. Six hundred twelve mechanically ventilated patients with shock (mean [±SD] age, 63.0 years [16.5]; 252 or 41.2% females; mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, 30.2 [8.8]) were studied. The fluid management protocol was used 455 times for 242 patients (39.5% of 612 patients) within the first 24 h of ICU stay, with 244 (53.6% of 455) positive responses. Adjusted for age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, comorbidity, and admission year, protocol use was associated with reduced ICU mortality (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.94; P = 0.025) but not hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.23; P = 0.369). Among mechanically ventilated patients with shock within the first 24 h of ICU stay, about half had positive fluid responses. Adherence to protocol-based fluid management was associated with improved ICU survival.

  1. Changes in the oral health-related quality of life 24 h following insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Noorhanizar; Saub, Roslan; Othman, Siti Adibah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess changes in the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances 24 h after insertion. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients aged between 14 and 24 years (29 males and 31 females; mean age, 17.8 years; SD 3.1 years) were recruited from the Postgraduate Clinic, Department of Children's Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. The oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was measured before treatment and 24 h after insertion of the orthodontic appliance. The instrument used to measure OHRQoL was a modified self-administered short version of Malaysian Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-16[M]) questionnaire. The higher the score, the poorer is the OHRQoL. Results: Overall score of OHRQoL increased significantly 24 h after insertion (mean 43.5±10.9) as compared to before insertion (mean 34.1±9.2) (P<0.001). Significant changes were found for the following items: Difficulties in chewing, bad breath, difficulties in pronunciation, discomfort in eating, ulcer, pain, avoidances of eating certain foods, difficulties in cleaning, embarrassment, avoid smiling, disturbed sleep, concentration affected, difficulty carrying out daily activities, and lack of self-confidence (P<0.05). Significant changes were also found in the mean difference of OHRQoL for gender (P<0.001). Conclusion: OHRQoL was found to deteriorate 24 h after insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances in almost all domains, with significant changes in gender. This information can be used as “informed consent”, which might increase patient's compliance as they are aware of what to expect from initial orthodontic treatment. PMID:24987635

  2. Urinary Kallikrein Excretion in Essential and Mineralocorticoid Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Holland, O. Bryan; Chud, James M.; Braunstein, Helen

    1980-01-01

    Urinary kallikrein excretion has been reported to be decreased in patients with essential hypertension and elevated in patients with primary aldosteronism as a reflection of mineralocorticoid activity. Low renin essential hypertension (LREH) has been postulated to result from excess production of an unknown mineralocorticoid(s). Urinary kallikrein excretion was compared in outpatients with essential hypertension, mineralocorticoid hypertension (primary aldosteronism and 17α-hydroxylase deficiency), and in normal subjects of the same race. No significant difference in urinary kallikrein excretion of patients with LREH vs. normal renin essential hypertension (NREH) was found for either black (4.1±0.4 vs. 4.8±0.5 esterase units (EU)/24 h, mean±SE, for 27 LREH and 38 NREH, respectively) or white patients (12.2±2.3 vs. 11.7±1.4 EU/24 h for 13 LREH and 25 NREH, respectively). Urinary kallikrein was decreased in black vs. white hypertensive patients and normal subjects. However, in patients with normal renal function (creatinine clearance ≥80 ml/min) urinary kallikrein was not significantly decreased in either black hypertensive vs. black normal subjects (4.3±0.3 vs. 5.4±0.6 EU/24 h) or in white hypertensive vs. white normal subjects (11.9±1.2 vs. 8.4±0.9 EU/24 h). In contrast, hypertensive patients with mild renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance of 41.8±78.5 ml/min) had reduced (P < 0.05) urinary kallikrein (3.3 EU/24 h with creatinine clearance of 63.6±2.0 for 24 black patients and 4.2±0.7 EU/24 h with creatinine clearance of 67.0±3.5 for 6 white patients). These results suggest that a reduction in urinary kallikrein excretion rate is an early accompaniment of hypertensive renal injury. Urinary kallikrein excretion in response to a 6-d 10-meq sodium diet and a 3-d Florinef (0.5 mg b.i.d.) administration was compared in hypertensive patients with normal renal function vs. race and age-matched normal subjects. Stimulation of urinary kallikrein

  3. Time course of the MAPK and PI3-kinase response within 24 h of skeletal muscle overload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, C. J.; Fan, Z.; Gordon, S. E.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which skeletal muscle hypertrophies in response to increased mechanical loading may lead to the discovery of novel treatment strategies for muscle wasting and frailty. To gain insight into potential early signaling mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the temporal pattern of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity during the first 24 h of muscle overload was determined in the rat slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles after ablation of the gastrocnemius muscle. p38alpha MAPK phosphorylation was elevated for the entire 24-h overload period in both muscles. In contrast, Erk 2 and p54 JNK phosphorylation were transiently increased by overload, returning to the levels of sham-operated controls by 24 h. PI3-kinase activity was increased by muscle overload only at 12 h of overload and only in the plantaris muscle. In summary, sustained elevation of p38alpha MAPK phosphorylation occurred early in response to muscle overload, identifying this pathway as a potential candidate for mediating early hypertrophic signals in response to skeletal muscle overload.

  4. Amadori albumin in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Neelofar, Km.; Ahmad, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation of macromolecules in diabetes mellitus (DM) is accelerated due to persistent hyperglycemia. Reducing sugar such as glucose reacts non enzymatically with free €-amino groups of proteins through series of reactions forming Schiff bases. These bases are converted into Amadori product and further into AGEs. Non enzymatic glycation has the potential to alter the biological, structural and functional properties of macromolecules both in vitro and in vivo. Studies have suggested that amadori as well as AGEs are involved in the micro-macro vascular complications in DM, but most studies have focused on the role of AGEs in vascular complications of diabetes. Recently putative AGE-induced patho-physiology has shifted attention from the possible role of amadori-modified proteins, the predominant form of the glycated proteins in the development of the diabetic complications. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in circulation contains 59 lysine and 23 arginine residues that could, in theory be involved in glycation. Albumin has dual nature, first as a marker of intermediate glycation and second as a causative agent of the damage of tissues. Among the blood proteins, hemoglobin and albumin are the most common proteins that are glycated. HSA with a shorter half life than RBC, appears to be an alternative marker of glycemic control as it can indicate blood glucose status over a short period (2-3 weeks) and being unaffected by RBCs life span and variant haemoglobin, anemia etc which however, affect HbA1c. On the other hand, Amadori albumin may accumulate in the body tissues of the diabetic patients and participate in secondary complications. Amadori-albumin has potential role in diabetic glomerulosclerosis due to long term hyperglycaemia and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. This review is an approach to compile both the nature of glycated albumin as a damaging agent of tissues and as an intermediate

  5. Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-h shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Laura K.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Burke, Tina M.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration space missions depends on the ability of crewmembers and mission support specialists to be alert and maintain high levels of cognitive function while operating complex, technical equipment. We examined sleep, nocturnal melatonin levels and cognitive function of crewmembers and the sleep and cognitive function of mission controllers who participated in a high-fidelity 105-day simulated spaceflight mission at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (Moscow). Crewmembers were required to perform daily mission duties and work one 24-h extended duration work shift every sixth day. Mission controllers nominally worked 24-h extended duration shifts. Supplemental lighting was provided to crewmembers and mission controllers. Participants' sleep was estimated by wrist-actigraphy recordings. Overall, results show that crewmembers and mission controllers obtained inadequate sleep and exhibited impaired cognitive function, despite countermeasure use, while working extended duration shifts. Crewmembers averaged 7.04±0.92 h (mean±SD) and 6.94±1.08 h (mean±SD) in the two workdays prior to the extended duration shifts, 1.88±0.40 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h work shift, and then slept 10.18±0.96 h (mean±SD) the day after the night shift. Although supplemental light was provided, crewmembers' average nocturnal melatonin levels remained elevated during extended 24-h work shifts. Naps and caffeine use were reported by crewmembers during ˜86% and 45% of extended night work shifts, respectively. Even with reported use of wake-promoting countermeasures, significant impairments in cognitive function were observed. Mission controllers slept 5.63±0.95 h (mean±SD) the night prior to their extended duration work shift. On an average, 89% of night shifts included naps with mission controllers sleeping an average of 3.4±1.0 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h extended duration work shift. Mission controllers also showed impaired cognitive function during extended

  6. Urinary mercury excretion and proteinuria in pathology laboratory staff.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, W K; Guirgis, H A; Sanderson, J; Taylor, W

    1977-01-01

    The use of mercuric chloride as an histological fixative was associated with high environmental atmospheric concentrations of mercury vapour (up to 0-5 nmol/l) as well as mercury compounds (total Hg to 1-0 nmol/l). Technicians exposed to this environment showed increased urinary mercury (median value 265 nmol/24h) and protein outputs (median value 117 mg protein/24h). Routine control measures, ventilation and careful handling of mercuric chloride solutions, reduced the level of atmospheric mercury vapour levels to within acceptable limits (threshold limit values 0-01 mg/m3 (0-05 nmol/l) alkul compounds and 0-05 mg/m3 (0-25 nmol/l) for all forms except alkyl). This reduction was associated with the disappearance of trace proteinuria from the technicians' urine. Contamination of histology laboratories by mercuric chloride should be minimised. PMID:843460

  7. Urinary angiotensinogen is a marker for tubular injuries in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Terami, Takahiro; Wada, Jun; Inoue, Kentaro; Nakatsuka, Atsuko; Ogawa, Daisuke; Teshigawara, Sanae; Murakami, Kazutoshi; Katayama, Akihiro; Eguchi, Jun; Makino, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Urinary angiotensinogen has been reported as a marker for the activation of intrarenal renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in various kidney diseases. To investigate the importance of urinary angiotensinogen in diabetic nephropathy, we compared the urinary levels of angiotensinogen, albumin, and α1-microglobulin. Materials and methods Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes at various stages of nephropathy (n=85) were enrolled, and we measured albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) and urinary excretion of angiotensinogen and α1-microglobulin. We also compared the clinical data of the patients treated with or without angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (RAS inhibitors [+], n=51; RAS inhibitors [−], n=34). Results Urinary angiotensinogen levels positively correlated with ACR (r=0.367, P=3.84×10−4) and urinary α1-microglobulin (r=0.734, P=1.32 × 10−15), while they negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration ratio (eGFR) (r=−0.350, P=1.02 × 10−3) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=−0.216, P=0.049). Multiple regression analysis was carried out to predict urinary angiotensinogen levels by employing eGFR, ACR, and urinary α1-microglobulin as independent variables; only urinary α1-microglobulin entered the regression equation at a significant level. Although ACR was higher in the RAS inhibitors (+) group, urinary α1-microglobulin and angiotensinogen did not show significant increase in the RAS inhibitors (+) group. Conclusion Urinary angiotensinogen is well correlated with urinary α1-microglobulin and reflected the tubular injuries which may be associated with the intrarenal RAS activation in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24174882

  8. Albumin overload down-regulates integrin-β1 through reactive oxygen species-endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Chi; Chen, Chien-An; Chang, Jer-Ming; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2015-08-01

    Proteinuria is a major hallmark of glomerular nephropathy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in glomerular nephropathy. The protein levels of integrin-β1 in podocytes are found to be negative correlation with amount of proteinuria. This study investigated whether urinary protein, particularly albumin, induced ER stress that consequently reduced integrin-β1 expression. All experiments were performed using primary cultured rat podocyte. Protein and mRNA expression were measured by western blotting and semiquantified reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Albumin uptake was found at 1 h after albumin addition. Albumin reduced precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1, but did not change mRNA levels of integrin-β1. Albumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ER stress. Antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine) suppressed albumin-induced ER stress and decrements in precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1. Then, ER stress inhibitors (4-phenylbutyrate and salubrinal) also inhibited albumin-induced decrements in precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1. The potent ER stress inducers (thapsigargin and tunicamycin) directly decreased precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1 and led appearance of unglycosylated core protein of integrin-β1. Our results show that in proteinuric disease, albumin decreases precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1 through ROS-ER stress pathway in podocytes.

  9. Albumin overload down-regulates integrin-β1 through reactive oxygen species-endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Chi; Chen, Chien-An; Chang, Jer-Ming; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2015-08-01

    Proteinuria is a major hallmark of glomerular nephropathy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in glomerular nephropathy. The protein levels of integrin-β1 in podocytes are found to be negative correlation with amount of proteinuria. This study investigated whether urinary protein, particularly albumin, induced ER stress that consequently reduced integrin-β1 expression. All experiments were performed using primary cultured rat podocyte. Protein and mRNA expression were measured by western blotting and semiquantified reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Albumin uptake was found at 1 h after albumin addition. Albumin reduced precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1, but did not change mRNA levels of integrin-β1. Albumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ER stress. Antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine) suppressed albumin-induced ER stress and decrements in precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1. Then, ER stress inhibitors (4-phenylbutyrate and salubrinal) also inhibited albumin-induced decrements in precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1. The potent ER stress inducers (thapsigargin and tunicamycin) directly decreased precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1 and led appearance of unglycosylated core protein of integrin-β1. Our results show that in proteinuric disease, albumin decreases precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1 through ROS-ER stress pathway in podocytes. PMID:25713411

  10. CD36 mediates proximal tubular binding and uptake of albumin and is upregulated in proteinuric nephropathies.

    PubMed

    Baines, Richard J; Chana, Ravinder S; Hall, Matthew; Febbraio, Maria; Kennedy, David; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2012-10-01

    Dysregulation of renal tubular protein handling in proteinuria contributes to the development of chronic kidney disease. We investigated the role of CD36 as a novel candidate mediator of albumin binding and endocytosis in the kidney proximal tubule using both in vitro and in vivo approaches, and in nephrotic patient renal biopsy samples. In CD36-transfected opossum kidney proximal tubular cells, both binding and uptake of albumin were substantially enhanced. A specific CD36 inhibitor abrogated this effect, but receptor-associated protein, which blocks megalin-mediated endocytosis of albumin, did not. Mouse proximal tubular cells expressed CD36 and this was absent in CD36 null animals, whereas expression of megalin was equal in these animals. Compared with wild-type mice, CD36 null mice demonstrated a significantly increased urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio and albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Proximal tubular cells expressed increased CD36 when exposed to elevated albumin concentrations in culture medium. Expression of CD36 was studied in renal biopsy tissue obtained from adult patients with heavy proteinuria due to minimal change disease, membranous nephropathy, or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Proximal tubular CD36 expression was markedly increased in proteinuric individuals. We conclude that CD36 is a novel mediator influencing binding and uptake of albumin in the proximal tubule that is upregulated in proteinuric renal diseases. CD36 may represent a potential therapeutic target in proteinuric nephropathy. PMID:22791331

  11. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R. Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Ryan, Michele B.; Barber, Lisa G.

    2008-03-15

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels.

  12. Changes in the concentrations of urinary proteins after physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Miyai, T; Ogata, M

    1990-10-01

    The influence of physical exercise on the urinary excretion of proteins was examined in 17 male high school baseball players. Their urine was collected before and after exercise to determine the concentrations of total protein, albumin, beta 2-microglobulin and creatinine along with the activity of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30). Concentrations of total protein, albumin, beta 2-microglobulin and creatinine increased significantly (p less than 0.01) after exercise, while N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity did not increase. Similar results were obtained when the concentrations of these urinary components were calculated on the basis of a urinary density of 1.024, and when they were expressed relative to the amount of creatinine. Positive correlations were seen among total protein, albumin, beta 2-microglobulin and creatinine concentrations, but not between the beta 2-microglobulin concentration and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity. Isoenzyme activities of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase in the urine were determined by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate plates. After exercise, the A-form increased slightly, and the B-form decreased slightly, but these changes were not statistically significant.

  13. Albumin receptor effect may be due to a surface-induced conformational change in albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.G.; Burrington, C.M.

    1989-06-15

    To determine whether equilibrium binding between albumin and hepatocytes involves a cell surface receptor for albumin, we incubated freshly isolated rat hepatocytes with /sup 125/I-albumin and determined the amount of albumin associated with the cells as a function of the total albumin concentration. The resulting two-phase binding curve showed the rat albumin-hepatocyte interaction to consist of a saturable binding interaction with a dissociation constant of 1.1 microM and 2 X 10(6) sites/cell in addition to a weak, nonsaturable binding interaction. However, the saturable binding of albumin to hepatocytes did not appear to result from the presence of an albumin receptor on the cell surface; the interaction was the same for different species of albumin, for chemically modified albumins, and for fragments of albumin representing mutually exclusive domains of the molecule. The saturable binding was, instead, found to involve a subpopulation of albumin with an enhanced affinity for the cell surface. We show that this subpopulation of albumin is generated upon contact with either solid surfaces or cell surfaces and can be transferred from one surface to another. We propose that the two-phase Scatchard binding curve and the ''albumin receptor effect'' reflect two populations of albumin that bind to the cell surface with different affinities rather than one population of albumin that binds to two classes of binding sites.

  14. Intravital Imaging Reveals Angiotensin II-Induced Transcytosis of Albumin by Podocytes.

    PubMed

    Schießl, Ina Maria; Hammer, Anna; Kattler, Veronika; Gess, Bernhard; Theilig, Franziska; Witzgall, Ralph; Castrop, Hayo

    2016-03-01

    Albuminuria is a hallmark of kidney disease of various etiologies and usually caused by deterioration of glomerular filtration barrier integrity. We recently showed that angiotensin II (Ang II) acutely increases albumin filtration in the healthy kidney. Here, we used intravital microscopy to assess the effects of Ang II on podocyte function in rats. Acute infusion of 30, 60, or 80 ng/kg per minute Ang II enhanced the endocytosis of albumin by activation of the type 1 Ang II receptor and resulted in an average (±SEM) of 3.7±2.2, 72.3±18.6 (P<0.001), and 239.4±34.6 µm(3) (P<0.001) albumin-containing vesicles per glomerulus, respectively, compared with none at baseline or 10 ng/kg per minute Ang II. Immunostaining of Ang II-infused kidneys confirmed the presence of albumin-containing vesicles, which colocalized with megalin, in podocin-positive cells. Furthermore, podocyte endocytosis of albumin was markedly reduced in the presence of gentamicin, a competitive inhibitor of megalin-dependent endocytosis. Ang II infusion increased the concentration of albumin in the subpodocyte space, a potential source for endocytic protein uptake, and gentamicin further increased this concentration. Some endocytic vesicles were acidified and colocalized with LysoTracker. Most vesicles migrated from the capillary to the apical aspect of the podocyte and were eventually released into the urinary space. This transcytosis accounted for approximately 10% of total albumin filtration. In summary, the transcellular transport of proteins across the podocyte constitutes a new pathway of glomerular protein filtration. Ang II enhances the endocytosis and transcytosis of plasma albumin by podocytes, which may eventually impair podocyte function.

  15. 24-h Langendorff-perfused neonatal rat heart used to study the impact of adenoviral gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Wiechert, S; El-Armouche, A; Rau, T; Zimmermann, W-H; Eschenhagen, T

    2003-08-01

    The human genome project has increased the demand for simple experimental systems that allow the impact of gene manipulations to be studied under controlled ex vivo conditions. We hypothesized that, in contrast to adult hearts, neonatal hearts allow long-term perfusion and efficient gene transfer ex vivo. A Langendorff perfusion system was modified to allow perfusion for >24 h with particular emphasis on uncompromised contractile activity, sterility, online measurement of force of contraction, inotropic response to beta-adrenergic stimulation, and efficient gene transfer. The hearts were perfused with serum-free medium (DMEM + medium 199, 4 + 1) supplemented with hydrocortisone, triiodothyronine, ascorbic acid, insulin, pyruvate, l-carnitine, creatine, taurine, l-glutamine, mannitol, and antibiotics recirculating (500 ml/2 hearts) at 1 ml/min. Hearts from 2 day-old rats beat constantly at 135-155 beats/min and developed active force of 1-2 mN. During 24 h of perfusion, twitch tension increased to approximately 165% of initial values (P < 0.05), whereas the inotropic response to isoprenaline remained constant. A decrease in total protein content of 10% and histological examination indicated moderate edema, but actin and calsequestrin concentration remained unchanged and perfusion pressure remained constant at 7-11 mmHg. Perfusion with a LacZ-encoding adenovirus at 3 x 108 active virus particles yielded homogeneous transfection of approximately 80% throughout the heart and did not affect heart rate, force of contraction, or response to isoprenaline compared with uninfected controls (n = 7 each). Taken together, the 24-h Langendorff-perfused neonatal rat heart is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and robust new heart model that appears feasible as a test bed for functional genomics.

  16. Effect of non-drug interventions on arterial properties determined from 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements.

    PubMed

    Gavish, Benjamin; Alter, Ariela; Barkai, Yael; Rachima-Maoz, Carmit; Peleg, Edna; Rosenthal, Talma

    2011-11-01

    Measures derived from the slope of the linear relationship between systolic and diastolic pressures obtained by 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) measurements incorporate clinical and prognostic information, and are believed to be vascular markers. Using post hoc analysis, we investigated potential changes of these 'slope-related measures' in three different studies conducted in hypertensive patients with before and after 24-h ABP measurements, and also evaluated the sensitivity of the results to the analysis method. Two interventional studies included 8-week device-guided breathing (DGB) exercised by 13 patients with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP), and a 6-month mineral potassium chloride-enriched diet administered to 20 elderly patients. One study was observational and involved winter-to-summer change experienced by 13 patients with controlled BP. Slope-related measures included systolic-on-diastolic slope and its equivalent 1-(diastolic-on-systolic slope) called Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index, and were determined using three different BP-averaging methods and two types of regression procedures. Results demonstrated sensitivity of slope-related measures to the analysis method, the most significant changes were found when the before and after 24-h ABP profiles included hourly averaged BP further averaged over the patient population, and slope-related measures were determined using symmetric (and not standard) regression. DGB was found to reduce significantly all these measures. The changes in the slope-related variables for individual patients correlated negatively with its baseline value and positively with the observed pulse pressure changes. In conclusion, the study provides evidence that DGB can affect positively vascular markers associated with cardiovascular risk, and suggests improved analysis methods for the determination of slope-related measures in interventional studies.

  17. Alterations in amino acid concentrations in the plasma and muscle in human subjects during 24 h of simulated adventure racing.

    PubMed

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Nordin, Marie; Mikael Mattsson, C; Enqvist, Jonas K; Blomstrand, Eva; Ekblom, Björn

    2012-10-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate changes in plasma and muscle levels of free amino acids during an ultra-endurance exercise and following recovery. Nine male ultra-endurance trained athletes participated in a 24-h standardized endurance trial with controlled energy intake. The participants performed 12 sessions of running, kayaking and cycling (4 × each discipline). Blood samples were collected before, during and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken before the test and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. During the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of branched-chain (BCAA), essential amino acids (EAA) and glutamine fell 13, 14 and 19% (P < 0.05), respectively, whereas their concentrations in muscle were unaltered. Simultaneously, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels rose 38 and 50% (P < 0.05) in the plasma and 66 and 46% (P < 0.05) in muscle, respectively. After the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of BCAA were positively correlated with muscle levels of glycogen (r (2) = 0.73, P < 0.05), as was the combined concentrations of muscle tyrosine and phenylalanine with plasma creatine kinase (R (2) = 0.55, P < 0.05). Following 28-h of recovery, plasma and muscle levels of amino acids had either returned to their initial levels or were elevated. In conclusion, ultra-endurance exercise caused significant changes elevations in plasma and muscle levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine, which suggest an increase in net muscle protein breakdown during exercise. There was a reduction in plasma concentrations of EAA and glutamine during exercise, whereas no changes were detected in their muscle concentration after exercise. PMID:22350359

  18. Variations in 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate of type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Shipra; Verma, Narsingh; Anjum, Baby; Bhardwaj, Kshitij

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Diabetes has profound consequences on the cardiovascular system leading to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Blood pressure (BP) has a characteristic and reproducible circadian pattern, with high values during the day and low values at night. A 7-day timed analysis of BP through ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been used not only to diagnose day and night dipping patterns of blood pressure, but also to measure day-to-day variability and the circadian hyper-amplitude-tension, a condition in which excessive circadian BP amplitude precedes the chronic established hypertension. Our objective was to assess the 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of BP and heart rate in diabetic patients, as it could be helpful in the diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular morbidity. Materials and Methods A total of 50 diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes and 50 non-diabetic participants were recruited for the study. General health records were individually maintained, and 7-day/24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor was carried out. Results The rhythmic parameters of systolic and diastolic BP, heart rate, double amplitude, acrophase and 3-h fractionated hyperbaric index were found to be significantly high in diabetic patients. A total of 12 participants were diagnosed with circadian hyper-amplitude-tension. These data suggest that diabetic patients have certain variations in the circadian pattern of blood pressure and heart rate, which can result in disturbed vascular events, and thus are at greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Conclusion Seven-day/24-h monitoring might be useful as an early predictive tool in assessing future cardiovascular risk, guiding treatment and management of these patients. PMID:25422775

  19. Evaluation of repolarization dynamics using the QT-RR regression line slope and intercept relationship during 24-h Holter ECG.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Akira; Yoshioka, Ryozo; Sakabe, Masao

    2015-03-01

    QT-RR linear regression consists of two parameters, slope and intercept, and the aim of this study was to evaluate repolarization dynamics using the QT-RR linear regression slope and intercept relationship during 24-h Holter ECG. This study included 466 healthy subjects (54.6 ± 14.6 years; 200 men and 266 women) and 17 patients with ventricular arrhythmias, consisted of 10 patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) and 7 patients with torsades de pointes (TDP). QT and RR intervals were measured from ECG waves based on a 15-s averaged ECG during 24-h Holter recording using an automatic QT analyzing system. The QT interval dependence on the RR interval was analyzed using a linear regression line for each subject ([QT] = A[RR] + B; where A is the slope and B is the y-intercept). The slope of the QT-RR regression line in healthy subjects was significantly greater in women than in men (0.185 ± 0.036 vs. 0.161 ± 0.033, p < 0.001) and the intercept was significantly smaller in women than in men (0.229 ± 0.028 vs. 0.240 ± 0.027, p < 0.001). A scatter diagram of the QT-RR regression line slope and intercept among healthy subjects demonstrated a statistically significant negative correlation (B = -0.62A + 0.34, r = -0.79). Distribution of both scatter diagrams of the slope and the intercept of the QT-RR regression line in patients with IVF and TDP was different from healthy subjects (left corner for IVF and upward shift for TDP). The slope and intercept relationship of the QT-RR linear regression line based on 24-h Holter ECG may become a simple useful marker for abnormality of ventricular repolarization dynamics.

  20. Restructuring and redistribution of actinides in Am-MOX fuel during the first 24 h of irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Miwa, Shuhei; Sekine, Shin-ichi; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shin-ichi

    2013-09-01

    In order to confirm the effect of minor actinide additions on the irradiation behavior of MOX fuel pellets, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.% americium-containing MOX (Am-MOX) fuels were irradiated for 10 min at 43 kW/m and for 24 h at 45 kW/m in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. Two nominal values of the fuel pellet oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M), 1.95 and 1.98, were used as a test parameter. Emphasis was placed on the behavior of restructuring and redistribution of actinides which directly affect the fuel performance and the fuel design for fast reactors. Microstructural evolutions in the fuels were observed by optical microscopy and the redistribution of constituent elements was determined by EPMA using false color X-ray mapping and quantitative point analyses. The ceramography results showed that structural changes occurred quickly in the initial stage of irradiation. Restructuring of the fuel from middle to upper axial positions developed and was almost completed after the 24-h irradiation. No sign of fuel melting was found in any of the specimens. The EPMA results revealed that Am as well as Pu migrated radially up the temperature gradient to the center of the fuel pellet. The increase in Am concentration on approaching the edge of the central void and its maximum value were higher than those of Pu after the 10-min irradiation and the difference was more pronounced after the 24-h irradiation. The increment of the Am and Pu concentrations due to redistribution increased with increasing central void size. In all of the specimens examined, the extent of redistribution of Am and Pu was higher in the fuel of O/M ratio of 1.98 than in that of 1.95.

  1. The effect of albumin on podocytes: The role of the fatty acid moiety and the potential role of CD36 scavenger receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Pawluczyk, I.Z.A.; Pervez, A.; Ghaderi Najafabadi, M.; Saleem, M.A.; Topham, P.S.

    2014-08-15

    Evidence is emerging that podocytes are able to endocytose proteins such as albumin using kinetics consistent with a receptor-mediated process. To date the role of the fatty acid moiety on albumin uptake kinetics has not been delineated and the receptor responsible for uptake is yet to be identified. Albumin uptake studies were carried out on cultured human podocytes exposed to FITC-labelled human serum albumin either carrying fatty acids (HSA{sub +FA}) or depleted of them (HSA{sub −FA}). Receptor-mediated endocytosis of FITC-HSA{sub +FA} over 60 min was 5 times greater than that of FITC-HSA{sub −FA}. 24 h exposure of podocytes to albumin up-regulated nephrin expression and induced the activation of caspase-3. These effects were more pronounced in response to HSA{sub −FA.} Individually, anti-CD36 antibodies had no effect upon endocytosis of FITC-HSA. However, a cocktail of 2 antibodies reduced uptake by nearly 50%. Albumin endocytosis was enhanced in the presence of the CD36 specific inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO) while knock-down of CD36 using CD36siRNA had no effect on uptake. These data suggest that receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin by podocytes is regulated by the fatty acid moiety, although, some of the detrimental effects are induced independently of it. CD36 does not play a direct role in the uptake of albumin. - Highlights: • The fatty acid moiety is essential for receptor mediated endocytosis of albumin. • Fatty acid depleted albumin is more pathogenic to podocytes. • CD36 is not directly involved in albumin uptake by podocytes.

  2. The impact of intra- and postoperative albumin levels as a biomarker of delirium after cardiopulmonary bypass: results of an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Andreas; Rothenhäusler, Hans-Bernd

    2012-12-30

    In this prospective study the frequency of delirium after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was determined. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of intra- and postoperative levels of albumin as a biomarker of delirium. Thirty-four patients who underwent elective CPB at the Department of Cardiac Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were enroled in this prospective study. During the intensive care unit (ICU) stay and shortly after discharge from the ICU, delirious state was evaluated daily using the Delirium-Rating-Scale. Albumin was assayed pre-anaesthesia, immediately after induction of anaesthesia, at the beginning of the heart-lung-apparatus period, immediately before the opening and 5min after the opening of the aortic clamp, 24h and 48h postoperatively and on the day before discharge. After CPB, a clinical significant delirious state was observed in 11 patients (32.4%). The albumin level decreased during the surgical intervention and increased postoperatively with a maximum level at the time of discharge. CPB patients with delirious state showed a significantly lower albumin level 24h and 48h postoperatively than those without delirium. A low level of postoperative albumin seems to be a useful biomarker to identify patients with high risk of delirious state after CPB.

  3. Effect of drinking parsley leaf tea on urinary composition and urinary stones' risk factors.

    PubMed

    Alyami, Fahad A; Rabah, Danny M

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the effect of parsley leaf tea on urine composition and the inhibitors of urinary tract stones formation, we studied 20 healthy volunteers who were divided into two groups: the first group of 10 subjects drank daily 1,200 mL of parsley leaf tea for 2 weeks, while the second group drank at least 1,200 mL daily of bottled water for the same period. This was followed by a 2-week "washout" period before the two groups were crossed over for another 2 weeks. During the experimental phase, 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline, on day 14, and at the end of the 6-week period and different urinary parameters were measured and analyzed statistically. We found no significant difference in the urine volume, pH, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, phosphorus, magnesium, uric acid, cystine, or citric acid. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of parsley leaf tea on urinary parameters in healthy and stone-forming patients.

  4. Measurement of urinary copper excretion after 48-h d-penicillamine cessation as a compliance assessment in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dzieżyc, Karolina; Litwin, Tomasz; Chabik, Grzegorz; Członkowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of Wilson's disease (WD) with anti-copper agents is effective in most compliant patients. During long-term treatment with chelating agents, a two-day interruption of the treatment should result in normal urinary copper concentrations (<50 μg/dl). The aim of this study was to establish the usefulness of this method as a compliance assessment in these patients. We examined consecutive patients treated with d-penicillamine (DPA) undergoing routine follow-up studies at our center. We performed 24-h urinary copper excretion analysis 48 h after interruption of chelating therapy. Thirty-two patients were enrolled. After DPA cessation, normalization of copper excretion was observed in 91% of reportedly compliant patients. The specificity and sensitivity values of this test were 87% and 77%, respectively. Measurement of 24-h urinary copper excretion after a 48-h interruption of DPA therapy in patients with WD is a reliable method for confirming patients' compliance. PMID:26727705

  5. Albumin-deficient mouse models for studying metabolism of human albumin and pharmacokinetics of albumin-based drugs

    PubMed Central

    Roopenian, Derry C; Low, Benjamin E; Christianson, Gregory J; Proetzel, Gabriele; Sproule, Thomas J; Wiles, Michael V

    2015-01-01

    Serum albumin is the major determinant of blood colloidal osmotic pressure acting as a depot and distributor of compounds including drugs. In humans, serum albumin exhibits an unusually long half-life mainly due to protection from catabolism by neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-mediated recycling. These properties make albumin an attractive courier of therapeutically-active compounds. However, pharmaceutical research and development of albumin-based therapeutics has been hampered by the lack of appropriate preclinical animal models. To overcome this, we developed and describe the first mouse with a genetic deficiency in albumin and its incorporation into an existing humanized FcRn mouse model, B6.Cg-Fcgrttm1Dcr Tg(FCGRT)32Dcr/DcrJ (Tg32). Albumin-deficient strains (Alb-/-) were created by TALEN-mediated disruption of the albumin (Alb) gene directly in fertilized oocytes derived from Tg32 mice and its non-transgenic background control, C57BL/6J (B6). The resulting Alb-/- strains are analbuminemic but healthy. Intravenous administration of human albumin to Tg32-Alb-/- mFcRn-/- hFcRnTg/Tg) mice results in a remarkably extended human albumin serum half-life of ∼24 days, comparable to that found in humans, and in contrast to half-lives of 2.6–5.8 d observed in B6, B6-Alb-/- and Tg32 strains. This striking increase can be explained by the absence of competing endogenous mouse albumin and the presence of an active human FcRn. These novel albumin-deficient models provide unique tools for investigating the biology and pathobiology of serum albumin and are a more appropriate rodent surrogates for evaluating human serum albumin pharmacokinetics and albumin-based compounds. PMID:25654695

  6. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on serum electrolytes in rats: A 24-h time-course study.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, A; Khan, H A; Manthiri, R A

    2016-03-01

    Black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) belongs to the family Buthidae and is one of the most venomous scorpions in the world. The effects of A. bicolor venom on serum electrolytes were not known and therefore investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with five animals in each group. One of the groups served as control and received vehicle only. The animals in the remaining groups received a single subcutaneous injection of crude A. bicolor venom (200 μg/kg bodyweight) and were killed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after venom injection. The results showed that scorpion venom caused significant increase in serum sodium levels within 30 min after injection which slightly subsided after 1 h and then persisted over 24 h. Serum potassium levels continued to significantly increase until 4 h and then slightly subsided. There were significant decreases in serum magnesium (Mg(+)) levels following scorpion venom injection, at all the time points during the course of study. Serum calcium levels were significantly increased during the entire course of study, whereas serum chloride was significantly decreased. In conclusion, A. bicolor envenomation in rats caused severe and persistent hypomagnesemia with accompanied hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia. It is important to measure serum Mg(+) levels in victims of scorpion envenomation, and patients with severe Mg(+) deficiency should be treated accordingly.

  7. Microdialysis in the Rat Striatum: Effects of 24 h Dexamethasone Retrodialysis on Evoked Dopamine Release and Penetration Injury

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The power of microdialysis for in vivo neurochemical monitoring is a result of intense efforts to enhance microdialysis procedures, the probes themselves, and the analytical systems used for the analysis of dialysate samples. Our goal is to refine microdialysis further by focusing attention on what happens when the probes are implanted into brain tissue. It is broadly acknowledged that some tissue damage occurs, such that the tissue nearest the probes is disrupted from its normal state. We hypothesize that mitigating such disruption would refine microdialysis. Herein, we show that the addition of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug, to the perfusion fluid protects evoked dopamine responses as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry next to the probes after 24 h. We also show that dexamethasone stabilizes evoked dopamine responses measured at the probe outlet over a 4–24 h postimplantation interval. The effects of dexamethasone are attributable to its anti-inflammatory actions, as dexamethasone had no significant effect on two histochemical markers for dopamine terminals, tyrosine hydroxylase and the dopamine transporter. Using histochemical assays, we confirmed that the actions of dexamethasone are tightly confined to the immediate, local vicinity of the probe. PMID:25491242

  8. Parallel assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes: validation against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; De Marees, Markus; Fusch, Gerhard; Fusch, Christoph; Mester, Joachim; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2010-11-01

    The assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes requires accurate and precise methods. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for parallel assessment of diet and exercise against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and respiratory gas exchange. The participants were 14 male triathletes under normal training conditions. Energy intake and doubly labelled water were weakly associated with each other (r = 0.69, standard error of estimate [SEE] = 304 kcal x day(-1)). Protein intake was strongly correlated with 24-h urea (r = 0.89) but showed considerable individual variation (SEE = 0.34 g kg(-1) x day(-1)). Total energy expenditure based on recorded activities was highly correlated with doubly labelled water (r = 0.95, SEE = 195 kcal x day(-1)) but was proportionally biased. During running and cycling, estimated exercise energy expenditure was highly correlated with gas exchange (running: r = 0.89, SEE = 1.6 kcal x min(-1); cycling: r = 0.95, SEE = 1.4 kcal x min(-1)). High exercise energy expenditure was slightly underestimated during running. For nutrition data, variations appear too large for precise measurements in individual athletes, which is a common problem of dietary assessment methods. Despite the high correlations of total energy expenditure and exercise energy expenditure with reference methods, a correction for systematic errors is necessary for the valid estimation of energetic requirements in individual athletes. PMID:20967672

  9. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on serum electrolytes in rats: A 24-h time-course study.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, A; Khan, H A; Manthiri, R A

    2016-03-01

    Black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) belongs to the family Buthidae and is one of the most venomous scorpions in the world. The effects of A. bicolor venom on serum electrolytes were not known and therefore investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with five animals in each group. One of the groups served as control and received vehicle only. The animals in the remaining groups received a single subcutaneous injection of crude A. bicolor venom (200 μg/kg bodyweight) and were killed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after venom injection. The results showed that scorpion venom caused significant increase in serum sodium levels within 30 min after injection which slightly subsided after 1 h and then persisted over 24 h. Serum potassium levels continued to significantly increase until 4 h and then slightly subsided. There were significant decreases in serum magnesium (Mg(+)) levels following scorpion venom injection, at all the time points during the course of study. Serum calcium levels were significantly increased during the entire course of study, whereas serum chloride was significantly decreased. In conclusion, A. bicolor envenomation in rats caused severe and persistent hypomagnesemia with accompanied hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia. It is important to measure serum Mg(+) levels in victims of scorpion envenomation, and patients with severe Mg(+) deficiency should be treated accordingly. PMID:25964378

  10. Arterial stiffness and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in young healthy volunteers: the early vascular ageing Aristotle University Thessaloniki Study (EVA-ARIS Study).

    PubMed

    Kotsis, Vasilios; Stabouli, Stella; Karafillis, Ioannis; Papakatsika, Sofia; Rizos, Zoe; Miyakis, Spiros; Goulopoulou, Sofia; Parati, Gianfranco; Nilsson, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Differences in 24 h blood pressure (BP) monitoring parameters such as average 24 h BP, day to night BP ratio and BP variability could have an impact in arterial stiffness. The study hypothesis was that despite similar average BP values in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring subjects with increased 24 h BP variability may have increased arterial stiffness. The study population consisted of 115 consecutive young healthy volunteers. Carotid-femoral PWV was measured in all subjects. Clinic BP was measured and an appropriate cuff was fitted on the non-dominant arm of each subject for a 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring session. Waist to hip ratio as well as BMI was measured. Family history and smoking habits were recorded. In univariate analysis, estimated carotid-femoral PWV showed a significant correlation with age, weight, waist circumference, height, clinic systolic and diastolic BP, 24-h systolic and diastolic BP, 24-h pulse pressure, 24-h systolic and diastolic BP variability, daytime systolic and diastolic BP, daytime pulse pressure, daytime systolic and diastolic BP variability, nighttime systolic BP, nighttime pulse pressure and nighttime systolic BP variability. In multivariate regression analysis, age (B=0.95, P<0.001) and 24 h systolic BP variability (B=0.28, P<0.001) were independent determinanats of arterial stiffness. In conclusions, increased 24 h systolic BP variability is associated with arterial stiffness in young healthy volunteers. Pulse wave velocity in a young healthy population is useful to identify determinants of premature arterial stiffness, thus further elucidating the aspects of early vascular ageing.

  11. Evaluation of New bioMérieux Chromogenic CPS Media for Detection of Urinary Tract Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rigaill, Josselin; Verhoeven, Paul O.; Mahinc, Caroline; Jeraiby, Mohamed; Grattard, Florence; Fonsale, Nathalie; Carricajo, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Four chromogenic media were compared for their ability to detect urinary tract pathogens in 299 urine specimens, of which 175 were found positive, allowing the growth of 279 microorganisms. After 18 to 24 h of incubation, the CPS ID4, CPSE, CPSO (bioMérieux), and UriSelect4 (Bio-Rad) media showed sensitivities of 97.1%, 99.3%, 99.6%, and 99.6%, respectively. PMID:25994162

  12. Low molecular weight fucoidan protects renal tubular cells from injury induced by albumin overload

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yingli; Sun, Yi; Weng, Lin; Li, Yingjie; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Baoxue

    2016-01-01

    Albuminuria is a causative and aggravating factor for progressive renal damage in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to determine if low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) could protect renal function and tubular cells from albumin overload caused injury. Treatment with 10 mg/g bovine serum albumin caused renal dysfunction, morphological changes, and overexpression of inflammation and fibrosis associated proteins in 129S2/Sv mice. LMWF (100 mg/kg) protected against kidney injury and renal dysfunction with decreased blood creatinine by 34% and urea nitrogen by 25%, increased creatinine clearance by 48%, and decreased significantly urinary albumin concentration. In vitro proximal tubule epithelial cell (NRK-52E) model showed that LMWF dose-dependently inhibited overexpression of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors, oxidative stress and apoptosis caused by albumin overload. These experimental results indicate that LMWF protects against albumin overload caused renal injury by inhibiting inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress and apoptosis, which suggests that LMWF could be a promising candidate drug for preventing CKD. PMID:27545472

  13. Pulse Arrival Time Based Cuff-Less and 24-H Wearable Blood Pressure Monitoring and its Diagnostic Value in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yali; Poon, Carmen C Y; Yan, Bryan P; Lau, James Y W

    2016-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Current standard ABPM devices use an oscillometric cuff-based method which can cause physical discomfort to the patients with repeated inflations and deflations, especially during nighttime leading to sleep disturbance. The ability to measure ambulatory BP accurately and comfortably without a cuff would be attractive. This study validated the accuracy of a cuff-less approach for ABPM using pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements on both healthy and hypertensive subjects for potential use in hypertensive management, which is the first of its kind. The wearable cuff-less device was evaluated against a standard cuff-based device on 24 subjects of which 15 have known hypertension. BP measurements were taken from each subject over a 24-h period by the cuff-less and cuff-based devices every 15 to 30 minutes during daily activities. Mean BP of each subject during daytime, nighttime and over 24-h were calculated. Agreement between mean nighttime systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measured by the two devices evaluated using Bland-Altman plot were -1.4 ± 6.6 and 0.4 ± 6.7 mmHg, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) statistics was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the cuff-less approach in the detection of BP above the hypertension threshold during nighttime (>120/70 mmHg). The area under ROC curves were 0.975/0.79 for nighttime. The results suggest that PAT-based approach is accurate and promising for ABPM without the issue of sleep disturbances associated with cuff-based devices. PMID:27447469

  14. Variants in the LEPR gene are nominally associated with higher BMI and lower 24-h energy expenditure in Pima Indians.

    PubMed

    Traurig, Michael T; Perez, Jessica M; Ma, Lijun; Bian, Li; Kobes, Sayuko; Hanson, Robert L; Knowler, William C; Krakoff, Jonathan A; Bogardus, Clifton; Baier, Leslie J

    2012-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been used to search for susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes and obesity in the Pima Indians, a population with a high prevalence of both diseases. In these studies, a variant (rs2025804) in the LEPR gene was nominally associated with BMI in 1,082 subjects (P = 0.03 adjusted for age, sex, birth year, and family membership). Therefore the LEPR and leptin overlapping transcript (LEPROT) genes were selected for further sequencing and genotyping in larger population-based samples for association analyses with obesity-related phenotypes. Selected variants (n = 80) spanning these genes were genotyped in a sample of full-heritage Pima Indians (n = 2,842) and several common variants including rs2025804 were nominally associated with BMI (P = 0.05-0.003 adjusted for age, sex, birth year, and family membership). Four common tag variants associated with BMI in the full-heritage Pima Indian sample were genotyped in a second sample of mixed-heritage Native Americans (n = 2,969) and three of the variants showed nominal replication (P = 0.03-0.006 adjusted as above and additionally for Indian heritage). Combining both samples provided the strongest evidence for association (adjusted P = 0.0003-0.0001). A subset of these individuals (n = 403) had been metabolically characterized for predictors of obesity and the BMI risk alleles for the variants tagged by rs2025804 were also associated with lower 24-h energy expenditure (24hEE) as assessed in a human respiratory chamber (P = 0.0007 adjusted for age, sex, fat mass, fat-free mass, activity, and family membership). We conclude that common noncoding variation in the LEPR gene is associated with higher BMI and lower energy expenditure in Native Americans. PMID:22810975

  15. A neonatal model of intravenous Staphylococcus epidermidis infection in mice <24 h old enables characterization of early innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kronforst, Kenny D; Mancuso, Christy J; Pettengill, Matthew; Ninkovic, Jana; Power Coombs, Melanie R; Stevens, Chad; Otto, Michael; Mallard, Carina; Wang, Xiaoyang; Goldmann, Donald; Levy, Ofer

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) causes late onset sepsis and significant morbidity in catheterized preterm newborns. Animal models of SE infection are useful in characterizing disease mechanisms and are an important approach to developing improved diagnostics and therapeutics. Current murine models of neonatal bacterial infection employ intraperitoneal or subcutaneous routes at several days of age, and may, therefore, not accurately reflect distinct features of innate immune responses to bacteremia. In this study we developed, validated, and characterized a murine model of intravenous (IV) infection in neonatal mice <24 hours (h) old to describe the early innate immune response to SE. C57BL/6 mice <24 h old were injected IV with 10(6), 10(7), 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) of SE 1457, a clinical isolate from a central catheter infection. A prospective injection scoring system was developed and validated, with only high quality injections analyzed. Newborn mice were euthanized between 2 and 48 h post-injection and spleen, liver, and blood collected to assess bacterial viability, gene expression, and cytokine production. High quality IV injections demonstrated inoculum-dependent infection of spleen, liver and blood. Within 2 h of injection, SE induced selective transcription of TLR2 and MyD88 in the liver, and increased systemic production of plasma IL-6 and TNF-α. Despite clearance of bacteremia and solid organ infection within 48 h, inoculum-dependent impairment in weight gain was noted. We conclude that a model of IV SE infection in neonatal mice <24 h old is feasible, demonstrating inoculum-dependent infection of solid organs and a pattern of bacteremia, rapid and selective innate immune activation, and impairment of weight gain typical of infected human neonates. This novel model can now be used to characterize immune ontogeny, evaluate infection biomarkers, and assess preventative and therapeutic modalities.

  16. Synchronicity of frequently sampled, 24-h concentrations of circulating leptin, luteinizing hormone, and estradiol in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Licinio, J; Negrão, A B; Mantzoros, C; Kaklamani, V; Wong, M L; Bongiorno, P B; Mulla, A; Cearnal, L; Veldhuis, J D; Flier, J S; McCann, S M; Gold, P W

    1998-03-01

    Leptin, an adipocyte hormone, is a trophic factor for the reproductive system; however, it is still unknown whether there is a dynamic relation between fluctuations in circulating leptin and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis hormones. To test the hypothesis that fluctuations in plasma leptin concentrations are related to the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol, we sampled plasma from six healthy women every 7 min for 24 h during days 8-11 of the menstrual cycle. Cross-correlation analysis throughout the 24-h cycle revealed a relation between release patterns of leptin and LH, with a lag of 42-84 min but no significant cross-correlation between LH and estradiol. The ultradian fluctuations in leptin levels showed pattern synchrony with those of both LH and estradiol as determined by cross-approximate entropy (cross-ApEn). At night, as leptin levels rose to their peak, the pulsatility profiles of LH changed significantly and became synchronous with those of leptin. LH pulses were fewer, of longer duration, higher amplitude, and larger area than during the day. Moreover, the synchronicity of LH and leptin occurred late at night, at which time estradiol and leptin also exhibited significantly stronger pattern coupling than during the day. We propose that leptin may regulate the minute-to-minute oscillations in the levels of LH and estradiol, and that the nocturnal rise in leptin may determine the change in nocturnal LH profile in the mid-to-late follicular phase that precedes ovulation. This may explain the disruption of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function that is characteristic of states of low leptin release, such as anorexia nervosa and cachexia.

  17. Characterization of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma NPY levels in normal volunteers over a 24-h timeframe.

    PubMed

    Baker, Dewleen G; Bertram, Tobias Moeller; Patel, Piyush M; Barkauskas, Donald A; Clopton, Paul; Patel, Sejal; Geracioti, Thomas D; Haji, Uzair; O'Connor, Daniel T; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Hauger, Richard L

    2013-10-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundant in mammals, where it contributes to diverse behavioral and physiological functions, centrally and peripherally, but little information is available in regard to NPY cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/plasma concentration relationships and dynamics. Since plasma NPY levels are commonly used as proxy "biomarkers" for central NPY activity in stress and mental health research in humans this study aims to better characterize the CSF/plasma NPY relationships. Subjects were eleven healthy male volunteers, admitted to the clinical research center for placement of an indwelling CSF catheter, as well as venous catheter, for 24-h collection of CSF NPY (cNPY) and plasma NPY (pNPY) samples. As observed in prior studies, group mean (SE) cNPY concentrations [792.1 (7.80) pg/mL] were higher than pNPY concentrations [220.0 (3.63) pg/mL]. For the eleven normal volunteers who had sufficient common (hourly) pNPY and cNPY data points, analysis of pNPY/cNPY concentration ratios and lagged cross-correlation analysis was completed. Average pNPY/cNPY concentration ratios ranged from .20 to .40 across study subjects, with a mean of .29. pNPY/cNPY cross correlation analyses, computed at varying time lags, were non-significant. An attempt was made to analyze the circadian rhythmicity of NPY secretion, but circadian components were not detectable. Using 24-h data collection, we characterized CSF/plasma NPY relationships, including presentation of evidence of weak CSF and plasma correlations, an important consideration for study design of NPY in stress or mental health.

  18. The 24-h recall instrument for home nursing to measure the activity profile of home nurses: development and psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    De Vliegher, Kristel; Aertgeerts, Bert; Declercq, Anja; Gosset, Christiane; Heyden, Isabelle; Van Geert, Michel; Moons, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Home health care today is challenged by a shift from an acute to a chronic health-care model, moving the focus of care from the hospital to home-care setting. This increased focus on care at home emphasizes the need for an efficient, effective, and transparent management of home health care. However, it is not precisely known what home-care nurses do; what kind of care is received by patients; what the performance of home nurses is; and what the impact of the increasing need for home nursing is on the current and future role of home nurses. In this respect, it is necessary to gain a clear insight into the activity profile of home nurses, but there is no gold standard to measure their activities. This study reports on the development and psychometric testing of the '24-hour recall instrument for home nursing' to measure the activity profile of home nurses. Five home nurses in Belgium, simultaneously with the researcher, registered the performed activities in a total of 69 patients, using the 24-h recall instrument for home nursing. The validity and the interrater reliability of this instrument were high: the proportions that observed agreement were very high; the strength of kappa agreement was substantial to almost perfect; the prevalence index showed great variety; and the bias index was low. The findings in this study support the validity evidence based on test content and the interrater reliability of the 24-h recall instrument. This instrument can help to shape practice and policy by making the home nursing profession more transparent: a clear insight into the kind of care that is provided by home nurses and is received by the patients in primary care contributes to the development of a clear definition of the role of home nurses in health care.

  19. 24-h Fluid Kinetics and Perception of Sweat Losses Following a 1-h Run in a Temperate Environment

    PubMed Central

    O’Neal, Eric K.; Caufield, Christina R.; Lowe, Jordan B.; Stevenson, Mary C.; Davis, Brett A.; Thigpen, Lauren K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men = 12, women = 8) after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature = 19.9 ± 3.0 °C). Sweat losses (1353 ± 422 mL; 1.9% ± 0.5% of body mass) were significantly greater (p < 0.001) than perceived losses (686 ± 586 mL). Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876 ± 1133 mL (218 ± 178 mL during) with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450 ± 678 mL). Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554 ± 669 mL at 12 h and +1186 ± 735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG) = 1.018 ± 0.008) with no changes (p = 0.33) at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p = 0.004) at 12 h post-run for men (1.025 ± 0.0070 vs. 1.014 ± 0.007), who consumed 171% ± 40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268% ± 88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses. PMID:24451307

  20. 24-h fluid kinetics and perception of sweat losses following a 1-h run in a temperate environment.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Eric K; Caufield, Christina R; Lowe, Jordan B; Stevenson, Mary C; Davis, Brett A; Thigpen, Lauren K

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men=12, women=8) after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature=19.9±3.0 °C). Sweat losses (1353±422 mL; 1.9%±0.5% of body mass) were significantly greater (p<0.001) than perceived losses (686±586 mL). Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876±1133 mL (218±178 mL during) with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450±678 mL). Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554±669 mL at 12 h and +1186±735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG)=1.018±0.008) with no changes (p=0.33) at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p=0.004) at 12 h post-run for men (1.025±0.0070 vs. 1.014±0.007), who consumed 171%±40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268%±88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses.

  1. 24-h fluid kinetics and perception of sweat losses following a 1-h run in a temperate environment.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Eric K; Caufield, Christina R; Lowe, Jordan B; Stevenson, Mary C; Davis, Brett A; Thigpen, Lauren K

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men=12, women=8) after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature=19.9±3.0 °C). Sweat losses (1353±422 mL; 1.9%±0.5% of body mass) were significantly greater (p<0.001) than perceived losses (686±586 mL). Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876±1133 mL (218±178 mL during) with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450±678 mL). Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554±669 mL at 12 h and +1186±735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG)=1.018±0.008) with no changes (p=0.33) at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p=0.004) at 12 h post-run for men (1.025±0.0070 vs. 1.014±0.007), who consumed 171%±40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268%±88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses. PMID:24451307

  2. Effect of catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Völz, Sebastian; Andersson, Bert; Manhem, Karin; Haraldsson, Inger; Rundqvist, Bengt

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the effect of renal denervation on office blood pressure (OBP) and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurement (ABPM) at baseline and 6 months after intervention in 25 consecutive patients with resistant hypertension. Mean baseline 24-h ABPM and OBP were 158/88 mmHg and 169/96 mmHg, respectively. Patients were treated with an average of 4 ± 1 antihypertensive drugs. Among the 22 patients included in data analysis, mean ambulatory systolic and diastolic BP were reduced by 6 mmHg from 158 ± 17 to 152 ± 20 mmHg (p < 0.05) and by 3 mmHg from 88 ± 12 to 85 ± 14 mmHg (p = ns) after 6 months follow-up, respectively. Blood pressure reduction was most pronounced during daytime with a decrease of 9 mmHg from 164 ± 17 to 155 ± 19 (p < 0.05) in systolic (SBP) and 6 mmHg from 94 ± 14 to 88 ± 14 mmHg in diastolic BP (DBP) (p < 0.05). Night-time SBP mmHg and DBP were similar at baseline compared with follow-up. Systolic and diastolic OBP during follow-up were significantly reduced by 17 mmHg from 169 ± 20 to 152 ± 21 (p < 0.05) and by 9 mmHg from 96 ± 16 to 87 ± 13 mmHg (p < 0.05), respectively. These results provide new insight into the effect of renal denervation on ABPM day- and night-time blood pressure profile in comparison with OBP. The decrease in ABPM was identified during daytime registration and was less pronounced compared with reduction of OBP.

  3. Intracranial Pressure Elevation 24 h after Ischemic Stroke in Aged Rats Is Prevented by Early, Short Hypothermia Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Murtha, Lucy A.; Beard, Daniel J.; Bourke, Julia T.; Pepperall, Debbie; McLeod, Damian D.; Spratt, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is predominantly a senescent disease, yet most preclinical studies investigate treatment in young animals. We recently demonstrated that short-duration hypothermia-treatment completely prevented the dramatic intracranial pressure (ICP) rise seen post-stroke in young rats. Here, our aim was to investigate whether a similar ICP rise occurs in aged rats and to determine whether short-duration hypothermia is an effective treatment in aged animals. Experimental middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo-3 h occlusion) was performed on male Wistar rats aged 19–20 months. At 1 h after stroke-onset, rats were randomized to 2.5 h hypothermia-treatment (32.5°C) or normothermia (37°C). ICP was monitored at baseline, for 3.5 h post-occlusion, and at 24 h post-stroke. Infarct and edema volumes were calculated from histology. Baseline pre-stroke ICP was 11.2 ± 3.3 mmHg across all animals. Twenty-four hours post-stroke, ICP was significantly higher in normothermic animals compared to hypothermia-treated animals (27.4 ± 18.2 mmHg vs. 8.0 ± 5.0 mmHg, p = 0.03). Infarct and edema volumes were not significantly different between groups. These data demonstrate ICP may also increase 24 h post-stroke in aged rats, and that short-duration hypothermia treatment has a profound and sustained preventative effect. These findings may have important implications for the use of hypothermia in clinical trials of aged stroke patients. PMID:27303291

  4. Clinical and Laboratory Responses of Cross-Country Skiing for a 24-H World Record: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, Markus; Juvonen, Jukka; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Niemelä, Onni; Juvonen, Tatu

    2015-12-01

    The physiological consequences of ultra-endurance cross-country skiing in cold conditions are poorly known. We report here clinical, echocardiographic and laboratory findings from a 41-y old male elite skier in a world record trial for 24-h skiing. The athlete completed a total of 406.8 km outdoors with the temperature ranging between -24°C and -5°C during the 24-h period. Post exercise, notable increases from baseline values were observed in myoglobin (50-fold), creatinine kinase (30-fold) and proBNP (6-fold), whereas troponin T or troponin I levels remained unchanged. At baseline, echocardiographic findings showed cardiac hypertrophy and after skiing, a 5% reduction of left-ventricular end-diastolic dimension. Increases in markers of kidney (creatinine) and liver function (alanine aminotransferase), serum uric acid, C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts were also noted. In addition, electrolyte disturbances including hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia and hypocalcaemia were noted during the follow-up. The data indicates that a prolonged period of high-intensity skiing leads to muscle, heart and kidney affection and activation of inflammation even in an experienced elite skier. The observed health effects underscore the need for strict medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration. Key pointsAn elite athlete was able to ski over 400 km during 24 hours with an outdoor temperature ranging between -5 °C and -24 °C.Several postrace abnormalities occurred in biomarkers of muscle, heart, kidney, liver and inflammation status.Serum troponins, specific markers of myocardial cell damage, remained stable.The report supports careful medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration.

  5. Clinical and Laboratory Responses of Cross-Country Skiing for a 24-H World Record: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Niemelä, Markus; Juvonen, Jukka; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Niemelä, Onni; Juvonen, Tatu

    2015-01-01

    The physiological consequences of ultra-endurance cross-country skiing in cold conditions are poorly known. We report here clinical, echocardiographic and laboratory findings from a 41-y old male elite skier in a world record trial for 24-h skiing. The athlete completed a total of 406.8 km outdoors with the temperature ranging between -24°C and –5°C during the 24-h period. Post exercise, notable increases from baseline values were observed in myoglobin (50-fold), creatinine kinase (30-fold) and proBNP (6-fold), whereas troponin T or troponin I levels remained unchanged. At baseline, echocardiographic findings showed cardiac hypertrophy and after skiing, a 5% reduction of left-ventricular end-diastolic dimension. Increases in markers of kidney (creatinine) and liver function (alanine aminotransferase), serum uric acid, C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts were also noted. In addition, electrolyte disturbances including hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia and hypocalcaemia were noted during the follow-up. The data indicates that a prolonged period of high-intensity skiing leads to muscle, heart and kidney affection and activation of inflammation even in an experienced elite skier. The observed health effects underscore the need for strict medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration. Key points An elite athlete was able to ski over 400 km during 24 hours with an outdoor temperature ranging between –5 °C and –24 °C. Several postrace abnormalities occurred in biomarkers of muscle, heart, kidney, liver and inflammation status. Serum troponins, specific markers of myocardial cell damage, remained stable. The report supports careful medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration. PMID:26664265

  6. The 24-h recall instrument for home nursing to measure the activity profile of home nurses: development and psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    De Vliegher, Kristel; Aertgeerts, Bert; Declercq, Anja; Gosset, Christiane; Heyden, Isabelle; Van Geert, Michel; Moons, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Home health care today is challenged by a shift from an acute to a chronic health-care model, moving the focus of care from the hospital to home-care setting. This increased focus on care at home emphasizes the need for an efficient, effective, and transparent management of home health care. However, it is not precisely known what home-care nurses do; what kind of care is received by patients; what the performance of home nurses is; and what the impact of the increasing need for home nursing is on the current and future role of home nurses. In this respect, it is necessary to gain a clear insight into the activity profile of home nurses, but there is no gold standard to measure their activities. This study reports on the development and psychometric testing of the '24-hour recall instrument for home nursing' to measure the activity profile of home nurses. Five home nurses in Belgium, simultaneously with the researcher, registered the performed activities in a total of 69 patients, using the 24-h recall instrument for home nursing. The validity and the interrater reliability of this instrument were high: the proportions that observed agreement were very high; the strength of kappa agreement was substantial to almost perfect; the prevalence index showed great variety; and the bias index was low. The findings in this study support the validity evidence based on test content and the interrater reliability of the 24-h recall instrument. This instrument can help to shape practice and policy by making the home nursing profession more transparent: a clear insight into the kind of care that is provided by home nurses and is received by the patients in primary care contributes to the development of a clear definition of the role of home nurses in health care. PMID:24479985

  7. Holter monitor (24h)

    MedlinePlus

    Electrodes (small conducting patches) are stuck onto your chest. These are attached by wires to a small ... can match them with your Holter monitor findings. Electrodes must be firmly attached to the chest so ...

  8. DFT study of structural, electronic, and spectroscopic properties of D6d endohedral fullerenes: X@C24H12 (X=Li+, Na+, K+).

    PubMed

    Peng, Sheng; Li, Xiao Jun

    2009-07-01

    Based on the D6d-symmetrical C24H12, the equilibrium geometries, electronic structures, Infrared and Raman spectra, reaction energies, the energy gaps, and BSSE- and Zero-Point-corrected binding energies of endohedral fullerenes X@C24H12 (X=Li+, Na+, K+) have been calculated by first-principle density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The results suggest that the average bond lengths of endohedral fullerenes are longer than those of the empty cage. And in the endohedral fullerenes, Li+@C24H12 is only favorable in energy, and can stably exist. The stable order of three endohedral fullerenes is Li+@C24H12>Na+@C24H12>K+@C24H12, this indicates that the reaction energies and binding energies are in excellent agreement with the energy gaps between the frontier orbitals in the aspect of stability. All may provide a theoretical reference for further applications in the fields of materials physics and chemistry.

  9. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  10. New isocyanate-specific albumin adducts of 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anoop; Dongari, Nagaraju; Sabbioni, Gabriele

    2009-12-01

    4,4'-Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is the most important of the isocyanates used as intermediates in the chemical industry. Among the main types of damage after exposure to low levels of MDI are lung sensitization and asthma. Albumin adducts of MDI might be involved in the etiology of sensitization reactions. It is, therefore, necessary to have sensitive and specific methods for monitoring the isocyanate exposure of workers. To date, urinary metabolites or protein adducts have been used as biomarkers in workers exposed to MDI. However, with these methods it is not possible to determine whether the biomarkers result from exposure to MDI or to the parent aromatic amine 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA). This work presents a procedure for the determination of isocyanate-specific albumin adducts. In a long-term experiment, designed to determine the carcinogenic and toxic effects of MDI, rats were exposed chronically for 3 months, to 0.0 (control), 0.26, 0.70, and 2.06 mg MDI/m(3) as aerosols. Albumin was isolated from plasma, digested with Pronase E, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. MDI formed adducts with lysine: N(6)-[({4-[4-aminobenzyl]phenyl}amino)carbonyl]lysine (MDI-Lys) and N(6)-[({4-[4-(acetylamino)benzyl]phenyl}amino)carbonyl] lysine (AcMDI-Lys). For the quantitation of the adducts in vivo, isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used to measure the adducts in 2 mg of albumin. The adducts found in vivo (MDI-Lys and AcMDI-Lys) and the corresponding isotope labeled compounds (MDI-[(13)C(6)(15)N(2)]Lys and Ac[(2)H(4)]MDI-Lys) were synthesized and used for quantitation. The MDI-Lys levels increased from 0-24.8 pmol/mg albumin, and the AcMDI-Lys levels increased from 0-1.85 pmol/mg albumin. The mean ratio of MDI-Lys/AcMDI-Lys for each dose level was greater than >20. The albumin adducts correlate with other biomarkers measured in the same rats in the past: urinary metabolites and hemoglobin adducts released after mild base hydrolysis. This method will enable one to

  11. Shank2 Regulates Renal Albumin Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Lewis, Linda; Doctor, R Brian; Okamura, Kayo; Lee, Min Goo; Altmann, Christopher; Faubel, Sarah; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Blaine, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Albuminuria is a strong and independent predictor of kidney disease progression but the mechanisms of albumin handling by the kidney remain to be fully defined. Previous studies have shown that podocytes endocytose albumin. Here we demonstrate that Shank2, a large scaffolding protein originally identified at the neuronal postsynaptic density, is expressed in podocytes in vivo and in vitro and plays an important role in albumin endocytosis in podocytes. Knockdown of Shank2 in cultured human podocytes decreased albumin uptake, but the decrease was not statistically significant likely due to residual Shank2 still present in the knockdown podocytes. Complete knockout of Shank2 in podocytes significantly diminished albumin uptake in vitro. Shank2 knockout mice develop proteinuria by 8 weeks of age. To examine albumin handling in vivo in wild-type and Shank2 knockout mice we used multiphoton intravital imaging. While FITC-labeled albumin was rapidly seen in the renal tubules of wild-type mice after injection, little albumin was seen in the tubules of Shank2 knockout mice indicating dysregulated renal albumin trafficking in the Shank2 knockouts. We have previously found that caveolin-1 is required for albumin endocytosis in cultured podocytes. Shank2 knockout mice had significantly decreased expression and altered localization of caveolin-1 in podocytes suggesting that disruption of albumin endocytosis in Shank2 knockouts is mediated via caveolin-1. In summary, we have identified Shank2 as another component of the albumin endocytic pathway in podocytes. PMID:26333830

  12. Urinary pharmacokinetic methodology to determine the relative lung bioavailability of inhaled beclometasone dipropionate

    PubMed Central

    Said, Amira S A; Harding, Lindsay P; Chrystyn, Henry

    2012-01-01

    AIM Urinary pharmacokinetic methods have been identified to determine the relative lung and systemic bioavailability after an inhalation. We have extended this methodology to inhaled beclometasone dipropionate (BDP). METHOD Ethics Committee approval was obtained and all subjects gave consent. Twelve healthy volunteers received randomized doses, separated by >7 days, of 2000 µg BDP solution with (OralC) and without (Oral) 5 g oral charcoal, 10 100 µg inhalations from a Qvar® Easibreathe metered dose inhaler (pMDI) with (QvarC) and without (Qvar) oral charcoal and eight 250 µg inhalations from a Clenil® pMDI (Clenil). Subjects provided urine samples at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12 and 24 h post study dose. Urinary concentrations of BDP and its metabolites, beclometasone-17-monopropionate (17-BMP) and beclometasone (BOH) were measured. RESULTS No BDP, 17-BMP or BOH were detected in any samples post OralC dosing. Post oral dosing no BDP was detected in all urine samples and no 17-BMP or BOH was excreted in the first 30 min. Significantly more (P < 0.001) BDP, 17-BMP and BOH were excreted in the first 30 min and the cumulative 24 h urinary excretions post Qvar and Clenil compared with Oral. The mean ratio (90% confidence interval) of the 30 min urinary excretions for Qvar compared with Clenil was 231.4 (209.6, 255.7) %. CONCLUSION The urinary pharmacokinetic methodology to determine the relative lung and systemic bioavailability post inhalation, using 30 min and cumulative 24 h post inhalation samples, applies to BDP. The ratio between Qvar and Clenil is consistent with related clinical and lung deposition studies. PMID:22299644

  13. The urinary bladder as a physiological reservoir that moderates dehydration in a large desert lizard, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jon R; DeNardo, Dale F

    2007-04-01

    Animals inhabiting xeric environments use a variety of behavioral and physiological strategies to balance water budgets. We studied the potential contribution of the urinary bladder to osmoregulation in a large desert lizard, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum. Here we present results of a series of in vivo laboratory experiments which tested the hypothesis that the Gila monster urinary bladder serves as a physiological reservoir, as in amphibians and chelonians, providing water that buffers increases in plasma osmolality when food and water are unavailable. Adult Gila monsters absorbed water from the urinary bladder into circulation and absorption of water from the urinary bladder and drinking water provided similar osmoregulatory benefits within 24 h, although drinking water provided a more immediate osmotic benefit. During food and water deprivation, plasma osmolality increased 2.5 times faster in lizards with an empty urinary bladder compared with those with a full bladder. During rehydration, stereotyped binge drinking behavior increased body mass nearly 22%, which resulted in a 24% reduction in plasma osmolality and a substantial increase in bladder water within 24 h. These results support our hypothesis and demonstrate for the first time in an adult lizard that the urinary bladder can function as a long-term physiological water reservoir. This trait can provide a critical benefit to osmoregulation during the 2- to 3-month summer dry season characteristic of the deserts that Gila monsters inhabit. PMID:17401130

  14. Recombinant albumin monolayers on latex particles.

    PubMed

    Sofińska, Kamila; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Kujda, Marta; Nattich-Rak, Małgorzata

    2014-01-14

    The adsorption of recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) on negatively charged polystyrene latex micro-particles was studied at pH 3.5 and the NaCl concentration range of 10(-3) to 0.15 M. The electrophoretic mobility of latex monotonically increased with the albumin concentration in the suspension. The coverage of adsorbed albumin was quantitatively determined using the depletion method, where the residual protein concentration was determined by electrokinetic measurements and AFM imaging. It was shown that albumin adsorption was irreversible. Its maximum coverage on latex varied between 0.7 mg m(-2) for 10(-3) M NaCl to 1.3 mg m(-2) for 0.15 M NaCl. The latter value matches the maximum coverage previously determined for human serum albumin on mica using the streaming potential method. The increase in the maximum coverage was interpreted in terms of reduced electrostatic repulsion among adsorbed molecules. These facts confirm that albumin adsorption at pH 3.5 is governed by electrostatic interactions and proceeds analogously to colloid particle deposition. The stability of albumin monolayers was measured in additional experiments where changes in the latex electrophoretic mobility and the concentration of free albumin in solutions were monitored over prolonged time periods. Based on these experimental data, a robust procedure of preparing albumin monolayers on latex particles of well-controlled coverage and molecule distribution was proposed. PMID:24354916

  15. Percutaneous urinary procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lingeman JE. Surgical management of upper urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et ... CC, Nakada SY. Treatment selection and outcomes: renal calculi. Urol Clin North Am . 2007;34(3):409- ...

  16. Assessment of lupus nephritis activity using urinary retinol-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Sesso, R; Rettori, R; Nishida, S; Sato, E; Ajzen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the presence of proximal renal tubular dysfunction as measured by urinary retinol-binding protein (RBP) in 70 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Renal disease activity was assessed using the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index. This is a clinical-laboratory score based on the principle of the physician's intention to treat. Increased urinary RBP (> 400 micrograms/l) was detected in 17 of 22 (77%) patients with active nephritis, six of 18 (33%) patients with probably active nephritis, one of nine (12%) cases with stable renal disease, and one of 21 (5%) cases without apparent renal disease (P < 0.01). Compared to initial values, mean urinary RBP decreased significantly in six patients evaluated after improvement of the exacerbation of renal disease. There was a positive correlation between urinary RBP and 24-h proteinuria (r = 0.40, P < 0.01), and an inverse correlation between urinary RBP and creatinine clearance (r = -0.60, P < 0.01). In a multivariate analysis adjusting for duration of disease, blood pressure, 24-h proteinuria, and creatinine clearance, mean urinary RBP continued to be significantly and progressively greater for patients with no renal disease, stable renal disease, probably active and active nephritis. Proximal tubular dysfunction is frequent in patients with active lupus nephritis. This association cannot be completely explained by the effects of increased total proteinuria, reduced glomerular filtration rate, and systemic hypertension. Urinary RBP seems to be a marker of renal disease activity. This test may be clinically useful to differentiate patients with active lupus nephritis from those with stable or absent renal disease. PMID:8084448

  17. Detection of urinary podocytes and nephrin as markers for children with glomerular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Li, Min; Liu, Qicai; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect the urinary podocytes and its related protein, nephrin, in the urine of the children with glomerular disease in order to analyze the relationship of the clinical testing with the significance of the glomerular disease. A total of 65 children with nephrotic syndrome were selected for this study. The podocytes and nephrin were detected in the urinary sediment by indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting. The urinary podocytes and nephrin positive rates were 53.8% and 50.8%, respectively, in the children with glomerular disease. The serum total protein and albumin decreased in the podocyte-positive children, while the urine total protein at 24 h, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine were significantly elevated as compared to those of the podocyte-negative patients. Furthermore, the results were the same in the patients with positive nephrin as compared to that of the patients with negative nephrin. The podocyte number and nephrin level were significantly higher in the lupus nephritis group as compared to those of the other groups. Likewise, the podocyte number and nephrin level dramatically increased in the focal segmental glomerulosclerosis group as compared to those of the mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and minimal change disease groups. In addition, the podocyte numbers and nephrin expression were significantly higher in severe proteinuria group as compared to those of the mild proteinuria group. The urinary nephrin expression was positively related to podocyte and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. We concluded that the detection of the urinary podocytes and nephrin could be taken as markers for children with glomerular disease, reflecting the type of the disease. Therefore, this can be used as a noninvasive method to evaluate the severity of the kidney disease in children. PMID:25245074

  18. Comparison of the Block Kid's Food Frequency Questionnaire with a 24 h dietary recall methodology among Hmong-American children, 9-18 years of age.

    PubMed

    Mulasi-Pokhriyal, Urvashi; Smith, Chery

    2013-01-28

    Hmong are one of the immigrant Asian subgroups with increasing rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and CVD. Despite their population growth in the USA and declining health status, no research has investigated the appropriateness of dietary assessment measures, including FFQ and 24 h dietary recalls among Hmong. The present study compared the nutrient information obtained through a 24 h dietary recall method with that collected using the Block Kid's Food Frequency Questionnaire (Block FFQ) among Hmong-American children (n 335) of 9-18 years of age. For this purpose, two 24 h dietary recalls were collected during non-consecutive days and averaged for comparison. The Block FFQ was administered on the day of the second 24 h recall and the two methodologies were also compared using t tests. Among all children, Block FFQ nutrient estimates for vitamin A, vitamin C and food group servings for vegetables and fruits were significantly higher than those assessed through the 24 h dietary recalls (P< 0.001). Nutrient estimates for protein and food group servings for grains and meat and beans were significantly higher among all participants when assessed through the 24 h dietary recalls than through the Block FFQ (P< 0.05). The results suggest that the Block FFQ does not appear to be a good measure of protein, grain, and meat and bean intake among Hmong children of 9-18 years of age, and the 24 h dietary recall offers a better account of the Hmong diet and is inclusive of ethnic food options otherwise missed in the Block FFQ. We recommend the modification of the current Block FFQ to appropriately reflect cultural food/beverage items of the population in interest.

  19. Effect of dietary caffeine and theophylline on urinary calcium excretion in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Whiting, S J; Whitney, H L

    1987-07-01

    The chronic effects of dietary caffeine or theophylline on urinary calcium excretion were investigated in the adult male rat. When caffeine was added at two concentrations, 0.75 and 1.50 g/kg diet, 24-h urinary calcium excretion rose 300 and 450% on d 7, and 200 and 330% on d 14, respectively. There were no changes in the 24-h urinary excretion of phosphate, sulfate, sodium and cAMP nor did urine volume change. The high dose of caffeine was compared to an equimolar dose of theophylline (1.39 g/kg diet) in both Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats. Urinary calcium excretion in theophylline-treated rats was significantly greater than in caffeine-treated rats on all sampling days and in both strains of rat; the calciuric effect lasted at least 22 d. When rats were given indomethacin (3.3 mg/kg diet) the calciuria induced by caffeine and theophylline was abolished, and sodium excretion in all groups was reduced by 35-50%, but urine volume was unchanged. The calciuria of methylxanthine feeding may result from a prostaglandin-mediated process distinct from diuresis. PMID:3612301

  20. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  1. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  2. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  3. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  4. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  5. Measurement of C{sub 24}H{sub 14} polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with a size-segregated urban aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.O.; Dookeran, N.M.; Sarofim, A.F.; Smith, K.A.; Taghizadeh, K.; Plummer, E.F.; Lafleur, A.L.; Durant, J.L.

    1998-07-01

    Six-ring C{sub 24}H{sub 14} (MW 302) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which are potent mutagens, are present in urban aerosols. Size-segregated atmospheric aerosol samples from Boston, MA, were analyzed for C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Eleven peaks were found with mass to charge ratios of 302; of these, eight were identified using authentic standards. Five of the peaks were quantified. For each of these five, the distributions with respect to particle size were bimodal with the majority of the mass associated with accumulation mode particles and a smaller fraction of the mass associated with ultrafine mode particles. These distributions are similar to those observed for PAH of molecular weight 252--278 in the same sample but different from those of benzo[ghi]perylene and coronene which were associated to a greater degree with ultrafine particles. The data suggest that C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH repartition to larger particles by vaporization and sorption more rapidly than do benzo[ghi]perylene and coronene. The total concentration of C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH was comparable to that of benzo[a]pyrene in the same sample. Because of their mutagenicities, C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH may make a contribution to the genotoxicity of urban aerosols comparable to that of benzo[a]pyrene.

  6. Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin Ratio Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Share this ... Globulin Ratio; A/G Ratio Formal name: Total Protein; Albumin to Globulin Ratio Related tests: Albumin ; Liver ...

  7. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-08-02

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  8. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-01-01

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  9. Comprehensive Mapping of Regional Expression of the Clock Protein PERIOD2 in Rat Forebrain across the 24-h Day

    PubMed Central

    Harbour, Valerie L.; Weigl, Yuval; Robinson, Barry; Amir, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, a light-entrainable clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) regulates circadian rhythms by synchronizing oscillators throughout the brain and body. Notably, the nature of the relation between the SCN clock and subordinate oscillators in the rest of the brain is not well defined. We performed a high temporal resolution analysis of the expression of the circadian clock protein PERIOD2 (PER2) in the rat forebrain to characterize the distribution, amplitude and phase of PER2 rhythms across different regions. Eighty-four LEW/Crl male rats were entrained to a 12-h: 12-h light/dark cycle, and subsequently perfused every 30 min across the 24-h day for a total of 48 time-points. PER2 expression was assessed with immunohistochemistry and analyzed using automated cell counts. We report the presence of PER2 expression in 20 forebrain areas important for a wide range of motivated and appetitive behaviors including the SCN, bed nucleus, and several regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, striatum, and cortex. Eighteen areas displayed significant PER2 rhythms, which peaked at different times of day. Our data demonstrate a previously uncharacterized regional distribution of rhythms of a clock protein expression in the brain that provides a sound basis for future studies of circadian clock function in animal models of disease. PMID:24124556

  10. The importance of utilizing 24-h Holter monitoring as a non-invasive method of predicting the mechanism of supraventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Al Mehairi, M; Al Ghamdi, S A; Dagriri, K; Al Fagih, A

    2011-10-01

    Despite the emergence of advanced invasive technology in identifying the various types of arrhythmia mechanisms, 24-h ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring as a non-invasive method remains an invaluable informative tool in delineating such mechanisms. Furthermore, one observational study has supported the utilization of 24-h Holter monitoring in exploring AV Node (AVN) characteristics sufficiently in correlation with invasive studies when limited to patients without Wolf Parkinson White syndrome showing a positive predictive value of 98% in their supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) assessment (Fukuda et al., 2005). We describe in this report suspected tachycardia initiation mechanism in three SVT cases based on 24-h Holter recordings. Premature atrial contraction with subsequent AVN fast pathway conduction block initiated the common type AVN re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT). Dual AVN physiology was documented during the electrophysiological studies in all three cases and a definitive therapy was achieved by the AVN slow pathway modification.

  11. Risk factors for stillbirths and mortality during the first 24h of life on dairy farms in Hokkaido, Japan 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Kayano, M; Kadohira, M; Stevenson, M A

    2016-05-01

    This was a retrospective cohort study using data from the insurance scheme provided by the Japanese Mutual Aid Association (NOSAI). The population of interest comprised all cattle born on NOSAI-client farms in the Japanese prefecture of Hokkaido, Japan for the period 1 April 2005-31 March 2009. The outcome of interest was whether or not at least one calf was stillborn, had died during delivery or died during the first 24 hours of life for a given calving event, termed first 24h mortality risk. A mixed-effects logistic regression model was developed to identify explanatory variables associated with first 24h mortality risk. The final data set comprised details of 1,281,737 calving events on a total of 5172 dairy herds from 19 NOSAI branches located throughout the prefecture of Hokkaido. Throughout the study period 7.68 (95% CI 7.64-7.73) of every 100 calving events had at least one calf that was either stillborn, dead at the time of delivery or dead during the first 24h of life. Factors that were positively associated with an increase in first 24h mortality risk included delivery during the colder months of the year (November-March), being of Wagyu breed, having a multipara dam, multiple (as opposed to single) birth deliveries, and delivery in larger herds. ​After adjusting for the fixed effects included in our multilevel model, 89% of the unexplained variation in first 24h mortality risk was at the calving event level. We propose that the data recording requirements of the NOSAI scheme are extended to include details of calving events (e.g. the presence or absence of dystocia) and details of the way in which calves are managed post delivery. This would allow more subtle risk factors for calf mortality to be identified which, in turn, will lead to refinement of recommendations for calf management during the first 24h of life in this area of Japan.

  12. The 24-h Energy Intake of Obese Adolescents Is Spontaneously Reduced after Intensive Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Calorimetric Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Thivel, David; Isacco, Laurie; Montaurier, Christophe; Boirie, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical exercise can modify subsequent energy intake and appetite and may thus be of particular interest in terms of obesity treatment. However, it is still unclear whether an intensive bout of exercise can affect the energy consumption of obese children and adolescents. Objective To compare the impact of high vs. moderate intensity exercises on subsequent 24-h energy intake, macronutrient preferences, appetite sensations, energy expenditure and balance in obese adolescent. Design This randomized cross-over trial involves 15 obese adolescent boys who were asked to randomly complete three 24-h sessions in a metabolic chamber, each separated by at least 7 days: (1) sedentary (SED); (2) Low-Intensity Exercise (LIE) (40% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max); (3) High-Intensity Exercise (HIE) (75%VO2max). Results Despite unchanged appetite sensations, 24-h total energy intake following HIE was 6–11% lower compared to LIE and SED (p<0.05), whereas no differences appeared between SED and LIE. Energy intake at lunch was 9.4% and 8.4% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.05). At dinner time, it was 20.5% and 19.7% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.01). 24-h energy expenditure was not significantly altered. Thus, the 24-h energy balance was significantly reduced during HIE compared to SED and LIE (p<0.01), whereas those of SED and LIE did not differ. Conclusions In obese adolescent boys, HIE has a beneficial impact on 24-h energy balance, mainly due to the spontaneous decrease in energy intake during lunch and dinner following the exercise bout. Prescribing high-intensity exercises to promote weight loss may therefore provide effective results without affecting appetite sensations and, as a result, food frustrations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01036360 PMID:22272251

  13. Effect of diet orange soda on urinary lithogenicity.

    PubMed

    Sumorok, Nicola T; Asplin, John R; Eisner, Brian H; Stoller, Marshall L; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-06-01

    Studies have shown that certain beverages decrease urinary lithogenicity by increasing urine citrate excretion. Diet Sunkist Orange soda had the highest concentration of citrate and total alkali content among 12 diet sodas previously assayed. We studied the effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda consumption on urinary chemistry. Nine healthy men and women ages 26-54 years completed the study. During the control period, subjects drank 36 oz of water for 3 days in addition to their own, self-selected diet and recorded a food diary. During the study period, the subjects drank three 12-oz cans of Diet Sunkist Orange soda a day instead of water, and replicated their diets from the control period. In each period, the subjects performed 24-h urine collections on days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, including urinary citrate levels and pH. Diet Sunkist Orange soda increased urinary citrate excretion by 60 mg/day, which was not statistically significant (95% CI -75 to 195, P value 0.34). There was no significant change in pH from the control period to the study period (pH: 6.29-6.21; 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.25, P = 0.30). Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not significantly different between the control and study periods. Despite the relatively high citrate and total alkali content of Diet Sunkist Orange soda, the volume consumed in this study (36 oz per day) did not provide sufficient potential base to significantly alter urine composition in healthy subjects with normocitraturia. The effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda on urinary chemistry in patients with hypocitraturia and nephrolithiasis is not likely to have a clinically significant effect to prevent calcium or uric acid stones.

  14. Twice Daily Melatonin Peaks in Siberian but not Syrian Hamsters under 24 h Light:Dark:Light:Dark Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Raiewski, Evan E.; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Evans, Jennifer A.; Glickman, Gena L.; Gorman, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The daily pattern of blood borne melatonin varies seasonally under the control of a multi-oscillator circadian pacemaker. Here we examine patterns of melatonin secretion and locomotor activity in Siberian and Syrian hamsters entrained to bimodal LDLD8:4:8:4 and LD20:4 lighting schedules that facilitate novel temporal arrangements of component circadian oscillators. Under LDLD, both species robustly bifurcated wheel-running activity in distinct day scotophase (DS) and night scotophase (NS) bouts. Siberian hamsters displayed significant melatonin increases during each scotophase in LDLD, and in the single daily scotophase of LD20:4. The bimodal melatonin secretion pattern persisted in acutely extended 16 h scotophases. Syrian hamsters, in contrast, showed no significant increases in plasma melatonin during either scotophase of LDLD8:4:8:4 or in LD20:4. In this species, detectable levels were observed only when the day scotophase of LDLD was acutely extended to yield 16 h of darkness. Established species differences in the phase lag of nocturnal melatonin secretion relative to activity onset may underlie the above contrast: In non-bifurcated entrainment to 24 h LD cycles, Siberian hamsters show increased melatonin secretion within ~ 2 h after activity onset, whereas in Syrian hamsters, detectable melatonin secretion phase lags activity onset and the L/D transition by at least 4 h. The present results provide new evidence indicating multi-oscillator regulation of the waveform of melatonin secretion, specifically, the circadian control of the onset, offset, and duration of nocturnal secretion. PMID:23003567

  15. Sleep-like behavior and 24-h rhythm disruption in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heise, I; Fisher, S P; Banks, G T; Wells, S; Peirson, S N; Foster, R G; Nolan, P M

    2015-02-01

    Down syndrome is a common disorder associated with intellectual disability in humans. Among a variety of severe health problems, patients with Down syndrome exhibit disrupted sleep and abnormal 24-h rest/activity patterns. The transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome, Tc1, is a trans-species mouse model for Down syndrome, carrying most of human chromosome 21 in addition to the normal complement of mouse chromosomes and expresses many of the phenotypes characteristic of Down syndrome. To date, however, sleep and circadian rhythms have not been characterized in Tc1 mice. Using both circadian wheel-running analysis and video-based sleep scoring, we showed that these mice exhibited fragmented patterns of sleep-like behaviour during the light phase of a 12:12-h light/dark (LD) cycle with an extended period of continuous wakefulness at the beginning of the dark phase. Moreover, an acute light pulse during night-time was less effective in inducing sleep-like behaviour in Tc1 animals than in wild-type controls. In wheel-running analysis, free running in constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) showed no changes in the circadian period of Tc1 animals although they did express subtle behavioural differences including a reduction in total distance travelled on the wheel and differences in the acrophase of activity in LD and in DD. Our data confirm that Tc1 mice express sleep-related phenotypes that are comparable with those seen in Down syndrome patients with moderate disruptions in rest/activity patterns and hyperactive episodes, while circadian period under constant lighting conditions is essentially unaffected.

  16. Sleep-like behavior and 24-h rhythm disruption in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Heise, I; Fisher, S P; Banks, G T; Wells, S; Peirson, S N; Foster, R G; Nolan, P M

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome is a common disorder associated with intellectual disability in humans. Among a variety of severe health problems, patients with Down syndrome exhibit disrupted sleep and abnormal 24-h rest/activity patterns. The transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome, Tc1, is a trans-species mouse model for Down syndrome, carrying most of human chromosome 21 in addition to the normal complement of mouse chromosomes and expresses many of the phenotypes characteristic of Down syndrome. To date, however, sleep and circadian rhythms have not been characterized in Tc1 mice. Using both circadian wheel-running analysis and video-based sleep scoring, we showed that these mice exhibited fragmented patterns of sleep-like behaviour during the light phase of a 12:12-h light/dark (LD) cycle with an extended period of continuous wakefulness at the beginning of the dark phase. Moreover, an acute light pulse during night-time was less effective in inducing sleep-like behaviour in Tc1 animals than in wild-type controls. In wheel-running analysis, free running in constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) showed no changes in the circadian period of Tc1 animals although they did express subtle behavioural differences including a reduction in total distance travelled on the wheel and differences in the acrophase of activity in LD and in DD. Our data confirm that Tc1 mice express sleep-related phenotypes that are comparable with those seen in Down syndrome patients with moderate disruptions in rest/activity patterns and hyperactive episodes, while circadian period under constant lighting conditions is essentially unaffected. PMID:25558895

  17. Long-term invariant parameters obtained from 24-h Holter recordings: A comparison between different analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Esposti, Federico; Ferrario, Manuela; Sassi, Roberto; Signorini, Maria Gabriella

    2007-03-01

    Over the last two decades, a large number of different methods had been used to study the fractal-like behavior of the heart rate variability (HRV). In this paper some of the most used techniques were reviewed. In particular, the focus is set on those methods which characterize the long memory behavior of time series (in particular, periodogram, detrended fluctuation analysis, rescale range analysis, scaled window variance, Higuchi dimension, wavelet-transform modulus maxima, and generalized structure functions). The performances of the different techniques were tested on simulated self-similar noises (fBm and fGn) for values of α, the slope of the spectral density for very small frequency, ranging from -1 to 3 with a 0.05 step. The check was performed using the scaling relationships between the various indices. DFA and periodogram showed the smallest mean square error from the expected values in the range of interest for HRV. Building on the results obtained from these tests, the effective ability of the different methods in discriminating different populations of patients from RR series derived from Holter recordings, was assessed. To this extent, the Noltisalis database was used. It consists of a set of 30, 24-h Holter recordings collected from healthy subjects, patients suffering from congestive heart failure, and heart transplanted patients. All the methods, with the exception at most of rescale range analysis, were almost equivalent in distinguish between the three groups of patients. Finally, the scaling relationships, valid for fBm and fGn, when empirically used on HRV series, also approximately held.

  18. Twice daily melatonin peaks in Siberian but not Syrian hamsters under 24 h light:dark:light:dark cycles.

    PubMed

    Raiewski, Evan E; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Evans, Jennifer A; Glickman, Gena L; Gorman, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    The daily pattern of blood-borne melatonin varies seasonally under the control of a multi-oscillator circadian pacemaker. Here we examine patterns of melatonin secretion and locomotor activity in Siberian and Syrian hamsters entrained to bimodal LDLD8:4:8:4 and LD20:4 lighting schedules that facilitate novel temporal arrangements of component circadian oscillators. Under LDLD, both species robustly bifurcated wheel-running activity in distinct day scotophase (DS) and night scotophase (NS) bouts. Siberian hamsters displayed significant melatonin increases during each scotophase in LDLD, and in the single daily scotophase of LD20:4. The bimodal melatonin secretion pattern persisted in acutely extended 16 h scotophases. Syrian hamsters, in contrast, showed no significant increases in plasma melatonin during either scotophase of LDLD8:4:8:4 or in LD20:4. In this species, detectable levels were observed only when the DS of LDLD was acutely extended to yield 16 h of darkness. Established species differences in the phase lag of nocturnal melatonin secretion relative to activity onset may underlie the above contrast: In non-bifurcated entrainment to 24 h LD cycles, Siberian hamsters show increased melatonin secretion within ≈ 2 h after activity onset, whereas in Syrian hamsters, detectable melatonin secretion phase lags activity onset and the L/D transition by at least 4 h. The present results provide new evidence indicating multi-oscillator regulation of the waveform of melatonin secretion, specifically, the circadian control of the onset, offset and duration of nocturnal secretion.

  19. Identification of trends in rainfall, rainy days and 24 h maximum rainfall over subtropical Assam in Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhajharia, Deepak; Yadav, Brijesh K.; Maske, Sunil; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Kar, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Trends in rainfall, rainy days and 24 h maximum rainfall are investigated using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test at twenty-four sites of subtropical Assam located in the northeastern region of India. The trends are statistically confirmed by both the parametric and non-parametric methods and the magnitudes of significant trends are obtained through the linear regression test. In Assam, the average monsoon rainfall (rainy days) during the monsoon months of June to September is about 1606 mm (70), which accounts for about 70% (64%) of the annual rainfall (rainy days). On monthly time scales, sixteen and seventeen sites (twenty-one sites each) witnessed decreasing trends in the total rainfall (rainy days), out of which one and three trends (seven trends each) were found to be statistically significant in June and July, respectively. On the other hand, seventeen sites witnessed increasing trends in rainfall in the month of September, but none were statistically significant. In December (February), eighteen (twenty-two) sites witnessed decreasing (increasing) trends in total rainfall, out of which five (three) trends were statistically significant. For the rainy days during the months of November to January, twenty-two or more sites witnessed decreasing trends in Assam, but for nine (November), twelve (January) and eighteen (December) sites, these trends were statistically significant. These observed changes in rainfall, although most time series are not convincing as they show predominantly no significance, along with the well-reported climatic warming in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons may have implications for human health and water resources management over bio-diversity rich Northeast India.

  20. Adapting a standardised international 24 h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet software) for research and dietary surveillance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Kyung; Park, Jin Young; Nicolas, Geneviève; Paik, Hee Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-06-14

    During the past decades, a rapid nutritional transition has been observed along with economic growth in the Republic of Korea. Since this dramatic change in diet has been frequently associated with cancer and other non-communicable diseases, dietary monitoring is essential to understand the association. Benefiting from pre-existing standardised dietary methodologies, the present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and describe the development of a Korean version of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (GloboDiet software) and its complementary tools, developed at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO. Following established international Standard Operating Procedures and guidelines, about seventy common and country-specific databases on foods, recipes, dietary supplements, quantification methods and coefficients were customised and translated. The main results of the present study highlight the specific adaptations made to adapt the GloboDiet software for research and dietary surveillance in Korea. New (sub-) subgroups were added into the existing common food classification, and new descriptors were added to the facets to classify and describe specific Korean foods. Quantification methods were critically evaluated and adapted considering the foods and food packages available in the Korean market. Furthermore, a picture book of foods/dishes was prepared including new pictures and food portion sizes relevant to Korean diet. The development of the Korean version of GloboDiet demonstrated that it was possible to adapt the IARC-WHO international dietary tool to an Asian context without compromising its concept of standardisation and software structure. It, thus, confirms that this international dietary methodology, used so far only in Europe, is flexible and robust enough to be customised for other regions worldwide.

  1. Reduced efficiency, but increased fat oxidation, in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24-h ultraendurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Fernström, Maria; Bakkman, Linda; Tonkonogi, Michail; Shabalina, Irina G; Rozhdestvenskaya, Zinaida; Mattsson, C Mikael; Enqvist, Jonas K; Ekblom, Björn; Sahlin, Kent

    2007-05-01

    The hypothesis that ultraendurance exercise influences muscle mitochondrial function has been investigated. Athletes in ultraendurance performance performed running, kayaking, and cycling at 60% of their peak O(2) consumption for 24 h. Muscle biopsies were taken preexercise (Pre-Ex), postexercise (Post-Ex), and after 28 h of recovery (Rec). Respiration was analyzed in isolated mitochondria during state 3 (coupled to ATP synthesis) and state 4 (noncoupled respiration), with fatty acids alone [palmitoyl carnitine (PC)] or together with pyruvate (Pyr). Electron transport chain activity was measured with NADH in permeabilized mitochondria. State 3 respiration with PC increased Post-Ex by 39 and 41% (P < 0.05) when related to mitochondrial protein and to electron transport chain activity, respectively. State 3 respiration with Pyr was not changed (P > 0.05). State 4 respiration with PC increased Post-Ex but was lower than Pre-Ex at Rec (P < 0.05 vs. Pre-Ex). Mitochondrial efficiency [amount of added ADP divided by oxygen consumed during state 3 (P/O ratio)] decreased Post-Ex by 9 and 6% (P < 0.05) with PC and PC + Pyr, respectively. P/O ratio remained reduced at Rec. Muscle uncoupling protein 3, measured with Western blotting, was not changed Post-Ex but tended to decrease at Rec (P = 0.07 vs. Pre-Ex). In conclusion, extreme endurance exercise decreases mitochondrial efficiency. This will increase oxygen demand and may partly explain the observed elevation in whole body oxygen consumption during standardized exercise (+13%). The increased mitochondrial capacity for PC oxidation indicates plasticity in substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, which may be of advantage during prolonged exercise.

  2. Characteristics of genes up-regulated and down-regulated after 24 h starvation in the head of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Kazuyo; Takahashi, Aya; Nishimura, Azusa; Itoh, Masanobu; Takano-Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2009-10-01

    Starvation is a common experience under fluctuating food conditions in nature, and response to it is vital for many organisms. Many studies have investigated the response at physiological and behavioral level, whereas the studies on starvation-induced transcriptional changes in the brain and the surrounding tissues are still limited. We here investigated global changes in transcript abundance in the head after 24 h starvation by microarray expression profiling of 2 wild-derived inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster, and identified a core set of 65 up-regulated and 48 down-regulated genes upon starvation. Among these up-regulated genes, 22 genes were circadian oscillating genes previously identified in the head of Drosophila. Interestingly, most (86%) of these circadian genes show their expression peak in a narrow time range of ZT7.0-12.0, when flies are relatively restless and less feeding in the normal condition. Among the down-regulated genes, 2 genes with highest fold-differences, fit and CG8147, are known to have female-biased expression in the head, and 1 gene, Obp99b, is known to be male-biased. Together with the realtime qPCR experiments on female and male transcripts, our data suggest that these sex-specific genes are candidate genes mediating a possible trade-off between starvation resistance and reproduction. Eleven down-regulated genes are known to be involved in the immune response. These changes in head transcriptome upon starvation reflect modulation of expression in some normally oscillating rhythmic genes and reduction in the resource allocation toward sexual activity and immunity.

  3. Dose-finding and 24-h monitoring for efficacy and safety of aerosolized Nacystelyn in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    App, E M; Baran, D; Dab, I; Malfroot, A; Coffiner, M; Vanderbist, F; King, M

    2002-02-01

    The aim of the present studies was to investigate the tolerability and activity of a novel mucolytic drug, Nacystelyn (NAL), for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. In study 1, involving 10 CF patients, the main objective was to determine the tolerability and potential efficacy of a range of single doses of NAL in comparison to a placebo, in order to establish an optimal dose for further testing. On five consecutive scheduled treatment days, patients inhaled either from two (4 mg) to eight puffs (16 mg) of a single dose of NAL from the range, administered in an open-label fashion, or 12 puffs of active NAL (24 mg) versus 12 puffs of placebo, administered in a randomized double-blind fashion. Pulmonary function data were unaffected and clinically-adverse effects were limited to wheezing in some patients that inhaled 12 puffs of either placebo or active drug. Subsequent rheological analysis of their sputum showed a dose-dependent decrease in sputum viscoelasticity, accompanied by a decrease in sputum solids content and an increase in chloride and sodium concentrations. In study 2, involving 12 CF patients, the clinical safety and mucolytic activity of a single dose of NAL was monitored over 24 h. On different scheduled treatment days, 7 days apart, patients inhaled a single dose of 12 puffs of active NAL (24 mg) or 12 puffs of placebo drug in a randomized, double-blind sequence, with sputum samples taken at intervals before and after inhalation. Mucus rigidity decreased following NAL inhalation, with the maximum effect observed at 4 h; the 1-, 2- and 4-h NAL rheology results were significantly different from placebo. No adverse effects were observed. The drug was well tolerated in both studies. Sputum results were predictive of improved clearability by ciliary and cough transport mechanisms. PMID:11866009

  4. Around-the-clock: parent work schedules and children's well-being in a 24-h economy.

    PubMed

    Strazdins, Lyndall; Korda, Rosemary J; Lim, Lynette L-Y; Broom, Dorothy H; D'Souza, Rennie M

    2004-10-01

    Family life in developed economies has undergone a fundamental change--shifting from single-breadwinner households (typical of the post war decades) to families where both parents are employed. Equally dramatic has been the emergence of around-the-clock economies, altering the way work is organised, especially working time. Many more children now live in households where one or both parents work non-standard hours (evenings, nights or on weekends). Are there any implications for children's well-being when parents work non-standard schedules? There has been virtually no investigation of how children are faring in these around-the-clock households, despite evidence that non-standard work times affect family functioning and are stressful for parents. Using data from a representative sample of 4433 dual-earner Canadian families and their 2--11-year-old children (N children=6361), we compared families where both parents worked standard hours, with families where one or both worked non-standard times (evenings, nights or weekends). In nearly three-quarters of the families one or both parents regularly worked non-standard times. We found associations between children's well-being and parent work schedules, with higher odds ratios for child difficulties when parents worked non-standard times. These associations persisted after adjusting for several confounding factors including socio-economic status, parent part-time or full-time work, and childcare use, and were evident whether mothers, fathers or both parents worked non-standard times. The findings raise questions about the implications for children of the 24-h economy. PMID:15246179

  5. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53), 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002

  6. Adapting a standardised international 24 h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet software) for research and dietary surveillance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Kyung; Park, Jin Young; Nicolas, Geneviève; Paik, Hee Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-06-14

    During the past decades, a rapid nutritional transition has been observed along with economic growth in the Republic of Korea. Since this dramatic change in diet has been frequently associated with cancer and other non-communicable diseases, dietary monitoring is essential to understand the association. Benefiting from pre-existing standardised dietary methodologies, the present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and describe the development of a Korean version of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (GloboDiet software) and its complementary tools, developed at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO. Following established international Standard Operating Procedures and guidelines, about seventy common and country-specific databases on foods, recipes, dietary supplements, quantification methods and coefficients were customised and translated. The main results of the present study highlight the specific adaptations made to adapt the GloboDiet software for research and dietary surveillance in Korea. New (sub-) subgroups were added into the existing common food classification, and new descriptors were added to the facets to classify and describe specific Korean foods. Quantification methods were critically evaluated and adapted considering the foods and food packages available in the Korean market. Furthermore, a picture book of foods/dishes was prepared including new pictures and food portion sizes relevant to Korean diet. The development of the Korean version of GloboDiet demonstrated that it was possible to adapt the IARC-WHO international dietary tool to an Asian context without compromising its concept of standardisation and software structure. It, thus, confirms that this international dietary methodology, used so far only in Europe, is flexible and robust enough to be customised for other regions worldwide. PMID:25899045

  7. Reproducibility of 24-h post-exercise changes in energy intake in overweight and obese women using current methodology.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gemma L; Lean, Michael E; Hankey, Catherine R

    2012-07-01

    Direct observation(s) of energy intake (EI) via buffet meals served in the laboratory are often carried out within short-term exercise intervention studies. The reproducibility of values obtained has not been assessed either under resting control conditions or post-exercise, in overweight and obese females. A total of fourteen sedentary, pre-menopausal females (BMI 30.0 (SD 5.1) kg/m²) completed four trials; two exercise and two control. Each trial lasted 24 h spanning over 2 d; conducted from afternoon on day 1 and morning on day 2. An exercise session to expend 1.65 MJ was completed on day 1 of exercise trials, and three buffet meals were served during each trial. Reproducibility of post-exercise changes in energy and macronutrient intakes was assessed at each individual buffet meal by intraclass correlation coefficient (r(i)). Only the r(i) values for post-exercise changes in energy (r(i) 0.44 (95 % CI - 0.03, 0.77), P = 0.03) and fat intake (r(i) 0.51 (95 % CI 0.04, 0.81), P = 0.02) at the lunch buffet meal achieved statistical significance; however, these r i values were weak and had large associated 95 % CI, which indicates a large degree of variability associated with these measurements. Energy and macronutrient intakes at the breakfast and evening buffet meals were not reproducible. This study concludes that the frequently used laboratory-based buffet meal method of assessing EI does not produce reliable, reproducible post-exercise changes in EI in overweight and obese women.

  8. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education FAQs Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence FAQ166, July 2014 ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  9. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland) can cause lower urinary tract disease in cats. Although they are much less common causes, FLUTD ... your veterinarian about the best diet for your cat. Many commercial diets are acceptable, but some urinary ...

  10. Serum albumin and risk of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Folsom, Aaron. R.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Cushman, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Summary The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is increased in patients with albuminuria. However, whether a low serum albumin concentration is associated with increased risk of VTE has been a matter of controversy. We determined the association of serum albumin with VTE incidence in two large, prospective, population-based cohorts: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (n = 15,300) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) (n = 5,400). Validated VTE occurrence (n=462 in ARIC and n=174 in CHS) was ascertained during follow-up. In both studies, after adjustment for age, sex, race, use of hormone replacement therapy, estimated GFR, history of cancer, and diabetes, serum albumin tended to be associated inversely with VTE. The adjusted hazard ratio per standard deviation lower albumin was 1.18 (95% CI = 1.08, 1.31) in ARIC and 1.10 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.29) in CHS. The hazard ratio for albumin below (versus above) the fifth percentile was 1.28 (95% CI = 0.90, 1.84) in ARIC and 1.80 (95% CI = 1.11, 2.93) in CHS. In conclusion, low serum albumin was a modest marker of increased VTE risk. The observed association likely does not reflect cause and effect, but rather that low serum albumin reflects a hyperinflammatory or hypercoagulable state. Whether this association has clinical relevance warrants further study. PMID:20390234

  11. Urinary tract endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Koszczuk, J C; Foglietti, M; Perez, J F; Dono, F V; Thomas, R J

    1989-01-01

    Although endometriosis is a common gynecologic pathologic phenomenon, involvement of the urinary tract is relatively rare. The clinical presentation and course of urinary system disease is extremely variable, as illustrated by the seven cases presented in this report. Therapy primarily is surgical, but a thorough understanding of the disease process and a complete knowledge of the patient's history and desires for fertility conservation are necessary to plot the most appropriate treatment course. Bladder involvement is more common, and usually less devastating, than either ureteral or kidney involvement. No signs, symptoms, or physical findings are pathognomonic, and the clinician must maintain a high index of suspicion in all cases of advanced pelvic endometriosis.

  12. Glycated Albumin versus Glycated Hemoglobin as a Glycemic Indicator in Diabetic Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroki; Abe, Masanori; Yoshida, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Hiroko; Maruyama, Noriaki; Okada, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Compared with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), glycated albumin (GA) is superior in estimating glycemic control in diabetic patients on hemodialysis (HD). However, the better index for assessment of glycemic control in diabetic patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and the impact of protein loss on GA are unknown. Twenty diabetic patients on HD were matched by age, sex, and baseline postprandial plasma glucose (PG) levels to 20 PD patients. PG, HbA1c, GA, and serum albumin levels were measured for six months. Protein loss in PD patients was estimated by measuring the protein concentration in the peritoneal dialysate and by 24 h urine collection. Although PG and HbA1c did not differ significantly between the groups, the PD group had significantly lower GA (17.8% versus 20.8%, p < 0.001) and GA/HbA1c ratio (2.95% versus 3.45%, p < 0.0001) than the HD group. Although the PG level correlated significantly with the GA levels in both groups, it was not correlated with the HbA1c levels in both groups. HbA1c level was negatively associated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) dose in both groups, whereas GA was not significantly associated with serum albumin, hemoglobin concentration, ESA dose, and protein loss. Multiple regression analysis identified GA as the only independent factor associated with PG in PD patients. Our results suggested that GA was not significantly associated with protein loss, hemoglobin, serum albumin, and ESA dose. Although GA might underestimate glycemic status, it provided a significantly better measure for estimating glycemic control than HbA1c, even in PD patients. PMID:27120597

  13. Acute urinary retention in a pre-school girl with constipation

    PubMed Central

    Traslaviña, Guillermo A. Ariza; Ciampo, Luiz Antonio Del; Ferraz, Ivan Savioli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report a case of a preschool girl who developed acute urinary retention associated with constipation. Case description: A girl aged six years old presented a 24 h history of inability to urinate. She was went twice to the emergency room during this period. In the first admission, 12 h after the onset of the symptoms, she presented abdominal pain and acute urinary retention. After the drainage by urinary catheterization of 300 mL of clear urine, she presented relief of the symptoms and, as urinalysis had no change, the patient was discharged home. Twelve hours after the first visit, she returned to the emergency room complaining about the same symptoms. At physical examination, there was only a palpable and distended bladder up to the umbilicus with no other abnormalities. Again, a urinary catheterization was performed, which drained 450 mL of clear urine, with immediate relief of the symptoms. Urinalysis and urine culture had no abnormalities. During the anamnesis, the diagnosis of constipation was considered and a plain abdominal radiography was performed, which identified large amount of feces throughout the colon (fecal retention). An enema with a 12% glycerin solution was prescribed for three days. During follow-up, the child used laxatives and dietary modifications, this contributed to the resolution of the constipation. There were no other episodes of urinary retention after 6 months of follow-up. Comments: Acute urinary retention in children is a rare phenomenon and constipation should be considered as a cause. PMID:26298658

  14. [At what concentration should albumin be prescribed?].

    PubMed

    Mantz, J

    1996-01-01

    Human albumin is available either as a 4 or a 20% solution. Only the latter is a plasma expander which increases volaemia by an amount corresponding to the four-fold of the infused volume. In addition, the sodium load by the latter per gramme of albumin is five times lower as both solutions have the same sodium content. Therefore, when the administration of albumin is indicated, the 20% solution should be preferred, as well as for volume expansion as for other uses, due to a decreased sodium load. However, this recommendation has not been substantiated by comparative studies.

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... time. And when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ...

  16. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... body's drainage system for removing wastes and extra water. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. You may have a UTI if you notice ...

  17. [Urinary catheter biofilm infections].

    PubMed

    Holá, V; Růzicka, F

    2008-04-01

    Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient.

  18. Serum Albumin as Predictor of Nutritional Status in Patients with ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Gama-Axelsson, Thiane; Heimbürger, Olof; Stenvinkel, Peter; Bárány, Peter; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Serum albumin is a widely used biomarker of nutritional status in patients with CKD; however, its usefulness is debated. This study investigated serum albumin and its correlation with several markers of nutritional status in incident and prevalent dialysis patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a cross-sectional study, serum albumin (bromocresol purple), and other biochemical (serum creatinine), clinical (subjective global assessment [SGA]), anthropometric (handgrip strength; skinfold thicknesses), and densitometry (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) markers of nutritional status were assessed in 458 incident (61% male; mean age, 54±13 years; GFR, 6.6±0.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2; recruited 1994–2010) and 383 prevalent (56% male; mean age, 62±14 years; recruited 1989–2004) dialysis patients. Results In incident patients, serum albumin was correlated with age (β =−0.15; P<0.001), diabetes (β=−0.30; P<0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β =−0.37; P<0.001), and urinary albumin excretion (β=−0.38; P<0.001) but less so with poor nutritional status (SGA score > 1; β=−0.19; P<0.001). In prevalent patients, serum albumin was correlated with age (β=−0.15; P<0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β=−0.30; P<0.001), diabetes (β=−0.31; P<0.001), and SGA score > 1 (β=−0.16; P<0.001). In predicting nutritional status assessed by SGA and other markers, adding serum albumin to models that included age, sex, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease did not significantly increase explanatory power. Conclusions In incident and prevalent dialysis patients, serum albumin correlates poorly with several markers of nutritional status. Thus, its value as a reliable marker of nutritional status in patients with ESRD is limited. PMID:22723451

  19. Three 15-min bouts of moderate postmeal walking significantly improves 24-h glycemic control in older people at risk for impaired glucose tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three 15-min bouts of postmeal walking with 45 min of sustained walking on 24-h glycemic control in older persons at risk for glucose intolerance. Inactive older (=60 years of age) participants (N = 10) were recruited from the community a...

  20. COMPARISON OF 24H AVERAGE VOC MONITORING RESULTS FOR RESIDENTIAL INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR USING CARBOPACK X-FILLED DIFFUSIVE SAMPLERS AND ACTIVE SAMPLING - A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical results obtained by thermal desorption GC/MS for 24h diffusive sampling of 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compared with results of time-averaged active sampling at a known constant flow rate. Air samples were collected with co-located duplicate diffusive samp...

  1. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE), and its components-ba...

  2. Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men.

    PubMed

    Bérubé-Parent, Sonia; Pelletier, Catherine; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo

    2005-09-01

    It has been reported that green tea has a thermogenic effect, due to its caffeine content and probably also to the catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The main aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a mixture of green tea and Guarana extracts containing a fixed dose of caffeine and variable doses of EGCG on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Fourteen subjects took part to this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. Each subject was tested five times in a metabolic chamber to measure 24 h energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure. During each stay, the subjects ingested a capsule of placebo or capsules containing 200 mg caffeine and a variable dose of EGCG (90, 200, 300 or 400 mg) three times daily, 30 min before standardized meals. Twenty-four hour energy expenditure increased significantly by about 750 kJ with all EGCG-caffeine mixtures compared with placebo. No effect of the EGCG-caffeine mixture was observed for lipid oxidation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by about 7 and 5 mmHg, respectively, with the EGCG-caffeine mixtures compared with placebo. This increase was significant only for 24 h diastolic blood pressure. The main finding of the study was the increase in 24 h energy expenditure with the EGCG-caffeine mixtures. However, this increase was similar with all doses of EGCG in the mixtures.

  3. Associations of daytime, nighttime, and 24 h heart rate with four distinct markers of inflammation in hypertensive patients: the Styrian Hypertension Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Gaksch, Martin; Kienreich, Katharina; Grübler, Martin R; Verheyen, Nicolas; März, Winfried; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Gill, Thomas M.; Pilz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The current study assessed which measure of heart rate (HR) is most associated with inflammatory activity. Among 368 hypertensive patients (mean age±SD, 60.6±10.8; 52.9% women), mean daytime (from 06:00–22:00 h), nighttime (from 22:00–06:00 h), and 24 h HR were recorded using a continuous 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring portable device. Associations of daytime, nighttime, and 24 h HR with leukocytes, platelets, C-reactive protein [CRP], and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were calculated using multivariate linear regression, reporting unstandardized coefficients (B) with standard errors (SE). Mean daytime, nighttime, and 24 h HR were 73, 64, and 71 beats/min, respectively. All HR measures were positively associated with leukocytes after adjustment. Nighttime HR was additionally related with higher CRP. When all HR measures were simultaneously added to a single multivariate model, only the positive associations of nighttime HR with leukocytes (B [SE] = 0.06 [0.03], P =0.04), as well as with CRP (B [SE] = 0.20 [0.07], P =0.005) persisted. Nighttime HR was more closely associated with inflammatory activity. These observations lend some insight towards the pathophysiological mechanisms that implicate HR in cardiovascular risk, and afford valuable direction for forthcoming investigations. PMID:25266946

  4. Reporting accuracy of population dietary sodium intake using duplicate 24 h dietary recalls and a salt questionnaire.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Dofková, Marcela; Lillegaard, Inger Therese L; De Maeyer, Mieke; Andersen, Lene Frost; Ruprich, Jirí; Řehůřková, Irena; Geelen, Anouk; van 't Veer, Pieter; De Henauw, Stefaan; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; de Boer, Evelien; Ocké, Marga; Slimani, Nadia; Huybrechts, Inge

    2015-02-14

    High dietary Na intake is associated with multiple health risks, making accurate assessment of population dietary Na intake critical. In the present study, reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was evaluated by 24 h urinary Na excretion using the EPIC-Soft 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR). Participants from a subsample of the European Food Consumption Validation study (n 365; countries: Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic), aged 45-65 years, completed two 24 h urine collections and two 24-HDR. Reporting accuracy was calculated as the ratio of reported Na intake to that estimated from the urinary biomarker. A questionnaire on salt use was completed in order to assess the discretionary use of table and cooking salt. The reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was assessed using two scenarios: (1) a salt adjustment procedure using data from the salt questionnaire; (2) without salt adjustment. Overall, reporting accuracy improved when data from the salt questionnaire were included. The mean reporting accuracy was 0·67 (95 % CI 0·62, 0·72), 0·73 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·79) and 0·79 (95 % CI 0·74, 0·85) for Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic, respectively. Reporting accuracy decreased with increasing BMI among male subjects in all the three countries. For women from Belgium and Norway, reporting accuracy was highest among those classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2: 0·73, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·81 and 0·81, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·86, respectively). The findings from the present study showed considerable underestimation of dietary Na intake assessed using two 24-HDR. The questionnaire-based salt adjustment procedure improved reporting accuracy by 7-13 %. Further development of both the questionnaire and EPIC-Soft databases (e.g. inclusion of a facet to describe salt content) is necessary to estimate population dietary Na intakes accurately.

  5. Airway reactivity to inhaled spasmogens 18-24 h after antigen-challenge in sensitized anaesthetized guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A; Broadley, K J

    1997-11-01

    The anaesthetized allergic guinea-pig was used to assess changes in airway reactivity to four different inhaled spasmogens: methacholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), histamine and the thromboxane A2 mimetic, 9,11-dideoxy-9 alpha,11 alpha-methano-epoxy-PGF2 alpha (U-46619). Reactivity was determined 18 to 24 h after challenge of ovalbumin-sensitized guinea-pigs with inhaled ovalbumin. This time coincides with the appearance of a late-phase bronchoconstriction in these animals. Sensitivity to the spasmogen was assessed from the concentration-response curve for the increase in pulmonary inflation pressure (PIP) in ovalbumin- and saline-challenged sensitized animals. When methacholine, 5-HT or histamine were the spasmogens there was no hyper-reactivity. The geometric mean EC50 values (i.e. the concentrations inducing half the maximum effect) obtained from the dose-response curves for methacholine (73 (42-129) and 94 (66-134) micrograms mL-1), 5-HT (1.5 (0.81-3.03) and 1.1 (0.51-2.24 micrograms mL-1) and histamine (39 (21-75) and 72 (32-162) micrograms mL-1) did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between saline- and ovalbumin-challenged animals, respectively. However, when U-46619 was the spasmogen, ovalbumin-induced airway hyper-reactivity was observed as a leftwards shift of the concentration-response curve and the EC50 value for ovalbumin-challenged animals (8.1 (5.1-13) ng mL-1) was significantly (P < 0.05) less than the value for control animals (39 (21-75) ng mL-1). Our findings suggest that airway hyper-reactivity is not 'non-specific', but instead depends on the chosen spasmogen. The absence of hyper-reactivity with certain spasmogens was not a result of poor delivery, because all spasmogens caused a bronchoconstriction by the inhaled route. It was also not associated with the model because ozone has been shown to induce hyper-reactivity to inhaled methacholine and 5-HT. Because airway hyper-reactivity to both inhaled histamine and agonists at muscarinic

  6. Preliminary nutritional assessment of the Ecuadorian diet based on a 24-h food recall survey in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Llaguno, S N; Neira-Mosquera, J A; Pérez-Rodríguez, F; Moreno Rojas, R

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Realizar una evaluación nutricional de la dieta ecuatoriana y determinar el porcentaje de contribución de la ingesta de diferentes nutrientes en función del tipo de comida (desayuno, almuerzo, comida, merienda, y cena) y de la Referencia de Ingesta Dietética (RID). Métodos: Se realizó una encuesta piloto basada en el método del recordatorio de alimentación de 24 h en tres regiones concretas de Ecuador y se procesó la información recogida, se analizó y se comparó con las RID establecidas para la población latinoamericana. Resultados: El estudio encontró diferencias significativas para energía y ciertas vitaminas en hombres y en mujeres, además de determinar que la mayor contribución energética se obtenía en la comida, seguida de la merienda y el desayuno. Las comidas intermedias (almuerzo, merienda y cena) contribuían de una manera significativamente menor en la dieta diaria en comparación con otros tipos de comidas. Además, se observó que las ingestas analizadas no alcanzaban las RID para hidratos de carbono, algunas vitaminas (tiamina, ácido pantoténico, biotina, folato, vitamina D y vitamina E) y minerales (Ca, K, Cu, Mn, I y Fe). La ingesta de NA estaba bastante por encima de las RID y el Límite Superior Tolerable proporcionado por la USDA, lo que indica un problema de salud pública en relación con este electrolito. Conclusiones: Esta encuesta piloto puede considerarse como un punto de partida para obtener una visión más profunda de la dieta ecuatoriana. Esto permitirá determinar los patrones de consumo que afectan al bienestar de la población y establecer efectos positivos y efectos adversos del patrón de consumo en Ecuador.

  7. Antioxidant activity of albumin-bound bilirubin.

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, R; Glazer, A N; Ames, B N

    1987-01-01

    Bilirubin, when bound to human albumin and at concentrations present in normal human plasma, protects albumin-bound linoleic acid from peroxyl radical-induced oxidation in vitro. Initially, albumin-bound bilirubin (Alb-BR) is oxidized at the same rate as peroxyl radicals are formed and biliverdin is produced stoichiometrically as the oxidation product. On an equimolar basis, Alb-BR successfully competes with uric acid for peroxyl radicals but is less efficient in scavenging these radicals than vitamin C. These results show that 1 mol of Alb-BR can scavenge 2 mol of peroxyl radicals and that small amounts of plasma bilirubin are sufficient to prevent oxidation of albumin-bound fatty acids as well as of the protein itself. The data indicate a role for Alb-BR as a physiological antioxidant in plasma and the extravascular space. PMID:3475708

  8. Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  9. [Modified albumin in harp seal blood serum].

    PubMed

    Erokhina, I A

    1999-01-01

    The content of modified albumin (Am) in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandica Erxleben, 1777) blood serum was studied. Am was determined by paper electrophoresis by means of re-precipitation in the trichloroacetic acid-ethanol system. Modified albumin content in normal seal pups' blood serum increased from 1990 to 1994. The Am level in undernourished pups was stable from year to year and higher than in normal pups. In oceanarium investigations it was revealed a low albumin resistance to denaturation and the dependence of Am content on the animals' physiological state. Thus there is a possibility to regard modified albumin content as one of the significant parameters in biomonitoring of harp seal population and, moreover, as a supplementary criterion for estimation of seals' health state in captivity.

  10. Associations between urinary kidney injury biomarkers and cardiovascular mortality risk in elderly men with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tonkonogi, Aleksandra; Carlsson, Axel C.; Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Larsson, Anders; Ärnlöv, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Aim Three urinary biomarkers, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and cystatin C, have been suggested as clinically relevant highly specific biomarkers of acute kidney tubular damage. Yet, the utility of these biomarkers in the prognostication of diabetic nephropathy has been less studied. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between these urinary biomarkers and cardiovascular mortality in patients with diabetes. Methods The study sample consisted of participants with diabetes in the community-based Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (n = 91; mean age 77.8 years). During follow-up (median 8.3 years, interval 0.7–13.4 years), 33 participants died of cardiovascular causes. Results In a multivariable Cox regression model adjusting for age, glomerular filtration rate, and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, higher urinary KIM-1/creatinine was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality (HR per SD increase 1.51, 95% confidence intervals 1.03–2.24, P = 0.03). Neither urinary NGAL/creatinine nor urinary cystatin C/creatinine were independently associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality risk. Conclusion In elderly men with diabetes, higher urinary KIM-1/creatinine was associated with an increased long-term risk of cardiovascular mortality independently of established markers of diabetic nephropathy. Our data provide support for kidney tubular damage as an important aspect of diabetic nephropathy that merits further investigation. PMID:27321055

  11. Photodissociation of [Fe(x)(C24H12)y]+ complexes in the PIRENEA setup: iron-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon clusters as candidates for very small interstellar grains.

    PubMed

    Simon, Aude; Joblin, Christine

    2009-04-30

    Astronomical observations suggest that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that emit at the surface of molecular clouds in the interstellar medium are locally produced by photodestruction of very small grains (VSGs). In this paper, we investigate [Fex(PAH)y]+ clusters as candidates for these VSGs. [FeC24H12]+ and [Fex(C24H12)2]+ (x = 1-3) complexes were formed by laser ablation of a solid target in the PIRENEA setup, a cold ion trap dedicated to astrochemistry. Their photodissociation was studied under continuous visible irradiation. Photodissociation pathways are identified and characteristic time scales for photostability are provided. [Fex(C24H12)2]+ (x = 1-3) complexes sequentially photodissociate by losing iron atoms and coronene units under laboratory irradiation conditions with C24H12+ as the smallest photofragment. The study of the dissociation kinetics gives interesting insights into the structures of the complexes. The dissociation rate is found to increase with the complex size. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations show that the increase of the number of Fe atoms leads to an increased stability of the complex but also to an increased heating rate in the experimental conditions, due to the presence of strong electronic excitations in the visible. The modeling of the dissociation kinetics of the smallest complex [FeC24H12]+ by using a kinetic Monte Carlo code allows derivation of the dissociation parameters and the internal energy for this complex, showing in particular that it could dissociate under interstellar irradiation conditions. First insights into the dissociation of larger complexes in these conditions are also given.

  12. Bisalbuminemia. A new molecular variant, albumin Vancouver.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, J; Kozier, J; Campbell, D J; Curnow, J V; Tárnoky, A L

    1978-11-01

    Of 18 members of a Fiji Indian family investigated, eight of the 12 males and two of the six females had an electrophoretically slow-type bisalbuminemia (alloalbuminemia). The albumin was characterized by the hiterto unique ratio of the two bands (Al A 35%: variant 65%), and by dye-binding studies and electrophoretic mobility in different media. The data suggest that this is a new variant, which we propose to call albumin Vancouver (Al Va).

  13. Large fragments of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Geisow, M J; Beaven, G H

    1977-03-01

    Large fragments of human serum albumin were produced by treatment of the native protein with pepsin at pH3.5. Published sequences of human albumin [Behrens, Spiekerman & Brown (1975) Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 34, 591; Meloun, Moravek & Kostka (1975) FEBSLett.58, 134-137]were used to locate the fragments in the primary structure. The fragments support both the sequence and proposed disulphide-linkage pattern (Behrens et al., 1975). As the pH of a solution of albumin is lowered from pH4 to pH3.5, the protein undergoes a reversible conformational change known as the N-F transition. The distribution of large fragments of human albumin digested with pepsin in the above pH region was critically dependent on pH. It appeared that this distribution was dependent on the conformation of the protein at low pH, rather than the activity of pepsin. The yields of the large fragments produced by peptic digestion at different values of pH suggested that the C-terminal region of albumin unfolds or separates from the rest of the molecule during the N-F transition. The similarity of peptic fragments of human and bovine albumin produced under identical conditions supports the proposed similar tertiary structure of these molecules.

  14. Urinary Biomarkers at Early ADPKD Disease Stage

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Katja; Poster, Diane; Krauer, Fabienne; Spanaus, Katharina; Andreisek, Gustav; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Pavik, Ivana; Ho, Thien Anh; Serra, Andreas L.; Rotar, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by a decline in renal function at late disease stage when the majority of functional renal parenchyma is replaced by cystic tissue. Thus, kidney function, assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) does not well represent disease burden in early disease. Here, we investigated various urinary markers for tubular injury and their association with disease burden in ADPKD patients at early disease course. Methods ADPKD patients between 18 and 40 years with an eGFR greater or equal to 70 ml per min per 1.73m2 were eligible for this cross-sectional study. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1), and Uromodulin (UMOD) were investigated by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Clara Cell Protein 16 (CC16) was investigated by Latex Immuno Assay. Cryoscopy was performed to assess urine osmolality and Urinary Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (UACR) was calculated. The association and the predictive properties of the markers on eGFR and height adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) was evaluated using multiple regression analysis, incorporating different control variables for adjustment. Internal bootstrapping validated the obtained results. Results In 139 ADPKD patients (age 31 ±7 years, mean eGFR of 93 ± 19 ml per min per 1.73 m2) the total kidney volume was negatively correlated with eGFR and UMOD and positive associated with age, UACR, KIM-1 and urine osmolality after adjustment for possible confounders. Urine osmolality and htTKV were also associated with eGFR, whereas no association of CC16, NGAL and UMOD with eGFR or htTKV was found. Conclusion UACR and urinary KIM-1 are independently associated with kidney size but not with renal function in our study population. Urine osmolality was associated with eGFR and kidney volume following adjustment for multiple confounders. Despite statistical significance, the clinical value of our

  15. Chloride channel ClC-5 binds to aspartyl aminopeptidase to regulate renal albumin endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Aven; Slattery, Craig; Nikolic-Paterson, David J; Hryciw, Deanne H; Wilk, Sherwin; Wilk, Elizabeth; Zhang, Yuan; Valova, Valentina A; Robinson, Phillip J; Kelly, Darren J; Poronnik, Philip

    2015-04-01

    ClC-5 is a chloride/proton exchanger that plays an obligate role in albumin uptake by the renal proximal tubule. ClC-5 forms an endocytic complex with the albumin receptor megalin/cubilin. We have identified a novel ClC-5 binding partner, cytosolic aspartyl aminopeptidase (DNPEP; EC 3.4.11.21), that catalyzes the release of N-terminal aspartate/glutamate residues. The physiological role of DNPEP remains largely unresolved. Mass spectrometric analysis of proteins binding to the glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-ClC-5 C terminus identified DNPEP as an interacting partner. Coimmunoprecipitation confirmed that DNPEP and ClC-5 also associated in cells. Further experiments using purified GST-ClC-5 and His-DNPEP proteins demonstrated that the two proteins bound directly to each other. In opossum kidney (OK) cells, confocal immunofluorescence studies revealed that DNPEP colocalized with albumin-containing endocytic vesicles. Overexpression of wild-type DNPEP increased cell-surface levels of ClC-5 and albumin uptake. Analysis of DNPEP-immunoprecipitated products from rat kidney lysate identified β-actin and tubulin, suggesting a role for DNPEP in cytoskeletal maintenance. A DNase I inhibition assay showed a significant decrease in the amount of G actin when DNPEP was overexpressed in OK cells, suggesting a role for DNPEP in stabilizing the cytoskeleton. DNPEP was not present in the urine of healthy rats; however, it was readily detected in the urine in rat models of mild and heavy proteinuria (diabetic nephropathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, respectively). Urinary levels of DNPEP were found to correlate with the severity of proteinuria. Therefore, we have identified another key molecular component of the albumin endocytic machinery in the renal proximal tubule and describe a new role for DNPEP in stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton.

  16. Effects of hypothyroidism on vascular /sup 125/I-albumin permeation and blood flow in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, R.G.; Pugliese, G.; Chang, K.; Speedy, A.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1989-05-01

    Effects of hypothyroidism on vascular 125I-albumin permeation and on blood flow were assessed in multiple tissues of male Sprague-Dawley rats rendered hypothyroid by dietary supplementation with 0.5% (wt/wt) 2-thiouracil or by thyroidectomy. In both thiouracil-treated and thyroidectomized rats, body weights, kidney weight, arterial blood pressure, and pulse rate were decreased significantly v age-matched controls. After 10 to 12 weeks of thiouracil treatment, 125I-albumin permeation was increased significantly in the kidney, aorta, eye (anterior uvea, choroid, retina), skin, and new granulation tissue, remained unchanged in brain, sciatic nerve, and heart, and was decreased in forelimb skeletal muscle. A similar pattern was observed in thyroidectomized rats, except that increases in 125I-albumin permeation for all tissues were smaller than those observed in thiouracil-treated rats, and 125I-albumin permeation in retina did not differ from controls. In both thiouracil-treated and thyroidectomized rats, changes in blood flow (assessed with 15-microns, 85Sr-labeled microspheres) relative to the decrease in arterial blood pressure were indicative of a decrease in regional vascular resistance except in the choroid and in the kidney, in which vascular resistance was increased significantly. Glomerular filtration rate was decreased, but filtration fraction and urinary excretion of albumin remained unchanged by thiouracil treatment and thyroidectomy. These results indicate that vascular hemodynamics and endothelial cell barrier functional integrity are modulated in many different tissues by the thyroid. In view of the correspondence of hypothyroid- and diabetes-induced vascular permeability changes, these results raise the possibility that altered thyroid function in diabetes may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease.

  17. Lungfish albumin is more similar to tetrapod than to teleost albumins: purification and characterisation of albumin from the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Victoria J; George, Peter M; Brennan, Stephen O

    2007-07-01

    Lobe-finned fish, particularly lungfish, are thought of as the closest extant relatives to tetrapods. Albumin, the major vertebrate plasma protein, has been well studied in tetrapods, but there exists no comparative study of the presence and characteristics of albumin in lobe-finned fish versus other vertebrates. There is a controversy over the presence of albumin in fish, although it is present in salmonids and lamprey. The presence of albumin in lungfish has also recently been documented. We identified albumin in plasma of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, using a combination of agarose gel electrophoresis, [(14)C]palmitic acid binding and SDS-PAGE. Lungfish albumin was purified using DEAE-ion exchange chromatography, and has a mass of 67 kDa, is present at approximately 8 g/L in plasma and like other fish albumins, does not bind nickel. However, like tetrapod albumins, it is not glycosylated. N-terminal and internal peptide sequencing generated 101 amino acids of sequence, which showed a high degree of identity with tetrapod albumins. Despite the similarity in sequence but congruent with the evolutionary distances separating them, lungfish albumin did not cross-react with anti-chicken or anti-tuatara A albumin antisera. Lungfish albumin has characteristics more akin with tetrapod albumin and less like those of other fish.

  18. Changes in urinary metabolic profile after oral administration of curcuma extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Stocchero, Matteo; Clauser, Maria; Boschiero, Irene; Ndoum, Emmanuel; Schiavon, Mariano; Mammi, Stefano; Schievano, Elisabetta

    2014-11-01

    The diffusion of phytochemicals in health promoting products is growing, but studies related to their effects on healthy subjects are still lacking despite the large consumption of natural products as nutraceuticals or food supplements. In many cases, research supports the in vitro antioxidant activity of phytochemicals, but the health claims attributed to the final marketed nutraceutical products have dubious scientific foundation. Also, studies focussed on the definition of their biological targets and mechanisms of action can be useful to assess their efficacy and safety. In this study, the effect of oral administration of 80mg/kg of Curcuma longa Linn. extract to 12 healthy rats over 25 days was evaluated by monitoring the changes of urinary composition. 24-h urine was collected during the animal experiment and the composition was analyzed by (1)H NMR and HPLC-MS. The two datasets were studied individually through a metabolomic approach and the multivariate analysis revealed significant differences between the control and the treated group. Curcumin levels were also measured in 24-h urine samples by HPLC-MS. Both the (1)H NMR and the HPLC-MS dataset showed that the administration of 80mg/kg of Curcuma longa extract to healthy animals induces changes in urinary composition. Decreased allantoin urinary levels can be considered a partial demonstration of the in vivo effect of curcumin on oxidative stress in a healthy animal model. PMID:25200426

  19. Oral intake of ranitidine increases urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2016-06-01

    The H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, is among the most widely used pharmaceuticals to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcers. While previous studies have demonstrated that amines can form N-nitrosamines when exposed to nitrite at stomach-relevant pH, N-nitrosamine formation from ranitidine, an amine-based pharmaceutical, has not been demonstrated under these conditions. In this work, we confirmed the production of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potent carcinogen, by nitrosation of ranitidine under stomach-relevant pH conditions in vitro We also evaluated the urinary NDMA excretion attributable to ingestion of clinically used ranitidine doses. Urine samples collected from five female and five male, healthy adult volunteers over 24-h periods before and after consumption of 150mg ranitidine were analyzed for residual ranitidine, ranitidine metabolites, NDMA, total N-nitrosamines and dimethylamine. Following ranitidine intake, the urinary NDMA excreted over 24h increased 400-folds from 110 to 47 600ng, while total N-nitrosamines increased 5-folds. NDMA excretion rates after ranitidine intake equaled or exceeded those observed previously in patients with schistosomiasis, a disease wherein N-nitrosamines are implicated as the etiological agents for bladder cancer. Due to metabolism within the body, urinary NDMA measurements represent a lower-bound estimate of systemic NDMA exposure. Our results suggest a need to evaluate the risks attributable to NDMA associated with chronic consumption of ranitidine, and to identify alternative treatments that minimize exposure to N-nitrosamines. PMID:26992900

  20. Urinary Acid Excretion Can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and a dietary countermeasure would be ideal. We present here preliminary data from a study where we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crewmembers (n=5) were asked to consume a prescribed diet with either a low (0.3-0.6) or high (1.0-1.3) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K) before and during space flight for 4-d periods. Diets were controlled for energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium. 24-h urine samples were collected on the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions. 24-h urinary acid excretion, which was predicted by dietary potential renal acid load, was correlated with urinary n-telopeptide (NTX, Pearson R = 0.99 and 0.80 for the high and low APro:K sessions, respectively, p<0.001). The amount of protein when expressed as the percentage of total energy (but not as total grams) was also correlated with urinary NTX (R = 0.66, p<0.01). These results, from healthy individuals in a unique environment, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. The study was funded by the NASA Human Research Program.

  1. Changes in urinary metabolic profile after oral administration of curcuma extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Stocchero, Matteo; Clauser, Maria; Boschiero, Irene; Ndoum, Emmanuel; Schiavon, Mariano; Mammi, Stefano; Schievano, Elisabetta

    2014-11-01

    The diffusion of phytochemicals in health promoting products is growing, but studies related to their effects on healthy subjects are still lacking despite the large consumption of natural products as nutraceuticals or food supplements. In many cases, research supports the in vitro antioxidant activity of phytochemicals, but the health claims attributed to the final marketed nutraceutical products have dubious scientific foundation. Also, studies focussed on the definition of their biological targets and mechanisms of action can be useful to assess their efficacy and safety. In this study, the effect of oral administration of 80mg/kg of Curcuma longa Linn. extract to 12 healthy rats over 25 days was evaluated by monitoring the changes of urinary composition. 24-h urine was collected during the animal experiment and the composition was analyzed by (1)H NMR and HPLC-MS. The two datasets were studied individually through a metabolomic approach and the multivariate analysis revealed significant differences between the control and the treated group. Curcumin levels were also measured in 24-h urine samples by HPLC-MS. Both the (1)H NMR and the HPLC-MS dataset showed that the administration of 80mg/kg of Curcuma longa extract to healthy animals induces changes in urinary composition. Decreased allantoin urinary levels can be considered a partial demonstration of the in vivo effect of curcumin on oxidative stress in a healthy animal model.

  2. An LC-MS-based metabolomics approach for exploring urinary metabolome modifications after cocoa consumption.

    PubMed

    Llorach, Rafael; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Jauregui, Olga; Monagas, Maria; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2009-11-01

    Cocoa-phytochemicals have been related to the health-benefits of cocoa consumption. Metabolomics has been proposed as a powerful tool to characterize both the intake and the effects on the metabolism of dietary components. Human urine metabolome modifications after single cocoa intake were explored in a randomized, crossed, and controlled trial. After overnight fasting, 10 subjects consumed randomly either a single dose of cocoa powder with milk or water, or milk without cocoa. Urine samples were collected before the ingestion and at 0-6, 6-12, and 12-24-h after test-meals consumption. Samples were analyzed by HPLC-q-ToF, followed by multivariate data analysis. Results revealed an important effect on urinary metabolome during the 24 h after cocoa powder intake. These changes were not influenced by matrix as no global differences were found between cocoa powder consumption with milk or with water. Overall, 27 metabolites related to cocoa-phytochemicals, including alkaloid derivatives, polyphenol metabolites (both host and microbial metabolites) and processing-derived products such as diketopiperazines, were identified as the main contributors to the urinary modifications after cocoa powder intake. These results confirm that metabolomics will contribute to better characterization of the urinary metabolome in order to further explore the metabolism of phytochemicals and its relation with human health.

  3. Postcircumcision urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Cohen, H A; Drucker, M M; Vainer, S; Ashkenasi, A; Amir, J; Frydman, M; Varsano, I

    1992-06-01

    The possible association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with ritual circumcision on the eighth day of life was studied by analyzing the epidemiology of urinary tract infections during the first year of life in 169 children with UTI (56 males and 113 females) born in Israel from 1979 to 1984. Forty-eight percent of the episodes of UTI occurring in males appeared during the 12 days following circumcision, and the increased incidence during that period was highly significant. The median age of the males at the time of the UTI was 16 days, compared with seven months in females. Ritual Jewish circumcision as practiced in Israel may be a predisposing factor for UTI during the 12-day period following that procedure.

  4. Urinary Tract Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Kołodziej, Anna; Krajewski, Wojciech; Dołowy, Łukasz; Hirnle, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Recently, occurrence of urinary tract endometriosis (UTE) is more frequently diagnosed. According to literature, it refers to approximately 0.3 to even 12% of all women with endometriosis. The pathogenesis of UTE has not been clearly explained so far. The actually proposed hypotheses include embryonic, migration, transplantation, and iatrogenic theory. Most frequently UTE affects bladder, less often ureters and kidneys. One-third of patients remains asymptomatic or exhibits only minor manifestations. In symptomatic patients main complaints include dysuria, urinary urgency, and/or frequency, painful micturition, and burning sensation in the urethra and discomfort in the retropubic area. Treatment of UTE is challenging and can be pharmacological, surgical or can be a combination of both methods. In this paper we present a review of the literature concerning the UTE, its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26341760

  5. Modification over time of pulse wave velocity parallel to changes in aortic BP, as well as in 24-h ambulatory brachial BP.

    PubMed

    Oliveras, A; Segura, J; Suarez, C; García-Ortiz, L; Abad-Cardiel, M; Vigil, L; Gómez-Marcos, M A; Sans Atxer, L; Martell-Claros, N; Ruilope, L M; de la Sierra, A

    2016-03-01

    Arterial stiffness as assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is a marker of preclinical organ damage and a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes, independently of blood pressure (BP). However, limited evidence exists on the association between long-term variation (Δ) on aortic BP (aoBP) and ΔcfPWV. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of ΔBP with ΔcfPWV over time, as assessed by office and 24-h ambulatory peripheral BP, and aoBP. AoBP and cfPWV were evaluated in 209 hypertensive patients with either diabetes or metabolic syndrome by applanation tonometry (Sphygmocor) at baseline(b) and at 12 months of follow-up(fu). Peripheral BP was also determined by using validated oscillometric devices (office(o)-BP) and on an outpatient basis by using a validated (Spacelabs-90207) device (24-h ambulatory BP). ΔcfPWV over time was calculated as follows: ΔcfPWV=[(cfPWVfu-cfPWVb)/cfPWVb] × 100. ΔBP over time resulted from the same formula applied to BP values obtained with the three different measurement techniques. Correlations (Spearman 'Rho') between ΔBP and ΔcfPWV were calculated. Mean age was 62 years, 39% were female and 80% had type 2 diabetes. Baseline office brachial BP (mm Hg) was 143±20/82±12. Follow-up (12 months later) office brachial BP (mm Hg) was 136±20/79±12. ΔcfPWV correlated with ΔoSBP (Rho=0.212; P=0.002), Δ24-h SBP (Rho=0.254; P<0.001), Δdaytime SBP (Rho=0.232; P=0.001), Δnighttime SBP (Rho=0.320; P<0.001) and ΔaoSBP (Rho=0.320; P<0.001). A multiple linear regression analysis included the following independent variables: ΔoSBP, Δ24-h SBP, Δdaytime SBP, Δnighttime SBP and ΔaoSBP. ΔcfPWV was independently associated with Δ24-h SBP (β-coefficient=0.195; P=0.012) and ΔaoSBP (β-coefficient= 0.185; P=0.018). We conclude that changes in both 24-h SBP and aoSBP more accurately reflect changes in arterial stiffness than do office BP measurements. PMID:26108366

  6. Alterations of urinary metabolite profile in model diabetic nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Stec, Donald F.; Wang, Suwan; Stothers, Cody; Avance, Josh; Denson, Deon; Harris, Raymond; Voziyan, Paul

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy was employed to study urinary metabolite profile in diabetic mouse models. • Mouse urinary metabolome showed major changes that are also found in human diabetic nephropathy. • These models can be new tools to study urinary biomarkers that are relevant to human disease. - Abstract: Countering the diabetes pandemic and consequent complications, such as nephropathy, will require better understanding of disease mechanisms and development of new diagnostic methods. Animal models can be versatile tools in studies of diabetic renal disease when model pathology is relevant to human diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetic models using endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice develop major renal lesions characteristic of human disease. However, it is unknown whether they can also reproduce changes in urinary metabolites found in human DN. We employed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic mouse models of DN, i.e. STZ-eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS and eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS db/db, with the goal of determining changes in urinary metabolite profile using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Six urinary metabolites with significantly lower levels in diabetic compared to control mice have been identified. Specifically, major changes were found in metabolites from tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid catabolism including 3-indoxyl sulfate, cis-aconitate, 2-oxoisocaproate, N-phenyl-acetylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, and hippurate. Levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and hippuric acid showed the strongest reverse correlation to albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), which is an indicator of renal damage. Importantly, similar changes in urinary hydroxyphenyl acetate and hippurate were previously reported in human renal disease. We demonstrated that STZ-eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS and eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS db/db mouse models can recapitulate changes in urinary metabolome found in human DN and therefore can be

  7. Suggested mechanism for the selective excretion of glucosylated albumin. The effects of diabetes mellitus and aging on this process and the origins of diabetic microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Kowluru, A; Kowluru, R; Bitensky, M W; Corwin, E J; Solomon, S S; Johnson, J D

    1987-11-01

    In previous studies in the Sprague-Dawley rat, Williams and coworkers reported the phenomenon of selective urinary excretion of glucosylated albumin (editing, i.e., the percent glucosylation of urinary albumin is more than that of plasma albumin) by the mammalian kidney. Ghiggeri and coworkers subsequently found that the extent of editing is reduced in human diabetics. Moreover, the reduction in editing in diabetes correlates inversely with levels of microalbuminuria. We also find reduction in the extent of editing in diabetic humans. We find a striking inverse correlation not only with the magnitude of microalbuminuria but also with the extent of plasma albumin glucosylation. In contrast, we found little correlation between the reduction in editing and the duration of diabetes in human subjects. Stz induced diabetes in the Sprague-Dawley rat is associated with a striking and rapid reduction in editing which develops virtually with the same kinetics exhibited by the appearance of hyperglycemia. This loss of editing is rapidly reversed by daily administration of insulin but not by aldose reductase inhibitors. Mannitol infusion in anesthetized Wistar rats resulted in an increase in urine volume, GFR, and microalbuminuria, and was also accompanied by a marked reduction in editing. This reduction was rapidly reversed by a cessation of mannitol infusion. We propose here that glucosylated albumin (in contrast to unmodified albumin) is not reabsorbed by the proximal tubule, and thus, is preferentially excreted in the urine. We postulate that the increase in GFR which emerges as a consequence of increased plasma osmolality in diabetes mellitus delivers more albumin to the proximal tubule than can be reabsorbed. This results in a dilution of excreted glucosylated albumin molecules by excreted unmodified albumin, which appears as the early microscopic albuminuria of diabetes. Paradoxically, the fall in apparent editing is accompanied by an absolute increase in the total

  8. [Urinary calculi and infection].

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete

  9. Geriatric urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Ouslander, J G

    1992-02-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is now recognized as a prevalent, physically and emotionally disruptive, and costly health problem in the geriatric population. Because incontinence may be a manifestation of a subacute or reversible process within or outside of the lower urinary tract, and because effective treatment is available, it is important for primary care physicians to identify and appropriately assess incontinence in their geriatric patients. The initial evaluation of an incontinent geriatric patients. The initial evaluation of an incontinent geriatric patient includes a targeted history and physical examination, urinalysis, and simple tests of lower urinary tract function. Potentially reversible conditions that may be causing or contributing to the incontinence, such as delirium and urinary tract infection (UTI), should be identified and managed. Patients who may benefit from further testing, including urologic or gynecologic examination and/or complex urodynamic tests, should be identified and referred. Several therapeutic modalities can be used to treat geriatric UI. Behavioral therapies are noninvasive and effective, both in functional community-dwelling geriatric patients and in functionally impaired nursing home residents. Behavioral therapies include bladder training, pelvic muscle exercises, biofeedback, scheduled toileting, habit training, and prompted voiding. Pharmacologic therapy is often used in conjunction with behavioral therapy. For stress incontinence, alpha-adrenergic drugs are used and can be combined with topical or oral estrogen therapy in women. For urge incontinence, pharmacologic treatment involves drugs with anticholinergic and direct bladder muscle relaxant properties. Pharmacologic therapy for overflow incontinence is generally not effective on a long-term basis. Surgical treatment is indicated when a pathologic lesion such as a tumor is diagnosed, or when anatomic obstruction is believed to be the cause of the patient's symptoms

  10. Urinary proteomic profiling reveals diclofenac-induced renal injury and hepatic regeneration in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Swelm, Rachel P.L. van; Laarakkers, Coby M.M.; Pertijs, Jeanne C.L.M.; Verweij, Vivienne; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Russel, Frans G.M.

    2013-06-01

    Diclofenac (DF) is a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of rheumatic disorders, but is often associated with liver injury. We applied urinary proteomic profiling using MALDI-TOF MS to identify biomarkers for DF-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Female CH3/HeOUJIco mice were treated with 75 mg/kg bw DF by oral gavage and 24 h urine was collected. Proteins identified in urine of DF-treated mice included epidermal growth factor, transthyretin, kallikrein, clusterin, fatty acid binding protein 1 and urokinase, which are related to liver regeneration but also to kidney injury. Both organs showed enhanced levels of oxidative stress (TBARS, p < 0.01). Kidney injury was confirmed by histology and increased Kim1 and Il-6 mRNA expression levels (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). Liver histology and plasma ALT levels in DF-treated mice were not different from control, but mRNA expression of Stat3 (p < 0.001) and protein expression of PCNA (p < 0.05) were increased, indicating liver regeneration. In conclusion, urinary proteome analysis revealed that DF treatment in mice induced kidney and liver injury. Within 24 h, however, the liver was able to recover by activating tissue regeneration processes. Hence, the proteins found in urine of DF-treated mice represent kidney damage rather than hepatic injury. - Highlights: • The urinary proteome shows biological processes involved in adverse drug reactions. • Urine proteins of DF-treated mice relate to kidney injury rather than liver injury. • Liver regeneration, not liver injury, is apparent 24h after oral DF administration. • Pretreatment with LPS does not enhance DF-induced liver injury in mice.

  11. Urinary sodium excretion and kidney failure in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Fan, Li; Tighiouart, Hocine; Levey, Andrew S; Beck, Gerald J; Sarnak, Mark J

    2014-09-01

    Current guidelines recommend under 2 g/day sodium intake in chronic kidney disease, but there are a few studies relating sodium intake to long-term outcomes. Here we evaluated the association of mean baseline 24-h urinary sodium excretion with kidney failure and a composite outcome of kidney failure or all-cause mortality using Cox regression in 840 participants enrolled in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. Mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 3.46 g/day. Kidney failure developed in 617 participants, and the composite outcome was reached in 723. In the primary analyses, there was no association between 24-h urine sodium and kidney failure (HR 0.99 (95% CI 0.91-1.08)) nor on the composite outcome (HR 1.01 (95% CI 0.93-1.09)), each per 1 g/day higher urine sodium. In exploratory analyses, there was a significant interaction of baseline proteinuria and sodium excretion with kidney failure. Using a two-slope model, when urine sodium was under 3 g/day, higher urine sodium was associated with increased risk of kidney failure in those with baseline proteinuria under 1 g/day and with lower risk of kidney failure in those with baseline proteinuria of ⩾ 1 g/day. There was no association between urine sodium and kidney failure when urine sodium was ⩾ 3 g/day. Results were consistent using first baseline and time-dependent urinary sodium excretion. Thus, we noted no association of urine sodium with kidney failure. Results of the exploratory analyses need to be verified in additional studies and the mechanism explored.

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression is enhanced in renal parietal epithelial cells of zucker diabetic Fatty rats and is induced by albumin in in vitro primary parietal cell culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; George, Jasmine; Li, Yun; Olufade, Rebecca; Zhao, Xueying

    2015-01-01

    As a subfamily of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), gelatinases including MMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in remodeling and homeostasis of the extracellular matrix. However, conflicting results have been reported regarding their expression level and activity in the diabetic kidney. This study investigated whether and how MMP-9 expression and activity were changed in glomerular epithelial cells upon albumin overload. In situ zymography, immunostaining and Western blot for renal MMP gelatinolytic activity and MMP-9 protein expression were performed in Zucker lean and Zucker diabetic rats. Confocal microscopy revealed a focal increase in gelatinase activity and MMP-9 protein in the glomeruli of diabetic rats. Increased glomerular MMP-9 staining was mainly observed in hyperplastic parietal epithelial cells (PECs) expressing claudin-1 in the diabetic kidneys. Interestingly, increased parietal MMP-9 was often accompanied by decreased staining for podocyte markers (nephrin and podocalyxin) in the sclerotic area of affected glomeruli in diabetic rats. Additionally, urinary excretion of podocyte marker proteins was significantly increased in association with the levels of MMP-9 and albumin in the urine of diabetic animals. To evaluate the direct effect of albumin on expression and activity of MMP-9, primary cultured rat glomerular PECs were incubated with rat serum albumin (0.25 - 1 mg/ml) for 24 - 48 hrs. MMP-9 mRNA levels were significantly increased following albumin treatment. Meanwhile, albumin administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in MMP-9 protein and activity in culture supernatants of PECs. Moreover, albumin activated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in PECs. Inhibition of p44/42 MAPK suppressed albumin-induced MMP-9 secretion from glomerular PECs. Taken together, we have demonstrated that an up-regulation of MMP-9 in activated parietal epithelium is associated with a loss of adjacent podocytes in progressive diabetic nephropathy

  13. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems in space. III - Productivity at successive harvest dates under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.

    1987-01-01

    Efficient crop production for controlled ecological life support systems requires near-optimal growing conditions with harvests taken when production per unit area per unit time is maximum. This maximum for potato was determined using data on Norland plants which were grown in walk-in growth rooms under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods at 16 C. Results show that high tuber production can be obtained from potatoes grown under a continuous light regime. The dry weights (dwt) of tuber and of the entire plants were found to increase under both photoperiods until the final harvest date (148 days), reaching 5732 g tuber dwt and 704 g total dwt under 12-h, and 791 g tuber dwt and 972 g total dwt under 24-h.

  14. Urinary fibrinogen and renal tubulointerstitial fibrinogen deposition: Discriminating between primary FSGS and minimal change disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Zheng, Chunxia; Xu, Feng; Liu, Zhihong

    2016-09-23

    Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and minimal change disease (MCD) are common types of primary glomerular disease; they share numerous clinical and pathological similarities but have different treatment regimens and prognoses. It is therefore necessary to distinguish between them and to explore the mechanism underlying their differences. Fibrinogen is reportedly involved in podocyte damage and in renal fibrosis in vitro and in animal models of kidney disease. We thus tested urinary fibrinogen, serum fibrinogen, and renal fibrinogen deposition levels in a cohort comprising 50 patients with FSGS and 40 patients with MCD. Our results suggested that urinary fibrinogen and renal interstitial fibrinogen deposition levels were significantly higher in the FSGS patients than in the MCD patients, while serum fibrinogen levels did not differ between the groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed an excellent diagnostic ability for urinary fibrinogen and a fair diagnostic ability for tubulointerstitial fibrinogen deposition in differentiating FSGS from MCD. Additionally, we found that urinary fibrinogen levels were positively correlated with the 24-h urine protein levels in patients with FSGS but not in patients with MCD. In conclusion, urinary fibrinogen and renal interstitial fibrinogen deposition is elevated in primary FSGS compared to MCD, which may be relevant to both diagnosis and pathogenesis.

  15. Identification of urinary tract pathogens after 3-hours urine culture by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Haiko, Johanna; Savolainen, Laura E; Hilla, Risto; Pätäri-Sampo, Anu

    2016-10-01

    Complicated urinary tract infections, such as pyelonephritis, may lead to sepsis. Rapid diagnosis is needed to identify the causative urinary pathogen and to verify the appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy. We describe here a rapid identification method for urinary pathogens: urine is incubated on chocolate agar for 3h at 35°C with 5% CO2 and subjected to MALDI-TOF MS analysis by VITEK MS. Overall 207 screened clinical urine samples were tested in parallel with conventional urine culture. The method, called U-si-MALDI-TOF (urine short incubation MALDI-TOF), showed correct identification for 86% of Gram-negative urinary tract pathogens (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and other Enterobacteriaceae), when present at >10(5)cfu/ml in culture (n=107), compared with conventional culture method. However, Gram-positive bacteria (n=28) were not successfully identified by U-si-MALDI-TOF. This method is especially suitable for rapid identification of E. coli, the most common cause of urinary tract infections and urosepsis. Turnaround time for identification using U-si-MALDI-TOF compared with conventional urine culture was improved from 24h to 4-6h. PMID:27503535

  16. Bioactivity of albumins bound to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mariam, Jessy; Sivakami, S; Kothari, D C; Dongre, P M

    2014-06-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous rise in the proposed applications of nanomaterials in the field of medicine due to their very attractive physiochemical properties and novel actions such as the ability to reach previously inaccessible targets such as brain. However biological activity of functional molecules bound to nanoparticles and its physiological consequences is still unclear and hence this area requires immediate attention. The functional properties of Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) bound to silver nanoparticles (~60 nm) have been studied under physiological environment. Esterase activity, binding of drugs (warfarin and ibuprofen), antioxidant activity and copper binding by albumins was evaluated. The catalytic efficiencies of HSA and BSA diminished upon binding to silver nanoparticles. Perturbation in binding of warfarin and ibuprofen, loss of free sulphydryls, antioxidant activity and enhancement of copper binding were observed in albumins bound to nanoparticles. These alterations in functional activity of nanoparticle bound albumins which will have important consequences should be taken into consideration while using nanoparticles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  17. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-04

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride-HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure.

  18. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride–HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 104 M−1, at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 104 M−1, at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 104 M−1, at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 104 M−1, at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure. PMID:26742031

  19. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride-HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure. PMID:26742031

  20. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. PMID:26177232

  1. [Urinary complications after anorectal surgery].

    PubMed

    Iusuf, T; Sârbu, V; Cristache, C; Popescu, R; Botea, F; Panait, L

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of urinary complications after various anorectal operations was studied in a group of 273 patients. The overall prevalence of urinary complications was 26.7%; most of these complications affected men between 41 and 50, mainly after hemorrhoidectomy. In 10.6% of patients, bladder catheterization was needed. These urinary complications result from nervous reflexes originating from the anus and determined by the operative trauma and/or rectal distinction. In the treatment of these urinary complications, the role of the muses is essential for reassuring the patients. Parasympathomimetic drugs are often efficient. Urinary catheterization must be delayed until the 18th hour. Fluid restriction may be useful to prevent urinary retention. PMID:14870531

  2. Repression of the albumin gene in Novikoff hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Capetanaki, Y.G.; Flytzanis, C.N.; Alonso, A.

    1982-03-01

    Novikoff hepatoma cells have lost their capacity to synthesize albumin. As a first approach to study the mechanisms underlying this event, in vitro translation in a reticulocyte system was performed using total polyadenylated mRNA from rat liver and Novikoff hepatoma cells. Immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products with albumin-specific antibody revealed a total lack of albumin synthesis in Novikoff hepatoma, suggesting the absence of functional albumin mRNA in these cells. Titration experiments using as probe albumin cDNA cloned in pBR322 plasmid demonstrated the absence of albumin-specific sequences in both polysomal and nuclear polyadenylated and total RNA from Novikoff cells. This albumin recombinant plasmid was obtained by screening a rat liver cDNA library with albumin (/sup 32/P)cDNA reverse transcribed from immuno-precipitated mRNA. The presence of an albumin-specific gene insert was documented with translation assays as well as by restriction mapping. Repression of the albumin gene at the transcriptional level was further demonstrated by RNA blotting experiments using the cloned albumin cDNA probe. Genomic DNA blots using the cloned albumin cDNA as probe did not reveal any large-scale deletions, insertions, or rearrangements in the albumin gene, suggesting that the processes involved in the suppression of albumin mRNA synthesis do not involve extensive genomic rearrangements.

  3. Subject groups high and low in urinary selenium levels: workers exposed to heavy metals and patients with cancer and epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Hojo, Y.

    1981-04-01

    Selenium was first recognized for its toxicity; its essential nature in animals was discovered and established later. That Se is essential to human nutrition has yet to be confirmed. Recently the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was isolated from human erythrocyte and placenta. In order to discover the role Se plays in human health and disease, Thomson and Robinson emphasized a need for continuing studies of special needs of certain groups such as those exposed to heavy metals and those with certain disease and illness for example, cancer and cardiovascular disease. It is amongst these groups that Se deficiency or Se-responsive conditions may be found. Urinary Se excretion has been mainly used to assess the nutritional Se status. Recently estimation of urinary Se level in the form of its content per creatinine (abbreviated as CT) content using 24-h or random urine samples was shown to be more precise in reducing dilution and variation effects than that per urinary volume using 24-h urines (HOJO). The purpose of this study is to search the subject groups high or low in Se status by employing urinary Se content per CT content or per urine volume.

  4. The acceptability of repeat Internet-based hybrid diet assessment of previous 24-h dietary intake: administration of the Oxford WebQ in UK Biobank.

    PubMed

    Galante, Julieta; Adamska, Ligia; Young, Alan; Young, Heather; Littlejohns, Thomas J; Gallacher, John; Allen, Naomi

    2016-02-28

    Although dietary intake over a single 24-h period may be atypical of an individual's habitual pattern, multiple 24-h dietary assessments can be representative of habitual intake and help in assessing seasonal variation. Web-based questionnaires are convenient for the participant and result in automatic data capture for study investigators. This study reports on the acceptability of repeated web-based administration of the Oxford WebQ--a 24-h recall of frequency from a set food list suitable for self-completion from which energy and nutrient values can be automatically generated. As part of the UK Biobank study, four invitations to complete the Oxford WebQ were sent by email over a 16-month period. Overall, 176 012 (53% of those invited) participants completed the online version of the Oxford WebQ at least once and 66% completed it more than once, although only 16% completed it on all four occasions. The response rate for any one round of invitations varied between 34 and 26%. On most occasions, the Oxford WebQ was completed on the same day that they received the invitation, although this was less likely if sent on a weekend. Participants who completed the Oxford WebQ tended to be white, female, slightly older, less deprived and more educated, which is typical of health-conscious volunteer-based studies. These findings provide preliminary evidence to suggest that repeated 24-h dietary assessment via the Internet is acceptable to the public and a feasible strategy for large population-based studies. PMID:26652593

  5. Central amygdala opioid transmission is necessary for increased high-fat intake following 24-h food deprivation, but not following intra-accumbens opioid administration.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kyle E; Johns, Howard W; Floros, Ted G; Will, Matthew J

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a dissociation of certain neural mediators that contribute to the increased consumption of a high-fat diet that follows intra-accumbens (Acb) administration of μ-opioid receptor agonists vs. 24-h food deprivation. These two models, both which induce rapid consumption of the diet, have been shown to involve a distributed corticolimbic circuitry, including the amygdala. Specifically, the central amygdala (CeA) has been shown to be involved in high-fat feeding within both opioid and food-deprivation driven models. The present experiments were conducted to examine the more specific role of CeA opioid transmission in mediating high-fat feeding driven by either intra-Acb administration of the μ-opioid agonist d-Ala2-NMe-Phe4-Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) or 24-h home cage food deprivation. Injection of DAMGO into the Acb (0.25 μg/0.5 μl/side) increased consumption of the high-fat diet, but this feeding was unaffected by administration of opioid antagonist, naltrexone (5 μg/0.25 μl/side) administered into the CeA. In contrast, intra-CeA naltrexone administration attenuated high-fat intake driven by 24-h food deprivation, demonstrating a specific role for CeA opioid transmission in high-fat consumption. Intra-CeA naltrexone administration alone had no effect on baseline feeding levels within either feeding model. These findings suggest that CeA opioid transmission mediates consumption of a palatable high-fat diet driven by short-term negative-energy balance (24-h food deprivation), but not intra-Acb opioid receptor activation.

  6. A study on the effect of the internal exposure to (210)Po on the excretion of urinary proteins in rats.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Baki; Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Daka, Joseph; Yusuf, Hamdi; Wyatt, Heather; Surette, Joel; Priest, Nick; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of a noninvasive urine specimen for the detection of proteins as indicators of internal exposure to ionizing radiation. Three groups of rats (five in each group) were intravenously injected with 1601 ± 376, 10,846 ± 591 and 48,467 ± 2812 Bq of (210)Po in citrate form. A sham-exposed control group of five rats was intravenously injected with sterile physiological saline. Daily urine samples were collected over 4 days following injection. Purification and pre-concentration of urinary proteins were carried out by ultrafiltration using a 3000 Da molecular weight cutoff membrane filter. The concentration of common urinary proteins, namely albumin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary excretion of albumin decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.05) 96 h post-injection relative to the control group. In contrast, no statistically significant effects were observed for other proteins tested. The dose-dependent decrease in urinary excretion of albumin observed in this study underscores the need for further research, which may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers that would reflect the changes in the primary target organs for deposition of (210)Po.

  7. A study on the effect of the internal exposure to (210)Po on the excretion of urinary proteins in rats.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Baki; Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Daka, Joseph; Yusuf, Hamdi; Wyatt, Heather; Surette, Joel; Priest, Nick; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of a noninvasive urine specimen for the detection of proteins as indicators of internal exposure to ionizing radiation. Three groups of rats (five in each group) were intravenously injected with 1601 ± 376, 10,846 ± 591 and 48,467 ± 2812 Bq of (210)Po in citrate form. A sham-exposed control group of five rats was intravenously injected with sterile physiological saline. Daily urine samples were collected over 4 days following injection. Purification and pre-concentration of urinary proteins were carried out by ultrafiltration using a 3000 Da molecular weight cutoff membrane filter. The concentration of common urinary proteins, namely albumin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary excretion of albumin decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.05) 96 h post-injection relative to the control group. In contrast, no statistically significant effects were observed for other proteins tested. The dose-dependent decrease in urinary excretion of albumin observed in this study underscores the need for further research, which may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers that would reflect the changes in the primary target organs for deposition of (210)Po. PMID:26961776

  8. How acute is the acute stress response? Baseline corticosterone and corticosteroid-binding globulin levels change 24h after an acute stressor in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Malisch, Jessica L; Satterlee, Daniel G; Cockrem, John F; Wada, Haruka; Breuner, Creagh W

    2010-01-15

    Changes in plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) capacity can alter free plasma concentration and tissue availability of glucocorticoids (GC) and hence alter the organismal response to stress. However, CBG change in response to stress has not been extensively studied. While it is clear that chronic stress can causes CBG decline and in some species acute stressors can reduce CBG during the 30-60 min of the stressor, more long-term changes in CBG following an acute stressor has received less attention. Here we investigated corticosterone (CORT: the primary GC in birds) and CBG levels 24h after an acute stressor in a unique study system: Japanese quail divergently selected for CORT reactivity to acute stress. Using this model, we examined the interaction of selected CORT reactivity with CBG response to determine if CBG shows a delayed decline in response to an acute stressor and if that decline varies by selected genetic background. We found lowered CBG capacity, elevated total CORT and free CORT 24h after acute stress in all three quail groups. These results demonstrate for the first time in an avian species that exposure to an acute stressor can affect CBG and CORT 24h later.

  9. Evaluation of reduction of Fraser incubation by 24h in the EN ISO 11290-1 standard on detection and diversity of Listeria species.

    PubMed

    Gnanou Besse, Nathalie; Favret, Sandra; Desreumaux, Jennifer; Decourseulles Brasseur, Emilie; Kalmokoff, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The EN ISO 11290-1 method for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from food is carried out using a double enrichment in Fraser broths. While the method is effective it is also quite long requiring 4-7 days to process a contaminated food, and may be adversely affected by inter-strain and/or inter-species competition in samples containing mixed Listeria populations. Currently, we have little information on the impact of competition on food testing under routine conditions. Food samples (n=130) were analyzed using the standard method and the evolution of Listeria populations in 89 naturally contaminated samples followed over the entire enrichment process. In most instances, maximum increase in L. monocytogenes population occurred over the first 24h following sub-culture in Full Fraser broth and strain recovery was similar at both 24 and 48 h, indicating that the second enrichment step can be reduced by 24h without impacting the recovery of L. monocytogenes or affecting the sensitivity of the method. In approximately 6% of naturally contaminated samples the presence of competing Listeria species adversely impacted L. monocytogenes population levels. Moreover, these effects were more pronounced during the latter 24h of the Fraser enrichment, and potentially could affect or complicate the isolation of these strains.

  10. Evaluation of reduction of Fraser incubation by 24h in the EN ISO 11290-1 standard on detection and diversity of Listeria species.

    PubMed

    Gnanou Besse, Nathalie; Favret, Sandra; Desreumaux, Jennifer; Decourseulles Brasseur, Emilie; Kalmokoff, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The EN ISO 11290-1 method for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from food is carried out using a double enrichment in Fraser broths. While the method is effective it is also quite long requiring 4-7 days to process a contaminated food, and may be adversely affected by inter-strain and/or inter-species competition in samples containing mixed Listeria populations. Currently, we have little information on the impact of competition on food testing under routine conditions. Food samples (n=130) were analyzed using the standard method and the evolution of Listeria populations in 89 naturally contaminated samples followed over the entire enrichment process. In most instances, maximum increase in L. monocytogenes population occurred over the first 24h following sub-culture in Full Fraser broth and strain recovery was similar at both 24 and 48 h, indicating that the second enrichment step can be reduced by 24h without impacting the recovery of L. monocytogenes or affecting the sensitivity of the method. In approximately 6% of naturally contaminated samples the presence of competing Listeria species adversely impacted L. monocytogenes population levels. Moreover, these effects were more pronounced during the latter 24h of the Fraser enrichment, and potentially could affect or complicate the isolation of these strains. PMID:26913375

  11. Renal handling of beta-2-microglobulin, amylase and albumin in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, F A; Jacobson, G

    1979-01-01

    The renal handling of beta-2-microglobulin, amylase and albumin was studied in patients with acute pancreatitis. The data were compared with results obtained from patients with glomerular proteinuria and from patients with tubular proteinuria. Initially during acute pancreatitis, the clearance ratio (clearance protein/clearance creatinine) for beta-2-microglobulin was increased dramatically (77-fold) compared to normals. After four to seven days this ratio had fallen and was elevated only 7-fold. The corresponding figures for amylase were 3.3 and 1.8 times and for albumin 9 and 5 times respectively. In glomerular disease, the clearance ratios for beta-2-microglobulin, amylase and albumin were increased 6, 1.1, and 154 times and in tubular disease 448, 1.1, and 28 times, respectively. The electrophoretic pattern of the urinary proteins during pancreatitis was mostly normal. In a few cases, slight tubular proteinuria was noticed. Amylase activity in serum and urine from patients with pancreatitis was found to sediment, (S20,W = 4.6) in a sucrose gradient, identical to amylase from normal serum and urine. The marked increase in the excretion of beta-2-microglobulin probably reflects interference of the kidney function at the proximal tubular level. Determinations of this protein in urine may be of value in studies of kidney dysfunction that can accompany pancreatitis.

  12. [Ultrasound of the urinary system].

    PubMed

    Segura-Grau, A; Herzog, R; Díaz-Rodriguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound techniques are able to provide a fairly complete examination of the urinary system, achieving a high sensitivity in relevant-pathology detection, especially in the kidney, bladder and prostate. Early detection of pathologies such as tumors or urinary tract obstructions, sometimes even before their clinical manifestation, has improved their management and prognosis in many cases. This, added to its low cost and harmlessness, makes ultrasound ideal for early approaches and follow-up of a wide number of urinary system pathologies. In this article, the ultrasound characteristics of the main urinary system pathologies that can be diagnosed by this technique, are reviewed.

  13. [Ultrasound of the urinary system].

    PubMed

    Segura-Grau, A; Herzog, R; Díaz-Rodriguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound techniques are able to provide a fairly complete examination of the urinary system, achieving a high sensitivity in relevant-pathology detection, especially in the kidney, bladder and prostate. Early detection of pathologies such as tumors or urinary tract obstructions, sometimes even before their clinical manifestation, has improved their management and prognosis in many cases. This, added to its low cost and harmlessness, makes ultrasound ideal for early approaches and follow-up of a wide number of urinary system pathologies. In this article, the ultrasound characteristics of the main urinary system pathologies that can be diagnosed by this technique, are reviewed. PMID:25982474

  14. Usefulness of basic renal function tests in decision-making in children with loss of renal parenchyma and/or dilation of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    García Nieto, Víctor M; Luis Yanes, Maria Isabel; Arango Sancho, Pedro; Sotoca Fernandez, Jorge V

    2016-01-01

    Basic renal function tests such as maximum urine osmolality and urinary elimination of albumin and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase often reveal abnormalities in clinical cases involving hyperpressure in the urinary tract or loss of renal parenchyma. However, in all the available algorithms dedicated to the study of children with urinary tract infection or dilation, the benefit of using these functional parameters is not mentioned. In this review, we provide information about the practical usefulness of assessing the basic renal function parameters. From these data, we propose an algorithm that combines morphological and functional parameters to make a reasoned case for voiding cystourethrography.

  15. Pharmaceutical potential of tacrolimus-loaded albumin nanoparticles having targetability to rheumatoid arthritis tissues.

    PubMed

    Thao, Le Quang; Byeon, Hyeong Jun; Lee, Changkyu; Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Eun Seong; Choi, Han-Gon; Park, Eun-Seok; Youn, Yu Seok

    2016-01-30

    Albumin is considered an attractive dug carrier for hydrophobic drugs to target inflamed joints of rheumatoid arthritis. This study focused on the pharmaceutical potential of albumin-based nanoparticles (NPs) on delivery of tacrolimus (TAC) to enhance targetability and anti-arthritic efficacy. TAC-loaded human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles (TAC HSA-NPs) were prepared using the nab™ technology. The resulting NPs were 185.8 ± 6.8 nm in diameter and had a zeta potential value of -30.5 ± 1.1 mV, as determined by dynamic light scattering. Particles were uniformly spherical in shape as determined by transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficacy of TAC was 79.3 ± 3.7% and the water solubility was over 46 times greater than that of free TAC. TAC was gradually released from NPs over 24h, which is sufficient time for targeting and treatment of the NPs in inflamed arthritis via intravenous injection. In vitro study using splenocytes excised from spleens of mice following induction of arthritis using collagen clearly demonstrated the anti-proliferative activity of TAC HSA-NPs on activated T cells compared with non-activated T cells. Furthermore, TAC HSA-NPs displayed significantly more anti-arthritic activity than TAC formulations including intravenously administered TAC solution or oral TAC suspension, as reflected by the incidence of arthritis and clinical score (1.6 vs. 3.2 and 5.0, respectively). These improvements were due to the targetability of HSA that facilitated the accumulation of TAC HSA-NPs at inflamed arthritis sites. TAC HSA-NPs are a promising drug delivery system to enhance water solubility and increase accumulation in joints for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. Albumin extinction without methylation of its gene.

    PubMed

    Ott, M O; Sperling, L; Weiss, M C

    1984-03-01

    In earlier work we identified at the 5' end of the rat albumin gene an Msp I site whose undermethylation appears to be necessary but not sufficient for stable expression of the gene in rat hepatoma cells. Here, we ask whether the block to expression of albumin production, which occurs when rat hepatoma cells are hybridized with cells that do not produce the protein, could be the result of de novo methylation of this site. In two types of somatic hybrids, rat hepatoma-mouse L cell fibroblasts, and rat hepatoma-dedifferentiated variant rat hepatoma cells, extinction occurs and is maintained during the first 5-15 generations after fusion. During this time the Msp I site of the now inactive rat albumin gene remained unmethylated.

  17. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-03-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.

  18. Preliminary crystallographic studies of four crystal forms of serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. C.; Chang, B.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Krishnasami, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Several crystal forms of serum albumin suitable for three-dimensional structure determination have been grown. These forms include crystals of recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin, baboon serum albumin, and canine serum albumin. The intrinsic limits of X-ray diffraction for these crystals are in the range 0.28-0.22 nm. Two of the crystal forms produced from human and canine albumin include incorporated long-chain fatty acids. Molecular replacement experiments have been successfully conducted on each crystal form using the previously determined atomic coordinates of human serum albumin illustrating the conserved tertiary structure.

  19. Urinary trace element concentrations in environmental settings: is there a value for systematic creatinine adjustment or do we introduce a bias?

    PubMed

    Hoet, Perrine; Deumer, Gladys; Bernard, Alfred; Lison, Dominique; Haufroid, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Systematic creatinine adjustment of urinary concentrations of biomarkers has been a challenge over the past years because the assumption of a constant creatinine excretion rate appears erroneous and the issue of overadjustment has recently emerged. This study aimed at determining whether systematic creatinine adjustment is to be recommended for urinary concentrations of trace elements (TEs) in environmental settings. Paired 24-h collection and random spot urine samples (spotU) were obtained from 39 volunteers not occupationally exposed to TEs. Four models to express TEs concentration in spotU were tested to predict the 24-h excretion rate of these TEs (TEμg/24h) considered as the gold standard reference: absolute concentration (TEμg/l); ratio to creatinine (TEμg/gcr); TEμg/gcr adjusted to creatinine (TEμg/gcr-adj); and concentration adjusted to specific gravity (TEμg/l-SG). As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sb, Se, Te, V and Zn were analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry. There was no single pattern of relationship between urinary TEs concentrations in spotU and TEμg/24h. TEμg/l predicted TEμg/24h with an explained variance ranging from 0 to 60%. Creatinine adjustment improved the explained variance by an additional 5 to ~60% for many TEs, but with a risk of overadjustment for the most of them. This issue could be addressed by adjusting TE concentrations on the basis of the regression coefficient of the relationship between TEμg/gcr and creatinine concentration. SG adjustment was as suitable as creatinine adjustment to predict TEμg/24h with no SG-overadjustment (except V). Regarding Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Te, none of the models were found to reflect TEμg/24h. In the context of environmental exposure, systematic creatinine adjustment is not recommended for urinary concentrations of TEs. SG adjustment appears to be a more reliable alternative. For some TEs, however, neither methods appear suitable.

  20. Increased prostaglandins E2 and F2α in human skin at 6 and 24 h after ultraviolet B irradiation (290-320 nm)

    PubMed Central

    Kobza Black, A.; Greaves, M. W.; Hensby, C. N.; Plummer, N. A.

    1978-01-01

    1 Abdominal skin of 25 human subjects was irradiated with three times its minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet (u.v.) B radiation. Erythema appeared after 2 h, was of moderate degree at 6 h, and maximal at 24 and 48 h. 2 Exudate was recovered by a suction bulla technique from the subject's normal and erythematous skin either at 6, 24 or 48 h after irradiation. 3 Superfusion cascade bioassay of exudate showed increased prostaglandin (PG)-like activity, measured in PGE2 equivalents, at 6 and 24 h after irradiation. The maximum rise was at 24 h, coinciding with the peak of the erythema. However, prostaglandin concentrations were not significantly above that of controls at 48 h when the erythema was still maximal. 4 Radioimmunoassay for PGF2α yielded values in close agreement with the bioassay results. 5 Gel partition chromatography, after conversion of extracted residues from the exudate to 14C methyl esters, showed increased incorporation of radioactivity at 6 h, maximal at 24 h. At 48 h there was no significant difference from control levels. The major increased activity, maximal at 24 h, co-chromatographed with arachidonic acid and PGE2 and PGF2α. The materials provisionally identified as the latter three compounds also co-chromatographed with their corresponding methyl esters on t.l.c., although the arachidonic acid-like material contained at least two peaks. No evidence was obtained for the 1 or 3 series of PGs. On g.l.c. the material obtained from the PGF2α zone co-chromatographed with authentic PGF2α as the methyl ester trimethylsilyl ether. The PGE2 zone converted to methyl ester n-butyloxime trimethylsilyl ether also co-chromatographed with authentic PGE2, but with some distinct shouldering. 6 The evidence presented provides support for the presence of increased amounts of arachidonic acid, PGE2 and PGF2α-like compounds during the first 24 h of u.v.B erythema, with concordance of the erythema and prostaglandin levels. At 48 h this relationship could not

  1. Involvement of interleukin-6-regulated nitric oxide synthase in hemorrhagic cystitis and impaired bladder contractions in young rats induced by acrolein, a urinary metabolite of cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Chia; Weng, Te-I; Wu, En-Ting; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Yang, Rong-Sen; Liu, Shing-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common complication in children receiving cyclophosphamide, a chemotherapeutic alkylating agent. Acrolein is a urinary metabolite from cyclophosphamide and can induce hemorrhagic cystitis. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of acrolein by intravesical instillation on urinary bladder muscle contractions and pathological alterations in rats. Acrolein instillation significantly increased the muscle contractions of rat bladder detrusor after 1 and 6 h but markedly decreased detrusor contractions after 24 h. Acrolein increased phosphorylated protein kinase C (pan-PKC) expressions in bladders after 1 and 6 h but inhibited it after 24 h. Inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) protein expressions were markedly induced in bladders 24 h after acrolein treatment. Twenty-four-hour acrolein instillation increased the levels of nitrite/nitrate and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the urinary bladder. The iNOS inhibitors significantly inhibited the acrolein-increased nitrite/nitrate levels, but not IL-6 levels. IL-6-neutralizing antibodies effectively inhibited the acrolein-increased NOx levels. The increased detrusor contractions by 1-h acrolein treatment were significantly reversed by the PKC inhibitor RO32-0432, and the decreased detrusor contractions by 24-h acrolein treatment were significantly reversed by the iNOS inhibitor and IL-6-neutralizing antibody. Both the iNOS inhibitor and IL-6-neutralizing antibody effectively reversed the increased iNOS expression, decreased PKC phosphorylation, increased bladder weight, and hemorrhagic cystitis in rats 24 h after acrolein treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that an IL-6-regulated iNOS/NO signaling pathway participates in the acrolein-triggered detrusor contraction inhibition and hemorrhagic cystitis. These findings may help us to find a new strategy to treat cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

  2. Prosthetic urinary sphincter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, C. R.; Smyly, H. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A pump/valve unit for controlling the inflation and deflation of a urethral collar in a prosthetic urinary sphincter device is described. A compressible bulb pump defining a reservoir was integrated with a valve unit for implantation. The valve unit includes a movable valve member operable by depression of a flexible portion of the valve unit housing for controlling fluid flow between the reservoir and collar; and a pressure sensing means which operates the valve member to relieve an excess pressure in the collar should too much pressure be applied by the patient.

  3. Urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Wang, Alina; Nizran, Parminder; Malone, Michael A; Riley, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Clinical presentation helps differentiate between upper and lower urinary tract infections (UTIs). UTIs are classified as either complicated or uncomplicated. A complicated UTI is associated with an underlying condition that increases the risk of failing therapy. Primary laboratory tests for UTIs consist of urinalysis and urine culture. The most common pathogen for uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis is Escherichia coli. Nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are first-line therapies for acute uncomplicated cystitis. Decisions regarding antibiotic agents should be individualized based on patients' allergies, tolerability, community resistance rates, cost, and availability.

  4. What a Nostril Knows: Olfactory Nerve-Evoked AMPA Responses Increase while NMDA Responses Decrease at 24-h Post-Training for Lateralized Odor Preference Memory in Neonate Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Qi; Harley, Carolyn W.

    2012-01-01

    Increased AMPA signaling is proposed to mediate long-term memory. Rat neonates acquire odor preferences in a single olfactory bulb if one nostril is occluded at training. Memory testing here confirmed that only trained bulbs support increased odor preference at 24 h. Olfactory nerve field potentials were tested at 24 h in slices from trained and…

  5. Urinary incontinence: the basics.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, K L; Steidle, C P; Letizia, T M

    1995-08-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a widely prevalent problem that affects people of all ages and levels of physical health, both in healthcare settings and in the community. Contributing to the problem are that many practitioners remain uneducated about this condition, individuals are often too ashamed or embarrassed to seek professional help, and there are significant variations in diagnostic and treatment practices. Five types of UI are stress, urge, overflow, functional and manufactured incontinence. Stress, urge and overflow are caused by factors within the urinary tract and will be concentrated on in this article. To diagnose UI a three-part assessment should be conducted, including the patient history, physical examination, and urinalysis. A behavioral program should be designed which incorporates identification and education for both patient and clinician. Treatment options include pelvic floor exercises (Kegel), vaginal cones, bladder training (retraining), habit training (timed voiding), electrostimulation and biofeedback, clean intermittent catheterization, indwelling catheters, medications, collagen injections, surgery, and absorption products. Most patients can be helped dramatically or cured with the appropriate treatment.

  6. Trajectories of Serum Albumin Predict Survival of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ping-Fang; Tsai, Chun-Chieh; Wu, Chia-Lin; Yang, Tse-Yen; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Chen, Hung-Lin; Kor, Chew-Teng; Chang, Chia-Chu; Chang, Horng-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although initial serum albumin level is highly associated with overall and cardiovascular mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, we consider that the dynamic change and trend of albumin after initiation of PD are also essential. We enrolled patients who received PD for more than 3 months from January 1999 to March 2014. We categorized these patients into 2 groups by the difference in serum albumin level (Δalbumin = difference between peak with initial albumin level = peak albumin level − initial albumin level) after PD. The patients with Δalbumin < 0.2 g/dL (median level) were considered as group A (n, number = 238) and those with Δalbumin ≥ 0.2 g/dL were considered as group B (n = 278). Further, we stratified these patients into quartiles: Q1 Δalbumin < −0.2 g/dL; Q2, −0.2 ≦∼ <0.2 g/dL; Q3, 0.2 ≦∼ <0.6 g/dL; and Q4, ≥0.6 g/dL. Regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation of initial albumin and Δalbumin. Group A patients presented with higher levels of serum albumin (3.71 ± 0.54 vs 3.04 ± 0.55 g/dL; P < 0.001) and hematocrit as well as better initial residual renal function. However, those in group A had lower serum albumin increment and downward-sloped trends after dialysis. In contrast, the albumin trend was upward sloped and the increment of albumin was remarkable in group B, despite the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Overtime, group A patients had poorer survival and experienced more frequent and longer hospitalizations. Group Q1 patients with least albumin increment had worst survival. Group Q4 patients with lowest initial albumin also had poor survival. Age, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, BMI, initial albumin, and Δalbumin could affect patient outcomes independently. Regression analysis showed a better outcome can be obtained if the initial albumin level is at least above 3.15 g/dL. (Initial albumin level

  7. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin.

    PubMed

    Poór, Miklós; Lemli, Beáta; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Sali, Nikolett; Kőszegi, Tamás; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor

    2015-12-01

    Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3) and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow's Site I). In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions.

  8. [Current role of albumin in critical care].

    PubMed

    Aguirre Puig, P; Orallo Morán, M A; Pereira Matalobos, D; Prieto Requeijo, P

    2014-11-01

    The use of colloids in fluid therapy has been, and still continues to be a controversial topic, particularly when referring to the critical patient. The choice of the fluid that needs to be administered depends on several factors, many of which are theoretical, and continue being an object of debate. The interest in the clinical use of the albumin has emerged again, immediately after recent publications in the search of the most suitable colloid. It is the most abundant protein in the plasma, being responsible for 80% of the oncotic pressure. It regulates the balance between the intra- and extra-vascular volumes. Recent multicenter studies question the supposed lack of safety that was previously assigned to it. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate other important actions besides oncotic, for example neutralization of free radicals, and exogenous (drugs) and endogenous substances (bile pigments, cholesterol). Being aware of these secondary properties of albumin, and evaluating the pathophysiology of the critical patient (in particular, sepsis), to maintain plasma albumin levels within the normal range, could be of great importance. Based on the most recent publications, the aim of this review is to briefly analyze the pathophysiology of albumin, as well as to discuss its possible indications in the critical patient. PMID:24952825

  9. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Poór, Miklós; Lemli, Beáta; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Sali, Nikolett; Kőszegi, Tamás; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor

    2015-01-01

    Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3) and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I). In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions. PMID:26633504

  10. Lymphatic albumin clearance from psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Staberg, B.; Klemp, P.; Aasted, M.; Worm, A.M.; Lund, P.

    1983-12-01

    In nine patients with untreated psoriasis vulgaris, human serum albumin labelled with /sup 125/I or /sup 131/I was injected intradermally in symmetrically located involved and uninvolved skin. The activity of the depots was followed by external detection, and the arrival of labelled albumin in plasma was monitored. In involved psoriatic skin the local mean half-time (T1/2) for tracer disappearance was 20.8 +/- 8.2 (S.D.) hr and in clinically normal skin, 29.1 +/- 9.6 (S.D.) hr. The difference was significant (p less than 0.002). Accordingly, the tracer from involved skin reached higher plasma levels than the tracer from uninvolved skin. However, under slight lymphatic stasis the appearance rate of radiolabelled albumin in plasma from both tissues was minimal during 1 to 2 hours after the injection, indicating that a local direct transvascular drainage of plasma albumin from the interstitium of diseased and normal skin was negligible. We conclude that the previously demonstrated increased extravasation of plasma proteins in involved psoriatic skin is compensated by an increased lymphatic drainage of plasma proteins, and not by an increased local transvascular return.

  11. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion and dietary intake: a cross-sectional analysis in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Padrão, Patrícia; Pinho, Olívia; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the leading cause for heart disease and stroke, for mortality and morbidity worldwide, and a high sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is considered a stronger risk factor for hypertension than sodium alone. Objective This study aims to evaluate sodium and potassium urinary excretion, and assess the food sources of these nutrients in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Design A cross-sectional study with a sample of 250 Portuguese adolescents. Sodium and potassium excretion were measured by one 24-h urinary collection, and the coefficient of creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. Dietary sources of sodium and potassium were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Results Valid urine collections were provided by 200 adolescents (118 girls) with a median age of 14.0 in both sexes (p=0.295). Regarding sodium, the mean urinary excretion was 3,725 mg/day in boys and 3,062 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 9.8% of boys and 22% of girls met the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for sodium intake. Concerning potassium, the mean urinary excretion was 2,237 mg/day in boys and 1,904 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 6.1% of boys and 1.7% of girls met the WHO recommendations for potassium intake. Major dietary sources for sodium intake were cereal and cereal products (41%), meat products (16%), and milk and milk products (11%); and for potassium intake, main sources were milk and milk products (21%), meat products (17%), and vegetables (15%). Conclusions Adolescents had a high-sodium and low-potassium diet, well above the WHO recommendations. Health promotion interventions are needed in order to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake. PMID:27072344

  12. Drug Delivery Vehicles Based on Albumin-Polymer Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanyan; Stenzel, Martina

    2016-06-01

    Albumin has been a popular building block to create nanoparticles for drug delivery purposes. The performance of albumin as a drug carrier can be enhanced by combining protein with polymers, which allows the design of carriers to encompass a broader spectrum of drugs while features unique to synthetic polymers such as stimuli-responsiveness are introduced. Nanoparticles based on polymer-albumin hybrids can be divided into two classes: one that carries album as a bioactive surface coating and the other that uses albumin as biocompatible, although nonbioactive, building block. Nanoparticles with bioactive albumin surface coating can either be prepared by self-assembly of albumin-polymer conjugates or by postcoating of existing nanoparticles with albumin. Albumin has also been used as building block, either in its native or denatured form. Existing albumin nanoparticles are coated with polymers, which can influence the degradation of albumin or impact on the drug release. Finally, an alternative way of using albumin by denaturing the protein to generate a highly functional chain, which can be modified with polymer, has been presented. These albumin nanoparticles are designed to be extremely versatile so that they can deliver a wide variety of drugs, including traditional hydrophobic drugs, metal-based drugs and even therapeutic proteins and siRNA.

  13. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Albumin immunological test system. 866.5040... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5040 Albumin immunological test system. (a) Identification. An albumin immunological test system is a device that consists...

  14. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of human serum albumin fragment 408-423 in bodily fluids.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Katharina B; Zirafi, Onofrio; Hennies, Mark; Wiese, Sebastian; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Urinary levels of human serum albumin (hSA) fragment 408-423 have been proposed to represent an early marker for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and chronic kidney diseases. Here, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of hSA(408-423). The sandwich ELISA has a detection limit of 0.5ng/ml and is highly specific for hSA(408-423) because it does not cross-react with other albumin fragments or the full-length precursor. This ELISA allows rapid and convenient quantification of hSA(408-423) in bodily fluids, further clarifying the prognostic and diagnostic value of this peptide in GvHD, kidney disease, and other disorders.

  15. High fructose diets increase 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in liver and visceral adipose in rats within 24-h exposure.

    PubMed

    London, Edra; Castonguay, Thomas W

    2011-05-01

    The increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States during the past three decades coincides with a trend of increased sugar intake, especially fructose, leading to speculation that the two trends may be linked. The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), that regulates intracellular tissue-specific glucocorticoid levels, is increased in adipose and suppressed in liver of obese humans and animals. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) is colocalized with 11β-HSD1 and generates nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate, the required cofactor for 11β-HSD1 reductase activity that converts inert glucocorticoid metabolite into active hormone. We examined the acute effects of ad lib access to 16% solutions of sucrose, fructose, or glucose and chow and water. Diets high in fructose, but not glucose or sucrose increased 11β-HSD1 mRNA within 24 h in liver and adipose by greater than two- and threefold, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). After 1 week, hepatic 11β-HSD1 mRNA and protein were suppressed by >60% in all sugar-fed groups, a phenomenon not previously reported in the absence of obesity. Sucrose- and fructose-fed rats had higher plasma triglycerides than did control or glucose-fed rats at both 24 h and 1 week (P ≤ 0.02), consistent with previously reported effects of fructose on lipid metabolism. We conclude that high-sugar diets initiate glucocorticoid dysregulation associated with obesity prior to the onset of phenotypic changes, and that high fructose diets specifically induce changes in 11β-HSD1 within 24-h exposure.

  16. O. 35 ppm O/sub 3/ exposure induces hyperresponsiveness on 24-h reexposure to 0. 20 ppm O/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect

    Brookes, K.A.; Adams, W.C.; Schelegle, E.S.

    1989-06-01

    Pulmonary function hyperresponsiveness, defined as enhanced response on reexposure to O3, compared with initial O3 exposure, has been previously noted in consecutive day exposures to high ambient O3 concentrations (i.e., 0.32-0.42 ppm). Effects of consecutive-day exposure to lower O3 concentrations (0.20-0.25 ppm) have yielded equivocal results. To examine the occurrence of hyperresponsiveness at two levels of O3 exposure, 15 aerobically trained males completed seven 1-h exposures of continuous exercise at work rates eliciting a mean minute ventilation of 60 1/min. Three sets of consecutive-day exposures, involving day 1/day 2 exposures to 0.20/0.20 ppm O3, 0.35/0.20 ppm O3, and 0.35/0.35 ppm O3, were randomly delivered via an obligatory mouthpiece inhalation system. A filtered-air exposure was randomly placed 24 h before one of the three sets. Treatment effects were assessed by standard pulmonary function tests, exercise ventilatory pattern (i.e., respiratory frequency, f; and tidal volume, VT) changes and subjective symptom (SS) response. Initial O3 exposures to 0.35 and 0.20 ppm had a statistically significant effect, compared with filtered air, on all measurements. On reexposure to 0.35 ppm O3 24 h after an initial 0.35 ppm O3 exposure, significant hyperresponsiveness was demonstrated for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), f, VT, and total SS score. Exposure to 0.20 ppm O3 24 h after 0.35 ppm O3 exposure, however, resulted in significantly enhanced responses (compared with initial 0.20 ppm O3 exposure) only for FEV1, f, and VT.

  17. Nocturnal sleep-related variables from 24-h free-living waist-worn accelerometry: International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tudor-Locke, C; Mire, E F; Barreira, T V; Schuna, J M; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kurpad, A; Kuriyan, R; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Zhao, P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We describe the process of identifying and defining nocturnal sleep-related variables (for example, movement/non-movement indicators of sleep efficiency, waking episodes, midpoint and so on) using the unique 24-h waist-worn free-living accelerometer data collected in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE). Methods: Seven consecutive days of 24-h waist-worn accelerometer (GT3X+, ActiGraph LLC) data were collected from over 500 children at each site. An expert subgroup of the research team with accelerometry expertize, frontline data collectors and data managers met on several occasions to categorize and operationally define nocturnal accelerometer signal data patterns. The iterative process was informed by the raw data drawn from a sub set of the US data, and culminated in a refined and replicable delineated definition for each identified nocturnal sleep-related variable. Ultimately based on 6318 participants from all 12 ISCOLE sites with valid total sleep episode time (TSET), we report average clock times for nocturnal sleep onset, offset and midpoint in addition to sleep period time, TSET and restful sleep efficiency (among other derived variables). Results: Nocturnal sleep onset occurred at 2218 hours and nocturnal sleep offset at 0707 hours. The mean midpoint was 0243 hours. The sleep period time of 529.6 min (8.8 h) was typically accumulated in a single episode, making the average TSET very similar in duration (529.0 min). The mean restful sleep efficiency ranged from 86.8% (based on absolute non-movement of 0 counts per minute) to 96.0% (based on relative non-movement of <100 counts per minute). Conclusions: These variables extend the potential of field-based 24-h waist-worn accelerometry to distinguish and categorize the underlying robust patterns of movement/non-movement signals conveying magnitude, duration, frequency and periodicity during the nocturnal sleep period. PMID:27152185

  18. Isotope concentrations from 24-h urine and 3-h serum samples can be used to measure intestinal magnesium absorption in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karen E; Nabak, Andrea C; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S; Shafer, Martin M; Abrams, Steven A

    2014-04-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ≥6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ∼23 mg of oral ²⁶Mg and ∼11 mg of i.v. ²⁵Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0-24 h urine MgA value alone (ρ = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0-24 h urine and the 3-h (ρ = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (ρ = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (-0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection.

  19. Isotope Concentrations from 24-h Urine and 3-h Serum Samples Can Be Used to Measure Intestinal Magnesium Absorption in Postmenopausal Women123

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Karen E.; Nabak, Andrea C.; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Shafer, Martin M.; Abrams, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ≥6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ∼23 mg of oral 26Mg and ∼11 mg of i.v. 25Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0–24 h urine MgA value alone (ρ = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0–24 h urine and the 3-h (ρ = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (ρ = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (−0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0–24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0–24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01593501. PMID:24500940

  20. Cadmium-Induced Disruption in 24-h Expression of Clock and Redox Enzyme Genes in Rat Medial Basal Hypothalamus: Prevention by Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cano-Barquilla, Pilar; Scacchi, Pablo A.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Esquifino, Ana I.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study we reported that a low daily p.o. dose of cadmium (Cd) disrupted the circadian expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). To assess whether melatonin could counteract Cd activity, male Wistar rats (45 days of age) received CdCl2 (5 ppm) and melatonin (3 μg/mL) or vehicle (0.015% ethanol) in drinking water. Groups of animals receiving melatonin or vehicle alone were also included. After 1 month, MBH mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR analysis at six time intervals in a 24-h cycle. In control MBH Bmal1 expression peaked at early scotophase, Per1 expression at late afternoon, and Per2 and Cry2 expression at mid-scotophase, whereas neither Clock nor Cry1 expression showed significant 24-h variations. This pattern was significantly disrupted (Clock, Bmal1) or changed in phase (Per1, Per2, Cry2) by CdCl2 while melatonin counteracted the changes brought about by Cd on Per1 expression only. In animals receiving melatonin alone the 24-h pattern of MBH Per2 and Cry2 expression was disrupted. CdCl2 disrupted the 24-h rhythmicity of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-1, NOS-2, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and HO-2 gene expression, most of the effects being counteracted by melatonin. In particular, the co-administration of melatonin and CdCl2 increased Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression and decreased that of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GSR), and HO-2. In animals receiving melatonin alone, significant increases in mean Cu/Zn and Mn-SOD gene expression, and decreases in that of GPx, GSR, NOS-1, NOS-2, HO-1, and HO-2, were found. The results indicate that the interfering effect of melatonin on the activity of a low dose of CdCl2 on MBH clock and redox enzyme genes is mainly exerted at the level of redox enzyme gene expression. PMID:21442002

  1. The turnover rate of rabbit urinary Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Anne M. S.; Neuberger, Albert

    1973-01-01

    1. The turnover rate of urinary Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein in rabbits was determined by two different methods. The first involved measurement of the pool size of the glycoprotein in rabbit kidney and the daily urinary excretion rate by a radioimmunoassay from which the turnover rate was calculated. 2. The second method made use of the incorporation in vivo of Na214CO3 and sodium [14C]acetate. After a single intramuscular injection of one of these compounds, urine collections were made every 24h and the glycoprotein was isolated and its specific radioactivity was determined. 3. Incorporation of the label into urinary HCO3−, urea and plasma fibrinogen was also examined. The specific radio-activities of the O-acetyl, sialic acid, aspartic acid and glutamic acid residues isolated from the Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein were compared and their half-lives were compared with that of the intact glycoprotein. The two methods gave results in quite close agreement and indicated a half-life for the glycoprotein of approx. 9h. 4. An attempt was made to localize the glycoprotein within the kidney and within the cell. It is present throughout the kidney, but was not detected in the brush-border fraction isolated from the proximal tubules. From differential cell-centrifugation studies, the glycoprotein seemed to be predominantly present in the soluble fraction (100000g supernatant). This suggests that it is either largely a soluble cytoplasmic component or is very loosely bound to a membrane, being readily released under the gentlest homogenization procedure. 5. The half-life of Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein in human kidney was found by the radioimmunoassay method to be approx. 16h. The similarity between the composition of Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein and human erythropoietin is discussed. PMID:4780692

  2. [Nosocomial urinary infections].

    PubMed

    Butreau-Lemaire, M; Botto, H

    1997-09-01

    The concept of nosocomial urinary tract infection now corresponds to a precise definition. It is generally related to bladder catheterization, constitutes the most frequent form of nosocomial infection (30 to 50% of infections), and represents the third most frequent portal of entry of bacteraemia. The organism most frequently isolated is Escherichia coli; but the flora is changing and the ecological distribution is continually modified. Despite their usually benign nature, these nosocomial infections can nevertheless influence hospital mortality; they increase the hospital stay by an average of 2.5 days and their treatment represents a large share of the antibiotic budget. Prevention of these infections is therefore essential, with particular emphasis on simple and universally accessible measures: very precise indications for vesical catheterization, use of closed circuit drainage, maximal asepsis when handling catheters, after washing the hands.

  3. [Female urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Jundt, K; Friese, K

    2005-06-01

    Several million women suffer from urinary incontinence in Germany. Stress and urge incontinence are especially clinically relevant. Training of the pelvic floor muscles (vaginal cones, electrical stimulation, biofeedback, and so forth) plays a central role in the conservative therapy of stress incontinence. The use of devices such as incontinence tampons and urethral pessaries is also common. A medication for the therapy of stress incontinence, which improves the closure of the urethral sphincter, has been on the market since 2004. In the operative area,the insertion of a tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) has gained acceptance in recent years. Anticholinergics are the primary medication used in the treatment of urge incontinence. Local estrogens, low frequency electrical stimulation, phytotherapeutics and the like have supportive effects.

  4. Uptake of oleate from albumin solutions by rat liver. Failure to detect catalysis of the dissociation of oleate from albumin by an albumin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Weisiger, R A; Ma, W L

    1987-01-01

    The hepatic removal of albumin-bound substances from plasma requires that they dissociate from albumin. Using indirect methods, we and others have proposed that dissociation may be catalyzed by interaction of albumin with the liver cell surface. This study looked for direct evidence of catalysis by comparing the rate of dissociation of oleate from albumin in vitro with the rate observed within the sinusoids of perfused rat liver. No evidence for catalysis was found. The rate of hepatic oleate removal from dilute albumin solutions did not exceed but instead closely paralleled the rate predicted from the in vitro dissociation rate constant (0.14s-1). These results suggest that under some conditions the liver can remove unbound material from the sinusoids faster than it can be replenished by dissociation from albumin, resulting in dissociation-limited removal. However, dissociation of oleate does not appear to be catalyzed by the liver. PMID:3031131

  5. [When should we give albumin in patients with cirrhosis?].

    PubMed

    Bochatay, L; Elkrief, L; Spahr, L

    2015-09-01

    The beneficial effects of the use of albumin, either alone or combines with other treat- ments, have been demonstrated in patients with various complications of cirrhosis. Therefore, albumin should be administred in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in association with antibiotics, and in association with terlipressin in patients with type 1 hepatorenal syndrome. Albumin use reduces the occurrence of paracentesis-related circulatory dysfunction, in patients with large ascites undergoing paracentesis. So far, the beneficial effect of albumin has not been demonstrated, neither for infections other than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis nor for hepatic encephalopathy. This article provides an overview of the data evaluating the effects of albumin in patients with cirrhosis.

  6. Geographical and temporal differences in the urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic: a Belgian population study.

    PubMed Central

    Buchet, J P; Staessen, J; Roels, H; Lauwerys, R; Fagard, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This Belgian study assessed the geographical and temporal differences in the exposure of the population to inorganic arsenic, a known carcinogen. METHODS: In the CadmiBel study (1985-9) the 24 h urinary arsenic excretion was measured, as an index of recent exposure, in industrialised cities (Liège: n = 664, Charleroi: n = 291), in a rural control area (Hechtel-Eksel: n = 397), and in rural districts in which the population had possibly been exposed through the drinking water or the emissions of nonferrous smelters (Wezel: n = 93, Lommel: n = 111, and Pelt: n = 133). In the PheeCad study, in 1991-5, the rural areas (n = 609) were re-examined together with an urban control area (Leuven: n = 152). RESULTS: The CadmiBel results showed that after adjustment for sex, age, and body mass index, the 24 h arsenic excretion was on average low in Liège (91 nmol), Charleroi (155 nmol), Hechtel-Eksel (144 nmol), and Wezel (158 nmol), whereas the highest excretions were found in Lommel (570 nmol) and Pelt (373 nmol). During the PheeCad study, the mean 24 h arsenic excretion in the rural areas ranged from 81 to 111 nmol. This was lower than six years earlier and similar to the excretion in the control town (108 nmol). Longitudinal studies in 529 people living in the rural areas confirmed that their 24 h arsenic excretion had decreased (P < 0.001) from 222 to 100 nmol. As well as the drinking water, industry was likely to be a source of the increased exposure in Lommel and Pelt in 1985-9, because at that time the urinary arsenic excretion did not follow the regional differences in the arsenic content of the drinking water, because the fall in the arsenic excretion over time coincided with the implementation by industry of stricter environmental regulations, because in individual subjects the urinary arsenic excretion was inversely correlated with the distance to the nearest smelter, and because an increased arsenic excretion was only found downwind from the main

  7. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites as biomarkers to woodsmoke exposure - results from a controlled exposure study.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Trinidad, Debra; Pittman, Erin N; Riley, Erin A; Sjodin, Andreas; Dills, Russell L; Paulsen, Michael; Simpson, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Woodsmoke contains harmful components - such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - and impacts more than half of the global population. We investigated urinary hydroxylated PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) as woodsmoke exposure biomarkers in nine non-smoking volunteers experimentally exposed to a wood fire. Individual urine samples were collected from 24-h before to 48-h after the exposure and personal PM2.5 samples were collected during the 2-h woodsmoke exposure. Concentrations of nine OH-PAHs increased by 1.8-7.2 times within 2.3-19.3 h, and returned to baseline approximately 24 h after the exposure. 2-Naphthol (2-NAP) had the largest post-exposure increase and exhibited a clear excretion pattern in all participants. The level of urinary OH-PAHs, except 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR), correlated with those of PM2.5, levoglucosan and PAHs in personal PM2.5 samples. This finding suggests that several urinary OH-PAHs, especially 2-NAP, are potential exposure biomarkers to woodsmoke; by contrast, 1-PYR may not be a suitable biomarker. Compared with levoglucosan and methoxyphenols - two other urinary woodsmoke biomarkers that were measured in the same study and reported previously - OH-PAHs might be better biomarkers based on sensitivity, robustness and stability, particularly under suboptimal sampling and storage conditions, like in epidemiological studies carried out in less developed areas. PMID:25605446

  8. Relative bioavailability of terbutaline to the lung following inhalation, using urinary excretion

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrahim, Mohamed E; Assi, Khaled H; Chrystyn, Henry

    2011-01-01

    AIMS The aim of the study was to determine the relative lung and systemic bioavailability of terbutaline. METHODS On separate days healthy volunteers received 500 µg terbutaline study doses either inhaled from a metered dose inhaler or swallowed as a solution with and without oral charcoal. Urine samples were provided at timed intervals post dosing. RESULTS Mean (SD) urinary terbutaline 0.5 h post inhalation, in 12 volunteers, with (IC) and without (I) oral charcoal and oral (O) dosing was 7.4 (2.2), 6.5 (2.1) and 0.2 (0.2) µg. I and IC were similar and both significantly greater than O (P < 0.001). Urinary 24 h terbutaline post I was similar to IC + O. The method was linear and reproducible, similar to that of the urinary salbutamol method. CONCLUSIONS The urinary salbutamol pharmacokinetic method post inhalation applies to terbutaline. Terbutaline study doses can replace routine salbutamol during these studies when patients are studied. PMID:21395654

  9. Urinary catheter blockage depends on urine pH, calcium and rate of flow.

    PubMed

    Burr, R G; Nuseibeh, I M

    1997-08-01

    Urinary catheters tend to block when biofilm from urease-producing organisms build up on the catheter surface. This is a locally-occurring process that influences and influenced by the composition of the urine. In this work we relate urine pH and calcium to catheter blockage and suggest how to reduce the rate of encrustation. Sixty patients with indwelling urinary catheters were studied, 26 of them being troubled by frequent blockage of their catheters, 34 of them not. A series of small urine samples were collected during a 24 h period. Urinary pH and calcium concentration were combined into discriminant functions designed to separate Blockers from Non-blockers and achieved a 95% correct classification. The results indicate that a high and uniform rate of fluid intake is mandatory for the patient with a tendency for catheter blockage. Excessive total fluid intake may be avoided by attention to uniformity. Other avoidable risk factors include: excess dietary calcium from certain protein supplements and antacids; excess dietary magnesium from certain beverages and antacids; alkali from effervescent tablets; excess dietary citrate from some fruit juices and cordials; intermittent dehydration from alcohol ingestion. Less tractable risk factors include infection of the urinary tract with urease-positive organisms, hypercalciuria of immobilisation, hyperhydrosis and postural oliguria. The processes involved in catheter encrustation and blockage provide a model for the formation of calculi in spinal cord injured patients. Therefore the above considerations may also be relevant to the management of stone disease in paraplegic and tetraplegic patients.

  10. Eplerenone restores 24-h blood pressure circadian rhythm and reduces advanced glycation end-products in rhesus macaques with spontaneous hypertensive metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Yuli; Wang, Jue; Peng, Ying; Shang, Haibao; Hou, Ning; Hu, Xiaomin; Ding, Yi; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Can; Zeng, Fanxin; Mao, Jiaming; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Dongwei; Sun, Xueting; Li, Chuanyun; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Zhang, Xiuqin

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is often associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and serves as a risk factor of MetS and its complications. Blood pressure circadian rhythm in hypertensive patients has been suggested to contribute to cardiovascular consequences and organ damage of hypertension. But circadian changes of BP and their response to drugs have not been clearly investigated in non-human primates (NHPs) of MetS with hypertension. Here, we identified 16 elderly, hypertensive MetS rhesus monkeys from our in-house cohort. With implanted telemetry, we investigate BP changes and its circadian rhythm, together with the effect of antihypertensive drugs on BP and its diurnal fluctuation. MetS hypertensive monkeys displayed higher BP, obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. We also confirmed impaired 24-h BP circadian rhythm in MetS hypertensive monkeys. Importantly, Eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, exerts multiple beneficial effects in MetS hypertensive monkeys, including BP reduction, 24-h BP circadian rhythm restoration, and decreased plasma concentration of inflammation factors and advanced glycation end-products. In summary, we identified a naturally-developed hypertensive MetS NHP model, which is of great value in the studies on pathogenesis of MetS-associated hypertension and development of novel therapeutic strategies. We also provided multiple novel mechanistic insights of the beneficial effect of Eplerenone on MetS with hypertension. PMID:27032687

  11. Nanoscale probing of the lateral homogeneity of donors concentration in nitridated SiO2/4H-SiC interfaces.

    PubMed

    Fiorenza, Patrick; Di Franco, Salvatore; Giannazzo, Filippo; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, nanoscale resolution scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) and local capacitance-voltage measurements were used to probe the interfacial donor concentration in SiO2/4H-SiC systems annealed in N2O. Such nitrogen-based annealings are commonly employed to passivate SiO2/SiC interface traps, and result both in the incorporation of N-related donors in SiC and in the increase of the mobility in the inversion layer in 4H-SiC MOS-devices. From our SCM measurements, a spatially inhomogeneous donor distribution was observed in the SiO2/4H-SiC system subjected to N2O annealing. Hence, the effect of a phosphorus implantation before the oxide deposition and N2O annealing was also evaluated. In this case, besides an increased average donor concentration, an improvement of the lateral homogeneity of the active doping was also detected. The possible implications of such a pre-implantation doping of the near-interface region on 4H-SiC MOS-devices are discussed. PMID:27324844

  12. Eplerenone restores 24-h blood pressure circadian rhythm and reduces advanced glycation end-products in rhesus macaques with spontaneous hypertensive metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Yuli; Wang, Jue; Peng, Ying; Shang, Haibao; Hou, Ning; Hu, Xiaomin; Ding, Yi; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Can; Zeng, Fanxin; Mao, Jiaming; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Dongwei; Sun, Xueting; Li, Chuanyun; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Zhang, Xiuqin

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension is often associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and serves as a risk factor of MetS and its complications. Blood pressure circadian rhythm in hypertensive patients has been suggested to contribute to cardiovascular consequences and organ damage of hypertension. But circadian changes of BP and their response to drugs have not been clearly investigated in non-human primates (NHPs) of MetS with hypertension. Here, we identified 16 elderly, hypertensive MetS rhesus monkeys from our in-house cohort. With implanted telemetry, we investigate BP changes and its circadian rhythm, together with the effect of antihypertensive drugs on BP and its diurnal fluctuation. MetS hypertensive monkeys displayed higher BP, obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. We also confirmed impaired 24-h BP circadian rhythm in MetS hypertensive monkeys. Importantly, Eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, exerts multiple beneficial effects in MetS hypertensive monkeys, including BP reduction, 24-h BP circadian rhythm restoration, and decreased plasma concentration of inflammation factors and advanced glycation end-products. In summary, we identified a naturally-developed hypertensive MetS NHP model, which is of great value in the studies on pathogenesis of MetS-associated hypertension and development of novel therapeutic strategies. We also provided multiple novel mechanistic insights of the beneficial effect of Eplerenone on MetS with hypertension.

  13. Urinary microalbumin measurement using a homogeneous liposomal immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Frost, S J; Chakraborty, J; Firth, G B

    1996-08-14

    A homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay which has been developed for urinary microalbumin utilizes complement-mediated immunolysis of liposomes containing the dye, sulphorhodamine B. Unlike a previously described model complement-mediated liposomal assay for serum albumin (Frost et al., 1994) which was competitive, this assay uses a sandwich-type format and Fab' (antialbumin)-coated liposomes to increase the assay sensitivity. The liposomal assay, performed using a Cobas Bio analyser (Roche, Welwyn Garden City, UK), gave an acceptable correlation with a radioimmunoassay (NETRIA, London, UK): r = 0.94; y (liposomal assay) = 1.09 x (radioimmunoassay) - 1.54 mg/1. The imprecisions of the assays were similar and matrix effects due to the use of urine samples were determined to be acceptably small. The assay demonstrates the advantage of using Fab'-coated liposomes in sandwich-type liposomal immunoassays over liposomes coated with intact antibody, which failed to elicit complement-mediated immunolysis. PMID:8765163

  14. Avosentan Reduces Albumin Excretion in Diabetics with Macroalbuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, René R.; Littke, Thomas; Kuranoff, Susan; Jürgens, Christiane; Bruck, Heike; Ritz, Eberhard; Philipp, Thomas; Mitchell, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Despite the first-line use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), there is still a large need to improve the prevention and progression of diabetic nephropathy and its associated cardiovascular events. Endothelin antagonists have shown anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and antiproteinuric effects in experimental studies. This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-design, dosage-range study of the effect of the endothelin-A antagonist avosentan (SPP301) on urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in patients with diabetic nephropathy. We randomly assigned 286 patients with diabetic nephropathy, macroalbuminuria (UAER 0.2 to 5.6 mg/min), and BP <180/110 mmHg to 12 wk of avosentan (5, 10, 25, and 50 mg) or placebo, in addition to standard ACEI/ARB therapy. Relative to baseline, all avosentan dosages decreased mean relative UAER (−16.3 to −29.9%) compared with placebo (35.5%). Median relative UAER decreased with all avosentan dosages (−28.7 to −44.8%) compared with placebo (12.1%). Creatinine clearance and BP were unchanged at 12 wk. The main adverse events were peripheral edema (12%), mainly with high (≥25 mg) dosages of avosentan; significant increases in liver enzymes did not occur. Twenty-one (7.3%) patients experienced adverse events that led to withdrawal from study medication. In summary, the endothelin-A antagonist avosentan given in addition to standard ACEI/ARB treatment decreases UAER in patients with diabetic nephropathy and macroalbuminuria. PMID:19144760

  15. Fluorescent holograms with albumin-acrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    We describe fluorescent holograms were made with photosensitive films of albumin (protein) quail, used as modified matrices. Albumin is mixed with acrylamide and eosin Y. Therefore, prepare a photosensitive emulsion and solid hydrated with the ability to phase transmission holograms and volume (VPH). Eosin Y is a fluorescent agent that acts as a photo-sensitizing dye which stimulates the polymerization of acrylamide. To record the interference pattern produced by two waves superimposed on the modified matrix, we use a He-Cd laser. To reconstruct the diffraction pattern is observed with He- Ne laser, λ = 632.8nm, the material is self-developing properties. Measure the diffraction efficiency of the diffracted orders (η[-1, +1]) as a function of exposure energy. We work with various thicknesses and measure the variation of the refractive index using the coupled wave theory of Kogelnik, the holographic gratings meet Bragg condition.

  16. Albumin use is beneficial in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Faisal M; Marotta, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    There are several indications for the use of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and its role has existed in clinical practice for many decades. While the drug enjoys immense popularity, it yet attracts intensive debate amongst clinicians and pharmacologists alike. Regardless of its pharmacological properties, its clinical use in cirrhotic patients has its fair share of proponents and opponents. At present, in the setting of cirrhosis this debate centers around the treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, in patients with ascites treated with large volume paracentesis, and in those with hepato-renal syndrome. With the evolving evidence it has become imperative to shed old dogmas and address this issue in the light of evidence-based medicine. This article gives a representative view of albumin use in the above conditions across both sides of the clinical divide.

  17. Exposure of flight attendants to pyrethroid insecticides on commercial flights: urinary metabolite levels and implications.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binnian; Mohan, Krishnan R; Weisel, Clifford P

    2012-07-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been used for disinsection of commercial aircrafts. However, little is known about the pyrethroids exposure of flight attendants. The objective of the study was to assess pyrethroids exposure of flight attendants working on commercial aircrafts through monitoring the urinary pyrethroids metabolite levels. Eighty four urine samples were collected from 28 flight attendants, 18-65 years of age, with seventeen working on planes that were non-disinsected, and eleven working on planes that had been disinsected. Five urinary metabolites of pyrethroids were measured using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), cis-/trans-3-(2,2-Dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclo-propane carboxylic acid (cis-/trans-Cl2CA), cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclo-propane-1-carboxylic acid (cis-Br2CA) and 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (4F-3-PBA). Flight attendants working on disinsected planes had significantly higher urinary levels of 3-PBA, cis- and trans-Cl2CA in pre, post- and 24-h-post flight samples than those on planes which did not report having been disinsected. Urinary levels of cis-Br2CA and 4F-3-PBA did not show significant differences between the two groups. Flight attendants working on international flights connected to Australia had higher urinary levels of 3-PBA, cis- and trans-Cl2CA than those on either domestic and other international flights flying among Asia, Europe and North America. Post-disinsection duration (number of days from disinsection date to flight date) was the most significant factor affecting the urinary pyrethroid metabolites levels of 3-PBA, cis- and trans-Cl2CA of the group flying on disinsected aircraft. It was concluded that working on commercial aircraft disinsected by pyrethroids resulted in elevated body burdens of 3-PBA, cis- and trans-Cl2CA.

  18. Effect of metoprolol on 24-hour urinary excretion of adrenal steroids and kallikrein in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Fritschka, E.; Gotzen, R.; Kittler, R.; Schöneshöfer, M.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of fifteen patients with essential hypertension over four weeks using the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocking agent, metoprolol, resulted in a decrease in 24 h urinary excretion of kallikrein and aldosterone along with a decrease in plasma renin activity. There was no significant change in 24 h excretion rates of the free adrenal steroids deoxycorticosterone, 18-OH-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, cortisol or 18-OH-corticosterone during treatment, which were not significantly different from excretion rates of normal males, thus excluding inhibitory effects of adrenal steroids on urinary kallikrein activity. A positive correlation was found between plasma renin activity and urinary excretion of kallikrein during the control period and after 2 weeks on metoprolol, supporting the assumption of a preserved link between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the renal excretion of kallikrein in these patients. The decrease in kallikrein excretion during beta 1-adrenoceptor blockade in patients with essential hypertension may be explained by a reduction in sympathetic tone and by reduced activity of the renin-aldosterone system. PMID:6367871

  19. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin. Contributes to many transport and regulatory processes and has multifunctional binding properties which range from various metals, to fatty acids, hormones, and a wide spectrum of therapeutic drugs. The most abundant protein of the circulatory system. It binds and transports an incredible variety of biological and pharmaceutical ligands throughout the blood stream. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Larry DeLucas.

  20. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Horse Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... more serious infection that reaches the kidneys. continue Bacteria Are to Blame UTIs are usually caused by ... as soon as possible. previous continue Battling the Bacteria Only your health care provider can treat urinary ...

  2. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you laugh, cough, sneeze, lift ... these and are still having problems with urine leakage, surgery may be your best option.

  3. The role of albumin in nutritional support.

    PubMed

    Mobarhan, S

    1988-12-01

    Hypoalbuminemia is considered one of the hallmarks of protein-calorie malnutrition and chronic liver disease. Recently, serum albumin has also been proposed as a critical predictor of the response to nutritional support and tolerance to enteral feeding in critically ill patients. Albumin is essential for maintenance of plasma colloidal osmotic pressure, prevention of edema, and transport of certain drugs and nutrients. Experimental studies have shown that rapid plasma expansion and reduced plasma protein concentration and osmotic pressure induce a net secretion of sodium and water into the small intestinal lumen. However, the effects of chronic hypoalbuminemia per se on intestinal absorption, independent of malnutrition, have not been fully studied. It is documented that both chronic illness and malnutrition may profoundly affect intestinal anatomical structure and function, inducing some degree of malabsorption. In the last few years, some have advocated albumin infusion to improve clinical response to patients with hypoalbuminemia receiving parenteral nutritional support or to reduce intestinal intolerance and diarrhea in patients receiving enteral tube feeding. A review of the literature shows that both clinical and experimental data to support these suggestions are scarce and further investigations are needed. Hypoalbuminemia is one of many parameters of malnutrition, and it is unlikely that correction of a single parameter for a short time would lead to major clinical benefits. PMID:3147998

  4. Serum albumin complexation of acetylsalicylic acid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Wiktor; Porebski, Grzegorz; Obtułowicz, Krystyna; Roterman, Irena

    2009-06-01

    One possible origin of the type I hypersensitivity reaction is reaction of drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolites being complexed with human serum albumin. Albumin, being transporting molecule abundant in blood plasma is able to bind large array of ligands varying from small single carbon particles to long hydrophobic tailed lipidic acids (e.g. myristic acid). This non specificity is possible because of multi domain scaffold and large flexibility of inter-domain loops, which results in serious reorientation of domains. Hypothesis that acetylsalicylic acid metabolites may play indirect role in activation of allergic reaction has been tested. Binding of acetylsalicylic acid metabolites in intra-domain space causes significant increase of liability of domains IIIA and IIIB. One of metabolites, salicyluric acid, once is bound causes distortion and partial unfolding of helices in domains IA, IIB and IIIB. Changed are both directions and amplitude of relative motions as well as intra-domain distances. In result albumin is able to cross-link of adjacent IgE receptors which subsequently starts allergic reaction.

  5. Serum albumin complexation of acetylsalicylic acid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Wiktor; Porebski, Grzegorz; Obtułowicz, Krystyna; Roterman, Irena

    2009-06-01

    One possible origin of the type I hypersensitivity reaction is reaction of drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolites being complexed with human serum albumin. Albumin, being transporting molecule abundant in blood plasma is able to bind large array of ligands varying from small single carbon particles to long hydrophobic tailed lipidic acids (e.g. myristic acid). This non specificity is possible because of multi domain scaffold and large flexibility of inter-domain loops, which results in serious reorientation of domains. Hypothesis that acetylsalicylic acid metabolites may play indirect role in activation of allergic reaction has been tested. Binding of acetylsalicylic acid metabolites in intra-domain space causes significant increase of liability of domains IIIA and IIIB. One of metabolites, salicyluric acid, once is bound causes distortion and partial unfolding of helices in domains IA, IIB and IIIB. Changed are both directions and amplitude of relative motions as well as intra-domain distances. In result albumin is able to cross-link of adjacent IgE receptors which subsequently starts allergic reaction. PMID:19689242

  6. [Albumin and artificial colloids for massive bleeding].

    PubMed

    Iijima, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and massive bleeding has to be counteracted by efficient volume restoration against rapid loss of intravascular volume. There are two phases of volume management for massive bleeding, uncontrolled phase and controlled phase. During initial uncontrolled phase, rapid infusion of crystalloid with RCC (red cell concentrate) is the first choice of volume management to prevent shock and profound decline of hemoglobin level. After shifting to the next controlled phase, artificial colloids and RCC become the next choice for efficient volume restoration. Although albumin has not been proven to improve prognosis in clinical studies, anti-inflammatory effect could be expected. Albumin infusion may be followed in this phase, and also albumin concentrate may be beneficial to reduce subsequent tissue edema due to massive infusion of crystalloid and artificial colloid. A new generation of hydroxyethyl starch is a promising blood substitute, designed with minimum side effect. Although renal damage especially in septic patient and coagulation disorder are theoretically suspected, beneficial effect as volume expansion overwhelms these stochastic side effects. Since the side effect depends on the dose and how much it remains in the body, a purposeful use during volume expansion phase should be recommended.

  7. Nanogels fabricated from bovine serum albumin and chitosan via self-assembly for delivery of anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuntao; Xu, Shasha; Xiong, Wenfei; Pei, Yaqiong; Li, Bin; Chen, Yijie

    2016-10-01

    In this study, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and chitosan (CS) were used to prepare BSA-CS nanogels by a simple green self-assembly technique. Then the nanogels were successfully used to entrap doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) with an entrapment ratio of 46.3%, aiming to realize the slow-release effect and lower the cytotoxicity of DOX. The IC50 values of DOX-loaded BSA-CS (DOX-BSA-CS) and free DOX obtained by MTT assay in SGC7901 cells were 0.22 and 0.05μg/mL, respectively. The cytotoxicity of DOX significantly decreased within 24h after encapsulation by the nanogels, indicating that the loaded drug could slowly release within 24h and the BSA-CS was a good slow release system. The cellular uptake experiments indicated DOX-BSA-CS diffused faster into the cancer cell than the bare drug. The flow cytometry and TUNEL assay proved DOX-BSA-CS could induce a larger apoptosis proportion of gastric cancer cells 7901 than the bare drug and it is promising to be used for curing gastric cancer. PMID:27262260

  8. Albumin stimulates renal tubular inflammation through an HSP70-TLR4 axis in mice with early diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Jheng, Huei-Fen; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chuang, Yi-Lun; Shen, Yi-Ting; Tai, Ting-An; Chen, Wen-Chung; Chou, Chuan-Kai; Ho, Li-Chun; Tang, Ming-Jer; Lai, Kuei-Tai A; Sung, Junne-Ming; Tsai, Yau-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    Increased urinary albumin excretion is not simply an aftermath of glomerular injury, but is also involved in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Whereas Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are incriminated in the renal inflammation of DN, whether and how albumin is involved in the TLR-related renal inflammatory response remains to be clarified. Here, we showed that both TLR2 and TLR4, one of their putative endogenous ligands [heat shock protein 70 (HSP70)] and nuclear factor-κB promoter activity were markedly elevated in the kidneys of diabetic mice. A deficiency of TLR4 but not of TLR2 alleviated albuminuria, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and inflammation induced by diabetes. The protection against renal injury in diabetic Tlr4(-/-) mice was associated with reduced tubular injuries and preserved cubilin levels, rather than amelioration of glomerular lesions. In vitro studies revealed that albumin, a stronger inducer than high glucose (HG), induced the release of HSP70 from proximal tubular cells. HSP70 blockade ameliorated albumin-induced inflammatory mediators. HSP70 triggered the production of inflammatory mediators in a TLR4-dependent manner. Moreover, HSP70 inhibition in vivo ameliorated diabetes-induced albuminuria, inflammatory response and tubular injury. Finally, we found that individuals with DN had higher levels of TLR4 and HSP70 in the dilated tubules than non-diabetic controls. Thus, activation of the HSP70-TLR4 axis, stimulated at least in part by albumin, in the tubular cell is a newly identified mechanism associated with induction of tubulointerstitial inflammation and aggravation of pre-existing microalbuminuria in the progression of DN.

  9. 5-Lypoxygenase Products Are Involved in Renal Tubulointerstitial Injury Induced by Albumin Overload in Proximal Tubules in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Landgraf, Sharon Schilling; Silva, Leandro Souza; Peruchetti, Diogo Barros; Sirtoli, Gabriela Modenesi; Moraes-Santos, Felipe; Portella, Viviane Gomes; Silva-Filho, João Luiz; Pinheiro, Carla Silva; Abreu, Thiago Pereira; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Benjamin, Claudia Farias; Pinheiro, Ana Acacia Sá; Canetti, Claudio; Caruso-Neves, Celso

    2014-01-01

    The role of albumin overload in proximal tubules (PT) in the development of tubulointerstitial injury and, consequently, in the progression of renal disease has become more relevant in recent years. Despite the importance of leukotrienes (LTs) in renal disease, little is known about their role in tubulointerstitial injury. The aim of the present work was to investigate the possible role of LTs on tubulointerstitial injury induced by albumin overload. An animal model of tubulointerstitial injury challenged by bovine serum albumin was developed in SV129 mice (wild-type) and 5-lipoxygenase-deficient mice (5-LO–/–). The changes in glomerular morphology and nestin expression observed in wild-type mice subjected to kidney insult were also observed in 5-LO–/– mice. The levels of urinary protein observed in the 5-LO–/– mice subjected or not to kidney insult were lower than those observed in respective wild-type mice. Furthermore, the increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity, a marker of tubule damage, observed in wild-type mice subjected to kidney insult did not occur in 5-LO–/– mice. LTB4 and LTD4, 5-LO products, decreased the uptake of albumin in LLC-PK1 cells, a well-characterized porcine PT cell line. This effect correlated with activation of protein kinase C and inhibition of protein kinase B. The level of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6, increased in mice subjected to kidney insult but this effect was not modified in 5-LO–/– mice. However, 5-LO–/– mice subjected to kidney insult presented lower macrophage infiltration and higher levels of IL-10 than wild-type mice. Our results reveal that LTs have an important role in tubulointerstitial disease induced by albumin overload. PMID:25302946

  10. Albumin stimulates renal tubular inflammation through an HSP70-TLR4 axis in mice with early diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jheng, Huei-Fen; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chuang, Yi-Lun; Shen, Yi-Ting; Tai, Ting-An; Chen, Wen-Chung; Chou, Chuan-Kai; Ho, Li-Chun; Tang, Ming-Jer; Lai, Kuei-Tai A.; Sung, Junne-Ming; Tsai, Yau-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Increased urinary albumin excretion is not simply an aftermath of glomerular injury, but is also involved in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Whereas Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are incriminated in the renal inflammation of DN, whether and how albumin is involved in the TLR-related renal inflammatory response remains to be clarified. Here, we showed that both TLR2 and TLR4, one of their putative endogenous ligands [heat shock protein 70 (HSP70)] and nuclear factor-κB promoter activity were markedly elevated in the kidneys of diabetic mice. A deficiency of TLR4 but not of TLR2 alleviated albuminuria, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and inflammation induced by diabetes. The protection against renal injury in diabetic Tlr4−/− mice was associated with reduced tubular injuries and preserved cubilin levels, rather than amelioration of glomerular lesions. In vitro studies revealed that albumin, a stronger inducer than high glucose (HG), induced the release of HSP70 from proximal tubular cells. HSP70 blockade ameliorated albumin-induced inflammatory mediators. HSP70 triggered the production of inflammatory mediators in a TLR4-dependent manner. Moreover, HSP70 inhibition in vivo ameliorated diabetes-induced albuminuria, inflammatory response and tubular injury. Finally, we found that individuals with DN had higher levels of TLR4 and HSP70 in the dilated tubules than non-diabetic controls. Thus, activation of the HSP70-TLR4 axis, stimulated at least in part by albumin, in the tubular cell is a newly identified mechanism associated with induction of tubulointerstitial inflammation and aggravation of pre-existing microalbuminuria in the progression of DN. PMID:26398934

  11. Cathodoluminescence study of radiative interface defects in thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, Yuta; Chanthaphan, Atthawut; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2015-06-29

    Radiative defects in thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) structures and their location in depth were investigated by means of cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. It was found that while luminescence peaks ascribed to oxygen vacancy and nonbridging oxygen hole centers were observed both from thermal oxides grown on (0001) Si-face and C-face surfaces as with thermal oxides on Si, intense yellow luminescence at a wavelength of around 600 nm was identified only from the oxide interface on the Si-face substrate regardless of the oxide thickness and dopant type. Possible physical origins of the radiative centers localized near an oxide interface of a few nm thick are discussed on the basis of visible light emission from Si backbone structures.

  12. The effects of 24-h exposure to carbaryl or atrazine on the locomotor performance and overwinter growth and survival of juvenile spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum).

    PubMed

    Mitchkash, Matthew G; McPeek, Tammy; Boone, Michelle D

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the effects of pesticide exposure on organisms throughout their life cycle is critical to predict population-level effects. For many taxa, including amphibians, juveniles are the main dispersal stage and are disproportionally important to population persistence when compared with other life stages. In the present study, we examined the effects of a single 24-h exposure to the insecticide carbaryl or the herbicide atrazine on locomotor performance (endurance, distance traveled, speed, and fatigue) in the laboratory and terrestrial growth and survival through overwintering in field enclosures using recent metamorphs of spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum). We found that neither atrazine nor carbaryl impacted endurance, but fatigue increased with carbaryl exposure, which could leave salamanders less able to escape repeated attacks by predators. Terrestrial growth and overwinter survival were not affected by short-term exposure to carbaryl or atrazine, suggesting that when individuals can overcome acute effects, no long-term consequences result for the endpoints measured.

  13. Fabrication of SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC (0001) interface with nearly ideal capacitance-voltage characteristics by thermal oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Richard Heihachiro; Kita, Koji

    2014-07-21

    We fabricated SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC (0001) metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with nearly ideal capacitance-voltage characteristics, simply by the control of thermal oxidation conditions which were selected based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations of SiC oxidation. The interface with low interface defect state density <10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} for the energy range of 0.1–0.4 eV below the conduction band of SiC was obtained by thermal oxidation at 1300 °C in a ramp-heating furnace with a short rise/fall time, followed by low temperature O{sub 2} anneal at 800 °C.

  14. Entropy, pattern entropy, and related methods for the analysis of data on the time intervals between heartbeats from 24-h electrocardiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żebrowski, J. J.; Popławska, W.; Baranowski, R.

    1994-11-01

    Sequences of the time intervals between heartbeats-medically termed RR intervals-extracted from 24-h electrocardiogram recordings are examined as three-dimensional return map images. The recordings were made in humans by means of the medically widely used portable electrocardiograph (Holter system). A time window measured in the number of heartbeats is used and different types of behavior are classified. Bifurcations between the types of dynamics of the heart are noted and a form of intermittency is found. An alternative quantitative measure-a form pattern entropy of the return map image-is defined that characterizes the dynamics of the RR interval sequence. It is shown that this is a measure of the degree of ordering of the RR interval sequence and as such it is a good novel medical diagnostic tool for analyzing heart rate variability which distinguishes between illness and health where other diagnostics fail.

  15. Validation of a Web-based, self-administered, non-consecutive-day dietary record tool against urinary biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Lassale, Camille; Castetbon, Katia; Laporte, François; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Deschamps, Valérie; Vernay, Michel; Faure, Patrice; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-03-28

    New technologies are promising for the use of short-term instruments for dietary data collection; however, innovative tools should be validated against objective biomarkers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of a Web-based, self-administered dietary record (DR) tool using protein, K and Na intakes against 24 h urinary biomarkers (24 h U). Of the total participants, 199 adult volunteers (104 men and 95 women, mean age 50·5 (23-83 years)) of the NutriNet-Santé Study were included in the protocol. They completed three non-consecutive-day DR and two 24 h U on the first and third DR days. Relative differences between reported (DR) and measured (24 h U) intakes were calculated from the log ratio (DR/24 h U) for protein, K and Na intakes: -14·4,+2·6 and -2·1 % for men; and -13·9, -3·7 and -8·3 % for women, respectively. The correlations between reported and true intakes were 0·61, 0·78 and 0·47 for men and 0·64, 0·42 and 0·37 for women for protein, K and Na, respectively. Attenuation factors, that represent attenuation of the true diet-disease relationship due to measurement error (a value closer to 1 indicating lower attenuation), ranged from 0·23 (Na, women) to 0·60 (K, men). We showed that the Web-based DR tool used in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study performs well in estimating protein and K intakes and fairly well in estimating Na intake. Furthermore, three non-consecutive-day DR appear to be valid for estimating usual intakes of protein and K, although caution is advised regarding the generalisability of these findings to other nutrients and general population.

  16. Urinary potassium excretion and risk of developing hypertension: the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study.

    PubMed

    Kieneker, Lyanne M; Gansevoort, Ron T; Mukamal, Kenneth J; de Boer, Rudolf A; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; Joosten, Michel M

    2014-10-01

    Previous prospective cohort studies on the association between potassium intake and risk of hypertension have almost exclusively relied on self-reported dietary data, whereas repeated 24-hour urine excretions, as estimate of dietary uptake, may provide a more objective and quantitative estimate of this association. Risk of hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or initiation of blood pressure-lowering drugs) was prospectively studied in 5511 normotensive subjects aged 28 to 75 years not using blood pressure-lowering drugs at baseline of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study. Potassium excretion was measured in two 24-hour urine specimens at baseline (1997-1998) and midway during follow-up (2001-2003). Baseline median potassium excretion was 70 mmol/24 h (interquartile range, 57-85 mmol/24 h), which corresponds to a dietary potassium intake of ≈91 mmol/24 h. During a median follow-up of 7.6 years (interquartile range, 5.0-9.3 years), 1172 subjects developed hypertension. The lowest sex-specific tertile of potassium excretion (men: <68 mmol/24 h; women: <58 mmol/24 h) had an increased risk of hypertension after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.37), compared with the upper 2 tertiles (Pnonlinearity=0.008). The proportion of hypertension attributable to low potassium excretion was 6.2% (95% confidence interval, 1.7%-10.9%). No association was found between the sodium to potassium excretion ratio and risk of hypertension after multivariable adjustment. Low urinary potassium excretion was associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension. Dietary strategies to increase potassium intake to the recommended level of 90 mmol/d may have the potential to reduce the incidence of hypertension.

  17. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake.

    PubMed

    Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M E; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H; Slimani, Nadia

    2012-03-01

    Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomarkers for protein and K intake and whether the BMI effect differs between six European countries. Between 1995 and 1999, 1086 men and women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition completed a single 24-HDR, a DQ and one 24 h urine collection. In regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, education and country, each unit (1 kg/m²) increase in BMI predicted an approximately 1·7 and 1·3 % increase in protein under-reporting on 24-HDR and DQ, respectively (both P < 0·0001). Exclusion of individuals who probably misreported energy intake attenuated BMI-related bias on both instruments. The BMI effect on protein under-reporting did not differ for men and women and neither between countries on both instruments as tested by interaction (all P>0·15). In women, but not in men, the DQ yielded higher mean intakes of protein that were closer to the biomarker-based measurements across BMI groups when compared with 24-HDR. Results for K were similar to those of protein, although BMI-related under-reporting of K was of a smaller magnitude, suggesting differential misreporting of foods. Under-reporting of protein and K appears to be predicted by BMI, but this effect may be driven by 'low-energy reporters'. The BMI effect on under-reporting seems to be the same across countries.

  18. Bis-(2-propylheptyl)phthalate (DPHP) metabolites emerging in 24h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (1999-2012).

    PubMed

    Schütze, A; Gries, W; Kolossa-Gehring, M; Apel, P; Schröter-Kermani, C; Fiddicke, U; Leng, G; Brüning, T; Koch, H M

    2015-08-01

    Bis-(2-propylheptyl)-phthalate (DPHP) has been introduced as a substitute for other high molecular weight phthalates primarily used in high temperature applications (e.g. cable wires, roofing membranes). The aim of this study was to investigate how the increased usage of DPHP is reflected in urine samples collected over the last 14 years and to evaluate the current extent of exposure. We analyzed 300 urine samples (24h voids) from the German Environmental Specimen Bank collected in the years 1999, 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012, 60 samples per year, from 30 male and 30 female volunteers (age: 20-30 years) for three specific, secondary oxidized DPHP metabolites (with hydroxy, oxo and carboxy modifications of the alkyl side chain). We determined DPHP metabolites with a previously developed GC-HRMS method, enabling us to unambiguously distinguish DPHP metabolites from co-eluting, structurally isomeric di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP) metabolites. All samples were blinded before analysis. We detected no DPHP metabolites in urine samples from the years 1999, 2003 and 2006. Thereafter, detection rates increased from 3.3% in 2009 to 21.7% in 2012. Mono-oxo-propylheptylphthalate (oxo-MPHP) was the most abundant metabolite, with concentrations between 24h urine samples we calculated a maximum daily DPHP intake of 0.32μg/kg body weight. Our results show that the general German population is increasingly exposed to DPHP. However, exposure is considerably lower than for DIDP or other high molecular weight phthalates. Future measurements will enable us to monitor the development of DPHP exposure and advise risk management steps, if warranted. PMID:26077891

  19. The role of birth weight on litter size and mortality within 24h of life in purebred dogs: What aspects are involved?

    PubMed

    Groppetti, D; Ravasio, G; Bronzo, V; Pecile, A

    2015-12-01

    In humans, scientific evidence emphasizes the role of birth weight on neonatal welfare, morbidity and mortality. In canine species, defining normal ranges of birth weight is a harder issue due to a great morphological variability in size, body weight and breed. The aim of this study was to correlate birth weight with litter size and mortality within 24h of life in 789 pups from 140 litters of purebred dogs and to investigate the aspects that might affect these factors. Birth weight was influenced by maternal size, weight and age (P<0.001). The lightest pups were from toy sized or weighing up to 10 kg bitches. Conversely, bitches aged 2-8 years whelped heavier pups than younger and older mothers. Birth weight was also related both to litter size, with heavier pups in smaller rather than in larger litters from medium sized bitches, and breed (P<0.05). Unexpectedly, birth weight did not differ between live born and stillborn pups. However, birth weight was lower in pups dying within 24h of life (P<0.05). High mortality of pups was related both to short pregnancies (P<0.05), also showing lighter litters (P<0.001), and to dystocic parturitions (P<0.001). Litter size was associated with parity, type and number of mating, and length of pregnancy (P<0.001). Low birth weight appears to predispose to early neonatal mortality suggesting a predominant role of the breed rather than size and weight in determining birth weight in pups.

  20. Absolute 24 h quantification of 99Tcm-DMSA uptake in patients with severely reduced kidney function: a comparison with 51Cr-EDTA clearance.

    PubMed

    van de Wiele, C; van den Eeckhaut, A; Verweire, W; van Haelst, J P; Versijpt, J; Dierckx, R A

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether absolute 24 h DMSA uptake measurements (%DMSA) correlate well with 51Cr-EDTA clearance measurements in patients with severely reduced kidney function (SRKF). Between 1990 and 1997, 55 of 482 patients who underwent EDTA clearance measurements also underwent %DMSA within 1 week. Of these, 31 were women and 24 were men (mean age 60 years; range 19-77 years). EDTA clearance was determined using the slope-intercept method. Absolute depth- and background-corrected %DMSA were determined 24 h following the injection of 185 MBq per 1.73 m2 freshly prepared 99Tcm-DMSA. All patients had EDTA clearance < or = 60 ml.min-1. Eighteen patients (group A: 9 men and 9 women, mean age 55.8 years, range 28-73 years) had EDTA clearance > 20 ml.min-1 (mean +/- S.D. = 30.9 +/- 13.8 ml.min-1), whereas 37 patients (group B: 22 women and 15 men, mean age 62.0 years, range 19-77 years) had EDTA clearance < 20 ml.min-1 (mean +/- S.D. = 10.2 +/- 6.6 ml.min-1). EDTA clearance correlated well with %DMSA for the patients as a whole and for group A (r = 0.87, P = 0.73; r = 0.79, P = 0.0001 respectively). The regression equation suggests that %DMSA is not a marker of early renal dysfunction. In group B, the r-value (r = 0.48, P = 0.004) suggests that %DMSA is reliable as a marker of severe renal dysfunction to the extent that it provides rough information. In conclusion, %DMSA may not be used as a marker of early renal impairment. Additionally, in patients with severely reduced kidney function (EDTA clearance < 20 ml.min-1), it only provides a rough estimate.

  1. The role of birth weight on litter size and mortality within 24h of life in purebred dogs: What aspects are involved?

    PubMed

    Groppetti, D; Ravasio, G; Bronzo, V; Pecile, A

    2015-12-01

    In humans, scientific evidence emphasizes the role of birth weight on neonatal welfare, morbidity and mortality. In canine species, defining normal ranges of birth weight is a harder issue due to a great morphological variability in size, body weight and breed. The aim of this study was to correlate birth weight with litter size and mortality within 24h of life in 789 pups from 140 litters of purebred dogs and to investigate the aspects that might affect these factors. Birth weight was influenced by maternal size, weight and age (P<0.001). The lightest pups were from toy sized or weighing up to 10 kg bitches. Conversely, bitches aged 2-8 years whelped heavier pups than younger and older mothers. Birth weight was also related both to litter size, with heavier pups in smaller rather than in larger litters from medium sized bitches, and breed (P<0.05). Unexpectedly, birth weight did not differ between live born and stillborn pups. However, birth weight was lower in pups dying within 24h of life (P<0.05). High mortality of pups was related both to short pregnancies (P<0.05), also showing lighter litters (P<0.001), and to dystocic parturitions (P<0.001). Litter size was associated with parity, type and number of mating, and length of pregnancy (P<0.001). Low birth weight appears to predispose to early neonatal mortality suggesting a predominant role of the breed rather than size and weight in determining birth weight in pups. PMID:26520054

  2. Impact of hypobaric hypoxia in pressurized cabins of simulated long-distance flights on the 24 h patterns of biological variables, fatigue, and clinical status.

    PubMed

    Coste, Olivier; Van Beers, Pascal; Touitou, Yvan

    2007-01-01

    Long-distance flights can cause a number of clinical problems in both passengers and crewmembers. Jet lag as well as mild hypoxia resulting from incomplete cabin pressurization could contribute to these problems. The objective of this study was to assess, using a chronobiological approach, the clinical impact of diurnal hypobaric, hypoxic exposure on fatigue and other common symptoms encountered during high-altitude exposure and to measure changes in blood chemistry (i.e., plasma creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, glycemia, and lipids). Fourteen healthy, diurnally active (from 07:00 to 23:00 h) male volunteers, aged 23 to 39 yrs, spent 8.5 h in a hypobaric chamber (08:00 to 16:30 h), at a simulated altitude of 8,000 ft (2,438 m). This was followed by an additional 8.5 h of study four weeks later at a simulated altitude of 12,000 ft (3,658 m). Clinical data were collected every 2 h between 08:00 and 18:00 h, and biological variables were assayed every 2 h over two (control and hypoxic-exposure) 24 h cycles. Clinical symptoms were more frequent with the 12,000 ft exposure. Wide interindividual variability was observed in the clinical tolerance to prolonged hypobaric hypoxia. The 24 h profiles of most biochemical variables were significantly altered at each altitude, with changes in mean plasma levels and a tendency toward phase delay, except for uric acid, which showed a phase advance. Changes in appetite mainly occurred with the simulated 12,000 ft exposure and may have been associated with changes in the postprandial glycemia profile. Finally, though the observed biochemical changes were significant, their clinical relevance must be clarified in studies involving actual long-distance flights. PMID:18075804

  3. Rhythmic 24 h variation of core body temperature and locomotor activity in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the tuco-tuco.

    PubMed

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents.

  4. Sex-specific 24-h acetylcholine release profile in the medial prefrontal cortex: simultaneous measurement of spontaneous locomotor activity in behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Takase, K; Kimura, F; Yagami, T; Mitsushima, D

    2009-03-01

    The difference in visual object recognition by males and females suggests a sex-specific function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In the present study, we performed an in vivo microdialysis study in three groups of rats (males, diestrous females, and proestrous females) to examine the potential sex difference in acetylcholine (ACh) release in the mPFC. The dialysate was automatically collected from the mPFC every 20 min for 24 h under freely moving conditions and the spontaneous locomotor activity was simultaneously monitored. Although ACh release in the mPFC during the dark phase was significantly greater than during the light phase in both sexes, the female rats consistently exhibited a significantly greater mean ACh release than the males. Spontaneous locomotor activity during the dark phase was also significantly greater than during the light phase in both sexes, but the females exhibited significantly greater spontaneous locomotor activity than the males. In addition, both sexes of rats were found to have significant positive correlations between ACh release and spontaneous locomotor activity, but females were found to have significantly greater correlation coefficients than males. Stereological methods were used to examine the number of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis and the horizontal diagonal band of Broca. The number of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis was also greater in females than males, suggesting a contribution to the higher ACh release in females. In contrast, no sex difference in the choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells was observed in the horizontal diagonal band of Broca. This is the first report to show a sex difference in the 24-h ACh release profile in the mPFC of behaving rats.

  5. Sex-specific 24-h acetylcholine release profile in the medial prefrontal cortex: simultaneous measurement of spontaneous locomotor activity in behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Takase, K; Kimura, F; Yagami, T; Mitsushima, D

    2009-03-01

    The difference in visual object recognition by males and females suggests a sex-specific function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In the present study, we performed an in vivo microdialysis study in three groups of rats (males, diestrous females, and proestrous females) to examine the potential sex difference in acetylcholine (ACh) release in the mPFC. The dialysate was automatically collected from the mPFC every 20 min for 24 h under freely moving conditions and the spontaneous locomotor activity was simultaneously monitored. Although ACh release in the mPFC during the dark phase was significantly greater than during the light phase in both sexes, the female rats consistently exhibited a significantly greater mean ACh release than the males. Spontaneous locomotor activity during the dark phase was also significantly greater than during the light phase in both sexes, but the females exhibited significantly greater spontaneous locomotor activity than the males. In addition, both sexes of rats were found to have significant positive correlations between ACh release and spontaneous locomotor activity, but females were found to have significantly greater correlation coefficients than males. Stereological methods were used to examine the number of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis and the horizontal diagonal band of Broca. The number of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis was also greater in females than males, suggesting a contribution to the higher ACh release in females. In contrast, no sex difference in the choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells was observed in the horizontal diagonal band of Broca. This is the first report to show a sex difference in the 24-h ACh release profile in the mPFC of behaving rats. PMID:19162130

  6. Rhythmic 24 h Variation of Core Body Temperature and Locomotor Activity in a Subterranean Rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the Tuco-Tuco

    PubMed Central

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents. PMID:24454916

  7. Agreement between an online dietary assessment tool (myfood24) and an interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall in British adolescents aged 11-18 years.

    PubMed

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Greenwood, Darren C; Cade, Janet E

    2016-05-01

    myfood24 Is an online 24-h dietary assessment tool developed for use among British adolescents and adults. Limited information is available regarding the validity of using new technology in assessing nutritional intake among adolescents. Thus, a relative validation of myfood24 against a face-to-face interviewer-administered 24-h multiple-pass recall (MPR) was conducted among seventy-five British adolescents aged 11-18 years. Participants were asked to complete myfood24 and an interviewer-administered MPR on the same day for 2 non-consecutive days at school. Total energy intake (EI) and nutrients recorded by the two methods were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots (using between and within-individual information) and weighted κ to assess the agreement. Energy, macronutrients and other reported nutrients from myfood24 demonstrated strong agreement with the interview MPR data, and ICC ranged from 0·46 for Na to 0·88 for EI. There was no significant bias between the two methods for EI, macronutrients and most reported nutrients. The mean difference between myfood24 and the interviewer-administered MPR for EI was -230 kJ (-55 kcal) (95 % CI -490, 30 kJ (-117, 7 kcal); P=0·4) with limits of agreement ranging between 39 % (3336 kJ (-797 kcal)) lower and 34 % (2874 kJ (687 kcal)) higher than the interviewer-administered MPR. There was good agreement in terms of classifying adolescents into tertiles of EI (κ w =0·64). The agreement between day 1 and day 2 was as good for myfood24 as for the interviewer-administered MPR, reflecting the reliability of myfood24. myfood24 Has the potential to collect dietary data of comparable quality with that of an interviewer-administered MPR.

  8. Agreement between an online dietary assessment tool (myfood24) and an interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall in British adolescents aged 11-18 years.

    PubMed

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Greenwood, Darren C; Cade, Janet E

    2016-05-01

    myfood24 Is an online 24-h dietary assessment tool developed for use among British adolescents and adults. Limited information is available regarding the validity of using new technology in assessing nutritional intake among adolescents. Thus, a relative validation of myfood24 against a face-to-face interviewer-administered 24-h multiple-pass recall (MPR) was conducted among seventy-five British adolescents aged 11-18 years. Participants were asked to complete myfood24 and an interviewer-administered MPR on the same day for 2 non-consecutive days at school. Total energy intake (EI) and nutrients recorded by the two methods were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots (using between and within-individual information) and weighted κ to assess the agreement. Energy, macronutrients and other reported nutrients from myfood24 demonstrated strong agreement with the interview MPR data, and ICC ranged from 0·46 for Na to 0·88 for EI. There was no significant bias between the two methods for EI, macronutrients and most reported nutrients. The mean difference between myfood24 and the interviewer-administered MPR for EI was -230 kJ (-55 kcal) (95 % CI -490, 30 kJ (-117, 7 kcal); P=0·4) with limits of agreement ranging between 39 % (3336 kJ (-797 kcal)) lower and 34 % (2874 kJ (687 kcal)) higher than the interviewer-administered MPR. There was good agreement in terms of classifying adolescents into tertiles of EI (κ w =0·64). The agreement between day 1 and day 2 was as good for myfood24 as for the interviewer-administered MPR, reflecting the reliability of myfood24. myfood24 Has the potential to collect dietary data of comparable quality with that of an interviewer-administered MPR. PMID:26975650

  9. Relationship between salt consumption measured by 24-h urine collection and blood pressure in the adult population of Vitória (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, S.L.; Souza, P.R.; Pimentel, E.B.; Baldo, M.P.; Malta, D.C.; Mill, J.G.; Szwarcwald, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    High salt intake is related to an increase in blood pressure and development of hypertension. However, currently, there are no national representative data in Brazil using the gold standard method of 24-h urine collection to measure sodium consumption. This study aimed to determine salt intake based on 24-h urine collection in a sample of 272 adults of both genders and to correlate it with blood pressure levels. We used a rigorous protocol to assure an empty bladder prior to initiating urine collection. We excluded subjects with a urine volume <500 mL, collection period outside of an interval of 23-25 h, and subjects with creatinine excretion that was not within the range of 14.4-33.6 mg/kg (men) and 10.8-25.2 mg/kg (women). The mean salt intake was 10.4±4.1 g/day (d), and 94% of the participants (98% of men and 90% of women) ingested more than the recommended level of 5 g/d. We found a positive association between salt and body mass index (BMI) categories, as well as with salt and blood pressure, independent of age and BMI. The difference in systolic blood pressure reached 13 mmHg between subjects consuming less than 6 g/d of salt and those ingesting more than 18 g/d. Subjects with hypertension had a higher estimated salt intake than normotensive subjects (11.4±5.0 vs 9.8±3.6 g/d, P<0.01), regardless of whether they were under treatment. Our data indicate the need for interventions to reduce sodium intake, as well the need for ongoing, appropriate monitoring of salt consumption in the general population. PMID:26132095

  10. Loop-acting diuretics do not bind to Tamm-Horsfall urinary glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Brunisholz, M C; Lynn, K L; Hunt, J S

    1987-09-01

    1. Binding between the radiolabelled loop-acting diuretics ([14C]frusemide, [14C]ethacrynic acid and [3H]bumetanide) and human Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein or human serum albumin in vitro was evaluated by equilibrium dialysis. 2. The diuretic action and binding to urinary Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein of the radiolabelled diuretics in vivo, after intravenous administration, were examined in rabbits. 3. In vitro, all three radiolabelled diuretics bound strongly to human serum albumin, but not to Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein. 4. Radiolabelled frusemide and bumetanide, but not ethacrynic acid, caused a diuresis in rabbits, but no binding between the drugs and Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein was seen in vivo. 5. Binding to Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein does not appear to be an important mechanism in the action of loop diuretics.

  11. Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations

    PubMed Central

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Erickson, Stephen B.; Rule, Andrew D.; Enders, Felicity; Lieske, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many patients cannot effectively increase water intake and urine volume to prevent urinary stones. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, blocks water reabsorption in the collecting duct and should reduce urinary supersaturation (SS) of stone forming solutes, but this has never been proven. Materials and Methods We conducted a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 adult calcium urinary stone formers stratified as majority calcium oxalate(CaOx, n=10) or calcium phosphate(CaP, n=11). Patients received tolvaptan 45 mg/day or placebo for 1 week, followed by a washout week and crossover to tolvaptan or placebo for week 3. A 24h urines was collected at the end of weeks 1 and 3. Results Tolvaptan vs. placebo decreased urinary osmolality (204±96 vs 529±213 mOsm/kg, P<0.001) and increased urinary volume (4.8±2.9 vs 1.8±0.9 L, P<0.001). The majority of urinary solute excretion rates including sodium and calcium did not significantly change, although oxalate secretion slightly increased (23±8 to 15±8 mg/24h, P = 0.009). Urinary CaOx SS (−0.01±1.14 vs 0.95±0.87 DG, P<0.001), CaP SS (−1.66±1.17 vs −0.13±1.02 DG, P<0.001) and Uric Acid SS (−2.05±4.05 vs −5.24±3.12 DG, P=0.04) all dramatically decreased. Effects did not differ between CaOx and CaP groups (P>0.05 for all interactions). Conclusions Tolvaptan increases urine volume and decreases urinary SS in calcium stone formers. Further study is needed to determine if long term use of V2 receptor antagonists results in fewer stone events. PMID:26598423

  12. Effect of potential renal acid load of foods on urinary citrate excretion in calcium renal stone formers.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Lizzano, Renata; Marchesotti, Federica; Zanetti, Giampaolo

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet on the urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. The present series comprises 187 consecutive renal calcium stone patients (114 males, 73 females) who were studied in our stone clinic. Each patient was subjected to an investigation including a 24-h dietary record and 24-h urine sample taken over the same period. Nutrients and calories were calculated by means of food composition tables using a computerized procedure. Daily PRAL was calculated considering the mineral and protein composition of foods, the mean intestinal absorption rate for each nutrient and the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, oxalate, urate, citrate, and creatinine levels were measured in the urine. The mean daily PRAL was higher in male than in female patients (24.1+/-24.0 vs 16.1+/-20.1 mEq/day, P=0.000). A significantly (P=0.01) negative correlation (R=-0.18) was found between daily PRAL and daily urinary citrate, but no correlation between PRAL and urinary calcium, oxalate, and urate was shown. Daily urinary calcium (R=0.186, P=0.011) and uric acid (R=0.157, P=0.033) were significantly related to the dietary intake of protein. Daily urinary citrate was significantly related to the intakes of copper (R=0.178, P=0.015), riboflavin (R=0.20, P=0.006), piridoxine (R=0.169, P=0.021) and biotin (R=0.196, P=0.007). The regression analysis by stepwise selection confirmed the significant negative correlation between PRAL and urinary citrate (P=0.002) and the significant positive correlation between riboflavin and urinary citrate (P=0.000). Urinary citrate excretion of renal stone formers (RSFs) is highly dependent from dietary acid load. The computation of the renal acid load is advisable to investigate the role of diet in the pathogenesis of calcium stone disease and it is also a useful tool to evaluate the lithogenic potential of

  13. Preclinical evaluation of novel urinary biomarkers of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Prozialeck, Walter C. Edwards, Joshua R.; Vaidya, Vishal S.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2009-08-01

    As a result of the widespread use of Cd in industry and its extensive dissemination in the environment, there has been considerable interest in the identification of early biomarkers of Cd-induced kidney injury. Kim-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is not detectable in normal kidney, but is up-regulated and shed into the urine following ischemic or nephrotoxic injury. Recent studies utilizing a sub-chronic model of Cd exposure in the rat have shown that Kim-1 is an early urinary marker of Cd-induced kidney injury. Kim-1 was detected in the urine 4-5 weeks before the onset of proteinuria and 1-3 weeks before the appearance of urinary metallothionein and Clara cell protein 16, which are standard markers of Cd nephrotoxicity. In the present study, we have compared the time course for the appearance of Kim-1 in the urine with the time course for the appearance of alpha glutathione-S-transferase ({alpha}-GST), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucose amidase (NAG) and Cd, each of which have been used or proposed as urinary markers of Cd nephrotoxicity. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given daily subcutaneous injections of 0.6 mg (5.36 {mu}moles)/kg Cd, 5 days per week for up to 12 weeks. One day each week, 24 h urine samples were collected and analyzed for protein, creatinine and the various markers. The results showed that significant levels of Kim-1 appeared in the urine as early as 6 weeks into the treatment protocol and then continued to rise for the remainder of the 12 week treatment period. By contrast, significant levels of {alpha}-GST and NAG did not appear in the urine until 8 and 12 weeks, respectively, while proteinuria was not evident until 10 weeks. The urinary excretion of Cd was below the level of detection until week 4 and then showed a slow, linear increase over the next 6 weeks before increasing markedly between weeks 10 and 12. These results provide additional evidence that Kim-1 is a sensitive biomarker of the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule

  14. Effect of two sports drinks on urinary lithogenicity.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jeffrey W; Asplin, John R; Goldfarb, David S

    2009-02-01

    The effect of commercial oral rehydration solutions ("sports drinks") relative to water on risk of nephrolithiasis has not been studied previously. We studied the effect of two sports drinks, Performance (Shaklee Corp., Pleasanton, CA, USA) and Gatorade (Gatorade, Chicago, IL, USA) on urinary chemistry and measures of lithogenicity in non-stone formers. Performance has a pH of 4.3, and contains 21 mmol/L of sodium, 5.3 mmol/L of potassium, 0.8 mmol/L of calcium, and 19.5 mmol/L of citrate. Gatorade pH ranges from 2.9 to 3.2, and contains 20 mmol/L of sodium, 3.2 mmol/L of potassium, negligible calcium, and 13.9 mmol/L of citrate. Subjects drank 946 ml (32 oz) of tap water daily for 3 days, and recorded diet history. This was followed by a second 3-day experimental period during which subjects drank 946 ml (32 oz) of sports drink daily, duplicating diets from part 1. In each 3-day period, urine was collected for 24 h during days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, and supersaturations of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and uric acid were calculated. Nine subjects completed the study using Performance, ten used Gatorade. Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not different during the control and experimental periods. Performance increased mean citrate excretion by 170 mg/day (95% CI 57-284 mg/day; P = 0.01) and increased urine pH by 0.31 (95% CI 0.03-0.59; P = 0.03). Gatorade did not significantly change urinary citrate excretion or pH. Neither drink caused significant differences in the excretion of sodium and calcium or any supersaturation value. Ingestion of Performance, but not Gatorade, led to an increase in mean urinary citrate excretion and pH as compared to water. The increase in citrate is likely to be a clinically significant effect. pH is an important determinant of alkali load in beverages containing organic anions. Performance, with more citrate and a higher pH than Gatorade, could represent a superior alternative to water for

  15. Mechanisms of albumin uptake by proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, N

    2001-01-01

    The likely role of albumin in the induction tubulo-interstitial injury in proteinuria has stimulated considerable interest in the entry of albumin into the proximal tubule and its subsequent uptake by proximal tubular cells. Currently, there is considerable controversy over the degree of glomerular permeability to albumin. After filtration, however, albumin binds to megalin and cubulin, two giant receptors in the apical membrane of proximal tubular cells. Albumin is subsequently re-absorbed by proximal tubular cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, a process subject to complex regulation. The interaction of albumin with proximal tubule cells also leads to the generation of intracellular signals. The understanding of these pathways may provide important insights into the pathogenesis of renal scarring in proteinuria. PMID:11158855

  16. [URINARY DISCOMFORTS IN PATIENTS AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY].

    PubMed

    Al'-Shukri, S Kh; Ananiĭ, I A; Amdiĭ, R E; Kuz'min, I V

    2015-01-01

    The authors showed the result of complication treatment of lower urinary tracts in 128 patients with localized prostate cancer. The patients underwent radical prostatectomy. Urinary discomforts included enuresis, urinary incontinence in postoperative period. Abnormalities of urine outflow due to urethral stricture were revealed in 6 (4,6%) patients by the 6 month after operation. These complications required surgical treatment. Urinary incontinence was noted in 20 (15,6%) patients in this period. It was stressful urinary incontinence in 16 (12,6%) and urgent - in 4 (3%). Patents with stressful urinary difficulty were advised to use the conservative treatment (pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation), but in case of inefficiency - surgical treatment.

  17. Experimental investigation of the serum albumin fascia microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.; Shishpor, I. V.

    2012-09-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of biological liquids are reported. Structural effects observed in fascias are considered with account of the molecular features of albumin and the concept of supramolecular organization of polymers. It is revealed that the morphology of human serum albumin fascias depends on the concentration and quality of the solvent. It is shown that the water-salt fascias of albumin are more structured than water solutions with the same concentration.

  18. Transfer of oleic acid between albumin and phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J A; Cistola, D P

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by 13C NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted [1-13C]oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles (vesicles or albumin with oleic acid) and acceptor particles (fatty acid-free albumin or vesicles), the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with greater than or equal to 80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was greater than or equal to 90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin; at pH 5.4, less than or equal to 10% of the oleic acid was bound to albumin and greater than 90% was associated with vesicles. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The 13C NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data. PMID:3455761

  19. Transfer of Oleic Acid between Albumin and Phospholipid Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, James A.; Cistola, David P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by 13C NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted [1-13C]oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles (vesicles or albumin with oleic acid) and acceptor particles (fatty acid-free albumin or vesicles), the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with >= 80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was >= 90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin; at pH 5.4, <= 10% of the oleic acid was bound to albumin and >90% was associated with vesicles. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The 13C NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data.

  20. Urinary Biomarkers of Oxidative Status

    PubMed Central

    Il’yasova, Dora; Scarbrough, Peter; Spasojevic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the etiology and pathology of many health conditions, including a large number of chronic diseases. Urinary biomarkers of oxidative status present a great opportunity to study redox balance in human populations. With urinary biomarkers, specimen collection is non-invasive and the organic/metal content is low, which minimizes the artifactual formation of oxidative damage to molecules in specimens. Also, urinary levels of the biomarkers present intergraded indices of redox balance over a longer period of time compared to blood levels. This review summarizes the criteria for evaluation of biomarkers applicable to epidemiological studies and evaluation of several classes of biomarkers that are formed non-enzymatically: oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, DNA, and allantoin, an oxidative product of uric acid. The review considers formation, metabolism, and exertion of each biomarker, available data on validation in animal and clinical models of oxidative stress, analytical approaches, and their intra- and inter-individual variation. The recommended biomarkers for monitoring oxidative status over time are F2-isoprostanes and 8-oxodG. For inter-individual comparisons, F2-isoprostanes are recommended, whereas urinary 8-oxodG levels may be confounded by differences in the DNA repair capacity. Promising urinary biomarkers include allantoin, acrolein-lysine, and dityrosine. PMID:22683781

  1. Urothelial Bladder Cancer Urinary Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Noon, Aidan P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Urothelial bladder cancer is the fourth most prevalent male malignancy in the United States and also one of the ten most lethal. Superficial or non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer has a high rate of recurrence and can progress to muscle invasive disease. Conventional surveillance requires regular cystoscopy and is used often with urinary cytology. Unfortunately, the cystoscopy procedure is invasive for patients and costly for health care providers. Urinary biomarkers have the potential to improve bladder cancer diagnosis, the efficiency and also the cost-effectiveness of follow up. It may also be possible for urinary biomarkers to help prognosticate particularly for patients with high-grade bladder cancer who may want enhanced assessment of their risk of disease progression. In this review the important historical urinary biomarkers and the newly emerging biomarkers are discussed. As will be presented, although many of the tests have good performance characteristics, unfortunately no single test can fulfill all the roles currently provided by cystoscopy and cytology. It is likely that in the future, urinary biomarker testing will be used selectively in a personalized manner to try and improve prognostication or reduce the necessity for invasive cystoscopy in patients understanding the limits of the test.

  2. [Infection-induced urinary stones].

    PubMed

    Bichler, K-H; Eipper, E; Naber, K

    2003-01-01

    Infection stones make up approximately 15% of urinary stone diseases and are thus an important group. These stones are composed of struvite and/or carbonate apatite. The basic precondition for the formation of infection stones is a urease-positive urinary tract infection. Urease is necessary to split urea into ammonia and CO(2). As a result, ammonia ions can form and at the same time alkaline urine develops, both being preconditions for the formation of struvite and carbonate apatite crystals. When these crystals are deposited infection stones form. Pathogenetically, various risk factors play a role: urinary obstruction, neurogenic bladder, dRTA, and MSK. If these infections are not treated and the stones are not removed, the kidney will be damaged. Modern methods are available for stone removal, e.g., ESWL and/or instrumental urinary stone removal. Here, especially less invasive methods are preferable. Any treatment must be adjusted to the patient individually. Patients should be examined frequently for recurrent urinary tract infections and stone recurrences, and new infections must be resolutely treated. Good therapy and prophylaxis are possible with present-day treatment modalities. PMID:12574884

  3. Albumin-bound bilirubin in subchoroidal fluid.

    PubMed

    Lam, W K; Lee, P F; Ray, S; Feman, S; van Heuven, W A

    1979-01-01

    The most unique property of subchoroidal fluid was found to be the high bilirubin level. One distinct yellow band in the same position as albumin was observed when it was subjected to electrophoresis on agarose film. The yellow compound was very soluble in chloroform. Its identity to bilirubin was confirmed by its absorption maximum at 445 nm, and a positive reaction with Ehrlich's diazo reagent. Subretinal fluid and liquid vitreous often had a yellowish appearance after ocular hemorrhage. However, their bilirubin level was not elevated above that of serum. Our data indicated that the degradation of RBCs may be an important causative factor of persistant detachment. PMID:758891

  4. Assay of urinary excretion of polyphenols after ingestion of a cup of mountain tea (Sideritis scardica) measured by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Petreska Stanoeva, Jasmina; Stefova, Marina

    2013-11-01

    Flavonoids and phenolic acid metabolites excreted in human urine after ingestion of Sideritis scardica decoction with characterized polyphenolic composition were studied. A feeding study was carried out with 10 human volunteers, and urine samples were collected for 24 h after ingestion of the Sidertis decoction. Polyphenol metabolites were identified and quantified in urine samples by HPLC with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Thirty-one different metabolites of hypolaetin, methylhypolaetin, isoscutellarein, methylisoscutellarein, and apigenin and 32 phenolic acid metabolites were detected and quantified using a method validated for this purpose. The urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites corresponded to 5% (n/n) of the intake of polyphenols from the Sideritis decoction. Flavonoid metabolites were dominant in urine samples with 87-94% of total polyphenolic metabolites content. The most abundant metabolites were methylhypolaetin and methylisoscutellarein glucuronides. Urinary excretion of isoscutellarein (35.61%) was 10 times higher than that of hypolaetin (3.67%). Apigenin also showed high urinary excretion (32.46%).

  5. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  6. Elevated urinary D-lactate levels in patients with diabetes and microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chu-Kuang; Lee, Ya-Ting; Chen, Shih-Ming; Hsieh, Chi-Wen; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Li, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Jen-Ai

    2015-12-10

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become the major cause of end-stage renal disease. Early detection of disease risk, to enable intervention before advanced renal damage occurs, is an important goal. Microalbuminuria has been used to monitor renal damage in clinical settings for years. In this study, we divided patients with diabetes into different groups based on their microalbumin values to elucidate the relationship between urinary D-lactate and corresponding microalbumin values. Group DM1 comprised of patients with an albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) of less than 30 μg albumin/mg creatinine (normal range); Group DM2 comprised of patients with an ACR of 30-299 μg albumin/mg creatinine (microalbuminuria); and Group DM3 comprised of patients with an ACR of ≥300 μg albumin/mg creatinine (macroalbuminuria). The urinary D-lactate concentration of patients with diabetes was determined by pre-column fluorescence derivatization with 4-nitro-7-piperazino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-PZ), and the accuracy (recovery) and precision (relative standard deviation; RSD) were validated. The measured values showed an accuracy that was in the acceptable range (91.59-112.96%), with an RSD in the range of 3.13-13.21%. The urinary D-lactate levels of the 3 diabetic groups (groups DM1, DM2, and DM3) were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects (78.31 ± 22.13, 92.47 ± 21.98, and 47.29 ± 17.51 vs. 6.28 ± 2.39 nmol/mg creatinine, respectively; p<0.05), with urinary D-lactate levels in the DM2 group being the highest. This modified fluorescence-based, high-performance liquid chromatography method to quantify D-lactate concentrations in the urine of patients with diabetes was established. Also, measuring the new risk marker identified in this study (D-lactate) in combination with microalbumin may facilitate the prevention of DN. PMID:26166004

  7. Effects of serum-isolated vs synthetic bilirubin-albumin complexes on dye-binding methods for estimating serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Ihara, H; Nakamura, H; Aoki, Y; Aoki, T; Yoshida, M

    1991-07-01

    Bush and Reed reported (Clin Chem 1987;33:821-3) that the reaction of albumin with bromcresol purple but not with bromcresol green underestimated the concentration of albumin in synthetically obtained bilirubin-albumin (Bd) by 29%. Their unproven assumption was that chemically synthesized Bd behaved in a manner indistinguishable from the natural Bd in icteric serum. Here we verify that Bd, whether synthetically obtained or isolated from serum, causes an underestimation of albumin in the bromcresol purple but not in the bromcresol green method. The molar ratio of Bd from either source to underestimated albumin approximates 1.0, suggesting that one molecule of Bd would react equivalently to a molecule of albumin in the bromcresol purple method. This underestimation might falsely suggest hypoalbuminemia in patients with increased serum Bd. PMID:1855300

  8. Multicentre physiological reference values for some urinary component-to-creatinine (creatininium) concentration ratios.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Arderiu, Xavier; Mas-Serra, Roser; de-Nó-Lengaran, Carmen; Espejo-López, Francisco; Filgueiras-Martínez, Paula; Gassiot-Cordomí, Paula; Idoate-Cervantes, Isabel; Poncela-García, María Victoria; Porras-Gracia, Juan; Sanz-Lobo, Irene; Viloria-Peñas, María del Mar; Juvé-Cuxart, Santiago

    2005-01-01

    Nine clinical laboratories in different regions of Spain have shared the search for reference individuals and the production of reference values for urinary component-to-creatininium concentration ratios measured in first morning urine samples using RD/Hitachi analysers. These urinary quantities include albumin, calcium(II), chloride, magnesium(II), phosphate, potassium ion, protein, sodium ion, urate and urea. All the logistic work was done in co-operation with the reagents' and analysers' supplier (Roche Diagnostics España, S.L., Sant Cugat del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain). From the blend of reference values obtained by each laboratory, the multicentre reference limits were estimated parametrically after mathematical transformation of original data.

  9. Drug-Induced Urinary Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Matlaga, Brian R; Shah, Ojas D; Assimos, Dean G

    2003-01-01

    Urinary calculi may be induced by a number of medications used to treat a variety of conditions. These medications may lead to metabolic abnormalities that facilitate the formation of stones. Drugs that induce metabolic calculi include loop diuretics; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; and laxatives, when abused. Correcting the metabolic abnormality may eliminate or dramatically attenuate stone activity. Urinary calculi can also be induced by medications when the drugs crystallize and become the primary component of the stones. In this case, urinary supersaturation of the agent may promote formation of the calculi. Drugs that induce calculi via this process include magnesium trisilicate; ciprofloxacin; sulfa medications; triamterene; indinavir; and ephedrine, alone or in combination with guaifenesin. When this situation occurs, discontinuation of the medication is usually necessary. PMID:16985842

  10. Effective management of urinary discomfort.

    PubMed

    Hassay, K A

    1995-02-01

    Urinary discomfort is the second most common physical complaint affecting women. Although urinary discomfort is commonly a result of inflammation due to bacterial invasion, there are also nonbacterial causes. The development of antimicrobial resistance to bacteria is frequent and costs the patient and the medical community unnecessary time and money. Antimicrobial intervention should be instituted only after the uropathogen is identified through a urine culture. While awaiting the results of the urine culture or other laboratory or radiological tests, the patient's symptoms can be relieved with the use of urinary analgesics or antispasmodics. This conservative approach meets the immediate concern of the patient and better ensures a proper diagnostic workup and successful cure. Along with a conservative diagnostic approach, the patient should be included in all aspects of health care management.

  11. Adsorption of serum albumin to thin films of poly(lactide-co-glycolide).

    PubMed

    Butler, S M; Tracy, M A; Tilton, R D

    1999-04-19

    Protein adsorption has been implicated in the variability of drug release from biodegradable microspheres. We used optical reflectometry to measure the extent and kinetics of bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption to smooth spin-cast films prepared from two poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) samples that have different end-groups, one being a hydrophilic carboxylic end group and the other a hydrophobic ester end group. One of us has previously shown that these end-groups influence microsphere degradation (Tracy et al. , 1998, Factors affecting the degradation rate of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres in vivo and in vitro. Biomaterials: submitted for publication.). Both films were moderately hydrophobic, and their wettability was independent of the type of end-group. BSA adsorbed readily to both native PLG films, attaining as much as 50% surface coverage by area and was insensitive to the type of end-group. Aging the films in water for 24 h prior to BSA exposure decreased the hydrophobicity of the films and this in turn correlated with a significant decrease in the initial BSA adsorption rate. This was consistent with the often-observed trend that surface hydrophobicity favors protein adsorption. In spite of the lower adsorption affinity revealed by this decreased initial adsorption rate, the final adsorbed amounts on the aged films exceeded those attained on native films, presumably due to the increase in total surface area produced by partial PLG erosion.

  12. Depletion of urinary zilpaterol residues in horses as measured by ELISA and UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Shelver, Weilin L; Thorson, Jennifer F; Hammer, Carolyn J; Smith, David J

    2010-04-14

    Three horses were dosed with dietary zilpaterol and the urine concentrations measured from withdrawal day 0 to withdrawal day 21. The analyses were carried out using both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an ultraperformance liquid chromatography with triple-quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometric detection (UPLC-MS/MS). The UPLC-MS/MS method was developed to provide rapid analysis with positive analyte identification by following three product ions and computing the two independent ion ratios. When urinary zilpaterol concentrations were between 0.2 and 2 ng/mL, the ELISA had interday recoveries of 114-120% with coefficients of variation (CV) of <22%; intraday recoveries were 79-111% with CVs of <13%. For urinary zilpaterol concentrations of 0.4-40 ng/mL the UPLC-MS/MS method had interday recoveries of 94-104% with CVs of <8%; intraday recoveries were 97-102% with CVs of < or = 7.5%. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the ELISA and UPLC-MS/MS methods returned essentially the same results, especially at urinary zilpaterol concentrations below 2000 ng/mL. Urinary excretion peaked rapidly after dosing between 5300 and 10800 ng/mL (UPLC-MS/MS) or between 5900 and 17900 ng/mL (ELISA) for the different horses, much higher than observed in other species. Urinary zilpaterol concentrations declined rapidly to below 3000 ng/mL within 24 h of study day 1. After about 5 days, zilpaterol elimination slowed markedly, taking nearly 10 days for an order of magnitude decrease. The analytical methods were able to detect zilpaterol in the urine even at withdrawal day 21, demonstrating the sensitivity of each analytical method and the slow rate of zilpaterol depuration from horses.

  13. Urinary α-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman can be used as a predictor of α-tocopherol adequacy, as demonstrated in the Energetics Study123

    PubMed Central

    Lebold, Katie M; Ang, Alfonso; Traber, Maret G; Arab, Lenore

    2012-01-01

    Background: Other than the in vitro erythrocyte hemolysis test, no valid biomarkers of vitamin E status currently exist. Objective: We hypothesized that the urinary vitamin E metabolite α-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman (α-CEHC) could serve as a biomarker. Design: The relations between urinary α-CEHC, plasma α-tocopherol, and vitamin E intakes were assessed by using a previously validated multipass, Web-based, 24-h self-administered dietary recall, and we concurrently collected plasma and 24-h urine samples from 233 participants of both sexes. Results: Median vitamin E intakes were 9.7 mg α-tocopherol/d. Intakes were correlated with plasma α-tocopherol (R = 0.40, P < 0.001) and urinary α-CEHC (R = 0.42, P < 0.001); these correlations were essentially unchanged after multivariate adjustments. On the basis of multiple regression analysis, urinary α-CEHC excretion increased by ∼0.086 μmol/g creatinine (95% CI: 0.047, 0.125) for every 1-mg (2.3-μmol) increase in dietary α-tocopherol. Urinary α-CEHC excretion remained at a plateau (median: 1.39 μmol/g creatinine) until dietary intakes of α-tocopherol exceeded 9 mg α-tocopherol/d. The inflection point at which vitamin E metabolism increased was estimated to be at an intake of 12.8 mg α-tocopherol/d. Daily excretion of >1.39 μmol α-CEHC/g creatinine is associated with a greater than adequate α-tocopherol status, as evidenced by increased vitamin E metabolism and excretion. Conclusion: Thus, urinary α-CEHC is a valid biomarker of α-tocopherol status that can be used to set a value for the Estimated Adequate Requirement of vitamin E. PMID:22952171

  14. Bladder instillation of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide alters the muscle contractions in rat urinary bladder via a protein kinase C-related pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, T.I.; Chen, W.J.; Liu, S.H. . E-mail: shliu@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2005-10-15

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli is a common cause of urinary tract infection. We determined the effects of intravesical instillation of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) on muscle contractions, protein kinase C (PKC) translocation, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rat urinary bladder. The contractions of the isolated rat detrusor muscle evoked by electrical field stimulations were measured short-term (1 h) or long-term (24 h) after intravesical instillation of LPS. One hour after LPS intravesical instillation, bladder PKC-{alpha} translocation from cytosolic fraction to membrane fraction and endothelial (e)NOS protein was elevated, and detrusor muscle contractions were significantly increased. PKC inhibitors chelerythrine and Ro32-0432 inhibited this LPS-enhanced contractile response. Application of PKC activator {beta}-phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate enhanced the muscle contractions. Three hours after intravesical instillation of LPS, iNOS mRNA was detected in the bladder. Immunoblotting study also demonstrated that the induction of iNOS proteins is detected in bladder in which LPS was instilled. 24 h after intravesical instillation of LPS, PKC-{alpha} translocation was impaired in the bladder; LPS did not affect PKC-{delta} translocation. Muscle contractions were also decreased 24 h after LPS intravesical instillation. Aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, blocked the decrease in PKC-{alpha} translocation and detrusor contractions induced by LPS. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms involved in the alteration of urinary bladder contractions after short-term and long-term treatment of LPS; an iNOS-regulated PKC signaling may participate in causing the inhibition of muscle contractions in urinary bladder induced by long-term LPS treatment.

  15. Sinusoidal 50 Hz, 500 {micro}T magnetic field has no acute effect on urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, J.; Nagy, N.; Thuroczy, G.; Szabo, L.D.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of a 50 Hz, vertical magnetic field on the excretion of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) of male and female Wistar rats was studied in a self-controlled experiment. Twenty rats were kept in metabolic cages under 9:15 h light:dark conditions. The urine of the animals was collected twice per day for 5 consecutive days. The concentration of aMT6s in the rat urine was measured by {sup 125}I radioimmunoassay. The rats were exposed to 5 and 500 {micro}T flux density for 24 h. The excretion of urinary aMT6s did not show significant changes during or after magnetic field exposure.

  16. Urinary catheters - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... 303:2172-2181. Payne CK. Conservative management of urinary incontinence: behavioral and pelvic floor therapy, urethral and pelvic ... review: randomized, controlled trials of nonsurgical treatments for urinary incontinence in women. Ann Intern Med . 2008;148:459- ...

  17. Urinary markers for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Zachary L.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer has the fifth highest incidence of all malignancies in the United States, with a propensity to recur, requiring lifelong surveillance after diagnosis. Urinary markers of disease have been of extreme interest in this field in an effort to simplify surveillance schedules and improve early detection of tumors. Many markers have been described, but most remain investigational. However, some markers have undergone clinical trials and are approved for clinical use. In this review, urinary markers and their application for screening and surveillance of bladder cancer are discussed. PMID:23864929

  18. Number of spermatozoa in the crypts of the sperm reservoir at about 24 h after a low-dose intrauterine and deep intrauterine insemination in sows.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, P; Tienthai, P

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number of spermatozoa in the crypts of the utero-tubal junction (UTJ) and the oviduct of sows approximately 24 h after intrauterine insemination (IUI) and deep intrauterine insemination (DIUI) and compared with that of conventional artificial insemination (AI). Fifteen crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire (LY) multiparous sows were used in the experiment. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed every 4 h to examine the time of ovulation in relation to oestrous behaviour. The sows were inseminated with a single dose of diluted fresh semen by the AI (n = 5), IUI (n = 5) and DIUI (n = 5) at approximately 6-8 h prior to the expected time of ovulation, during the second oestrus after weaning. The sperm dose contained 3000 x 10(6) spermatozoa in 100 ml for AI, 1,000 x 10(6) spermatozoa in 50 ml for IUI and 150 x 10(6) spermatozoa in 5 ml for DIUI. The sows were anaesthetized and ovario-hysterectomized approximately 24 h after insemination. The oviducts and the proximal part of the uterine horns (1 cm) on each side of the reproductive tracts were collected. The section was divided into four parts, i.e. UTJ, caudal isthmus, cranial isthmus and ampulla. The spermatozoa in the lumen in each part were flushed several times with phosphate buffer solution. After flushing, the UTJ and all parts of the oviducts were immersed in a 10% neutral buffered formalin solution. The UTJ and each part of the oviducts were cut into four equal parts and embedded in a paraffin block. The tissue sections were transversely sectioned to a thickness of 5 mum. Every fifth serial section was mounted and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The total number of spermatozoa from 32 sections in each parts of the tissue (16 sections from the left side and 16 sections from the right side) was determined under light microscope. The results reveal that most of the spermatozoa in the histological section were located in groups in the epithelial crypts. The means of

  19. Urinary Aminopeptidase Activities as Early and Predictive Biomarkers of Renal Dysfunction in Cisplatin-Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, Andrés; Vargas, Félix; Montoro-Molina, Sebastián; O'Valle, Francisco; Rodríguez-Martínez, María Dolores; Osuna, Antonio; Prieto, Isabel; Ramírez, Manuel; Wangensteen, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the fluorimetric determination of alanyl- (Ala), glutamyl- (Glu), leucyl-cystinyl- (Cys) and aspartyl-aminopeptidase (AspAp) urinary enzymatic activities as early and predictive biomarkers of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 8 each group) received a single subcutaneous injection of either saline or cisplatin 3.5 or 7 mg/kg, and urine samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 14 days after treatment. In urine samples we determined Ala, Glu, Cys and AspAp activities, proteinuria, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), albumin, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and renal morphological variables were measured at the end of the experiment. CysAp, NAG and albumin were increased 48 hours after treatment in the cisplatin 3.5 mg/kg treated group. At 24 hours, all urinary aminopeptidase activities and albuminuria were significantly increased in the cisplatin 7 mg/kg treated group. Aminopeptidase urinary activities correlated (p<0.011; r2>0.259) with plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and/or kidney weight/body weight ratio at the end of the experiment and they could be considered as predictive biomarkers of renal injury severity. ROC-AUC analysis was made to study their sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between treated and untreated rats at day 1. All aminopeptidase activities showed an AUC>0.633. We conclude that Ala, Cys, Glu and AspAp enzymatic activities are early and predictive urinary biomarkers of the renal dysfunction induced by cisplatin. These determinations can be very useful in the prognostic and diagnostic of renal dysfunction in preclinical research and clinical practice. PMID:22792302

  20. Binding and hydrolysis of soman by human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Nachon, Florian; Froment, Marie-Thérèse; Verdier, Laurent; Debouzy, Jean-Claude; Brasme, Bernardo; Gillon, Emilie; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Lockridge, Oksana; Masson, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Human plasma and fatty acid free human albumin were incubated with soman at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C. Four methods were used to monitor the reaction of albumin with soman: progressive inhibition of the aryl acylamidase activity of albumin, the release of fluoride ion from soman, 31P NMR, and mass spectrometry. Inhibition (phosphonylation) was slow with a bimolecular rate constant of 15 +/- 3 M(-1) min (-1). MALDI-TOF and tandem mass spectrometry of the soman-albumin adduct showed that albumin was phosphonylated on tyrosine 411. No secondary dealkylation of the adduct (aging) occurred. Covalent docking simulations and 31P NMR experiments showed that albumin has no enantiomeric preference for the four stereoisomers of soman. Spontaneous reactivation at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C, measured as regaining of aryl acylamidase activity and decrease of covalent adduct (pinacolyl methylphosphonylated albumin) by NMR, occurred at a rate of 0.0044 h (-1), indicating that the adduct is quite stable ( t1/2 = 6.5 days). At pH 7.4 and 22 degrees C, the covalent soman-albumin adduct, measured by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, was more stable ( t1/2 = 20 days). Though the concentration of albumin in plasma is very high (about 0.6 mM), its reactivity with soman (phosphonylation and phosphotriesterase activity) is too slow to play a major role in detoxification of the highly toxic organophosphorus compound soman. Increasing the bimolecular rate constant of albumin for organophosphates is a protein engineering challenge that could lead to a new class of bioscavengers to be used against poisoning by nerve agents. Soman-albumin adducts detected by mass spectrometry could be useful for the diagnosis of soman exposure. PMID:18163544

  1. Intrarenal distribution of inorganic mercury and albumin after coadministration

    SciTech Connect

    Zalups, R.K. ); Barfuss, D.W. )

    1993-01-01

    The renal disposition and the intrarenal distribution of albumin and mercury were studied simultaneously in rats co-injected with a 0.5-[mu]mol/kg dose of albumin and a 0.25-[mu]mol/kg dose of inorganic mercury at 2, 5, 30, and 180 min after injection. These studies were carried out to test the hypothesis that one of the mechanisms involved in the renal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury is cotransport with albumin. By the end of the first 2 min after injection, the ratio of inorganic mercury to albumin in the renal cortex and outer strip of the outer medulla was approximately 2.6 and 1.6, respectively. Both the cortex and outer stripe contain segments of the proximal tubule, and it is these segments that have been shown to be principally involved in the renal tubular uptake of both albumin and inorganic mercury. The ration increased slightly in these two zones after 5 and 20 min after injection. These data demonstrate that there is a relatively close relationship in the renal content of inorganic mercury and albumin. However, the ratios are significantly greater than the ratio of inorganic mercury of albumin in the injection solution, which was 0.5. After 180 min following co-injection, the ratio increased to about 38 in the cortex and 15 in the outer stripe. This increase in the ratio is probably related to the metabolism of albumin. Based on the ratios of inorganic mercury to albumin in the renal cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla, it appears that some proximal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury occurs by mechanisms other than endocytotic cotransport of inorganic mercury with albumin. However, since the ratios were small during the early times after injection, cotransport of inorganic mercury with albumin cannot be excluded as one of the mechanisms involved in the proximal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury. 32 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Bovine Serum Albumin Glutaraldehyde for Completely Sutureless Laparoscopic Heminephrectomy in a Survival Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa, Aldrin Joseph R.; Kaplan, Adam G.; Khosravi, Amanda; Truong, Hung; Andrade, Lorena; Lin, Rachelle; Alipanah, Reza; Ortiz, Cervando; McCormick, David; Box, Geoffrey N.; Lee, Hak J.; Deane, Leslie A.; Edwards, Robert A.; McDougall, Elspeth M.; Clayman, Ralph V.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) has not received widespread clinical application because of its technical challenge. Bovine serum albumin glutaraldehyde (BSAG) is a hemostatic agent that is independent of the clotting cascade. We evaluated the use of BSAG as the sole agent for parenchymal and collecting system closure during LPN in a survival porcine model. Methods Eighteen pigs underwent hilar clamping and LPN by longitudinal excision of the lateral one-third of the right kidney. The opened collecting system was covered with oxidized cellulose to prevent BSAG seepage into the urinary tract. BSAG was allowed to set for 10 or 5 minutes. Twelve animals underwent survival LPN BSAG only closure; six control pigs were acutely studied using saline. Urinary extravasation was evaluated by injection of furosemide and indigo carmine, and then evaluating the renal surface and bladder catheter drainage for dye. A subjective bleeding score was assigned after hilum unclamping. At 6 weeks, BSAG kidneys were harvested for burst pressure testing and histopathological analysis. Results All 12 pigs survived for 6 weeks. No pigs had urinary extravasation. Mean percentage of kidney removed by weight was 19%. Mean warm ischemia time was 29 minutes. Five pigs required a second BSAG application to achieve a bleeding score of 0. Mean arterial and collecting system burst pressures were 301.8 and 322.4 mm Hg, respectively. Mean postoperative creatinine increase was 0.07 mg/dL. Conclusion BSAG for completely sutureless LPN in a survival porcine model was feasible. PMID:20059350

  3. Simultaneous gas-chromatographic urinary measurement of sugar probes to assess intestinal permeability: use of time course analysis to optimize its use to assess regional gut permeability

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Maliha; Rajan, Kumar; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Measurement of intestinal permeability is important in several diseases but currently several methods are employed. We sought to: (1) develop a new GC based method to measure urinary mannitol, lactulose and sucralose to assess regional and total gut permeability; (2) analyze the kinetics of these sugars in the urine to determine which ratio is useful to represent intestinal permeability; and (3) determine whether age, gender, race and BMI impact these values. Methods Subjects drank a cocktail of sucrose, lactulose, mannitol and sucralose and these sugars were measured in the urine at 5, 12 and 24 h with gas chromatography. Results Urinary mannitol exhibited significantly different kinetics than lactulose and sucralose which were similar to each other and varied little over the 24 h. No permeability differences were observed for renal function, age, race, sex, or BMI. Conclusions Our data do not support the use of the widely used L/M ratio as an accurate estimate of intestinal permeability. Our data support the use of: The sucralose/lactulose (S/M) ratio to measure: small intestine permeability (first 5 h); small and large intestine (first 12 hours), and total gut permeability (24 h). This was also found to be true in a Parkinson’s disease model. PMID:25591964

  4. Continuous versus discontinuous drinking of an ethanol liquid diet in peripubertal rats: effect on 24-h variation of lymph node and splenic mitogenic responses and lymphocyte subset populations.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Fernández-Mateos, María P; Barquilla, Pilar Cano; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2011-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption continues to be a major public health problem, particularly in the adolescent and young adult populations. Generally, such a behavior tends to be confined to the weekends, to attain frequently binge drinking. This study in peripubertal male rats compares the effect of the discontinuous feeding of a liquid diet containing a moderate amount of ethanol (6.2% wt/vol) to that of continuous ethanol administration or a control diet, taking as end points the 24-h variations of plasma prolactin levels and mitogenic responses and lymphocyte subset populations in submaxillary lymph nodes and spleen. Animals received the ethanol liquid diet starting on day 35 of life, the diet being similar to that given to controls except for that maltose was isocalorically replaced by ethanol. Ethanol provided 36% of the total caloric content. Every week, the discontinuous ethanol group received the ethanol diet for 3 days and the control liquid diet for the remaining 4 days. After 4 weeks, rats were killed at six time intervals, beginning at 0900 h. A significant decrease of splenic cells' response to concanavalin A, and of lymph node and splenic cells' response to lipopolysaccharide was found in rats under the discontinuous ethanol regime, when compared with control- or ethanol-chronic rats. Under discontinuous ethanol feeding, mean values of lymph node and splenic CD8(+) and CD4(+)-CD8(+) cells decreased, whereas those of lymph node and splenic T cells, and splenic B cells, augmented. In rats chronically fed with ethanol, splenic mean levels of CD8(+) and CD4(+)-CD8(+) cells augmented. Both modalities of ethanol administration disrupted the 24 h variation in immune function seen in controls. Mean plasma prolactin levels increased by 3.6-fold and 8.5-fold in rats chronically or discontinuously fed with alcohol, respectively. The immune parameters examined in an additional group of rats fed regular chow and water ad libitum did not differ significantly from

  5. Does Urinary Bladder Shape Affect Urinary Flow Rate in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Ateşçi, Yusuf Ziya; Aydoğdu, Özgü; Karaköse, Ayhan; Karal, Ömer; Şentürk, Utku

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of urinary bladder shape which may potentially change with advancing age, increased waist circumference, pelvic ischemia, and loosening of the urachus on bladder emptying and UFR. We retrospectively investigated the medical records of 76 men. The patients were divided into two groups according to bladder shapes in MRI scan (cone and spheric shapes). There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of IPSS, Qmax, Qave, and waist circumference. A positive correlation has been demonstrated between mean peak urinary flow rate measured with UFM and mean flow rate calculated using the CP. There was a significant difference between mean urinary flow rates calculated with CP of cone and sphere bladder shapes. The change in the bladder shape might be a possible factor for LUTS in men and LUTS may be improved if modifiable factors including increased waist circumference and loosening of the urachus are corrected. PMID:24511301

  6. Diagnosis and Prediction of CKD Progression by Assessment of Urinary Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Schanstra, Joost P.; Alkhalaf, Alaa; Argiles, Angel; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; Beige, Joachim; Bilo, Henk J.G.; Chatzikyrkou, Christos; Dakna, Mohammed; Dawson, Jesse; Delles, Christian; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Husi, Holger; Jankowski, Joachim; Jerums, George; Kleefstra, Nanne; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Maahs, David M.; Menne, Jan; Mullen, William; Ortiz, Alberto; Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter; Ruggenenti, Piero; Rychlik, Ivan; Serra, Andreas L.; Siwy, Justyna; Snell-Bergeon, Janet; Spasovski, Goce; Staessen, Jan A.; Vlahou, Antonia; Mischak, Harald; Vanholder, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Progressive CKD is generally detected at a late stage by a sustained decline in eGFR and/or the presence of significant albuminuria. With the aim of early and improved risk stratification of patients with CKD, we studied urinary peptides in a large cross-sectional multicenter cohort of 1990 individuals, including 522 with follow-up data, using proteome analysis. We validated that a previously established multipeptide urinary biomarker classifier performed significantly better in detecting and predicting progression of CKD than the current clinical standard, urinary albumin. The classifier was also more sensitive for identifying patients with rapidly progressing CKD. Compared with the combination of baseline eGFR and albuminuria (area under the curve [AUC]=0.758), the addition of the multipeptide biomarker classifier significantly improved CKD risk prediction (AUC=0.831) as assessed by the net reclassification index (0.303±−0.065; P<0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (0.058±0.014; P<0.001). Correlation of individual urinary peptides with CKD stage and progression showed that the peptides that associated with CKD, irrespective of CKD stage or CKD progression, were either fragments of the major circulating proteins, suggesting failure of the glomerular filtration barrier sieving properties, or different collagen fragments, suggesting accumulation of intrarenal extracellular matrix. Furthermore, protein fragments associated with progression of CKD originated mostly from proteins related to inflammation and tissue repair. Results of this study suggest that urinary proteome analysis might significantly improve the current state of the art of CKD detection and outcome prediction and that identification of the urinary peptides allows insight into various ongoing pathophysiologic processes in CKD. PMID:25589610

  7. Diagnosis and Prediction of CKD Progression by Assessment of Urinary Peptides.

    PubMed

    Schanstra, Joost P; Zürbig, Petra; Alkhalaf, Alaa; Argiles, Angel; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beige, Joachim; Bilo, Henk J G; Chatzikyrkou, Christos; Dakna, Mohammed; Dawson, Jesse; Delles, Christian; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Husi, Holger; Jankowski, Joachim; Jerums, George; Kleefstra, Nanne; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Maahs, David M; Menne, Jan; Mullen, William; Ortiz, Alberto; Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter; Ruggenenti, Piero; Rychlik, Ivan; Serra, Andreas L; Siwy, Justyna; Snell-Bergeon, Janet; Spasovski, Goce; Staessen, Jan A; Vlahou, Antonia; Mischak, Harald; Vanholder, Raymond

    2015-08-01

    Progressive CKD is generally detected at a late stage by a sustained decline in eGFR and/or the presence of significant albuminuria. With the aim of early and improved risk stratification of patients with CKD, we studied urinary peptides in a large cross-sectional multicenter cohort of 1990 individuals, including 522 with follow-up data, using proteome analysis. We validated that a previously established multipeptide urinary biomarker classifier performed significantly better in detecting and predicting progression of CKD than the current clinical standard, urinary albumin. The classifier was also more sensitive for identifying patients with rapidly progressing CKD. Compared with the combination of baseline eGFR and albuminuria (area under the curve [AUC]=0.758), the addition of the multipeptide biomarker classifier significantly improved CKD risk prediction (AUC=0.831) as assessed by the net reclassification index (0.303±-0.065; P<0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (0.058±0.014; P<0.001). Correlation of individual urinary peptides with CKD stage and progression showed that the peptides that associated with CKD, irrespective of CKD stage or CKD progression, were either fragments of the major circulating proteins, suggesting failure of the glomerular filtration barrier sieving properties, or different collagen fragments, suggesting accumulation of intrarenal extracellular matrix. Furthermore, protein fragments associated with progression of CKD originated mostly from proteins related to inflammation and tissue repair. Results of this study suggest that urinary proteome analysis might significantly improve the current state of the art of CKD detection and outcome prediction and that identification of the urinary peptides allows insight into various ongoing pathophysiologic processes in CKD. PMID:25589610

  8. Striking association between urinary cadmium level and albuminuria among Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa Satarug, Soisungwan; O'Rourke, Peter; Moore, Michael; Ng, Jack; McGrath, Victor; Walmby, Maria

    2008-03-15

    Objectives: Indigenous people of the Torres Strait (Australia) have greater potential for cadmium exposure and renal damage than other Australians due to high cadmium in some traditional seafood and a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity. This study explored associations between albuminuria and an index of cadmium exposure (urinary cadmium excretion) in the presence and absence of Type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: Two population-based, cross-sectional studies were undertaken in the Torres Strait to obtain data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, chronic disease, smoking, urinary cadmium, and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Results: Age- and BMI-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) among people with diabetes and albuminuria (n=22, geometric mean (GM) 1.91 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine) compared to those with diabetes and normal ACR (n=21, GM 0.74 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine). Urinary cadmium was also strongly associated (p<0.001) with ACR among people with diabetes in regression models and remained significant after controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension (or continuous systolic and diastolic measurements). Conclusions: While the study has methodological limitations and the nature of the association is unclear, the striking dose-dependent links between markers of cadmium exposure and of Type 2 diabetic nephropathy highlight the need for further definitive research on the health effects of cadmium in the presence of diabetes.

  9. NMR-based metabolomics reveals urinary metabolome modifications in female Sprague-Dawley rats by cranberry procyanidins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyan; Tayyari, Fariba; Edison, Arthur S; Su, Zhihua; Gu, Liwei

    2016-08-01

    A (1)H NMR global metabolomics approach was used to investigate the urinary metabolome changes in female rats gavaged with partially purified cranberry procyanidins (PPCP) or partially purified apple procyanidins (PPAP). After collecting 24-h baseline urine, 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups and gavaged with PPCP or PPAP twice using a dose of 250 mg extracts per kilogram body weight. The 24-h urine samples were collected after the gavage. Urine samples were analyzed using (1)H NMR. Multivariate analyses showed that the urinary metabolome in rats was modified after administering PPCP or PPAP compared to baseline urine metabolic profiles. 2D (1)H-(13)C HSQC NMR was conducted to assist identification of discriminant metabolites. An increase of hippurate, lactate and succinate and a decrease of citrate and α-ketoglutarate were observed in rat urine after administering PPCP. Urinary levels of d-glucose, d-maltose, 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, formate and phenol increased but citrate, α-ketoglutarate and creatinine decreased in rats after administering PPAP. Furthermore, the NMR analysis showed that the metabolome in the urine of rats administered with PPCP differed from those gavaged with PPAP. Compared to PPAP, PPCP caused an increase of urinary excretion of hippurate but a decrease of 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and phenol. These metabolome changes caused by cranberry procyanidins may help to explain its reported health benefits and identify biomarkers of cranberry procyanidin intake. PMID:27309592

  10. NMR-based metabolomics reveals urinary metabolome modifications in female Sprague-Dawley rats by cranberry procyanidins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyan; Tayyari, Fariba; Edison, Arthur S; Su, Zhihua; Gu, Liwei

    2016-08-01

    A (1)H NMR global metabolomics approach was used to investigate the urinary metabolome changes in female rats gavaged with partially purified cranberry procyanidins (PPCP) or partially purified apple procyanidins (PPAP). After collecting 24-h baseline urine, 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups and gavaged with PPCP or PPAP twice using a dose of 250 mg extracts per kilogram body weight. The 24-h urine samples were collected after the gavage. Urine samples were analyzed using (1)H NMR. Multivariate analyses showed that the urinary metabolome in rats was modified after administering PPCP or PPAP compared to baseline urine metabolic profiles. 2D (1)H-(13)C HSQC NMR was conducted to assist identification of discriminant metabolites. An increase of hippurate, lactate and succinate and a decrease of citrate and α-ketoglutarate were observed in rat urine after administering PPCP. Urinary levels of d-glucose, d-maltose, 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, formate and phenol increased but citrate, α-ketoglutarate and creatinine decreased in rats after administering PPAP. Furthermore, the NMR analysis showed that the metabolome in the urine of rats administered with PPCP differed from those gavaged with PPAP. Compared to PPAP, PPCP caused an increase of urinary excretion of hippurate but a decrease of 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and phenol. These metabolome changes caused by cranberry procyanidins may help to explain its reported health benefits and identify biomarkers of cranberry procyanidin intake.

  11. Variation of ²¹⁰Po daily urinary excretion for male subjects at environmental level.

    PubMed

    Hölgye, Z; Hýža, M; Mihalík, J; Rulík, P; Škrkal, J

    2015-05-01

    (210)Po was determined in 24-h urine of seven healthy males from Prague, Czech Republic, for ten consecutive days. The results show that for each volunteer, the urinary excretion of (210)Po changed only little from day to day in the studied time period. For two volunteers, the difference in the daily excreted (210)Po activity for two consecutive days was not significant, given the 95% confidence interval (two sigma) of the activity measurements. The same is valid for the excretion data of the other volunteers, except for some days where the differences were slightly higher. The range of daily urinary excretion of (210)Po of each volunteer in the studied time period was quite narrow. Among the volunteers, the maximum daily urinary excretion value of (210)Po was at most about a factor of 2.5 higher than the lowest excretion value. An attempt to explain the observed small inter-individual variability of (210)Po excretion in daily urine is made.

  12. Variation of ²¹⁰Po daily urinary excretion for male subjects at environmental level.

    PubMed

    Hölgye, Z; Hýža, M; Mihalík, J; Rulík, P; Škrkal, J

    2015-05-01

    (210)Po was determined in 24-h urine of seven healthy males from Prague, Czech Republic, for ten consecutive days. The results show that for each volunteer, the urinary excretion of (210)Po changed only little from day to day in the studied time period. For two volunteers, the difference in the daily excreted (210)Po activity for two consecutive days was not significant, given the 95% confidence interval (two sigma) of the activity measurements. The same is valid for the excretion data of the other volunteers, except for some days where the differences were slightly higher. The range of daily urinary excretion of (210)Po of each volunteer in the studied time period was quite narrow. Among the volunteers, the maximum daily urinary excretion value of (210)Po was at most about a factor of 2.5 higher than the lowest excretion value. An attempt to explain the observed small inter-individual variability of (210)Po excretion in daily urine is made. PMID:25712002

  13. Increased urinary excretion of platelet activating factor in mice with lupus nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Macconi, D.; Noris, M.; Benfenati, E.; Quaglia, R.; Pagliarino, G. ); Remuzzi, G. Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo )

    1991-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) is present in urine from humans and experimental animals in normal conditions. Very little is known about changes in PAF urinary excretion under pathologic conditions and no data are available about the origin of PAF in the urine. In the present study we explored the possibility that immunologic renal disease is associated with an increase in PAF urinary excretion using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. To clarify the renal or extrarenal origin of urinary PAF we evaluated whether exogenously administered PAF (1-(1{prime},2{prime}-{sup 3}H)alkyl) is filtered through the glomerulus and excreted in the urine. The results show that: (1) urine from mice with lupus nephritis in the early phase of the disease contained amounts of PAF comparable to those excreted in normal mouse urine, (2) PAF levels increased when animals started to develop high grade proteinuria, (3) after intravenous injection of ({sup 3}H) PAF In nephritic mice, a negligible amount of ({sup 3}H) ether lipid, corresponding to ({sup 3}H)1-alkyl -2-acyl-3-phosphocholine (alkyl-2-acyl-GPC), was recovered from the 24 h urine extract.

  14. Investigation of bovine serum albumin glycation by THz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkasova, Olga P.; Nazarov, Maxim M.; Shkurinov, Alexander P.

    2016-04-01

    Protein glycation is accelerated under hyperglycemic conditions resulting to loss in the structure and biological functions of proteins. The transmission THz spectroscopy has been used for measuring of bovine serum albumin glycation dynamics. It was found that amplitude of albumin THz absorption depends on type of sugars and incubation time.

  15. Albumin Is Recycled from the Primary Urine by Tubular Transcytosis

    PubMed Central

    Tenten, Verena; Menzel, Sylvia; Kunter, Uta; Sicking, Eva-Maria; van Roeyen, Claudia R. C.; Sanden, Silja K.; Kaldenbach, Michaela; Boor, Peter; Fuss, Astrid; Uhlig, Sandra; Lanzmich, Regina; Willemsen, Brigith; Dijkman, Henry; Grepl, Martin; Wild, Klemens; Kriz, Wilhelm; Smeets, Bart; Floege, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Under physiologic conditions, significant amounts of plasma protein pass the renal filter and are reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells, but it is not clear whether the endocytosed protein, particularly albumin, is degraded in lysosomes or returned to the circulatory system intact. To resolve this question, a transgenic mouse with podocyte-specific expression of doxycycline-inducible tagged murine albumin was developed. To assess potential glomerular backfiltration, two types of albumin with different charges were expressed. On administration of doxycycline, podocytes expressed either of the two types of transgenic albumin, which were secreted into the primary filtrate and reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells, resulting in serum accumulation. Renal transplantation experiments confirmed that extrarenal transcription of transgenic albumin was unlikely to account for these results. Genetic deletion of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), which rescues albumin and IgG from lysosomal degradation, abolished transcytosis of both types of transgenic albumin and IgG in proximal tubular cells. In summary, we provide evidence of a transcytosis within the kidney tubular system that protects albumin and IgG from lysosomal degradation, allowing these proteins to be recycled intact. PMID:23970123

  16. Facile cell patterning on an albumin-coated surface.

    PubMed

    Yamazoe, Hironori; Uemura, Toshimasa; Tanabe, Toshizumi

    2008-08-19

    Fabrication of micropatterned surfaces to organize and control cell adhesion and proliferation is an indispensable technique for cell-based technologies. Although several successful strategies for creating cellular micropatterns on substrates have been demonstrated, a complex multistep process and requirements for special and expensive equipment or materials limit their prevalence as a general experimental tool. To circumvent these problems, we describe here a novel facile fabrication method for a micropatterned surface for cell patterning by utilizing the UV-induced conversion of the cell adhesive property of albumin, which is the most abundant protein in blood plasma. An albumin-coated surface was prepared by cross-linking albumin with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether and subsequent casting of the cross-linked albumin solution on the cell culture dish. While cells did not attach to the albumin surface prepared in this way, UV exposure renders the surface cell-adhesive. Thus, surface micropatterning was achieved simply by exposing the albumin-coated surface to UV light through a mask with the desired pattern. Mouse fibroblast L929 cells were inoculated on the patterned albumin substrates, and cells attached and spread in a highly selective manner according to the UV-irradiated pattern. Although detailed investigation of the molecular-level mechanism concerning the change in cell adhesiveness of the albumin-coated surface is required, the present results would give a novel facile method for the fabrication of cell micropatterned surfaces. PMID:18627191

  17. Urinary Sugars--A Biomarker of Total Sugars Intake.

    PubMed

    Tasevska, Natasha

    2015-07-15

    Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may explain the lack of consistency in the epidemiologic evidence on the association between sugars and disease risk. This review describes the development and applications of a biomarker of sugars intake, informs its future use and recommends directions for future research. Recently, 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose were suggested as a predictive biomarker for total sugars intake, based on findings from three highly controlled feeding studies conducted in the United Kingdom. From this work, a calibration equation for the biomarker that provides an unbiased measure of sugars intake was generated that has since been used in two US-based studies with free-living individuals to assess measurement error in dietary self-reports and to develop regression calibration equations that could be used in future diet-disease analyses. Further applications of the biomarker include its use as a surrogate measure of intake in diet-disease association studies. Although this biomarker has great potential and exhibits favorable characteristics, available data come from a few controlled studies with limited sample sizes conducted in the UK. Larger feeding studies conducted in different populations are needed to further explore biomarker characteristics and stability of its biases, compare its performance, and generate a unique, or population-specific biomarker calibration equations to be applied in future studies. A validated sugars biomarker is critical for informed interpretation of sugars-disease association studies.

  18. [Conservative treatment of urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Soljanik, I; Schorsch, I; Stanislaus, P; Bauer, R; Mayer, M; Hocaoglu, Y; Becker, A; May, F

    2007-09-20

    Urinary incontinence can be treated with medicinal products in addition to active pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation. A local hormone therapy should be first discussed with the gynaecologist. The active substance duloxetine has been used for a few years for treating stress incontinence. Several older and newer active substances are available for treating irritable bladder and stress incontinence.

  19. Effects of sodium ions on trapping and transport of electrons at the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, A. F. Mooney, P. M.; Ahyi, A. C.; Williams, J. R.; Feldman, L. C.

    2014-01-21

    Capacitance-voltage (C-V) and Deep-Level-Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were performed on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors fabricated on 4H-SiC with the SiO{sub 2} layer grown by Sodium-Enhanced Oxidation. This technique has yielded 4H-SiC MOS transistors with record channel mobility, although with poor bias stability. The effects of the mobile positive charge on the C-V characteristics and DLTS spectra were investigated by applying a sequence of positive and negative bias-temperature stresses, which drifted the sodium ions toward and away from the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface, respectively. Analytical modeling of the C-V curves shows that the drift of sodium ions in the SiO{sub 2} layer during the voltage sweep can explain the temperature dependence of the C-V curves. The effects of lateral fluctuations of the surface potential (due to a non-uniform charge distribution) on the inversion layer mobility of MOS transistors are discussed within a two-dimensional percolation model.

  20. Successful outcome after endovascular thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke with basis on perfusion-diffusion mismatch after 24 h of symptoms onset

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Tobias A.; Rehman, Azeem A.; Goulart, Carlos R.; Sória, Marília G.; Rizelio, Vanessa; Meneses, Murilo S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although intravenous thrombolysis is the Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within 3 h, combined intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis with endovascular techniques may be able to extend this traditional time window. Case Description: We present the clinical evolution of a 45-year-old male presenting with acute left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small diffusion restriction at the right basal ganglia with perfusion compromise in the entire right middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Angiography revealed a complete occlusion of MCA at its M1 segment. The patient underwent endovascular mechanical thrombectomy with additional intra-arterial thrombolysis more than 24 hours after the onset of the initial symptoms and experienced complete vessel recanalization. At 1 year, the patient had global independence with minor residual motor impairment in the left arm. Conclusions: We report the case of a successful thrombolytic therapy following AIS performed more than 24 h after the initial symptoms based on the presence of a perfusion-diffusion mismatch. This report is expected to stimulate the development of future prospective studies with special focus on the role of perfusion-diffusion mismatch in patient selection for treatment of AIS, especially in those presenting outside the traditional time window. PMID:27313971

  1. Safety and Efficacy of 24-h Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery in Well-Controlled Pregnant Women With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Helen R.; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M.; Caldwell, Karen; Biagioni, Martina; Simmons, David; Dunger, David B.; Nodale, Marianna; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Amiel, Stephanie A.; Hovorka, Roman

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery in well-controlled pregnant women with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 12 women with type 1 diabetes (aged 32.9 years, diabetes duration 17.6 years, BMI 27.1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 6.4%) were randomly allocated to closed-loop or conventional CSII. They performed normal daily activities (standardized meals, snacks, and exercise) for 24 h on two occasions at 19 and 23 weeks’ gestation. Plasma glucose time in target (63–140 mg/dL) and time spent hypoglycemic were calculated. RESULTS Plasma glucose time in target was comparable for closed-loop and conventional CSII (median [interquartile range]: 81 [59–87] vs. 81% [54–90]; P = 0.75). Less time was spent hypoglycemic (<45 mg/dL [0.0 vs. 0.3%]; P = 0.04), with a lower low blood glucose index (2.4 [0.9–3.5] vs. 3.3 [1.9–5.1]; P = 0.03), during closed-loop insulin delivery. CONCLUSIONS Closed-loop insulin delivery was as effective as conventional CSII, with less time spent in extreme hypoglycemia. PMID:22011408

  2. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  3. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, D.N.; Micca, P.L.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1986-03-11

    A stable boronated (/sup 10/B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/, at a dose of about 200 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight. The infusion is preformed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of /sup 10/B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of /sup 10/B in the tumor. 1 tab.

  4. Serotonin turnover in different duration of sleep recovery in discrete regions of young rat brain after 24 h REM sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Senthilvelan, M; Ravindran, R; Samson, J; Devi, R Sheela

    2006-09-01

    Sleep plays an important role in restorative function and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5HT) equally plays important roles in sleep. Though various studies have revealed the roles of 5HT in sleep/wake cycle, the mechanism involved is yet unclear. In the present study we investigated alteration of the 5HT turnover in various regions of the young rat brains after 24 hours (h) REM sleep (sREM) deprivation to elucidate the roles of 5HT in sleep restoration function in the these regions. The 5HT turnover was evaluated by the ratio of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid against 5HT. The sREM deprivation was performed by the inverted flowerpot technique. The 5HT turnover showed significant alteration in the all regions of the brain examined after 24h sREM deprivation, particular depending on the brain region. These results revealed that sREM modulates the 5HT turnover in the brain with region specificity and this may be one of the restorative functions of sleep indicating that sREM is regionally generated.

  5. Structural and electronic properties of the transition layer at the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dejun; Zhao, Jijun

    2015-01-15

    Using first-principles methods, we generate an amorphous SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface with a transition layer. Based this interface model, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of the interfacial transition layer. The calculated Si 2p core-level shifts for this interface are comparable to the experimental data, indicating that various SiC{sub x}O{sub y} species should be present in this interface transition layer. The analysis of the electronic structures reveals that the tetrahedral SiC{sub x}O{sub y} structures cannot introduce any of the defect states at the interface. Interestingly, our transition layer also includes a C-C=C trimer and SiO{sub 5} configurations, which lead to the generation of interface states. The accurate positions of Kohn-Sham energy levels associated with these defects are further calculated within the hybrid functional scheme. The Kohn-Sham energy levels of the carbon trimer and SiO{sub 5} configurations are located near the conduction and valence band of bulk 4H-SiC, respectively. The result indicates that the carbon trimer occurred in the transition layer may be a possible origin of near interface traps. These findings provide novel insight into the structural and electronic properties of the realistic SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface.

  6. Comparison of 24 h averaged VOC monitoring results for residential indoor and outdoor air using Carbopack X-filled diffusive samplers and active sampling--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    McClenny, William A; Jacumin, Henry H; Oliver, Karen D; Daughtrey, E Hunter; Whitaker, Donald A

    2006-02-01

    Analytical results obtained by thermal desorption GC/MS for 24 h diffusive sampling of 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compared with results of time-averaged active sampling at a known constant flow rate. Air samples were collected with co-located duplicate diffusive sampling tubes and one passivated canister. A total of eight multiple-component sampling events took place at fixed positions inside and outside three private homes. Subsequently, a known amount of sample air was transferred from the canister to an adsorbent tube for analysis by thermal desorption GC/MS. Results for the 11 most prevalent compounds--Freon 11, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, tetrachloroethene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, 4-ethyltoluene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, and p-dichlorobenzene--show that the ratio of average study values (diffusive sampling to active sampling) is 0.92 with 0.70 and 1.14 extreme ratios. Absolute percent difference for duplicate samples using diffusive sampling was <10% for the four most prevalent compounds. Agreement between the two sampling approaches indicates that the prediction of approximately constant diffusive sampling rates based on previous laboratory studies is valid under the field conditions.

  7. Insights into ultraviolet-induced electrical degradation of thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeguchi, Daisuke; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji; Nakano, Yuki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2014-01-06

    The harmful impact of ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation on thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC structures was investigated by means of electrical measurements of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. Unlike Si-based MOS devices, significant electrical degradation, such as positive flatband voltage (V{sub FB}) shift and hysteresis in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves of SiC-MOS capacitors was induced by UV irradiation with a low-pressure mercury lamp. The interfacial fixed charge density increased with UV-irradiation (22.6 mW/cm{sup 2} for 16 h) to 1.7 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}, which was an order of magnitude larger than that of the as-grown SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface. A detailed study based on single wavelength solid-state UV lasers revealed that there was a threshold photon energy at around 5 eV and a moderate dependence of UV-induced degradation on temperature. These experimental findings imply that pre-existing inactive defects accumulated at the thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface were transformed to active carrier traps with high-energy UV irradiation through transparent SiO{sub 2} layers.

  8. Effects of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor evacetrapib on lipoproteins, apolipoproteins and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Suico, Jeffrey G; Wang, Ming-Dauh; Friedrich, Stuart; Cannady, Ellen A; Konkoy, Christopher S; Ruotolo, Giacomo; Krueger, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of evacetrapib. Methods Healthy volunteers received multiple daily doses of evacetrapib (10–600 mg) administered for up to 15 days in a placebo-controlled study. Key findings Mean peak plasma concentrations of evacetrapib occurred at 4–6 h and terminal half-life ranged 24–44 h. Steady state was achieved at approximately 10 days; all subjects had undetectable levels of evacetrapib 3 weeks after their last dose. The trough inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity was 65 and 84% at 100 and 300 mg, respectively. At the highest dose (600 mg), evacetrapib significantly inhibited CETP activity (91%), increased HDL-C (87%) and apo AI (42%), and decreased LDL-C (29%) and apo B (26%) relative to placebo. For the highest dose tested, levels of evacetrapib, CETP activity, CETP mass, HDL-C and LDL-C returned to levels at or near baseline after a 2-week washout period. Evacetrapib at the highest dose tested did not produce any significant effect on 24-h ambulatory systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions Multiple doses of evacetrapib potently inhibited CETP activity, leading to substantial elevations in HDL-C and lowering of LDL-C. Evacetrapib was devoid of clinically relevant effects on blood pressure and mineralocorticoid levels. PMID:24961753

  9. Systemic uptake, albumin and hemoglobin binding of [(14)C]2,3-butanedione administered by intratracheal instillation in male Harlan Sprague Dawley rats and oropharyngeal aspiration in male B6C3F1/N mice.

    PubMed

    Fennell, Timothy R; Morgan, Daniel L; Watson, Scott L; Dhungana, Suraj; Waidyanatha, Suramya

    2015-02-01

    2,3-Butanedione (BD) is a reactive diketone in artificial butter flavors that is thought to cause bronchiolitis obliterans in workers in microwave popcorn manufacturing. Bronchiolitis obliterans is generally not diagnosed until irreversible damage has occurred; therefore a biomarker of early exposure is needed. The potential systemic uptake of BD from inhalation exposure has not been evaluated. The objective here was to evaluate the systemic exposure of BD and binding to hemoglobin and albumin. [(14)C]BD was administered to male Harlan Sprague Dawley rats (100 mg/kg, intratracheal instillation) and B6C3F1/N mice (157 mg/kg, oropharyngeal aspiration). Blood and plasma was collected 24 h after administration and analyzed for (14)C content. At 24h, 0.88±0.07% of the administered dose was in rat blood, 0.66±0.06% in rat plasma, 0.38±0.13% in mouse blood and 0.17±0.05% in mouse plasma. Albumin binding in rats was 269±24.2 ng equiv./mg, which accounts for 38% of the radioactivity in plasma. In mice, binding was 85.0±22.3 ng equiv./mg albumin, which accounts for 51% of the radioactivity in plasma. The binding to hemoglobin in rats was 38.2±17.6 ng equiv./mg, and to globin was 29.1±3.96 ng equiv./mg. In mice, the binding to hemoglobin was 16.2±9.0 ng equiv./mg. The site(s) of adduction on hemoglobin and albumin was investigated by mass spectrometry. In rat globin, arginine adducts were detected at R-30 and R-104 of the beta chain in vitro and in vivo. In rat albumin, adducts were detected in vitro on R-219/221, R-360, and R-368, and in vivo on a variety of arginine residues. This study demonstrated that BD enters the systemic circulation and reacts with arginine on hemoglobin and albumin. These results indicate that hemoglobin and albumin adducts may be useful as biomarkers of BD exposure in humans. PMID:25559854

  10. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio is a reliable indicator for evaluating complications of chronic kidney disease and progression in IgA nephropathy in China

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Lu; Yuezhong, Luo; Chao, Wang; HaiTao, Tu

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the correlation between the albumin-to-creatinine ratio in the urine and 24-hour urine proteinuria and whether the ratio can predict chronic kidney disease progression even more reliably than 24-hour proteinuria can, particularly in primary IgA nephropathy. METHODS: A total of 182 patients with primary IgA nephropathy were evaluated. Their mean urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour proteinuria were determined during hospitalization. Blood samples were also analyzed. Follow-up data were recorded for 44 patients. A cross-sectional study was then conducted to test the correlation between these parameters and their associations with chronic kidney disease complications. Subsequently, a canonical correlation analysis was employed to assess the correlation between baseline proteinuria and parameters of the Oxford classification. Finally, a prospective observational study was performed to evaluate the association between proteinuria and clinical outcomes. Our study is registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, and the registration number is ChiCTR-OCH-14005137. RESULTS: A strong correlation (r=0.81, p<0.001) was found between the ratio and 24-hour proteinuria except in chronic kidney disease stage 5. First-morning urine albumin-to-creatinine ratios of ≥125.15, 154.44 and 760.31 mg/g reliably predicted equivalent 24-hour proteinuria ‘thresholds’ of ≥0.15, 0.3 and 1.0 g/24 h, respectively. In continuous analyses, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio was significantly associated with anemia, acidosis, hypoalbuminemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, hypercholesterolemia and higher serum cystatin C. However, higher 24-hour proteinuria was only associated with hypoalbuminemia and hypercholesterolemia. Higher tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis scores were also associated with a greater albumin-to-creatinine ratio, as observed in the canonical correlation analysis. Finally, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour

  11. Interaction of coffee compounds with serum albumins. Part II: Diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Guercia, Elena; Forzato, Cristina; Navarini, Luciano; Berti, Federico

    2016-05-15

    Cafestol and 16-O-methylcafestol are diterpenes present in coffee, but whilst cafestol is found in both Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, 16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC) was reported to be specific of only C. canephora. The interactions of such compounds, with serum albumins, have been studied. Three albumins have been considered, namely human serum albumin (HSA), fatty acid free HSA (ffHSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The proteins interact with the diterpenes at the interface between Sudlow site I and the fatty acid binding site 6 in a very peculiar way, leading to a significant change in the secondary structure. The diterpenes do not displace reference binding drugs of site 2, but rather they enhance the affinity of the site for the drugs. They, therefore, may alter the pharmacokinetic profile of albumin - bound drugs.

  12. Albumin Naskapi variant in North American Indians and Eti Turks.

    PubMed

    Franklin, S G; Wolf, S I; Ozdemir, Y; Yüregir, G T; Isbir, T; Blumberg, B S

    1980-09-01

    Both conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a new type of electrophoretic screening procedure indicate that the polymorphic albumin variants Naskapi, found chiefly in the Naskapi Indians of Quebec, and Mersin, found in the Eti Turks of southeastern Turkey, are molecularly identical or very similar and that the amino acid substitution site in these variants is located between residues 330 and 446. This discovery is consistent with a genetic relationship between the Eti Turks and American Indians. We also report a new variant found in the Eti Turks, albumin Adana, which migrates similarly to albumin B on conventional gels but which our new system shows to differ from the common albumin A and albumin B by a substitution between residues 549 and 585.

  13. Ghrelin binding to serum albumin and its biological impact.

    PubMed

    Lufrano, Daniela; Trejo, Sebastián A; Llovera, Ramiro E; Salgueiro, Mariano; Fernandez, Gimena; Martínez Damonte, Valentina; González Flecha, F Luis; Raingo, Jesica; Ermácora, Mario R; Perelló, Mario

    2016-11-15

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of the body weight and glucose homeostasis. In plasma, ghrelin circulates bound to larger proteins whose identities are partially established. Here, we used size exclusion chromatography, mass spectrometry and isothermal titration microcalorimetry to show that ghrelin interacts with serum albumin. Furthermore, we found that such interaction displays an estimated dissociation constant (KD) in the micromolar range and involves albumin fatty-acid binding sites as well as the octanoyl moiety of ghrelin. Notably, albumin-ghrelin interaction reduces the spontaneous deacylation of the hormone. Both in vitro experiments-assessing ghrelin ability to inhibit calcium channels-and in vivo studies-evaluating ghrelin orexigenic effects-indicate that the binding to albumin affects the bioactivity of the hormone. In conclusion, our results suggest that ghrelin binds to serum albumin and that this interaction impacts on the biological activity of the hormone. PMID:27431015

  14. [Urinary acidification by furosemide test].

    PubMed

    Alvarado, L C; Voyer, L E; Bortolazzo, G; Costa, M A

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of furosemide on urinary acidification in 7 healthy children (aged 7 to 9 years) 5 patients with normokalemic distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) (aged 4 to 13 years) and in 1 patient with proximal RTA (aged 20 months). Furosemide was given (2 mg/kg orally) as a tool to stimulate H+ and K+ secretion by enhancing Na delivery and transport in distal tubular segments. Patients with distal RTA were diagnosed by means of the ammonium chloride test and the alkaline overload and the one with proximal RTA by the ammonium chloride test only. Urinary acidification was evaluated 1 hour before and until 4 hours after furosemide administration. Healthy children (Fig. 1) showed a significant fall in urinary pH, 5.8 +/- 0.27 to 4.88 +/- 0.18 (p less than 0.02) and increase of NH3 excretion from 38.58 +/- 10.33 to 79.09 +/- 10.38 microEq/min/1.73 m2 (p less than 0.05). There was a direct correlation between urinary pH and urinary flow: r = 0.62 p less than 0.01 (Fig. 3). In patients with distal RTA (Fig. 5) furosemide failed to lower urine pH below 6 and net acid excretion persisted low: 47.9 +/- 6.1 microEq/min/1.73 m2. In the patient with proximal RTA (Fig. 4) furosemide produced the same effect as in healthy children with a fall in urine pH to 4.4 and an increase in net acid excretion to 118 microEq/min/1.73 m2. Furosemide proved to be effective to differentiate the type of RTA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Correlates of urinary symptom scores in men.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, B E; Klein, R; Lee, K E; Bruskewitz, R C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the prevalence of urinary symptoms and their relationship to characteristics of a cohort of men in Beaver Dam, Wis, from 1993 to 1995. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire concerning urinary symptoms (the American Urological Association Urinary Symptom Questionnaire) was administered. RESULTS: All outcomes were associated with age and history of enlarged prostate. Urinary frequency (57%) and nocturia (65%) were the most common individual symptoms. Diuretic usage, diabetes, history of cardiovascular disease, and smoking were related to specific symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: While urinary symptoms are associated with age and history of enlarged prostate, symptoms may also be attributable to other diseases and exposures. PMID:10553401

  16. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Elsa; Pereira, José; Corbusier, Florence; Demeter, Pieter; Bali, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder in a 31 year-old woman. She presented at the emergency room with low abdominal pain and urinary symptoms. Abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and revealed asymmetric thickening of the urinary bladder wall. Cystoscopy with urinary cytology revealed a benign nature of the process. The patient underwent partial cystectomy and the pathologic examination of the specimen revealed an inflammatory pseudotumor. We reviewed the clinical, imaging and pathological features of the inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder and discussed its differential diagnosis.

  17. Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Elsa; Pereira, José; Corbusier, Florence; Demeter, Pieter; Bali, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder in a 31 year-old woman. She presented at the emergency room with low abdominal pain and urinary symptoms. Abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and revealed asymmetric thickening of the urinary bladder wall. Cystoscopy with urinary cytology revealed a benign nature of the process. The patient underwent partial cystectomy and the pathologic examination of the specimen revealed an inflammatory pseudotumor. We reviewed the clinical, imaging and pathological features of the inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder and discussed its differential diagnosis. PMID:25926919

  18. Factors Associated With Serum Albumin in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 With Microalbuminuria Using Non-Normal Mixed Models: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Khoundabi, Batoul; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Mansourian, Marjan; Faghihimani, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background: The globally increasing epidemic of diabetes will lead to serious problems including diabetic nephropathy and kidney diseases in near future. The first clinical diagnosable stage in a diabetic kidney disease is microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion of 30 - 300 g/24 hours). Objectives: This prospective cohort study investigated the risk factors of microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes who had been registered in endocrine and metabolism research center in Isfahan city, Iran. Patients and Methods: This prospective cohort study was performed on 90 diabetic type 2 patients with microalbuminuria, who were selected according to the consecutive sample selection method during 6 years. Data were collected through regular and systematic measurements of serum albumin as the response variable and body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) as the related factors. Non-normal mixed models were used to investigate the impact of effective factors on the amount of excreted serum albumin. Results: According to the deviance information criterion (DIC = 56.2), the non-normal mixed effects model with the skewed t distribution had a best fit and indicated that HbA1c, HDL and total cholesterol had a significant effect on the amount of albumin in urine (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Using nonnormal mixed models may lead to the best results as compared to common normality assumption. PMID:26889385

  19. Study of the cross-reaction between rabbit anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies and equine serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, H.

    1965-01-01

    Cross-reactions between bovine serum albumin and equine serum albumin were studied using heterologous soluble complexes and specifically purified cross-reacting antibody. Experiments with soluble complexes showed that homologous antigen can displace heterologous antigen specifically bound to antibody but heterologous antigen cannot displace homologous antigen. On gel precipitation tests a specific precipitation resulted when heterologous soluble complex reacted with homologous antigen. By using equine serum albumin conjugated to polyaminopolystyrene the cross-reacting antibodies from anti-bovine serum albumin imune sera could be isolated. These are divalent 7S, γ-globulin antibodies. A figure of cross-reaction was obtained when these purified antibodies were tested by double diffusion in agar with bovine and equine serum albumins. The results obtained both with soluble complexes and with purified antibody support the view that cross-reacting antibody is more avid for the homologous than for the heterologous antigen. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:14245318

  20. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30-49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP. PMID:27399734

  1. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-07-05

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30-49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP.

  2. Urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite contents as nutritional markers for evaluating vitamin intakes in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2008-06-01

    Little information is available to estimate water-soluble vitamin intakes from urinary vitamins and their metabolite contents as possible nutritional markers. Determination of the relationships between the oral dose and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in human subjects contributes to finding valid nutrition markers of water-soluble vitamin intakes. Six female Japanese college students were given a standard Japanese diet in the first week, the same diet with a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture as a diet with approximately onefold vitamin mixture based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese in the second week, with a threefold vitamin mixture in the third week, and a sixfold mixture in the fourth week. Water-soluble vitamins and their metabolites were measured in the 24-h urine collected each week. All urinary vitamins and their metabolite levels except vitamin B(12) increased linearly in a dose-dependent manner, and highly correlated with vitamin intake (r=0.959 for vitamin B(1), r=0.927 for vitamin B(2), r=0.965 for vitamin B(6), r=0.957 for niacin, r=0.934 for pantothenic acid, r=0.907 for folic acid, r=0.962 for biotin, and r=0.952 for vitamin C). These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite levels can be used as good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes.

  3. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP. PMID:27399734

  4. Infrared spectroscopy of [XFeC24H12]+ (X = C5H5, C5(CH3)5) complexes in the gas phase: experimental and computational studies of astrophysical interest.

    PubMed

    Simon, Aude; Joblin, Christine; Polfer, Nick; Oomens, Jos

    2008-09-18

    We report the first experimental mid-infrared (700-1600 cm (-1)) multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra of [XFeC 24H 12] (+) (X = C 5H 5 or Cp, C 5(CH 3) 5 or Cp*) complexes in the gas phase obtained using the free electron laser for infrared experiments. The experimental results are complemented with theoretical infrared (IR) absorption spectra calculated with methods based on density functional theory. The isomers in which the XFe unit is coordinated to an outer ring of C 24H 12 (+) (Out isomers) were calculated to be the most stable ones. From the comparison between the experimental and calculated spectra, we could derive that, (i) for [CpFeC 24H 12] (+) complexes, the (1)A Out isomer appears to be the best candidate to be formed in the experiment but the presence of the (1)A In higher energy isomer in minor abundance is also plausible; and (ii) for [Cp*FeC 24H 12] (+) complexes, the three calculated Out isomers of similar energy are likely to be present simultaneously, in qualitative agreement with the observed dissociation patterns. This study also emphasizes the threshold effect in the IRMPD spectrum below which IR bands cannot be observed and evidence strong mode coupling effects in the [XFeC 24H 12] (+) species. The effect of the coordination of Fe in weakening the bands of C 24H 12 (+) in the 1000-1600 cm (-1) region is confirmed, which is of interest to search for such complexes in interstellar environments.

  5. Urinary excretion of dietary Maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats.

    PubMed

    van Rooijen, C; Bosch, G; Butré, C I; van der Poel, A F B; Wierenga, P A; Alexander, L; Hendriks, W H

    2016-01-01

    During processing of foods, the Maillard reaction occurs, resulting in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRP). Varying amounts of MRP have been found in commercially processed pet foods. Dietary MRP can be absorbed and contribute to the endogenous pool of MRP and possibly the etiology of age-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine urinary excretion of dietary MRP in cats fed commercial moist and dry foods. A pilot study with 10 cats, conducted to determine the adaptation time required for stable urinary excretion of MRP when changing to a diet with contrasting MRP content, showed an adaptation time of 1 d for all components. In the main study, 6 commercially processed dry and 6 moist diets were fed to 12 adult female cats in 2 parallel randomized, 36-d Latin square designs. The 24-h urine was collected quantitatively using modified litter boxes, and fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine (CML), and lysinoalanine (LAL) were analyzed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) - mass spectrometer. Daily urinary excretion of FL and CML showed a positive relationship with daily intake in the dry ( = 0.03 and < 0.01, respectively) and moist ( < 0.01) foods. For LAL, no significant relationship was observed. Urinary recovery (% ingested) showed a negative relationship with daily intake for FL, CML, and LAL in the dry foods ( < 0.01, < 0.01, and = 0.08, respectively) and for CML and LAL in the moist foods ( < 0.01). The observed increase in urinary excretion with increasing dietary intake indicates that dietary MRP were absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of cats and excreted in the urine. The adaptation time with change in diet indicates a likely effective excretion of MRP. Minimum apparent absorption of FL, CML, and LAL was found to range between 8% and 23%, 25% and 73%, and 6% and 19%, respectively. The observed decrease in urinary recovery suggests a limiting factor in digestion, absorption, metabolism

  6. Decreased fractional urinary calcium excretion and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and IGF-I levels in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Halhali, Ali; Díaz, Lorenza; Avila, Euclides; Ariza, Ana Carolina; Garabédian, Michèle; Larrea, Fernando

    2007-03-01

    During preeclampsia several alterations of calcium metabolism have been described, the most common of them is hypocalciuria, which pathophysiology is still unclear. In order to assess the contribution of calciotropic hormones to urinary calcium excretion, a cross-sectional study was done including 26 preeclamptic Mexican women (PE group) and 26 normotensive control pregnant women (NT group). Total and fractional urinary calcium excretion were significantly lower (P<0.0001) in the PE group than in the NT group (82+/-7 versus 171+/-7 mg/24h and 0.62+/-0.38 versus 1.38+/-0.71%, respectively), without significant differences in creatinine clearance, urinary sodium excretion and phosphate tubular reabsorption. In addition, serum 1,25-(OH)(2)D and IGF-I levels were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the PE than in NT group (43+/-9 versus 50+/-9 pg/mL and 195+/-67 versus 293+/-105 ng/mL, respectively), without significant differences in serum PTH levels. In the NT group, association analysis showed that total and fractional urinary calcium excretions positively correlated with serum levels of 1,25-(OH)(2)D (P<0.01) and IGF-I (P<0.001). In the PE group, total urinary calcium excretion positively correlated only with serum 1,25-(OH)(2)D (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results obtained in this study confirm that PE is associated with hypocalciuria and suggest that 1,25-(OH)(2)D and/or IGF-I may be involved in the regulation of urinary calcium excretion.

  7. Measurement of urinary copper excretion after 48-h d-penicillamine cessation as a compliance assessment in Wilson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Dzieżyc, Karolina; Litwin, Tomasz; Chabik, Grzegorz; Członkowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Summary Treatment of Wilson’s disease (WD) with anti-copper agents is effective in most compliant patients. During long-term treatment with chelating agents, a two-day interruption of the treatment should result in normal urinary copper concentrations (<50 μg/dl). The aim of this study was to establish the usefulness of this method as a compliance assessment in these patients. We examined consecutive patients treated with d-penicillamine (DPA) undergoing routine follow-up studies at our center. We performed 24-h urinary copper excretion analysis 48 h after interruption of chelating therapy. Thirty-two patients were enrolled. After DPA cessation, normalization of copper excretion was observed in 91% of reportedly compliant patients. The specificity and sensitivity values of this test were 87% and 77%, respectively. Measurement of 24-h urinary copper excretion after a 48-h interruption of DPA therapy in patients with WD is a reliable method for confirming patients’ compliance. PMID:26727705

  8. Spatial variation in inversion-focused vs 24-h integrated samples of PM2.5 and black carbon across Pittsburgh, PA

    PubMed Central

    Tunno, Brett J; Michanowicz, Drew R; Shmool, Jessie L C; Kinnee, Ellen; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Gillooly, Sara; Roper, Courtney; Chubb, Lauren; Clougherty, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature explores intra-urban variation in pollution concentrations. Few studies, however, have examined spatial variation during “peak” hours of the day (e.g., rush hours, inversion conditions), which may have strong bearing for source identification and epidemiological analyses. We aimed to capture “peak” spatial variation across a region of complex terrain, legacy industry, and frequent atmospheric inversions. We hypothesized stronger spatial contrast in concentrations during hours prone to atmospheric inversions and heavy traffic, and designed a 2-year monitoring campaign to capture spatial variation in fine particles (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC). Inversion-focused integrated monitoring (0600–1100 hours) was performed during year 1 (2011–2012) and compared with 1-week 24-h integrated results from year 2 (2012–2013). To allocate sampling sites, we explored sp