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Sample records for 24-h urinary albumin

  1. [Urinary albumin fragmentation and immunoreactivity].

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Yuriko; Nishimaki, Junichi; Nakajima, Toshie; Ida, Takashi; Shiba, Kiyoko

    2009-02-01

    Urinary albumin (ALB) has been measured as a marker for the early detection of diabetic nephropathy. In 2004, Comper et al. developed a gel-filtration high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure for the determination of urinary ALB. They demonstrated the presence in its albumin fraction of non immunoreactive ALB with the total molecular weight of a monomeric ALB that was non-reactive with the existing anti-ALB antibody, and reported that the level of urinary non-immunoreactive ALB was higher in diabetic patients than in normal subjects. In this study, we isolated urinary ALB from diabetic patients using an anti-ALB antibody-coupled affinity column to test its immunoreactivity. In some diabetic patients, the results of HPLC and turbidimetric immunoassay for urinary ALB were discrepant. Western blot analysis showed that ALB samples from such patients were contaminated with proteins other than ALB, and contained ALB, whose molecular weight became lower using a reductive procedure. In addition, the reactivity of ALB with anti-ALB antibody differed depending on whether it was in a reduced or non-reduced state. These results indicate that ALB in such patients is susceptible to structural changes due to disease-induced urinary factors and, thus, their urine contains ALB with an altered reactivity to antibody.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of the urinary albumin: creatinine ratio determined by the CLINITEK Microalbumin and DCA 2000+ for the rule-out of albuminuria in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Guy, Mark; Newall, Ronald; Borzomato, Joanna; Kalra, Philip A; Price, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    An increased urinary albumin excretion (albuminuria) is an established test for the early detection of renal disease and is also recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality in a number of clinical settings. There is an established body of data which shows that a random urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) based on a random urine sample correlates well with 24-hour urinary albumin excretion measurement. However, there is little data to show whether specific point-of-care testing devices can be used to rule-in or rule-out increased urinary albumin excretion in comparison to a 24-hour urinary albumin excretion measurement. This study evaluated the ability to rule-in or rule-out albuminuria in a cohort of patients attending a renal outpatient clinic, using the urinary ACR determined by the CLINITEK Microalbumin (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., Deerfield, US) a semi-quantitative strip test, and by the DCA 2000+ (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc.) a quantitative cassette based test using 3 random urine samples collected within a 24-hour period compared to 24-hour urinary albumin measurement. The CLINITEK system was shown to be a reliable test for ruling out increased urinary albumin excretion with negative likelihood ratios less than 0.05 above the 24-hour urinary albumin excretion rate of 30 mg/24 h (threshold for microalbuminuria), and less than 0.01 above the albumin excretion rate of 100 mg/24 h. The DCA 2000+ system demonstrated similar performance as a rule-out test, with likelihood ratios of less than 0.02 at 24-hour albumin excretion rates above 30 mg/24 h. Both the CLINITEK and DCA 2000+ systems could be used to rule-out increased urinary albumin excretion at the albumin excretion cut-off rate of 30 mg/24 h in this cohort of patients.

  3. [Microalbuminuria and urinary albumin excretion in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Tagle, Rodrigo; González, Fernando; Acevedo, Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Microalbuminuria is a new tool in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Microalbuminuria is an easily measured biomarker in a urine sample. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in first morning urine sample correlates with 24 hours urinary albumin excretion, but it is easier to obtain, and can identify hypertensive or diabetic patients with high risk for cardiovascular events. Therapeutic interventions such as renin angiotensin system blockade have demonstrated their usefulness in reducing urinary albumin excretion in clinical studies. It would be advisable to incorporate urinary albumin to creatinine ratio to the routine clinical monitoring of patients with cardiovascular risk, such as those with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

  4. Neighbourhood food store availability in relation to 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies on the relationship of local food environment with residents' diets have relied exclusively on self-reported information on diet, producing inconsistent results. Evaluation of dietary intake using biomarkers may obviate the biases inherent to the use of self-reported dietary information. This cross-sectional study examined the association between neighbourhood food store availability and 24 h urinary Na and K excretion. The subjects were 904 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18-22 years. Neighbourhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence. Urinary Na and K excretion and the ratio of urinary Na to K were estimated from a single 24 h urine sample. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, neighbourhood availability of confectionery stores/bakeries was inversely associated with urinary K, and was positively associated with the ratio of Na to K (P for trend = 0.008 and 0.03, respectively). Neighbourhood availability of rice stores showed an independent inverse association with urinary K (P for trend = 0.03), whereas neighbourhood availability of supermarkets/grocery stores conversely showed an independent positive association with this variable (P for trend = 0.03). Furthermore, neighbourhood availability of fruit/vegetable stores showed an independent inverse association with the ratio of Na to K (P for trend = 0.049). In a group of young Japanese women, increasing neighbourhood availability of supermarkets/grocery stores and fruit/vegetable stores and decreasing availability of confectionery stores/bakeries and rice stores were associated with favourable profiles of 24 h urinary K (and Na) excretion.

  5. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    PubMed

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake.

  6. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children’s discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother’s 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child’s salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  7. Whey protein and albumin effects upon urinary risk factors for stone formation.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Camila Mithie; Tiselius, Hans-Göran; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2017-03-22

    Protein supplements are consumed for an expected increase in muscle mass and improved exercise performance, but as their impact on lithogenic parameters are unknown, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Whey protein (WP) and Albumin upon the risk factors for nephrolithiasis. WP or Albumin supplements (one scoop/day) were administered for 3 days to 18 healthy volunteers, with 1-week washout period between them. Serum and 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline and after completing each intervention. All participants were asked to replicate their baseline diet during the subsequent urine collection. After WP or albumin, mean protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance (PNA) was significantly higher (p < 0.001), as the result of the consumption of each of the supplements, but mean urinary calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, uric acid, citrate, oxalate, magnesium, creatinine, pH, and urinary saturation indices did not differ from baseline. However, individual increases higher than 50% in urinary calcium were observed in 39% of the individuals and variable decreases in urinary pH in 44 and 67% of them, respectively, after WP or Albumin. Increases higher than 50% in urinary sodium occurred in one-third of them after Albumin. A short-term consumption of WP or albumin by healthy subjects, under controlled diet, did not significantly change the mean lithogenic parameters. Nevertheless, the wide individual variation and relevant increases/decreases observed for urinary calcium, sodium, and pH suggest the need of a closer surveillance of these parameters and adequacy of diet in case of supplementation by stone formers.

  8. 24h Urinary Protein Levels and Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratios Could Probably Forecast the Pathological Classification of HSPN

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qing; Shang, Shi-qiang; Liu, Ai-min; Zhang, Ting; Shen, Hong-qiang; Chen, Xue-jun; Mao, Jian-hua

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the relevance of laboratory tests in Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) classification, and determine accurate classification factors. This prospective study included 694 HSPN patients who underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB). Renal specimens were scored according to International Study of Kidney Disease in Children (ISKDC) classification. Meanwhile, blood samples were immediately collected for laboratory examination. The associations between laboratory parameters and HSPN classification were assessed. Significant differences in levels of serum Th1/Th2 cytokines, immunoglobulins, T-lymphocyte subsets, complement, and coagulation markers were obtained between HSPN patients and healthy children. Interestingly, 24h urinary protein (24h-UPRO) levels and urine protein/urine creatinine ratios could determine HPSN grade IIb, IIIa, and IIIb incidences, with areas under ROC curve of 0.767 and 0.731, respectively. At 24h-UPRO >580.35mg/L, prediction sensitivity and specificity were 75.2% and 70.0%, respectively. These values became 53.0% and 82.3%, respectively, with 24h-UPRO exceeding 1006.25mg/L. At urine protein/urine creatinine > 0.97, prediction sensitivity and specificity were 65.5% and 67.2%, respectively, values that became 57.4% and 80.0%, respectively, at ratios exceeding 1.2. Cell and humoral immunity, coagulation and fibrinolytic systems are all involved in the pathogenesis of HSPN, and type I hypersensitivity may be the disease trigger of HSPN. 24h-UPRO levels and urine protein/creatinine ratios could probably forecast the pathological classification of HSPN. PMID:25996387

  9. Temporal variability in urinary excretion of bisphenol A and seven other phenols in spot, morning, and 24-h urine samples.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Main, Katharina M; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Jørgensen, Niels; Kranich, Selma Kløve; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2013-10-01

    Human exposure to modern non-persistent chemicals is difficult to ascertain in epidemiological studies as exposure patterns and excretion rates may show temporal and diurnal variations. The aim of this study was to assess the temporal variability in repeated measurements of urinary excretion of bisphenol A (BPA) and seven other phenols. All analytes were determined using TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS. Two spot, three first morning and three 24-h urine samples were collected from 33 young Danish men over a three months period. Temporal variability was estimated by means of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). More than 70% of the urine samples had detectable levels of BPA, triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and sum of 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorophenol (ΣDCP). We found low to moderate ICCs for BPA (0.10-0.42) and ΣDCP (0.39-0.72), whereas the ICCs for BP-3 (0.69-0.80) and TCS (0.55-0.90) were higher. The ICCs were highest for the two spot urine samples, which were collected approximately 4 days apart, compared with the 24-h urine samples and the first morning urine samples, which were collected approximately 40 days apart. A consequence of the considerable variability in urinary excretion of BPA may be misclassification of individual BPA exposure level in epidemiological studies, which may lead to attenuation of the association between BPA and outcomes. Our data do not support that collection of 24-h samples will improve individual exposure assessment for any of the analysed phenols.

  10. Urinary Albumin Excretion and Vascular Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion is a marker of CV risk. There are only few data on urinary albumin excretion in RA patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate urinary albumin excretion in RA patients and analyze, whether there is an association between urinary albumin excretion and vascular function as measured by the augmentation index (AIx). In a total of 341 participants (215 with RA, 126 without RA) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined and the AIx was measured. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test was used to cluster patient groups whose distributions of ACR can be considered to be equal. A crude analysis showed a median ACR of 6.6 mg/g in the RA group and 5.7 mg/g in patients without RA (P > 0.05). In order to account for diabetes (DM) we formed 4 distinct patient groups. Group 1: RA-/DM- (n = 74); group 2: RA+/DM- (n = 195); group 3: RA-/DM+ (n = 52); group 4: RA+/DM+ (n = 20). Clustering of these groups revealed two distinct patient groups: those without RA and DM, and those with either RA or DM or both. The latter group showed statistically significant higher ACR (median 8.1 mg/g) as the former (median 4.5 mg/g). We found no significant correlation between AIx and ACR. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with RA or DM or both is higher than in subjects without RA and DM. This can be seen as a sign of vascular alteration and increased CV risk in these patients. PMID:26955238

  11. Four to seven random casual urine specimens are sufficient to estimate 24-h urinary sodium/potassium ratio in individuals with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Iwahori, T; Ueshima, H; Torii, S; Saito, Y; Fujiyoshi, A; Ohkubo, T; Miura, K

    2016-05-01

    This study was done to clarify the optimal number and type of casual urine specimens required to estimate urinary sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio in individuals with high blood pressure. A total of 74 individuals with high blood pressure, 43 treated and 31 untreated, were recruited from the Japanese general population. Urinary sodium, potassium and Na/K ratio were measured in both casual urine samples and 7-day 24-h urine samples and then analyzed by correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. Mean Na/K ratio from random casual urine samples on four or more days strongly correlated with the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.80-0.87), which was similar to the correlation between 1 and 2-day 24-h urine and 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.75-0.89). The agreement quality for Na/K ratio of seven random casual urine for estimating the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine was good (bias: -0.26, limits of agreements: -1.53-1.01), and it was similar to that of 2-day 24-h urine for estimating 7-day 24-h values (bias: 0.07, limits of agreement: -1.03 to 1.18). Stratified analyses comparing individuals using antihypertensive medication and individuals not using antihypertensive medication showed similar results. Correlations of the means of casual urine sodium or potassium concentrations with 7-day 24-h sodium or potassium excretions were relatively weaker than those for Na/K ratio. The mean Na/K ratio of 4-7 random casual urine specimens on different days provides a good substitute for 1-2-day 24-h urinary Na/K ratio for individuals with high blood pressure.

  12. Comparative microRNA profiling in relation to urinary albumin excretion in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Parthenakis, F I; Marketou, M E; Kontaraki, J E; Maragoudakis, F; Maragkoudakis, S; Nakou, H; Roufas, K; Patrianakos, A; Chlouverakis, G; Malliaraki, N; Vardas, P E

    2016-11-01

    Microalbuminuria is an established early marker of endothelial dysfunction and damage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as essential modulators of cardiovascular physiology and disease. In the present study, we sought an association between the differential expression of related miRNAs in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of untreated patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension and the levels of urinary albumin excretion. We assessed the expression of the miRNAs miRNA-1, miRNA-133a, miRNA-26b, miRNA-208b, miRNA-499 and miRNA-21 in consecutive subjects with untreated newly diagnosed essential hypertension (aged 62.5±9.7 years) and with no indications of other organic heart disease. MiRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 9.8%. miRNA-208b and miRNA-133a were independently correlated with 24-h urinary albumin excretion. More specifically, a strong association was found between the gene expression levels of miRNA-208b in our patients' peripheral blood cells and urinary albumin (r=0.72, P<0.001). A similar association was found for miRNA-133a (r=0.372, P<0.001). In conclusion, miRNA-208b and miRNA-133a show distinct profiling in peripheral blood cells isolated from untreated patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension. Their gene expression levels reveal a strong correlation with urinary albumin excretion levels. Our findings provide new perspectives on the development of a new generation of biomarkers for the better monitoring of end-organ damage in hypertension.

  13. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  15. Urinary excretion of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin in hypertensive and normotensive renal transplant recipients during urinary diluting and concentrating tests.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, B; Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Kornerup, H J; Knudsen, F; Mogensen, C E; Nielsen, A H

    1986-11-01

    Urinary excretion of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin was measured in nine hypertensive and nine normotensive renal transplant recipients and 10 healthy control subjects before and after an oral water load of 20 ml (kg body weight)-1 (study 1) and in eight hypertensive and 11 normotensive renal transplant recipients and 11 healthy control subjects during 24-h water deprivation (study 2). In both studies 1 and 2 urinary albumin excretion was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients that in the normotensive patients and the control subjects (levels before loading; hypertensives: 23.9 micrograms/min (median), range 7.5-58.7; normotensives: 3.4 micrograms/min, range 1.0-49.3; controls: 2.9 micrograms/min, range 1.3-10.3). Urinary albumin excretion was significantly positive correlated to both systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure (for mean blood pressure: rho = 0.625, n = 18, p less than 0.01) in transplanted patients. Albumin excretion tended to increase after water loading and to decrease during water deprivation in all groups. Beta-2-microglobulin excretion was approximately the same in all groups in both studies 1 and 2 and was not correlated to blood pressure. During a follow-up period of at least 18 months, none of the renal transplant recipients developed signs of chronic graft failure. Increased urinary albumin excretion in hypertensive renal transplant recipients thus appears to be caused by increased glomerular permeability that may be due to glomerular damage induced by arterial hypertension corresponding to the findings in essential hypertension.

  16. 24-h urinary sodium excretion is associated with obesity in a cross-sectional sample of Australian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2016-03-28

    Emerging evidence indicates that dietary Na may be linked to obesity; however it is unclear whether this relationship is independent of energy intake (EI). The aim of this study was to assess the association between Na intake and measures of adiposity, including BMI z score, weight category and waist:height ratio (WHtR), in a sample of Australian schoolchildren. This was a cross-sectional study of schoolchildren aged 4-12 years. Na intake was assessed via one 24-h urine collection. BMI was converted to age- and sex-specific z scores, and WHtR was used to define abdominal obesity. In children aged ≥8 years, EI was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Of the 666 children with valid urine samples 55 % were male (average age 9·3 (sd 1·8) years). In adjusted models an additional 17 mmol/d of Na was associated with a 0·10 higher BMI z score (95 % CI 0·07, 0·13), a 23 % (OR 1·23; 95 % CI 1·16, 1·31) greater risk of being overweight/obese and a 15 % (OR 1·15; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·23) greater risk of being centrally obese. In the subsample of 8-12-year-old children (n 458), adjustment for EI did not markedly alter the associations between Na and adiposity outcomes. Using a robust measure of daily Na intake we found a positive association between Na intake and obesity risk in Australian schoolchildren, which could not be explained by total energy consumption. To determine whether this is a causal relationship, longitudinal studies, with high-quality measures of Na and EI, are required.

  17. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Růzicka, M; Stríbrná, J; Englis, M; Lánská, V; Skibová, J; Peregrin, J

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of albumin (UEalb), IgG and beta-2 microglobulin was investigated at a 3 hour-interval in a control group (C) of healthy subjects, in 30 patients with renovascular hypertension (RVH), and in 16 patients with essential hypertension (EH). Mean UEalb in RVH was significantly higher than in C. A significant direct correlation was demonstrated between diastolic blood pressure and UEalb (p < 0.01). Microalbuminuria (MA) > or = 30 micrograms.min-1 was found in about 18% of RVH patients; it was higher than 16.7 micrograms.min-1 in approx. 31%. These results did not substantially differ from those obtained in patients with EH. The cause for increased UEalb in hypertensive patients may be functional, haemodynamic changes, or structural ones. In either case, MA indicates renal injury, and these patients should be given increased attention when monitoring their blood pressure and when selecting antihypertensive drugs.

  18. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: The 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8-53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7-45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885-4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654-4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4-23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1-4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33-1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34-2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49-2.53, P < 0.001) in women. In this

  19. The Association of Knowledge and Behaviours Related to Salt with 24-h Urinary Salt Excretion in a Population from North and South India

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J.; MacGregor, Graham A.; Webster, Jacqui; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Consumer knowledge is understood to play a role in managing risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and may be influenced by level of education. The association between population knowledge, behaviours and actual salt consumption was explored overall, and for more-educated compared to less-educated individuals. A cross-sectional survey was done in an age-and sex-stratified random sample of 1395 participants from urban and rural areas of North and South India. A single 24-h urine sample, participants’ physical measurements and questionnaire data were collected. The mean age of participants was 40 years, 47% were women and mean 24-h urinary salt excretion was 9.27 (8.87–9.69) g/day. Many participants reported favourable knowledge and behaviours to minimise risks related to salt. Several of these behaviours were associated with reduced salt intake—less use of salt while cooking, avoidance of snacks, namkeens, and avoidance of pickles (all p < 0.003). Mean salt intake was comparable in more-educated (9.21, 8.55–9.87 g/day) versus less-educated (9.34, 8.57–10.12 g/day) individuals (p = 0.82). There was no substantively different pattern of knowledge and behaviours between more-versus less-educated groups and no clear evidence that level of education influenced salt intake. Several consumer behaviours related to use of salt during food preparation and consumption of salty products were related to actual salt consumption and therefore appear to offer an opportunity for intervention. These would be a reasonable focus for a government-led education campaign targeting salt. PMID:28212309

  20. Association between 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zeng; Guo, Xiaolei; Chen, Xiaorong; Tang, Junli; Yan, Liuxia; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Jiyu; Lu, Zilong; Dong, Jing; Xu, Jianwei; Cai, Xiaoning; Liang, Hao; Ma, Jixiang

    2015-03-28

    The association of 24 h urinary Na and potassium excretion with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been studied in China. The aim of the present study was to examine this association by analysing the data from 1906 study participants living in north China. To this end, 24 h urine samples were collected. Of the 1906 participants, 471 (24·7 %) had the MetS. The mean urinary Na and K excretion was 228·7 and 40·8 mmol/d, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the odds of the MetS significantly increased across the increasing tertiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·40 and 1·54, respectively). For the components of the MetS, the odds of central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG, but not the odds of low HDL-cholesterol and elevated fasting glucose, significantly increased with the successive tertiles of urinary Na excretion. Furthermore, for every 100 mmol/d increase in urinary Na excretion, the odds of the MetS, central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG was significantly increased by 29, 63, 22 and 21 %, respectively. However, urinary K excretion was not significantly associated with the risk of the MetS. These findings suggest that high Na intake might be an important risk factor for the MetS in Chinese adults.

  1. Assessment of new radioimmunoassay kit for determining urinary albumin at low concentrations: comparison with radial immunodiffusion.

    PubMed Central

    Watts, G F; Albano, J D; Bennett, J E; Morris, R W; Shaw, K M; Polak, A

    1986-01-01

    The assay characteristics of a new radioimmunoassay kit for determining urinary albumin at low concentrations were studied. The sensitivity for urinary albumin was 2 mg/l, the analytical range 2 to 40 mg/l, and interassay coefficient of variation less than 12%. In a method comparison study entailing diabetic urine samples covering an albumin concentration of 2 to 150 mg/l the kit compared adequately with radial immunodiffusion (mean difference between methods = 2 mg/l; residual standard deviation = 4.6 mg/l), absolute variation between methods increasing with the concentration. The kit required much less skill than radial immunodiffusion but its capital and running cost were higher. PMID:3097081

  2. Monitoring and managing urinary albumin excretion: practical advice for primary care clinicians.

    PubMed

    Bakris, George L; Kuritzky, Louis

    2009-07-01

    Albuminuria has a strong, continuous, direct, linear relationship with adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. Even at levels below the accepted upper limit of what is considered "normal" daily albumin excretion (< 30 mg/24 h), a relationship between albumin excretion level and adverse CV events is evident. Primary care clinicians (eg, physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians' assistants) are usually the first point of contact for patients at risk for CV and kidney disease. Hence, identifying and treating problematic albuminuria levels are important in primary care. Both the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) endorse routine annual screening for microalbuminuria (small amounts of albumin in the urine). Once excess albumin excretion is detected, clinicians must employ aggressive CV risk reduction. To optimize outcomes, treatment of microalbuminuria often requires the combined skills of experts in primary care, cardiology, metabolic disease, and nephrology. Although blood pressure reduction usually improves microalbuminuria, agents that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are most efficacious. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers (ie, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors) may confer CV and kidney advantages in high-risk patients. Their effects on microalbuminuria reduction are greater than those associated with attaining guideline-recommended blood pressure goals. Effective RAAS blockade sometimes induces transient changes in creatinine and potassium, which merit consistent monitoring for the first 2 to 3 months of their use, but rarely necessitate discontinuation. This article also presents an approach to managing increases in creatinine and potassium that should fit comfortably in the hands of primary care clinicians.

  3. Urinary clearance of albumin is critically determined by its tertiary structure.

    PubMed

    Clavant, Steven P; Comper, Wayne D

    2003-12-01

    The excretion of serum albumin in the urine is considered the net result of renal glomerular filtration and tubular uptake. During routine experiments, we observed that a batch of tritium-labeled albumin yielded anomalous results, being excreted in the urine of isolated perfused kidneys at 10 times the rate of normal tritiated albumin. This anomalous albumin, when simultaneously studied with normal carbon 14-labeled albumin, exhibited 10 times greater excretion than normal [(14)C]albumin. Anomalous albumin could not be reversed to normal albumin by means of conditioning with blood. In vivo clearances of anomalous albumin could not be quantitated because anomalous albumin is degraded during circulation. Anomalous albumin appeared to have the same molecular size (as determined with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis, and gel chromatography) and isoelectric-point profile (2-dimensional electrophresis) as normal albumin. Normal albumin could be transformed to anomalous albumin with alkali/heat treatment. Reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of fragments from tryptic digests of anomalous albumin, alkali/heat-treated albumin, and normal albumin suggest that anomalous albumin and alkali/heat-treated albumin have altered tertiary structure, possibly as a result of denaturation and disulfide exchange. These studies show that the tertiary structure of albumin, beyond simple size and charge, is a critical determinant for albumin processing by the kidney and suggest that a specific albumin-recognition event by the kidneys is critical to normal renal handling of albumin.

  4. Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Deckert, T.; Yokoyama, H.; Mathiesen, E.; Rønn, B.; Jensen, T.; Feldt-Rasmussen, B.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Jensen, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion precedes development of atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes independently of conventional atherogenic risk factors and of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN: Cohort study with 11 year follow up. SETTING: Diabetes centre in Denmark. SUBJECTS: 259 patients aged 19-51 with insulin dependent diabetes of 6-34 years' duration and without atherosclerotic vascular disease or diabetic nephropathy at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline variables: urinary albumin excretion, blood pressure, smoking habits, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor. End point: atherosclerotic vascular disease assessed by death certificates, mailed questionnaires, and hospital records. RESULTS: Thirty patients developed atherosclerotic vascular disease during follow up of 2457 person year. Elevated urinary albumin excretion was significantly predictive of atherosclerotic vascular disease (hazard ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.18) per 5 mg increase in 24 hour urinary albumin excretion, P = 0.002). Predictive effect was independent of age; sex; blood pressure; smoking; serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor; level of haemoglobin A(lc); insulin dose, duration of diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy (hazard ratio 1.04 (1.01 to 1.08) per 5 mg increase PMID:8611873

  5. Urinary albumin and transferrin as early diagnostic markers of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    MAEDA, Hiroto; SOGAWA, Kazuyuki; SAKAGUCHI, Kazuko; ABE, Saori; SAGIZAKA, Wataru; MOCHIZUKI, Shunsuke; HORIE, Waka; WATANABE, Toshifumi; SHIBATA, Yui; SATOH, Mamoru; SANDA, Akihiro; NOMURA, Fumio; SUZUKI, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Feline renal diseases are increasingly noted in veterinary practice. It is important to diagnose and identify the pathological basis of renal dysfunction accurately at an early stage, but there are only a few reports on this area in clinical veterinary medicine. We investigated the efficacy of measurement of urinary albumin (u-Alb) and urinary transferrin (u-Tf) for early diagnosis using 5-µl urine samples collected noninvasively by catheterization from normal (IRIS stage I) cats and cats with stage I chronic kidney disease (CKD). The u-Alb levels in normal and stage I CKD cats were 6.0 ± 4.5 and 11.2 ± 8.4 mg/dl, respectively, and the u-Tf levels were 0.09 ± 0.42 and 0.52 ± 0.79 mg/dl, respectively. Based on ROC curve analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of u-Alb and u-Tf were higher than those of the currently used biomarker, the plasma creatinine level. The sensitivity of u-Alb was higher than that of u-Tf, whereas the specificity of u-Tf was higher than that of u-Alb. The validity of the threshold albumin level (20 mg/dl) was confirmed by measurements using SDS-PAGE. Since leakage of u-Tf in urine precedes leakage of u-Alb, inclusion of u-Tf in biochemistry tests may be appropriate for IRIS staging as a diagnostic marker of early diagnosis of renal disorder in cats. PMID:25819688

  6. Urinary Albumin Levels are Independently Associated with Renal Lesion Severity in Patients with Lupus Nephritis and Little or No Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jin; Zheng, Zhaohui; Li, Xueyi; Feng, Yuan; Leng, Nan; Wu, Zhenbiao; Zhu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) leads to renal lesions, which may be clinically silent in patients with little or no proteinuria. Early detection of these lesions may improve prognosis, but early markers are controversial. This study aimed to determine renal marker proteins associated with renal lesion severity in patients with lupus nephropathy (LN) and little or no proteinuria. Material/Methods Patients with LN and little or no proteinuria (<0.5 g/24 hours) (n=187) that underwent kidney biopsy were grouped according to: low severity (Class I or II; n=116) versus high severity (Class III, IV, or V; n=71). Disease status was determined according to the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI). Renal marker proteins (serum β2-macroglobulin, urinary β2-macroglobulin, albumin, IgG, and α1-macroglobulin) were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results Compared with the low severity group, patients in the high severity group had higher urinary albumin (11.60±8.94 versus 7.08±10.07 μg/mL, p=0.008) and urinary IgG (13.21±9.35 versus 8.74±8.90 μg/mL, p=0.007) levels. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that urinary albumin (odds ratio (OR)=1.417, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.145–1.895, p=0.001) and SLEDAI (OR=2.004, 95% CI: 1.264–3.178, p=0.003) were independently associated with severe renal lesions in these patients. Using an optimal cutoff point of urinary albumin of 7.53 μg/mL resulted in 67% sensitivity and 82% specificity for the detection of high severity renal lesions. Conclusions Urinary albumin levels and SLEDAI were independently associated with histological severity of renal lesions in patients with LN and little or no proteinuria. These parameters could be used to help select patients for renal biopsy. PMID:28157833

  7. Administration of ascorbic acid and an aldose reductase inhibitor (tolrestat) in diabetes: effect on urinary albumin excretion.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, A V; Brooks, B A; Fisher, E J; Molyneaux, L M; Yue, D K

    1998-11-01

    The important role of ascorbic acid (AA) as an anti-oxidant is particularly relevant in diabetes mellitus where plasma concentrations of AA are reduced. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of treatment with AA or an aldose reductase inhibitor, tolrestat, on AA metabolism and urinary albumin excretion in diabetes. Blood and urine samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months from 20 diabetic subjects who were randomized into two groups to receive either oral AA 500 mg twice daily or placebo. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, HbA1c, plasma lipids, urinary albumin, and total glycosaminoglycan excretion were measured at all time points, and heparan sulphate (glycosaminoglycan) was measured at 0 and 12 months. The same parameters, as well as urinary AA excretion, were determined at 0 and 3 months for 16 diabetes subjects receiving 200 mg tolrestat/day. AA treatment increased plasma AA (ANOVA, F ratio = 12.1, p = 0.004) and reduced albumin excretion rate (AER) after 9 months (ANOVA, F ratio = 3.2, p = 0.03), but did not change the other parameters measured. Tolrestat lowered plasma AA (Wilcoxon's signed-rank test, p < 0.05), but did not change AER or the other parameters measured. The ability of AA treatment to decrease AER may be related to changes in extracellular matrix or improvement in oxidative defence mechanism. Unlike the rat model of diabetes, inhibition of aldose reductase did not normalize plasma AA or AER in humans. In fact, tolrestat reduced the plasma AA concentration, a phenomenon which may be due to increased utilization of AA. Dietary supplementation of AA in diabetic subjects may have long-term benefits in attenuating the progression of diabetic complications.

  8. Prevention of hemodynamic and vascular albumin filtration changes in diabetic rats by aldose reductase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, R.G.; Chang, K.; Pugliese, G.; Eades, D.M.; Province, M.A.; Sherman, W.R.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R. )

    1989-10-01

    This study investigated hemodynamic changes in diabetic rats and their relationship to changes in vascular albumin permeation and increased metabolism of glucose to sorbitol. The effects of 6 wk of streptozocin-induced diabetes and three structurally different inhibitors of aldose reductase were examined on (1) regional blood flow (assessed with 15-microns 85Sr-labeled microspheres) and vascular permeation by 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and (2) glomerular filtration rate (assessed by plasma clearance of 57Co-labeled EDTA) and urinary albumin excretion (determined by radial immunodiffusion assay). In diabetic rats, blood flow was significantly increased in ocular tissues (anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, and optic nerve), sciatic nerve, kidney, new granulation tissue, cecum, and brain. 125I-BSA permeation was increased in all of these tissues except brain. Glomerular filtration rate and 24-h urinary albumin excretion were increased 2- and 29-fold, respectively, in diabetic rats. All three aldose reductase inhibitors completely prevented or markedly reduced these hemodynamic and vascular filtration changes and increases in tissue sorbitol levels in the anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, sciatic nerve, and granulation tissue. These observations indicate that early diabetes-induced hemodynamic changes and increased vascular albumin permeation and urinary albumin excretion are aldose reductase-linked phenomena. Discordant effects of aldose reductase inhibitors on blood flow and vascular albumin permeation in some tissues suggest that increased vascular albumin permeation is not entirely attributable to hemodynamic change.

  9. Effect of modest salt reduction on blood pressure, urinary albumin, and pulse wave velocity in white, black, and Asian mild hypertensives.

    PubMed

    He, Feng J; Marciniak, Maciej; Visagie, Elisabeth; Markandu, Nirmala D; Anand, Vidya; Dalton, R Neil; MacGregor, Graham A

    2009-09-01

    A reduction in salt intake lowers blood pressure. However, most previous trials were in whites with few in blacks and Asians. Salt reduction may also reduce other cardiovascular risk factors (eg, urinary albumin excretion, arterial stiffness). However, few well-controlled trials have studied these effects. We carried out a randomized double-blind crossover trial of salt restriction with slow sodium or placebo, each for 6 weeks, in 71 whites, 69 blacks, and 29 Asians with untreated mildly raised blood pressure. From slow sodium to placebo, urinary sodium was reduced from 165+/-58 (+/-SD) to 110+/-49 mmol/24 hours (9.7 to 6.5 g/d salt). With this reduction in salt intake, there was a significant decrease in blood pressure from 146+/-13/91+/-8 to 141+/-12/88+/-9 mm Hg (P<0.001), urinary albumin from 10.2 (IQR: 6.8 to 18.9) to 9.1 (6.6 to 14.0) mg/24 hours (P<0.001), albumin/creatinine ratio from 0.81 (0.47 to 1.43) to 0.66 (0.44 to 1.22) mg/mmol (P<0.001), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity from 11.5+/-2.3 to 11.1+/-1.9 m/s (P<0.01). Subgroup analysis showed that the reductions in blood pressure and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio were significant in all groups, and the decrease in pulse wave velocity was significant in blacks only. These results demonstrate that a modest reduction in salt intake, approximately the amount of the current public health recommendations, causes significant falls in blood pressure in all 3 ethnic groups. Furthermore, it reduces urinary albumin and improves large artery compliance. Although both could be attributable to the falls in blood pressure, they may carry additional benefits on reducing cardiovascular disease above that obtained from the blood pressure falls alone.

  10. Association between urinary sodium, creatinine, albumin, and long-term survival in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Traynor, Jamie P; Taylor, Alison H; Freel, E Marie; Fox, Jonathan G; Jardine, Alan G; Mark, Patrick B

    2014-07-01

    Dietary sodium intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular risk in the general population. In patients with chronic kidney disease, sodium intake has been associated with progressive renal disease, but not independently of proteinuria. We studied the relationship between urinary sodium (UNa) excretion and UNa to creatinine ratio and mortality or requirement for renal replacement therapy in chronic kidney disease. Adult patients attending a renal clinic who had ≥1 24-hour UNa measurement were identified. Twenty-four-hour UNa measures were collected and UNa to creatinine ratio calculated. Time to renal replacement therapy or death was recorded. Four hundred twenty-three patients were identified with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 48 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Ninety patients required renal replacement therapy and 102 patients died. Mean slope decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate was -2.8 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) per year. Median follow-up was 8.5 years. Patients who died or required renal replacement therapy had significantly higher UNa excretion and UNa to creatinine ratio, but the association with these parameters and poor outcome was not independent of renal function, age, and albuminuria. When stratified by albuminuria, UNa to creatinine ratio was a significant cumulative additional risk for mortality, even in patients with low-level albuminuria. There was no association between low UNa and risk, as observed in some studies. This study demonstrates an association between UNa excretion and mortality in chronic kidney disease, with a cumulative relationship between sodium excretion, albuminuria, and reduced survival. These data support reducing dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease, but additional study is required to determine the target sodium intake.

  11. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, P<0.05) with ephedrine than with placebo, but mechanical work was not different between the ephedrine and placebo periods. Noradrenaline excretion was lower with ephedrine (0.032+/-0.011 microg/mg creatinine) compared with placebo (0.044+/-0.012 microg/mg creatinine) (P<0.05). (+/-)Ephedrine is a relatively weak partial agonist of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors, and had no detectable activity at human beta3-adrenoreceptors. Ephedrine (50 mg thrice daily) modestly increases energy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  12. Improvements in Augmentation Index and Urinary Albumin Excretion With Benidipine in Hypertensive Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Tadateru; Yoda, Shunichi; Yajima, Yoshiharu; Kasamaki, Yuji; Kunimoto, Satoshi; Kanai, Takashi; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Although calcium channel blockers (CCB) are expected to improve the augmentation index (AI) in CKD patients, the potential effect of benidipine on AI has been poorly studied.The present study aimed to compare the effect of benidipine and amlodipine in the treatment of CKD patients as measured through AI and urinary albumin excretion (UAE). Eligible patients with CKD were randomized to either the benidipine group or amlodipine group. Changes in UAE and AI were compared with target blood pressure level set at < 130/80 mmHg. A total of 108 patients were enrolled; 88 patients who were followed up were included in the analysis. Although no significant change in renal function was noted in either group, there was a significant improvement in AI only in the benidipine group (85.7 ± 13.3% to 81.4 ± 15.2%; P = 0.021) A subgroup analysis of 64 patients who achieved SBP < 140 mmHg at the end of follow-up (31 on amlodipine and 33 on benidipine) was carried out. Significant improvement in AI was noted only in the benidipine group (84.5 ± 13.6% to 79.5 ± 15.2%; P = 0.0138). In another subgroup of patients with UAE ≥ 300 mg/g Cr, a significant improvement in UAE in the benidipine group was found compared with the amlodipine group (-25 ± 46, 51 ± 60%, P = 0.031, respectively).These results suggest that benidipine might reduce significantly AI and might have potentially greater improvements in UAE than amlodipine in advanced CKD patients receiving RAS inhibitors.

  13. Urinary Albumin Excretion Reflects Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women without Diabetes: The 2011 to 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hee Jung; Moon, Do Sik; Kang, Da Yeong; Lee, Jung In; Kim, Da Young; Kim, Jin Hwa; Bae, Hak Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of the current study was to determine whether there was an association between urinary albumin excretion and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by estimating the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in postmenopausal women without diabetes. Methods This study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare in 2011 to 2013. Data on 2,316 postmenopausal women from a total of 24,594 participants was included in the analysis. Results The mean FRS was significantly different in each of the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) subgroups, and it increased with UACR. The FRS was 12.69±0.12 in the optimal group, 14.30±0.19 in the intermediate normal group, 14.62±0.26 in the high normal group, and 15.86±0.36 in the microalbuminuria group. After fully adjusting for potential confounding factors, high normal levels and microalbuminuria were significantly associated with the highest tertile of FRS ([odds ratio (OR), 1.642; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.124 to 2.400] and [OR, 3.385; 95% CI, 2.088 to 5.488], respectively) compared with the optimal subgroup. High normal levels and microalbuminuria were also significantly associated with a ≥10% 10-year risk of CVD ([OR, 1.853; 95% CI, 1.122 to 3.060] and [OR, 2.831; 95% CI, 1.327 to 6.037], respectively) after adjusting for potential confounding covariates. Conclusion Urinary albumin excretion reflects CVD risk in postmenopausal women without diabetes, and high normal levels and microalbuminuria were independently associated with a higher risk of CVD. PMID:27834079

  14. Effect of Pentoxifylline on Renal Function and Urinary Albumin Excretion in Patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease: The PREDIAN Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Fernández, Carmen; Muros de Fuentes, Mercedes; Chahin, Jesús; Méndez, María L.; Gallego, Eduardo; Macía, Manuel; del Castillo, Nieves; Rivero, Antonio; Getino, María A.; García, Patricia; Jarque, Ana; García, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of ESRD. We conducted an open-label, prospective, randomized trial to determine whether pentoxifylline (PTF), which reduces albuminuria, in addition to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade, can slow progression of renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and stages 3–4 CKD. Participants were assigned to receive PTF (1200 mg/d) (n=82) or to a control group (n=87) for 2 years. All patients received similar doses of RAS inhibitors. At study end, eGFR had decreased by a mean±SEM of 2.1±0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the PTF group compared with 6.5±0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the control group, with a between-group difference of 4.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.1 to 5.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2; P<0.001) in favor of PTF. The proportion of patients with a rate of eGFR decline greater than the median rate of decline (0.16 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per month) was lower in the PTF group than in the control group (33.3% versus 68.2%; P<0.001). Percentage change in urinary albumin excretion was 5.7% (95% CI, −0.3% to 11.1%) in the control group and −14.9% (95% CI, −20.4% to −9.4%) in the PTF group (P=0.001). Urine TNF-α decreased from a median 16 ng/g (interquartile range, 11–20.1 ng/g) to 14.3 ng/g (interquartile range, 9.2–18.4 ng/g) in the PTF group (P<0.01), with no changes in the control group. In this population, addition of PTF to RAS inhibitors resulted in a smaller decrease in eGFR and a greater reduction of residual albuminuria. PMID:24970885

  15. A novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonist, NIP-222, reduces urinary albumin excretion in streptozotocin-diabetic mice independent of PPARgamma activation.

    PubMed

    Yotsumoto, Takashi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Kanaki, Tatsuro; Matsuda, Maho; Tsuruzoe, Nobutomo

    2003-12-01

    NIP-222 is a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonist. This study provides evidence that NIP-222 decreases urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in diabetic mice independent of its PPARgamma activation. We compared the effect of NIP-222 and another PPARgamma agonist, troglitazone, on UAE, plasma glucose level, blood pressure, and creatinine clearance (C(cr)) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Treatment for 3 weeks with NIP-222 (30 mg/kg) was associated with a significant decrease in UAE without any change in blood pressure, creatinine clearance, or plasma glucose level. In contrast, UAE did not decrease in mice treated with troglitazone (300 mg/kg). These results indicate that NIP-222 has PPARgamma independent effects on UAE in diabetic mice and suggest that this agent may have potential to minimize the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  16. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-10-01

    Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis.The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04).UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE.

  17. The influence of citrate and phosphate on the Mancini single radial immunodiffusion technique and suggested improvements for the determination of urinary albumin.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, J E; Uzqueda, H R

    1978-12-15

    When adapting the immediate bromcresol green method for urinary albumin determination a correlation study with the Mancini single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) method was performed. This study showed large disparities between the two methods, SRID giving the higher results. The unsuitability of the currently used SRID methods is demonstrated and improvements to the method are suggested. Known amounts of albumin were added to urine samples as well as to a "synthetic urine", both giving falsely elevated results with the SRID method. On investigating the different components of the "synthetic urine", it was found that the disparities were due to the influence of citrate and phosphate. On addition of citric acid or phosphate to the dilution buffer and/or the gel buffer, the results of the SRID method agreed with those of other methods and with the expected values. The findings presented in this paper can probably be extended to other immunological methods too since it seems to be the antigen-antibody reaction which is affected.

  18. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  19. D-penicillamine does not increase urinary bismuth excretion in patients treated with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate.

    PubMed

    Nwokolo, C U; Pounder, R E

    1990-10-01

    Twenty-four urinary bismuth excretion was measured in five patients who had been treated with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate, before and after single 1 g oral dose of D-penicillamine. Before dosing with D-penicillamine, the median 24 h urinary bismuth output was 55 micrograms 24 h-1 (range 17-156 micrograms 24 h-1) and following dosing with D-penicillamine the median 24 h urinary bismuth output was 53 micrograms 24 h-1 (range 12-156 micrograms 24 h-1). D-penicillamine does not facilitate the urinary excretion of bismuth, hence it is unsuitable for use as an oral chelator in patients with bismuth intoxication.

  20. Availability of 24-h urine collection method on dietary phosphorus intake estimation

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Masae; Morimoto, Yuuka; Suzuki, Yukie; Suzuki, Akitsu; Noda, Saaya; Nishino, Kanaho; Ando, Sakiko; Ishikawa, Makoto; Arai, Hidekazu

    2017-01-01

    Accurate assessment of dietary phosphorus intake is necessary to prevent hyperphosphatemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine collection method for estimation of phosphate intake in healthy males. Two experiments, a 1-day and a 5-day loading test, were performed. After an overnight fast, subjects consumed test meals, 24-h urine collection was performed, and blood samples were obtained. In the 5-day loading test, a phosphorus supplement was orally administered on day 3. The association between the phosphorus content of test meals and urinary excretion, anthropometric indices, and blood biomarkers was analyzed to develop a more precise formula for estimating phosphorus intake. In the 1-day loading test, the standard deviation of predictive phosphorus intake, based on multiple linear regression analysis, was less than that for the phosphorus absorption rate. In the 5-day loading test, urinary phosphorus excretion was similar on days 2, 4 and 5, but was significantly higher on day 3 after phosphorus supplementation. Our results indicate that estimation of dietary phosphorus intake with the 24-h urine collection method, using the amount of phosphorus and urea nitrogen excretion, may increase the precision of short-term monitoring. PMID:28366992

  1. Serum immunoreactive relaxin in women during a 24-h period.

    PubMed

    Seki, K; Kato, K; Tabei, T

    1987-03-01

    Serum relaxin concentrations were measured every 30 min during a 24-h period in nonpregnant and pregnant women. Relaxin was undetectable in all serum samples obtained from 3 nonpregnant women. Relaxin was detectable in all serum samples obtained from 2 pregnant women. However, neither episodic secretion of relaxin nor a 24-h rhythm in relaxin secretion was discernible in these women.

  2. 24-h hydration status: parameters, epidemiology and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Manz, F; Wentz, A

    2003-12-01

    Hydration of individuals and groups is characterised by comparing actual urine osmolality (Uosm) with maximum Uosm. Data of actual, maximum and minimum Uosm in infants, children and adults and its major influencing factors are reviewed. There are remarkable ontogenetic, individual and cultural differences in Uosm. In the foetus and the breast-fed infant Uosm is much lower than plasma osmolality, whereas in children and adults it is usually much higher. Individuals and groups may show long-term differences in Uosm. In industrialised countries, the gender difference of Uosm is common. There are large intercultural differences of mean 24-h Uosm ranging from 860 mosm/kg in Germany, 649 mosm/kg in USA to 392 mosm/kg in Poland. A new physiologically based concept called 'free-water reserve' quantifies differences in 24-h euhydration. In 189 boys of the DONALD Study aged 4.0-6.9 y, median urine volume was 497 ml/24-h and median Uosm 809 mosm/kg. Considering mean-2 s.d. of actual maximum 24-h Uosm of 830 mosm/kg as upper level of euhydration and physiological criterion of adequate hydration in these boys, median free-water reserve was 11 ml/24-h. Based on median total water intake of 1310 ml/24-h and the third percentile of free-water volume of -156 ml/24-h, adequate total water intake was 1466 ml/24-h or 1.01 ml/kcal. Data of Uosm in 24-h urine samples and corresponding free-water reserve values of homogeneous groups of healthy subjects from all over the world might be useful parameters in epidemiology to investigate the health effects of different levels of 24-h euhydration.

  3. Albumin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... may also be ordered to evaluate a person's nutritional status. ^ Back to top When is it ordered? An ... albumin test to check or monitor a person's nutritional status. However, since albumin concentrations respond to a variety ...

  4. Albumin holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Vega-Criollo, R.; Berriel-Valdos, L. R.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.

    2011-02-01

    A Characterization is made with performance analysis of new photosensitive films of albumin to certain conditions for holographic recording based on interferometric array. We carried out the photo-oxidation of gallus gallus albumin albumin chemically combining powdered sugar (Glass ®) to an aqueous solution of ammonium dichromate. It was the analysis of the behavior of diffraction efficiency parameter through the intensity diffraction pattern produced by the gratings made with albumin.

  5. Environmental impact on crew of armoured vehicles: effects of 24 h combat exercise in a hot desert.

    PubMed

    Singh, A P; Majumdar, D; Bhatia, M R; Srivastava, K K; Selvamurthy, W

    1995-11-01

    A field study was undertaken to investigate the effects of combined noise, vibration and heat stress on the physiological functions of the crew of armoured vehicles during prolonged combat exercise in a desert. The sound pressure level of noise was measured with a sound level meter and accelerations by vibration analyser. The thermal load on the crew was evaluated by calculating the wet bulb globe temperature index. The physiological responses of the subjects (n = 9), included significant increases in the heart rate, 24 h water intake and urinary catecholamine concentration. A significant decrease was recorded in body mass, peak expiratory flow rate and 24 h urinary output. The high heat load on the crew resulted in a hypohydration of 3% body mass and appeared to be the dominant factor in producing the physiological strain.

  6. Enhanced vagal baroreflex response during 24 h after acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Adams, W. C.

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated carotid-cardiac baroreflex responses in eight normotensive men (25-41 yr) on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested before and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after graded supine cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, this 24-h protocol was repeated with no exercise (control). Beat-to-beat R-R intervals were measured during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses from 40 to -65 mmHg; changes of R-R intervals were plotted against carotid pressure (systolic pressure minus neck chamber pressure). The maximum slope of the response relationship increased (P less than 0.05) from preexercise to 12 h (3.7 +/- 0.4 to 7.1 +/- 0.7 ms/mmHg) and remained significantly elevated through 24 h. The range of the R-R response was also increased from 217 +/- 24 to 274 +/- 32 ms (P less than 0.05). No significant differences were observed during the control 24-h period. An acute bout of graded exercise designed to elicit exhaustion increases the sensitivity and range of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response for 24 h and enhances its capacity to buffer against hypotension by increasing heart rate. These results may represent an underlying mechanism that contributes to blood pressure stability after intense exercise.

  7. Parabens in 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Moos, Rebecca K; Koch, Holger M; Angerer, Jürgen; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Brüning, Thomas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care and consumer products, food and pharmaceuticals. Due to their ubiquity, humans are constantly exposed to these chemicals. We assessed exposure to nine parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, n- and iso-propyl-, n- and iso-butyl-, benzyl-, pentyl- and heptyl paraben) in the German population from 1995 to 2012 based on 660 24h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) using on-line HPLC coupled to isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg/L for all parabens. We detected methyl-, ethyl- and n-propyl paraben in 79-99% of samples, followed by n-butyl paraben in 40% of samples. We infrequently detected iso-butyl-, iso-propyl- and benzyl paraben in 24%, 4% and 1.4% of samples, respectively. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 39.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 319 μg/L) followed by n-propyl paraben (4.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 74.0 μg/L) and ethyl paraben (2.1 μg/L; 95th percentile 39.1 μg/L). Women had significantly higher urinary levels for all parabens than men, except for benzyl paraben. Samples from the ESB revealed that over the investigation period of nearly 20 years urinary paraben levels remained surprisingly constant; only methyl paraben had a significant increase, for both men and women. We found strong correlations between methyl- and n-propyl paraben and between n- and iso-butyl paraben. These results indicate that parabens are used in combination and arise from common sources of exposure. Urinary excretion factors are needed to extrapolate from individual urinary concentrations to actual doses.

  8. Association of Increased Urinary Albumin With Risk of Incident Clinical Fracture and Rate of Hip Bone Loss: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study.

    PubMed

    Fink, Howard A; Vo, Tien N; Langsetmo, Lisa; Barzilay, Joshua I; Cauley, Jane A; Schousboe, John T; Orwoll, Eric S; Canales, Muna T; Ishani, Areef; Lane, Nancy E; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2016-12-24

    Prior studies suggest that increased urine albumin is associated with a heightened fracture risk in women, but results in men are unclear. We used data from Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS), a prospective cohort study of community-dwelling men aged ≥65 years, to evaluate the association of increased urine albumin with subsequent fractures and annualized rate of hip bone loss. We calculated albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) from urine collected at the 2003-2005 visit. Subsequent clinical fractures were ascertained from triannual questionnaires and centrally adjudicated by review of radiographic reports. Total hip BMD was measured by DXA at the 2003-2005 visit and again an average of 3.5 years later. We estimated risk of incident clinical fracture using Cox proportional hazards models, and annualized BMD change using ANCOVA. Of 2982 men with calculable ACR, 9.4% had ACR ≥30 mg/g (albuminuria) and 1.0% had ACR ≥300 mg/g (macroalbuminuria). During a mean of 8.7 years of follow-up, 20.0% of men had an incident clinical fracture. In multivariate-adjusted models, neither higher ACR quintile (p for trend 0.75) nor albuminuria (HR versus no albuminuria, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.20) was associated with increased risk of incident clinical fracture. Increased urine albumin had a borderline significant, multivariate-adjusted, positive association with rate of total hip bone loss when modeled in ACR quintiles (p = 0.06), but not when modeled as albuminuria versus no albuminuria. Macroalbuminuria was associated with a higher rate of annualized hip bone loss compared to no albuminuria (-1.8% more annualized loss than in men with ACR <30 mg/g; p < 0.001), but the limited prevalence of macroalbuminuria precluded reliable estimates of its fracture associations. In these community-dwelling older men, we found no association between urine albumin levels and risk of incident clinical fracture, but found a borderline significant, positive association with rate of hip

  9. Identification of 24h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lauren A; Radulović, Željko M; Kim, Tae K; Porter, Lindsay M; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ∼19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ∼81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ∼18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (∼3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (∼6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (∼31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (∼24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted.

  10. Identification of 24 h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Lauren A.; Radulović, Željko M.; Kim, Tae K.; Porter, Lindsay M.; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24 h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24 h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24 h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24 h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ~19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ~81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ~18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (~3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (~6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (~31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (~24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24 h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted. PMID:25825233

  11. Study the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with early endothelial dysfunction and its impact on cardiovascular system by estimating urinary albumin creatinine ratio

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Anand; Garg, Renu; Sahu, Dibakar; Kumar, Mukesh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attribute to systemic inflammation which is responsible for microalbuminuria reflecting endothelial dysfunction, could be a significant surrogate marker of potential cardiovascular morbidity. Objective: The aim of our study was to find out the possible association of COPD with early cardiovascular changes in the form of renal endothelial dysfunction. Settings and Design: Case–control, multi-group, cross-sectional hospital-based study was designed and conducted in the Department of Respiratory Medicine of BPS Government Medical College for Women, Khanpur Kalan, Sonipat, Haryana. Subjects and Methods: The study included 150 subjects, comprising of three groups with each having 50 subjects: Group 1 – acute exacerbation of COPD, Group 2 – stable COPD patients, Group 3 – asymptomatic smokers. Pulmonary function test, urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) and brachio-ankle pulse wave velocity were measured in all the subjects. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using SPSS ver 20 (IBM, USA) software. Continuous variables were compared by unpaired Student's t-test while correlation was measured by Pearson correlation test, P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean urine albumin creatinine ratio UACR value in acute exacerbation of COPD (283.30 mg/g; standard deviation [SD] ±871.98) was found significantly higher compare to control subjects (24.17 mg/g; SD ± 32.105;) P = 0.038. Besides this COPD patients with Type 2 respiratory failure having robust positive correlation in between UACR and arterial blood pH (r = 0.559; P = 0.030) while it was inverse and moderate with partial pressure of arterial oxygen (r = −0.470; P = 0.077). Conclusions: Acute state of COPD with or without Type 2 respiratory failure is having a significant impact on cardiovascular system in the form of early microvascular changes. PMID:28360461

  12. Effect of the Direct Renin Inhibitor Aliskiren on Urinary Albumin Excretion in Spontaneous Type 2 Diabetic KK-A (y) Mouse.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Masako; Gohda, Tomohito; Hagiwara, Shinji; Tanimoto, Mitsuo; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Funabiki, Kazuhiko; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Although angiotensin II-mediated inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation are considered to be associated with the progression of diabetic nephropathy, these processes have not yet been sufficiently clarified. The objective of this study was to determine whether the correction of the abnormal renal expression of MMPs and its inhibitors (MMPs/TIMPs) and cytokines following the administration of aliskiren to KK-A (y) mice results in a renoprotective effect. Methods. KK-A (y) mice were divided into two groups, that is, untreated (saline) and treated (aliskiren) groups. Systolic BP, HbA1c levels, and the albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured. The renal expression of MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) was examined using real-time PCR and/or immunohistochemical staining. Renal MAPK and NF- κ B activity were also examined by Western blot analyses and ELISA, respectively. Results. Significant decreases in systolic BP and ACR levels were observed in treated KK-A (y) mice compared with the findings in untreated KK-A (y) mice. Furthermore, increases in MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (P)RR expression, in addition to MAPK and NF- κ B activity, were significantly attenuated by aliskiren administration. Conclusions. It appears that aliskiren improves albuminuria and renal fibrosis by regulating inflammation and the alteration of collagen synthesis and degradation.

  13. Cubilin is an albumin binding protein important for renal tubular albumin reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Birn, H; Fyfe, J C; Jacobsen, C; Mounier, F; Verroust, P J; Orskov, H; Willnow, T E; Moestrup, S K; Christensen, E I

    2000-05-01

    Using affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analysis, we have identified cubilin, a 460-kDa receptor heavily expressed in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells, as an albumin binding protein. Dogs with a functional defect in cubilin excrete large amounts of albumin in combination with virtually abolished proximal tubule reabsorption, showing the critical role for cubilin in the uptake of albumin by the proximal tubule. Also, by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry we show that previously identified low-molecular-weight renal albumin binding proteins are fragments of cubilin. In addition, we find that mice lacking the endocytic receptor megalin show altered urinary excretion, and reduced tubular reabsorption, of albumin. Because cubilin has been shown to colocalize and interact with megalin, we propose a mechanism of albumin reabsorption mediated by both of these proteins. This process may prove important for understanding interstitial renal inflammation and fibrosis caused by proximal tubule uptake of an increased load of filtered albumin.

  14. Proximal Tubules Have the Capacity to Regulate Uptake of Albumin.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Mark C; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B; Chowdhury, Mahboob; Flores, Brittany; Lai, Xianyin; Myslinski, Jered; Pandit, Sweekar; Sandoval, Ruben M; Wean, Sarah E; Wei, Yuan; Satlin, Lisa M; Wiggins, Roger C; Witzmann, Frank A; Molitoris, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Evidence from multiple studies supports the concept that both glomerular filtration and proximal tubule (PT) reclamation affect urinary albumin excretion rate. To better understand these roles of glomerular filtration and PT uptake, we investigated these processes in two distinct animal models. In a rat model of acute exogenous albumin overload, we quantified glomerular sieving coefficients (GSC) and PT uptake of Texas Red-labeled rat serum albumin using two-photon intravital microscopy. No change in GSC was observed, but a significant decrease in PT albumin uptake was quantified. In a second model, loss of endogenous albumin was induced in rats by podocyte-specific transgenic expression of diphtheria toxin receptor. In these albumin-deficient rats, exposure to diphtheria toxin induced an increase in albumin GSC and albumin filtration, resulting in increased exposure of the PTs to endogenous albumin. In this case, PT albumin reabsorption was markedly increased. Analysis of known albumin receptors and assessment of cortical protein expression in the albumin overload model, conducted to identify potential proteins and pathways affected by acute protein overload, revealed changes in the expression levels of calreticulin, disabled homolog 2, NRF2, angiopoietin-2, and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. Taken together, these results suggest that a regulated PT cell albumin uptake system can respond rapidly to different physiologic conditions to minimize alterations in serum albumin level.

  15. Evaluation of snake envenomation-induced renal dysfunction in dogs using early urinary biomarkers of nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hrovat, A; Schoeman, J P; de Laat, B; Meyer, E; Smets, P; Goddard, A; Nagel, S; Daminet, S

    2013-10-01

    Renal dysfunction in dogs envenomed by poisonous snakes is currently detected using traditional serum and urinary biomarkers such as creatinine and proteinuria. However, these markers lack sensitivity at the early stages of renal dysfunction and their diagnostic accuracy is affected by pre-analytical factors commonly occurring in these dogs, such as haemolysis and haemoglobinuria. Early detection of renal dysfunction would allow for the identification of dogs requiring intensive treatment and monitoring and may help inform prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of several novel urinary biomarkers of glomerular dysfunction, namely, urinary albumin (uAlb), immunoglobulin G (uIgG) and C-reactive protein (uCRP) and of proximal tubular dysfunction (urinary retinol binding protein (uRBP)) compared to traditional end points in dogs with renal damage caused by snake envenomation. Biomarker results were compared between 19 dogs bitten by snakes producing either neurotoxins or cytotoxins and 10 clinically healthy controls. uAlb, uIgG, and uRBP were significantly increased in snake-envenomed dogs at presentation compared to controls, whereas only uIgG and uCRP were significantly elevated 24h post-envenomation. The urinary protein:creatinine ratio was also increased in envenomed dogs compared to controls, but because of the presence of haematuria and haemoglobinuria, differentiation between pre-renal and renal proteinuria was not possible. The results showed that these novel urinary biomarkers may assist in better detecting renal dysfunction in dogs envenomed by poisonous snakes at the acute disease stage compared to traditional laboratory endpoints.

  16. Hippuric acid in 24 h urine collections as a biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Angela; Folesani, Giuseppina; Mena, Pedro; Ticinesi, Andrea; Allegri, Franca; Nouvenne, Antonio; Pinelli, Silvana; Del Rio, Daniele; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-12-01

    This work aimed to underline the prospects of hippuric acid, a product of the metabolism of polyphenols, as a new biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake associated with lithogenic risk. Biochemical parameters of lithogenic risk and hippuric acid were measured in the 24 h urine collections of a cohort of 696 Italian kidney stone formers divided into two subgroups according to their different dietary habits. The link between lithogenic risk parameters and hippuric acid was assessed and this compound was revealed as a valuable biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers. A cut-off value of urinary excretion of hippuric acid, 300 mg/24 h, was set as the threshold of discrimination between low and high intake of fruits and vegetables for these patients. These results highlight the importance of monitoring of the excretion hippuric acid in urine to address proper dietary guidelines for the management of stone former patients.

  17. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... It may begin around the time of menopause. Urgency urinary incontinence happens when people have a sudden need ... urinary incontinence is a mix of stress and urgency urinary incontinence. You may leak urine with a laugh ...

  18. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11–24 Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N. S.; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J.; Foster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11–24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11–24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. PMID:27294952

  19. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-06-09

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults.

  20. Validation of soy protein estimates from a food-frequency questionnaire with repeated 24-h recalls and isoflavonoid excretion in overnight urine in a Western population with a wide range of soy intakes2

    PubMed Central

    Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fraser, Gary E; Chan, Jacqueline; Franke, Adrian; Sabaté, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence of the benefits of soy on cancer risk in Western populations is inconsistent, in part because of the low intake of soy in these groups. Objective We assessed the validity of soy protein estimates from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) in a sample of Adventist Health Study-2 participants with a wide range of soy intakes. Design We obtained dietary intake data from 100 men and women (43 blacks and 57 nonblacks). Soy protein estimates from FFQs were compared against repeated 24-h recalls and urinary excretion of daidzein, genistein, total isoflavonoids (TIFLs), and equol (measured by HPLC/photodiode array/mass spectrometry) as reference criteria. We calculated Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients (with 95% CIs) for FFQ–24-h recall, 24 h-recall–urinary excretion, and FFQ–urinary excretion pairs. Results Among soy users, mean (± SD) soy protein values were 12.12 ± 10.80 g/d from 24-h recalls and 9.43 ± 7.83 g/d from FFQs. The unattenuated correlation (95% CI) between soy protein estimates from 24-h recalls and FFQs was 0.57 (0.32, 0.75). Correlation coefficients between soy protein intake from 24-h recalls and urinary isoflavonoids were 0.72 (0.43, 0.96) for daidzein, 0.67 (0.43, 0.91) for genistein, and 0.72 (0.47, 0.98) for TIFLs. Between FFQs and urinary excretion, these were 0.50 (0.32, 0.65), 0.48 (0.29, 0.61), and 0.50 (0.32, 0.64) for daidzein, genistein, and TIFLs, respectively. Conclusions Soy protein estimates from questionnaire were significantly correlated with soy protein from 24-h recalls and urinary excretion of daidzein, genistein, and TIFLs. The Adventist Health Study-2 FFQ is a valid instrument for assessing soy protein in a population with a wide range of soy intakes. PMID:18469267

  1. The 24 h blood pressure-R-R interval relation in ambulatory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Recordati, Giorgio; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2008-05-30

    The present study was aimed at investigating whether the blood pressure-R-R interval relation obtained by ABPM may give useful information about autonomic control in the 24 h period. To this purpose ABPM was performed in 60 healthy young subjects (30 females and 30 males, mean age 21.8+/-1.0 years) and the collected variables were copied to a software program to convert heart rate into R-R interval values, for statistical analysis and graphic representation. The following data were calculated: 1) day and night means+/-SD; 2) difference and percent difference in mean night less mean day R-R interval (Delta y), diastolic and systolic blood pressures (Delta x) and their Delta y/Delta x ratios; 3) intercept (a_24 h), slope (b_24 h) and r coefficient (r_24 h) of the linear regressions of 24 h R-R interval over diastolic and systolic blood pressure values. In all subjects night, with respect to day, was characterized by R-R interval lengthening and blood pressure lowering. Despite this common pattern, day and night means and SDs, night and day differences, Delta y/Delta x ratios, a_24 h and b_24 h were different from individual to individual, but they were characteristic and reproducible in 20 out of the 21 subjects in which ABPM was repeated twice. Subjects could thus be classified according to their Delta y/Delta x ratios and slope (b_24 h). The 24 h blood pressure-R-R interval relation as calculated from ABPM yields individually characteristic indices of circadian sympatho-vagal reciprocity. This novel approach may be helpful in characterizing the 24 h autonomic control of several groups of patients.

  2. Measurement of lung fluid volumes and albumin exclusion in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Pou, N.A.; Roselli, R.J.; Parker, R.E.; Clanton, J.A.; Harris, T.R. )

    1989-10-01

    A radioactive tracer technique was used to determine interstitial diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and albumin distribution volume in sheep lungs. {sup 125}I- and/or {sup 131}I-labeled albumin were injected intravenously and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h. {sup 99m}Tc-labeled DTPA and {sup 51}Cr-labeled erythrocytes were injected and allowed to equilibrate (2 h and 15 min, respectively) before a lethal dose of thiamylal sodium. Two biopsies (1-3 g) were taken from each lung and the remaining tissue was homogenized for wet-to-dry lung weight and volume calculations. Estimates of distribution volumes from whole lung homogenized samples were statistically smaller than biopsy samples for extravascular water, interstitial {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA, and interstitial albumin. The mean fraction of the interstitium (Fe), which excludes albumin, was 0.68 +/- 0.04 for whole lung samples compared with 0.62 +/- 0.03 for biopsy samples. Hematocrit may explain the consistent difference. To make the Fe for biopsy samples match that for homogenized samples, a mean hematocrit, which was 82% of large vessel hematocrit, was required. Excluded volume fraction for exogenous sheep albumin was compared with that of exogenous human albumin in two sheep, and no difference was found at 24 h.

  3. At-sea trial of 24-h-based submarine watchstanding schedules with high and low correlated color temperature light sources.

    PubMed

    Young, Colin R; Jones, Geoffrey E; Figueiro, Mariana G; Soutière, Shawn E; Keller, Matthew W; Richardson, Annely M; Lehmann, Benjamin J; Rea, Mark S

    2015-04-01

    United States Navy submariners have historically lived with circadian disruption while at sea due to 18-h-based watchschedules. Previous research demonstrated that circadian entrainment improved with 24-h-based watchschedules. Twenty-nine male crew members participated in the study, which took place on an actual submarine patrol. The crew were exposed, first, to experimental high correlated color temperature (CCT = 13,500 K) fluorescent light sources and then to standard-issue fluorescent light sources (CCT = 4100 K). A variety of outcome measures were employed to determine if higher levels of circadian-effective light during on-watch times would further promote behavioral alignment to 24-h-based watchschedules. The high CCT light source produced significantly higher circadian light exposures than the low CCT light source, which was associated with significantly greater 24-h behavioral alignment with work schedules using phasor analysis, greater levels of sleep efficiency measured with wrist actigraphy, lower levels of subjective sleepiness measured with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, and higher nighttime melatonin concentrations measured by morning urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin/creatinine ratios. Unlike these diverse outcome measures, performance scores were significantly worse under the high CCT light source than under the low CCT light source, due to practice effects. As hypothesized, with the exception of the performance scores, all of the data converge to suggest that high CCT light sources, combined with 24-h watchschedules, promote better behavioral alignment with work schedules and greater sleep quality on submarines. Since the order and the type of light sources were confounded in this field study, the results should only be considered as consistent with our theoretical understanding of how regular, 24-h light-dark exposures combined with high circadian light exposures can promote greater behavioral alignment with work schedules and with sleep.

  4. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-04-12

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth.

  5. The albumin controversy.

    PubMed

    Uhing, Michael R

    2004-09-01

    There are relatively few studies of albumin use in neonates and children, with most showing no consistent benefit compared with the use of crystalloid solutions. Certainly, albumin treatment is not indicated for treatment of hypoalbuminemia alone. Studies also show that albumin is not indicated in neonates for the initial treatment of hypotension, respiratory distress, or partial exchange transfusions. In adults, albumin is not considered to be the initial therapy for hypovolemia, burn injury, or nutritional supplementation. Based on the evidence, albumin should be used rarely in the neonatal ICU. Albumin may be indicated in the treatment of hypovolemia only after crystalloid infusion has failed. In patients with acute hemorrhagic shock, albumin may be used with crystalloids when blood products are not available immediately. Inpatients with acute or continuing losses of albumin and normal capillary permeability and lymphatic function, such as during persistent thoracostomy tube or surgical site drainage, albumin supplementation will prevent the development of hypoalbuminemia, and possibly edema formation. This has not been studied systematically, however. In patients with hypoalbuminemia and increased capillary permeability, albumin supplementation often leads to greater albumin leakage across the capillary membrane, contributing to edema formation without improvement in outcome. As the disease process improves and capillary permeability normalizes, albumin supplementation may accelerate recovery, but long-term benefits of albumin treatment usually cannot be demonstrated. These patients will recover whether or not albumin is administered.

  6. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is present in high concentrations in the blood. Virtually no albumin is present in the urine when the kidneys ... on trying to determine if increased levels of albumin in the urine are also indicative of CVD risk in those who do not have diabetes or high blood pressure. ^ Back to ... Proudly sponsored by ... Learn ...

  7. Albumin - blood (serum) test

    MedlinePlus

    ... protein in the clear liquid portion of the blood. Albumin can also be measured in the urine . How ... Results Mean A lower-than-normal level of blood albumin may be a sign of: Kidney diseases Liver ...

  8. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... urinary incontinence. Initial pilot studies have shown that acupuncture can provide some short-term benefit, but more ... Urology. 2013;190:113. Wang Y, et al. Acupuncture for stress urinary incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database ...

  9. Urinary β-trace protein

    PubMed Central

    Donadio, Carlo; Bozzoli, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The screening for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients needs the measurement of serum markers like creatinine. Our previous results indicated that urinary excretion of β-trace protein (BTP), a low-molecular-weight protein (23–29 kDa), is increased in CKD patients from stage 2. The aim of this study was to assess the major determinants of urinary excretion of BTP and to evaluate its feasibility as noninvasive marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) impairment. We studied 355 CKD patients (198 males), aged 15 to 83 years, in stable clinical conditions, classified in the different stages of CKD on the basis of GFR (renal clearance of 99mTc-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid). At the same time, we measured serum and urinary creatinine and BTP, and urinary albumin. Urinary excretion of BTP and albumin was expressed as mg/g urinary creatinine. Fractional clearance of BTP was calculated as the ratio of BTP clearance to creatinine clearance (%). Urinary excretion of BTP is mainly determined by its serum concentration and by the level of GFR, and to a lower extent by urinary albumin excretion. In fact, urinary BTP (U-BTP) and fractional clearance of BTP progressively and significantly increased along with the reduction of GFR and the concurrent rise in serum BTP (S-BTP). The relationship of U-BTP with GFR was very similar to that of S-BTP with GFR: U-BTP mirrors S-BTP. The accuracy of U-BTP to screen patients with GFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2 was good (area under the curve 0.833), its sensitivity was 76.9%, specificity 80%, and positive predictive value 84.9%. Sensitivity of U-BTP was quite similar to that of S-BTP and serum creatinine. The major determinants of urinary excretion of BTP are S-BTP and GFR. U-BTP may be a suitable noninvasive marker to screen the general population for detection of GFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2. PMID:27930558

  10. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A.; Wright, Janine L.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  11. Cubilin maintains blood levels of HDL and albumin.

    PubMed

    Aseem, Obaidullah; Smith, Brian T; Cooley, Marion A; Wilkerson, Brent A; Argraves, Kelley M; Remaley, Alan T; Argraves, W Scott

    2014-05-01

    Cubilin is an endocytic receptor highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it mediates uptake of albumin and filtered forms of apoA-I/HDL. Cubilin deficiency leads to urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I; however, the consequences of cubilin loss on the homeostasis of blood albumin and apoA-I/HDL have not been studied. Using mice heterozygous for cubilin gene deletion (cubilin HT mice), we show that cubilin haploinsufficiency leads to reduced renal proximal tubular uptake of albumin and apoA-I and significantly increased urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I. Moreover, cubilin HT mice displayed significantly decreased blood levels of albumin, apoA-I, and HDL. The levels of albumin and apoA-I protein or mRNA expressed in the liver, kidney, or intestine of cubilin HT mice did not change significantly. The clearance rate of small HDL3 particles (density>1.13 g/ml) from the blood increased significantly in cubilin HT mice. In contrast, the rate of clearance of larger HDL2 particles from the blood did not change significantly, indicating a decreased half-life for HDL particles capable of filtering through the glomerulus. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that cubilin deficiency reduces renal salvage and delivery back to the blood of albumin and apoA-I, which decreases blood levels of albumin and apoA-I/HDL. These findings raise the possibility that therapeutic increase of renal cubilin expression might reduce proteinuria and increase blood levels of albumin and HDL.

  12. Cubilin Maintains Blood Levels of HDL and Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Aseem, Obaidullah; Smith, Brian T.; Cooley, Marion A.; Wilkerson, Brent A.; Argraves, Kelley M.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2014-01-01

    Cubilin is an endocytic receptor highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it mediates uptake of albumin and filtered forms of apoA-I/HDL. Cubilin deficiency leads to urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I; however, the consequences of cubilin loss on the homeostasis of blood albumin and apoA-I/HDL have not been studied. Using mice heterozygous for cubilin gene deletion (cubilin HT mice), we show that cubilin haploinsufficiency leads to reduced renal proximal tubular uptake of albumin and apoA-I and significantly increased urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I. Moreover, cubilin HT mice displayed significantly decreased blood levels of albumin, apoA-I, and HDL. The levels of albumin and apoA-I protein or mRNA expressed in the liver, kidney, or intestine of cubilin HT mice did not change significantly. The clearance rate of small HDL3 particles (density>1.13 g/ml) from the blood increased significantly in cubilin HT mice. In contrast, the rate of clearance of larger HDL2 particles from the blood did not change significantly, indicating a decreased half-life for HDL particles capable of filtering through the glomerulus. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that cubilin deficiency reduces renal salvage and delivery back to the blood of albumin and apoA-I, which decreases blood levels of albumin and apoA-I/HDL. These findings raise the possibility that therapeutic increase of renal cubilin expression might reduce proteinuria and increase blood levels of albumin and HDL. PMID:24357674

  13. Analysis of albumin hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Berriel-Valdos, L. R.; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, M.; Villa-Manríquez, J. F.

    2012-03-01

    We present the characterizations of the photosensitive film made with albumins gallus gallus and callipepla cali, with the purpose to make holographic recording. Albumin was combined with propylene glycol, to build colloidal systems by adding the ammonium dichromate solution as photosensitive salt at certain concentrations. Hence, we conducted the photo-oxidation process with laser, λ=442nm. Obtaining holograms that allowed the analysis of the diffraction efficiency parameter. One of the objectives of this work was to obtain some mechanical and chemical stability of films made with albumin when prepared with propylene glycol. At once, experimental studies were performed to compare the results of the holographic recording films between chicken albumin and quail albumin film to prove the recording capabilities and to quantify the diffraction efficiency in holographic grating made with each kind of albumin.

  14. NQRS Data for C24H20BRb (Subst. No. 1578)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BRb (Subst. No. 1578)

  15. NQRS Data for C24H24BN (Subst. No. 1583)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H24BN (Subst. No. 1583)

  16. NQRS Data for C24H20BCs (Subst. No. 1575)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BCs (Subst. No. 1575)

  17. NQRS Data for C24H20BK (Subst. No. 1576)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BK (Subst. No. 1576)

  18. Probable maximum precipitation for 24 h duration over southeast Asian monsoon region—Selangor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desa M, M. N.; Noriah, A. B.; Rakhecha, P. R.

    The probable maximum precipitation (PMP) for stations in Malaysia using Hershfield formula is routinely estimated as mean plus 15 standard deviations processed from yearly maximum rainfall values. The value of 15 as frequency factor is too high for a humid region such as Malaysia. In this paper, yearly maximum 1-day rainfall data of about 30-60 years for 33 stations in the region of Selangor, Malaysia, were analysed in an attempt to estimate PMP for 1-day duration based on an appropriate frequency factor for the first time. Based on the actual rainfall data of the stations, the highest value of this frequency factor was found to be 8.7. The frequency factor of 8.7 was subsequently used to estimate 24-h PMP values for the 33 stations. Using these PMP estimates, a generalised map was prepared showing the spatial distribution of 24-h PMP. It was found that 24-h PMP over Selangor, Malaysia, varied from 375 to 500 mm and the average ratio of the 24-h PMP to the highest observed 1-day rainfall was found to be about 2.0. The PMP map is considered as important to determine reliable and consistent PMP estimate for any location in Selangor, Malaysia, for designing costly and large hydraulic structures.

  19. Prognostic Significance of Initial Serum Albumin and 24 Hour Daily Protein Excretion before Treatment in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Hong; Hsu, Shun-Neng; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Lin, Chin; Chang, Ping-Ying; Chen, Yeu-Chin; Ho, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Renal failure is a common morbidity in multiple myeloma (MM). Although proteinuria has been increasingly reported in malignancies, it is not routinely used to refine risk estimates of survival outcomes in patients with MM. Here we aimed to investigate initial serum albumin and 24-hour daily protein excretion (24-h DPE) before treatment as prognostic factors in patients with MM. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 102 patients with myeloma who were ineligible for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation between October 2000 and December 2012. Initial proteinuria was assessed before treatment by quantitative analysis of 24-hour urine samples. The demographic and laboratory characteristics, survival outcome, and significance of pre-treatment 24-h DPE and albumin in the new staging system of MM were analyzed. Pre-treatment proteinuria (>300 mg/day) was present in 66 patients (64.7%). The optimal cut-off value of 24-h DPE before treatment was 500 mg/day. Analysis of the time-dependent area under the curve showed that the serum albumin and 24-h DPE before treatment were better than 24-h creatinine clearance rate and β2-microglobulin. A subgroup analysis showed that an initial excess proteinuria (24-h DPE ≥ 500 mg) was associated with poor survival status (17.51 vs. 34.24 months, p = 0.002). Furthermore, initial serum albumin was an independent risk factor on multivariate analysis (<2.8 vs. ≥ 2.8, hazard ratio = 0.486, p = 0.029). Using the A-DPE staging system, there was a significant survival difference among patients with stage I, II, and III MM (p < 0.001). Initial serum albumin and 24-h DPE before treatment showed significant prognostic factors in patients with MM, and the new A-DPE staging system may be utilized instead of the International Staging System. Its efficacy should be evaluated by further large prospective studies.

  20. Protein Crystal Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As the most abundant protein in the circulatory system albumin contributes 80% to colloid osmotic blood pressure. Albumin is also chiefly responsible for the maintenance of blood pH. It is located in every tissue and bodily secretion, with extracellular protein comprising 60% of total albumin. Perhaps the most outstanding property of albumin is its ability to bind reversibly to an incredible variety of ligands. It is widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry that the overall distribution, metabolism, and efficiency of many drugs are rendered ineffective because of their unusually high affinity for this abundant protein. An understanding of the chemistry of the various classes of pharmaceutical interactions with albumin can suggest new approaches to drug therapy and design. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter/New Century Pharmaceuticals

  1. High-intensity interval exercise induces 24-h energy expenditure similar to traditional endurance exercise despite reduced time commitment.

    PubMed

    Skelly, Lauren E; Andrews, Patricia C; Gillen, Jenna B; Martin, Brian J; Percival, Michael E; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Subjects performed high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (END) to evaluate 24-h oxygen consumption. Oxygen consumption during HIIT was lower versus END; however, total oxygen consumption over 24 h was similar. These data demonstrate that HIIT and END induce similar 24-h energy expenditure, which may explain the comparable changes in body composition reported despite lower total training volume and time commitment.

  2. Nqrs Data for C24H20MnO4P (Subst. No. 1581)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20MnO4P (Subst. No. 1581)

  3. Nqrs Data for C24H22Cl2Cu2N6 (Subst. No. 1582)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H22Cl2Cu2N6 (Subst. No. 1582)

  4. Ambulant 24-h glucose rhythms mark calendar and biological age in apparently healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Wijsman, Carolien A; van Heemst, Diana; Hoogeveen, Evelien S; Slagboom, P Eline; Maier, Andrea B; de Craen, Anton J M; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Pijl, Hanno; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Mooijaart, Simon P

    2013-04-01

    Glucose metabolism marks health and disease and is causally inferred in the aging process. Ambulant continuous glucose monitoring provides 24-h glucose rhythms under daily life conditions. We aimed to describe ambulant 24-h glucose rhythms measured under daily life condition in relation to calendar and biological age in apparently healthy individuals. In the general population and families with propensity for longevity, we studied parameters from 24-h glucose rhythms; glucose levels; and its variability, obtained by continuous glucose monitoring. Participants were 21 young (aged 22-37 years), 37 middle-aged (aged 44-72 years) individuals from the general population, and 26 middle-aged (aged 52-74 years) individuals with propensity for longevity. All were free of diabetes. Compared with young individuals, middle-aged individuals from the general population had higher mean glucose levels (5.3 vs. 4.7 mmol L(-1) , P < 0.001), both diurnally (P < 0.001) and nocturnally (P = 0.002). Glucose variability was higher in the middle-aged compared with the young (standard deviation 0.70 vs. 0.57 mmol L(-1) , P = 0.025). Compared with middle-aged individuals from the general population, middle-aged individuals with propensity for longevity had lower overall mean glucose levels (5.2 vs. 5.4 mmol L(-1) , P = 0.047), which were more different nocturnally (4.8 vs. 5.2 mmol L(-1) , P = 0.003) than diurnally (5.3 vs. 5.5 mmol L(-1) , P = 0.14). There were no differences in glucose variability between these groups. Results were independent of body mass index. Among individuals without diabetes, we observed significantly different 24-h glucose rhythms depending on calendar and biological age.

  5. Exercise Increases 24-h Fat Oxidation Only When It Is Performed Before Breakfast

    PubMed Central

    Iwayama, Kaito; Kurihara, Reiko; Nabekura, Yoshiharu; Kawabuchi, Ryosuke; Park, Insung; Kobayashi, Masashi; Ogata, Hitomi; Kayaba, Momoko; Satoh, Makoto; Tokuyama, Kumpei

    2015-01-01

    Background As part of the growing lifestyle diversity in modern society, there is wide variation in the time of day individuals choose to exercise. Recent surveys in the US and Japan have reported that on weekdays, more people exercise in the evening, with fewer individuals exercising in the morning or afternoon. Exercise performed in the post-prandial state has little effect on accumulated fat oxidation over 24 h (24-h fat oxidation) when energy intake is matched to energy expenditure (energy-balanced condition). The present study explored the possibility that exercise increases 24-h fat oxidation only when performed in a post-absorptive state, i.e. before breakfast. Methods Indirect calorimetry using a metabolic chamber was performed in 10 young, non-obese men over 24 h. Subjects remained sedentary (control) or performed 60-min exercise before breakfast (morning), after lunch (afternoon), or after dinner (evening) at 50% of VO2max. All trials were designed to be energy balanced over 24 h. Time course of energy and substrate balance relative to the start of calorimetry were estimated from the differences between input (meal consumption) and output (oxidation). Findings Fat oxidation over 24 h was increased only when exercise was performed before breakfast (control, 456 ± 61; morning, 717 ± 64; afternoon, 446 ± 57; and evening, 432 ± 44 kcal/day). Fat oxidation over 24 h was negatively correlated with the magnitude of the transient deficit in energy and carbohydrate. Interpretation Under energy-balanced conditions, 24-h fat oxidation was increased by exercise only when performed before breakfast. Transient carbohydrate deficits, i.e., glycogen depletion, observed after morning exercise may have contributed to increased 24-h fat oxidation. PMID:26844280

  6. Nqrs Data for C24H42Li2N4 (Subst. No. 1587)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H42Li2N4 (Subst. No. 1587)

  7. Development of a UK Online 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool: myfood24

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michelle C.; Albar, Salwa A.; Morris, Michelle A.; Mulla, Umme Z.; Hancock, Neil; Evans, Charlotte E.; Alwan, Nisreen A.; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Frost, Gary S.; Wark, Petra A.; Cade, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of diet in large epidemiological studies can be costly and time consuming. An automated dietary assessment system could potentially reduce researcher burden by automatically coding food records. myfood24 (Measure Your Food on One Day) an online 24-h dietary assessment tool (with the flexibility to be used for multiple 24 h-dietary recalls or as a food diary), has been developed for use in the UK population. Development of myfood24 was a multi-stage process. Focus groups conducted with three age groups, adolescents (11–18 years) (n = 28), adults (19–64 years) (n = 24) and older adults (≥65 years) (n = 5) informed the development of the tool, and usability testing was conducted with beta (adolescents n = 14, adults n = 8, older adults n = 1) and live (adolescents n = 70, adults n = 20, older adults n = 4) versions. Median system usability scale (SUS) scores (measured on a scale of 0–100) in adolescents and adults were marginal for the beta version (adolescents median SUS = 66, interquartile range (IQR) = 20; adults median SUS = 68, IQR = 40) and good for the live version (adolescents median SUS = 73, IQR = 22; adults median SUS = 80, IQR = 25). Myfood24 is the first online 24-h dietary recall tool for use with different age groups in the UK. Usability testing indicates that myfood24 is suitable for use in UK adolescents and adults. PMID:26024292

  8. Transcriptomic response of Arabidopsis thaliana after 24 h incubation with the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Morán-Diez, Eugenia; Rubio, Belén; Domínguez, Sara; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Nicolás, Carlos

    2012-04-15

    Trichoderma harzianum is a fungus used as biocontrol agent using its antagonistic abilities against phytopathogenic fungi, although it has also direct effects on plants, increasing or accelerating their growth and resistance to diseases and the tolerance to abiotic stresses. We analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression changes after 24 h of incubation in the presence of T. harzianum T34 using the Affymetrix GeneChip Arabidopsis ATH1. Because this microarray contains more than 22,500 probe sets representing approximately 24,000 genes, we were able to construct a global picture of the molecular physiology of the plant at 24 h of T. harzianum-Arabidopsis interaction. We identified several differentially expressed genes that are involved in plant responses to stress, regulation of transcription, signal transduction or plant metabolism. Our data support the hypothesis that salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-related genes were down-regulated in A. thaliana after 24 h of incubation in the presence of T. harzianum T34, while several genes related to abiotic stress responses were up-regulated. These systemic changes elicited by T. harzianum in Arabidopsis are discussed.

  9. Effect of octreotide on 24-h blood pressure profile in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Fallo, F; Barzon, L; Boscaro, M; Casiglia, E; Sonino, N

    1998-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of octreotide, a somatostatin analog drug potentially able to inhibit growth hormone (GH), on the circadian blood pressure profile in a group of patients with acromegaly. Ten patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenoma were studied before and 6 months after treatment with subcutaneous octreotide 0.2 to 0.6 mg/day. Twenty-four hour blood pressure and heart rate were measured every 15 min at daytime (07:00 to 22:59) and every 30 min at nighttime (23:00 to 06:59) using a TM-2420 recorder. No correlation was found between GH levels and 24-h blood pressure in baseline conditions. Untreated patients had a significant nocturnal decrease of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < .01), and all showed a circadian systolic or diastolic blood pressure rhythm. During octreotide treatment, 24 h as well as nighttime systolic and diastolic blood pressures significantly increased (P < .05), whereas daytime systolic and diastolic blood pressures did not change. Treated patients did not have a nocturnal decline in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures (P = NS), and eight lost their systolic or diastolic blood pressure rhythm. In conclusion, blood pressure circadian rhythm seems to be maintained in acromegaly. Octreotide treatment is associated with an increase of 24-h and nighttime blood pressure, and with loss of circadian blood pressure rhythm. Splanchnic vasoconstriction by this drug, shifting blood to peripheral vessels, may explain this phenomenon.

  10. Immune cell changes in response to a swimming training session during a 24-h recovery period.

    PubMed

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Joana F; Matias, Catarina; Seixas, Maria T; Alvim, Marta G; Bourbon, Mafalda; Laires, Maria J; Alves, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools.

  11. Clearance of albumin following ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening is mediated by glial but not neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Angelika; Reinz, Eileen; Fatar, Marc; Hennerici, Michael G; Meairs, Stephen

    2011-09-09

    Ultrasound-mediated opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the presence of gas-filled microbubbles is a potential strategy for drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier to promote regeneration after ischemic stroke. However, related bioeffects and potential side-effects that could limit a translation into clinical application are poorly understood so far. We therefore examined the clearance of extravasated albumin following ultrasound-mediated BBB opening. Autofluorescence of albumin-bound Evans Blue dye indicated cellular albumin uptake as soon as 30min after insonation (2±0.72 cells/optical field). Cellular albumin uptake increased constantly over 24h (22±3.33 cells/optical field, p<0.05). Initially, the majority of albumin-positive cells were located in the periphery of brain capillaries. Most albumin phagocyting cells stained positive for CD163 and Iba-1, identifying them as activated microglia. Further, a small fraction of albumin-positive cells stained positive for the astroglial markers GFAP/S100B. Some perivascular cells with intracellular albumin were shown to express the endothelial marker protein EN4. Albumin uptaking cells stained negative for the neuronal TubulinIII. Thus, ultrasound-induced BBB opening leads to albumin extravasation which is phagocytized predominantly by activated microglia, astrocytes and endothelial cells. As albumin uptake into neurons has been shown to be neurotoxic, rapid albumin clearance by microglia might prevent neuronal cell death.

  12. Albumin infusion in humans does not model exercise induced hypervolaemia after 24 hours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, A.; Gillen, C. M.; Mack, G. W.; Nadel, E. R.

    1998-01-01

    We rapidly infused 234 +/- 3 mL of 5% human serum albumin in eight men while measuring haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, plasma volume (PV), albumin concentration, total protein concentration, osmolality, sodium concentration, renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and atrial natriuretic peptide concentration to test the hypotheses that plasma volume expansion and plasma albumin content expansion will not persist for 24 h. Plasma volume and albumin content were expanded for the first 6 h after infusion (44.3 +/- 1.9-47.2 +/- 2.0 mL kg-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.1-2.1 +/- 0.1 g kg-1 at pre-infusion and 1 h, respectively, P < 0.05), but by 24 h plasma volume and albumin content decreased significantly from 1 h post-infusion and were not different from pre-infusion (44.8 +/- 1.9 mL kg-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.1 g kg-1, respectively). Plasma aldosterone concentration showed a significant effect of time over the 24 h after infusion (P < 0.05), and showed a trend to decrease at 2 h after infusion (167.6 +/- 32.5(-1) 06.2 +/- 13.4 pg mL-1, P = 0.07). These data demonstrate that a 6.8% expansion of plasma volume and 10.5% expansion of plasma albumin content by infusion does not remain in the vascular space for 24 h and suggest a redistribution occurs between the intravascular space and interstitial fluid space.

  13. Structure of Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Ho, Joseph X.

    1994-01-01

    Because of its availability, low cost, stability, and unusual ligand-binding properties, serum albumin has been one of the mst extensively studied and applied proteins in biochemistry. However, as a protein, albumin is far from typical, and the widespread interest in and application of albumin have not been balanced by an understanding of its molecular structure. Indeed, for more than 30 years structural information was surmised based solely on techniques such as hydrodynamics, low-angle X-ray scattering, and predictive methods.

  14. High-fat meals reduce 24-h circulating leptin concentrations in women.

    PubMed

    Havel, P J; Townsend, R; Chaump, L; Teff, K

    1999-02-01

    Leptin induces weight loss in rodents via its effects on food intake and energy expenditure. High-fat diets induce weight gain, but the mechanism is not well understood. Previous studies have not found an effect of dietary fat content on fasting leptin. There is a nocturnal increase of leptin, however, which is related to insulin responses to meals. We have reported that adipocyte glucose utilization is involved in insulin-induced leptin secretion in vitro. Accordingly, high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HF/LC) meals, which induce smaller insulin and glucose responses, would produce lower leptin concentrations than low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LF/HC) meals. Blood samples were collected every 30-60 min for 24 h from 19 normal-weight (BMI, 24.2 +/- 0.7 kg/m2; percent body fat = 31 +/- 1%) women on 2 days (10 days apart) during which the subjects were randomized to consume three isocaloric 730-kcal meals containing either 60/20 or 20/60% of energy as fat/carbohydrate. Overall insulin and glycemic responses (24-h area under the curve [AUC]) were reduced by 55 and 61%, respectively, on the HF/LC day (P < 0.0001). During LF/HC feeding, there were larger increases of leptin 4-6 h after breakfast (38 +/- 7%, P < 0.001) and lunch (78 +/- 14%, P < 0.001) than after HF/LC meals (both P < 0.02). During LF/HC feeding, leptin increased from a morning baseline of 10.7 +/- 1.6 ng/ml to a nocturnal peak of 21.3 +/- 1.3 ng/ml (change, 10.6 +/- 1.3 ng/ml; percent change, 123 +/- 16%; P < 0.0001). The amplitudes of the nocturnal rise of leptin and the 24-h leptin AUC were 21 +/- 8% (P < 0.005) and 38 +/- 12% (P < 0.0025) larger, respectively, on the LF/HC day. In summary, consumption of HF/LC meals results in lowered 24-h circulating leptin concentrations. This result may be a consequence of decreased adipocyte glucose metabolism. Decreases of 24-h circulating leptin could contribute to the weight gain during consumption of high-fat diets.

  15. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and CKD Progression.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Mills, Katherine T; Appel, Lawrence J; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Lee, Belinda T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Porter, Anna; Makos, Gail; Weir, Matthew R; Hamm, L Lee; Kusek, John W

    2016-04-01

    CKD is a major risk factor for ESRD, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Whether dietary sodium and potassium intake affect CKD progression remains unclear. We prospectively studied the association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with CKD progression and all-cause mortality among 3939 patients with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured using three 24-hour urine specimens, and CKD progression was defined as incident ESRD or halving of eGFR. During follow-up, 939 CKD progression events and 540 deaths occurred. Compared with the lowest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (<116.8 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (≥194.6 mmol/24 h) were 1.54 (1.23 to 1.92) for CKD progression, 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for all-cause mortality, and 1.43 (1.18 to 1.73) for the composite outcome of CKD progression and all-cause mortality after adjusting for multiple covariates, including baseline eGFR. Additionally, compared with the lowest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (<39.4 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios for the highest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (≥67.1 mmol/24 h) were 1.59 (1.25 to 2.03) for CKD progression, 0.98 (0.71 to 1.35) for all-cause mortality, and 1.42 (1.15 to 1.74) for the composite outcome. These data indicate that high urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with increased risk of CKD progression. Clinical trials are warranted to test the effect of sodium and potassium reduction on CKD progression.

  16. On the Origin of Urinary Renin: A Translational Approach.

    PubMed

    Roksnoer, Lodi C W; Heijnen, Bart F J; Nakano, Daisuke; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Walsh, Stephen B; Garrelds, Ingrid M; van Gool, Jeanette M G; Zietse, Robert; Struijker-Boudier, Harry A J; Hoorn, Ewout J; Danser, A H Jan

    2016-05-01

    Urinary angiotensinogen excretion parallels albumin excretion, which is not the case for renin, while renin's precursor, prorenin, is undetectable in urine. We hypothesized that renin and prorenin, given their smaller size, are filtered through the glomerulus in larger amounts than albumin and angiotensinogen, and that differences in excretion rate are because of a difference in reabsorption in the proximal tubule. To address this, we determined the glomerular sieving coefficient of renin and prorenin and measured urinary renin/prorenin 1) after inducing prorenin in Cyp1a1-Ren2 rats and 2) in patients with Dent disease or Lowe syndrome, disorders characterized by defective proximal tubular reabsorption. Glomerular sieving coefficients followed molecular size (renin>prorenin>albumin). The induction of prorenin in rats resulted in a >300-fold increase in plasma prorenin and doubling of blood pressure but did not lead to the appearance of prorenin in urine. It did cause parallel rises in urinary renin and albumin, which losartan but not hydralazine prevented. Defective proximal tubular reabsorption increased urinary renin and albumin 20- to 40-fold, and allowed prorenin detection in urine, at ≈50% of its levels in plasma. Taken together, these data indicate that circulating renin and prorenin are filtered into urine in larger amounts than albumin. All 3 proteins are subsequently reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. For prorenin, such reabsorption is ≈100%. Minimal variation in tubular reabsorption (in the order of a few %) is sufficient to explain why urinary renin and albumin excretion do not correlate. Urinary renin does not reflect prorenin that is converted to renin in tubular fluid.

  17. Albumin binding as a potential biomarker of exposure to moderately low levels of organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Tarhoni, Mabruka H; Lister, Timothy; Ray, David E; Carter, Wayne G

    2008-06-01

    We have evaluated the potential of plasma albumin to provide a sensitive biomarker of exposure to commonly used organophosphorus pesticides in order to complement the widely used measure of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. Rat or human plasma albumin binding by tritiated-diisopropylfluorophosphate ((3)H-DFP) was quantified by retention of albumin on glass microfibre filters. Preincubation with unlabelled pesticide in vitro or dosing of F344 rats with pesticide in vivo resulted in a reduction in subsequent albumin radiolabelling with (3)H-DFP, the decrease in which was used to quantify pesticide binding. At pesticide exposures producing approximately 30% inhibition of AChE, rat plasma albumin binding in vitro by azamethiphos (oxon), chlorfenvinphos (oxon), chlorpyrifos-oxon, diazinon-oxon and malaoxon was reduced from controls by 9+/-1%, 67+/-2%, 56+/-2%, 54+/-2% and 8+/-1%, respectively. After 1 h of incubation with 19 microM (3)H-DFP alone, the level of binding to rat or human plasma albumins reached 0.011 or 0.039 moles of DFP per mole of albumin, respectively. This level of binding could be further increased by raising the concentration of (3)H-DFP, increasing the (3)H-DFP incubation time, or by substitution of commercial albumins for native albumin. Pesticide binding to albumin was presumed covalent since it survived 24 h dialysis. After dosing rats with pirimiphos-methyl (dimethoxy) or chlorfenvinphos (oxon) (diethoxy) pesticides, the resultant albumin binding were still significant 7 days after dosing. As in vitro, dosing of rats with malathion did not result in significant albumin binding in vivo. Our results suggest albumin may be a useful additional biomonitor for moderately low-level exposures to several widely used pesticides, and that this binding differs markedly between pesticides.

  18. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): A self-completed 24-h dietary recall for children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4), is a web-based 24-h dietary recall (24 hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24 hdr for adults). The food choices in FIRSSt4 are abbreviated to include only ...

  19. [Structure of fish serum albumins].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, A M

    2010-01-01

    Data are presented about the presence of serum albumins in fishes of different classes and orders inhabiting different ecological conditions, about structure of typical albumins and albumin-like proteins, and about the degree of homology of these proteins to mammalian albumins. There is shown a wide spectrum of structural diversity of albumins in Pisces due to their participation in osmotic, plastic, and transport functions under conditions of environment and of the organism internal media. Detection of similar motifs in the piscine and mammalian albumin genes allows uniting these genes into one superfamily and considering vertebrate albumins the homologous proteins.

  20. Entrainment of the human circadian pacemaker to longer-than-24-h days

    PubMed Central

    Gronfier, Claude; Wright, Kenneth P.; Kronauer, Richard E.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    Entrainment of the circadian pacemaker to the light:dark cycle is necessary for rhythmic physiological functions to be appropriately timed over the 24-h day. Nonentrainment results in sleep, endocrine, and neurobehavioral impairments. Exposures to intermittent bright light pulses have been reported to phase shift the circadian pacemaker with great efficacy. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that a modulated light exposure (MLE) with bright light pulses in the evening would entrain subjects to a light:dark cycle 1 h longer than their own circadian period (τ). Twelve subjects underwent a 65-day inpatient study. Individual subject's circadian period was determined in a forced desynchrony protocol. Subsequently, subjects were released into 30 longer-than-24-h days (daylength of τ + 1 h) in one of three light:dark conditions: (i) ≈25 lux; (ii) ≈100 lux; and (iii) MLE: ≈25 lux followed by ≈100 lux, plus two 45-min bright light pulses of ≈9,500 lux near the end of scheduled wakefulness. We found that lighting levels of ≈25 lux were insufficient to entrain all subjects tested. Exposure to ≈100 lux was sufficient to entrain subjects, although at a significantly wider phase angle compared with baseline. Exposure to MLE was able to entrain the subjects to the imposed sleep–wake cycles but at a phase angle comparable to baseline. These results suggest that MLE can be used to entrain the circadian pacemaker to non-24-h days. The implications of these findings are important because they could be used to treat circadian misalignment associated with space flight and circadian rhythm sleep disorders such as shift-work disorder. PMID:17502598

  1. Effects of sleep fragmentation on appetite and related hormone concentrations over 24 h in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Martens, Eveline A P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-02-28

    In addition to short sleep duration, reduced sleep quality is also associated with appetite control. The present study examined the effect of sleep fragmentation, independent of sleep duration, on appetite profiles and 24 h profiles of hormones involved in energy balance regulation. A total of twelve healthy male subjects (age 23 (sd 4) years, BMI 24·4 (sd 1·9) kg/m²) completed a 24 h randomised crossover study in which sleep (23.30-07.30 hours) was either fragmented or non-fragmented. Polysomnography was used to determine rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and total sleep time (TST). Blood samples were taken at baseline and continued hourly for the 24 h period to measure glucose, insulin, ghrelin, leptin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and melatonin concentrations. In addition, salivary cortisol levels were measured. Visual analogue scales were used to score appetite-related feelings. Sleep fragmentation resulted in reduced REM sleep (69·4 min compared with 83·5 min; P< 0·05) and preservation of SWS without changes in TST. In fragmented v. non-fragmented sleep, glucose concentrations did not change, while insulin secretion was decreased in the morning, and increased in the afternoon (P< 0·05), and GLP-1 concentrations and fullness scores were lower (P< 0·05). After dinner, desire-to-eat ratings were higher after fragmented sleep (P< 0·05). A single night of fragmented sleep, resulting in reduced REM sleep, induced a shift in insulin concentrations, from being lower in the morning and higher in the afternoon, while GLP-1 concentrations and fullness scores were decreased. These results may lead to increased food intake and snacking, thus contributing to a positive energy balance.

  2. Monitoring hand flexor fatigue in a 24-h motorcycle endurance race.

    PubMed

    Marina, M; Porta, J; Vallejo, L; Angulo, R

    2011-04-01

    Motorcycle riders must endure high levels of muscle tension for long periods of time, especially in their arms and forearms, when steering and using handlebar controls. Because the right hand operates the gas handle and front brakes, the present research focuses on fatigue in the right hand flexors. Ten adult riders, aged 32.5±5.5years, volunteered to participate in this study. During the 24h race each rider, on completion of a relay stage, visited the assessment box to do the following handgrip test sequence: (1) 10s of EMG recording at rest, (2) one 3-s maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), (3) 1min rest interval and (4) 50% MVC maintained during 10s. EMG amplitude (MP: μV) and median and mean frequency (MF and MPF: Hz) over the superficial finger flexors were recorded during the whole handgrip test sequence with adhesive surface electrodes. MVC values were maintained during the first two relays (50-60min duration in total) and dropped gradually thereafter (p<0.01). During the monitoring of the 50% MVC, mean amplitude increased (p=0.024) while median and mean frequency tended to decrease. These results suggest fatigue is produced in motorcycle riders in a 24h race. However, the expected reduction of EMG frequency was not confirmed given to a potentially large variability.

  3. Effect of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors on ambulatory 24-h blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Chagai; Bornstein, Gil; Leibowitz, Avshalom; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Grossman, Ehud

    2017-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are increasingly being used in inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD). The risk of cardiovascular disease is elevated in patients with IRD and TNF-α inhibitors reduce this risk. We assessed whether the beneficial effect of TNF-α inhibitors on cardiovascular risk is mediated by blood pressure reduction. We measured blood pressure levels with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements device in patients with IRD before and 3 months after treatment with TNF-α inhibitors. The study population consisted of 15 subjects (6 men; mean age 45.9 ± 14.1 years). Most patients had either rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis and adalimumab was the most common TNF-α inhibitor used. Mean 24-h systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels remained the same after treatment (121 ± 12/66 ± 7 before and 123 ± 11/67 ± 10 mm Hg after; p = 0.88 and 0.66, respectively). The study demonstrates that TNF-α inhibitors have no effect on blood pressure levels.

  4. BDNFval66met affects neural activation pattern during fear conditioning and 24 h delayed fear recall

    PubMed Central

    Golkar, Armita; Lindström, Kara M.; Haaker, Jan; Öhman, Arne; Schalling, Martin; Ingvar, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the most abundant neutrophin in the mammalian central nervous system, is critically involved in synaptic plasticity. In both rodents and humans, BDNF has been implicated in hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent learning and memory and has more recently been linked to fear extinction processes. Fifty-nine healthy participants, genotyped for the functional BDNFval66met polymorphism, underwent a fear conditioning and 24h-delayed extinction protocol while skin conductance and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were acquired. We present the first report of neural activation pattern during fear acquisition ‘and’ extinction for the BDNFval66met polymorphism using a differential conditioned stimulus (CS)+ > CS− comparison. During conditioning, we observed heightened allele dose-dependent responses in the amygdala and reduced responses in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in BDNFval66met met-carriers. During early extinction, 24h later, we again observed heightened responses in several regions ascribed to the fear network in met-carriers as opposed to val-carriers (insula, amygdala, hippocampus), which likely reflects fear memory recall. No differences were observed during late extinction, which likely reflects learned extinction. Our data thus support previous associations of the BDNFval66met polymorphism with neural activation in the fear and extinction network, but speak against a specific association with fear extinction processes. PMID:25103087

  5. Serum albumins - unusual allergens

    PubMed Central

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Mikolajczak, Katarzyna; Mank, Nicholas; Majorek, Karolina A.; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Minor, Wladek

    2015-01-01

    Background Albumins are multifunctional proteins present in the blood serum of animals. They can bind and transport a wide variety of ligands which they accommodate due to their conformational flexibility. Serum albumins are highly conserved both in amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. Several mammalian and avian serum albumins (SAs) are also allergens. Sensitization to one of the SAs coupled with the high degree of conservation between SAs may result in cross-reactive antibodies in allergic individuals. Sensitivity to SA generally begins with exposure to an aeroallergen, which can then lead to cross-sensitization to serum albumins present in food. Scope of Review This review focuses on the allergenicity of SAs presented in a structural context. Major Conclusions SA allergenicity is unusual taking into account the high sequence identity and similarity between SA from different species and human serum albumin. Cross-reactivity of human antibodies towards different SAs is one of the most important characteristics of these allergens. General Significance Establishing a relationship between sequence and structure of different SAs and their interactions with antibodies is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of cross-sensitization of atopic individuals. Structural information can also lead to better design and production of recombinant SAs to replace natural proteins in allergy testing and desensitization. Therefore, structural analyses are important for diagnostic and treatment purposes. PMID:23811341

  6. Holograms of fluorescent albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Berriel-Valdos, L. R.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2011-09-01

    We report the characterization and analysis of photochromic films gallus gallus albumin as a matrix modified for holographic recording. Photo-oxidation of homogeneous mixtures prepared with albumin-propylene glycol, to combine chemically with aqueous solution of ammonium dichromate at certain concentrations. We analyzed the diffraction gratings, through the diffraction efficiency of the proposed material. Also, eosin was used as a fluorescent agent, so it is found that produces an inhibitory effect, thus decreasing the diffraction efficiency of the matrices prepared in near-identical circumstances. The work was to achieve stability of albumin films, were prepared with propylene glycol. Finally, experimental studies were performed with films when subjected to aqueous solution of eosin (fluorescent agent) to verify the ability to increase or decrease in diffraction efficiency.

  7. Acute urinary retention among astronauts.

    PubMed

    Stepaniak, Philip C; Ramchandani, Suneil R; Jones, Jeffrey A

    2007-04-01

    Although acute urinary retention (AUR) is not commonly thought of as a life-threatening condition, its presentation in orbit can lead to a number of medical complications that could compromise a space mission. We report on a middle-aged astronaut who developed urinary retention during two spaceflights. On the first mission of note, the astronaut initially took standard doses of promethazine and scopolamine before launch, and developed AUR immediately after entering orbit. For the first 3 d, the astronaut underwent intermittent catheterizations with a single balloon-tipped catheter. Due to the lack of iodine solution on board and the need for the astronaut to complete certain duties without interruption, the catheter was left in place for a total of 4 d. Although the ability to void returned after day 7, a bout of AUR reemerged on day 10, 1 d before landing. On return to Earth, a cystometrogram was unremarkable. During the astronaut's next mission, AUR again recurred for the first 24 h of microgravity exposure, and the astronaut was subsequently able to void spontaneously while in space. This report details the presentation of this astronaut, the precautions that were taken for space travel subsequent to the initial episode of AUR, and the possible reasons why space travel can predispose astronauts to urinary retention while in orbit. The four major causes of AUR--obstructive, pharmacologic, psychogenic, and neurogenic-are discussed, with an emphasis on how these may have played a role in this case.

  8. Novel routes of albumin passage across the glomerular filtration barrier.

    PubMed

    Castrop, H; Schießl, I M

    2017-03-01

    Albuminuria is a hallmark of kidney diseases of various aetiologies and an unambiguous symptom of the compromised integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that albuminuria per se aggravates the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. This review covers new aspects of the movement of large plasma proteins across the glomerular filtration barrier in health and disease. Specifically, this review focuses on the role of endocytosis and transcytosis of albumin by podocytes, which constitutes a new pathway of plasma proteins across the filtration barrier. Thus, we summarize what is known about the mechanisms of albumin endocytosis by podocytes and address the fate of the endocytosed albumin, which is directed to lysosomal degradation or transcellular movement with subsequent vesicular release into the urinary space. We also address the functional consequences of overt albumin endocytosis by podocytes, such as the formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which might eventually result in a deterioration of podocyte function. Finally, we consider the diagnostic potential of podocyte-derived albumin-containing vesicles in the urine as an early marker of a compromised glomerular barrier function. In terms of new technical approaches, the review covers how our knowledge of the movement of albumin across the glomerular filtration barrier has expanded by the use of new intravital imaging techniques.

  9. Inhibition of the metabolic degradation of filtered albumin is a major determinant of albuminuria.

    PubMed

    Vuchkova, Julijana; Comper, Wayne D

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of the degradation of filtered albumin has been proposed as a widespread, benign form of albuminuria. There have however been recent reports that radiolabeled albumin fragments in urine are not exclusively generated by the kidney and that in albuminuric states albumin fragment excretion is not inhibited. In order to resolve this controversy we have examined the fate of various radiolabeled low molecular weight protein degradation products (LMWDPs) introduced into the circulation in rats. The influence of puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis on the processing and excretion of LMWDPs is also examined. The status and destinies of radiolabeled LMWDPs in the circulation are complex. A major finding is that LMWDPs are rapidly eliminated from the circulation (>97% in 2 h) but only small quantities (<4%) are excreted in urine. Small (<4%) but significant amounts of LMWDPs may have prolonged elimination (>24 h) due to binding to high molecular weight components in the circulation. If LMWDPs of albumin seen in the urine are produced by extra renal degradation it would require the degradation to far exceed the known catabolic rate of albumin. Alternatively, if an estimate of the role of extra renal degradation is made from the limit of detection of LMWDPs in plasma, then extra renal degradation would only contribute <1% of the total excretion of LMWDPs of albumin. We confirm that the degradation process for albumin is specifically associated with filtered albumin and this is inhibited in albuminuric states. This inhibition is also the primary determinant of the massive change in intact albuminuria in nephrotic states.

  10. Urinary Retention

    MedlinePlus

    ... indicates the bladder does not empty completely. A health care provider performs this test during an office visit. The patient often receives ... more urodynamic tests to diagnose urinary retention. The health care provider will perform these tests during an office visit. For tests that use ...

  11. Validity and relative validity of a novel digital approach for 24-h dietary recall in athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We developed a digital dietary analysis tool for athletes (DATA) using a modified 24-h recall method and an integrated, customized nutrient database. The purpose of this study was to assess DATA’s validity and relative validity by measuring its agreement with registered dietitians’ (RDs) direct observations (OBSERVATION) and 24-h dietary recall interviews using the USDA 5-step multiple-pass method (INTERVIEW), respectively. Methods Fifty-six athletes (14–20 y) completed DATA and INTERVIEW in randomized counter-balanced order. OBSERVATION (n = 26) consisted of RDs recording participants’ food/drink intake in a 24-h period and were completed the day prior to DATA and INTERVIEW. Agreement among methods was estimated using a repeated measures t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. Results The paired differences (with 95% confidence intervals) between DATA and OBSERVATION were not significant for carbohydrate (10.1%, -1.2–22.7%) and protein (14.1%, -3.2–34.5%) but was significant for energy (14.4%, 1.2–29.3%). There were no differences between DATA and INTERVIEW for energy (-1.1%, -9.1–7.7%), carbohydrate (0.2%, -7.1–8.0%) or protein (-2.7%, -11.3–6.7%). Bland-Altman analysis indicated significant positive correlations between absolute values of the differences and the means for OBSERVATION vs. DATA (r = 0.40 and r = 0.47 for energy and carbohydrate, respectively) and INTERVIEW vs. DATA (r = 0.52, r = 0.29, and r = 0.61 for energy, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively). There were also wide 95% limits of agreement (LOA) for most method comparisons. The mean bias ratio (with 95% LOA) for OBSERVATION vs. DATA was 0.874 (0.551-1.385) for energy, 0.906 (0.522-1.575) for carbohydrate, and 0.895(0.395-2.031) for protein. The mean bias ratio (with 95% LOA) for INTERVIEW vs. DATA was 1.016 (0.538-1.919) for energy, 0.995 (0.563-1.757) for carbohydrate, and 1.031 (0.514-2.068) for protein. Conclusion DATA has good relative

  12. Master runners dominate 24-h ultramarathons worldwide—a retrospective data analysis from 1998 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were to examine (a) participation and performance trends and (b) the age of peak running performance in master athletes competing in 24-h ultra-marathons held worldwide between 1998 and 2011. Methods Changes in both running speed and the age of peak running speed in 24-h master ultra-marathoners (39,664 finishers, including 8,013 women and 31,651 men) were analyzed. Results The number of 24-h ultra-marathoners increased for both women and men across years (P < 0.01). The age of the annual fastest woman decreased from 48 years in 1998 to 35 years in 2011. The age of peaking running speed remained unchanged across time at 42.5 ± 5.2 years for the annual fastest men (P > 0.05). The age of the annual top ten women decreased from 42.6 ± 5.9 years (1998) to 40.1 ± 7.0 years (2011) (P < 0.01). For the annual top ten men, the age of peak running speed remained unchanged at 42 ± 2 years (P > 0.05). Running speed remained unchanged over time at 11.4 ± 0.4 km h-1 for the annual fastest men and 10.0 ± 0.2 km/h for the annual fastest women, respectively (P > 0.05). For the annual ten fastest women, running speed increased over time by 3.2% from 9.3 ± 0.3 to 9.6 ± 0.3 km/h (P < 0.01). Running speed of the annual top ten men remained unchanged at 10.8 ± 0.3 km/h (P > 0.05). Women in age groups 25–29 (r2 = 0.61, P < 0.01), 30–34 (r2 = 0.48, P < 0.01), 35–39 (r2 = 0.42, P = 0.01), 40–44 (r2 = 0.46, P < 0.01), 55–59 (r2 = 0.41, P = 0.03), and 60–64 (r2 = 0.57, P < 0.01) improved running speed; while women in age groups 45–49 and 50–54 maintained running speed (P > 0.05). Men improved running speed in age groups 25–29 (r2 = 0.48, P = 0.02), 45–49 (r2 = 0.34, P = 0.03), 50–54 (r2 = 0.50, P < 0.01), 55–59 (r2 = 0.70, P < 0.01), and 60–64 (r2 = 0.44, P = 0.03); while runners in age groups 30–34, 35–39, and 40–44 maintained running speed (P > 0.05). Conclusions Female and male age group runners improved

  13. Performance and sleepiness during a 24 h wake in constant conditions are affected by diet.

    PubMed

    Lowden, Arne; Holmbäck, Ulf; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Forslund, Jeanette; Lennernäs, Maria; Forslund, Anders

    2004-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of high-carbohydrate (HC) and high-fat (HF) diet on cognitive performance, and subjective and objective sleepiness. Seven male participants were kept awake for 24 h in a metabolic ward. Meals were given every 4h and cognitive performance and sleepiness ratings were assessed hourly. The Karolinska Drowsiness Test (KDT, EEG derived) was performed twice after meal. Performance in simple reaction time showed a significant interaction of diet and the post-prandial period, a slower reaction time was observed for the HC-diet 3.5 h after meal intake. Diet did not affect EEG measures but a general post-prandial increase of objective sleepiness was observed 3.5h after meal servings. The HC-diet was significantly associated with an increase of subjective sleepiness. The study demonstrated that the HC-diet caused larger oscillation in performance and increased sleepiness as compared to HF-diet throughout day and night.

  14. Intrinsic near-24-h pacemaker period determines limits of circadian entrainment to a weak synchronizer in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. P. Jr; Hughes, R. J.; Kronauer, R. E.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks are robust regulators of physiology and behavior. Synchronization or entrainment of biological clocks to environmental time is adaptive and important for physiological homeostasis and for the proper timing of species-specific behaviors. We studied subjects in the laboratory for up to 55 days each to determine the ability to entrain the human clock to a weak circadian synchronizing stimulus [scheduled activity-rest cycle in very dim (approximately 1.5 lux in the angle of gaze) light-dark cycle] at three approximately 24-h periods: 23.5, 24.0, and 24.6 h. These studies allowed us to test two competing hypotheses as to whether the period of the human circadian pacemaker is near to or much longer than 24 h. We report here that imposition of a sleep-wake schedule with exposure to the equivalent of candle light during wakefulness and darkness during sleep is usually sufficient to maintain circadian entrainment to the 24-h day but not to a 23.5- or 24.6-h day. Our results demonstrate functionally that, in normally entrained sighted adults, the average intrinsic circadian period of the human biological clock is very close to 24 h. Either exposure to very dim light and/or the scheduled sleep-wake cycle itself can entrain this near-24-h intrinsic period of the human circadian pacemaker to the 24-h day.

  15. Validation of web-based, multiple 24-h recalls combined with nutritional supplement intake questionnaires against nitrogen excretions to determine protein intake in Dutch elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Wardenaar, F C; Steennis, J; Ceelen, I J M; Mensink, M; Witkamp, R; de Vries, J H M

    2015-12-28

    Information on dietary composition is vitally important for elite athletes to optimise their performance and recovery, which requires valid tools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of assessing protein intake using three web-based 24-h recalls and questionnaires, by comparing these with three urinary N excretions on the same day. A total of forty-seven Dutch elite top athletes, both disabled and non-disabled, aged between 18 and 35 years, with a BMI of 17·5-31 kg/m2, exercising >12 h/week were recruited. Estimated mean dietary protein intake was 109·6 (sd 33·0) g/d by recalls and questionnaires v. 141·3 (sd 38·2) g/d based on N excretions in urine; the difference was 25·5 (sd 21·3) % between the methods (P<0·05). We found a reasonably good association between methods for protein intake of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·79). On an individual level, under-reporting was larger with higher protein intakes than with lower intakes. No significant differences were found in reporting absolute differences between subcategories (sex, under-reporting, BMI, collection of recalls within a certain amount of time and using protein supplements or not). In conclusion, combined, multiple, 24-h recalls and questionnaires underestimated protein intake in these young elite athletes more than that reported for non-athlete populations. The method proved to be suitable for ranking athletes according to their protein intake as needed in epidemiological studies. On an individual level, the magnitude of underestimation was about equal for all athletes except for those with very high protein intakes.

  16. Urinary biomarkers after donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Hoogendijk-van den Akker, Judith M; Warlé, Michiel C; van Zuilen, Arjan D; Kloke, Heinrich J; Wever, Kim E; d'Ancona, Frank C H; Ӧzdemir, Denise M D; Wetzels, Jack F M; Hoitsma, Andries J

    2015-05-01

    As the beginning of living-donor kidney transplantation, physicians have expressed concern about the possibility that unilateral nephrectomy can be harmful to a healthy individual. To investigate whether the elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy causes early damage to the remaining kidney, we evaluated urine biomarkers after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. We measured albumin and alpha-1-microglobulin (α-1-MGB) in urine samples collected during and after open and laparoscopic donor nephrectomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy and colectomy. Additionally, kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were measured in urine samples collected during and after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy and colectomy. The same biomarkers were studied in patients randomly assigned to standard or low IAP during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. We observed a peak in urinary albumin excretion during all procedures. Urine α-1-MGB rose in the postoperative period with a peak on the third postoperative day after donor nephrectomy. Urine α-1-MGB did not increase after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and colectomy. After laparoscopic nephrectomy, we observed slight increases in urine KIM-1 during surgery and in urine NGAL at day 2-3 after the procedure. After laparoscopic colectomy, both KIM-1 and NGAL were increased in the postoperative period. There were no differences between the high- and low-pressure procedure. Elevated urinary α-1-MGB suggests kidney damage after donor nephrectomy, occurring irrespective of IAP during the laparoscopic procedure.

  17. Higher Urinary Sodium, a Proxy for Intake, Is Associated with Increased Calcium Excretion and Lower Hip Bone Density in Healthy Young Women with Lower Calcium Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, Jennifer L.; Barr, Susan I.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed 24-h urinary sodium (Na) and its relationship with urinary calcium (Ca) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the whole body, lumbar spine and total hip in a cross-sectional study. 102 healthy non-obese women completed timed 24-h urine collections which were analyzed for Na and Ca. Dietary intakes were estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were grouped as those with lower vs. higher calcium intake by median split (506 mg/1000 kcal). Dietary Na intake correlated with 24-h urinary loss. Urinary Na correlated positively with urinary Ca for all participants (r = 0.29, p < 0.01) and among those with lower (r = 0.37, p < 0.01) but not higher calcium intakes (r = 0.19, p = 0.19). Urinary Na was inversely associated with hip aBMD for all participants (r = −0.21, p = 0.04) and among women with lower (r = −0.36, p < 0.01) but not higher (r = −0.05, p = 0.71) calcium intakes. Urinary Na also entered a regression equation for hip aBMD in women with lower Ca intakes, contributing 5.9% to explained variance. In conclusion, 24-h urinary Na (a proxy for intake) is associated with higher urinary Ca loss in young women and may affect aBMD, particularly in those with lower calcium intakes. PMID:22254088

  18. [Urinary bilharziasis].

    PubMed

    Gigase, P L

    1992-01-01

    A short account is given of present views on urinary schistosomiasis or bilharziasis. The incidence of infections is increasing in endemic areas of Africa and the near east, as a consequence of irrigation programs and hydroelectric power development. Urinary schistosomiasis is a disease of children and young adults. The serious consequences, obstructive uropathy due to more or less irreversible ureteral lesions, and cancer of the bladder, less directly related to the infection, appear but later in life. Diagnosis is still based on parasitology and serology but ultrasonography has proven to be an important means to evaluate the extent of lesions of the urinary tract, especially in developing countries. Praziquantel was a major development in the medical treatment and cures easily the infection. Some irreversible consequences have however to be treated surgically. Schistosomiasis is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in medically backward endemic countries. The control of the disease aims at reducing morbidity and mortality, consequences of the infection, rather than to avoid infection itself. It is based on mass treatment of school age children, together with focal molluscacides at places where people have contacts with water. Vaccination will be available in the near future and will be a welcome addition to other control measures, but will not be able to interrupt transmission on its own. Only economic development will solve in the long term this social African problem.

  19. Baroreflex-mediated heart rate and vascular resistance responses 24 h after maximal exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Plasma volume, heart rate (HR) variability, and stimulus-response relationships for baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance (FVR) and HR were studied in eight healthy men after and without performing a bout of maximal exercise to test the hypotheses that acute expansion of plasma volume is associated with 1) reduction in baroreflex-mediated HR response, and 2) altered operational range for central venous pressure (CVP). METHODS: The relationship between stimulus (DeltaCVP) and vasoconstrictive reflex response (DeltaFVR) during unloading of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors was assessed with lower-body negative pressure (LBNP, 0, -5, -10, -15, -20 mm Hg). The relationship between stimulus (Deltamean arterial pressure (MAP)) and cardiac reflex response (DeltaHR) during loading of arterial baroreceptors was assessed with steady-state infusion of phenylephrine (PE) designed to increase MAP by 15 mm Hg alone and during application of LBNP (PE+LBNP) and neck pressure (PE+LBNP+NP). Measurements of vascular volume and autonomic baroreflex responses were conducted on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested 24 h after graded cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, measurement of baroreflex response was repeated with no exercise (control). The order of exercise and control treatments was counterbalanced. RESULTS: Baseline CVP was elevated (P = 0.04) from a control value of 10.5 +/- 0.4 to 12.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg 24 h after exercise. Average DeltaFVR/DeltaCVP during LBNP was not different (P = 0.942) between the exercise (-1.35 +/- 0.32 pru x mm Hg-1) and control (-1.32 +/- 0.36 pru x mm Hg-1) conditions. However, maximal exercise caused a shift along the reflex response relationship to a higher CVP and lower FVR. HR baroreflex response (DeltaHR/DeltaMAP) to PE+LBNP+NP was lower (P = 0.015) after maximal exercise (-0.43 +/- 0.15 beats x min-1 x mm Hg-1) compared with the control

  20. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Antônio F. M.; Moresco, James; Yates, John R.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick

  1. The friction coefficient of shoulder joints remains remarkably low over 24 h of loading.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian K; Durney, Krista M; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-11-05

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Eight human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean±standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (p<0.0001). The value in LCMS was significantly lower than in hHCMS and bHCMS (p<0.01). No visual damage was observed in any of the specimens. These are the first results to demonstrate that the friction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction.

  2. Spot urinary sodium for assessing dietary sodium restriction in cirrhotic ascites

    PubMed Central

    El-Bokl, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Senousy, Bahaa Eldeen; El-Karmouty, Khaled Zakaria; Mohammed, Inas El-Khedr; Mohammed, Sherif Monier; Shabana, Sherif Sadek; Shalaby, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of spot urinary Na/K and Na/creatinine (Cr) ratios as an alternative to 24-h urinary sodium in monitoring dietary compliance in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites treated with diuretics. METHODS: The study was carried on 40 patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites treated with diuretic therapy. Patients were divided into two groups according to 24-h urinary sodium. We measured spot urine Na/K ratio, Na/Cr ratio and 24-h urinary sodium. Student’s t test was used to compare the interval variables and χ2 test to compare the nominal variables between the two groups. Receiver operator characteristic curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for Na/K and Na/Cr ratio. RESULTS: The best cutoff point for Na/K ratio was 2.5 (P < 0.001) and area under the curve (AUC) was 0.9, and for Na/Cr ratio, the best cutoff point was 35 (P < 0.001) and AUC was 0.885. Na/K ratio showed higher sensitivity and accuracy compared to Na/Cr ratio (87.5% and 87% for Na/K ratio; 81% and 85% for Na/Cr ratio, respectively). CONCLUSION: Spot urine Na/K ratio has adequate accuracy for assessment of dietary sodium restriction compared with 24-h urinary sodium in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. PMID:19653340

  3. Tuberculosis in hospitalized patients: clinical characteristics of patients receiving treatment within the first 24 h after admission*

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise Rossato; da Silva, Larissa Pozzebon; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients hospitalized for tuberculosis, comparing those in whom tuberculosis treatment was started within the first 24 h after admission with those who did not. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving new tuberculosis cases in patients aged ≥ 18 years who were hospitalized after seeking treatment in the emergency room. Results: We included 305 hospitalized patients, of whom 67 (22.0%) received tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission ( ≤24h group) and 238 (88.0%) did not (>24h group). Initiation of tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission was associated with being female (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.06-3.74; p = 0.032) and with an AFB-positive spontaneous sputum smear (OR = 4.19; 95% CI: 1.94-9.00; p < 0.001). In the ≤24h and >24h groups, respectively, the ICU admission rate was 22.4% and 15.5% (p = 0.258); mechanical ventilation was used in 22.4% and 13.9% (p = 0.133); in-hospital mortality was 22.4% and 14.7% (p = 0.189); and a cure was achieved in 44.8% and 52.5% (p = 0.326). Conclusions: Although tuberculosis treatment was initiated promptly in a considerable proportion of the inpatients evaluated, the rates of in-hospital mortality, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation use remained high. Strategies for the control of tuberculosis in primary care should consider that patients who seek medical attention at hospitals arrive too late and with advanced disease. It is therefore necessary to implement active surveillance measures in the community for earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25029651

  4. 24 h electrocardiographic monitoring in morbidly obese patients during short-term zero calorie diet.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, E; Yeshurun, D; Goldhammer, E; Shiran, A

    1993-06-01

    The medical literature of the previous decades has reported sudden unexpected death among cases of very low calorie dieters. Cardiac arrhythmias, possibly produced by a prolonged QT interval, were suspected to be the main cause of death in a considerable number of these cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of significant cardiac arrhythmias and prolongation of the QT interval, during short-term zero calorie diet, in morbidly obese patients. A group of 11 such patients (BMI > 35 kg/m2) were treated with a short-term zero calorie diet, as in-patients for ten days, followed by an out-patient regime on an 800 kcal diet. Their ages ranged from 19-58 years (mean 43.6). None had diabetes mellitus, cardiac, liver or renal disease, or thyroid or pituitary abnormalities, and none took any medication except Allupurinol 300 mg/day. We used a 24h holter monitoring system to detect cardiac arrhythmias or prolonged QT interval. Recordings were performed on the day before starting the fast, while the patients were on their regular diet, and compared with similar recordings of the same patients taken on the 10th day of the fast. No significant cardiac arrhythmias or prolongation of the QT interval were recorded during the fasting period. Short-term zero calorie dieting provided the patients with physical and psychological encouragement and is a safe method for reducing weight if it is carried out under strict medical supervision.

  5. Radiative cooling to deep sub-freezing temperatures through a 24-h day–night cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-01-01

    Radiative cooling technology utilizes the atmospheric transparency window (8–13 μm) to passively dissipate heat from Earth into outer space (3 K). This technology has attracted broad interests from both fundamental sciences and real world applications, ranging from passive building cooling, renewable energy harvesting and passive refrigeration in arid regions. However, the temperature reduction experimentally demonstrated, thus far, has been relatively modest. Here we theoretically show that ultra-large temperature reduction for as much as 60 °C from ambient is achievable by using a selective thermal emitter and by eliminating parasitic thermal load, and experimentally demonstrate a temperature reduction that far exceeds previous works. In a populous area at sea level, we have achieved an average temperature reduction of 37 °C from the ambient air temperature through a 24-h day–night cycle, with a maximal reduction of 42 °C that occurs when the experimental set-up enclosing the emitter is exposed to peak solar irradiance. PMID:27959339

  6. Combined solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants - An approach to 24h solar electricity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzer, Werner J.

    2016-05-01

    Solar thermal power plants have the advantage of being able to provide dispatchable renewable electricity even when the sun is not shining. Using thermal energy strorage (TES) they may increase the capacity factor (CF) considerably. However in order to increase the operating hours one has to increase both, thermal storage capacity and solar field size, because the additional solar field is needed to charge the storage. This increases investment cost, although levelised electricity cost (LEC) may decrease due to the higher generation. Photovoltaics as a fluctuating source on the other side has arrived at very low generation costs well below 10 ct/kWh even for Central Europe. Aiming at a capacity factor above 70% and at producing dispatchable power it is shown that by a suitable combination of CSP and PV we can arrive at lower costs than by increasing storage and solar field size in CSP plants alone. Although a complete baseload power plant with more than 90% full load hours may not be the most economic choice, power plants approaching a full 24h service in most days of the year seem to be possible at reasonably low tariffs.

  7. Radiative cooling to deep sub-freezing temperatures through a 24-h day-night cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen; Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-12-01

    Radiative cooling technology utilizes the atmospheric transparency window (8-13 μm) to passively dissipate heat from Earth into outer space (3 K). This technology has attracted broad interests from both fundamental sciences and real world applications, ranging from passive building cooling, renewable energy harvesting and passive refrigeration in arid regions. However, the temperature reduction experimentally demonstrated, thus far, has been relatively modest. Here we theoretically show that ultra-large temperature reduction for as much as 60 °C from ambient is achievable by using a selective thermal emitter and by eliminating parasitic thermal load, and experimentally demonstrate a temperature reduction that far exceeds previous works. In a populous area at sea level, we have achieved an average temperature reduction of 37 °C from the ambient air temperature through a 24-h day-night cycle, with a maximal reduction of 42 °C that occurs when the experimental set-up enclosing the emitter is exposed to peak solar irradiance.

  8. Cerebral blood flow velocity in humans exposed to 24 h of head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, Y.; Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Deroshia, C. W.; Hargens, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in humans before, during, and after 24 h of 6 deg head-down tilt (HDT), which is a currently accepted experimental model to simulate microgravity. CBF velocity was measured by use of the transcranial Doppler technique in the right middle cerebral artery of eight healthy male subjects. Mean CBF velocity increased from the pre-HDT upright seated baseline value of 55.5 +/- 3.7 (SE) cm/s to 61.5 +/- 3.3 cm/s at 0.5 h of HDT, reached a peak value of 63.2 +/- 4.1 cm/s at 3 h of HDT, and remained significantly above the pre-HDT baseline for over 6 h of HDT. During upright seated recovery, mean CBF velocity decreased to 87 percent of the pre-HDT baseline value. Mean CBF velocity correlated well with calculated intracranial arterial pressure (IAP). As analyzed by linear regression, mean CBF velocity = 29.6 + 0.32IAP. These results suggest that HDT increases CBF velocity by increasing IAP during several hours after the onset of microgravity. Importantly, the decrease in CBF velocity after HDT may be responsible, in part, for the increased risk of syncope observed in subjects after prolonged bed rest and also in astronauts returning to Earth.

  9. Effects of 24-h and 36-h sleep deprivation on human postural control and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Patel, M; Gomez, S; Berg, S; Almbladh, P; Lindblad, J; Petersen, H; Magnusson, M; Johansson, R; Fransson, P A

    2008-02-01

    This study investigated whether human postural stability and adaptation were affected by sleep deprivation and the relationship between motor performance and subjective scores of sleepiness (visuo-anlogue sleepiness scores, VAS). Postural stability and subjective sleepiness were examined in 18 healthy subjects (mean age 23.8 years) following 24 and 36 h of continued wakefulness, ensured by portable EEG recordings, and compared to a control test where the assessments were made after a normal night of sleep. The responses were assessed using posturography with eyes open and closed, and vibratory proprioceptive stimulations were used to challenge postural control. Postural control was significantly affected after 24 h of sleep deprivation both in anteroposterior and in lateral directions, but less so after 36 h. Subjective VAS scores showed poor correlation with indicators of postural control performance. The clearest evidence that sleep deprivation decreased postural control was the reduction of adaptation. Also several near falls after 2-3 min during the posturographic tests showed that sleep deprivation might affect stability through momentary lapses of attention. Access to vision, somewhat, but not entirely reduced the effect of sleep deprivation. In conclusion, sleep deprivation can be a contributing factor to decreased postural control and falls.

  10. Radiative cooling to deep sub-freezing temperatures through a 24-h day-night cycle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-12-13

    Radiative cooling technology utilizes the atmospheric transparency window (8-13 μm) to passively dissipate heat from Earth into outer space (3 K). This technology has attracted broad interests from both fundamental sciences and real world applications, ranging from passive building cooling, renewable energy harvesting and passive refrigeration in arid regions. However, the temperature reduction experimentally demonstrated, thus far, has been relatively modest. Here we theoretically show that ultra-large temperature reduction for as much as 60 °C from ambient is achievable by using a selective thermal emitter and by eliminating parasitic thermal load, and experimentally demonstrate a temperature reduction that far exceeds previous works. In a populous area at sea level, we have achieved an average temperature reduction of 37 °C from the ambient air temperature through a 24-h day-night cycle, with a maximal reduction of 42 °C that occurs when the experimental set-up enclosing the emitter is exposed to peak solar irradiance.

  11. Fasting for 24 h improves nasal chemosensory performance and food palatability in a related manner.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jameason D; Goldfield, Gary S; Doucet, Éric

    2012-06-01

    Changes in smell function can modify feeding behaviour but there is little evidence of how acute negative energy balance may impact olfaction and palatability. In a within-subjects repeated measures design, 15 subjects (nine male; six female) aged 28.6±4.5 years with initial body weight (BW) 74.7±4.9 kg and body mass index (BMI) 25.3±1.4 kg/m(2) were randomized and tested at baseline (FED) and Post Deprivation (FASTED) for nasal chemosensory performance (Sniffin' Sticks) and food palatability (visual analogue scale). Significant main effects for time indicated improvements in the FASTED session for odor threshold, odor discrimination, and total odor scores (TDI), and for increased palatability. There were significant positive correlations between initial BW and the change in odor threshold (r=.52) and TDI scores (r=.53). Positive correlations were also noted between delta identification score and delta palatability (r=.68). When the sample was split by sex, only for females were there significant correlations between delta palatability and: delta BW (r=.88); delta odor identification (r=.94); and delta TDI score (r=.85). Fasting for 24h improved smell function and this was related to increased palatability ratings and initial BW. Further studies should confirm the role of BW and sex in the context of olfaction, energy deprivation and palatability.

  12. Interaction between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Urinary Sodium, Potassium, and Sodium-Potassium Ratio on the Risk of Hypertension in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeong Mi; Kwock, Chang Keun; Kim, Kyunga; Kim, Jihye; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex disease explained with diverse factors including environmental factors and genetic factors. The objectives of this study were to determine the interaction effects between gene variants and 24 h estimated urinary sodium and potassium excretion and sodium-potassium excretion ratios on the risk of hypertension. A total of 8839 participants were included in the genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic factors associated with hypertension. Tanaka and Kawasaki formulas were applied to estimate 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion. A total of 4414 participants were included in interaction analyses to identify the interaction effects of gene variants according to 24 h estimated urinary factors on the risk of hypertension. CSK rs1378942 and CSK-MIR4513 rs3784789 were significantly modified by urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio. In addition, MKLN rs1643270 with urinary potassium excretion, LOC101929750 rs7554672 with urinary sodium and potassium excretion, and TENM4 rs10466739 with urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio showed significant interaction effects. The present study results indicated that the mutant alleles of CSK rs1378942 and CSK-MIR4513 rs3784789 had the strongest protective effects against hypertension in the middle group of 24 h estimated urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio. Further studies are needed to replicate these analyses in other populations. PMID:28273873

  13. Development of a Web-Based 24-h Dietary Recall for a French-Canadian Population

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Simon; Lemieux, Simone; Lamarche, Benoît; Laramée, Catherine; Corneau, Louise; Lapointe, Annie; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Robitaille, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls can provide high-quality dietary intake data, but are considered expensive, as they rely on trained professionals for both their administration and coding. The objective of this study was to develop an automated, self-administered web-based 24-h recall (R24W) for a French-Canadian population. The development of R24W was inspired by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Questions about the context of meals/snacks were included. Toppings, sauces and spices frequently added to each food/dish were suggested systematically. A list of frequently forgotten food was also suggested. An interactive summary allows the respondent to track the progress of the questionnaire and to modify or remove food as needed. The R24W prototype was pre-tested for usability and functionality in a convenience sample of 29 subjects between the ages of 23 and 65 years, who had to complete one recall, as well as a satisfaction questionnaire. R24W includes a list of 2865 food items, distributed into 16 categories and 98 subcategories. A total of 687 recipes were created for mixed dishes, including 336 ethnic recipes. Pictures of food items illustrate up to eight servings per food item. The pre-test demonstrated that R24W is easy to complete and to understand. This new dietary assessment tool is a simple and inexpensive tool that will facilitate diet assessment of individuals in large-scale studies, but validation studies are needed prior to the utilization of the R24W. PMID:27854276

  14. Differential Gene Expression Analysis in Polygonum minus Leaf upon 24 h of Methyl Jasmonate Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Rahnamaie-Tajadod, Reyhaneh; Loke, Kok-Keong; Goh, Hoe-Han; Noor, Normah M.

    2017-01-01

    Polygonum minus is an herbal plant that grows in Southeast Asian countries and traditionally used as medicine. This plant produces diverse secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds and their derivatives, which are known to have roles in plant abiotic and biotic stress responses. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a plant signaling molecule that triggers transcriptional reprogramming in secondary metabolism and activation of defense responses against many biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the effect of MeJA elicitation on the genome-wide expression profile in the leaf tissue of P. minus has not been well-studied due to the limited genetic information. Hence, we performed Illumina paired-end RNA-seq for de novo reconstruction of P. minus leaf transcriptome to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to MeJA elicitation. A total of 182,111 unique transcripts (UTs) were obtained by de novo assembly of 191.57 million paired-end clean reads using Trinity analysis pipeline. A total of 2374 UTs were identified to be significantly up-/down-regulated 24 h after MeJA treatment. These UTs comprising many genes related to plant secondary metabolite biosynthesis, defense and stress responses. To validate our sequencing results, we analyzed the expression of 21 selected DEGs by quantitative real-time PCR and found a good correlation between the two analyses. The single time-point analysis in this work not only provides a useful genomic resource for P. minus but also gives insights on molecular mechanisms of stress responses in P. minus. PMID:28220135

  15. What are the approaches for evaluating antihypertensive treatment by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring?

    PubMed

    Neutel, J M; Smith, D H; Weber, M A

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of trough blood pressure in a clinic setting have been the traditional method of assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive agents. The duration of action of antihypertensive drugs has been assessed by calculation of a trough-to-peak ratio; drugs with a trough-to-peak ratio greater than 50% are typically given once-a-day indications. However, the use of clinical measurements to assess antihypertensive agents can be misleading. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a simple technique that provides accurate and reproducible data on both the efficacy and duration of action of antihypertensive agents. Although several complicated techniques have been used for the analysis of ambulatory blood pressure data, studies have demonstrated that calculation of simple blood pressure means (24 h mean, day-time mean and night-time mean) will provide all the data required to assess the efficacy of a drug. Calculations of systolic and diastolic load also provide useful information, and the index correlates closely with target-organ damage. Assessing the reduction of blood pressure during the last 2-6 h of the dosing interval provides critical information on the duration of action of agents with once-a-day dosing. Trough-to-peak ratio can also be calculated from an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. Furthermore, a simple line graph constructed from hourly means makes available, at a simple glance, a large amount of information about a drug. The reproducibility of ambulatory monitoring, together with the absence of placebo effect and the ability to exclude patients with white-coat hypertension, make the technique an extremely powerful tool for the assessment of antihypertensive agents that clearly provides more data on the efficacy and duration of action of an antihypertensive agent than do traditional clinical measurements.

  16. Quality assurance of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (EPIC-Soft).

    PubMed

    Crispim, Sandra P; Nicolas, Genevieve; Casagrande, Corinne; Knaze, Viktoria; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Huybrechts, Inge; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-02-01

    The interview-administered 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) EPIC-Soft® has a series of controls to guarantee the quality of dietary data across countries. These comprise all steps that are part of fieldwork preparation, data collection and data management; however, a complete characterisation of these quality controls is still lacking. The present paper describes in detail the quality controls applied in EPIC-Soft, which are, to a large extent, built on the basis of the EPIC-Soft error model and are present in three phases: (1) before, (2) during and (3) after the 24-HDR interviews. Quality controls for consistency and harmonisation are implemented before the interviews while preparing the seventy databases constituting an EPIC-Soft version (e.g. pre-defined and coded foods and recipes). During the interviews, EPIC-Soft uses a cognitive approach by helping the respondent to recall the dietary intake information in a stepwise manner and includes controls for consistency (e.g. probing questions) as well as for completeness of the collected data (e.g. system calculation for some unknown amounts). After the interviews, a series of controls can be applied by dietitians and data managers to further guarantee data quality. For example, the interview-specific 'note files' that were created to track any problems or missing information during the interviews can be checked to clarify the information initially provided. Overall, the quality controls employed in the EPIC-Soft methodology are not always perceivable, but prove to be of assistance for its overall standardisation and possibly for the accuracy of the collected data.

  17. Postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in rabbits over 24 h.

    PubMed

    Maskell, Peter D; Albeishy, Mohammed; De Paoli, Giorgia; Wilson, Nathan E; Seetohul, L Nitin

    2016-03-01

    The interpretation of postmortem drug levels is complicated by changes in drug blood levels in the postmortem period, a phenomena known as postmortem drug redistribution. We investigated the postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in a rabbit model. Heroin (1 mg/kg) was injected into anesthetised rabbit; after 1 h, an auricular vein blood sample was taken and the rabbit was euthanised. Following death rabbits were placed in a supine position at room temperature and divided into three groups namely (1) immediate autopsy, (2) autopsy after 30 minutes and (3) autopsy 24 h after death. Various samples which included femoral blood, cardiac blood, lung, liver, kidney, vitreous humour, subcutaneous and abdominal fat, liver, bone marrow and skeletal muscle were taken. The samples were analysed with a validated LC-MS/MS method. It was observed that within minutes there was a significant increase in free morphine postmortem femoral blood concentration compared to the antemortem sample (0.01 ± 0.01 to 0.05 ± 0.02 mg/L).Various other changes in free morphine and metabolite concentrations were observed during the course of the experiment in various tissues. Principal component analysis was used to investigate possible correlations between free morphine in the various samples. Some correlations were observed but gave poor predictions (>20 % error) when back calculating. The results suggest that rabbits are a good model for further studies of postmortem redistribution but that further study and understanding of the phenomena is required before accurate predictions of the blood concentration at the time of death are possible.

  18. Acute metabolic responses to a 24-h ultra-marathon race in male amateur runners.

    PubMed

    Waśkiewicz, Zbigniew; Kłapcińska, Barbara; Sadowska-Krępa, Ewa; Czuba, Milosz; Kempa, Katarzyna; Kimsa, Elżbieta; Gerasimuk, Dagmara

    2012-05-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the metabolic responses to a 24 h ultra-endurance race in male runners. Paired venous and capillary blood samples from 14 athletes (mean age 43.0 ± 10.8 years, body weight 64.3 ± 7.2 kg, VO(2max) 57.8 ± 6.1 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), taken 3 h before the run, after completing the marathon distance (42.195 km), after 12 h, and at the finish of the race, were analyzed for blood morphology, acid-base balance and electrolytes, lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and serum enzyme activities. Mean distance covered during the race was 168.5 ± 23.1 km (range 125.2-218.5 km). Prolonged ultra-endurance exercise triggered immune and inflammatory responses, as evidenced by a twofold increase in total leukocyte count with neutrophils and monocytes as main contributors, nearly 30-fold increase in serum IL-6 and over 20-fold rise in hsCRP. A progressive exponential increase in mean creatine kinase activity up to the level 70-fold higher than the respective pre-race value, a several fold rise in serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and a fairly stable serum γ-glutamyl transferase level, were indicative of muscle, but not of liver damage. With duration of exercise, there was a progressive development of hyperventilation-induced hypocapnic alkalosis, and a marked alteration in substrate utilization towards fat oxidation to maintain blood glucose homeostasis. The results of this study may imply that progressive decline in partial CO(2) pressure (hypocapnia) that develops during prolonged exercise may contribute to increased interleukin-6 production.

  19. [Validity of the 24-h previous day physical activity recall (PDPAR-24) in Spanish adolescents].

    PubMed

    Cancela, José María; Lago, Joaquín; Ouviña, Lara; Ayán, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: El control del nivel de práctica de actividad física que realizan los adolescentes, de sus factores determinantes y susceptibilidad al cambio resulta indispensable para intervenir sobre la epidemia de obesidad que afecta a la sociedad española. Sin embargo, el número de cuestionarios validados para valorar la actividad física en adolescentes españoles es escaso. Objetivos: Evaluar la validez del cuestionario24hPrevious Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR-24) cuando es aplicado a la población de adolescentes españoles. Método: Participaron en este estudio estudiantes de 14-15 años de dos centros de educación secundaria del norte de Galicia. Como criterio objetivo de la actividad física realizada se utilizó el registro proporcionado por el acelerómetro Actigraph GT3X.Se monitorizó a los sujetos durante un día por medio del acelerómetro y al día siguiente se administró el cuestionario de auto-informe. Resultados: Un total de 79 alumnos (15.16 ± 0.81 años, 39% mujeres) finalizaron el estudio. Se observan correlaciones positivas estadísticamente significativas de tamaño medio a grande en ambos sexos (r=0.50-0.98), para la actividad física ligera y moderada. Las correlaciones observadas son más elevadas a medida que aumenta la intensidad de la actividad física realizada. Conclusiones: El cuestionario de auto-informe PDPAR-24 puede ser considerado como una herramienta válida a la hora de valorar el nivel de actividad física en adolescentes españoles.

  20. Functional characterization of left ventricular segmental responses during the initial 24 h and 1 wk after experimental canine myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Roan, P; Scales, F; Saffer, S; Buja, L M; Willerson, J T

    1979-01-01

    Characterization of the temporal evolution of resting segmental function and inotropic reserve after coronary occlusion may be important in evaluating attempts to salvage ischemic but non-necrotic myocardium. Accordingly, we chronically implanted up to six pairs of pulse-transit piezoelectric crystals in the left ventricular myocardium of dogs to measure segmental wall thickness. Segments were separated into groups according to the loss of net systolic thickening (NET) at 5 min postocclusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery in awake, unsedated dogs. Group 1 included segments with NET values of 67--100+ (percent control); group 2 between 67 and 0; and group 3 less than 0 (paradoxical motion). 5 min after coronary occlusion, group 1 NET was 92 +/- 5% (SEM) although significant decreases occurred in NET in group 2 (36 +/- 4%) and group 3 segments (-33 +/- 5%). Between 5 min and 24 h after coronary occlusion, no further significant changes occurred in NET in groups 1, 2, and 3 crystals. Some segments underwent further functional deterioration between 24 h and 1 wk after left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, although no overall change occurred in segments with mild to moderate ischemic dysfunction. Segments with NET less than 0 at 24 h, on the other hand, exhibited a reduction in aneurysmal bulging between 24 h and 1 wk from -41 +/- 10 to -23 +/- 11% (n = 12, P = 0.02). Inotropic reserve was assessed with postextrasystolic potentiation (PESP) in 14 dogs, and with infusions of dopamine (11 dogs), and isoproterenol (13 dogs). PESP was the most potent intervention and produced a significant augmentation in NET in group 2 crystals at 1, 2, 4, 6,8, and 24 h after coronary occlusion but only at 1 and 2 h in NET in group 3 crystals. Thus, following experimental coronary occlusion, the evolution of ischemic segmental dysfunction is dynamic and variable. A significant degree of inotropic reserve, as assessed by PESP, dopamine, and isoproterenol

  1. Predictors of Urinary 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid Levels in 50 North Carolina Adults

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Marsha; Jones, Paul; Sobus, Jon; Boyd Barr, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Limited data are available on the non-chemical stressors that impact adult exposures to pyrethroid insecticides based on urinary biomonitoring. The urinary metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), is commonly used to assess human exposure to a number of pyrethroids. In a further analysis of published study data, we quantified urinary 3-PBA levels of 50 adults over a single, 24-h sampling period and examined the associations between the biomarker measurements and selected non-chemical stressors (demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors). A convenience sample of 50 adults was recruited in North Carolina in 2009–2011. Participants collected individual urine voids (up to 11) and filled out activity, food, and pesticide use diaries over a 24-h sampling period. Urine voids (n = 326) were analyzed for 3-PBA concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 3-PBA was detected in 98% of the 24-h composited urine samples. The geometric mean urinary 3-PBA level was 1.68 ng/mL in adults. Time spent outside (p = 0.0006) was a highly significant predictor of natural log-transformed (ln) urinary 3-PBA levels, while consumption of coffee (p = 0.007) and breads (p = 0.019) and ln creatinine levels (p = 0.037) were significant predictors of urinary 3-PBA levels. In conclusion, we identified specific factors that substantially increased adult exposures to pyrethroids in their everyday environments. PMID:27886113

  2. Albumin acts like transforming growth factor β1 in microbubble-based drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yueh-Hsun; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Chang, Tien-Kuei; Lin, Ching-Jung; Li, Pai-Chi

    2014-04-01

    Unlike lipid-shelled microbubbles (MBs), albumin-shelled microbubbles (MBs) have not been reported to be actively targeted to cells without the assistance of antibodies. Recent studies indicate that the albumin molecule is similar to transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) both structurally and functionally. The TGF-β superfamily is important during early tumor outgrowth, with an elevated TGF-β being tumor suppressive; at later stages, this switches to malignant conversion and progression, including breast cancer. TGF-β receptors I and II play crucial roles in both the binding and endocytosis of albumin. However, until now, no specific albumin receptor has been found. On the basis of the above-mentioned information, we hypothesized that non-antibody-conjugated albumin-shelled MBs can be used to deliver drugs to breast cancer cells. We also studied the possible roles of TGF-β1 and radiation force in the behavior of cells and albumin-shelled MBs. The results indicate that albumin-shelled MBs loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) induce breast cancer cell apoptosis without the specific targeting produced by an antibody. Applying either an acoustic radiation force or cavitation alone to cells with PTX-loaded albumin MBs increased the apoptosis rate to 23.2% and 26.3% (p < 0.05), respectively. We also found that albumin-shelled MBs can enter MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and remain there for at least 24 h, even in the presence of PTX loading. Confocal micrographs revealed that 70.5% of the breast cancer cells took up albumin-shelled MBs spontaneously after 1 d of incubation. Applying an acoustic radiation force further increased the percentage to 91.9% in our experiments. However, this process could be blocked by TGF-β1, even with subsequent exposure to the radiation force. From these results, we conclude that TGF-β1 receptors are involved in the endocytotic process by which albumin-shelled MBs enter breast cancer cells. The acoustic radiation force increases the contact

  3. Effect of ethanol on 24-h hormonal changes in prolactin release mechanisms in growing male rats.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cardinali, Daniel P; Cano, Pilar; Fernández-Mateos, Pilar; Reyes-Toso, Carlos; Esquifino, Ana I

    2006-12-01

    This study analyzes the effect of chronic ethanol feeding on 24-h variation of hypothalamic-pituitary mechanisms involved in prolactin regulation in growing male Wistar rats. Animals were maintained under a 12:12 h light/dark photoperiod (lights off at 2000 h), and they received a liquid diet for 4 wk, starting on d 35 of life. The ethanol-fed group received a similar diet to controls except that maltose was isocalorically replaced by ethanol. Ethanol replacement provided 36% of the total caloric content of the diet. Rats were killed at six time intervals every 4 h, beginning at 0900 h. Mean concentration of serum prolactin in ethanol-fed rats was 58.7% higher than in controls. Peak circulating prolactin levels occurred at the early phase of the activity span in both groups of rats, whereas a second peak was found late in the resting phase in ethanol-fed rats only. In control rats, median eminence dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and taurine levels exhibited two maxima, the major one preceding prolactin release and a second one during the first part of the resting phase. Median eminence DA and 5-HT turnover (as measured by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, DOPAC/DA, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio) showed a single maximum preceding prolactin, at 0100 h. Ethanol treatment did not affect median eminence DA or 5-HT levels but it decreased significantly their turnover rate. The midday peak in DA and 5-HT levels (at 1300 h) was abolished and the night peak (at 0100 h) became spread and blunted in the ethanol-fed rats. This was accompanied with the disappearance of the 0100 h peak in DA and 5-HT turnover and the occurrence of a peak in 5-HT turnover at 1700 h. Ethanol intake suppressed the night peak in median eminence GABA and taurine (at 0100 h) as well as the midday peak of GABA. Ethanol augmented pituitary levels of DOPAC and 5-HIAA. The results indicate that chronic ethanol administration affects the mechanisms that

  4. 24-h ambulatory recording of aortic pulse wave velocity and central systolic augmentation: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Luzardo, Leonella; Lujambio, Inés; Sottolano, Mariana; da Rosa, Alicia; Thijs, Lutgarde; Noboa, Oscar; Staessen, Jan A; Boggia, José

    2012-10-01

    We assessed the feasibility of ambulatory pulse wave analysis by comparing this approach with an established tonometric technique. We investigated 35 volunteers (45.6 years; 51.0% women) exclusively at rest (R study) and 83 volunteers (49.9 years; 61.4% women) at rest and during daytime (1000-2000 h) ambulatory monitoring (R+A study). We recorded central systolic (cSP), diastolic (cDP) and pulse (cPP) pressures, augmentation index (cAI) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) by brachial oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph 24h PWA Monitor) and radial tonometry (SphygmoCor). We applied the Bland and Altman's statistics. In the R study, tonometric and oscillometric estimates of cSP (105.6 vs. 106.9 mm Hg), cDP (74.6 vs. 74.7 mm Hg), cPP (31.0 vs. 32.1 mm Hg), cAI (21.1 vs. 20.6%) and PWV (7.3 vs. 7.0 m s(-1)) were similar (P0.11). In the R+A study, tonometric vs. oscillometric assessment yielded similar values for cSP (115.4 vs. 113.9 mm Hg; P=0.19) and cAI (26.5 vs. 25.3%; P=0.54), but lower cDP (77.8 vs. 81.9 mm Hg; P<0.0001), so that cPP was higher (37.6 vs. 32.1 mm Hg; P<0.0001). PWV (7.9 vs. 7.4 m s(-1)) was higher (P=0.0002) on tonometric assessment. The differences between tonometric and oscillometric estimates increased (P0.004) with cSP (r=0.37), cAI (r=0.39) and PWV (r=0.39), but not (P0.17) with cDP (r=0.15) or cPP (r=0.13). Irrespective of measurement conditions, brachial oscillometry compared with an established tonometric method provided similar estimates for cSP and systolic augmentation, but slightly underestimated PWV. Pending further validation, ambulatory assessment of central hemodynamic variables is feasible.

  5. Superior serum half life of albumin tagged TNF ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Nicole; Schneider, Britta; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Wajant, Harald

    2010-06-11

    Due to their immune stimulating and apoptosis inducing properties, ligands of the TNF family attract increasing interest as therapeutic proteins. A general limitation of in vivo applications of recombinant soluble TNF ligands is their notoriously rapid clearance from circulation. To improve the serum half life of the TNF family members TNF, TWEAK and TRAIL, we genetically fused soluble variants of these molecules to human serum albumin (HSA). The serum albumin-TNF ligand fusion proteins were found to be of similar bioactivity as the corresponding HSA-less counterparts. Upon intravenous injection (i.v.), serum half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins, as determined by ELISA, was around 15 h as compared to approximately 1 h for all of the recombinant control TNF ligands without HSA domain. Moreover, serum samples collected 6 or 24 h after i.v. injection still contained high TNF ligand bioactivity, demonstrating that there is only limited degradation/inactivation of circulating HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins in vivo. In a xenotransplantation model, significantly less of the HSA-TRAIL fusion protein compared to the respective control TRAIL protein was required to achieve inhibition of tumor growth indicating that the increased half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins translates into better therapeutic action in vivo. In conclusion, our data suggest that genetic fusion to serum albumin is a powerful and generally applicable mean to improve bioavailability and in vivo activity of TNF ligands.

  6. [Use of customer relationship management to improve healthcare for citizens. The 24h Andalusian Health Service: Healthline].

    PubMed

    Quero, Manuel; Ramos, María Belén; López, Wilfredo; Cubillas, Juan José; González, José María; Castillo, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Salud Responde (in English: Healthline) is a Health Service and Information Centre of the taxpayer-funded Andalusian Health System (AHS) that offers a Telephone Health Advisory Service called SA24h, among other services. The main objective of SA24h is to inform and advise citizens on health issues and the available health resources of the AHS. SA24h has a Customer Relationship Management information technology tool that organises information at various levels of specialization. Depending on the difficulty of the query, the citizen is attended by professionals with distinct profiles, providing a consensual response within the professionals working within Salud Responde or within other healthcare levels of the AHS. SA24h provided responses to 757,168 patient queries from late 2008 to the end of 01/12/2015. A total of 9.38% of the consultations were resolved by the non-health professionals working at Salud Responde. The remaining 84.07% were resolved by health staff. A total of 6.5% of users were referred to accident and emergency facilities while 88.77% did not need to attend their general practitioner within the next 24hours, thus avoiding unnecessary visits to health care facilities.

  7. Cadmium effects on 24h changes in glutamate, aspartate, glutamine, GABA and taurine content of rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, B; Caride, A; Cabaleiro, T; Lafuente, A

    2010-07-01

    This work evaluates the possible changes in 24 h variations of striatal aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine content after oral cadmium treatment. Male rats were submitted to cadmium exposure at two doses (25 and 50 mg/L of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2))) in the drinking water for 30 days. Control rats received cadmium-free water. After the treatment, rats were killed at six different time intervals throughout a 24 h cycle. Differential effects of cadmium on 24 h amino acid fluctuations were observed. Metal exposure modified the daily pattern of the amino acids concentration found in control animals, except for GABA and taurine with the lowest dose used. Exposure to 25 mg/L of CdCl(2) decreased mean content of aspartate, as well as GABA concentration. These results suggest that cadmium exposure affects 24 h changes of the studied amino acids concentration in the striatum, and those changes may be related to alterations in striatal function.

  8. Effects of the long-acting calcium channel blocker barnidipine hydrochloride on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Kuwajima, Iwao; Abe, Keishi

    2002-02-01

    The effect of the long acting calcium channel blocker, barnidipine hydrochloride (barnidipine) on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was evaluated in J-MUBA (Japanese Multicentre Study on Barnidipine with Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring). Following an observation period of two weeks, antihypertensive treatment with barnidipine was continued for at least six months. At the end of each period, ABP were measured. The patients were divided into high- and low-range groups based on ABP measurement. Throughout the 24 h, barnidipine exerted an excellent antihypertensive effect in the high-range group, but not in the low-range group. Barnidipine had comparable effects in the daytime and nighttime in inverted dippers and non-dippers, but it was more effective on daytime ABP than on nighttime ABP in dippers and in extreme dippers. Morning blood pressure before and after waking was evaluated before and after barnidipine administration in 233 patients. Barnidipine inhibited increases in blood pressure before and after waking, especially in surge-type patients whose blood pressure increased rapidly after waking. A positive correlation among 24-h ABP, daytime and night time ABP, morning blood pressure, and clinic blood pressure during the observation period and the antihypertensive effect of barnidipine was observed, with barnidipine exhibiting stronger antihypertensive effects in patients with persistently high blood pressure. It was concluded that the antihypertensive effects of barnidipine are maintained for 24 h but it has no excessive hypotensive effects on lower blood pressure and is thus a safe antihypertensive agent.

  9. Development of albumin-based nanoparticles for the delivery of abacavir.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Barnabas; Paladugu, Latishkumar; Priyadarshini, S R Brahmani; Jenita, J Josephine Leno

    2015-11-01

    The study was designed to prepare and evaluate albumin nanoparticles containing antiviral drug abacavir sulphate. Various batches of albumin nanoparticles containing abacavir sulphate were prepared by desolvation method. The abacavir loaded particles were characterized for their yield, percentage of drug loading, surface morphology, particle size, surface charge, pattern of in vitro drug release and release mechanism studies. Drug loading ranged from 1.2 to 5.9%w/w. The mean particle size and the surface charge were 418.2nm and -40.8mV respectively. The in vitro drug release varied between 38.73 and 51.36%w/w for 24h. The n value for Korsmeyer-Peppas was 0.425 indicating Fickian type drug release. The preliminary findings indicated that albumin nanoparticles of abacavir can be prepared by desolvation method with good yield, high drug loading and sustained release.

  10. Akt Links Insulin Signaling to Albumin Endocytosis in Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Sam; Costacou, Tina; Orchard, Trevor; Erkan, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become an epidemic, causing a significant decline in quality of life of individuals due to its multisystem involvement. Kidney is an important target organ in DM accounting for the majority of patients requiring renal replacement therapy at dialysis units. Microalbuminuria (MA) has been a valuable tool to predict end-organ damage in DM but its low sensitivity has driven research efforts to seek other alternatives. Albumin is taken up by albumin receptors, megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule epithelial cells. We demonstrated that insulin at physiological concentrations induce albumin endocytosis through activation of protein kinase B (Akt) in proximal tubule epithelial cells. Inhibition of Akt by a phosphorylation deficient construct abrogated insulin induced albumin endocytosis suggesting a role for Akt in insulin-induced albumin endocytosis. Furthermore we demonstrated a novel interaction between Akt substrate 160kDa (AS160) and cytoplasmic tail of megalin. Mice with type 1 DM (T1D) displayed decreased Akt, megalin, cubilin and AS160 expression in their kidneys in association with urinary cubilin shedding preceding significant MA. Patients with T1D who have developed MA in the EDC (The Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications) study demonstrated urinary cubilin shedding prior to development of MA. We hypothesize that perturbed insulin-Akt cascade in DM leads to alterations in trafficking of megalin and cubilin, which results in urinary cubilin shedding as a prelude to MA in early diabetic nephropathy. We propose that utilization of urinary cubilin shedding, as a urinary biomarker, will allow us to detect and intervene in diabetic nephropathy (DN) at an earlier stage.

  11. Albumin synthesis in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Hülshoff, Ansgar; Schricker, Thomas; Elgendy, Hamed; Hatzakorzian, Roupen; Lattermann, Ralph

    2013-05-01

    Albumin plasma concentrations are being used as indicators of nutritional status and hepatic function based on the assumption that plasma levels reflect the rate of albumin synthesis. However, it has been shown that albumin levels are not reliable markers of albumin synthesis under a variety of clinical conditions including inflammation, malnutrition, diabetes mellitus, liver disease, and surgical tissue trauma. To date, only a few studies have measured albumin synthesis in surgical and critically ill patients. This review summarizes the findings from these studies, which used different tracer methodology in various surgical or critically ill patient populations. The results indicate that the fractional synthesis rate of albumin appears to decrease during surgery, followed by an increase during the postoperative phase. In the early postoperative phase, albumin fractional synthesis rate can be stimulated by perioperative nutrition, if enough amino acids are being provided and if nutrition is being initiated before the operation. The physiologic meaning of albumin synthesis after surgery, however, still needs to be further clarified.

  12. Relationship between 24-h urine sodium/potassium ratio and central aortic systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Moo-Yong; Shin, Sung-Joon; Gu, Namyi; Nah, Deuk-Young; Kim, Byong-Kyu; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Cho, Eun-Joo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Lee, Sim-Yeol; Kim, Kwang-Il

    2016-11-24

    Studies evaluating the relationship between measured 24-h urine sodium (24HUNa), potassium (24HUK) and aortic blood pressure (BP) are rare, and no such study has been performed with an Asian population. We evaluated the relationship between 24HUNa, 24HUK, casual BP, 24-h ambulatory BP and aortic BP by analyzing data from 524 participants with valid 24-h urine collection, 24-h ambulatory BP and central BP measurements (mean age 48.1±9.8 years, 193 men). Hypertension was defined as a 24-h ambulatory BP ⩾130/80 mm Hg or current treatment for hypertension (n=219). The participants with hypertension and high 24HUNa (mean 210.5±52.0 mmol  per day, range 151.0-432.0) showed higher 24-h systolic (P=0.037) and diastolic BP (P=0.037) and aortic systolic BP (AoSBP, P=0.038) than the participants with hypertension and low 24HUNa (mean 115.7±25.0 mmol per day, range 45.6-150.0), adjusted for confounders. The participants with hypertension and a high ratio of 24HUNa and 24HUK (24HUNa/24HUK, mean 4.03±1.00, range 2.93-7.96) had higher AoSBP than the participants with hypertension and a low 24HUNa/24HUK ratio (mean 2.13±0.54, range 0.53-2.91), adjusted for confounders (P=0.026). The participants with hypertension demonstrated a significant linear relationship between AoSBP and 24HUNa/24HUK ratio that was independent of 24HUNa, according to the multiple regression analysis (P=0.047). In hypertensive patients, 24HUNa/24HUK was positively and more strongly related to AoSBP compared with 24HUNa alone. The result indicates that high sodium and low potassium intake may increase the subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease by elevating AoSBP.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 24 November 2016; doi:10.1038/hr.2016.161.

  13. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): a self-completed 24-h dietary recall for children.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, T; Islam, N; Douglass, D; Dadabhoy, H; Beltran, A; Baranowski, J; Thompson, D; Cullen, K W; Subar, A F

    2014-01-01

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (firsst4), is a web-based 24-h dietary recall (24 hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-h recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24 hdr for adults). The food choices in firsst4 are abbreviated to include only those reported by children in US national surveys; and detailed food probe questions are simplified to exclude those that children could not be expected to answer (e.g. questions regarding food preparation and added fats). ASA24 and firsst4 incorporate 10 000+ food images, with up to eight images per food, to assist in portion size estimation. We review the formative research conducted during the development of firsst4. When completed, firsst4 will be hosted and maintained for investigator use on the National Cancer Institute's ASA24 website.

  14. Thiophilic interaction chromatography of serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Bourhim, Mustapha; Rajendran, Anita; Ramos, Yanira; Srikrishnan, Thamarapu; Sulkowski, Eugene

    2008-07-01

    An investigation of the binding of native and recombinant human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin on three thiophilic gels, PyS, 2S, and 3S was performed. In addition to these proteins, we studied serum albumins from several species such as goat, rabbit, guinea pig, rat, hamster, baboon, and pig. Our results reveal that recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) binds completely to PyS whereas native human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin bind only partially to PyS. The binding affinities of rHSA, human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin to 2S and 3S gels are less than their binding to PyS. Serum albumins from goat, rabbit, guinea pig, rat, hamster, baboon, and pig bind much stronger to 3S gel than human and bovine serum albumins. The binding of pig and hamster serum albumins is stronger than that of rat, goat, baboon, and rabbit.

  15. Long-term blood pressure changes induced by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: assessment by 24 h ambulatory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Giorgini, Paolo; Striuli, Rinaldo; Petrarca, Marco; Petrazzi, Luisa; Pasqualetti, Paolo; Properzi, Giuliana; Desideri, Giovambattista; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    An increased rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events has been described during and immediately after earthquakes. In this regard, few data are available on long-term blood pressure control in hypertensive outpatients after an earthquake. We evaluated the long-term effects of the April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake on blood pressure levels, as detected by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Before/after (mean±s.d. 6.9±4.5/14.2±5.1 months, respectively) the earthquake, the available 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data for the same patients were extracted from our database. Quake-related daily life discomforts were evaluated through interviews. We enrolled 47 patients (25 female, age 52±14 years), divided into three groups according to antihypertensive therapy changes after versus before the earthquake: unchanged therapy (n=24), increased therapy (n=17) and reduced therapy (n=6). Compared with before the quake, in the unchanged therapy group marked increases in 24 h (P=0.004), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.02) systolic blood pressure were observed after the quake. Corresponding changes in 24 h (P=0.005), daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime (P=0.009) diastolic blood pressure were observed. Daily life discomforts were reported more frequently in the unchanged therapy and increased therapy groups than the reduced therapy group (P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). In conclusion, this study shows that patients with unchanged therapy display marked blood pressure increments up to more than 1 year after an earthquake, as well as long-term quake-related discomfort. Our data suggest that particular attention to blood pressure levels and adequate therapy modifications should be considered after an earthquake, not only early after the event but also months later.

  16. Changes in the oral health-related quality of life 24 h following insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Noorhanizar; Saub, Roslan; Othman, Siti Adibah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess changes in the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances 24 h after insertion. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients aged between 14 and 24 years (29 males and 31 females; mean age, 17.8 years; SD 3.1 years) were recruited from the Postgraduate Clinic, Department of Children's Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. The oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was measured before treatment and 24 h after insertion of the orthodontic appliance. The instrument used to measure OHRQoL was a modified self-administered short version of Malaysian Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-16[M]) questionnaire. The higher the score, the poorer is the OHRQoL. Results: Overall score of OHRQoL increased significantly 24 h after insertion (mean 43.5±10.9) as compared to before insertion (mean 34.1±9.2) (P<0.001). Significant changes were found for the following items: Difficulties in chewing, bad breath, difficulties in pronunciation, discomfort in eating, ulcer, pain, avoidances of eating certain foods, difficulties in cleaning, embarrassment, avoid smiling, disturbed sleep, concentration affected, difficulty carrying out daily activities, and lack of self-confidence (P<0.05). Significant changes were also found in the mean difference of OHRQoL for gender (P<0.001). Conclusion: OHRQoL was found to deteriorate 24 h after insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances in almost all domains, with significant changes in gender. This information can be used as “informed consent”, which might increase patient's compliance as they are aware of what to expect from initial orthodontic treatment. PMID:24987635

  17. Nqrs Data for C24H76BLiN12O4P4 (Subst. No. 1593)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H76BLiN12O4P4 (Subst. No. 1593)

  18. Shock in the first 24 h of intensive care unit stay: observational study of protocol-based fluid management.

    PubMed

    See, Kay Choong; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Lau, Samuel Chuan-Xian; Tan, Sandra Ming-Yien; Lim, Tow Keang; Phua, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Precision in fluid management for shock could lead to better clinical outcomes. We evaluated the association of protocol-based fluid management with intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital mortality. We performed an observational study of mechanically ventilated patients admitted directly from our emergency department to the ICU from August 2011 to December 2013, who had circulatory shock in the first 24 h of ICU stay (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg at ICU admission or lactate >4 mmol/L). Patients with onset of shock beyond 24 h of ICU stay were excluded. Protocol-based fluid management required close physician-nurse cooperation and computerized documentation, checking for fluid response (≥10% arterial pulse pressure or stroke volume increase after two consecutive 250-mL crystalloid boluses), and fluid loading with repeated 500-mL boluses until fluid response became negative. Six hundred twelve mechanically ventilated patients with shock (mean [±SD] age, 63.0 years [16.5]; 252 or 41.2% females; mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, 30.2 [8.8]) were studied. The fluid management protocol was used 455 times for 242 patients (39.5% of 612 patients) within the first 24 h of ICU stay, with 244 (53.6% of 455) positive responses. Adjusted for age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, comorbidity, and admission year, protocol use was associated with reduced ICU mortality (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.94; P = 0.025) but not hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.23; P = 0.369). Among mechanically ventilated patients with shock within the first 24 h of ICU stay, about half had positive fluid responses. Adherence to protocol-based fluid management was associated with improved ICU survival.

  19. Nqrs Data for C24H46I2N6O2P2Sn (Subst. No. 1589)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H46I2N6O2P2Sn (Subst. No. 1589)

  20. Tyramine pressor sensitivity during treatment with the selegiline transdermal system 6 mg/24 h in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Azzaro, Albert J; Vandenberg, Chad M; Blob, Lawrence F; Kemper, Eva M; Sharoky, Melvin; Oren, Dan A; Campbell, Bryan J

    2006-08-01

    The oral tyramine pressor test was administered to healthy males during treatment with a selegiline transdermal system (STS; 6 mg/24 h). The tyramine sensitivity factor (TSF) was calculated from the ratio of baseline and on-treatment tyramine pressor doses. The tyramine sensitivity factor value following 9 days of treatment with the selegiline transdermal system was 1.85 +/- 0.10. Extended treatment, 33 days, produced a small, clinically non-meaningful increase in this value. The tyramine sensitivity factor for the selegiline transdermal system was similar to that following treatment with 10 mg/d of oral selegiline capsules but more than 20 times less than observed during tranylcypromine treatment. A larger increase in the tyramine sensitivity factor was observed following extended selegiline transdermal system treatment at a higher dose (12 mg/24 h), which was significantly decreased following coadministration of tyramine capsules with a meal. These results suggest a wide tyramine safety margin for the selegiline transdermal system and provide evidence that the 6-mg/24-h selegiline transdermal system can be administered safely without dietary tyramine restrictions.

  1. The accuracy of the 24-h activity recall method for assessing sedentary behaviour: the physical activity measurement survey (PAMS) project.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngwon; Welk, Gregory J

    2017-02-01

    Sedentary behaviour (SB) has emerged as a modifiable risk factor, but little is known about measurement errors of SB. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 24-h Physical Activity Recall (24PAR) relative to SenseWear Armband (SWA) for assessing SB. Each participant (n = 1485) undertook a series of data collection procedures on two randomly selected days: wearing a SWA for full 24-h, and then completing the telephone-administered 24PAR the following day to recall the past 24-h activities. Estimates of total sedentary time (TST) were computed without the inclusion of reported or recorded sleep time. Equivalence testing was used to compare estimates of TST. Analyses from equivalence testing showed no significant equivalence of 24PAR for TST (90% CI: 443.0 and 457.6 min · day(-1)) relative to SWA (equivalence zone: 580.7 and 709.8 min · day(-1)). Bland-Altman plots indicated individuals that were extremely or minimally sedentary provided relatively comparable sedentary time between 24PAR and SWA. Overweight/obese and/or older individuals were more likely to under-estimate sedentary time than normal weight and/or younger individuals. Measurement errors of 24PAR varied by the level of sedentary time and demographic indicators. This evidence informs future work to develop measurement error models to correct for errors of self-reports.

  2. 'Life in the age of screens': parent perspectives on a 24-h no screen-time challenge.

    PubMed

    Peláez, Sandra; Alexander, Stephanie; Roberge, Jean-Baptiste; Henderson, Melanie; Bigras, Jean-Luc; Barnett, Tracie A

    2016-08-01

    Screens have become ubiquitous in modern society. Their use frequently underlies sedentary behaviour, a well-established determinant of obesity. As part of a family oriented clinic offering a 2-year lifestyle program for obese children and youth, we explored parents' experiences with a 24-h no screen-time challenge, an intervention designed to raise awareness of screen-time habits and to help families develop strategies to limit their use. In total, 15 parents representing 13 families participated. A focus group with nine parents and six phone interviews with those who could not join in person were conducted. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed qualitatively. Key elements to successful completion of the 24-h no screen-time challenge emerged, namely: clear rules about permitted activities during the 24-h period; togetherness, i.e. involving all family members in the challenge; and busyness, i.e. planning a full schedule in order to avoid idleness and preclude the temptation to use screens. Our findings suggest that practitioners aiming to increase awareness of screen-time or to limit their use may be more likely to succeed if they include all family members, offer concrete alternatives to screen-based activities and provide tailored strategies to manage discretionary time.

  3. 24 h Accelerometry: impact of sleep-screening methods on estimates of sedentary behaviour and physical activity while awake.

    PubMed

    Meredith-Jones, Kim; Williams, Sheila; Galland, Barbara; Kennedy, Gavin; Taylor, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Although accelerometers can assess sleep and activity over 24 h, sleep data must be removed before physical activity and sedentary time can be examined appropriately. We compared the effect of 6 different sleep-scoring rules on physical activity and sedentary time. Activity and sleep were obtained by accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X) over 7 days in 291 children (51.3% overweight or obese) aged 4-8.9 years. Three methods removed sleep using individualised time filters and two methods applied standard time filters to remove sleep each day (9 pm-6 am, 12 am-6 am). The final method did not remove sleep but simply defined non-wear as at least 60 min of consecutive zeros over the 24-h period. Different methods of removing sleep from 24-h data markedly affect estimates of sedentary time, yielding values ranging from 556 to 1145 min/day. Estimates of non-wear time (33-193 min), wear time (736-1337 min) and counts per minute (384-658) also showed considerable variation. By contrast, estimates of moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) were similar, varying by less than 1 min/day. Different scoring methods to remove sleep from 24-h accelerometry data do not affect measures of MVPA, whereas estimates of counts per minute and sedentary time depend considerably on which technique is used.

  4. No evidence for genotoxic effects from 24 h exposure of human leukocytes to 1.9 GHz radiofrequency fields.

    PubMed

    McNamee, J P; Bellier, P V; Gajda, G B; Lavallée, B F; Marro, L; Lemay, E; Thansandote, A

    2003-05-01

    The current study extends our previous investigations of 2-h radiofrequency (RF)-field exposures on genotoxicity in human blood cell cultures by examining the effect of 24-h continuous-wave (CW) and pulsed-wave (PW) 1.9 GHz RF-field exposures on both primary DNA damage and micronucleus induction in human leukocyte cultures. Mean specific absorption rates (SARs) ranged from 0 to 10 W/kg, and the temperature within the cultures was maintained at 37.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C for the duration of the 24-h exposure period. No significant differences in primary DNA damage were observed between the sham-treated controls and any of the CW or PW 1.9 GHz RF-field-exposed cultures when processed immediately after the exposure period by the alkaline comet assay. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in the incidence of micronuclei, incidence of micronucleated binucleated cells, frequency of binucleated cells, or proliferation index between the sham-treated controls and any of the CW or PW 1.9 GHz RF-field-exposed cultures. In conclusion, the current study found no evidence of 1.9 GHz RF-field-induced genotoxicity in human blood cell cultures after a 24-h exposure period.

  5. Time course of the MAPK and PI3-kinase response within 24 h of skeletal muscle overload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, C. J.; Fan, Z.; Gordon, S. E.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which skeletal muscle hypertrophies in response to increased mechanical loading may lead to the discovery of novel treatment strategies for muscle wasting and frailty. To gain insight into potential early signaling mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the temporal pattern of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity during the first 24 h of muscle overload was determined in the rat slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles after ablation of the gastrocnemius muscle. p38alpha MAPK phosphorylation was elevated for the entire 24-h overload period in both muscles. In contrast, Erk 2 and p54 JNK phosphorylation were transiently increased by overload, returning to the levels of sham-operated controls by 24 h. PI3-kinase activity was increased by muscle overload only at 12 h of overload and only in the plantaris muscle. In summary, sustained elevation of p38alpha MAPK phosphorylation occurred early in response to muscle overload, identifying this pathway as a potential candidate for mediating early hypertrophic signals in response to skeletal muscle overload.

  6. Effect of moderate cold exposure on 24-h energy expenditure: similar response in postobese and nonobese women.

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A; Christensen, N J; Madsen, J

    1992-12-01

    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation rates were measured two times in eight postobese women and eight matched controls. On one occasion the subjects were exposed to a room temperature of 16 degrees C, on the other to 24 degrees C. Cold exposure elicited a 2% increment in 24-h EE (P < 0.05), with similar response in the two groups. The slight increase in EE was entirely covered by an enhanced carbohydrate oxidation rate. Fasting plasma norepinephrine (NE) increased from 0.74 +/- 0.08 to 1.29 +/- 0.21 nmol/l under cold exposure (P < 0.05), with no group difference. The cold-induced increase in 24-h EE was positively correlated to the increase in NE concentration (r2 = 0.41, P = 0.01). Sleeping EE was found to be 5% lower in the postobese women than in the controls (P = 0.04). The postobese group also had higher 24-h nonprotein respiratory quotient than the control group (P = 0.04), which was due to a 26% lower lipid-to-carbohydrate oxidation ratio. The study demonstrates that the thermogenic response to cold is normal in women susceptible to obesity, but it supports previous reports of a slightly lower basal EE and lower lipid-to-carbohydrate oxidation ratio in postobese subjects.

  7. Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-h shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Laura K.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Burke, Tina M.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration space missions depends on the ability of crewmembers and mission support specialists to be alert and maintain high levels of cognitive function while operating complex, technical equipment. We examined sleep, nocturnal melatonin levels and cognitive function of crewmembers and the sleep and cognitive function of mission controllers who participated in a high-fidelity 105-day simulated spaceflight mission at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (Moscow). Crewmembers were required to perform daily mission duties and work one 24-h extended duration work shift every sixth day. Mission controllers nominally worked 24-h extended duration shifts. Supplemental lighting was provided to crewmembers and mission controllers. Participants' sleep was estimated by wrist-actigraphy recordings. Overall, results show that crewmembers and mission controllers obtained inadequate sleep and exhibited impaired cognitive function, despite countermeasure use, while working extended duration shifts. Crewmembers averaged 7.04±0.92 h (mean±SD) and 6.94±1.08 h (mean±SD) in the two workdays prior to the extended duration shifts, 1.88±0.40 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h work shift, and then slept 10.18±0.96 h (mean±SD) the day after the night shift. Although supplemental light was provided, crewmembers' average nocturnal melatonin levels remained elevated during extended 24-h work shifts. Naps and caffeine use were reported by crewmembers during ˜86% and 45% of extended night work shifts, respectively. Even with reported use of wake-promoting countermeasures, significant impairments in cognitive function were observed. Mission controllers slept 5.63±0.95 h (mean±SD) the night prior to their extended duration work shift. On an average, 89% of night shifts included naps with mission controllers sleeping an average of 3.4±1.0 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h extended duration work shift. Mission controllers also showed impaired cognitive function during extended

  8. Renal FcRn reclaims albumin but facilitates elimination of IgG.

    PubMed

    Sarav, Menaka; Wang, Ying; Hack, Bradley K; Chang, Anthony; Jensen, Mark; Bao, Lihua; Quigg, Richard J

    2009-09-01

    The widely distributed neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) contributes to maintaining serum levels of albumin and IgG in adults. In the kidney, FcRn is expressed on the podocytes and the brush border of the proximal tubular epithelium. Here, we evaluated the role of renal FcRn in albumin and IgG metabolism. Compared with wild-type controls, FcRn(-/-) mice had a lower t((1/2)) for albumin (28.7 versus 39.9 h) and IgG (29.5 versus 66.1 h). Renal loss of albumin could account for the former, suggested by the progressive development of hypoalbuminemia in wild-type mice transplanted with FcRn-deficient kidneys. Furthermore, serum albumin levels returned to normal in FcRn(-/-) recipients of wild-type kidneys after removing the native FcRn-deficient kidneys. In contrast, renal loss could not account for the enhanced elimination of IgG in FcRn(-/-) mice. These mice had minimal urinary excretion of native and labeled IgG, which increased to wild-type levels in FcRn(-/-) recipients of a single FcRn-sufficient kidney (t((1/2)) of IgG was 21.7 h). Taken together, these data suggest that renal FcRn reclaims albumin, thereby maintaining the serum concentration of albumin, but facilitates the loss of IgG from plasma protein pools.

  9. Evaluating the effect of measurement error when using one or two 24 h dietary recalls to assess eating out: a study in the context of the HECTOR project.

    PubMed

    Orfanos, Philippos; Knüppel, Sven; Naska, Androniki; Haubrock, Jennifer; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boeing, Heiner

    2013-09-28

    Eating out is often recorded through short-term measurements and the large within-person variability in intakes may not be adequately captured. The present study aimed to understand the effect of measurement error when using eating-out data from one or two 24 h dietary recalls (24hDR), in order to describe intakes and assess associations between eating out and personal characteristics. In a sample of 366 adults from Potsdam, Germany, two 24hDR and a FFQ were collected. Out-of-home intakes were estimated based on either one 24hDR or two 24hDR or the Multiple Source Method (MSM) combining the two 24hDR and the questionnaire. The distribution of out-of-home intakes of energy, macronutrients and selected foods was described. Multiple linear regression and partial correlation coefficients were estimated to assess associations between out-of-home energy intake and participants' characteristics. The mean daily out-of-home intakes estimated from the two 24hDR were similar to the usual intakes estimated through the MSM. The out-of-home energy intake, estimated through either one or two 24hDR, was positively associated with total energy intake, inversely with age and associations were stronger when using the two 24hDR. A marginally significant inverse association between out-of-home energy intake and physical activity at work was observed only on the basis of the two 24hDR. After applying the MSM, all significant associations remained and were more precise. Data on eating out collected through one or two 24hDR may not adequately describe intake distributions, but significant associations between eating out and participants' characteristics are highly unlikely to appear when in reality these do not exist.

  10. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Kidneys and Urinary Tract KidsHealth > For Teens > Kidneys and ... be a sign of diabetes . continue What the Kidneys and Urinary Tract Do Although the two kidneys ...

  11. Daily Intake of Magnesium and its Relation to Urinary Excretion in Korean Healthy Adults Consuming Self-Selected Diets.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Weaver, Connie M

    2017-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is an essential nutrient as a structural constituent of bone and regulator of >300 enzymes. However, studies on intake and urinary excretion of Mg are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Mg intake and its relation to 24-h urinary excretion in healthy adults. Anthropometric measurements and dietary intake by the 24-h recall method were conducted in 80 adults aged 21-69 (average 44.3) years. Urine was collected for 24 h on the day following the dietary survey. Dietary assessment and 24-h urine collection were repeated 3 days later. Daily intake and urinary excretion of Mg were analyzed using Can-Pro and ICP-OES, respectively. The statistical analysis was conducted using SAS program. Mg intake of the subjects was 319 ± 129 mg/day for men and 277 ± 94 mg/day for women and the proportion of subjects who did not meet the estimated average requirement was 50 and 67.5 % for men and women, respectively. Urinary Mg excretion was 30.3 % of the daily Mg intake. Urinary Mg excretion was not significantly correlated with the daily Mg intake. Korean adults are not meeting the recommended intake of Mg, but its urinary excretion suggests homeostasis is not compromised.

  12. Human albumin: old, new, and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Rozga, Jacek; Piątek, Tomasz; Małkowski, Piotr

    2013-05-10

    Human serum albumin has been widely used in an array of clinical settings for nearly 7 decades. Although there is no evidence to support the use of albumin rather than crystalloid in acute volume resuscitation, many clinicians continue to use albumin because it has other important physiologic effects besides the oncotic function. In keeping with the improved understanding of albumin physiology and pathophysiology of many acute and chronic diseases, use of albumin for medical applications has increased in recent years. This, along with increased costs of manufacturing and lower production volume of medical-grade albumin, has lead to an ongoing shortage and rapid increase in albumin prices. This review is based on the analysis of major publications, related to albumin chemistry, physiology, and medical uses including guidelines developed by professional and governmental organizations. Results reflect current knowledge about the role of albumin in health and disease and relevance of albumin therapy in specific clinical settings. Albumin therapy is currently recommended in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with ascites, refractory ascites not responsive to diuretics, large-volume paracentesis, post-paracentesis syndrome, and the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome as an adjunct to vasoconstrictors. New indications for albumin therapy are linked to the antioxidant activity of albumin and its effects on capillary integrity. In recent years, large-pore hemofiltration and albumin exchange have emerged as promising liver support therapies for liver failure and other toxic syndromes. They are designed to remove a broad range of blood-borne toxins and to restore normal functions of the circulating albumin by replacing defective forms of albumin and albumin molecules saturated with toxins with normal albumin. In view of the ongoing worldwide shortage and high cost of human albumin (native and recombinant), new usage criteria, protocols, and guidelines for appropriate utilization

  13. The Cluster [Re6Se8I6]3− Induces Low Hemolysis of Human Erythrocytes in Vitro: Protective Effect of Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Mancilla, Edgardo; Oyarce, Alexis; Verdugo, Viviana; Zheng, Zhiping; Ramírez-Tagle, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    The cluster Re6Se8I63− has been shown to induce preferential cell death of a hepatic carcinoma cell line, thus becoming a promising anti-cancer drug. Whether this cluster induces acute hemolysis or if it interacts with albumin remains unclear. The effect of acute exposure of human red blood cells to different concentrations of the cluster with and without albumin is described. Red blood cells from healthy donors were isolated, diluted at 1% hematocrit and exposed to the cluster (25–150 µM) at 37 °C, under agitation. Hemolysis and morphology were analyzed at 1 and 24 h. The potential protection of 0.1% albumin was also evaluated. Exposition to therapeutic doses of the cluster did not induce acute hemolysis. Similar results were observed following 24 h of exposition, and albumin slightly reduced hemolysis levels. Furthermore, the cluster induced alteration in the morphology of red blood cells, and this was prevented by albumin. Together, these results indicate that the cluster Re6Se8I63− is not a hemolytic component and induces moderate morphological alterations of red blood cells at high doses, which are prevented by co-incubation with albumin. In conclusion, the cluster Re6Se8I63− could be intravenously administered in animals at therapeutic doses for in vivo studies. PMID:25590300

  14. Evaluation of repolarization dynamics using the QT-RR regression line slope and intercept relationship during 24-h Holter ECG.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Akira; Yoshioka, Ryozo; Sakabe, Masao

    2015-03-01

    QT-RR linear regression consists of two parameters, slope and intercept, and the aim of this study was to evaluate repolarization dynamics using the QT-RR linear regression slope and intercept relationship during 24-h Holter ECG. This study included 466 healthy subjects (54.6 ± 14.6 years; 200 men and 266 women) and 17 patients with ventricular arrhythmias, consisted of 10 patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) and 7 patients with torsades de pointes (TDP). QT and RR intervals were measured from ECG waves based on a 15-s averaged ECG during 24-h Holter recording using an automatic QT analyzing system. The QT interval dependence on the RR interval was analyzed using a linear regression line for each subject ([QT] = A[RR] + B; where A is the slope and B is the y-intercept). The slope of the QT-RR regression line in healthy subjects was significantly greater in women than in men (0.185 ± 0.036 vs. 0.161 ± 0.033, p < 0.001) and the intercept was significantly smaller in women than in men (0.229 ± 0.028 vs. 0.240 ± 0.027, p < 0.001). A scatter diagram of the QT-RR regression line slope and intercept among healthy subjects demonstrated a statistically significant negative correlation (B = -0.62A + 0.34, r = -0.79). Distribution of both scatter diagrams of the slope and the intercept of the QT-RR regression line in patients with IVF and TDP was different from healthy subjects (left corner for IVF and upward shift for TDP). The slope and intercept relationship of the QT-RR linear regression line based on 24-h Holter ECG may become a simple useful marker for abnormality of ventricular repolarization dynamics.

  15. Metal element excretion in 24-h urine in patients with Wilson disease under treatment of D-penicillamine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lisu; Yu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yongjun; Jiao, Xianting; Yu, Xiaogang

    2012-05-01

    Wilson disease is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder causing copper accumulation and consequent toxicity. D-Penicillamine, a potent metal chelator, is an important therapy for Wilson disease. To investigate the changes of metal elements under the treatment of D-penicillamine, we determined the levels of Cu, Zn, Mg, Ca, Fe, Se, Mn, Pb, Hg, Cd, As, Tl, and Al by ICP-MS in 24-h urine of 115 Wilson disease patients who had received treatment with D: -penicillamine for 1 month to 22 years at maintenance doses, as well as 115 age-matched, healthy controls. The levels of Cu, Mg, Ca, Zn, Hg, Pb, Tl, Cd, and Mn in the 24-h urine of the cases were significantly higher than those of the controls (P < 0.05), and the observed increases in the levels of Mg, Ca, and Zn were directly correlated with the treatment duration with Pearson Correlation Coefficient (R) of 0.356 (Mg), 0.329 (Ca), and 0.313 (Zn), respectively (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the levels of Al and As in the 24-h urine were lower than those of the controls (P < 0.05) and were negatively correlated with the treatment time with R of -0.337 (Al) and -0.398 (As), respectively, (P < 0.05). Thus, this study indicates that the levels of metal elements may be altered in patients with Wilson disease under the treatment of D-penicillamine.

  16. Prediction of hypertensive crisis based on average, variability and approximate entropy of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Schoenenberger, A W; Erne, P; Ammann, S; Perrig, M; Bürgi, U; Stuck, A E

    2008-01-01

    Approximate entropy (ApEn) of blood pressure (BP) can be easily measured based on software analysing 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), but the clinical value of this measure is unknown. In a prospective study we investigated whether ApEn of BP predicts, in addition to average and variability of BP, the risk of hypertensive crisis. In 57 patients with known hypertension we measured ApEn, average and variability of systolic and diastolic BP based on 24-h ABPM. Eight of these fifty-seven patients developed hypertensive crisis during follow-up (mean follow-up duration 726 days). In bivariate regression analysis, ApEn of systolic BP (P<0.01), average of systolic BP (P=0.02) and average of diastolic BP (P=0.03) were significant predictors of hypertensive crisis. The incidence rate ratio of hypertensive crisis was 14.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8, 631.5; P<0.01) for high ApEn of systolic BP as compared to low values. In multivariable regression analysis, ApEn of systolic (P=0.01) and average of diastolic BP (P<0.01) were independent predictors of hypertensive crisis. A combination of these two measures had a positive predictive value of 75%, and a negative predictive value of 91%, respectively. ApEn, combined with other measures of 24-h ABPM, is a potentially powerful predictor of hypertensive crisis. If confirmed in independent samples, these findings have major clinical implications since measures predicting the risk of hypertensive crisis define patients requiring intensive follow-up and intensified therapy.

  17. Melatonin, selective and non-selective MT1/MT2 receptors agonists: differential effects on the 24-h vigilance states.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Sanchez, Rafael; Comai, Stefano; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Tarzia, Giorgio; Gobbi, Gabriella

    2014-02-21

    Melatonin (MLT) is a neurohormone implicated in several physiological processes such as sleep. Contrasting results have been produced on whether or not it may act as a hypnotic agent, and the neurobiological mechanism through which it controls the vigilance states has not yet been elucidated. In this study we investigated the effect of MLT (40 mg/kg), a non-selective MT1/MT2 receptor agonist (UCM793, 40 mg/kg), and a selective MT2 partial agonist (UCM924, 40 mg/kg) on the 24-h vigilance states. EEG and EMG sleep-wake patterns were registered across the 24-h light-dark cycle in adult Sprague-Dawley male rats. MLT decreased (-37%) the latency to the first episode of non rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS), enhanced the power of NREMS delta band (+33%), but did not alter the duration of any of the three vigilance states. Differently, UCM793 increased the number of episodes (+52%) and decreased the length of the episodes (-38%) of wakefulness but did not alter the 24-h duration of wakefulness, NREMS and REMS. UCM924 instead reduced the latency (-56%) and increased (+31%) the duration of NREMS. Moreover, it raised the number of REMS episodes (+57%) but did not affect REMS duration. Taken together, these findings show that MLT and non-selective MT1/MT2 receptor agonists do not increase the quantity of sleep but differently influence the three vigilance states. In addition, they support the evidence that selective MT2 receptor agonists increase NREMS duration compared to MLT and non-selective MT1/MT2 agonists.

  18. Restructuring and redistribution of actinides in Am-MOX fuel during the first 24 h of irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Miwa, Shuhei; Sekine, Shin-ichi; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shin-ichi

    2013-09-01

    In order to confirm the effect of minor actinide additions on the irradiation behavior of MOX fuel pellets, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.% americium-containing MOX (Am-MOX) fuels were irradiated for 10 min at 43 kW/m and for 24 h at 45 kW/m in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. Two nominal values of the fuel pellet oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M), 1.95 and 1.98, were used as a test parameter. Emphasis was placed on the behavior of restructuring and redistribution of actinides which directly affect the fuel performance and the fuel design for fast reactors. Microstructural evolutions in the fuels were observed by optical microscopy and the redistribution of constituent elements was determined by EPMA using false color X-ray mapping and quantitative point analyses. The ceramography results showed that structural changes occurred quickly in the initial stage of irradiation. Restructuring of the fuel from middle to upper axial positions developed and was almost completed after the 24-h irradiation. No sign of fuel melting was found in any of the specimens. The EPMA results revealed that Am as well as Pu migrated radially up the temperature gradient to the center of the fuel pellet. The increase in Am concentration on approaching the edge of the central void and its maximum value were higher than those of Pu after the 10-min irradiation and the difference was more pronounced after the 24-h irradiation. The increment of the Am and Pu concentrations due to redistribution increased with increasing central void size. In all of the specimens examined, the extent of redistribution of Am and Pu was higher in the fuel of O/M ratio of 1.98 than in that of 1.95.

  19. Urinary Microvesicle-Bound Uromodulin: A Potential Molecular Biomarker in Diabetic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Neng-jun; Ni, Yi-hong; Jia, Hong-ying; Deng, Jing-ti; Jiang, Lu; Zheng, Feng-jie

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the changes of urinary microvesicle-bound uromodulin and total urinary uromodulin levels in human urine and the correlations with the severity of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). 31 healthy subjects without diabetes and 100 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were included in this study. The patients with T2DM were divided into three groups based on the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR): normoalbuminuria group (DM, n = 46); microalbuminuria group (DN1, n = 32); and macroalbuminuria group (DN2, n = 22). We use a specific monoclonal antibody AD-1 to capture the urinary microvesicles. Urinary microvesicle-bound uromodulin and total urinary uromodulin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that the levels of urinary microvesicle-bound uromodulin in DN1 and DN2 groups were significantly higher than those in control group and DM group (P < 0.01). Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that UACR was independent determinant for urinary microvesicle-bound uromodulin (P < 0.05) but not for total urinary uromodulin. These findings suggest that the levels of urinary microvesicle-bound uromodulin are associated with the severity of DKD. The uromodulin in urinary microvesicles may be a specific marker of DKD and potentially may be used to predict the onset and/or monitor the progression of DKD. PMID:28182086

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R. Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Ryan, Michele B.; Barber, Lisa G.

    2008-03-15

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels.

  1. Parallel assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes: validation against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; De Marees, Markus; Fusch, Gerhard; Fusch, Christoph; Mester, Joachim; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2010-11-01

    The assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes requires accurate and precise methods. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for parallel assessment of diet and exercise against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and respiratory gas exchange. The participants were 14 male triathletes under normal training conditions. Energy intake and doubly labelled water were weakly associated with each other (r = 0.69, standard error of estimate [SEE] = 304 kcal x day(-1)). Protein intake was strongly correlated with 24-h urea (r = 0.89) but showed considerable individual variation (SEE = 0.34 g kg(-1) x day(-1)). Total energy expenditure based on recorded activities was highly correlated with doubly labelled water (r = 0.95, SEE = 195 kcal x day(-1)) but was proportionally biased. During running and cycling, estimated exercise energy expenditure was highly correlated with gas exchange (running: r = 0.89, SEE = 1.6 kcal x min(-1); cycling: r = 0.95, SEE = 1.4 kcal x min(-1)). High exercise energy expenditure was slightly underestimated during running. For nutrition data, variations appear too large for precise measurements in individual athletes, which is a common problem of dietary assessment methods. Despite the high correlations of total energy expenditure and exercise energy expenditure with reference methods, a correction for systematic errors is necessary for the valid estimation of energetic requirements in individual athletes.

  2. Ingestion of nutrition bars high in protein or carbohydrate does not impact 24-h energy intakes in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Trier, Catherine M; Johnston, Carol S

    2012-12-01

    Sales of nutrition bars increased almost 10-fold to $1.7billion over the past decade yet few studies have examined the impact of bar ingestion on dietary parameters. In this crossover trial, 24-h energy intakes were assessed in free-living college students ingesting a high-protein (HP, 280kcal) or a high-carbohydrate (HC, 260kcal) nutrition bar upon waking. Fifty-four students entered the trial, and 37 participants completed the three test days. Daily energy intakes ranged from 1752±99kcal for the non-intervention day to 1846±75 and 1891±110kcal for the days the HP and HC bars were consumed respectively (p=0.591). However, for individuals who reported high levels of physically activity (n=11), daily energy intakes increased significantly compared to the control day for the HC bar day (+45%; p=0.030) and HP bar day (+22%; p=0.038). Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes differed significantly across test days in the total sample mirroring the nutrient profile of the specific bars. These data suggest that young adults adjust caloric intakes appropriately following the ingestion of energy-dense nutrition bars over a 24-h period. Moreover, nutrition bars may represent a unique opportunity to favorably influence nutrient status of young adults.

  3. Schottky barrier height of Ni/TiO2/4H-SiC metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Ivan R.; Pereira, Marcelo B.; Boudinov, Henri I.

    2015-12-01

    Ni/TiO2/4H-SiC diodes were analysed through measurements of current-voltage curves varying the temperature. The Schottky Barrier Height (SBH) which increased with temperature was studied by simulation of the Thermionic Emission Model, considering Ni/SiC Schottky structures with an insulator layer between the metal and semiconductor. This model shows that a new method of calculation should be applied to diodes that have a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. Misleading results for SBH are obtained if the thin insulator layer is not considered. When applying the suggested method to the Ni/TiO2/4H-SiC diodes it was necessary to consider not only the deposited TiO2 layer, but also a second dielectric layer of native SiCxOy at the surface of SiC. By measuring I-V-T curves for two samples with different thicknesses of TiO2, the suggested method allows one to estimate the thicknesses of both dielectric layers: TiO2 and SiOxCy.

  4. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on serum electrolytes in rats: A 24-h time-course study.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, A; Khan, H A; Manthiri, R A

    2016-03-01

    Black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) belongs to the family Buthidae and is one of the most venomous scorpions in the world. The effects of A. bicolor venom on serum electrolytes were not known and therefore investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with five animals in each group. One of the groups served as control and received vehicle only. The animals in the remaining groups received a single subcutaneous injection of crude A. bicolor venom (200 μg/kg bodyweight) and were killed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after venom injection. The results showed that scorpion venom caused significant increase in serum sodium levels within 30 min after injection which slightly subsided after 1 h and then persisted over 24 h. Serum potassium levels continued to significantly increase until 4 h and then slightly subsided. There were significant decreases in serum magnesium (Mg(+)) levels following scorpion venom injection, at all the time points during the course of study. Serum calcium levels were significantly increased during the entire course of study, whereas serum chloride was significantly decreased. In conclusion, A. bicolor envenomation in rats caused severe and persistent hypomagnesemia with accompanied hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia. It is important to measure serum Mg(+) levels in victims of scorpion envenomation, and patients with severe Mg(+) deficiency should be treated accordingly.

  5. Microdialysis in the rat striatum: effects of 24 h dexamethasone retrodialysis on evoked dopamine release and penetration injury.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Kathryn M; Varner, Erika L; Jaquins-Gerstl, Andrea; Michael, Adrian C

    2015-01-21

    The power of microdialysis for in vivo neurochemical monitoring is a result of intense efforts to enhance microdialysis procedures, the probes themselves, and the analytical systems used for the analysis of dialysate samples. Our goal is to refine microdialysis further by focusing attention on what happens when the probes are implanted into brain tissue. It is broadly acknowledged that some tissue damage occurs, such that the tissue nearest the probes is disrupted from its normal state. We hypothesize that mitigating such disruption would refine microdialysis. Herein, we show that the addition of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug, to the perfusion fluid protects evoked dopamine responses as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry next to the probes after 24 h. We also show that dexamethasone stabilizes evoked dopamine responses measured at the probe outlet over a 4-24 h postimplantation interval. The effects of dexamethasone are attributable to its anti-inflammatory actions, as dexamethasone had no significant effect on two histochemical markers for dopamine terminals, tyrosine hydroxylase and the dopamine transporter. Using histochemical assays, we confirmed that the actions of dexamethasone are tightly confined to the immediate, local vicinity of the probe.

  6. Sleep and 24-h activity rhythms in relation to cortisol change after a very low-dose of dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Luik, Annemarie I; Direk, Neşe; Zuurbier, Lisette A; Hofman, Albert; Van Someren, Eus J W; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-03-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays an important role in sleep. Nevertheless, the association of sleep and its 24-h organization with negative feedback control of the HPA axis has received limited attention in population-based studies. We explored this association in 493 middle-aged persons of the Rotterdam Study, a large population-based study (mean age 56 years, standard deviation: 5.3 years; 57% female). The negative feedback of the HPA axis was measured as the change in morning saliva cortisol after the intake of 0.25mg dexamethasone the night before. Actigraphy allowed us to measure the stability and fragmentation of the activity rhythm and to estimate total sleep time, sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset. A sleep diary kept during the week of actigraphy was used to assess self-reported total sleep time, sleep onset latency, number of awakenings and perceived sleep quality. In our study, enhanced negative feedback of the HPA axis was found in association with unstable activity rhythms (B=0.106, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.002; 0.210), total sleep time (B=0.108, 95%CI: 0.001; 0.215) and poor subjective sleep quality (B=0.107, 95%CI: 0.009; 0.206) after multivariate adjustment. These results indicated that the 24-h organization, duration and experience of sleep are all associated with the negative feedback control of the HPA axis.

  7. Microdialysis in the Rat Striatum: Effects of 24 h Dexamethasone Retrodialysis on Evoked Dopamine Release and Penetration Injury

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The power of microdialysis for in vivo neurochemical monitoring is a result of intense efforts to enhance microdialysis procedures, the probes themselves, and the analytical systems used for the analysis of dialysate samples. Our goal is to refine microdialysis further by focusing attention on what happens when the probes are implanted into brain tissue. It is broadly acknowledged that some tissue damage occurs, such that the tissue nearest the probes is disrupted from its normal state. We hypothesize that mitigating such disruption would refine microdialysis. Herein, we show that the addition of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug, to the perfusion fluid protects evoked dopamine responses as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry next to the probes after 24 h. We also show that dexamethasone stabilizes evoked dopamine responses measured at the probe outlet over a 4–24 h postimplantation interval. The effects of dexamethasone are attributable to its anti-inflammatory actions, as dexamethasone had no significant effect on two histochemical markers for dopamine terminals, tyrosine hydroxylase and the dopamine transporter. Using histochemical assays, we confirmed that the actions of dexamethasone are tightly confined to the immediate, local vicinity of the probe. PMID:25491242

  8. Urinary cytokines for assessing inflammation in HIV-associated wasting.

    PubMed

    Rivera, S; Sattler, F R; Boyd, H; Auffenberg, T; Nakao, S; Moldawer, L L

    2001-03-07

    The relationship between cytokines and HIV-related weight loss has not been well established. Unlike most cytokines that are secreted in a paracrine manner, IL-6, sTNFR-II, and IL-1ra are readily detected in the systemic circulation and serve as markers of the inflammatory response. Twenty-four-hour urine concentrations of these proteins are believed to provide an integrative assessment of their systemic levels over the preceding hours. We sought to determine whether spot measurements of IL-6, sTNFR-II, and IL-1ra could be related to subsequent 24 h concentrations and prior weight loss. Eighteen subjects with severe wasting (average BMI=18+/-3 kg/m2with 19+/-13 kg of weight loss) and six HIV-negative healthy subjects were tested. Compared to values in controls, 24-h urinary concentrations of the three proteins adjusted for creatinine excreted were elevated in 44%, 89%, and 72% of patients, respectively. Twenty-four-hour concentrations were highly correlated with the spot concentrations (r=0.80, 0.87, 0.84, respectively, P<0.001). IL-1ra concentrations (24 h and spot) were correlated with weight loss in the previous 6 months, lifetime rate of weight loss and the 6 month rate of weight loss (spot: r=0.66, 0.73, 0.68, respectively, P< or =0.001). These data suggest that spot urinary collections can be used to estimate 24 h excretion rates. This strategy may be useful in assessing the inflammatory response in HIV-associated wasting.

  9. Urinary catecholamine levels and bruxism in children.

    PubMed

    Vanderas, A P; Menenakou, M; Kouimtzis, T; Papagiannoulis, L

    1999-02-01

    This study was performed to test the hypothesis that emotionally stressful states measured by the urinary catecholamines may affect the development of bruxism. Three hundred and fourteen children, boys and girls, aged 6-8 years were included in this study. Bruxism was recorded by a clinical examination and an interview. Positive evidence of this parafunction was defined as the presence of both historical and clinical indicators. Information concerning systemic and socio-economic factors was collected by a questionnaire. A 24-h urine sample was collected for each subject and analysed by the high performance liquid chromatography technique to assay the catecholamine content. Of the total of 273 children who had a complete 24-h urine sample, 167 were identified to be with and without positive evidence of bruxism. The logistic multiple-regression analysis was carried out to test whether the presence of bruxism was affected by the variables studied; 95% probability was used. The results showed that epinephrine and dopamine had a significant and strong association with bruxism. The data therefore provide support for the concept that emotional stress is a prominent factor in the development of bruxing behaviour.

  10. Albumin overload down-regulates integrin-β1 through reactive oxygen species-endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Chi; Chen, Chien-An; Chang, Jer-Ming; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2015-08-01

    Proteinuria is a major hallmark of glomerular nephropathy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in glomerular nephropathy. The protein levels of integrin-β1 in podocytes are found to be negative correlation with amount of proteinuria. This study investigated whether urinary protein, particularly albumin, induced ER stress that consequently reduced integrin-β1 expression. All experiments were performed using primary cultured rat podocyte. Protein and mRNA expression were measured by western blotting and semiquantified reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Albumin uptake was found at 1 h after albumin addition. Albumin reduced precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1, but did not change mRNA levels of integrin-β1. Albumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ER stress. Antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine) suppressed albumin-induced ER stress and decrements in precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1. Then, ER stress inhibitors (4-phenylbutyrate and salubrinal) also inhibited albumin-induced decrements in precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1. The potent ER stress inducers (thapsigargin and tunicamycin) directly decreased precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1 and led appearance of unglycosylated core protein of integrin-β1. Our results show that in proteinuric disease, albumin decreases precursor and mature forms of integrin-β1 through ROS-ER stress pathway in podocytes.

  11. Amadori albumin in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Neelofar, Km.; Ahmad, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation of macromolecules in diabetes mellitus (DM) is accelerated due to persistent hyperglycemia. Reducing sugar such as glucose reacts non enzymatically with free €-amino groups of proteins through series of reactions forming Schiff bases. These bases are converted into Amadori product and further into AGEs. Non enzymatic glycation has the potential to alter the biological, structural and functional properties of macromolecules both in vitro and in vivo. Studies have suggested that amadori as well as AGEs are involved in the micro-macro vascular complications in DM, but most studies have focused on the role of AGEs in vascular complications of diabetes. Recently putative AGE-induced patho-physiology has shifted attention from the possible role of amadori-modified proteins, the predominant form of the glycated proteins in the development of the diabetic complications. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in circulation contains 59 lysine and 23 arginine residues that could, in theory be involved in glycation. Albumin has dual nature, first as a marker of intermediate glycation and second as a causative agent of the damage of tissues. Among the blood proteins, hemoglobin and albumin are the most common proteins that are glycated. HSA with a shorter half life than RBC, appears to be an alternative marker of glycemic control as it can indicate blood glucose status over a short period (2-3 weeks) and being unaffected by RBCs life span and variant haemoglobin, anemia etc which however, affect HbA1c. On the other hand, Amadori albumin may accumulate in the body tissues of the diabetic patients and participate in secondary complications. Amadori-albumin has potential role in diabetic glomerulosclerosis due to long term hyperglycaemia and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. This review is an approach to compile both the nature of glycated albumin as a damaging agent of tissues and as an intermediate

  12. The female urinary microbiota, urinary health and common urinary disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    This review provides the clinical context and updated information regarding the female urinary microbiota (FUM), a resident microbial community within the female bladder of many adult women. Microbial communities have variability and distinct characteristics in health, as well as during community disruption (dysbiosis). Information concerning characteristics of the FUM in health and disease is emerging. Sufficient data confirms that the microbes that compose the FUM are not contaminants and are cultivatable under appropriate conditions. Common clinical conditions, including urinary tract infection (UTI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), a common form of urinary incontinence (UI), may be usefully reconsidered to determine the role of the FUM. Knowledge of FUM characteristics may help advance prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions and other common lower urinary disorders in women. The FUM appears related to UTI and UUI in adult women. The specific role of the FUM remains to be clarified and requires significant additional work in describing FUM variability and resilience in health. Unique aspects of the FUM prompt re-evaluation of existing nomenclature to more appropriately define health and disease; the concept of dysbiosis may be useful for understanding the interaction of the FUM with other aspects of lower urinary tract physiology, including urothelial signaling. Clinicians, through their clinical laboratories, can adopt enhanced urine culture techniques that more fully describe the living microbes within the FUM. This additional information may provide clinicians and their patients an opportunity to impact clinical care without antibiotic use, if the FUM can be appropriately modified to improve treatment precision for UTI and UUI. PMID:28217699

  13. Urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Norton, Peggy; Brubaker, Linda

    2006-01-07

    Urinary incontinence is common in women, but is under-reported and under-treated. Urine storage and emptying is a complex coordination between the bladder and urethra, and disturbances in the system due to childbirth, aging, or other medical conditions can lead to urinary incontinence. The two main types of incontinence in women, stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence, can be evaluated by history and simple clinical assessment available to most primary care physicians. There is a wide range of therapeutic options, but the recent proliferation of new drug treatments and surgical devices for urinary incontinence have had mixed results; direct-to-consumer advertising has increased public awareness of the problem of urinary incontinence, but many new products are being introduced without long-term assessment of their safety and efficacy.

  14. Decrease in Urinary Creatinine Excretion in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tynkevich, Elena; Flamant, Martin; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Metzger, Marie; Thervet, Eric; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Vrtovsnik, François; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Stengel, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. Methods We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) by 51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. Results Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3±3.1 to 12.1±3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20±0.03 to 0.15±0.04 mmol/kg/24 h) in men, with mGFR falling from ≥60 to <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, and from 9.6±1.9 to 7.6±2.5 (0.16±0.03 to 0.12±0.03) in women. In addition to mGFR, an older age, diabetes, and lower levels of body mass index, proteinuria, and protein intake assessed by urinary urea were associated with lower mean urinary creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53±0.12 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28±0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. Conclusions Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass. PMID:25401694

  15. Holter monitor (24h)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the machine gets an accurate recording of the heart's activity. While wearing the device, avoid: Electric blankets High- ... Holter monitoring is used to determine how the heart responds to normal activity. The monitor may also be used: After a ...

  16. Measurement of urinary copper excretion after 48-h d-penicillamine cessation as a compliance assessment in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dzieżyc, Karolina; Litwin, Tomasz; Chabik, Grzegorz; Członkowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of Wilson's disease (WD) with anti-copper agents is effective in most compliant patients. During long-term treatment with chelating agents, a two-day interruption of the treatment should result in normal urinary copper concentrations (<50 μg/dl). The aim of this study was to establish the usefulness of this method as a compliance assessment in these patients. We examined consecutive patients treated with d-penicillamine (DPA) undergoing routine follow-up studies at our center. We performed 24-h urinary copper excretion analysis 48 h after interruption of chelating therapy. Thirty-two patients were enrolled. After DPA cessation, normalization of copper excretion was observed in 91% of reportedly compliant patients. The specificity and sensitivity values of this test were 87% and 77%, respectively. Measurement of 24-h urinary copper excretion after a 48-h interruption of DPA therapy in patients with WD is a reliable method for confirming patients' compliance.

  17. Urinary catheter - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  18. Effect of drinking parsley leaf tea on urinary composition and urinary stones' risk factors.

    PubMed

    Alyami, Fahad A; Rabah, Danny M

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the effect of parsley leaf tea on urine composition and the inhibitors of urinary tract stones formation, we studied 20 healthy volunteers who were divided into two groups: the first group of 10 subjects drank daily 1,200 mL of parsley leaf tea for 2 weeks, while the second group drank at least 1,200 mL daily of bottled water for the same period. This was followed by a 2-week "washout" period before the two groups were crossed over for another 2 weeks. During the experimental phase, 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline, on day 14, and at the end of the 6-week period and different urinary parameters were measured and analyzed statistically. We found no significant difference in the urine volume, pH, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, phosphorus, magnesium, uric acid, cystine, or citric acid. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of parsley leaf tea on urinary parameters in healthy and stone-forming patients.

  19. Effect of boron incorporation on slow interface traps in SiO2/4H-SiC structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Dai; Sometani, Mitsuru; Harada, Shinsuke; Kosugi, Ryoji; Yonezawa, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    The reason for the effective removal of interface traps in SiO2/4H-SiC (0001) structures by boron (B) incorporation was investigated by employing low-temperature electrical measurements. Low-temperature capacitance-voltage and thermal dielectric relaxation current measurements revealed that the density of electrons captured in slow interface traps in B-incorporated oxide is lower than that in dry and NO-annealed oxides. These results suggest that near-interface traps can be removed by B incorporation, which is considered to be an important reason for the increase in the field-effect mobility of 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. A model for the passivation mechanism is proposed that takes account of stress relaxation during thermal oxidation.

  20. A review of the design and validation of web- and computer-based 24-h dietary recall tools.

    PubMed

    Timon, Claire M; van den Barg, Rinske; Blain, Richard J; Kehoe, Laura; Evans, Katie; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R

    2016-12-01

    Technology-based dietary assessment offers solutions to many of the limitations of traditional dietary assessment methodologies including cost, participation rates and the accuracy of data collected. The 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) method is currently the most utilised method for the collection of dietary intake data at a national level. Recently there have been many developments using web-based platforms to collect food intake data using the principles of the 24HDR method. This review identifies web- and computer-based 24HDR tools that have been developed for both children and adult population groups, and examines common design features and the methods used to investigate the performance and validity of these tools. Overall, there is generally good to strong agreement between web-based 24HDR and respective reference measures for intakes of macro- and micronutrients.

  1. Airway hyper- or hyporeactivity to inhaled spasmogens 24 h after ovalbumin challenge of sensitized guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, C. A.; Broadley, K. J.

    1995-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to determine whether an inhalation of ovalbumin (OA, 10 or 20 mg ml-1) by conscious OA-sensitized guinea-pigs leads to airway hyperreactivity to spasmogens 24 h later. In contrast to most previous studies, the spasmogens (5-HT, methacholine (MCh), U-46619 and adenosine) were administered by inhalation and airway function was measured in conscious guinea-pigs. 2. Guinea-pigs were sensitized by i.p. injection of 10 micrograms OA and 100 mg aluminium hydroxide in 1 ml normal saline; 14-21 days later they were exposed to an inhalation of 5-HT, MCh, U-46619 or adenosine. Specific airway conductance (sGaw) was measured in conscious animals by whole body plethysmography. The spasmogens caused bronchoconstriction, measured as a reduction in sGaw from the pre-inhalation basal values. Dose-related bronchoconstrictions were observed with 5-HT, MCh and U-46619. 3. The effect of an ovalbumin macroshock challenge upon the responses to each spasmogen were examined by giving an inhalation of aerosolized OA at 24 h (or 7 days in the cause of adenosine) after an initial spasmogen challenge. Eighteen to twenty-four hours after the OA macroshock, the same guinea-pigs were exposed to a repeated inhalation of 5-HT, MCh, U-46619 or adenosine. 4. U-46619 was the only spasmogen to demonstrate hyperresponsiveness, the peak change in sGaw being increased from -12.3 +/- 9.9 to -38.8 +/- 5.0% by 10 mg ml-1 OA challenge. In contrast, the ovalbumin challenge (20 mg ml-1) inhibited the bronchoconstrictions to 5-HT (50 micrograms ml-1) and MCh (100 micrograms ml-1). Adenosine demonstrated bronchoconstriction in sensitized guinea-pigs but no significant change in the response was observed after an OA challenge. 5. All results were compared with a control group of sensitized guinea-pigs receiving a NaCl challenge. The bronchoconstrictor responses to 5-HT, MCh, U-46619 or adenosine did not differ significantly before and after the saline challenge, indicating

  2. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels predict cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury better than albuminuria or urinary cystatin C levels.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hugo You-Hsien; Lee, Su-Chu; Lin, Sheng-Fung; Hsiao, Hui-Hua; Liu, Yi-Chang; Yang, Wen-Chi; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Hung, Chi-Chih; Chen, Hung-Chun; Guh, Jinn-Yuh

    2013-06-01

    Cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major concern among clinicians in prescribing cisplatin-based chemotherapy. This study evaluated and compared the ability of urinary biomarkers, including urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin C, and the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) to predict cisplatin-induced AKI. Thirty-three cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy were prospectively studied, including 10 (30%) who developed AKI (the study group). Changes of urinary biomarkers were compared at 4 hours, 8 hours, and 12 hours, and 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, and 4 days after cisplatin intravenous infusions (75mg/m(2)) versus the baseline. There was a significant increase in urinary NGAL levels from 12 hours to 4 days (p<0.05) compared to baseline after cisplatin infusion in the AKI group. The magnitude of these changes over time differed significantly by group (p<0.001). The area under the receiver operating curve describing the relationship between urinary NGAL levels and AKI within 12 hours was 0.865 (95% confidence interval=0.691-1.000). Urinary NGAL levels independently predicted AKI 12 hours after cisplatin (p=0.045) after adjustments for age, gender, body mass index, baseline serum creatinine, and urinary total protein. Urinary NGAL levels may be an early biomarker of AKI in patients receiving cisplatin-based treatment.

  3. The 24-h recall instrument for home nursing to measure the activity profile of home nurses: development and psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    De Vliegher, Kristel; Aertgeerts, Bert; Declercq, Anja; Gosset, Christiane; Heyden, Isabelle; Van Geert, Michel; Moons, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Home health care today is challenged by a shift from an acute to a chronic health-care model, moving the focus of care from the hospital to home-care setting. This increased focus on care at home emphasizes the need for an efficient, effective, and transparent management of home health care. However, it is not precisely known what home-care nurses do; what kind of care is received by patients; what the performance of home nurses is; and what the impact of the increasing need for home nursing is on the current and future role of home nurses. In this respect, it is necessary to gain a clear insight into the activity profile of home nurses, but there is no gold standard to measure their activities. This study reports on the development and psychometric testing of the '24-hour recall instrument for home nursing' to measure the activity profile of home nurses. Five home nurses in Belgium, simultaneously with the researcher, registered the performed activities in a total of 69 patients, using the 24-h recall instrument for home nursing. The validity and the interrater reliability of this instrument were high: the proportions that observed agreement were very high; the strength of kappa agreement was substantial to almost perfect; the prevalence index showed great variety; and the bias index was low. The findings in this study support the validity evidence based on test content and the interrater reliability of the 24-h recall instrument. This instrument can help to shape practice and policy by making the home nursing profession more transparent: a clear insight into the kind of care that is provided by home nurses and is received by the patients in primary care contributes to the development of a clear definition of the role of home nurses in health care.

  4. Pulse Arrival Time Based Cuff-Less and 24-H Wearable Blood Pressure Monitoring and its Diagnostic Value in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yali; Poon, Carmen C Y; Yan, Bryan P; Lau, James Y W

    2016-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Current standard ABPM devices use an oscillometric cuff-based method which can cause physical discomfort to the patients with repeated inflations and deflations, especially during nighttime leading to sleep disturbance. The ability to measure ambulatory BP accurately and comfortably without a cuff would be attractive. This study validated the accuracy of a cuff-less approach for ABPM using pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements on both healthy and hypertensive subjects for potential use in hypertensive management, which is the first of its kind. The wearable cuff-less device was evaluated against a standard cuff-based device on 24 subjects of which 15 have known hypertension. BP measurements were taken from each subject over a 24-h period by the cuff-less and cuff-based devices every 15 to 30 minutes during daily activities. Mean BP of each subject during daytime, nighttime and over 24-h were calculated. Agreement between mean nighttime systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measured by the two devices evaluated using Bland-Altman plot were -1.4 ± 6.6 and 0.4 ± 6.7 mmHg, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) statistics was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the cuff-less approach in the detection of BP above the hypertension threshold during nighttime (>120/70 mmHg). The area under ROC curves were 0.975/0.79 for nighttime. The results suggest that PAT-based approach is accurate and promising for ABPM without the issue of sleep disturbances associated with cuff-based devices.

  5. RESP-24: a computer program for the investigation of 24-h breathing abnormalities in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Maestri, R; Pinna, G D; Robbi, E; Varanini, M; Emdin, M; Raciti, M; La Rovere, M T

    2002-05-01

    In this paper, we describe a computer program (RESP-24) specifically devised to assess the prevalence and characteristics of breathing disorders in ambulant chronic heart failure patients during the overall 24 h period. The system works on a single channel respiratory signal (RS) recorded through a Holter-like portable device. In the pre-processing stage RESP-24 removes noise, baseline drift and motion artefacts from the RS using a non-linear filter, enhances respiratory frequency components through high-pass filtering and derives an instantaneous tidal volume (ITV) signal. The core processing is devoted to the identification and classification of the breathing pattern into periodic breathing (PB), normal breathing or non-classifiable breathing using a 60 s segmentation, and to the identification and estimation of apnea and hypopnea events. Sustained episodes of PB are detected by cross analysis of both the spectral content and time behavior of the ITV signal. User-friendly interactive facilities allow all the results of the automatic analysis procedure to be edited. The final report provides a set of standard and non-standard parameters quantifying breathing abnormalities during the 24 h period, the night-time and the day-time, including the apnea/hypopnea index, the apnea index, the total time spent in apnea or in hypopnea and the prevalence of non-apneic and apneic PB. The accuracy of these measurements was appraised on a data set of 14 recordings, by comparing them with those provided by a trained analyst. The mean and standard deviation of the error of the automatic procedure were below respectively 6 and 8% of the reference value for all parameters considered and the mean total classification accuracy was 92%. In most cases, the individual error was <12%. We conclude that measurements provided automatically by the RESP-24 software are suitable for screening purposes and clinical trials, although a preventive check of signal quality should be recommended.

  6. Pharmacological interventions in the newborn piglet in the first 24 h after hypoxia-ischemia. A hemodynamic and electrophysiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Peeters-Scholte, Cacha; van den Tweel, Evelyn; Ioroi, Tomoaki; Post, Ilka; Braun, Kees; Veldhuis, Wouter; Nicolay, Klaas; Groenendaal, Floris; van Bel, Frank

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether combined inhibition of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by 2-iminobiotin, free radical scavenging by allopurinol, and non-protein-bound iron chelation with deferoxamine improved cerebral oxygenation, electrocortical brain activity, and brain energy status during the first 24 h after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in the newborn piglet. Forty-three newborn piglets were subjected to 1 h of severe HI by occluding both carotid arteries and phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS)-guided hypoxia, whereas five served as sham-operated controls. Upon reperfusion, piglets received vehicle (n=12), 2-iminobiotin (n=11), allopurinol (n=10), or deferoxamine (n=10). Cerebral oxygenation was recorded with near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS), electrocortical brain activity was assessed with amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), and cerebral energy status with (31)P-MRS. The oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO(2)) and total hemoglobin (tHb) were significantly increased in vehicle-treated piglets compared with 2-iminobiotin-treated and deferoxamine-treated piglets. No change in deoxygenated Hb (HHb) was demonstrated over time. The aEEG was significantly preserved in 2-iminobiotin- and deferoxamine-treated piglets compared with vehicle-treated piglets. Allopurinol treatment was not as effective as 2-iminobiotin treatment after HI. Phosphocreatine/inorganic phosphate ratios (PCr/P(i)) were significantly decreased for vehicle-treated piglets at 24 h post-HI, whereas 2-iminobiotin, allopurinol, and deferoxamine prevented the development of secondary energy failure. We speculate that the beneficial effects, especially of 2-iminobiotin, but also of deferoxamine, are due to reduced peroxynitrite-mediated oxidation.

  7. The pharmacokinetics of albumin conjugates of D-penicillamine in humans.

    PubMed

    Joyce, D A; Day, R O; Murphy, B R

    1991-01-01

    D-penicillamine (D-PEN) is incompletely recovered during short-term balance studies, despite rapid elimination of D-PEN and its low molecular weight metabolites. Urinary excretion of metabolites of D-PEN also persists long after cessation of chronic therapy. A study was performed to determine whether the formation and later breakdown of a stable disulfide between D-PEN and plasma albumin could explain these aspects of D-PEN pharmacokinetics. Five human volunteers received D-penicillamine, 250 mg orally, daily for 21 days. Plasma concentration-time profiles for D-PEN and D-PEN-albumin disulfide (D-PEN-albumin) were determined during the first day and pre-dose concentrations were measured on five further occasions. The pharmacokinetics of D-PEN on the first day were similar to those reported previously. No D-PEN was found in any of the pre-dose specimens. The concentration of D-PEN-albumin rose rapidly during the first day, with an estimated 8.6% of the bioavailable D-PEN being transformed to D-PEN-albumin. Pseudo-steady-state concentrations of D-PEN-albumin were achieved in three subjects at between 14 and 21 days. The mean trough concentration of D-PEN-albumin at 21 days (19.5 microM) exceeded the peak concentration of D-PEN (during the first day) by 5.7-fold. The terminal elimination half-life of D-PEN-albumin was 1.65 +/- 0.29 days, which compared with an elimination half-life of 59 +/- 8.4 min for D-PEN.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Intravital Imaging Reveals Angiotensin II-Induced Transcytosis of Albumin by Podocytes.

    PubMed

    Schießl, Ina Maria; Hammer, Anna; Kattler, Veronika; Gess, Bernhard; Theilig, Franziska; Witzgall, Ralph; Castrop, Hayo

    2016-03-01

    Albuminuria is a hallmark of kidney disease of various etiologies and usually caused by deterioration of glomerular filtration barrier integrity. We recently showed that angiotensin II (Ang II) acutely increases albumin filtration in the healthy kidney. Here, we used intravital microscopy to assess the effects of Ang II on podocyte function in rats. Acute infusion of 30, 60, or 80 ng/kg per minute Ang II enhanced the endocytosis of albumin by activation of the type 1 Ang II receptor and resulted in an average (±SEM) of 3.7±2.2, 72.3±18.6 (P<0.001), and 239.4±34.6 µm(3) (P<0.001) albumin-containing vesicles per glomerulus, respectively, compared with none at baseline or 10 ng/kg per minute Ang II. Immunostaining of Ang II-infused kidneys confirmed the presence of albumin-containing vesicles, which colocalized with megalin, in podocin-positive cells. Furthermore, podocyte endocytosis of albumin was markedly reduced in the presence of gentamicin, a competitive inhibitor of megalin-dependent endocytosis. Ang II infusion increased the concentration of albumin in the subpodocyte space, a potential source for endocytic protein uptake, and gentamicin further increased this concentration. Some endocytic vesicles were acidified and colocalized with LysoTracker. Most vesicles migrated from the capillary to the apical aspect of the podocyte and were eventually released into the urinary space. This transcytosis accounted for approximately 10% of total albumin filtration. In summary, the transcellular transport of proteins across the podocyte constitutes a new pathway of glomerular protein filtration. Ang II enhances the endocytosis and transcytosis of plasma albumin by podocytes, which may eventually impair podocyte function.

  9. The effect of albumin on podocytes: The role of the fatty acid moiety and the potential role of CD36 scavenger receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Pawluczyk, I.Z.A.; Pervez, A.; Ghaderi Najafabadi, M.; Saleem, M.A.; Topham, P.S.

    2014-08-15

    Evidence is emerging that podocytes are able to endocytose proteins such as albumin using kinetics consistent with a receptor-mediated process. To date the role of the fatty acid moiety on albumin uptake kinetics has not been delineated and the receptor responsible for uptake is yet to be identified. Albumin uptake studies were carried out on cultured human podocytes exposed to FITC-labelled human serum albumin either carrying fatty acids (HSA{sub +FA}) or depleted of them (HSA{sub −FA}). Receptor-mediated endocytosis of FITC-HSA{sub +FA} over 60 min was 5 times greater than that of FITC-HSA{sub −FA}. 24 h exposure of podocytes to albumin up-regulated nephrin expression and induced the activation of caspase-3. These effects were more pronounced in response to HSA{sub −FA.} Individually, anti-CD36 antibodies had no effect upon endocytosis of FITC-HSA. However, a cocktail of 2 antibodies reduced uptake by nearly 50%. Albumin endocytosis was enhanced in the presence of the CD36 specific inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO) while knock-down of CD36 using CD36siRNA had no effect on uptake. These data suggest that receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin by podocytes is regulated by the fatty acid moiety, although, some of the detrimental effects are induced independently of it. CD36 does not play a direct role in the uptake of albumin. - Highlights: • The fatty acid moiety is essential for receptor mediated endocytosis of albumin. • Fatty acid depleted albumin is more pathogenic to podocytes. • CD36 is not directly involved in albumin uptake by podocytes.

  10. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Home For Patients Search FAQs Surgery ... Incontinence FAQ166, July 2014 PDF Format Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Special Procedures What is stress urinary ...

  11. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    PubMed

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-15

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  12. Combined gel filtration, biuret/copper method compared with an immunochemical method for urinary protein measurement.

    PubMed

    Peele, J D; Gadsden, R H; Loadholt, C B

    1977-01-01

    We compared an immunochemical method specific for plasma proteins with a chemical method, in which interfering substances are separated by gel filtration and "total" urinary protein is determined by the biuret reaction followed by reaction of protein-bound copper with diethyldithiocarbamate after a second gel filtration to remove nonprotein-bound copper. More than 250 24-h urine samples were analyzed by each method. There was linear agreement and a correlation of 0.96 between the two methods, but urinary protein values determined by the immunochemical method, especially for patients with multiple myeloma, were lower than by the chemical method.

  13. Urinary oxalate excretion in urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, T.; Belzer, T.; Blau, N.; Hoppe, B.; Sidhu, H.; Leumann, E.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate urinary oxalate excretion in children with urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis and to classify hyperoxaluria (HyOx).
METHODS—A total of 106 patients were screened. In those in whom the oxalate: creatinine ratio was increased, 24 hour urinary oxalate excretion was measured. Liver biopsy and/or genomic analysis was performed if primary hyperoxaluria (PH) was suspected. Stool specimens were examined for Oxalobacter formigenes in HyOx not related to PH type 1 or 2 (PH1, PH2) and in controls.
RESULTS—A total of 21 patients screened had HyOx (>0.5 mmol/24 h per 1.73 m2); they were classified into five groups. Eleven had PH (PH1 in nine and neither PH1 nor PH2 in two). Six had secondary HyOx: two enteric and four dietary. Four could not be classified. Seven patients had concomitant hypercalciuria. Only one of 12 patients was colonised with O formigenes compared to six of 13controls.
CONCLUSIONS—HyOx is an important risk factor for urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis in children, and can coexist with hypercalciuria. A novel type of PH is proposed. Absence of O formigenes may contribute to HyOx not related to PH1.

 PMID:10735843

  14. Relationship between urinary protein changes in lupus nephritis and renal pathology.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Gao, W J; Ma, J J; Zhu, Y; Li, X F

    2015-07-28

    This study investigated the relationship between urinary protein excretion in lupus nephritis New Zealand black mice and renal pathology. A total of 328 lupus nephritis New Zealand black mice were established by a backcross hybridization method, and renal pathology was determined. The urinary protein excretion of the backcross mice over 24 h was compared and analyzed. Urinary protein excretion over 24 h differed significantly across different pathological types (1.9, 2.4, 2.9 and 4.9 g in types II, III, IV, and V, respectively) in the backcross mice (P < 0.05). Moreover, it correlated with pathology grade (r = 0.391, P = 0.0001) as well as activity index, chronic index, renal tubular interstitial activity index, and renal tubular interstitial lesions (P < 0.05) but not with vascular lesions (P = 0.683). Urinary protein excretion from lupus nephritis is closely associated with renal pathology. Urinary protein changes can be used to determine lupus nephritis pathology and have some clinical significance for treatment and prognosis.

  15. Albumin induces neuroprotection against ischemic stroke by altering Toll-like receptor 4 and regulatory T cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Wang, Yongming; He, Jing; Wei, Siyu; Zhang, Na; Liu, Fengyong; Liu, Xin; Kang, Yi; Yao, Xiaomei

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of albumin therapy on the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR 4), anti-inflammation cytokines and CD4(+)CD25(+)forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+) regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg cells) in the ischemic brain and peripheral immune system after Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO). Adult male Kunming mice were subjected to MCAO, the suture was withdrawn 2 h later followed by an intravenous administration of 25% albumin (1.25 g/kg) or saline (5 ml/kg) through caudal vein. We demonstrated that albumin administration elevated the serum albumin level supranormally at 6 h and 24 h after MCAO in mice. In addition, we showed that both in the ischemic brain and in the spleen, albumin administration significantly depressed the increase of TLR 4 mRNA expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR), and significantly increase the anti-inflammatory related interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) mRNA expression by transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after MCAO. In the spleen, compared to sham group, strong TLR 4 immunoreactivity was noted in the saline group; while compared to saline group, albumin administration markedly reduced the immunoreactivity of TLR 4 after MCAO by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, albumin administration significantly increased the percentage of Treg in spleen CD4(+) cells by flow cytometry. In conclusion, the decrease of TLR 4 expression and the increase of Treg cell, IL-10, and TGF-β1 expression may partly contribute to the neuroprotective effect of albumin therapy on MCAO induced immune inflammatory responses.

  16. Albumin-deficient mouse models for studying metabolism of human albumin and pharmacokinetics of albumin-based drugs

    PubMed Central

    Roopenian, Derry C; Low, Benjamin E; Christianson, Gregory J; Proetzel, Gabriele; Sproule, Thomas J; Wiles, Michael V

    2015-01-01

    Serum albumin is the major determinant of blood colloidal osmotic pressure acting as a depot and distributor of compounds including drugs. In humans, serum albumin exhibits an unusually long half-life mainly due to protection from catabolism by neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-mediated recycling. These properties make albumin an attractive courier of therapeutically-active compounds. However, pharmaceutical research and development of albumin-based therapeutics has been hampered by the lack of appropriate preclinical animal models. To overcome this, we developed and describe the first mouse with a genetic deficiency in albumin and its incorporation into an existing humanized FcRn mouse model, B6.Cg-Fcgrttm1Dcr Tg(FCGRT)32Dcr/DcrJ (Tg32). Albumin-deficient strains (Alb-/-) were created by TALEN-mediated disruption of the albumin (Alb) gene directly in fertilized oocytes derived from Tg32 mice and its non-transgenic background control, C57BL/6J (B6). The resulting Alb-/- strains are analbuminemic but healthy. Intravenous administration of human albumin to Tg32-Alb-/- mFcRn-/- hFcRnTg/Tg) mice results in a remarkably extended human albumin serum half-life of ∼24 days, comparable to that found in humans, and in contrast to half-lives of 2.6–5.8 d observed in B6, B6-Alb-/- and Tg32 strains. This striking increase can be explained by the absence of competing endogenous mouse albumin and the presence of an active human FcRn. These novel albumin-deficient models provide unique tools for investigating the biology and pathobiology of serum albumin and are a more appropriate rodent surrogates for evaluating human serum albumin pharmacokinetics and albumin-based compounds. PMID:25654695

  17. Evaluation of New bioMérieux Chromogenic CPS Media for Detection of Urinary Tract Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rigaill, Josselin; Verhoeven, Paul O; Mahinc, Caroline; Jeraiby, Mohamed; Grattard, Florence; Fonsale, Nathalie; Pozzetto, Bruno; Carricajo, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Four chromogenic media were compared for their ability to detect urinary tract pathogens in 299 urine specimens, of which 175 were found positive, allowing the growth of 279 microorganisms. After 18 to 24 h of incubation, the CPS ID4, CPSE, CPSO (bioMérieux), and UriSelect4 (Bio-Rad) media showed sensitivities of 97.1%, 99.3%, 99.6%, and 99.6%, respectively.

  18. Debate: Albumin administration should not be avoided

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Simon P; Lobo, Dileep N

    2000-01-01

    The recent Cochrane report on albumin administration is analysed and criticised on the grounds of clinical methodology, content and interpretation. Although it is naïve and illogical to treat hypoalbuminaemia with albumin infusions, a more balanced view on the use of albumin for resuscitation in acute hypovolaemia is necessary. Once the acute phase of critical illness is past, interstitial volume is often expanded causing oedema, with a low plasma volume. We argue for the use of salt-poor albumin solutions in this situation and conclude that, on current evidence, the assertion that albumin should be avoided in all situations is irrational and untenable. PMID:11211855

  19. A single prolonged milking interval of 24h compromises the well-being and health of dairy Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Kohler, P; Alsaaod, M; Dolf, G; O'Brien, R; Beer, G; Steiner, A

    2016-11-01

    Cows are often shown at dairy shows with overfilled udders to achieve a better show placing. However, it is unclear to what degree "over-bagging" affects the health and well-being of show cows. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of a single prolonged milking interval (PMI) of 24h on the measurable signs of health and well-being in dairy cows in early and mid-lactation and to assess the effect of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) on well-being during a PMI. Fifteen Holstein cows were studied in early lactation (89.5±2.7d in milk) and were given an NSAID or physiological saline in a crossover design. Ten cows were studied again in mid-lactation (151.6±4.0d in milk). Data on clinical signs of cows' health, behavior, and well-being were collected at 1 or 2h intervals before and during a PMI of 24h. Data from the last 6h of a 12h milking interval were compared with the last 6h of the PMI. Compared with that of a cow in the last 6h of a 12-h milking interval, the behavior of cows in early lactation (saline group) changed during the last 6h of the PMI: we observed decreased eating time (22.4 vs. 16.2min/h), increased ruminating time (13.3 vs. 25.0min/h), and increased hind limb abduction while walking (score 41.7 vs. 62.6) and standing (31.2 vs. 38.9cm). Udder firmness was increased (2.9 vs. 4.5kg) during this period and more weight was placed on the hind limbs (46.4 vs. 47.0%). We also found pathological signs at the end of the PMI: all cows showed milk leaking, and 10 of 15 cows developed edema in the subcutaneous udder tissue. Somatic cell count was significantly increased from 12h to 72h after the PMI. Administration of an NSAID had no influence on measured variables, except that the occurrence of edema was not significantly increased during PMI in the flunixin group (10 of 15 and 6 of 15 cows for the saline and flunixin groups, respectively). In the cows in mid-lactation, different variables were not significantly changed in the PMI

  20. Low molecular weight fucoidan protects renal tubular cells from injury induced by albumin overload

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yingli; Sun, Yi; Weng, Lin; Li, Yingjie; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Baoxue

    2016-01-01

    Albuminuria is a causative and aggravating factor for progressive renal damage in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to determine if low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) could protect renal function and tubular cells from albumin overload caused injury. Treatment with 10 mg/g bovine serum albumin caused renal dysfunction, morphological changes, and overexpression of inflammation and fibrosis associated proteins in 129S2/Sv mice. LMWF (100 mg/kg) protected against kidney injury and renal dysfunction with decreased blood creatinine by 34% and urea nitrogen by 25%, increased creatinine clearance by 48%, and decreased significantly urinary albumin concentration. In vitro proximal tubule epithelial cell (NRK-52E) model showed that LMWF dose-dependently inhibited overexpression of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors, oxidative stress and apoptosis caused by albumin overload. These experimental results indicate that LMWF protects against albumin overload caused renal injury by inhibiting inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress and apoptosis, which suggests that LMWF could be a promising candidate drug for preventing CKD. PMID:27545472

  1. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-01-01

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  2. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-08-02

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  3. Ambulatory 24-h oesophageal impedance-pH recordings: reliability of automatic analysis for gastro-oesophageal reflux assessment.

    PubMed

    Roman, S; Bruley des Varannes, S; Pouderoux, P; Chaput, U; Mion, F; Galmiche, J-P; Zerbib, F

    2006-11-01

    Oesophageal pH-impedance monitoring allows detection of acid and non-acid gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) events. Visual analysis of impedance recording requires expertise. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of an automated analysis for GOR assessment. Seventy-three patients with suspected GORD underwent 24-h oesophageal pH-impedance monitoring. Recordings analysis was performed visually (V) and automatically using Autoscan function (AS) of Bioview software. A symptom index (SI) > or =50% was considered for a significant association between symptoms and reflux events. AS analysis detected more reflux events, especially non-acid, liquid, pure gas and proximal events. Detection of oesophageal acid exposure and acid reflux events was similar with both analyses. Agreement between V and AS analysis was good (Kendall's coefficient W > 0.750, P < 0.01) for all parameters. During pH-impedance studies, 65 patients reported symptoms. As compared to visual analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of a positive SI determined by AS were respectively 85.7% and 80% for all reflux events, 100% and 98% for acid reflux and 33% and 87.5% for non-acid reflux. Despite good agreement with visual analysis, automatic analysis overestimates the number of non-acid reflux events. Visual analysis remains the gold standard to detect an association between symptoms and non-acid reflux events.

  4. Comprehensive Mapping of Regional Expression of the Clock Protein PERIOD2 in Rat Forebrain across the 24-h Day

    PubMed Central

    Harbour, Valerie L.; Weigl, Yuval; Robinson, Barry; Amir, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, a light-entrainable clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) regulates circadian rhythms by synchronizing oscillators throughout the brain and body. Notably, the nature of the relation between the SCN clock and subordinate oscillators in the rest of the brain is not well defined. We performed a high temporal resolution analysis of the expression of the circadian clock protein PERIOD2 (PER2) in the rat forebrain to characterize the distribution, amplitude and phase of PER2 rhythms across different regions. Eighty-four LEW/Crl male rats were entrained to a 12-h: 12-h light/dark cycle, and subsequently perfused every 30 min across the 24-h day for a total of 48 time-points. PER2 expression was assessed with immunohistochemistry and analyzed using automated cell counts. We report the presence of PER2 expression in 20 forebrain areas important for a wide range of motivated and appetitive behaviors including the SCN, bed nucleus, and several regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, striatum, and cortex. Eighteen areas displayed significant PER2 rhythms, which peaked at different times of day. Our data demonstrate a previously uncharacterized regional distribution of rhythms of a clock protein expression in the brain that provides a sound basis for future studies of circadian clock function in animal models of disease. PMID:24124556

  5. Time dependent effects of stress prior to encoding on event-related potentials and 24 h delayed retrieval.

    PubMed

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars; Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Stress can exert profound effects on memory encoding. Here, we investigated whether (sub)cortical information processing during encoding and memory retrieval at a 24 h delayed test are affected by the temporal proximity between stress and memory encoding. Sixty-four participants engaged in the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST) or a no-stress control condition either immediately before (i.e., proximate condition) or 30 min before (i.e., distant condition) a picture encoding task. In general, stress decreased the number of freely recalled and recognized pictures and increased the number of false alarms. However, timing of stress exposure did not differentially affect picture recall, recognition or selective attention processes (i.e., LPP). Nevertheless, stress-induced cortisol responses and correctly recognized neutral pictures were positively associated within the proximate stress condition but negatively associated within the distant stress condition. These findings suggest that the time at which a stressor is applied might differentially impact the association between stress-induced cortisol elevations and memory formation and indicate the need for a finer delineation of the time window during which glucocorticoids affect memory formation processes.

  6. Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children

    PubMed Central

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Alexandrou, Christina; Bergström, Anna; Bonn, Stephanie; Bälter, Katarina; Löf, Marie

    2017-01-01

    The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i) energy intake (EI) obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water and (ii) the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different (p < 0.001) from TEE (4670 ± 1430 kJ/24 h and 6070 ± 690 kJ/24 h, respectively). Significant correlations were observed for vegetables, fruit juice and candy between KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. Only sweetened beverage consumption was significantly different in mean intake (p < 0.001), as measured by KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. In conclusion, KidMeal-Q had a relatively short answering time and comparative validity to other food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children. PMID:28098765

  7. Measurement of C{sub 24}H{sub 14} polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with a size-segregated urban aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.O.; Dookeran, N.M.; Sarofim, A.F.; Smith, K.A.; Taghizadeh, K.; Plummer, E.F.; Lafleur, A.L.; Durant, J.L.

    1998-07-01

    Six-ring C{sub 24}H{sub 14} (MW 302) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which are potent mutagens, are present in urban aerosols. Size-segregated atmospheric aerosol samples from Boston, MA, were analyzed for C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Eleven peaks were found with mass to charge ratios of 302; of these, eight were identified using authentic standards. Five of the peaks were quantified. For each of these five, the distributions with respect to particle size were bimodal with the majority of the mass associated with accumulation mode particles and a smaller fraction of the mass associated with ultrafine mode particles. These distributions are similar to those observed for PAH of molecular weight 252--278 in the same sample but different from those of benzo[ghi]perylene and coronene which were associated to a greater degree with ultrafine particles. The data suggest that C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH repartition to larger particles by vaporization and sorption more rapidly than do benzo[ghi]perylene and coronene. The total concentration of C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH was comparable to that of benzo[a]pyrene in the same sample. Because of their mutagenicities, C{sub 24}H{sub 14} PAH may make a contribution to the genotoxicity of urban aerosols comparable to that of benzo[a]pyrene.

  8. Increasing urinary calcium excretion after ceftriaxone and cephalothin therapy in adults: possible association with urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Otunctemur, Alper; Ozbek, Emin; Polat, Emre Can; Cekmen, Mustafa; Dursun, Murat; Cakir, Suleyman Sami

    2014-04-01

    In children, stone formation after ceftriaxone (CTRX) therapy by increasing calcium excretion was showed in the literature. In this study, we investigated the effect of CTRX, cephalothin (CP) and ampicillin (AS) therapy on urinary calcium excretion in adults. 180 participants included in the study who divided into six equal groups. The groups were; (1) CTRX therapy in stone free patients, (2) CTRX therapy in patients who have urinary stone; (3) CP therapy in stone free patients, (4) CP therapy in patients with urinary stone, (5) AS therapy in stone free patients, (6) AS therapy in patients with urinary stone. The patients received 2 g/day intravenous CTRX, CP and AS for 5 days in all groups respectively. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics and blood biochemistry between the groups. Before and 5 days after the antibiotic therapies, the participants were evaluated by 24-h urinary calcium to creatinine ratio. Results were compared between the groups statistically by ANOVA and Tukey test. After drug therapies in group 2 and 4, the excretion of calcium to creatinine ratio in 24-h urine was more than the other groups. We found that both groups of two drugs therapy with or without stones (groups 1, 2, 3, 4), have significantly increased calcium to creatinine ratio in 24-h urine (p < 0.05). We did not find statistically difference in groups 5 and 6, after AS therapy. As a result of the study, we suggest that the patients who have taken antibiotic therapy with CTRX or CP, have an increased risk for the urolithiasis. In addition, we think that these drugs should be used carefully especially in patients with urolithiasis.

  9. The urinary bladder as a physiological reservoir that moderates dehydration in a large desert lizard, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jon R; DeNardo, Dale F

    2007-04-01

    Animals inhabiting xeric environments use a variety of behavioral and physiological strategies to balance water budgets. We studied the potential contribution of the urinary bladder to osmoregulation in a large desert lizard, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum. Here we present results of a series of in vivo laboratory experiments which tested the hypothesis that the Gila monster urinary bladder serves as a physiological reservoir, as in amphibians and chelonians, providing water that buffers increases in plasma osmolality when food and water are unavailable. Adult Gila monsters absorbed water from the urinary bladder into circulation and absorption of water from the urinary bladder and drinking water provided similar osmoregulatory benefits within 24 h, although drinking water provided a more immediate osmotic benefit. During food and water deprivation, plasma osmolality increased 2.5 times faster in lizards with an empty urinary bladder compared with those with a full bladder. During rehydration, stereotyped binge drinking behavior increased body mass nearly 22%, which resulted in a 24% reduction in plasma osmolality and a substantial increase in bladder water within 24 h. These results support our hypothesis and demonstrate for the first time in an adult lizard that the urinary bladder can function as a long-term physiological water reservoir. This trait can provide a critical benefit to osmoregulation during the 2- to 3-month summer dry season characteristic of the deserts that Gila monsters inhabit.

  10. New isocyanate-specific albumin adducts of 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anoop; Dongari, Nagaraju; Sabbioni, Gabriele

    2009-12-01

    4,4'-Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is the most important of the isocyanates used as intermediates in the chemical industry. Among the main types of damage after exposure to low levels of MDI are lung sensitization and asthma. Albumin adducts of MDI might be involved in the etiology of sensitization reactions. It is, therefore, necessary to have sensitive and specific methods for monitoring the isocyanate exposure of workers. To date, urinary metabolites or protein adducts have been used as biomarkers in workers exposed to MDI. However, with these methods it is not possible to determine whether the biomarkers result from exposure to MDI or to the parent aromatic amine 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA). This work presents a procedure for the determination of isocyanate-specific albumin adducts. In a long-term experiment, designed to determine the carcinogenic and toxic effects of MDI, rats were exposed chronically for 3 months, to 0.0 (control), 0.26, 0.70, and 2.06 mg MDI/m(3) as aerosols. Albumin was isolated from plasma, digested with Pronase E, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. MDI formed adducts with lysine: N(6)-[({4-[4-aminobenzyl]phenyl}amino)carbonyl]lysine (MDI-Lys) and N(6)-[({4-[4-(acetylamino)benzyl]phenyl}amino)carbonyl] lysine (AcMDI-Lys). For the quantitation of the adducts in vivo, isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used to measure the adducts in 2 mg of albumin. The adducts found in vivo (MDI-Lys and AcMDI-Lys) and the corresponding isotope labeled compounds (MDI-[(13)C(6)(15)N(2)]Lys and Ac[(2)H(4)]MDI-Lys) were synthesized and used for quantitation. The MDI-Lys levels increased from 0-24.8 pmol/mg albumin, and the AcMDI-Lys levels increased from 0-1.85 pmol/mg albumin. The mean ratio of MDI-Lys/AcMDI-Lys for each dose level was greater than >20. The albumin adducts correlate with other biomarkers measured in the same rats in the past: urinary metabolites and hemoglobin adducts released after mild base hydrolysis. This method will enable one to

  11. Percutaneous urinary procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lingeman JE. Surgical management of upper urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et ... CC, Nakada SY. Treatment selection and outcomes: renal calculi. Urol Clin North Am . 2007;34(3):409- ...

  12. [Nocosomial urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Pigrau, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTI) are mainly related to urinary catheterisation. In this paper we review the pathogenic mechanisms, particularly the route by which the microorganisms colonise the urinary tract, their adhesion ability, and their capacity to form biofilms, and are related not only to the microorganism but also to the type of urinary catheter. The aetiology of catheter related UTI is variable, and multiresistant microorganisms are often isolated, making empirical antibiotic therapy complex. Clinical findings are frequently atypical, and its diagnosis is difficult. The therapeutic management of catheter-related UTI should be stratified according to the type of UTI: asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be habitually treated, but patients with septic shock should receive a broad spectrum antibiotic. In this review, the value of the different preventive measures are discussed.

  13. Urinary Incontinence in Women.

    PubMed

    Jay, J; Staskin, D

    1998-10-01

    Despite the prevalence of urinary incontinence, most affected women don't seek help, primarily because of embarrassment or because they are not aware that effective treatment is available. Failure to store urine may be caused by an abnormality in any component of the lower urinary tract. Common abnormalities are poor bladder compliance and bladder outlet failure. Patients who experience failure to empty can present with recurrent urinary tract infections, retention or incontinence. Using a symptom-based classification of incontinence, this would be referred to as overflow incontinence. Other possible categories of urinary incontinence are failure to store and empty and functional incontinence. A combination of a failure to store and empty is difficult to diagnose and treat clinically. Treatments are directed at the particular cause of incontinence and can include medical or surgical therapies.

  14. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    Intrinsic sphincter deficiency repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Urine leakage that gets worse Pain where the injection was done Allergic reaction to the material Implant ...

  15. Overview of Albumin and Its Purification Methods

    PubMed Central

    Raoufinia, Ramin; Mota, Ali; Keyhanvar, Neda; Safari, Fatemeh; Shamekhi, Sara; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    As the most frequent plasma protein, albumin constitutes more than 50% of the serum proteins in healthy individuals. It has a key role in oncotic pressure maintenance and it is known as a versatile protein carrier for transportation of various endogenous and exogenous ligands. Reduced amounts of albumin in the body will lead to different kinds of diseases such as hypovolemia and hypoproteinemia. It also has various indications in shocks, burns, cardiopulmonary bypass, acute liver failure and etc. Further applications in research consist of cell culture supplement, drug delivery carrier and protein/drug stabilizer. So, the demand for albumin increased annually worldwide. Due to different applications of albumin, many efforts have been accomplished to achieve albumin during a long period of time. In this review, an overview of serum albumin and different purification methods are summarized. PMID:28101456

  16. Risk factors for stillbirths and mortality during the first 24h of life on dairy farms in Hokkaido, Japan 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Kayano, M; Kadohira, M; Stevenson, M A

    2016-05-01

    This was a retrospective cohort study using data from the insurance scheme provided by the Japanese Mutual Aid Association (NOSAI). The population of interest comprised all cattle born on NOSAI-client farms in the Japanese prefecture of Hokkaido, Japan for the period 1 April 2005-31 March 2009. The outcome of interest was whether or not at least one calf was stillborn, had died during delivery or died during the first 24 hours of life for a given calving event, termed first 24h mortality risk. A mixed-effects logistic regression model was developed to identify explanatory variables associated with first 24h mortality risk. The final data set comprised details of 1,281,737 calving events on a total of 5172 dairy herds from 19 NOSAI branches located throughout the prefecture of Hokkaido. Throughout the study period 7.68 (95% CI 7.64-7.73) of every 100 calving events had at least one calf that was either stillborn, dead at the time of delivery or dead during the first 24h of life. Factors that were positively associated with an increase in first 24h mortality risk included delivery during the colder months of the year (November-March), being of Wagyu breed, having a multipara dam, multiple (as opposed to single) birth deliveries, and delivery in larger herds. ​After adjusting for the fixed effects included in our multilevel model, 89% of the unexplained variation in first 24h mortality risk was at the calving event level. We propose that the data recording requirements of the NOSAI scheme are extended to include details of calving events (e.g. the presence or absence of dystocia) and details of the way in which calves are managed post delivery. This would allow more subtle risk factors for calf mortality to be identified which, in turn, will lead to refinement of recommendations for calf management during the first 24h of life in this area of Japan.

  17. Long-term invariant parameters obtained from 24-h Holter recordings: A comparison between different analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Esposti, Federico; Ferrario, Manuela; Sassi, Roberto; Signorini, Maria Gabriella

    2007-03-01

    Over the last two decades, a large number of different methods had been used to study the fractal-like behavior of the heart rate variability (HRV). In this paper some of the most used techniques were reviewed. In particular, the focus is set on those methods which characterize the long memory behavior of time series (in particular, periodogram, detrended fluctuation analysis, rescale range analysis, scaled window variance, Higuchi dimension, wavelet-transform modulus maxima, and generalized structure functions). The performances of the different techniques were tested on simulated self-similar noises (fBm and fGn) for values of α, the slope of the spectral density for very small frequency, ranging from -1 to 3 with a 0.05 step. The check was performed using the scaling relationships between the various indices. DFA and periodogram showed the smallest mean square error from the expected values in the range of interest for HRV. Building on the results obtained from these tests, the effective ability of the different methods in discriminating different populations of patients from RR series derived from Holter recordings, was assessed. To this extent, the Noltisalis database was used. It consists of a set of 30, 24-h Holter recordings collected from healthy subjects, patients suffering from congestive heart failure, and heart transplanted patients. All the methods, with the exception at most of rescale range analysis, were almost equivalent in distinguish between the three groups of patients. Finally, the scaling relationships, valid for fBm and fGn, when empirically used on HRV series, also approximately held.

  18. A 24 h investigation of the hydrogeochemistry of baseflow and stormwater in an urban area impacted by mining: Butte, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gammons, Christopher H.; Shope, Christopher L.; Duaime, Terence E.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in water quality during a storm event were continuously monitored over a 24 h period at a single location along an urban stormwater drain in Butte, Montana. The Butte Metro Storm Drain (MSD) collects groundwater baseflow and stormwater draining Butte Hill, a densely populated site that has been severely impacted by 130 years of mining, milling, and smelting of copper-rich, polymetallic mineral deposits. On the afternoon of 26 June 2002, a heavy thunderstorm caused streamflow in the MSD to increase 100-fold, from 0·2 ft3 s−1 to more than 20 ft3 s−1. Hourly discharge and water quality data were collected before, during, and following the storm. The most significant finding was that the calculated loads (grams per hour) of both dissolved and particulate copper passing down the MSD increased more than 100-fold in the first hour following the storm, and remained elevated over baseline conditions for the remainder of the study period. Other metals, such as zinc, cadmium, and manganese, showed a decrease in load from pre-storm to post-storm conditions. In addition to the large flush of copper, loads of soluble phosphorus increased during the storm, whereas dissolved oxygen dropped to low levels (<2 mg l−1). These results show that infrequent storm events in Butte have the potential to generate large volumes of runoff that exceed Montana water quality standards for acute exposure of aquatic life to copper, as well as depressed levels of dissolved oxygen. This study has important implications to ongoing reclamation activities in the upper Clark Fork Superfund site, particularly with respect to management of storm flow, and may be applicable to other watersheds impacted by mining activities.

  19. Adapting a standardised international 24 h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet software) for research and dietary surveillance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Kyung; Park, Jin Young; Nicolas, Geneviève; Paik, Hee Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-06-14

    During the past decades, a rapid nutritional transition has been observed along with economic growth in the Republic of Korea. Since this dramatic change in diet has been frequently associated with cancer and other non-communicable diseases, dietary monitoring is essential to understand the association. Benefiting from pre-existing standardised dietary methodologies, the present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and describe the development of a Korean version of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (GloboDiet software) and its complementary tools, developed at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO. Following established international Standard Operating Procedures and guidelines, about seventy common and country-specific databases on foods, recipes, dietary supplements, quantification methods and coefficients were customised and translated. The main results of the present study highlight the specific adaptations made to adapt the GloboDiet software for research and dietary surveillance in Korea. New (sub-) subgroups were added into the existing common food classification, and new descriptors were added to the facets to classify and describe specific Korean foods. Quantification methods were critically evaluated and adapted considering the foods and food packages available in the Korean market. Furthermore, a picture book of foods/dishes was prepared including new pictures and food portion sizes relevant to Korean diet. The development of the Korean version of GloboDiet demonstrated that it was possible to adapt the IARC-WHO international dietary tool to an Asian context without compromising its concept of standardisation and software structure. It, thus, confirms that this international dietary methodology, used so far only in Europe, is flexible and robust enough to be customised for other regions worldwide.

  20. Attenuated benzodiazepine-sensitive tonic GABAA currents of supraoptic magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in 24-h water-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Pandit, S; Song, J G; Kim, Y J; Jeong, J A; Jo, J Y; Lee, G S; Kim, H-W; Jeon, B H; Lee, J U; Park, J B

    2014-01-01

    In supraoptic nucleus (SON) magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs), γ-GABA, via activation of GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs), mediates persistent tonic inhibitory currents (Itonic ), as well as conventional inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs, Iphasic ). In the present study, we examined the functional significance of Itonic in SON MNCs challenged by 24-h water deprivation (24WD). Although the main characteristics of spontaneous IPSCs were similar in 24WD compared to euhydrated (EU) rats, Itonic , measured by bicuculline (BIC)-induced Iholding shifts, was significantly smaller in 24WD compared to EU rats (P < 0.05). Propofol and diazepam prolonged IPSC decay time to a similar extent in both groups but induced less Itonic in 24WD compared to EU rats, suggesting a selective decrease in GABAA receptors mediating Itonic over Iphasic in 24WD rats. THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol), a preferential δ subunit agonist, and L-655,708, a GABAA receptor α5 subunit selective imidazobenzodiazepine, caused a significantly smaller inward and outward shift in Iholding , respectively, in 24WD compared to EU rats (P < 0.05 in both cases), suggesting an overall decrease in the α5 subunit-containing GABAA Rs and the δ subunit-containing receptors mediating Itonic in 24WD animals. Consistent with a decrease in 24WD Itonic , bath application of GABA induced significantly less inhibition of the neuronal firing activity in 24WD compared to EU SON MNCs (P < 0.05). Taken together, the results of the present study indicate a selective decrease in GABAA Rs functions mediating Itonic as opposed to those mediating Iphasic in SON MNCs, demonstrating the functional significance of Itonic with respect to increasing neuronal excitability and hormone secretion in 24WD rats.

  1. Reproducibility of 24-h post-exercise changes in energy intake in overweight and obese women using current methodology.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gemma L; Lean, Michael E; Hankey, Catherine R

    2012-07-01

    Direct observation(s) of energy intake (EI) via buffet meals served in the laboratory are often carried out within short-term exercise intervention studies. The reproducibility of values obtained has not been assessed either under resting control conditions or post-exercise, in overweight and obese females. A total of fourteen sedentary, pre-menopausal females (BMI 30.0 (SD 5.1) kg/m²) completed four trials; two exercise and two control. Each trial lasted 24 h spanning over 2 d; conducted from afternoon on day 1 and morning on day 2. An exercise session to expend 1.65 MJ was completed on day 1 of exercise trials, and three buffet meals were served during each trial. Reproducibility of post-exercise changes in energy and macronutrient intakes was assessed at each individual buffet meal by intraclass correlation coefficient (r(i)). Only the r(i) values for post-exercise changes in energy (r(i) 0.44 (95 % CI - 0.03, 0.77), P = 0.03) and fat intake (r(i) 0.51 (95 % CI 0.04, 0.81), P = 0.02) at the lunch buffet meal achieved statistical significance; however, these r i values were weak and had large associated 95 % CI, which indicates a large degree of variability associated with these measurements. Energy and macronutrient intakes at the breakfast and evening buffet meals were not reproducible. This study concludes that the frequently used laboratory-based buffet meal method of assessing EI does not produce reliable, reproducible post-exercise changes in EI in overweight and obese women.

  2. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53), 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002

  3. Sleep-like behavior and 24-h rhythm disruption in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heise, I; Fisher, S P; Banks, G T; Wells, S; Peirson, S N; Foster, R G; Nolan, P M

    2015-02-01

    Down syndrome is a common disorder associated with intellectual disability in humans. Among a variety of severe health problems, patients with Down syndrome exhibit disrupted sleep and abnormal 24-h rest/activity patterns. The transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome, Tc1, is a trans-species mouse model for Down syndrome, carrying most of human chromosome 21 in addition to the normal complement of mouse chromosomes and expresses many of the phenotypes characteristic of Down syndrome. To date, however, sleep and circadian rhythms have not been characterized in Tc1 mice. Using both circadian wheel-running analysis and video-based sleep scoring, we showed that these mice exhibited fragmented patterns of sleep-like behaviour during the light phase of a 12:12-h light/dark (LD) cycle with an extended period of continuous wakefulness at the beginning of the dark phase. Moreover, an acute light pulse during night-time was less effective in inducing sleep-like behaviour in Tc1 animals than in wild-type controls. In wheel-running analysis, free running in constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) showed no changes in the circadian period of Tc1 animals although they did express subtle behavioural differences including a reduction in total distance travelled on the wheel and differences in the acrophase of activity in LD and in DD. Our data confirm that Tc1 mice express sleep-related phenotypes that are comparable with those seen in Down syndrome patients with moderate disruptions in rest/activity patterns and hyperactive episodes, while circadian period under constant lighting conditions is essentially unaffected.

  4. Twice daily melatonin peaks in Siberian but not Syrian hamsters under 24 h light:dark:light:dark cycles.

    PubMed

    Raiewski, Evan E; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Evans, Jennifer A; Glickman, Gena L; Gorman, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    The daily pattern of blood-borne melatonin varies seasonally under the control of a multi-oscillator circadian pacemaker. Here we examine patterns of melatonin secretion and locomotor activity in Siberian and Syrian hamsters entrained to bimodal LDLD8:4:8:4 and LD20:4 lighting schedules that facilitate novel temporal arrangements of component circadian oscillators. Under LDLD, both species robustly bifurcated wheel-running activity in distinct day scotophase (DS) and night scotophase (NS) bouts. Siberian hamsters displayed significant melatonin increases during each scotophase in LDLD, and in the single daily scotophase of LD20:4. The bimodal melatonin secretion pattern persisted in acutely extended 16 h scotophases. Syrian hamsters, in contrast, showed no significant increases in plasma melatonin during either scotophase of LDLD8:4:8:4 or in LD20:4. In this species, detectable levels were observed only when the DS of LDLD was acutely extended to yield 16 h of darkness. Established species differences in the phase lag of nocturnal melatonin secretion relative to activity onset may underlie the above contrast: In non-bifurcated entrainment to 24 h LD cycles, Siberian hamsters show increased melatonin secretion within ≈ 2 h after activity onset, whereas in Syrian hamsters, detectable melatonin secretion phase lags activity onset and the L/D transition by at least 4 h. The present results provide new evidence indicating multi-oscillator regulation of the waveform of melatonin secretion, specifically, the circadian control of the onset, offset and duration of nocturnal secretion.

  5. Counterregulatory deficits occur within 24 h of a single hypoglycemic episode in conscious, unrestrained, chronically cannulated mice

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Lauren; Ansari, Tasneem; McGuinness, Owen P.

    2006-01-01

    Hypoglycemia-induced Counterregulatory failure is a dangerous complication of insulin use in diabetes mellitus. Controlled hypoglycemia studies in gene knockout models, which require the use of mice, would aid in identifying causes of defective counterregulation. Because stress can influence Counterregulatory hormones and glucose homeostasis, we developed glucose clamps with remote blood sampling in conscious, unrestrained mice. Male C57BL/6 mice implanted with indwelling carotid artery and jugular vein catheters were subjected to 2 h of hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps 24 h apart, with a 6-h fast before each clamp. On day 1,, blood glucose was maintained (euglycemia, 178 ± 4 mg/dl) or decreased to 62 ± 1 mg/dl (hypoglycemia) by insulin (20 mU·kg−1·min−1) and variable glucose infusion. Donor blood was continuously infused to replace blood sample volume. Baseline plasma epinephrine (32 ± 8 pg/ml), corticosterone (16.1 ± 1.8 μg/dl), and glucagon (35 ± 3 pg/ml) were unchanged during euglycemia but increased significantly during hypoglycemia, with a glycemic threshold of ~80 mg/dl. On day 2, all mice underwent a hypoglycemic clamp (blood glucose, 64 ± 1 mg/dl). Compared with mice that were euglycemic on day 1, previously hypoglycemic mice had significantly higher glucose requirements and significantly lower plasma glucagon and corticosterone (n = 6/group) on day 2. Epinephrine tended to decrease, although not significantly, in repeatedly hypoglycemic mice. Pre- and post-clamp insulin levels were similar between groups. We conclude that counterregulatory responses to acute and repeated hypoglycemia in unrestrained, chronically cannulated mice reproduce aspects of counterregulation in humans, and that repeated hypoglycemia in mice is a useful model of counterregulatory failure. PMID:16533951

  6. Identification of trends in rainfall, rainy days and 24 h maximum rainfall over subtropical Assam in Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhajharia, Deepak; Yadav, Brijesh K.; Maske, Sunil; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Kar, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Trends in rainfall, rainy days and 24 h maximum rainfall are investigated using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test at twenty-four sites of subtropical Assam located in the northeastern region of India. The trends are statistically confirmed by both the parametric and non-parametric methods and the magnitudes of significant trends are obtained through the linear regression test. In Assam, the average monsoon rainfall (rainy days) during the monsoon months of June to September is about 1606 mm (70), which accounts for about 70% (64%) of the annual rainfall (rainy days). On monthly time scales, sixteen and seventeen sites (twenty-one sites each) witnessed decreasing trends in the total rainfall (rainy days), out of which one and three trends (seven trends each) were found to be statistically significant in June and July, respectively. On the other hand, seventeen sites witnessed increasing trends in rainfall in the month of September, but none were statistically significant. In December (February), eighteen (twenty-two) sites witnessed decreasing (increasing) trends in total rainfall, out of which five (three) trends were statistically significant. For the rainy days during the months of November to January, twenty-two or more sites witnessed decreasing trends in Assam, but for nine (November), twelve (January) and eighteen (December) sites, these trends were statistically significant. These observed changes in rainfall, although most time series are not convincing as they show predominantly no significance, along with the well-reported climatic warming in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons may have implications for human health and water resources management over bio-diversity rich Northeast India.

  7. [Urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Hörl, W H

    2011-09-01

    Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended.

  8. Size exclusion chromatographic analysis of polyphenol-serum albumin complexes.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Tsutomu; Hori, Mami; Hemingway, Richard W; Yoshida, Takashi

    2003-08-01

    Formation of water-soluble polyphenol-protein complexes was investigated by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). The combination of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), which did not form a precipitate after the solutions were mixed, showed an SEC peak due to complex formation 2-24 h after mixing. Peak size of the complex varied with time, suggesting slow change of the conformation of the protein accompanied by complexation. Formation of the complex was substantiated by ultrafiltration of the mixture; the complex did not pass through a membrane with a 100,000 nominal molecular weight limit (NMWL). The SEC profile varied with the combination of compounds. The peaks due to the complexes showed that the apparent value of the number average molecular weight (M(n)) of the EGCG-BSA complex was 2.8x10(5), while that of a pentagalloylglucose (PGG)-BSA complex was 9.5x10(5) under the conditions used. Dimeric hydrolyzable tannins, oenothein B and cornusiin A, also caused changes in the SEC profile of BSA, although the combinations did not show peaks attributable to formation of such large complexes observed for EGCG and PGG. Procyanidin B3 and (+)-catechin did not cause changes in the SEC profile of BSA. With cytochrome c, EGCG did not show any chromatographic changes.

  9. Sodium chloride crystallization from drying drops of albumin-salt solutions with different albumin concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakhno, T. A.

    2015-11-01

    The salt nature of crystalline structures resulting from drying albumin-salt solutions with a low (<1 wt %) and high (7 and 9 wt %) concentration of albumin and a NaCl concentration kept at a physiological level (0.9 wt %) is experimentally substantiated. Such a conclusion is drawn from the dynamics of phase transitions, morphological studies, and differences between the physicochemical properties of albumin and salt. Obtained data give a deeper insight into the albumin and salt distributions in drying liquids.

  10. Biosensor analysis of the interaction between immobilized human serum albumin and drug compounds for prediction of human serum albumin binding levels.

    PubMed

    Frostell-Karlsson, A; Remaeus, A; Roos, H; Andersson, K; Borg, P; Hämäläinen, M; Karlsson, R

    2000-05-18

    The interactions between a set of drugs, selected on the basis of reported human serum albumin (HSA) binding levels, and immobilized HSA were investigated using surface plasmon resonance technology. Major HSA binding sites were available after immobilization. The intensity of the signal obtained from the interaction of the drug with the HSA surface was correlated with the reported HSA binding level. Drugs were classified into groups corresponding to high, medium, or low HSA binding based on the injection of the drug at 80 microM concentration. A set of 10 drugs binding to alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) was also investigated and correlated with reported AGP binding data. The throughput of the presented assay is 100 compounds/24 h, and the sample consumption is less than 100 microL (8 nmol).

  11. Preliminary nutritional assessment of the Ecuadorian diet based on a 24-h food recall survey in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Llaguno, S N; Neira-Mosquera, J A; Pérez-Rodríguez, F; Moreno Rojas, R

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Realizar una evaluación nutricional de la dieta ecuatoriana y determinar el porcentaje de contribución de la ingesta de diferentes nutrientes en función del tipo de comida (desayuno, almuerzo, comida, merienda, y cena) y de la Referencia de Ingesta Dietética (RID). Métodos: Se realizó una encuesta piloto basada en el método del recordatorio de alimentación de 24 h en tres regiones concretas de Ecuador y se procesó la información recogida, se analizó y se comparó con las RID establecidas para la población latinoamericana. Resultados: El estudio encontró diferencias significativas para energía y ciertas vitaminas en hombres y en mujeres, además de determinar que la mayor contribución energética se obtenía en la comida, seguida de la merienda y el desayuno. Las comidas intermedias (almuerzo, merienda y cena) contribuían de una manera significativamente menor en la dieta diaria en comparación con otros tipos de comidas. Además, se observó que las ingestas analizadas no alcanzaban las RID para hidratos de carbono, algunas vitaminas (tiamina, ácido pantoténico, biotina, folato, vitamina D y vitamina E) y minerales (Ca, K, Cu, Mn, I y Fe). La ingesta de NA estaba bastante por encima de las RID y el Límite Superior Tolerable proporcionado por la USDA, lo que indica un problema de salud pública en relación con este electrolito. Conclusiones: Esta encuesta piloto puede considerarse como un punto de partida para obtener una visión más profunda de la dieta ecuatoriana. Esto permitirá determinar los patrones de consumo que afectan al bienestar de la población y establecer efectos positivos y efectos adversos del patrón de consumo en Ecuador.

  12. Reporting accuracy of population dietary sodium intake using duplicate 24 h dietary recalls and a salt questionnaire.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Dofková, Marcela; Lillegaard, Inger Therese L; De Maeyer, Mieke; Andersen, Lene Frost; Ruprich, Jirí; Řehůřková, Irena; Geelen, Anouk; van 't Veer, Pieter; De Henauw, Stefaan; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; de Boer, Evelien; Ocké, Marga; Slimani, Nadia; Huybrechts, Inge

    2015-02-14

    High dietary Na intake is associated with multiple health risks, making accurate assessment of population dietary Na intake critical. In the present study, reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was evaluated by 24 h urinary Na excretion using the EPIC-Soft 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR). Participants from a subsample of the European Food Consumption Validation study (n 365; countries: Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic), aged 45-65 years, completed two 24 h urine collections and two 24-HDR. Reporting accuracy was calculated as the ratio of reported Na intake to that estimated from the urinary biomarker. A questionnaire on salt use was completed in order to assess the discretionary use of table and cooking salt. The reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was assessed using two scenarios: (1) a salt adjustment procedure using data from the salt questionnaire; (2) without salt adjustment. Overall, reporting accuracy improved when data from the salt questionnaire were included. The mean reporting accuracy was 0·67 (95 % CI 0·62, 0·72), 0·73 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·79) and 0·79 (95 % CI 0·74, 0·85) for Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic, respectively. Reporting accuracy decreased with increasing BMI among male subjects in all the three countries. For women from Belgium and Norway, reporting accuracy was highest among those classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2: 0·73, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·81 and 0·81, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·86, respectively). The findings from the present study showed considerable underestimation of dietary Na intake assessed using two 24-HDR. The questionnaire-based salt adjustment procedure improved reporting accuracy by 7-13 %. Further development of both the questionnaire and EPIC-Soft databases (e.g. inclusion of a facet to describe salt content) is necessary to estimate population dietary Na intakes accurately.

  13. Urinary Interleukin-8 Is a Biomarker of Stress in Emergency Physicians, Especially with Advancing Age — The JOBSTRESS* Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dutheil, Frédéric; Trousselard, Marion; Perrier, Christophe; Lac, Gérard; Chamoux, Alain; Duclos, Martine; Naughton, Geraldine; Mnatzaganian, George; Schmidt, Jeannot

    2013-01-01

    Background Emergency physicians are exposed to greater stress during a 24-hour shift (24 hS) than a 14-hour night shift (14 hS), with an impact lasting several days. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is postulated to be a chronic stress biomarker. However, no studies have tracked IL-8 over several shifts or used it for monitoring short-term residual stress. The IL-8 response to the shifts may also increase with age. Conveniently, IL-8 can be measured non-intrusively from urine. Methods We conducted a shifts-randomized trial comparing 17 emergency physicians’ urinary IL-8 levels during a 24 hS, a 14 hS, and a control day (clerical work on return from leave). Mean levels of IL-8 were compared using a Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. Independent associations of key factors including shifts, stress, and age with IL-8 levels were further assessed in a multivariable generalized estimating equations model. Results Mean urinary IL-8 levels almost doubled during and after a 24 hS compared with a 14 hS or a control day. Furthermore, IL-8 levels failed to return to control values at the end of the third day after the shift despite a rest day following the 24 hS. In the multivariable model, engaging in a 24 hS, self-reported stress, and age were independently associated with higher IL-8 levels. A 24 hS significantly increased IL-8 levels by 1.9 ng (p = .007). Similarly, for every unit increase in self-reported stress, there was a 0.11 ng increase in IL-8 levels (p = .003); and for every one year advance in age of physicians, IL-8 levels also increased by 0.11 ng (p = .018). Conclusion The 24 hS generated a prolonged response of the immune system. Urinary IL-8 was a strong biomarker of stress under intensive and prolonged demands, both acutely and over time. Because elevated IL-8 levels are associated with cardiovascular disease and negative psychological consequences, we suggest that emergency physicians limit their exposure to 24 hS, especially with advancing age. PMID:23977105

  14. Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men.

    PubMed

    Bérubé-Parent, Sonia; Pelletier, Catherine; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo

    2005-09-01

    It has been reported that green tea has a thermogenic effect, due to its caffeine content and probably also to the catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The main aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a mixture of green tea and Guarana extracts containing a fixed dose of caffeine and variable doses of EGCG on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Fourteen subjects took part to this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. Each subject was tested five times in a metabolic chamber to measure 24 h energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure. During each stay, the subjects ingested a capsule of placebo or capsules containing 200 mg caffeine and a variable dose of EGCG (90, 200, 300 or 400 mg) three times daily, 30 min before standardized meals. Twenty-four hour energy expenditure increased significantly by about 750 kJ with all EGCG-caffeine mixtures compared with placebo. No effect of the EGCG-caffeine mixture was observed for lipid oxidation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by about 7 and 5 mmHg, respectively, with the EGCG-caffeine mixtures compared with placebo. This increase was significant only for 24 h diastolic blood pressure. The main finding of the study was the increase in 24 h energy expenditure with the EGCG-caffeine mixtures. However, this increase was similar with all doses of EGCG in the mixtures.

  15. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE), and its components-ba...

  16. Three 15-min bouts of moderate postmeal walking significantly improves 24-h glycemic control in older people at risk for impaired glucose tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three 15-min bouts of postmeal walking with 45 min of sustained walking on 24-h glycemic control in older persons at risk for glucose intolerance. Inactive older (=60 years of age) participants (N = 10) were recruited from the community a...

  17. Myocardial infarction occurs with a similar 24 h pattern in the 4G/5G versions of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

    PubMed

    Bergheanu, Sandrin C; Pons, Douwe; Jukema, J Wouter; van der Hoeven, Bas L; Liem, Su-San; Vandenbroucke, Jan P; Rosendaal, Frits R; le Cessie, Saskia; Schalij, Martin J; van der Bom, Johanna G

    2009-05-01

    PAI-1 expression is regulated by a 4G/5G promoter polymorphism. The 4G allele is associated with greater circadian variation of PAI-1 levels. We hypothesized that the 24 h variation of cardiac risk is more pronounced among persons with the 4G4G genotype than among ones with 4G5G and 5G5G genotypes. We assessed the time of onset of symptoms in 623 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) enrolled in the MISSION! Study between February 1, 2004, and October 29, 2006. All of the patients were genotyped for the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism. We quantified the amplitude of the 24 h variation of AMI with a generalized linear model with Poisson distribution. A morning peak, between 06:00-11:59 h (n = 197; 32% of all cases), in the onset of symptoms of AMI was observed. The group composed of patients with the 4G4G genotype did not have a more pronounced morning peak than the groups composed of other genotypes; the 24 h variation was 38% (95% confidence interval 12-70%) in the group of 4G4G patients and 34% (14-58%) and 56% (20-100%) in the 4G5G and 5G5G groups of patients, respectively. Our findings show that 24 h variation of cardiac risk is not more pronounced among the 4G4G genotype of PAI-1.

  18. COMPARISON OF 24H AVERAGE VOC MONITORING RESULTS FOR RESIDENTIAL INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR USING CARBOPACK X-FILLED DIFFUSIVE SAMPLERS AND ACTIVE SAMPLING - A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical results obtained by thermal desorption GC/MS for 24h diffusive sampling of 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compared with results of time-averaged active sampling at a known constant flow rate. Air samples were collected with co-located duplicate diffusive samp...

  19. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  20. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  1. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  2. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  3. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  4. Influence of 8 and 24-h storage of whole blood at ambient temperature on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, thrombin time, antithrombin and D-dimer.

    PubMed

    Kemkes-Matthes, Bettina; Fischer, Ronald; Peetz, Dirk

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluates the effect of whole blood storage on common coagulation parameters in order to confirm or revise acceptable storage limits as defined by current guidelines and diverse study reports. Aliquots were taken from the citrated whole blood of inpatients and outpatients (n = 147) within 4 h after blood withdrawal and after extended storage of whole blood for 8 and 24 h at ambient temperature. Aliquots were centrifuged and analyzed for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin (AT), thrombin time (TT) and D-dimer. For each parameter, samples from 33-56 patients were investigated covering a wide range of normal and pathological values. Samples from patients receiving heparin were excluded from analyses of APTT and TT. All assays were performed using reagents and an analyzer from Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Products GmbH. The mean percentage change after 8 and 24-h storage was below 10% for all parameters. Considering the changes in individual samples, all parameters can be reliably tested after 8-h storage, since less than 15% of the samples demonstrated individual changes of above 10%. The acceptable storage time can be extended to 24 h for PT, TT and D-dimer. Clinically relevant changes were detected after 24-h storage for APTT: 41% of the investigated samples demonstrated changes of above 10%. After 24-h storage, changes for Fbg and AT values were more than 15% in five out of 49 and in three out of 45 samples, respectively. This sporadic increase of values is clinically acceptable except for borderline samples.

  5. The effects of telmisartan alone or with hydrochlorothiazide on morning and 24-h ambulatory BP control: results from a practice-based study (SURGE 2).

    PubMed

    Parati, Gianfranco; Bilo, Grzegorz; Redon, Josep

    2013-04-01

    Observational studies have shown that 24-h and morning ambulatory blood pressure (BP) control is low. This large-scale, practice-based study evaluated the effects of telmisartan 40 or 80 mg alone or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg on these BP parameters over 8 weeks; treatment was adjusted if clinic BP remained ≥140/90 mm Hg. A total of 863 patients were evaluated (baseline mean clinic BP, morning and 24-h ambulatory BP: 155±15/93±10 mm Hg, 137±15/83±11 mm Hg, 133±14/79±10 mm Hg, respectively; 68% were previously treated at baseline). Telmisartan with/without HCTZ significantly reduced the mean morning ambulatory BP (-8.2/-4.9 mm Hg), daytime ambulatory BP (-8.0/-4.7 mm Hg), 24-h ambulatory BP (-7.9/-4.7 mm Hg) and clinic BP (-22.3/-13.2 mm Hg) (all P<0.001) in previously untreated and in treated patients who switched to telmisartan and telmisartan/HCTZ. After treatment with telmisartan with/without HCTZ, the morning ambulatory BP control increased from 36.5 to 64.4%; daytime ambulatory BP control increased from 40.8 to 67.6%; 53.0% of patients achieved 24-h ambulatory BP <125/80 mm Hg and 62% achieved <130/80 mm Hg targets. Only 0.8% (7/863) reported an adverse event. In summary, telmisartan and telmisartan/HCTZ increased smooth 24-h BP control in daily management of hypertension.

  6. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  7. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  8. Effect of diet orange soda on urinary lithogenicity.

    PubMed

    Sumorok, Nicola T; Asplin, John R; Eisner, Brian H; Stoller, Marshall L; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-06-01

    Studies have shown that certain beverages decrease urinary lithogenicity by increasing urine citrate excretion. Diet Sunkist Orange soda had the highest concentration of citrate and total alkali content among 12 diet sodas previously assayed. We studied the effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda consumption on urinary chemistry. Nine healthy men and women ages 26-54 years completed the study. During the control period, subjects drank 36 oz of water for 3 days in addition to their own, self-selected diet and recorded a food diary. During the study period, the subjects drank three 12-oz cans of Diet Sunkist Orange soda a day instead of water, and replicated their diets from the control period. In each period, the subjects performed 24-h urine collections on days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, including urinary citrate levels and pH. Diet Sunkist Orange soda increased urinary citrate excretion by 60 mg/day, which was not statistically significant (95% CI -75 to 195, P value 0.34). There was no significant change in pH from the control period to the study period (pH: 6.29-6.21; 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.25, P = 0.30). Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not significantly different between the control and study periods. Despite the relatively high citrate and total alkali content of Diet Sunkist Orange soda, the volume consumed in this study (36 oz per day) did not provide sufficient potential base to significantly alter urine composition in healthy subjects with normocitraturia. The effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda on urinary chemistry in patients with hypocitraturia and nephrolithiasis is not likely to have a clinically significant effect to prevent calcium or uric acid stones.

  9. [Determination of urinary protein using the biuret method].

    PubMed

    Morozova, N A; Baryshnikova, T A

    1991-01-01

    Interlaboratory inspection of the quality of laboratory investigations in the Saratov region, carried out in 1987-1988, has revealed a 9 to 50 percent share of unsatisfactory results of measurements of urinary protein by the Roberts-Stolnikov method. This fault was not mended despite the measures taken and the errors detected in the activities of clinical diagnostic laboratories. Analysis of the relevant literature has led the authors to a conclusion that the biuret method, the most specific and sensitive of all the universal methods, should be given preference to. The final stage of the investigation is carried out with the use of a KFK-2M photoelectrocolorimeter. A standard curve based on albumin calibration solution was plotted to estimate the results. At present 15 clinical diagnostic laboratories of this region are using the biuret method. Their results have improved, as evidenced by interlaboratory quality control: the share of satisfactory results of urinary protein measurements makes up 83 to 100 percent.

  10. Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000134.htm Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... Dmochowski RR, Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al; Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American ...

  11. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland) can cause lower urinary tract disease in cats. Although they are much less common causes, FLUTD ... your veterinarian about the best diet for your cat. Many commercial diets are acceptable, but some urinary ...

  12. Relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation, using urinary excretion

    PubMed Central

    Aswania, O A; Corlett, S A; Chrystyn, H

    1999-01-01

    Aims To determine if a urinary excretion method, previously described for salbutamol, could also indicate the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation from a metered dose inhaler. Method Inhaled (INH), inhaled+oral charcoal (INHC), oral (ORAL) and oral+oral charcoal (ORALC) 20 mg doses of sodium cromoglycate were given via a randomised cross-over design to 11 healthy volunteers trained on how to use a metered dose inhaler. Urine samples were collected at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and up to 24 h post dosing and the sodium cromoglycate urinary concentration was measured using a high performance liquid chromatographic method. Results No sodium cromoglycate was detected in the urine up to 24 h following ORALC dosing. A mean (s.d.) of 3.6 (4.3) μg, 10.4 (10.9) μg and 83.7 (71.1) μg of the ORAL dose was excreted, in the urine, during the 0.5, 1.0 and 24 h post dose collection periods, respectively. Following INH dosing, the renal excretion was significantly higher (P < 0.01) with 32.9 (14.5) μg, 61.2 (28.3) μg and 305.6 (82.3) μg excreted, respectively. The SCG excreted at 0.5, 1.0 and 24 h collection periods following INHC dosing were 26.3 (8.4) μg, 49.3 (18.1) μg and 184.9 (98.4) μg, respectively. There was no significant difference between the excretion rate of sodium cromoglycate following INHC when compared with INH dosing in the first 0.5 and 1.0 h. Conclusions The urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate in the first 0.5 h post inhalation can be used to compare the relative lung deposition of two inhaled products or of the same product using different inhalation techniques. This represents the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation. Similar 24 h urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate can be use to compare the total dose delivered to the body from two different inhalation products/inhalation methods. This represents the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the body

  13. Acute urinary retention in a pre-school girl with constipation

    PubMed Central

    Traslaviña, Guillermo A. Ariza; Ciampo, Luiz Antonio Del; Ferraz, Ivan Savioli

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report a case of a preschool girl who developed acute urinary retention associated with constipation. Case description: A girl aged six years old presented a 24 h history of inability to urinate. She was went twice to the emergency room during this period. In the first admission, 12 h after the onset of the symptoms, she presented abdominal pain and acute urinary retention. After the drainage by urinary catheterization of 300 mL of clear urine, she presented relief of the symptoms and, as urinalysis had no change, the patient was discharged home. Twelve hours after the first visit, she returned to the emergency room complaining about the same symptoms. At physical examination, there was only a palpable and distended bladder up to the umbilicus with no other abnormalities. Again, a urinary catheterization was performed, which drained 450 mL of clear urine, with immediate relief of the symptoms. Urinalysis and urine culture had no abnormalities. During the anamnesis, the diagnosis of constipation was considered and a plain abdominal radiography was performed, which identified large amount of feces throughout the colon (fecal retention). An enema with a 12% glycerin solution was prescribed for three days. During follow-up, the child used laxatives and dietary modifications, this contributed to the resolution of the constipation. There were no other episodes of urinary retention after 6 months of follow-up. Comments: Acute urinary retention in children is a rare phenomenon and constipation should be considered as a cause. PMID:26298658

  14. The 24 h pattern of arterial pressure in mice is determined mainly by heart rate‐driven variation in cardiac output

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Theodore W.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have systematically investigated whether daily patterns of arterial blood pressure over 24 h are mediated by changes in cardiac output, peripheral resistance, or both. Understanding the hemodynamic mechanisms that determine the 24 h patterns of blood pressure may lead to a better understanding of how such patterns become disturbed in hypertension and influence risk for cardiovascular events. In conscious, unrestrained C57BL/6J mice, we investigated whether the 24 h pattern of arterial blood pressure is determined by variation in cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, or both and also whether variations in cardiac output are mediated by variations in heart rate and or stroke volume. As expected, arterial pressure and locomotor activity were significantly (P < 0.05) higher during the nighttime period compared with the daytime period when mice are typically sleeping (+12.5 ± 1.0 mmHg, [13%] and +7.7 ± 1.3 activity counts, [254%], respectively). The higher arterial pressure during the nighttime period was mediated by higher cardiac output (+2.6 ± 0.3 mL/min, [26%], P < 0.05) in association with lower peripheral resistance (−1.5 ± 0.3 mmHg/mL/min, [−13%] P < 0.05). The increased cardiac output during the nighttime was mainly mediated by increased heart rate (+80.0 ± 16.5 beats/min, [18%] P < 0.05), as stroke volume increased minimally at night (+1.6 ± 0.5 μL per beat, [6%] P < 0.05). These results indicate that in C57BL/6J mice, the 24 h pattern of blood pressure is hemodynamically mediated primarily by the 24 h pattern of cardiac output which is almost entirely determined by the 24 h pattern of heart rate. These findings suggest that the differences in blood pressure between nighttime and daytime are mainly driven by differences in heart rate which are strongly correlated with differences in locomotor activity. PMID:25428952

  15. Modification over time of pulse wave velocity parallel to changes in aortic BP, as well as in 24-h ambulatory brachial BP.

    PubMed

    Oliveras, A; Segura, J; Suarez, C; García-Ortiz, L; Abad-Cardiel, M; Vigil, L; Gómez-Marcos, M A; Sans Atxer, L; Martell-Claros, N; Ruilope, L M; de la Sierra, A

    2016-03-01

    Arterial stiffness as assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is a marker of preclinical organ damage and a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes, independently of blood pressure (BP). However, limited evidence exists on the association between long-term variation (Δ) on aortic BP (aoBP) and ΔcfPWV. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of ΔBP with ΔcfPWV over time, as assessed by office and 24-h ambulatory peripheral BP, and aoBP. AoBP and cfPWV were evaluated in 209 hypertensive patients with either diabetes or metabolic syndrome by applanation tonometry (Sphygmocor) at baseline(b) and at 12 months of follow-up(fu). Peripheral BP was also determined by using validated oscillometric devices (office(o)-BP) and on an outpatient basis by using a validated (Spacelabs-90207) device (24-h ambulatory BP). ΔcfPWV over time was calculated as follows: ΔcfPWV=[(cfPWVfu-cfPWVb)/cfPWVb] × 100. ΔBP over time resulted from the same formula applied to BP values obtained with the three different measurement techniques. Correlations (Spearman 'Rho') between ΔBP and ΔcfPWV were calculated. Mean age was 62 years, 39% were female and 80% had type 2 diabetes. Baseline office brachial BP (mm Hg) was 143±20/82±12. Follow-up (12 months later) office brachial BP (mm Hg) was 136±20/79±12. ΔcfPWV correlated with ΔoSBP (Rho=0.212; P=0.002), Δ24-h SBP (Rho=0.254; P<0.001), Δdaytime SBP (Rho=0.232; P=0.001), Δnighttime SBP (Rho=0.320; P<0.001) and ΔaoSBP (Rho=0.320; P<0.001). A multiple linear regression analysis included the following independent variables: ΔoSBP, Δ24-h SBP, Δdaytime SBP, Δnighttime SBP and ΔaoSBP. ΔcfPWV was independently associated with Δ24-h SBP (β-coefficient=0.195; P=0.012) and ΔaoSBP (β-coefficient= 0.185; P=0.018). We conclude that changes in both 24-h SBP and aoSBP more accurately reflect changes in arterial stiffness than do office BP measurements.

  16. Habitual dietary phosphorus intake and urinary excretion in chronic kidney disease patients: a 3-day observational study.

    PubMed

    Salomo, L; Kamper, A-L; Poulsen, G M; Poulsen, S K; Astrup, A; Rix, M

    2016-12-14

    Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate the daily dietary phosphorus intake compared with recommendations in CKD patients and to evaluate the reproducibility of the 24-h urinary phosphorus excretion. Twenty CKD patients stage 3-4 from the outpatient clinic, collected 24-h urine and kept dietary records for 3 consecutive days. The mean daily phosphorus intake was 1367±499, 1642±815 and 1426±706 mg/day, respectively (P=0.57). The mean urinary phosphorus excretion was 914±465, 954±414 and 994±479 mg/day, respectively (P=0.21). In this population of CKD patients stage 3-4 the daily phosphorus intake was above the recommended. Twenty-four-hour urinary phosphorus excretion was reproducible and the data indicate that a single 24-h urine collection is sufficient to estimate the individual phosphorus excretion.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 14 December 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.247.

  17. Albumin for end-stage liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, June Sung

    2012-03-01

    Albumin has been widely used in patients with cirrhosis in an attempt to improve circulatory and renal functions. The benefits of albumin infusions in preventing the deterioration in renal function associated with large-volume paracentesis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and established hepatorenal syndrome in conjunction with a vasoconstrictor are well established. While some of these indications are supported by the results of randomized studies, others are based only on clinical experience and have not been proved in prospective studies. The paucity of well-designed trials, the high cost of albumin, the lack of a clear-cut survival benefit, and fear of transmitting unknown infections make the use of albumin controversial. The recent development of the molecular adsorbent recirculating system, an albumin dialysis, is an example of the capacity of albumin to act by mechanisms other than its oncotic effect. Efforts should be made to define the indications for albumin use, the dose required, and predictors of response, so that patients gain the maximum benefit from its administration.

  18. Evaluation of albumin structural modifications through cobalt-albumin binding (CAB) assay.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunyoung; Eom, Ji-Eun; Jeon, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Tae Hee; Kim, Eunnam; Jhon, Gil-Ja; Kwon, Youngjoo

    2014-03-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in the human body. HSA injections prepared by fractionating human blood have mainly covered the demand for albumin to treat hypoalbuminemia, the state of low concentration of albumin in blood. HSA in solution may exist in various forms such as monomers, oligomers, polymers, or as mixtures, and its conformational change and/or aggregation may occur easily. Considering these characteristics, there is a great chance of modification and polymer formation during the preparation processes of albumin products, especially injections. The albumin cobalt binding (ACB) test reported by Bar-Or et al. was originally designed to detect ischemia modified albumin (IMA), which contains the modified HSA N-terminal sequence by cleavage of the last two amino acids. In this study, we developed a cobalt albumin binding (CAB) assay to correct the flaws of the ACB test with improving the sensitivity and precision. The newly developed CAB assay easily detects albumin configuration alterations and may be able to be used in developing a quality control method for albumin and its pharmaceutical formulations including albumin injections.

  19. [Urinary catheter biofilm infections].

    PubMed

    Holá, V; Růzicka, F

    2008-04-01

    Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient.

  20. Urinary bladder xanthomatous cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shrenik J.; Ajitsaria, Vineet; Singh, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Xanthoma cystitis of urinary bladder is a rare entity and may present as an intravesical mass. A 38-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and imaging was done which was suggestive of a malignant mass with surrounding tissue infiltration. Partial cystectomy was performed, and histological examination of the mass showed xanthomatous cystitis. PMID:28197037

  1. Urinary Tract Infections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  2. Anthropometrics provide a better estimate of urinary organic acid anion excretion than a dietary mineral intake-based estimate in children, adolescents, and young adults.

    PubMed

    Berkemeyer, Shoma; Remer, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    The role of elevated net endogenous acid production (NEAP) in the causation of osteoporosis, muscle wasting, and kidney stones is currently under discussion. The aim of this study was to examine whether urinary organic acid anion excretion, a major component of NEAP, is predicted primarily by anthropometric- (OA(anthro)) or diet- (OA(diet)) based estimates. Dietary intakes, anthropometric data, and 24-h urinary excretion rates of organic acids (24h-OA(urine)) were determined cross sectionally in healthy children (6-7 y; n = 217), adolescents (13-14 y; n = 91), and young adults (18-22 y; n = 82). OA(anthro) was computed from body surface area and OA(diet) calculated using a published algorithm based on dietary intakes of mineral anions and cations. There was a significant increase (P < 0.0001) in 24h-OA(urine) across the age groups that was no longer discernible after correction for body surface area. In almost all sex-stratified subsamples, OA(anthro) had a higher correlation with 24h-OA(urine) than OA(diet). Multiple regression analyses, using energy-corrected diet variables, revealed that OA(anthro) was consistently the primary predictor of 24h-OA(urine) (R(2) varying from 0.15 to 0.39) and dietary fat and protein were sporadic predictors. In accordance with the observed age independency of 24h-OA(urine) after body surface area correction, our findings indicate that OA(anthro) is a better estimate of 24h-OA(urine) in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults than OA(diet). This further confirms that the (principally diet-dependent) NEAP comprises a component, i.e., organic acid anions, that is reasonably predictable by anthropometrics. Consequently, the other component, i.e., the potential renal acid load, appears to be the primary parameter that characterizes the diet-induced acid load.

  3. Utilization of potatoes for life support systems in space. III - Productivity at successive harvest dates under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.

    1987-01-01

    Efficient crop production for controlled ecological life support systems requires near-optimal growing conditions with harvests taken when production per unit area per unit time is maximum. This maximum for potato was determined using data on Norland plants which were grown in walk-in growth rooms under 12-h and 24-h photoperiods at 16 C. Results show that high tuber production can be obtained from potatoes grown under a continuous light regime. The dry weights (dwt) of tuber and of the entire plants were found to increase under both photoperiods until the final harvest date (148 days), reaching 5732 g tuber dwt and 704 g total dwt under 12-h, and 791 g tuber dwt and 972 g total dwt under 24-h.

  4. Effect of X-ray and ethylnitrosourea exposures separated by 24 h on specific-locus mutation frequency in mouse stem-cell spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Russell, W L; Carpenter, D A; Hitotsumachi, S

    1988-04-01

    Specific-locus mutation frequencies in mouse stem-cell spermatogonia were determined in 3 experiments in which mature male mice were exposed to 100,m 300, or 500 R of X-rays followed, 24 h later, by intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg of ethylnitrosourea (ENU). The purpose was to find out if the mutation frequencies would be augmented over those expected on the basis of additivity of the effects of the separate treatments. Such augmentation had been observed in earlier work in which exposure to 100 or 500 R of X-rays was followed 24 h later by a second exposure of 500 R. No augmentation was observed for X-rays followed by ENU. The mutation frequencies in all 3 experiments actually fell below those expected on the basis of additivity, although the reductions were not statistically significant.

  5. Urinary Netrin-1: A New Biomarker for the Early Diagnosis of Renal Damage in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Övünç Hacıhamdioğlu, Duygu; Hacıhamdioğlu, Bülent; Altun, Demet; Müftüoğlu, Tuba; Karademir, Ferhan; Süleymanoğlu, Selami

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Urinary netrin-1 is a new marker to demonstrate early tubular damage. The aim of this study was to determine whether urinary netrin-1 is increased in obese children. Methods: A total of 68 normoalbuminuric and normotensive obese patients and 65 controls were included in the study. Urine samples were collected for assessment of urinary phosphorus, sodium, potassium, creatinine, albumin, and netrin-1. Blood samples were collected for measurements of fasting glucose, insulin, lipid, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels. Homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index was calculated. Results: Gender and age were similar between obese and control groups (12.01±3.03 vs. 11.7±3.2 years, p=0.568 and 33 vs. 35 girls, p=0.543, respectively). Obese patients had significantly higher netrin-1 excretion than the controls (841.68±673.17 vs. 228.94±137.25 pg/mg creatinine, p=0.000). Urinary netrin-1 level was significantly higher in obese subjects with insulin resistance compared to those without insulin resistance (1142±1181 vs. 604.9±589.91 pg/mg creatinine, p=0.001). Conclusion: In normotensive and normoalbuminuric obese children, urinary netrin-1 level can increase before onset of albuminuria. Urinary netrin-1 excretion appears to be affected predominantly by insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Urinary netrin-1 may be a new biomarker for determining early tubular injury in obese children. PMID:27087488

  6. The acceptability of repeat Internet-based hybrid diet assessment of previous 24-h dietary intake: administration of the Oxford WebQ in UK Biobank.

    PubMed

    Galante, Julieta; Adamska, Ligia; Young, Alan; Young, Heather; Littlejohns, Thomas J; Gallacher, John; Allen, Naomi

    2016-02-28

    Although dietary intake over a single 24-h period may be atypical of an individual's habitual pattern, multiple 24-h dietary assessments can be representative of habitual intake and help in assessing seasonal variation. Web-based questionnaires are convenient for the participant and result in automatic data capture for study investigators. This study reports on the acceptability of repeated web-based administration of the Oxford WebQ--a 24-h recall of frequency from a set food list suitable for self-completion from which energy and nutrient values can be automatically generated. As part of the UK Biobank study, four invitations to complete the Oxford WebQ were sent by email over a 16-month period. Overall, 176 012 (53% of those invited) participants completed the online version of the Oxford WebQ at least once and 66% completed it more than once, although only 16% completed it on all four occasions. The response rate for any one round of invitations varied between 34 and 26%. On most occasions, the Oxford WebQ was completed on the same day that they received the invitation, although this was less likely if sent on a weekend. Participants who completed the Oxford WebQ tended to be white, female, slightly older, less deprived and more educated, which is typical of health-conscious volunteer-based studies. These findings provide preliminary evidence to suggest that repeated 24-h dietary assessment via the Internet is acceptable to the public and a feasible strategy for large population-based studies.

  7. Gene expression responses over 24 h to lengthening and shortening contractions in human muscle: major changes in CSRP3, MUSTN1, SIX1, and FBXO32.

    PubMed

    Kostek, Matthew C; Chen, Yi-Wen; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Shi, Rongye; Fedele, Mark J; Esser, Karyn A; Rennie, Michael J

    2007-09-19

    Resistance training using lengthening (eccentric) contractions induces greater increases in muscle size than shortening (concentric) contractions, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. Using temporal expression profiling, we compared changes in gene expression within 24 h of an acute bout of each type of contractions conducted simultaneously in the quadriceps of different legs. Five healthy young men performed shortening contractions with one leg while the contralateral leg performed lengthening contractions. Biopsies were taken from both legs before exercise and 3, 6, and 24 h afterwards, in the fed state. Expression profiling (n = 3) was performed using a custom-made Affymetrix MuscleChip containing probe sets of approximately 3,300 known genes and expressed sequence tags expressed in skeletal muscle. We identified 51 transcripts differentially regulated between the two exercise modes. Using unsupervised hierarchical clustering, we identified four distinct clusters, three of which corresponded to unique functional categories (protein synthesis, stress response/early growth, and sarcolemmal structure). Using quantitative RT-PCR (n = 5), we verified expression changes (lengthening/shortening) in SIX1 (3 h, -1.9-fold, P < 0.001), CSRP3 (6 h, 2.9-fold, P < 0.05), and MUSTN1 (24 h, 4.3-fold, P < 0.05). We examined whether FBXO32/atrogin-1/MAFbx, a known regulator of protein breakdown and of muscle atrophy was differentially expressed: the gene was downregulated after lengthening contractions (3 h, 2.7-fold, P < 0.05; 6 h, 3.3-fold, P < 0.05; 24 h, 2.3-fold, P < 0.05). The results suggested that lengthening and shortening contractions activated distinct molecular pathways as early as 3 h postexercise. The molecular differences might contribute to mechanisms underlying the physiological adaptations seen with training using the two modes of exercise.

  8. Evaluation of reduction of Fraser incubation by 24h in the EN ISO 11290-1 standard on detection and diversity of Listeria species.

    PubMed

    Gnanou Besse, Nathalie; Favret, Sandra; Desreumaux, Jennifer; Decourseulles Brasseur, Emilie; Kalmokoff, Martin

    2016-05-02

    The EN ISO 11290-1 method for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from food is carried out using a double enrichment in Fraser broths. While the method is effective it is also quite long requiring 4-7 days to process a contaminated food, and may be adversely affected by inter-strain and/or inter-species competition in samples containing mixed Listeria populations. Currently, we have little information on the impact of competition on food testing under routine conditions. Food samples (n=130) were analyzed using the standard method and the evolution of Listeria populations in 89 naturally contaminated samples followed over the entire enrichment process. In most instances, maximum increase in L. monocytogenes population occurred over the first 24h following sub-culture in Full Fraser broth and strain recovery was similar at both 24 and 48 h, indicating that the second enrichment step can be reduced by 24h without impacting the recovery of L. monocytogenes or affecting the sensitivity of the method. In approximately 6% of naturally contaminated samples the presence of competing Listeria species adversely impacted L. monocytogenes population levels. Moreover, these effects were more pronounced during the latter 24h of the Fraser enrichment, and potentially could affect or complicate the isolation of these strains.

  9. A comparison of biochemical tests for pheochromocytoma: measurement of fractionated plasma metanephrines compared with the combination of 24-hour urinary metanephrines and catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Sawka, Anna M; Jaeschke, Roman; Singh, Ravinder J; Young, William F

    2003-02-01

    We compared the diagnostic efficacy of fractionated plasma metanephrine measurements to measurements of 24-h urinary total metanephrines and catecholamines in outpatients tested for pheochromocytoma at Mayo Clinic Rochester from January 1, 1999, until November 27, 2000. Catecholaminesecreting tumors were histologically proven. The sensitivity of fractionated plasma metanephrines was 97% (30 of 31 patients), compared with a sensitivity of 90% (28 of 31) for urinary total metanephrines and catecholamines (P = 0.63). The specificity of fractionated plasma metanephrines was 85% (221 of 261), compared with 98% (257 of 261; P < 0.001) for urinary measurements. The likelihood ratios for positive tests were 6.3 (95% confidence interval, 4.7 to 8.5) for fractionated plasma metanephrines and 58.9 (95% confidence interval, 22.1 to 156.9) for urinary total metanephrines and catecholamines. An adrenal pheochromocytoma was missed by urinary testing in two patients with familial syndromes and one asymptomatic patient with an incidentally discovered adrenal mass. An extra-adrenal paraganglioma was missed by plasma testing in one patient. In conclusion, measurements of 24-h urinary total metanephrines and catecholamines yield fewer false-positive results, an attribute preferred for testing low-risk patients, but fractionated plasma metanephrine measurements may be preferred in high-risk patients with familial endocrine syndromes.

  10. Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  11. A review of albumin binding in CKD.

    PubMed

    Meijers, Björn K I; Bammens, Bert; Verbeke, Kristin; Evenepoel, Pieter

    2008-05-01

    Hypoalbuminemia is associated with excess mortality in patients with kidney disease. Albumin is an important oxidant scavenger and an abundant carrier protein for numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds. Several specific binding sites for anionic, neutral, and cationic ligands were described. Overall, the extent of binding depends on the ligand and albumin concentration, albumin-binding affinity, and presence of competing ligands. Chronic kidney disease affects all these determinants. This may result in altered pharmacokinetics and increased risk of toxicity. Renal clearance of albumin-bound solutes mainly depends on tubular clearance. Dialytic clearance by means of conventional hemodialysis/hemofiltration and peritoneal dialysis is limited. Other epuration techniques combining hemodialysis with adsorption have been developed. However, the benefit of these techniques remains to be proved.

  12. [Modified albumin in harp seal blood serum].

    PubMed

    Erokhina, I A

    1999-01-01

    The content of modified albumin (Am) in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandica Erxleben, 1777) blood serum was studied. Am was determined by paper electrophoresis by means of re-precipitation in the trichloroacetic acid-ethanol system. Modified albumin content in normal seal pups' blood serum increased from 1990 to 1994. The Am level in undernourished pups was stable from year to year and higher than in normal pups. In oceanarium investigations it was revealed a low albumin resistance to denaturation and the dependence of Am content on the animals' physiological state. Thus there is a possibility to regard modified albumin content as one of the significant parameters in biomonitoring of harp seal population and, moreover, as a supplementary criterion for estimation of seals' health state in captivity.

  13. Oral intake of ranitidine increases urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2016-06-01

    The H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, is among the most widely used pharmaceuticals to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcers. While previous studies have demonstrated that amines can form N-nitrosamines when exposed to nitrite at stomach-relevant pH, N-nitrosamine formation from ranitidine, an amine-based pharmaceutical, has not been demonstrated under these conditions. In this work, we confirmed the production of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potent carcinogen, by nitrosation of ranitidine under stomach-relevant pH conditions in vitro We also evaluated the urinary NDMA excretion attributable to ingestion of clinically used ranitidine doses. Urine samples collected from five female and five male, healthy adult volunteers over 24-h periods before and after consumption of 150mg ranitidine were analyzed for residual ranitidine, ranitidine metabolites, NDMA, total N-nitrosamines and dimethylamine. Following ranitidine intake, the urinary NDMA excreted over 24h increased 400-folds from 110 to 47 600ng, while total N-nitrosamines increased 5-folds. NDMA excretion rates after ranitidine intake equaled or exceeded those observed previously in patients with schistosomiasis, a disease wherein N-nitrosamines are implicated as the etiological agents for bladder cancer. Due to metabolism within the body, urinary NDMA measurements represent a lower-bound estimate of systemic NDMA exposure. Our results suggest a need to evaluate the risks attributable to NDMA associated with chronic consumption of ranitidine, and to identify alternative treatments that minimize exposure to N-nitrosamines.

  14. Urinary Acid Excretion Can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and a dietary countermeasure would be ideal. We present here preliminary data from a study where we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crewmembers (n=5) were asked to consume a prescribed diet with either a low (0.3-0.6) or high (1.0-1.3) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K) before and during space flight for 4-d periods. Diets were controlled for energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium. 24-h urine samples were collected on the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions. 24-h urinary acid excretion, which was predicted by dietary potential renal acid load, was correlated with urinary n-telopeptide (NTX, Pearson R = 0.99 and 0.80 for the high and low APro:K sessions, respectively, p<0.001). The amount of protein when expressed as the percentage of total energy (but not as total grams) was also correlated with urinary NTX (R = 0.66, p<0.01). These results, from healthy individuals in a unique environment, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. The study was funded by the NASA Human Research Program.

  15. Urinary p75ECD

    PubMed Central

    Shepheard, Stephanie R.; Wuu, Joanne; Cardoso, Michell; Wiklendt, Luke; Dinning, Phil G.; Chataway, Tim; Schultz, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate urinary neurotrophin receptor p75 extracellular domain (p75ECD) levels as disease progression and prognostic biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: The population in this study comprised 45 healthy controls and 54 people with ALS, 31 of whom were sampled longitudinally. Urinary p75ECD was measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay and validation included intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation, effect of circadian rhythm, and stability over time at room temperature, 4°C, and repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Longitudinal changes in urinary p75ECD were examined by mixed model analysis, and the prognostic value of baseline p75ECD was explored by survival analysis. Results: Confirming our previous findings, p75ECD was higher in patients with ALS (5.6 ± 2.2 ng/mg creatinine) compared to controls (3.6 ± 1.4 ng/mg creatinine, p < 0.0001). Assay reproducibility was high, with p75ECD showing stability across repeated freeze-thaw cycles, at room temperature and 4°C for 2 days, and no diurnal variation. Urinary p75ECD correlated with the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale at first evaluation (r = −0.44, p = 0.008) and across all study visits (r = −0.36, p < 0.0001). p75ECD also increased as disease progressed at an average rate of 0.19 ng/mg creatinine per month (p < 0.0001). In multivariate prognostic analysis, bulbar onset (hazard ratio [HR] 3.0, p = 0.0035), rate of disease progression from onset to baseline (HR 4.4, p < 0.0001), and baseline p75ECD (HR 1.3, p = 0.0004) were predictors of survival. Conclusions: The assay for urinary p75ECD is analytically robust and shows promise as an ALS biomarker with prognostic, disease progression, and potential pharmacodynamic application. Baseline urinary p75ECD provides prognostic information and is currently the only biological fluid–based biomarker of disease progression. PMID:28228570

  16. Bisalbuminemia. A new molecular variant, albumin Vancouver.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, J; Kozier, J; Campbell, D J; Curnow, J V; Tárnoky, A L

    1978-11-01

    Of 18 members of a Fiji Indian family investigated, eight of the 12 males and two of the six females had an electrophoretically slow-type bisalbuminemia (alloalbuminemia). The albumin was characterized by the hiterto unique ratio of the two bands (Al A 35%: variant 65%), and by dye-binding studies and electrophoretic mobility in different media. The data suggest that this is a new variant, which we propose to call albumin Vancouver (Al Va).

  17. Portal copper transport in rats by albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D.T.; Leinart, A.S.; Cousins, R.J.

    1987-03-01

    The distribution of newly absorbed copper among serum proteins obtained from the portal circulation of rats was examined by conventional and high-performance gel filtration chromatography, affinity chromatography, and Western blotting. Within 10-30 min after being administered by gavage or directly into the intestine, /sup 67/Cu and /sup 64/Cu, respectively, were recovered in the albumin fraction. By 8 h after administration of the radionuclides, virtually all of the radioactivity was found with ceruloplasmin. Affigel blue fractionation and subsequent Superose-6 chromatography further demonstrated that all of the copper in the albumin-containing fractions was in fact bound to this protein rather than high molecular weight moieties. Vascular perfusion of the isolated rat intestine, where /sup 64/Cu was infused into the lumen, showed that newly absorbed /sup 64/Cu in the vascular perfusate collected from the cannulated portal vein was associated with albumin. Uptake of radioactivity by isolated rat liver parenchymal cells from medium containing rat serum with /sup 67/Cu bound to albumin was demonstrated. In vitro binding of /sup 64/Cu to serum proteins that were transferred to nitrocellulose by Western blotting techniques showed that albumin is essentially the only protein that binds appreciable amounts of copper. The data suggest that albumin is the plasma protein that is responsible for the initial transport of copper after absorption.

  18. Secretion of melatonin and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin urinary excretion in functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Chojnacki, Cezary; Poplawski, Tomasz; Klupinska, Grażyna; Blasiak, Janusz; Chojnacki, Jan; Reiter, Russel J

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate blood concentration of melatonin and urinary excretion of its metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-OHMS), in functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS: Ninety individuals were enrolled in the study: 30 in each study group: patients with postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), epigastric pain syndrome (EPS), and controls. Blood samples were drawn at 02:00 and 09:00 h and 24-h urine collection was performed. Serum melatonin and urinary 6-OHMS concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Serum melatonin concentration at night and in the morning was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in PDS patients [at 02:00 h-93.3 pg/mL, quartile range (QR): 79.8-116.2; at 09.00 h-14.3 pg/mL, QR: 7.06-19.0] than in EPS (57.2 pg/mL, QR: 42.6-73.1; 8.1 pg/mL, QR: 4.1-9.3) and control patients (57.7 pg/mL, QR: 51.2-62.5; 8.1 pg/mL, QR: 5.4-10.3). A similar relationship was observed for urinary 6-OHMS excretion. Patients with severe PDS symptoms had a higher melatonin concentration than these with moderate syndromes, whereas patients with severe EPS had a lower urinary 6-OHMS excretion than patients with moderate symptoms. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of melatonin serum concentrations and 24-h urinary 6-OHMS excretion are useful methods for differential diagnosis of various clinical forms of FD. PMID:21677834

  19. Effects of hypothyroidism on vascular /sup 125/I-albumin permeation and blood flow in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, R.G.; Pugliese, G.; Chang, K.; Speedy, A.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1989-05-01

    Effects of hypothyroidism on vascular 125I-albumin permeation and on blood flow were assessed in multiple tissues of male Sprague-Dawley rats rendered hypothyroid by dietary supplementation with 0.5% (wt/wt) 2-thiouracil or by thyroidectomy. In both thiouracil-treated and thyroidectomized rats, body weights, kidney weight, arterial blood pressure, and pulse rate were decreased significantly v age-matched controls. After 10 to 12 weeks of thiouracil treatment, 125I-albumin permeation was increased significantly in the kidney, aorta, eye (anterior uvea, choroid, retina), skin, and new granulation tissue, remained unchanged in brain, sciatic nerve, and heart, and was decreased in forelimb skeletal muscle. A similar pattern was observed in thyroidectomized rats, except that increases in 125I-albumin permeation for all tissues were smaller than those observed in thiouracil-treated rats, and 125I-albumin permeation in retina did not differ from controls. In both thiouracil-treated and thyroidectomized rats, changes in blood flow (assessed with 15-microns, 85Sr-labeled microspheres) relative to the decrease in arterial blood pressure were indicative of a decrease in regional vascular resistance except in the choroid and in the kidney, in which vascular resistance was increased significantly. Glomerular filtration rate was decreased, but filtration fraction and urinary excretion of albumin remained unchanged by thiouracil treatment and thyroidectomy. These results indicate that vascular hemodynamics and endothelial cell barrier functional integrity are modulated in many different tissues by the thyroid. In view of the correspondence of hypothyroid- and diabetes-induced vascular permeability changes, these results raise the possibility that altered thyroid function in diabetes may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease.

  20. Cubilin Is Essential for Albumin Reabsorption in the Renal Proximal Tubule

    PubMed Central

    Amsellem, Sabine; Gburek, Jakub; Hamard, Ghislaine; Nielsen, Rikke; Willnow, Thomas E.; Devuyst, Olivier; Nexo, Ebba; Verroust, Pierre J.

    2010-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is responsible for protein reabsorption in the proximal tubule. This process involves two interacting receptors, megalin and cubilin, which form a complex with amnionless. Whether these proteins function in parallel or as part of an integrated system is not well understood. Here, we report the renal effects of genetic ablation of cubilin, with or without concomitant ablation of megalin, using a conditional Cre-loxP system. We observed that proximal tubule cells did not localize amnionless to the plasma membrane in the absence of cubilin, indicating a mutual dependency of cubilin and amnionless to form a functional membrane receptor complex. The cubilin-amnionless complex mediated internalization of intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complexes, but megalin considerably increased the uptake. Furthermore, cubilin-deficient mice exhibited markedly decreased uptake of albumin by proximal tubule cells and resultant albuminuria. Inactivation of both megalin and cubilin did not increase albuminuria, indicating that the main role of megalin in albumin reabsorption is to drive the internalization of cubilin-albumin complexes. In contrast, cubulin deficiency did not affect urinary tubular uptake or excretion of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), which binds cubilin and megalin. In addition, we observed cubilin-independent reabsorption of the “specific” cubilin ligands transferrin, CC16, and apoA-I, suggesting a role for megalin and perhaps other receptors in their reabsorption. In summary, with regard to albumin, cubilin is essential for its reabsorption by proximal tubule cells, and megalin drives internalization of cubilin-albumin complexes. These genetic models will allow further analysis of protein trafficking in the progression of proteinuric renal diseases. PMID:20798259

  1. Cubilin is essential for albumin reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Amsellem, Sabine; Gburek, Jakub; Hamard, Ghislaine; Nielsen, Rikke; Willnow, Thomas E; Devuyst, Olivier; Nexo, Ebba; Verroust, Pierre J; Christensen, Erik I; Kozyraki, Renata

    2010-11-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is responsible for protein reabsorption in the proximal tubule. This process involves two interacting receptors, megalin and cubilin, which form a complex with amnionless. Whether these proteins function in parallel or as part of an integrated system is not well understood. Here, we report the renal effects of genetic ablation of cubilin, with or without concomitant ablation of megalin, using a conditional Cre-loxP system. We observed that proximal tubule cells did not localize amnionless to the plasma membrane in the absence of cubilin, indicating a mutual dependency of cubilin and amnionless to form a functional membrane receptor complex. The cubilin-amnionless complex mediated internalization of intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complexes, but megalin considerably increased the uptake. Furthermore, cubilin-deficient mice exhibited markedly decreased uptake of albumin by proximal tubule cells and resultant albuminuria. Inactivation of both megalin and cubilin did not increase albuminuria, indicating that the main role of megalin in albumin reabsorption is to drive the internalization of cubilin-albumin complexes. In contrast, cubulin deficiency did not affect urinary tubular uptake or excretion of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), which binds cubilin and megalin. In addition, we observed cubilin-independent reabsorption of the "specific" cubilin ligands transferrin, CC16, and apoA-I, suggesting a role for megalin and perhaps other receptors in their reabsorption. In summary, with regard to albumin, cubilin is essential for its reabsorption by proximal tubule cells, and megalin drives internalization of cubilin-albumin complexes. These genetic models will allow further analysis of protein trafficking in the progression of proteinuric renal diseases.

  2. Chloride channel ClC-5 binds to aspartyl aminopeptidase to regulate renal albumin endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Aven; Slattery, Craig; Nikolic-Paterson, David J; Hryciw, Deanne H; Wilk, Sherwin; Wilk, Elizabeth; Zhang, Yuan; Valova, Valentina A; Robinson, Phillip J; Kelly, Darren J; Poronnik, Philip

    2015-04-01

    ClC-5 is a chloride/proton exchanger that plays an obligate role in albumin uptake by the renal proximal tubule. ClC-5 forms an endocytic complex with the albumin receptor megalin/cubilin. We have identified a novel ClC-5 binding partner, cytosolic aspartyl aminopeptidase (DNPEP; EC 3.4.11.21), that catalyzes the release of N-terminal aspartate/glutamate residues. The physiological role of DNPEP remains largely unresolved. Mass spectrometric analysis of proteins binding to the glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-ClC-5 C terminus identified DNPEP as an interacting partner. Coimmunoprecipitation confirmed that DNPEP and ClC-5 also associated in cells. Further experiments using purified GST-ClC-5 and His-DNPEP proteins demonstrated that the two proteins bound directly to each other. In opossum kidney (OK) cells, confocal immunofluorescence studies revealed that DNPEP colocalized with albumin-containing endocytic vesicles. Overexpression of wild-type DNPEP increased cell-surface levels of ClC-5 and albumin uptake. Analysis of DNPEP-immunoprecipitated products from rat kidney lysate identified β-actin and tubulin, suggesting a role for DNPEP in cytoskeletal maintenance. A DNase I inhibition assay showed a significant decrease in the amount of G actin when DNPEP was overexpressed in OK cells, suggesting a role for DNPEP in stabilizing the cytoskeleton. DNPEP was not present in the urine of healthy rats; however, it was readily detected in the urine in rat models of mild and heavy proteinuria (diabetic nephropathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, respectively). Urinary levels of DNPEP were found to correlate with the severity of proteinuria. Therefore, we have identified another key molecular component of the albumin endocytic machinery in the renal proximal tubule and describe a new role for DNPEP in stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton.

  3. Psychogenic urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Bird, J R

    1980-01-01

    The literature on psychogenic urinary retention is reviewed. 2 cases treated by analytical psychotherapy are reported, in which significant demand for physical punishment was revealed and seen as linked to unacceptable, unconscious sadistic and aggressive feelings. Some psychodynamic aspects of what is considered to be "a disturbance of internal body space' are discussed. Psychogenic urinary retention has received little attention in the literature. It may represent the uneasy position this disorder of bodily function occupies in clinical practice, with clear physical symptoms and associated psychological factors. The condition is more frequent in females, usually young adults. Case histories regularly record the placid, passive presentation of these patients, childhood enuresis and disturbed backgrounds. The diagnosis, "hysteric', is frequent and most psychodynamic evaluations suggest the symptom represents a displacement of unacceptable sexual wishes and impulse. 2 patients treated by analytical psychotherapy are reported who, whilst fulfilling many of the criteria already noted, additionally revealed an intense desire for physical punishment. This punitive demand had less to do with unacceptable sexual wishes, than guilt at repressed aggressive drives of considerable magnitude. The role of aggression in the genesis of psychogenic urinary retention has so far been little studied.

  4. Urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Carol E; Saint, Sanjay

    2011-03-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) account for approximately 40% of all health care-associated infections. Despite studies showing benefit of interventions for prevention of CAUTI, adoption of these practices has not occurred in many healthcare facilities in the United States. As urinary catheters account for the majority of healthcare-associated UTIs, the most important interventions are directed at avoiding placement of urinary catheters and promoting early removal when appropriate. Alternatives to indwelling catheters such as intermittent catheterization and condom catheters should be considered. If indwelling catheterization is appropriate, proper aseptic practices for catheter insertion and maintenance and use of a closed catheter collection system are essential for preventing CAUTI. The use of antimicrobial catheters also may be considered when the rates of CAUTI remain persistently high despite adherence to other evidence-based practices, or in patients deemed to be at high risk for CAUTI or its complications. Attention toward prevention of CAUTI will likely increase as Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services and other third-party payers no longer reimburse for hospital-acquired UTI.

  5. Lungfish albumin is more similar to tetrapod than to teleost albumins: purification and characterisation of albumin from the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Victoria J; George, Peter M; Brennan, Stephen O

    2007-07-01

    Lobe-finned fish, particularly lungfish, are thought of as the closest extant relatives to tetrapods. Albumin, the major vertebrate plasma protein, has been well studied in tetrapods, but there exists no comparative study of the presence and characteristics of albumin in lobe-finned fish versus other vertebrates. There is a controversy over the presence of albumin in fish, although it is present in salmonids and lamprey. The presence of albumin in lungfish has also recently been documented. We identified albumin in plasma of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, using a combination of agarose gel electrophoresis, [(14)C]palmitic acid binding and SDS-PAGE. Lungfish albumin was purified using DEAE-ion exchange chromatography, and has a mass of 67 kDa, is present at approximately 8 g/L in plasma and like other fish albumins, does not bind nickel. However, like tetrapod albumins, it is not glycosylated. N-terminal and internal peptide sequencing generated 101 amino acids of sequence, which showed a high degree of identity with tetrapod albumins. Despite the similarity in sequence but congruent with the evolutionary distances separating them, lungfish albumin did not cross-react with anti-chicken or anti-tuatara A albumin antisera. Lungfish albumin has characteristics more akin with tetrapod albumin and less like those of other fish.

  6. Alterations of urinary metabolite profile in model diabetic nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Stec, Donald F.; Wang, Suwan; Stothers, Cody; Avance, Josh; Denson, Deon; Harris, Raymond; Voziyan, Paul

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy was employed to study urinary metabolite profile in diabetic mouse models. • Mouse urinary metabolome showed major changes that are also found in human diabetic nephropathy. • These models can be new tools to study urinary biomarkers that are relevant to human disease. - Abstract: Countering the diabetes pandemic and consequent complications, such as nephropathy, will require better understanding of disease mechanisms and development of new diagnostic methods. Animal models can be versatile tools in studies of diabetic renal disease when model pathology is relevant to human diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetic models using endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice develop major renal lesions characteristic of human disease. However, it is unknown whether they can also reproduce changes in urinary metabolites found in human DN. We employed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic mouse models of DN, i.e. STZ-eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS and eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS db/db, with the goal of determining changes in urinary metabolite profile using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Six urinary metabolites with significantly lower levels in diabetic compared to control mice have been identified. Specifically, major changes were found in metabolites from tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid catabolism including 3-indoxyl sulfate, cis-aconitate, 2-oxoisocaproate, N-phenyl-acetylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, and hippurate. Levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and hippuric acid showed the strongest reverse correlation to albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), which is an indicator of renal damage. Importantly, similar changes in urinary hydroxyphenyl acetate and hippurate were previously reported in human renal disease. We demonstrated that STZ-eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS and eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS db/db mouse models can recapitulate changes in urinary metabolome found in human DN and therefore can be

  7. Urinary proteomic profiling reveals diclofenac-induced renal injury and hepatic regeneration in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Swelm, Rachel P.L. van; Laarakkers, Coby M.M.; Pertijs, Jeanne C.L.M.; Verweij, Vivienne; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Russel, Frans G.M.

    2013-06-01

    Diclofenac (DF) is a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of rheumatic disorders, but is often associated with liver injury. We applied urinary proteomic profiling using MALDI-TOF MS to identify biomarkers for DF-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Female CH3/HeOUJIco mice were treated with 75 mg/kg bw DF by oral gavage and 24 h urine was collected. Proteins identified in urine of DF-treated mice included epidermal growth factor, transthyretin, kallikrein, clusterin, fatty acid binding protein 1 and urokinase, which are related to liver regeneration but also to kidney injury. Both organs showed enhanced levels of oxidative stress (TBARS, p < 0.01). Kidney injury was confirmed by histology and increased Kim1 and Il-6 mRNA expression levels (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). Liver histology and plasma ALT levels in DF-treated mice were not different from control, but mRNA expression of Stat3 (p < 0.001) and protein expression of PCNA (p < 0.05) were increased, indicating liver regeneration. In conclusion, urinary proteome analysis revealed that DF treatment in mice induced kidney and liver injury. Within 24 h, however, the liver was able to recover by activating tissue regeneration processes. Hence, the proteins found in urine of DF-treated mice represent kidney damage rather than hepatic injury. - Highlights: • The urinary proteome shows biological processes involved in adverse drug reactions. • Urine proteins of DF-treated mice relate to kidney injury rather than liver injury. • Liver regeneration, not liver injury, is apparent 24h after oral DF administration. • Pretreatment with LPS does not enhance DF-induced liver injury in mice.

  8. [Urinary calculi and infection].

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete

  9. Identification of urinary tract pathogens after 3-hours urine culture by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Haiko, Johanna; Savolainen, Laura E; Hilla, Risto; Pätäri-Sampo, Anu

    2016-10-01

    Complicated urinary tract infections, such as pyelonephritis, may lead to sepsis. Rapid diagnosis is needed to identify the causative urinary pathogen and to verify the appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy. We describe here a rapid identification method for urinary pathogens: urine is incubated on chocolate agar for 3h at 35°C with 5% CO2 and subjected to MALDI-TOF MS analysis by VITEK MS. Overall 207 screened clinical urine samples were tested in parallel with conventional urine culture. The method, called U-si-MALDI-TOF (urine short incubation MALDI-TOF), showed correct identification for 86% of Gram-negative urinary tract pathogens (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and other Enterobacteriaceae), when present at >10(5)cfu/ml in culture (n=107), compared with conventional culture method. However, Gram-positive bacteria (n=28) were not successfully identified by U-si-MALDI-TOF. This method is especially suitable for rapid identification of E. coli, the most common cause of urinary tract infections and urosepsis. Turnaround time for identification using U-si-MALDI-TOF compared with conventional urine culture was improved from 24h to 4-6h.

  10. Relationship between environmental tobacco smoke and urinary cotinine levels in passive smokers at their residence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Lim, Youngwook; Lee, Seokju; Park, Soungeun; Kim, Changsoo; Hong, Cheinsoo; Shin, Dongchun

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using measured air concentrations are subject to bias. Cotinine, a nicotine metabolite detected in urine, has been recommended as a quantitative measure of nicotine intake and thus as a marker for ETS exposure in humans. The aim of this study was to correlate home indoor ETS levels with passive smokers' urinary cotinine levels. The urinary cotinine concentrations of 57 non-smoking women who spend >19 h a day at home and the nicotine levels in their living room air were measured over a period of 24 h. Nicotine and urinary cotinine levels were analyzed using GC/MS and HPLC/UV, respectively. In addition, information was collected regarding the smoking habits of the subjects' families. A significant correlation was found between the nicotine levels in indoor air and the urinary cotinine to creatinine ratio of the passive smokers. The smoking habits of the subjects' family members were also correlated to the urinary cotinine levels of the passive smokers.

  11. Subject groups high and low in urinary selenium levels: workers exposed to heavy metals and patients with cancer and epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Hojo, Y.

    1981-04-01

    Selenium was first recognized for its toxicity; its essential nature in animals was discovered and established later. That Se is essential to human nutrition has yet to be confirmed. Recently the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was isolated from human erythrocyte and placenta. In order to discover the role Se plays in human health and disease, Thomson and Robinson emphasized a need for continuing studies of special needs of certain groups such as those exposed to heavy metals and those with certain disease and illness for example, cancer and cardiovascular disease. It is amongst these groups that Se deficiency or Se-responsive conditions may be found. Urinary Se excretion has been mainly used to assess the nutritional Se status. Recently estimation of urinary Se level in the form of its content per creatinine (abbreviated as CT) content using 24-h or random urine samples was shown to be more precise in reducing dilution and variation effects than that per urinary volume using 24-h urines (HOJO). The purpose of this study is to search the subject groups high or low in Se status by employing urinary Se content per CT content or per urine volume.

  12. What a Nostril Knows: Olfactory Nerve-Evoked AMPA Responses Increase while NMDA Responses Decrease at 24-h Post-Training for Lateralized Odor Preference Memory in Neonate Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Qi; Harley, Carolyn W.

    2012-01-01

    Increased AMPA signaling is proposed to mediate long-term memory. Rat neonates acquire odor preferences in a single olfactory bulb if one nostril is occluded at training. Memory testing here confirmed that only trained bulbs support increased odor preference at 24 h. Olfactory nerve field potentials were tested at 24 h in slices from trained and…

  13. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications.

  14. Bromophenol blue binding to mammalian albumins and displacement of albumin-bound bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Kim, B Boon; Abdul Kadir, H; Tayyab, S

    2008-10-15

    Interaction of bromophenol blue (BPB) with serum albumins from different mammalian species, namely, human (HSA), bovine (BSA), goat (GSA), sheep (SSA), rabbit (RbSA), porcine (PSA) and dog (DSA) was studied using absorption and absorption difference spectroscopy. BPB-albumin complexes showed significant differences in the spectral characteristics, i.e., extent of bathochromic shift and hypochromism relative to the spectral features of free BPB. Absorption difference spectra of these complexes also showed variations in the position of maxima and absorption difference (deltaAbs.) values. Absorption difference spectra of different bilirubin (BR)-albumin complexes showed a significant blue shift accompanied by decrease in deltaAbs. values in presence of BPB which were indicative of the displacement of bound BR from its binding site in BR-albumin complexes. These changes in the difference spectral characteristics of BR-albumin complexes were more marked at higher BPB concentration. However, the extent of these changes was different for different BR-albumin complexes. Taken together, all these results suggest that BPB partially shares BR binding site on albumin and different mammalian albumins show differences in the microenvironment of the BR/BPB binding site.

  15. Serum albumin level during intestinal exfoliative rejection: a potential predictor of graft recovery and patient outcome.

    PubMed

    Zambernardi, Agustina; Gondolesi, Gabriel; Cabanne, Ana; Martinez, María I; Solar, Héctor; Rumbo, Martín; Rumbo, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Exfoliative rejection is a severe complication after intestinal transplant. The assessment of mucosa histology is restricted to the area reached by endoscopy. We aim to evaluate the serum albumin (SA) value as a parameter of graft damage and clinical prognosis in intestinal exfoliative rejection (ExR). The present study is a retrospective analysis of 11 episodes of ExR occurred in a cohort of 26 patients. SA levels were measured 24 h after diagnosis and twice a week thereafter and then correlated with parameters of clinical and graft histological recovery (HR). During ExR, all patients had very low SA levels, reaching a minimum average of 1.9 ± 0.3 g/dL. According to the value of albumin levels at ExR diagnosis, the patients were grouped finding a correlation with their clinical evolution. Six ExR episodes presented with severe hipoalbuminemia (<2.2 g/dL; p < 0.05) that correlated with worse patient and graft outcome, ranging from graft loss and need for re-transplantation to delayed clinical and HR. SA at ExR diagnosis may be an indicator of the severity of the ExR process, and it could also be used as an early predictor of patient and graft outcome.

  16. Effect of extracorporeal liver support by molecular adsorbents recirculating system and Prometheus on redox state of albumin in acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Oettl, Karl; Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Krisper, Peter; Stauber, Rudolf E

    2009-10-01

    Oxidative stress is believed to play an important role in acute-on-chronic liver failure (AoCLF). Albumin, an important transport vehicle, was found to be severely oxidized in AoCLF patients. Extracorporeal liver support systems may exert beneficial effects in AoCLF via removal of albumin-bound toxins. At present, two systems are commercially available, the molecular adsorbents recirculating system (MARS) and fractionated plasma separation, adsorption and dialysis (FPAD, also known as Prometheus). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of MARS and Prometheus treatments on the redox state of human serum albumin. Eight patients with AoCLF underwent alternating treatments with either MARS or Prometheus in a randomized cross-over design. Sixteen treatments (eight MARS and eight Prometheus) were available for analysis. The fraction of human mercaptalbumin (HMA), human nonmercaptalbumin-1 (HNA1), and human nonmercaptalbumin-2 (HNA2) were measured before and after single MARS and Prometheus treatments and during follow-up. In AoCLF patients the oxidized fractions of albumin, HNA1, and HNA2 were markedly increased. Both MARS and Prometheus treatments resulted in a shift of HNA1 to HMA, while HNA2 was not significantly affected. This shift in albumin fractions was transient and disappeared within 24 h after treatment. There were no significant differences between MARS and Prometheus treatments with respect to the redox state of albumin. Both MARS and Prometheus treatments lead to transient improvements of the redox state of albumin, which could be beneficial in the treatment of AoCLF.

  17. A study on the effect of the internal exposure to (210)Po on the excretion of urinary proteins in rats.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Baki; Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Daka, Joseph; Yusuf, Hamdi; Wyatt, Heather; Surette, Joel; Priest, Nick; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of a noninvasive urine specimen for the detection of proteins as indicators of internal exposure to ionizing radiation. Three groups of rats (five in each group) were intravenously injected with 1601 ± 376, 10,846 ± 591 and 48,467 ± 2812 Bq of (210)Po in citrate form. A sham-exposed control group of five rats was intravenously injected with sterile physiological saline. Daily urine samples were collected over 4 days following injection. Purification and pre-concentration of urinary proteins were carried out by ultrafiltration using a 3000 Da molecular weight cutoff membrane filter. The concentration of common urinary proteins, namely albumin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary excretion of albumin decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.05) 96 h post-injection relative to the control group. In contrast, no statistically significant effects were observed for other proteins tested. The dose-dependent decrease in urinary excretion of albumin observed in this study underscores the need for further research, which may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers that would reflect the changes in the primary target organs for deposition of (210)Po.

  18. [Ultrasound of the urinary system].

    PubMed

    Segura-Grau, A; Herzog, R; Díaz-Rodriguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound techniques are able to provide a fairly complete examination of the urinary system, achieving a high sensitivity in relevant-pathology detection, especially in the kidney, bladder and prostate. Early detection of pathologies such as tumors or urinary tract obstructions, sometimes even before their clinical manifestation, has improved their management and prognosis in many cases. This, added to its low cost and harmlessness, makes ultrasound ideal for early approaches and follow-up of a wide number of urinary system pathologies. In this article, the ultrasound characteristics of the main urinary system pathologies that can be diagnosed by this technique, are reviewed.

  19. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression is enhanced in renal parietal epithelial cells of zucker diabetic Fatty rats and is induced by albumin in in vitro primary parietal cell culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; George, Jasmine; Li, Yun; Olufade, Rebecca; Zhao, Xueying

    2015-01-01

    As a subfamily of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), gelatinases including MMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in remodeling and homeostasis of the extracellular matrix. However, conflicting results have been reported regarding their expression level and activity in the diabetic kidney. This study investigated whether and how MMP-9 expression and activity were changed in glomerular epithelial cells upon albumin overload. In situ zymography, immunostaining and Western blot for renal MMP gelatinolytic activity and MMP-9 protein expression were performed in Zucker lean and Zucker diabetic rats. Confocal microscopy revealed a focal increase in gelatinase activity and MMP-9 protein in the glomeruli of diabetic rats. Increased glomerular MMP-9 staining was mainly observed in hyperplastic parietal epithelial cells (PECs) expressing claudin-1 in the diabetic kidneys. Interestingly, increased parietal MMP-9 was often accompanied by decreased staining for podocyte markers (nephrin and podocalyxin) in the sclerotic area of affected glomeruli in diabetic rats. Additionally, urinary excretion of podocyte marker proteins was significantly increased in association with the levels of MMP-9 and albumin in the urine of diabetic animals. To evaluate the direct effect of albumin on expression and activity of MMP-9, primary cultured rat glomerular PECs were incubated with rat serum albumin (0.25 - 1 mg/ml) for 24 - 48 hrs. MMP-9 mRNA levels were significantly increased following albumin treatment. Meanwhile, albumin administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in MMP-9 protein and activity in culture supernatants of PECs. Moreover, albumin activated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in PECs. Inhibition of p44/42 MAPK suppressed albumin-induced MMP-9 secretion from glomerular PECs. Taken together, we have demonstrated that an up-regulation of MMP-9 in activated parietal epithelium is associated with a loss of adjacent podocytes in progressive diabetic nephropathy

  20. Nocturnal sleep-related variables from 24-h free-living waist-worn accelerometry: International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tudor-Locke, C; Mire, E F; Barreira, T V; Schuna, J M; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kurpad, A; Kuriyan, R; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Zhao, P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We describe the process of identifying and defining nocturnal sleep-related variables (for example, movement/non-movement indicators of sleep efficiency, waking episodes, midpoint and so on) using the unique 24-h waist-worn free-living accelerometer data collected in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE). Methods: Seven consecutive days of 24-h waist-worn accelerometer (GT3X+, ActiGraph LLC) data were collected from over 500 children at each site. An expert subgroup of the research team with accelerometry expertize, frontline data collectors and data managers met on several occasions to categorize and operationally define nocturnal accelerometer signal data patterns. The iterative process was informed by the raw data drawn from a sub set of the US data, and culminated in a refined and replicable delineated definition for each identified nocturnal sleep-related variable. Ultimately based on 6318 participants from all 12 ISCOLE sites with valid total sleep episode time (TSET), we report average clock times for nocturnal sleep onset, offset and midpoint in addition to sleep period time, TSET and restful sleep efficiency (among other derived variables). Results: Nocturnal sleep onset occurred at 2218 hours and nocturnal sleep offset at 0707 hours. The mean midpoint was 0243 hours. The sleep period time of 529.6 min (8.8 h) was typically accumulated in a single episode, making the average TSET very similar in duration (529.0 min). The mean restful sleep efficiency ranged from 86.8% (based on absolute non-movement of 0 counts per minute) to 96.0% (based on relative non-movement of <100 counts per minute). Conclusions: These variables extend the potential of field-based 24-h waist-worn accelerometry to distinguish and categorize the underlying robust patterns of movement/non-movement signals conveying magnitude, duration, frequency and periodicity during the nocturnal sleep period. PMID:27152185

  1. Assessment of urinary protein 1 and transferrin as early markers of cadmium nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, A M; Roels, H; Cardenas, A; Lauwerys, R

    1990-01-01

    Transferrin and protein 1, a sex linked alpha 2-microprotein, were assayed in urine from 58 workers exposed to cadmium (Cd) in a non-ferrous smelter and from 58 age matched referents. These two new markers of nephrotoxicity were compared with urinary beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m), retinol binding protein (RBP), albumin, and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG). The response of protein 1 to Cd tubulotoxicity was similar to that of beta 2-m, RBP, and NAG. In Cd workers, protein 1 had a correlation with urinary Cd (r = 0.56) similar to beta 2-m (r = 0.48), RBP (r = 0.58), and NAG (r = 0.49). Values of these three low molecular weight proteins and of NAG were increased only in workers with urinary Cd higher than 10 micrograms/g creatinine. Urinary transferrin and albumin were similarly affected by exposure to Cd. Their response, however, was clearly more sensitive than that of low molecular weight proteins. Prevalences of positive values of these two high molecular weight proteins were not only higher but also tended to rise at lower concentrations of Cd in urine or blood. This finding suggests that in some subjects subtle defects in glomerular barrier function may precede the onset of proximal tubular impairment after chronic exposure to Cd. It remains to be assessed whether these subjects are more at risk of developing renal insufficiency. PMID:2203466

  2. Isotope concentrations from 24-h urine and 3-h serum samples can be used to measure intestinal magnesium absorption in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karen E; Nabak, Andrea C; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Marvdashti, Sheeva; Keuler, Nicholas S; Shafer, Martin M; Abrams, Steven A

    2014-04-01

    Studies suggest a link between magnesium status and osteoporosis. One barrier to more conclusive research on the potential relation is measuring intestinal magnesium absorption (MgA), which requires the use of stable isotopes and a ≥6-d stool or 3-d urine collection. We evaluated alternative methods of measuring MgA. We administered 2 stable magnesium isotopes to 15 postmenopausal women (cohort 1) aged 62 ± 8 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 345 ± 72 mg/d. Participants fasted from 1200 h to 0700 h and then consumed breakfast with ∼23 mg of oral ²⁶Mg and ∼11 mg of i.v. ²⁵Mg. We measured magnesium isotope concentrations in 72-h urine, spot urine (36, 48, 60, and 72 h), and spot serum (1, 3, and 5 h) samples collected after isotope dosing. We calculated MgA using the dose-corrected fraction of isotope concentrations from the 72-h urine collection. We validated new methods in 10 postmenopausal women (cohort 2) aged 59 ± 5 y with a dietary magnesium intake of 325 ± 122 mg/d. In cohort 1, MgA based on the 72-h urine collection was 0.28 ± 0.08. The 72-h MgA correlated most highly with 0-24 h urine MgA value alone (ρ = 0.95, P < 0.001) or the mean of the 0-24 h urine and the 3-h (ρ = 0.93, P < 0.001) or 5-h (ρ = 0.96, P < 0.001) serum MgA values. In cohort 2, Bland-Altman bias was lowest (-0.003, P = 0.82) using means of the 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA values. We conclude that means of 0-24 h urine and 3-h serum MgA provide a reasonable estimate of 72-h MgA. However, if researchers seek to identify small changes in MgA, we recommend a 3-d urine or extended stool collection.

  3. Cadmium-Induced Disruption in 24-h Expression of Clock and Redox Enzyme Genes in Rat Medial Basal Hypothalamus: Prevention by Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cano-Barquilla, Pilar; Scacchi, Pablo A.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Esquifino, Ana I.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study we reported that a low daily p.o. dose of cadmium (Cd) disrupted the circadian expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). To assess whether melatonin could counteract Cd activity, male Wistar rats (45 days of age) received CdCl2 (5 ppm) and melatonin (3 μg/mL) or vehicle (0.015% ethanol) in drinking water. Groups of animals receiving melatonin or vehicle alone were also included. After 1 month, MBH mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR analysis at six time intervals in a 24-h cycle. In control MBH Bmal1 expression peaked at early scotophase, Per1 expression at late afternoon, and Per2 and Cry2 expression at mid-scotophase, whereas neither Clock nor Cry1 expression showed significant 24-h variations. This pattern was significantly disrupted (Clock, Bmal1) or changed in phase (Per1, Per2, Cry2) by CdCl2 while melatonin counteracted the changes brought about by Cd on Per1 expression only. In animals receiving melatonin alone the 24-h pattern of MBH Per2 and Cry2 expression was disrupted. CdCl2 disrupted the 24-h rhythmicity of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-1, NOS-2, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and HO-2 gene expression, most of the effects being counteracted by melatonin. In particular, the co-administration of melatonin and CdCl2 increased Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression and decreased that of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GSR), and HO-2. In animals receiving melatonin alone, significant increases in mean Cu/Zn and Mn-SOD gene expression, and decreases in that of GPx, GSR, NOS-1, NOS-2, HO-1, and HO-2, were found. The results indicate that the interfering effect of melatonin on the activity of a low dose of CdCl2 on MBH clock and redox enzyme genes is mainly exerted at the level of redox enzyme gene expression. PMID:21442002

  4. Usefulness of basic renal function tests in decision-making in children with loss of renal parenchyma and/or dilation of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    García Nieto, Víctor M; Luis Yanes, Maria Isabel; Arango Sancho, Pedro; Sotoca Fernandez, Jorge V

    2016-01-01

    Basic renal function tests such as maximum urine osmolality and urinary elimination of albumin and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase often reveal abnormalities in clinical cases involving hyperpressure in the urinary tract or loss of renal parenchyma. However, in all the available algorithms dedicated to the study of children with urinary tract infection or dilation, the benefit of using these functional parameters is not mentioned. In this review, we provide information about the practical usefulness of assessing the basic renal function parameters. From these data, we propose an algorithm that combines morphological and functional parameters to make a reasoned case for voiding cystourethrography.

  5. Bioactivity of albumins bound to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mariam, Jessy; Sivakami, S; Kothari, D C; Dongre, P M

    2014-06-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous rise in the proposed applications of nanomaterials in the field of medicine due to their very attractive physiochemical properties and novel actions such as the ability to reach previously inaccessible targets such as brain. However biological activity of functional molecules bound to nanoparticles and its physiological consequences is still unclear and hence this area requires immediate attention. The functional properties of Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) bound to silver nanoparticles (~60 nm) have been studied under physiological environment. Esterase activity, binding of drugs (warfarin and ibuprofen), antioxidant activity and copper binding by albumins was evaluated. The catalytic efficiencies of HSA and BSA diminished upon binding to silver nanoparticles. Perturbation in binding of warfarin and ibuprofen, loss of free sulphydryls, antioxidant activity and enhancement of copper binding were observed in albumins bound to nanoparticles. These alterations in functional activity of nanoparticle bound albumins which will have important consequences should be taken into consideration while using nanoparticles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  6. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-04

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride-HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure.

  7. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride–HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 104 M−1, at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 104 M−1, at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 104 M−1, at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 104 M−1, at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure. PMID:26742031

  8. Involvement of interleukin-6-regulated nitric oxide synthase in hemorrhagic cystitis and impaired bladder contractions in young rats induced by acrolein, a urinary metabolite of cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Chia; Weng, Te-I; Wu, En-Ting; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Yang, Rong-Sen; Liu, Shing-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common complication in children receiving cyclophosphamide, a chemotherapeutic alkylating agent. Acrolein is a urinary metabolite from cyclophosphamide and can induce hemorrhagic cystitis. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of acrolein by intravesical instillation on urinary bladder muscle contractions and pathological alterations in rats. Acrolein instillation significantly increased the muscle contractions of rat bladder detrusor after 1 and 6 h but markedly decreased detrusor contractions after 24 h. Acrolein increased phosphorylated protein kinase C (pan-PKC) expressions in bladders after 1 and 6 h but inhibited it after 24 h. Inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) protein expressions were markedly induced in bladders 24 h after acrolein treatment. Twenty-four-hour acrolein instillation increased the levels of nitrite/nitrate and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the urinary bladder. The iNOS inhibitors significantly inhibited the acrolein-increased nitrite/nitrate levels, but not IL-6 levels. IL-6-neutralizing antibodies effectively inhibited the acrolein-increased NOx levels. The increased detrusor contractions by 1-h acrolein treatment were significantly reversed by the PKC inhibitor RO32-0432, and the decreased detrusor contractions by 24-h acrolein treatment were significantly reversed by the iNOS inhibitor and IL-6-neutralizing antibody. Both the iNOS inhibitor and IL-6-neutralizing antibody effectively reversed the increased iNOS expression, decreased PKC phosphorylation, increased bladder weight, and hemorrhagic cystitis in rats 24 h after acrolein treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that an IL-6-regulated iNOS/NO signaling pathway participates in the acrolein-triggered detrusor contraction inhibition and hemorrhagic cystitis. These findings may help us to find a new strategy to treat cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

  9. Prosthetic urinary sphincter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, C. R.; Smyly, H. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A pump/valve unit for controlling the inflation and deflation of a urethral collar in a prosthetic urinary sphincter device is described. A compressible bulb pump defining a reservoir was integrated with a valve unit for implantation. The valve unit includes a movable valve member operable by depression of a flexible portion of the valve unit housing for controlling fluid flow between the reservoir and collar; and a pressure sensing means which operates the valve member to relieve an excess pressure in the collar should too much pressure be applied by the patient.

  10. Urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Litza, Janice A; Brill, John R

    2010-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common urologic disorder and one of the most common conditions for which physicians are consulted. Patients at increased risk for UTI include women; diabetics; the immunocompromised; and those with anatomic abnormalities, impaired mobility, incontinence, advanced age, and instrumentation. Antibiotic therapy aims to relieve symptoms and prevent complications such as pyelonephritis and renal scarring. Distinguishing asymptomatic bacteriuria from a UTI can be difficult, especially in those with comorbidities. Most experts do not recommend screening for UTI, except in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  11. Albumin-based nanoparticles as methylprednisolone carriers for targeted delivery towards the neonatal Fc receptor in glomerular podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lin; Chen, Mingyu; Mao, Huijuan; Wang, Ningning; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Xiufen; Qian, Jun; Xing, Changying

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are commonly used in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome. However, high doses and long periods of GC therapy can result in severe side effects. The present study aimed to selectively deliver albumin-methylprednisolone (MP) nanoparticles towards glomerular podocytes, which highly express the specific neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) of albumin. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was labeled with a fluorescent dye and linked with modified MP via an amide bond. The outcome nanoparticle named BSA633-MP showed a uniform size with a diameter of approximately 10 nm and contained 12 drug molecules on average. The nanoconjugates were found to be stable at pH 7.4 and acid-sensitive at pH 4.0, with approximately 72% release of the MP drug after 48 h of incubation. The nanoparticle demonstrated a 36-fold uptake in receptor-specific cellular delivery in the FcRn-expressing human podocytes compared to the uptake in the non-FcRn-expressing control cells. Co-localization further confirmed that uptake of the nanoconjugates involved receptor-mediated endocytosis followed by lysosome associated transportation. In vitro cellular experiments indicated that the BSA633-MP ameliorated puromycin aminonucleoside-induced podocyte apoptosis. Moreover, in vivo fluorescence molecular imaging showed that BSA633-MP was mainly accumulated in the liver and kidney after intravenous dosing for 24 h. Collectively, this study may provide an approach for the effective and safe therapy of nephrotic syndrome. PMID:28259932

  12. Preliminary crystallographic studies of four crystal forms of serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. C.; Chang, B.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Krishnasami, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Several crystal forms of serum albumin suitable for three-dimensional structure determination have been grown. These forms include crystals of recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin, baboon serum albumin, and canine serum albumin. The intrinsic limits of X-ray diffraction for these crystals are in the range 0.28-0.22 nm. Two of the crystal forms produced from human and canine albumin include incorporated long-chain fatty acids. Molecular replacement experiments have been successfully conducted on each crystal form using the previously determined atomic coordinates of human serum albumin illustrating the conserved tertiary structure.

  13. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-03-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.

  14. Nanoscale probing of the lateral homogeneity of donors concentration in nitridated SiO2/4H-SiC interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorenza, Patrick; Di Franco, Salvatore; Giannazzo, Filippo; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, nanoscale resolution scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) and local capacitance-voltage measurements were used to probe the interfacial donor concentration in SiO2/4H-SiC systems annealed in N2O. Such nitrogen-based annealings are commonly employed to passivate SiO2/SiC interface traps, and result both in the incorporation of N-related donors in SiC and in the increase of the mobility in the inversion layer in 4H-SiC MOS-devices. From our SCM measurements, a spatially inhomogeneous donor distribution was observed in the SiO2/4H-SiC system subjected to N2O annealing. Hence, the effect of a phosphorus implantation before the oxide deposition and N2O annealing was also evaluated. In this case, besides an increased average donor concentration, an improvement of the lateral homogeneity of the active doping was also detected. The possible implications of such a pre-implantation doping of the near-interface region on 4H-SiC MOS-devices are discussed.

  15. Nanoscale probing of the lateral homogeneity of donors concentration in nitridated SiO2/4H-SiC interfaces.

    PubMed

    Fiorenza, Patrick; Di Franco, Salvatore; Giannazzo, Filippo; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-08-05

    In this paper, nanoscale resolution scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) and local capacitance-voltage measurements were used to probe the interfacial donor concentration in SiO2/4H-SiC systems annealed in N2O. Such nitrogen-based annealings are commonly employed to passivate SiO2/SiC interface traps, and result both in the incorporation of N-related donors in SiC and in the increase of the mobility in the inversion layer in 4H-SiC MOS-devices. From our SCM measurements, a spatially inhomogeneous donor distribution was observed in the SiO2/4H-SiC system subjected to N2O annealing. Hence, the effect of a phosphorus implantation before the oxide deposition and N2O annealing was also evaluated. In this case, besides an increased average donor concentration, an improvement of the lateral homogeneity of the active doping was also detected. The possible implications of such a pre-implantation doping of the near-interface region on 4H-SiC MOS-devices are discussed.

  16. Eplerenone restores 24-h blood pressure circadian rhythm and reduces advanced glycation end-products in rhesus macaques with spontaneous hypertensive metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Yuli; Wang, Jue; Peng, Ying; Shang, Haibao; Hou, Ning; Hu, Xiaomin; Ding, Yi; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Can; Zeng, Fanxin; Mao, Jiaming; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Dongwei; Sun, Xueting; Li, Chuanyun; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Zhang, Xiuqin

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is often associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and serves as a risk factor of MetS and its complications. Blood pressure circadian rhythm in hypertensive patients has been suggested to contribute to cardiovascular consequences and organ damage of hypertension. But circadian changes of BP and their response to drugs have not been clearly investigated in non-human primates (NHPs) of MetS with hypertension. Here, we identified 16 elderly, hypertensive MetS rhesus monkeys from our in-house cohort. With implanted telemetry, we investigate BP changes and its circadian rhythm, together with the effect of antihypertensive drugs on BP and its diurnal fluctuation. MetS hypertensive monkeys displayed higher BP, obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. We also confirmed impaired 24-h BP circadian rhythm in MetS hypertensive monkeys. Importantly, Eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, exerts multiple beneficial effects in MetS hypertensive monkeys, including BP reduction, 24-h BP circadian rhythm restoration, and decreased plasma concentration of inflammation factors and advanced glycation end-products. In summary, we identified a naturally-developed hypertensive MetS NHP model, which is of great value in the studies on pathogenesis of MetS-associated hypertension and development of novel therapeutic strategies. We also provided multiple novel mechanistic insights of the beneficial effect of Eplerenone on MetS with hypertension. PMID:27032687

  17. Discrimination between patients with melancholic depression and healthy controls: comparison between 24-h cortisol profiles, the DST and the Dex/CRH test.

    PubMed

    Paslakis, Georgios; Krumm, Bertram; Gilles, Maria; Schweiger, Ulrich; Heuser, Isabella; Richter, Inga; Deuschle, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Diurnal (24-h) cortisol profiles were compared to DST and Dex/CRH test outcomes with regard to their discriminative power in depressive disorder. With regard to several statistical measures (effect sizes, area under the curve) we found 24-h cortisol profiles to better discriminate between healthy controls and inpatients with the melancholic subtype of depression compared to the DST and Dex/CRH test. In search of a shortened time interval we found the 2-h time window 1000-1200 h of the cortisol profile to be the one with the highest sensitivity (83.3%) and specificity (87.9%). The specificity of the DST was 93.3% and somewhat higher than that of the cortisol profiles and the Dex/CRH test (87.9% and 78.8.%, respectively). However, the sensitivity of the DST was very low (30.8%), in fact similar to that of the Dex/CRH test (30.8%), but much lower than that of the 1000-1200 h interval (83.3%). The assessment of cortisol in plasma is an easy to perform, cost-saving method for the evaluation of the HPA system activity, which may have a series of clinical and scientific implications for the depressive disorder.

  18. Eplerenone restores 24-h blood pressure circadian rhythm and reduces advanced glycation end-products in rhesus macaques with spontaneous hypertensive metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Wen; Liu, Yuli; Wang, Jue; Peng, Ying; Shang, Haibao; Hou, Ning; Hu, Xiaomin; Ding, Yi; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Can; Zeng, Fanxin; Mao, Jiaming; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Dongwei; Sun, Xueting; Li, Chuanyun; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Zhang, Xiuqin

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension is often associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and serves as a risk factor of MetS and its complications. Blood pressure circadian rhythm in hypertensive patients has been suggested to contribute to cardiovascular consequences and organ damage of hypertension. But circadian changes of BP and their response to drugs have not been clearly investigated in non-human primates (NHPs) of MetS with hypertension. Here, we identified 16 elderly, hypertensive MetS rhesus monkeys from our in-house cohort. With implanted telemetry, we investigate BP changes and its circadian rhythm, together with the effect of antihypertensive drugs on BP and its diurnal fluctuation. MetS hypertensive monkeys displayed higher BP, obesity, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. We also confirmed impaired 24-h BP circadian rhythm in MetS hypertensive monkeys. Importantly, Eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, exerts multiple beneficial effects in MetS hypertensive monkeys, including BP reduction, 24-h BP circadian rhythm restoration, and decreased plasma concentration of inflammation factors and advanced glycation end-products. In summary, we identified a naturally-developed hypertensive MetS NHP model, which is of great value in the studies on pathogenesis of MetS-associated hypertension and development of novel therapeutic strategies. We also provided multiple novel mechanistic insights of the beneficial effect of Eplerenone on MetS with hypertension.

  19. Urinary caffeine after coffee consumption and heat dehydration.

    PubMed

    Chambaz, A; Meirim, I; Décombaz, J

    2001-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of heat-induced dehydration on urinary caffeine excretion after the consumption of a strong coffee solution. Following ingestion of coffee (caffeine 4.9+/-0.1 [SE] mg/kg, 3-4 cups), ten healthy males were intermittently exposed to heat in a sauna until they had lost 2.9 % of lean mass. On a separate occasion, they consumed the same amount of coffee but remained quiet and euhydrated (control). Urine flow was reduced 7-fold in dehydration. At these low excretion rates (< 30 ml/h), caffeine concentration was negatively correlated with flow. Peak urinary caffeine (Cmax) was 7.6 +/- 0.4 (SE) microg/ml in dehydration and 7.1 +/- 0.2 microg/ml in the control (p > 0.05). Compared with the control, dehydration delayed Cmax by 1 hour, maintained higher saliva caffeine concentration (6.1 vs 5.2 microg/ml, p < 0.05) and a lower saliva paraxanthine/caffeine ratio (p < 0.001). The 24h-recovery of caffeine in urine was reduced (1.2 vs 2.8% of dose, p < 0.001), however at least 2.6% of dose were lost in sweat. These results suggest that the rise in circulating caffeine due to delayed metabolic clearance was partly opposed by a sizeable elimination in sweat. Therefore, heat dehydration did not lead to higher concentration of caffeine in urine after coffee ingestion.

  20. [Efficiency of dialysis with albumin in the treatment of patients with advanced hepatic insufficiency: initial experience with the MARS system in Spain].

    PubMed

    Avilés, J; Macía, M; Morales, S; Pérez, F; Moreno, A; Navarro, J; Navazo, L; García, J

    2001-01-01

    During liver failure there is an accumulation of toxic substances secondary to the loss of liver function. In order to eliminate these substances various extracorporeal depuration therapies have been employed. Recently, we have used a new treatment, MARS (Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System), in 3 patients diagnosed with severe liver failure. This system consists of an albumin rich (20%) dialysate circuit, with two areas of depuration. In one area, the albumin dialysate is in contact with blood through a high-flux albumin coated membrane, where albumin bound substances are eliminated. In the other area, the albumin dialysate is in contact with a standard bicarbonate dialysate through a low-flux membrane, which permits the elimination of water soluble substances. The albumin of the circuit is continuously regenerated through charcoal and ion exchanger filters. In order to determine those liver failure patients suitable to receive MARS therapy we established several inclusion criteria. All patients underwent a complete clinical and biochemical evaluation before and after each treatment. All of them showed an improvement of their clinical (attenuation of pruritus and encephalopathy) and biochemical (decrease of bilirubin levels) parameters. During the period of treatment 2 patients developed an increase in plasma creatinine levels together with a decrease of urinary volume. There were no hemodynamic or technical complications during the treatment. These promising results deserve further controlled studies large enough to permit confirmation.

  1. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    PubMed

    Emonet, Stéphane; Harbarth, Stephan; van Delden, Christian

    2011-04-27

    Urinary tract infections are commonly seen by general practitioners. Quinolones are frequently prescribed in this setting. The emergence of resistance to these antibiotics has led to new guidelines for the management of uncomplicated UTI, based on the use of fosfomycin and furadantine. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic and treatment of urinary tract infections in adults.

  2. [Recurrent urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Pigrau-Serrallach, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are a frequent clinical problem in sexually active young women, pregnant or postmenopausal women and in patients with underlying urological abnormalities. The present chapter reviews RUTI based on their classification: relapses, which usually occur early (< 1 month), are caused by the same microorganism and are associated with underlying urological abnormalities, and reinfections, which usually occur later and are caused by a new distinct microorganism (or by the same microorganism usually located in the rectum or uroepithelial cells). The pathogenesis of RUTI is reviewed and the risk factors associated with RUTI in premenopausal women (usually related to sexual activity), postmenopausal women (in whom estrogen deficiency has a significant effect on the vaginal Lactobacillus flora), and in pregnant women are discussed. Likewise, an extensive review of the distinct therapeutic strategies to prevent RUTI is provided: self-treatment of cystitis, continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, postcoital antibiotic prophylaxis, topical vaginal estrogens, Lactobacillus, cranberry juice, intravesical administration of non-virulent E. coli strains and vaccines, among others. Several diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms are included. These algorithms are based on the type of urinary infection (relapse-reinfection), on the type of patient (young, postmenopausal, or pregnant women) and on the number of episodes of RUTI.

  3. Urinary excretion of 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid in dystimic/depressed, adult obese women: what correlations to hepatic steatosis?

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Savastano, S; Colao, A; Polichetti, G; Capone, D

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of serotonin at CNS level is influenced by diet. Moreover, insulin resistance is associated with lower serotonin levels. Visceral obesity, strictly linked to hepatic steatosis is specifically associated with mild to severe somatic affective-depressive symptom clusters. Previous data support the view that depression involves serotonergic systems, reflecting low levels of urinary 5- hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The 24-h urinary excretion of 5-HIAA was evaluated in 76 dystimic/depressed, obese/overweight females, divided into two groups, i.e., on a hyper-caloric diet, associated with a life style characterized by leisure time sedentary behavior (LTSB, 35 women), or on a normo-caloric diet, assisted by program-based strategies aimed at promoting physical activity participation (PAP, 41 women). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was carried out to score the severity of dystimia/depression. Anthropometric measures, metabolic indices, severity of hepatic steatosis at sonography and HOMA were studied. Urinary levels of 5-HIAA in controls and PAP groups were comparable with a great overlap, while in the LTSB group the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA was significantly reduced in respect to that of the PAP group and obviously compared to that of the control group, 3.4±1.4 mg/L versus 6.2±2.7 mg/L and 6.4±2.6 mg/L, respectively, ANOVA test, P= 0.001. Among metabolic indices, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid were not able to predict urinary concentrations of 5-HIAA, which were not associated with hepatic steatosis; vice versa, ferritin levels, and mainly HOMA values, were independent predictors of the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA (β=0.235 and 0.45, respectively). Dystimia/depression severity was negatively predicted by urinary 5-HIAA levels in the sense that the highest BDI values were forecast by the lowest values of urinary 5-HIAA (β= -0.72).The importance of measuring the 24-h urinary excretion of 5-HIAA in follow-ups could rely

  4. Post-operative urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Steggall, Martin; Treacy, Colm; Jones, Mark

    Urinary retention is a common complication of surgery and anaesthesia. The risk of post-operative urinary retention is increased following certain surgical procedures and anaesthetic modalities, and with patients' advancing age. Patients at increased risk of post-operative urinary retention should be identified before surgery or the condition should be identified and treated in a timely manner following surgery. If conservative measures do not help the patient to pass urine, the bladder will need to be drained using either an intermittent catheter or an indwelling urethral catheter, which can result in catheter-associated urinary tract infections. This article provides an overview of normal bladder function, risk factors for developing post-operative urinary retention, and treatment options. Guidance drawn from the literature aims to assist nurses in identifying at-risk patients and inform patient care.

  5. Urinary steroid metabolites in a case of florid Ectopic Cushing's syndrome and clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, Angelos; Stepien, Karolina G; Issa, Basil

    2016-10-01

    A 51-year old woman was admitted with multiple cerebral, pulmonary and intra-abdominal abscesses. The combination of apparent immunosuppression, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypokalaemia, osteoporotic fractures and bilateral shoulder avascular necrosis led to a clinical diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS). This was biochemically confirmed as follows: midnight serum cortisol 4275 nmol/L (60-250), non-suppressed overnight dexamethasone suppression test, raised salivary cortisol 716 nmol/L (5-46) and ACTH 639 ng/L (0-46). Urinary free cortisol was elevated >75,000 nmol/L (<165). Urinary steroid metabolites measured by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry were markedly increased: tetrahydrocortisol (THF) 219024 µg/24h and tetrahydrocortisone (THE) 88848 µg/24h. The (THF+5αTHF)/(THE) ratio was 2.8 (≤1). Pituitary MRI was unremarkable and whole body CT scanning showed a thymic tumour and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. Urinary 5HIAA was marginally raised with a normal chromogranin A. She underwent a thymectomy which confirmed a 'paraganglioid' variant of a thymic carcinoid tumour. We describe a case of ACTH-secreting thymic carcinoid that presented with florid clinical and biochemical features of CS, but no carcinoid syndrome. The (THF+5αTHF)/(THE) ratio is reported to be a useful indicator in differentiating the aetiologies of CS, although this was not the case in our patient. In this article we examine the degree to which the various urinary steroid metabolites were raised in this patient with florid CS and compare them with some normative data obtained from patients with either Cushing's disease or the normal population. We hereby postulate that steroid metabolomics profiling may be helpful in establishing the differential diagnosis of CS.

  6. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion and dietary intake: a cross-sectional analysis in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Padrão, Patrícia; Pinho, Olívia; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the leading cause for heart disease and stroke, for mortality and morbidity worldwide, and a high sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is considered a stronger risk factor for hypertension than sodium alone. Objective This study aims to evaluate sodium and potassium urinary excretion, and assess the food sources of these nutrients in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Design A cross-sectional study with a sample of 250 Portuguese adolescents. Sodium and potassium excretion were measured by one 24-h urinary collection, and the coefficient of creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. Dietary sources of sodium and potassium were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Results Valid urine collections were provided by 200 adolescents (118 girls) with a median age of 14.0 in both sexes (p=0.295). Regarding sodium, the mean urinary excretion was 3,725 mg/day in boys and 3,062 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 9.8% of boys and 22% of girls met the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for sodium intake. Concerning potassium, the mean urinary excretion was 2,237 mg/day in boys and 1,904 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 6.1% of boys and 1.7% of girls met the WHO recommendations for potassium intake. Major dietary sources for sodium intake were cereal and cereal products (41%), meat products (16%), and milk and milk products (11%); and for potassium intake, main sources were milk and milk products (21%), meat products (17%), and vegetables (15%). Conclusions Adolescents had a high-sodium and low-potassium diet, well above the WHO recommendations. Health promotion interventions are needed in order to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake. PMID:27072344

  7. Interaction of amphiphilic drugs with human and bovine serum albumins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd. Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-ud-Din

    2012-11-01

    To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (kq) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes.

  8. Interaction of amphiphilic drugs with human and bovine serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-Ud-Din

    2012-11-01

    To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (k(q)) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes.

  9. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the albumin (a plasma protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of albumin aids in the diagnosis of kidney and intestinal diseases....

  10. Albumin-Based Nanodevices as Drug Carriers.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Ana; Azoia, Nuno G; Gomes, Andreia C; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Nanomedicine, the application of nanotechnology to medicine, is being increasingly used to improve and exploit the advantages of efficient drug delivery. Different nanodevices have been developed in recent years, among them protein-based nanoparticles which have gained considerable interest. Albumin is a versatile protein carrier with several characteristics that make it an ideal candidate for drug delivery, such as its availability, its biocompatibility, its biodegradability, and its lack of toxicity and immunogenicity. This review embodies an overview of different methods available for production of albumin-based nanoparticles, with focus on high-energy emulsification methods. A comparison between production by using sonication, which involves acoustic cavitation, and the high pressure homogenization method, where occurs hydrodynamic cavitation, is presented. Taking into account important properties of nanoparticles required for intravenous administration, the use of poloxamers, tri-block copolymer surfactants is discussed as it improves blood circulation time and bioavailability of nanoparticles. Thus, nanoparticles can be engineered to provide adequate features to therapeutic applications, in which can be included surface functionalization with targeting agents. Different albumin-based formulations and their therapeutic applications are presented in this review, with emphasis on applications in cancer therapy, where albumin-based strategies are promising for targeted drug delivery in innovative clinical strategies.

  11. [Current role of albumin in critical care].

    PubMed

    Aguirre Puig, P; Orallo Morán, M A; Pereira Matalobos, D; Prieto Requeijo, P

    2014-11-01

    The use of colloids in fluid therapy has been, and still continues to be a controversial topic, particularly when referring to the critical patient. The choice of the fluid that needs to be administered depends on several factors, many of which are theoretical, and continue being an object of debate. The interest in the clinical use of the albumin has emerged again, immediately after recent publications in the search of the most suitable colloid. It is the most abundant protein in the plasma, being responsible for 80% of the oncotic pressure. It regulates the balance between the intra- and extra-vascular volumes. Recent multicenter studies question the supposed lack of safety that was previously assigned to it. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate other important actions besides oncotic, for example neutralization of free radicals, and exogenous (drugs) and endogenous substances (bile pigments, cholesterol). Being aware of these secondary properties of albumin, and evaluating the pathophysiology of the critical patient (in particular, sepsis), to maintain plasma albumin levels within the normal range, could be of great importance. Based on the most recent publications, the aim of this review is to briefly analyze the pathophysiology of albumin, as well as to discuss its possible indications in the critical patient.

  12. Lymphatic albumin clearance from psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Staberg, B.; Klemp, P.; Aasted, M.; Worm, A.M.; Lund, P.

    1983-12-01

    In nine patients with untreated psoriasis vulgaris, human serum albumin labelled with /sup 125/I or /sup 131/I was injected intradermally in symmetrically located involved and uninvolved skin. The activity of the depots was followed by external detection, and the arrival of labelled albumin in plasma was monitored. In involved psoriatic skin the local mean half-time (T1/2) for tracer disappearance was 20.8 +/- 8.2 (S.D.) hr and in clinically normal skin, 29.1 +/- 9.6 (S.D.) hr. The difference was significant (p less than 0.002). Accordingly, the tracer from involved skin reached higher plasma levels than the tracer from uninvolved skin. However, under slight lymphatic stasis the appearance rate of radiolabelled albumin in plasma from both tissues was minimal during 1 to 2 hours after the injection, indicating that a local direct transvascular drainage of plasma albumin from the interstitium of diseased and normal skin was negligible. We conclude that the previously demonstrated increased extravasation of plasma proteins in involved psoriatic skin is compensated by an increased lymphatic drainage of plasma proteins, and not by an increased local transvascular return.

  13. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Poór, Miklós; Lemli, Beáta; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Sali, Nikolett; Kőszegi, Tamás; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor

    2015-01-01

    Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3) and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I). In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions. PMID:26633504

  14. The effects of pasture availability for twin- and triplet-bearing ewes in mid and late pregnancy on ewe and lamb behaviour 12 to 24 h after birth.

    PubMed

    Corner, R A; Kenyon, P R; Stafford, K J; West, D M; Morris, S T; Oliver, M H

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of offering ewes two different feeding levels, during mid and late pregnancy, on ewe and lamb behaviour 12 to 24 h after birth. Romney ewes, bearing twin (n = 80) or triplet foetuses (n = 56), were allocated to a pasture sward height of 2 or 4 cm between 70 and 107 days of pregnancy. In late pregnancy (day 107 to 147), half of the ewes were reallocated the alternate sward height, which produced four treatments: 2-2, 2-4, 4-2 and 4-4. Ewes were weighed on days 65, 92, 107 and 130 of pregnancy and lamb live weights were recorded 12 to 24 h after birth. Twelve to 24 h after birth the maternal behaviour score (MBS) of the ewes were determined, whilst their lambs were tagged. After the lambs were released, the behaviour of each ewe and her lambs was observed for 5 min. Ewe treatment and litter size had no effect on ewe MBS. However, as MBS increased (ewes stayed closer to lambs during tagging), ewes bleated less in a high-pitch and were quicker to make contact with their lamb. During the observation period, ewes in the 4-4 treatment had a greater percentage of their bleats in a low pitch (P < 0.05) than ewes in the 2-2 and 4-2 treatment (61.3% v. 41.3% and 38.8% low bleats, respectively) and more lambs born to 4-4 ewes (95%) bleated than lambs born to 2-2 ewes (84%; P < 0.05). However, lambs born to ewes in the 2-2 treatment bleated earlier than lambs in all other treatments (P < 0.05). Lambs born to 4-4 ewes were less likely (P < 0.05) to move towards their dam in order to make contact than lambs born to 2-2 or 4-2 ewes (3.1% v. 16.9% and 16.7%, respectively). These findings suggest that under the conditions of the present study, ewe nutrition had little effect on maternal behaviour. However, lambs born to ewes offered 2 cm pasture sward heights during mid and/or late pregnancy (2-2, 2-4 and 4-2 treatments) displayed behaviour that demonstrated greater 'need' whereas lambs born to ewes offered 4 cm during mid and

  15. Managing urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Saadeh, Sermin A; Mattoo, Tej K

    2011-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-stage renal failure. The relevance and the sequence of the renal imaging following initial UTI, and the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis and surgical intervention are currently undergoing an intense debate. Prompt treatment of UTI and appropriate follow-up of those at increased risk of recurrence and/or renal scarring are important.

  16. Pseudo-esterase Activity of Human Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Lockridge, Oksana; Xue, Weihua; Gaydess, Andrea; Grigoryan, Hasmik; Ding, Shi-Jian; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Hinrichs, Steven H.; Masson, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Human albumin is thought to hydrolyze esters because multiple equivalents of product are formed for each equivalent of albumin. Esterase activity with p-nitrophenyl acetate has been attributed to turnover at tyrosine 411. However, p-nitrophenyl acetate creates multiple, stable, acetylated adducts, a property contrary to turnover. Our goal was to identify residues that become acetylated by p-nitrophenyl acetate and determine the relationship between stable adduct formation and turnover. Fatty acid-free human albumin was treated with 0.5 mm p-nitrophenyl acetate for 5 min to 2 weeks, or with 10 mm p-nitrophenyl acetate for 48 h to 2 weeks. Aliquots were digested with pepsin, trypsin, or GluC and analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify labeled residues. Only Tyr-411 was acetylated within the first 5 min of reaction with 0.5 mm p-nitrophenyl acetate. After 0.5–6 h there was partial acetylation of 16–17 residues including Asp-1, Lys-4, Lys-12, Tyr-411, Lys-413, and Lys-414. Treatment with 10 mm p-nitrophenyl acetate resulted in acetylation of 59 lysines, 10 serines, 8 threonines, 4 tyrosines, and Asp-1. When Tyr-411 was blocked with diisopropylfluorophosphate or chlorpyrifos oxon, albumin had normal esterase activity with β-naphthyl acetate as visualized on a nondenaturing gel. However, after 82 residues had been acetylated, esterase activity was almost completely inhibited. The half-life for deacetylation of Tyr-411 at pH 8.0, 22 °C was 61 ± 4 h. Acetylated lysines formed adducts that were even more stable. In conclusion, the pseudo-esterase activity of albumin is the result of irreversible acetylation of 82 residues and is not the result of turnover. PMID:18577514

  17. Chicken albumin exhibits natural resistance to glycation.

    PubMed

    Zuck, Jessica; Borges, Chad R; Braun, Eldon J; Sweazea, Karen L

    2017-01-01

    Glycation of proteins and subsequent production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to compare the glycation of avian and human serum albumin to elucidate the mechanisms by which protein glycation in birds is prevented in the presence of naturally high plasma glucose concentrations. Solutions of purified chicken and human serum albumin (CSA and HSA) were prepared with four different glucose concentrations (0, 5.56, 11.1, and 22.2mM) and incubated at three temperatures (37.0, 39.8, and 41.4°C) for seven days. The solutions were sampled on Days 0, 3, and 7 and analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry for the presence of glycated albumin. Four-way repeated measures ANOVA (p=0.032) indicate that all independent variables (albumin type, glucose concentration, temperature and time) interacted to affect the degree of glycation. With increasing glucose concentration, the glycation of both HSA and CSA increased with time at all temperatures. In addition, HSA was glycated to a greater extent than CSA at the two higher glucose concentrations for all temperature conditions. Glycation was elevated with increasing temperatures for HSA but not CSA. The results suggest an inherent difference between human and chicken albumin that contributes to the observed differences in glycation. Further research is needed to characterize this inherent difference in an effort to elucidate mechanisms by which avian plasma protein is glycated to a lesser degree than that of mammals (humans).

  18. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... diagnosis and treatment of disease conditions such as renal or heart diseases or thyroid disorders,...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... diagnosis and treatment of disease conditions such as renal or heart diseases or thyroid disorders,...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... diagnosis and treatment of disease conditions such as renal or heart diseases or thyroid disorders,...

  1. Characterization and Conductivity Behavior of Magnetic Activated Carbon (MAC) from FeCl2.4H2O-Containing Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aripin, Department Of Physics, Faculty Of Mathematics; Natural Science, Haluoleo University, Kampus Bumi Tridharma Anduonohu Kendari 93232 Indonesia

    2007-05-01

    Activated carbons (AC) and magnetic-containing activated carbons (MAC) have been synthesized using coconut shells as carbon sources and FeCl2.4H2O as magnetic precursor. The samples were characterized by nitrogen sorption, XRD, and FTIR. The BET surface area and total pore volume of MAC increase as the temperature increased. AC has XRD peaks, which evidences an amorphous carbon framework and MAC shows that this material consists of an organized carbon with the nanocrystalline magnetite embedded in its structure. The FTIR spectrum of MAC shows that carboxyl groups decreased as the temperature increased. Absorption bands of MAC shows the stretching and torsional vibration modes of the magnetite Fe-O bond in tetrahedral and octahedral sites, respectively. The electrical conductivity studies showed that conductivity of MAC is more than the AC due to structural properties of carbons exists on a framework containing metal structures.

  2. Cathodoluminescence study of radiative interface defects in thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, Yuta; Chanthaphan, Atthawut; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2015-06-29

    Radiative defects in thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) structures and their location in depth were investigated by means of cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. It was found that while luminescence peaks ascribed to oxygen vacancy and nonbridging oxygen hole centers were observed both from thermal oxides grown on (0001) Si-face and C-face surfaces as with thermal oxides on Si, intense yellow luminescence at a wavelength of around 600 nm was identified only from the oxide interface on the Si-face substrate regardless of the oxide thickness and dopant type. Possible physical origins of the radiative centers localized near an oxide interface of a few nm thick are discussed on the basis of visible light emission from Si backbone structures.

  3. The effects of 24-h exposure to carbaryl or atrazine on the locomotor performance and overwinter growth and survival of juvenile spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum).

    PubMed

    Mitchkash, Matthew G; McPeek, Tammy; Boone, Michelle D

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the effects of pesticide exposure on organisms throughout their life cycle is critical to predict population-level effects. For many taxa, including amphibians, juveniles are the main dispersal stage and are disproportionally important to population persistence when compared with other life stages. In the present study, we examined the effects of a single 24-h exposure to the insecticide carbaryl or the herbicide atrazine on locomotor performance (endurance, distance traveled, speed, and fatigue) in the laboratory and terrestrial growth and survival through overwintering in field enclosures using recent metamorphs of spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum). We found that neither atrazine nor carbaryl impacted endurance, but fatigue increased with carbaryl exposure, which could leave salamanders less able to escape repeated attacks by predators. Terrestrial growth and overwinter survival were not affected by short-term exposure to carbaryl or atrazine, suggesting that when individuals can overcome acute effects, no long-term consequences result for the endpoints measured.

  4. The effect of modified citrus pectin on urinary excretion of toxic elements.

    PubMed

    Eliaz, Isaac; Hotchkiss, Arland T; Fishman, Marshall L; Rode, Dorena

    2006-10-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of modified citrus pectin (MCP) on the urinary excretion of toxic elements in healthy individuals. MCP is a reduced molecular weight pectin (weight-average molar mass = 15,400) that is mostly linear homogalacturonan with a 3.8% degree of esterification and approximately 10% rhamnogalacturonan II based on the presence of 2-keto-3-deoxy-octonic acid. Subjects ingested 15 g of MCP (PectaSol, EcoNugenics Inc., Santa Rosa, California 95407) each day for 5 days and 20 g on day 6. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected on day 1 and day 6 for comparison with baseline. The urine samples were analysed for toxic and essential elements. In the first 24 h of MCP administration the urinary excretion of arsenic increased significantly (130%, p < 0.05). On day 6, urinary excretion was increased significantly for cadmium (150%, p < 0.05). In addition, lead showed a dramatic increase in excretion (560%, p < 0.08). This pilot trial provides the first evidence that oral administration of MCP increases significantly the urinary excretion of toxic metals in subjects with a 'normal' body load of metals. It is suggested that systemic chelation of toxic metals by MCP may in part be attributable to the presence of rhamnogalacturonan II, which has been shown previously to chelate metals.

  5. Rhythmic 24 h Variation of Core Body Temperature and Locomotor Activity in a Subterranean Rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the Tuco-Tuco

    PubMed Central

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents. PMID:24454916

  6. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake.

    PubMed

    Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M E; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H; Slimani, Nadia

    2012-03-01

    Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomarkers for protein and K intake and whether the BMI effect differs between six European countries. Between 1995 and 1999, 1086 men and women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition completed a single 24-HDR, a DQ and one 24 h urine collection. In regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, education and country, each unit (1 kg/m²) increase in BMI predicted an approximately 1·7 and 1·3 % increase in protein under-reporting on 24-HDR and DQ, respectively (both P < 0·0001). Exclusion of individuals who probably misreported energy intake attenuated BMI-related bias on both instruments. The BMI effect on protein under-reporting did not differ for men and women and neither between countries on both instruments as tested by interaction (all P>0·15). In women, but not in men, the DQ yielded higher mean intakes of protein that were closer to the biomarker-based measurements across BMI groups when compared with 24-HDR. Results for K were similar to those of protein, although BMI-related under-reporting of K was of a smaller magnitude, suggesting differential misreporting of foods. Under-reporting of protein and K appears to be predicted by BMI, but this effect may be driven by 'low-energy reporters'. The BMI effect on under-reporting seems to be the same across countries.

  7. The role of birth weight on litter size and mortality within 24h of life in purebred dogs: What aspects are involved?

    PubMed

    Groppetti, D; Ravasio, G; Bronzo, V; Pecile, A

    2015-12-01

    In humans, scientific evidence emphasizes the role of birth weight on neonatal welfare, morbidity and mortality. In canine species, defining normal ranges of birth weight is a harder issue due to a great morphological variability in size, body weight and breed. The aim of this study was to correlate birth weight with litter size and mortality within 24h of life in 789 pups from 140 litters of purebred dogs and to investigate the aspects that might affect these factors. Birth weight was influenced by maternal size, weight and age (P<0.001). The lightest pups were from toy sized or weighing up to 10 kg bitches. Conversely, bitches aged 2-8 years whelped heavier pups than younger and older mothers. Birth weight was also related both to litter size, with heavier pups in smaller rather than in larger litters from medium sized bitches, and breed (P<0.05). Unexpectedly, birth weight did not differ between live born and stillborn pups. However, birth weight was lower in pups dying within 24h of life (P<0.05). High mortality of pups was related both to short pregnancies (P<0.05), also showing lighter litters (P<0.001), and to dystocic parturitions (P<0.001). Litter size was associated with parity, type and number of mating, and length of pregnancy (P<0.001). Low birth weight appears to predispose to early neonatal mortality suggesting a predominant role of the breed rather than size and weight in determining birth weight in pups.

  8. Agreement between an online dietary assessment tool (myfood24) and an interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall in British adolescents aged 11-18 years.

    PubMed

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Greenwood, Darren C; Cade, Janet E

    2016-05-01

    myfood24 Is an online 24-h dietary assessment tool developed for use among British adolescents and adults. Limited information is available regarding the validity of using new technology in assessing nutritional intake among adolescents. Thus, a relative validation of myfood24 against a face-to-face interviewer-administered 24-h multiple-pass recall (MPR) was conducted among seventy-five British adolescents aged 11-18 years. Participants were asked to complete myfood24 and an interviewer-administered MPR on the same day for 2 non-consecutive days at school. Total energy intake (EI) and nutrients recorded by the two methods were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots (using between and within-individual information) and weighted κ to assess the agreement. Energy, macronutrients and other reported nutrients from myfood24 demonstrated strong agreement with the interview MPR data, and ICC ranged from 0·46 for Na to 0·88 for EI. There was no significant bias between the two methods for EI, macronutrients and most reported nutrients. The mean difference between myfood24 and the interviewer-administered MPR for EI was -230 kJ (-55 kcal) (95 % CI -490, 30 kJ (-117, 7 kcal); P=0·4) with limits of agreement ranging between 39 % (3336 kJ (-797 kcal)) lower and 34 % (2874 kJ (687 kcal)) higher than the interviewer-administered MPR. There was good agreement in terms of classifying adolescents into tertiles of EI (κ w =0·64). The agreement between day 1 and day 2 was as good for myfood24 as for the interviewer-administered MPR, reflecting the reliability of myfood24. myfood24 Has the potential to collect dietary data of comparable quality with that of an interviewer-administered MPR.

  9. A 24-h helpline for access to expert management advice for food allergy-related anaphylaxis in children: protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, Maeve M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Cullinane, Claire; Fitzsimons, John; Sheikh, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Anaphylaxis is an important, potentially life-threatening paediatric emergency. It is responsible for considerable morbidity and, in some cases, death. Poor outcomes may be associated with an inability to differentiate between milder and potentially more severe reactions and an associated reluctance to administer self-injectable adrenaline. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a 24-h telephone access to specialist paediatric allergy expert advice in improving the quality of life of children and their families with potentially life-threatening food allergy (ie, anaphylaxis) compared with usual clinical care. Methods and analysis Children aged less than 16 years with food allergy and who carry an adrenaline autoinjector will be recruited from the Paediatric Allergy Clinic at Cork University Hospital, Ireland and baseline disease-specific quality of life will be ascertained using the validated Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire (FAQLQ). Participants will be randomised for a period of 6 months to the 24-h telephone specialist support line or usual care. The primary outcome measure of interest is a change in FAQLQ scores, which will be assessed at 0, 1 and 6 months postrandomisation. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis using a 2×3 repeated measures within-between analysis of variance. Although lacking power, we will in addition assess the impact of the intervention on a range of relevant process and clinical endpoints. Ethics and dissemination This trial protocol has been approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Cork Teaching Hospitals. The findings will be presented at international scientific conferences and will be reported on in the peer-reviewed literature in early 2013. PMID:22893666

  10. Rhythmic 24 h variation of core body temperature and locomotor activity in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the tuco-tuco.

    PubMed

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Bicudo, José Eduardo Wilken; Oda, Gisele Akemi; Valentinuzzi, Verónica Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The tuco-tuco Ctenomys aff. knighti is a subterranean rodent which inhabits a semi-arid area in Northwestern Argentina. Although they live in underground burrows where environmental cycles are attenuated, they display robust, 24 h locomotor activity rhythms that are synchronized by light/dark cycles, both in laboratory and field conditions. The underground environment also poses energetic challenges (e.g. high-energy demands of digging, hypoxia, high humidity, low food availability) that have motivated thermoregulation studies in several subterranean rodent species. By using chronobiological protocols, the present work aims to contribute towards these studies by exploring day-night variations of thermoregulatory functions in tuco-tucos, starting with body temperature and its temporal relationship to locomotor activity. Animals showed daily, 24 h body temperature rhythms that persisted even in constant darkness and temperature, synchronizing to a daily light/dark cycle, with highest values occurring during darkness hours. The range of oscillation of body temperature was slightly lower than those reported for similar-sized and dark-active rodents. Most rhythmic parameters, such as period and phase, did not change upon removal of the running wheel. Body temperature and locomotor activity rhythms were robustly associated in time. The former persisted even after removal of the acute effects of intense activity on body temperature by a statistical method. Finally, regression gradients between body temperature and activity were higher in the beginning of the night, suggesting day-night variation in thermal conductance and heat production. Consideration of these day-night variations in thermoregulatory processes is beneficial for further studies on thermoregulation and energetics of subterranean rodents.

  11. A 24-h forecast of solar irradiance using artificial neural network: Application for performance prediction of a grid-connected PV plant at Trieste, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Mellit, Adel; Pavan, Alessandro Massi

    2010-05-15

    Forecasting of solar irradiance is in general significant for planning the operations of power plants which convert renewable energies into electricity. In particular, the possibility to predict the solar irradiance (up to 24 h or even more) can became - with reference to the Grid Connected Photovoltaic Plants (GCPV) - fundamental in making power dispatching plans and - with reference to stand alone and hybrid systems - also a useful reference for improving the control algorithms of charge controllers. In this paper, a practical method for solar irradiance forecast using artificial neural network (ANN) is presented. The proposed Multilayer Perceptron MLP-model makes it possible to forecast the solar irradiance on a base of 24 h using the present values of the mean daily solar irradiance and air temperature. An experimental database of solar irradiance and air temperature data (from July 1st 2008 to May 23rd 2009 and from November 23rd 2009 to January 24th 2010) has been used. The database has been collected in Trieste (latitude 45 40'N, longitude 13 46'E), Italy. In order to check the generalization capability of the MLP-forecaster, a K-fold cross-validation was carried out. The results indicate that the proposed model performs well, while the correlation coefficient is in the range 98-99% for sunny days and 94-96% for cloudy days. As an application, the comparison between the forecasted one and the energy produced by the GCPV plant installed on the rooftop of the municipality of Trieste shows the goodness of the proposed model. (author)

  12. Albumin oxidation leads to neutrophil activation in vitro and inaccurate measurement of serum albumin in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Michelis, Regina; Kristal, Batya; Zeitun, Teuta; Shapiro, Galina; Fridman, Yoav; Geron, Ronit; Sela, Shifra

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies suggest that oxidative modifications of serum albumin lead to underestimation of albumin concentrations using conventional assays. In addition, oxidation of serum albumin may cause neutrophil activation and further oxidation of albumin, which may result in a series of reciprocal cyclical processes. Because hypoalbuminemia, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress are common in diabetic nephropathy patients, the aim of this study was to show that albumin modifications and neutrophil activation underlie these reciprocal systemic processes. Blood samples from a cohort of 19 patients with diabetic nephropathy and 15 healthy controls were used for albumin separation. An oxidation-dependent "albumin detection index," representing the detection efficacy of the universal bromocresol green assay, was determined for each subject. This index was correlated with serum albumin levels, various markers of oxidative stress or inflammation, and kidney function. Activation of separated neutrophils by glycoxidized albumin was assessed by the release of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). The albumin detection index of diabetic nephropathy patients was significantly lower compared to that of controls, correlating positively with serum levels of albumin and kidney function and negatively with albumin glycoxidation and inflammatory markers. Glycoxidized albumin had a direct role in neutrophil activation, resulting in NGAL and MPO release. The hypoalbuminemia observed in patients with diabetic nephropathy partially results from underestimation of modified/oxidized albumin using the bromocresol green assay. However, modified or oxidized albumin may lead to a cycle of accelerated oxidative stress and inflammation involving neutrophil activation. We suggest that the albumin detection index, a new marker of oxidative stress, may also serve as a biomarker of diabetic nephropathy severity and its progression.

  13. A Comparison of the Segmental Analysis of Sodium Reabsorption during Ringer's and Hyperoncotic Albumin Infusion in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Jay H.; Osgood, Richard W.; Boonjarern, Sampanta; Ferris, Thomas F.

    1973-01-01

    Studies were designed to compare the segmental analysis of sodium reabsorption along the nephron during volume expansion with either 10% body weight Ringer's or 0.6% body weight hyperoncotic albumin. Total kidney and nephron glomerular filtration rate increased similarly with both, but urinary sodium excretion (12.7 vs. 4.0 μeq/min, P < 0.001) and fractional sodium excretion (5.0 vs. 1.6%, P < 0.001) increased to a greater extent with Ringer's. Fractional reabsorption of sodium in the proximal tubule was diminished in both groups but to a significantly greater extent during Ringer's (P < 0.005). Absolute reabsorption was inhibited only in the Ringer's group. Delivery of filtrate out of the proximal tubule was greater in the Ringer's studies, 45 vs. 37 nl/min (P < 0.001). However, both fractional and absolute sodium delivery to the early and late distal tubule were not significantly different in the two groups. Fractional reabsorption in the collecting duct decreased from 96% in hydropenia to 31% during Ringer's but fell only slightly to 80% in the albumin studies. Absolute collecting duct reabsorption was also greater in the albumin studies, 0.55 vs. 0.21 neq/min (P < 0.001), which could totally account for the difference in urinary sodium excretion between the two groups. 22Na recovery in the final urine after end distal microinjections was 71% during Ringer's infusion and 34% during albumin (P < 0.001). From these data we conclude that: (a) Ringer's solution has a greater inhibitory effect on proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, and (b) in spite of this effect, differences in mucosal to serosal collecting duct sodium transport are primarily responsible for the greater natriuresis during Ringer's infusion. PMID:4727461

  14. [Urinary elimination of oxytocin and vasopressin measured by radioimmunoassay in different phases of the menstrual cycle in women].

    PubMed

    Geelen, G; Allevard, A M; Jarsaillon, E; Zébidi, A; Augoyard, G; Baratin, D; Gharib, C

    1980-01-01

    Urinary arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) excretion were measured by radioimmunoassay and studied in 3 normally cycling women. No difference for AVP and OT excretion was found between the different phases of the menstrual cycle. But in one subject with a typical pre-menstrual syndrom (weight gain of 1.5 kg), a significant statistical difference was found in AVP excretion (p less than 0.05) between the pre-ovulatory (25.3 +/- 3.08 ng/24 h) and the post-ovulatory (39.45 +/- 5.59 ng/24 h) phase. The well known stimulatory effect of estrogen as judged from plasma studies on neurohypophyseal hormones was thus difficult to demonstrate in urine. These results could be explained by the fact that the kidney destroys both AVP and OT, but OT at a higher rate than AVP.

  15. Effect of metoprolol on 24-hour urinary excretion of adrenal steroids and kallikrein in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Fritschka, E.; Gotzen, R.; Kittler, R.; Schöneshöfer, M.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of fifteen patients with essential hypertension over four weeks using the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocking agent, metoprolol, resulted in a decrease in 24 h urinary excretion of kallikrein and aldosterone along with a decrease in plasma renin activity. There was no significant change in 24 h excretion rates of the free adrenal steroids deoxycorticosterone, 18-OH-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, cortisol or 18-OH-corticosterone during treatment, which were not significantly different from excretion rates of normal males, thus excluding inhibitory effects of adrenal steroids on urinary kallikrein activity. A positive correlation was found between plasma renin activity and urinary excretion of kallikrein during the control period and after 2 weeks on metoprolol, supporting the assumption of a preserved link between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the renal excretion of kallikrein in these patients. The decrease in kallikrein excretion during beta 1-adrenoceptor blockade in patients with essential hypertension may be explained by a reduction in sympathetic tone and by reduced activity of the renin-aldosterone system. PMID:6367871

  16. Exposure of flight attendants to pyrethroid insecticides on commercial flights: urinary metabolite levels and implications.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binnian; Mohan, Krishnan R; Weisel, Clifford P

    2012-07-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been used for disinsection of commercial aircrafts. However, little is known about the pyrethroids exposure of flight attendants. The objective of the study was to assess pyrethroids exposure of flight attendants working on commercial aircrafts through monitoring the urinary pyrethroids metabolite levels. Eighty four urine samples were collected from 28 flight attendants, 18-65 years of age, with seventeen working on planes that were non-disinsected, and eleven working on planes that had been disinsected. Five urinary metabolites of pyrethroids were measured using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), cis-/trans-3-(2,2-Dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclo-propane carboxylic acid (cis-/trans-Cl2CA), cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclo-propane-1-carboxylic acid (cis-Br2CA) and 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (4F-3-PBA). Flight attendants working on disinsected planes had significantly higher urinary levels of 3-PBA, cis- and trans-Cl2CA in pre, post- and 24-h-post flight samples than those on planes which did not report having been disinsected. Urinary levels of cis-Br2CA and 4F-3-PBA did not show significant differences between the two groups. Flight attendants working on international flights connected to Australia had higher urinary levels of 3-PBA, cis- and trans-Cl2CA than those on either domestic and other international flights flying among Asia, Europe and North America. Post-disinsection duration (number of days from disinsection date to flight date) was the most significant factor affecting the urinary pyrethroid metabolites levels of 3-PBA, cis- and trans-Cl2CA of the group flying on disinsected aircraft. It was concluded that working on commercial aircraft disinsected by pyrethroids resulted in elevated body burdens of 3-PBA, cis- and trans-Cl2CA.

  17. Relation of dietary inorganic arsenic exposure and urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites excretion in Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Suzuki, Yayoi; Tao, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Tetsuya

    2017-03-08

    Inorganic arsenic (InAs) is a ubiquitous metalloid that has been shown to exert multiple adverse health outcomes. Urinary InAs and its metabolite concentration has been used as a biomarker of arsenic (As) exposure in some epidemiological studies, however, quantitative relationship between daily InAs exposure and urinary InAs metabolites concentration has not been well characterized. We collected a set of 24-h duplicated diet and spot urine sample of the next morning of diet sampling from 20 male and 19 female subjects in Japan from August 2011 to October 2012. Concentrations of As species in duplicated diet and urine samples were determined by using liquid chromatography-ICP mass spectrometry with a hydride generation system. Sum of the concentrations of urinary InAs and methylarsonic acid (MMA) was used as a measure of InAs exposure. Daily dietary InAs exposure was estimated to be 0.087 µg kg(-1) day(-1) (Geometric mean, GM), and GM of urinary InAs+MMA concentrations was 3.5 ng mL(-1). Analysis of covariance did not find gender-difference in regression coefficients as significant (P > 0.05). Regression equation Log 10 [urinary InAs+MMA concentration] = 0.570× Log 10 [dietary InAs exposure level per body weight] + 1.15 was obtained for whole data set. This equation would be valuable in converting urinary InAs concentration to daily InAs exposure, which will be important information in risk assessment.

  18. Urinary potassium is a clinically useful test to detect a poor quality diet.

    PubMed

    Mente, Andrew; Irvine, E Jan; Honey, R John D'A; Logan, Alexander G

    2009-04-01

    Poor eating habits, a strong predictor of health outcomes, are not objectively assessed in routine clinical practice. In this study, we evaluated the use of urinary potassium (K(+)) as a means to identify people consuming a poor quality diet. Consecutive patients with kidney stones (n = 220), aged 18-50 y, from a population-based lithotripsy unit, collected a single 24-h urine sample to assess urinary K(+). They also completed a FFQ to derive the recommended foods score (RFS), an index of overall diet quality, and had their blood pressure, heart rate, weight, and height measured. Urinary K(+) was related positively with the intake of recommended food items, including vegetables, fruit, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, fish and poultry, and wine and negatively to those not recommended by current dietary guidelines, including red meat, fast food, and high-energy drinks. Urinary K(+) was also correlated with the RFS (r = 0.226; P < 0.001). Using a receiver operating characteristic curve, K(+) excretion values below the gender-specific median (men, 60 mmol/d; women, 41 mmol/d) were identified as the optimal cutoff values for a poor quality diet, indicated by the RFS. Higher urinary K(+) was inversely related to adjusted BMI (P-trend = 0.03), diastolic blood pressure (P-trend = 0.04) and heart rate (P-trend = 0.006), after controlling for potential confounders. Urinary K(+) provides a summary measure of diet quality, is significantly related to BMI, blood pressure, and heart rate, and may be useful clinically to detect poor dietary habits and monitor response to dietary interventions.

  19. Human serum albumin adsorption on TiO2 from single protein solutions and from plasma.

    PubMed

    Sousa, S R; Moradas-Ferreira, P; Saramago, B; Melo, L Viseu; Barbosa, M A

    2004-10-26

    In the present work, the adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) on commercially pure titanium with a titanium oxide layer formed in a H(2)O(2) solution (TiO(2) cp) and on TiO(2) sputtered on Si (TiO(2) sp) was analyzed. Adsorption isotherms, kinetic studies, and work of adhesion determinations were carried out. HSA exchangeability was also evaluated. Surface characterization was performed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and wettability studies. The two TiO(2) surfaces have very distinct roughnesses, the TiO(2) sp having a mean R(a) value 14 times smaller than the one of TiO(2) cp. XPS analysis revealed consistent peaks representative of TiO(2) on sputtered samples as well as on Ti cp substrate after 48 h of H(2)O(2) immersion. Nitrogen was observed as soon as protein was present, while sulfur, present in disulfide bonds in HSA, was observed for concentrations of protein higher than 0.30 mg/mL. The work of adhesion was determined from contact angle measurements. As expected from the surface free energy values, the work of adhesion of HSA solution is higher for the TiO(2) cp substrate, the more hydrophilic one, and lower for the TiO(2) sp substrate, the more hydrophobic one. The work of adhesion between plasma and the substrates assumed even higher values for the TiO(2) cp surface, indicating a greater interaction between the surface and the complex protein solutions. Adsorption studies by radiolabeling of albumin ((125)I-HSA) suggest that rapid HSA adsorption takes place on both surfaces, reaching a maximum value after approximately 60 min of incubation. For the higher HSA concentrations in solution, a multilayer coverage was observed on both substrates. After the adsorption step from single HSA solutions, the exchangeability of adsorbed HSA molecules by HSA in solution was evaluated. The HSA molecules adsorbed on TiO(2) sp seem to be more easily exchanged by HSA itself than those adsorbed on TiO(2) cp after 24 h. In

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... more serious infection that reaches the kidneys. continue Bacteria Are to Blame UTIs are usually caused by ... as soon as possible. previous continue Battling the Bacteria Only your health care provider can treat urinary ...

  1. Hyperammonemia in Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Kato, Ken; Kitao, Akihito; Kosami, Koki; Minami, Kensuke; Yahata, Shinsuke; Fukui, Miho; Okayama, Masanobu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated the incidence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections and explored the utility of urinary obstruction relief and antimicrobial administration to improve hyperammonemia. Methods This was an observational study. Subjects were patients who were diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized between June 2008 and June 2009. We measured plasma ammonia levels on admission in patients who were clinically diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized. We assessed each patient's level of consciousness on admission using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and performed urine and blood cultures. We also assessed hearing prior to hospitalization using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS). In cases with high ammonia levels on admission, plasma ammonia and GCS were measured 24 hours and 5–7 days later. Results Sixty-seven candidates were enrolled; of these, 60 cases (89.6%) with bacterial cell counts ≥104 CFU/mL were studied. Five cases (8.3%) presented with high plasma ammonia levels. Cases with hyperammonemia were significantly more likely to present with low GCS scores and urinary retention rate. All five cases received antimicrobial therapy with an indwelling bladder catheter to relieve urinary retention. The case 5 patient died shortly after admission due to complicated aspiration pneumonia; in the remaining cases, plasma ammonia levels were rapidly normalized and the level of consciousness improved. Conclusions The occurrence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections is not rare. The cause of hyperammonemia is urinary retention obstruction. Therefore, along with antimicrobial administration, relief of obstruction is important for the treatment of hyperammonemia caused by this mechanism. PMID:26292215

  2. Urinary tract infections in adults.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Evan B; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2004-06-07

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year. Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance requires appropriate diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  3. Use of fractionated urinary filarial antigen in the diagnosis of human filariasis.

    PubMed

    Ramaprasad, P; Harinath, B C

    1995-02-01

    Fractionated urinary filarial antigen UFA C2 has shown high antigenic activity after absorption of urinary albumin present in the fraction. As little as 500 ag (10(-18) g) of albumin absorbed UFA C2, labelled as UFA C2-A, was found to be sufficient to detect filarial antibody. Stick enzyme immunoassay to assess the immunodiagnostic potential of UFA C2-A indicated filarial IgG antibody in 89% of microfilaraemic (mf) cases, 84% of clinical filariasis and 7% of endemic normals. UFA C2-A was found to be present in circulation in active as well as clinical infections as observed by inhibition assay using UFA C2-A penicillinase conjugate. Eighty-six per cent of mf, 50% of clinical cases and 6% of endemic normal subjects revealed parasite antigen to UFA C2-A on further serological analysis. None of the non-endemic normal sera showed the presence of filarial antibody/antigen to UFA C2-A. Furthermore, the test to determine phosphorylcholine (PC) bearing epitopes in UFA C2-A indicated no immunological reaction with anti-PC monoclonal antibody by avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The highly sensitive and more easily obtainable non-PC urinary filarial antigen, UFA C2-A, is of great immunodiagnostic interest for lymphatic filariasis.

  4. Fluorescent holograms with albumin-acrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    We describe fluorescent holograms were made with photosensitive films of albumin (protein) quail, used as modified matrices. Albumin is mixed with acrylamide and eosin Y. Therefore, prepare a photosensitive emulsion and solid hydrated with the ability to phase transmission holograms and volume (VPH). Eosin Y is a fluorescent agent that acts as a photo-sensitizing dye which stimulates the polymerization of acrylamide. To record the interference pattern produced by two waves superimposed on the modified matrix, we use a He-Cd laser. To reconstruct the diffraction pattern is observed with He- Ne laser, λ = 632.8nm, the material is self-developing properties. Measure the diffraction efficiency of the diffracted orders (η[-1, +1]) as a function of exposure energy. We work with various thicknesses and measure the variation of the refractive index using the coupled wave theory of Kogelnik, the holographic gratings meet Bragg condition.

  5. Nanogels fabricated from bovine serum albumin and chitosan via self-assembly for delivery of anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuntao; Xu, Shasha; Xiong, Wenfei; Pei, Yaqiong; Li, Bin; Chen, Yijie

    2016-10-01

    In this study, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and chitosan (CS) were used to prepare BSA-CS nanogels by a simple green self-assembly technique. Then the nanogels were successfully used to entrap doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) with an entrapment ratio of 46.3%, aiming to realize the slow-release effect and lower the cytotoxicity of DOX. The IC50 values of DOX-loaded BSA-CS (DOX-BSA-CS) and free DOX obtained by MTT assay in SGC7901 cells were 0.22 and 0.05μg/mL, respectively. The cytotoxicity of DOX significantly decreased within 24h after encapsulation by the nanogels, indicating that the loaded drug could slowly release within 24h and the BSA-CS was a good slow release system. The cellular uptake experiments indicated DOX-BSA-CS diffused faster into the cancer cell than the bare drug. The flow cytometry and TUNEL assay proved DOX-BSA-CS could induce a larger apoptosis proportion of gastric cancer cells 7901 than the bare drug and it is promising to be used for curing gastric cancer.

  6. [Urinary incontinence and obesity].

    PubMed

    Legendre, G; Fritel, X; Capmas, P; Pourcelot, A-G; Fernandez, H

    2012-06-01

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than or equal to 30kg/m(2), promotes pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence (UI) and genital prolapse. Datas from cohort studies found an association between high BMI and the onset of UI. This association seems to be predominant with for mixed UI and stress UI. For the urge UI and overactive bladder syndrome, the analysis of the literature found a weaker association. The weight is therefore the only modifiable risk factor. Thus, the weight loss by a hypocaloric diet associated with pelvic floor muscle training should be the front line treatment in the obese patient suffering from UI. Bariatric surgery can be discussed in the most obese patient, even if the risk/benefit balance should be weighed because of significant morbidity of this surgery. The results of sub urethral sling (by retropubic tension-free vaginal tape or transobturator sling) in obese patients appear to be equivalent to those obtained in patients of normal weight. Datas on per- and postoperative complications for suburethral slings are reassuring.

  7. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Horse Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.

  8. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin. Contributes to many transport and regulatory processes and has multifunctional binding properties which range from various metals, to fatty acids, hormones, and a wide spectrum of therapeutic drugs. The most abundant protein of the circulatory system. It binds and transports an incredible variety of biological and pharmaceutical ligands throughout the blood stream. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Larry DeLucas.

  9. Rabbit serum albumin hydrolyzes the carbamate carbaryl.

    PubMed

    Sogorb, Miguel A; Carrera, Victoria; Benabent, Mónica; Vilanova, Eugenio

    2002-04-01

    One of the main detoxification processes of the carbamate insecticides is the hydrolysis of the carbamic ester bond. Carboxylesterases seem to play important roles in the metabolization of carbamates. This study performs a biochemical characterization of the capabilities of rabbit serum albumin (RSA) to hydrolyze the carbamate carbaryl. Rabbit serum albumin was able to hydrolyze carbaryl with a K(cat) of 7.1 x 10(-5) s(-1). The K(m) for this hydrolysis reaction was 240 microM. Human, chicken, and bovine serum albumins were also able to hydrolyze carbaryl. The divalent cation Cu(2+) at 1 mM concentration inhibited around 50% of the hydrolysis of carbaryl by RSA. Other mono- and divalent cations at 1 mM concentration and 5 mM EDTA exerted no significant effects on the hydrolysis of carbaryl by RSA. The inhibition of the carbaryl hydrolysis by sulfydril blocking agents suggests that a cysteine residue plays an important role in the active center of the catalytic activity. Both caprylic and palmitic acids were noncompetitive inhibitors of the carbaryl hydrolysis by RSA. The carboxyl ester p-nitrophenyl butyrate is a substrate of RSA and competitively inhibited the hydrolysis of carbaryl by this protein, suggesting that the hydrolysis of carbaryl and the hydrolysis of carboxyl esters occur in the same catalytic site and through a similar mechanism. This mechanism might be based on the carbamylation of a tyrosine residue of the RSA. Serum albumin is a protein universally present in nontarget species of insecticides; therefore, the capability of this protein to hydrolyze other carbamates must be studied because it might have important toxicological and ecotoxicological implications.

  10. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase in children with type I diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ellis, E N; Brouhard, B H; Lagrone, L; Travis, L B

    1983-01-01

    N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), a lysosomal enzyme, has been shown to be increased in the urine of patients with various glomerulonephritides, tubulointerestitial diseases, renal allograft rejection, toxic renal injury, and diabetes mellitus. Although it has been suggested that urinary NAG may reflect blood glucose control, no studies have correlated this with other measures of metabolic control. Thirty-four children from a diabetic summer camp were found to have urinary NAG to creatinine ratios significantly above those of normal controls of similar age (5.22 +/- 1.19 versus 1.51 +/- 0.17 U). Urinary NAG was found to positively correlate with an arbitrary control index (r = 0.82; P less than 0.05) and in seven patients with hemoglobin A1c (r = 0.70; P less than 0.001). In a closely followed group of 40 clinic patients, urinary NAG to creatinine ratio was again found to be significantly increased over normal controls (7.55 +/- 0.70 versus 1.51 +/- 0.17 U; P less than 0.05). Again, urinary NAG was positively correlated with HbA1c (r = 0.62; P less than 0.001) and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (r = 0.47; P less than 0.01). In neither group was there a correlation with UNAG:UCr and duration of disease. Thus, these data suggest that urinary NAG to creatinine ratio appears to be a reflection of blood sugar control.

  11. Calcium inhibits diacylglycerol uptake by serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Ahyayauch, Hasna; Arana, Gorka; Sot, Jesús; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M

    2009-03-01

    Serum albumin is an abundant protein in blood plasma, that is well-known for its ability to transport hydrophobic biomolecules and drugs. Recent hypotheses propose that serum albumin plays a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism in addition to its lipid transport properties. The present work explores the capacity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to extract diacylglycerols (DAG) from phospholipid bilayers, and the inhibition of such interaction by divalent cations. Quantitative measurements using radioactive DAG and morphological evidence derived from giant unilamellar vesicles examined by confocal microscopy provide concurrent results. BSA extracts DAG from vesicles consisting of phosphatidylinositol/DAG. Long, saturated DAG species are incorporated more readily than the shorter-chain or unsaturated ones. Divalent cations hinder DAG uptake by BSA. For Ca(2+), the concentration causing half-maximal inhibition is approximately 10 muM; 90% inhibition is caused by 100 muM Ca(2+). Sr(2+) requires concentrations one order of magnitude higher, while Mg(2+) has virtually no effect. As an example on how DAG uptake by BSA, and its inhibition by Ca(2+), could play a regulating role in lipid metabolism, a PI-specific phospholipase C has been assayed in the presence of BSA and/or Ca(2+). BSA activates the enzyme by removing the end-product DAG, but the activation is reverted by Ca(2+) that inhibits DAG uptake.

  12. Number of spermatozoa in the crypts of the sperm reservoir at about 24 h after a low-dose intrauterine and deep intrauterine insemination in sows.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, P; Tienthai, P

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number of spermatozoa in the crypts of the utero-tubal junction (UTJ) and the oviduct of sows approximately 24 h after intrauterine insemination (IUI) and deep intrauterine insemination (DIUI) and compared with that of conventional artificial insemination (AI). Fifteen crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire (LY) multiparous sows were used in the experiment. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed every 4 h to examine the time of ovulation in relation to oestrous behaviour. The sows were inseminated with a single dose of diluted fresh semen by the AI (n = 5), IUI (n = 5) and DIUI (n = 5) at approximately 6-8 h prior to the expected time of ovulation, during the second oestrus after weaning. The sperm dose contained 3000 x 10(6) spermatozoa in 100 ml for AI, 1,000 x 10(6) spermatozoa in 50 ml for IUI and 150 x 10(6) spermatozoa in 5 ml for DIUI. The sows were anaesthetized and ovario-hysterectomized approximately 24 h after insemination. The oviducts and the proximal part of the uterine horns (1 cm) on each side of the reproductive tracts were collected. The section was divided into four parts, i.e. UTJ, caudal isthmus, cranial isthmus and ampulla. The spermatozoa in the lumen in each part were flushed several times with phosphate buffer solution. After flushing, the UTJ and all parts of the oviducts were immersed in a 10% neutral buffered formalin solution. The UTJ and each part of the oviducts were cut into four equal parts and embedded in a paraffin block. The tissue sections were transversely sectioned to a thickness of 5 mum. Every fifth serial section was mounted and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The total number of spermatozoa from 32 sections in each parts of the tissue (16 sections from the left side and 16 sections from the right side) was determined under light microscope. The results reveal that most of the spermatozoa in the histological section were located in groups in the epithelial crypts. The means of

  13. Urinary potassium excretion and risk of developing hypertension: the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study.

    PubMed

    Kieneker, Lyanne M; Gansevoort, Ron T; Mukamal, Kenneth J; de Boer, Rudolf A; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; Joosten, Michel M

    2014-10-01

    Previous prospective cohort studies on the association between potassium intake and risk of hypertension have almost exclusively relied on self-reported dietary data, whereas repeated 24-hour urine excretions, as estimate of dietary uptake, may provide a more objective and quantitative estimate of this association. Risk of hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or initiation of blood pressure-lowering drugs) was prospectively studied in 5511 normotensive subjects aged 28 to 75 years not using blood pressure-lowering drugs at baseline of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study. Potassium excretion was measured in two 24-hour urine specimens at baseline (1997-1998) and midway during follow-up (2001-2003). Baseline median potassium excretion was 70 mmol/24 h (interquartile range, 57-85 mmol/24 h), which corresponds to a dietary potassium intake of ≈91 mmol/24 h. During a median follow-up of 7.6 years (interquartile range, 5.0-9.3 years), 1172 subjects developed hypertension. The lowest sex-specific tertile of potassium excretion (men: <68 mmol/24 h; women: <58 mmol/24 h) had an increased risk of hypertension after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.37), compared with the upper 2 tertiles (Pnonlinearity=0.008). The proportion of hypertension attributable to low potassium excretion was 6.2% (95% confidence interval, 1.7%-10.9%). No association was found between the sodium to potassium excretion ratio and risk of hypertension after multivariable adjustment. Low urinary potassium excretion was associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension. Dietary strategies to increase potassium intake to the recommended level of 90 mmol/d may have the potential to reduce the incidence of hypertension.

  14. Continuous versus discontinuous drinking of an ethanol liquid diet in peripubertal rats: effect on 24-h variation of lymph node and splenic mitogenic responses and lymphocyte subset populations.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Fernández-Mateos, María P; Barquilla, Pilar Cano; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2011-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption continues to be a major public health problem, particularly in the adolescent and young adult populations. Generally, such a behavior tends to be confined to the weekends, to attain frequently binge drinking. This study in peripubertal male rats compares the effect of the discontinuous feeding of a liquid diet containing a moderate amount of ethanol (6.2% wt/vol) to that of continuous ethanol administration or a control diet, taking as end points the 24-h variations of plasma prolactin levels and mitogenic responses and lymphocyte subset populations in submaxillary lymph nodes and spleen. Animals received the ethanol liquid diet starting on day 35 of life, the diet being similar to that given to controls except for that maltose was isocalorically replaced by ethanol. Ethanol provided 36% of the total caloric content. Every week, the discontinuous ethanol group received the ethanol diet for 3 days and the control liquid diet for the remaining 4 days. After 4 weeks, rats were killed at six time intervals, beginning at 0900 h. A significant decrease of splenic cells' response to concanavalin A, and of lymph node and splenic cells' response to lipopolysaccharide was found in rats under the discontinuous ethanol regime, when compared with control- or ethanol-chronic rats. Under discontinuous ethanol feeding, mean values of lymph node and splenic CD8(+) and CD4(+)-CD8(+) cells decreased, whereas those of lymph node and splenic T cells, and splenic B cells, augmented. In rats chronically fed with ethanol, splenic mean levels of CD8(+) and CD4(+)-CD8(+) cells augmented. Both modalities of ethanol administration disrupted the 24 h variation in immune function seen in controls. Mean plasma prolactin levels increased by 3.6-fold and 8.5-fold in rats chronically or discontinuously fed with alcohol, respectively. The immune parameters examined in an additional group of rats fed regular chow and water ad libitum did not differ significantly from

  15. Urinary proteins in children with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Lena; Preda, Iulian; Hahn-Zoric, Mirjana; Hanson, Lars A; Jodal, Ulf; Sixt, Rune; Barregard, Lars; Hansson, Sverker

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that the urinary excretion of C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha 1-microglobulin (A1M), retinol-binding protein (RBP) and Clara cell protein (CC16) is increased in children with urinary tract infection (UTI) and relates to renal damage as measured by acute dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy. Fifty-two children <2 years of age with UTI were enrolled in the study, 44 of whom were febrile. The control group consisted of 23 patients with non-UTI infection and elevated serum CRP (s-CRP) levels. Thirty-six patients had abnormal DMSA uptake, classified as mild, moderate or severe damage (DMSA class 1, 2, 3, respectively). There was a significant association between DMSA class and the excretion of urinary RBP (u-RBP) and u-CC16. There was also a significant difference in u-CRP levels between children with UTI and control children with non-UTI infections, although u-CRP excretion was not significantly correlated to DMSA class. In conclusion, the urinary excretion of the low-molecular-weight proteins RBP and CC16 showed a strong association with uptake defects on renal DMSA scans. The urinary level of CRP seems to distinguish between children with UTI and other febrile conditions. A combination of these biomarkers may be useful in the clinical assessment of children with UTI.

  16. 5-Lypoxygenase Products Are Involved in Renal Tubulointerstitial Injury Induced by Albumin Overload in Proximal Tubules in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Landgraf, Sharon Schilling; Silva, Leandro Souza; Peruchetti, Diogo Barros; Sirtoli, Gabriela Modenesi; Moraes-Santos, Felipe; Portella, Viviane Gomes; Silva-Filho, João Luiz; Pinheiro, Carla Silva; Abreu, Thiago Pereira; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Benjamin, Claudia Farias; Pinheiro, Ana Acacia Sá; Canetti, Claudio; Caruso-Neves, Celso

    2014-01-01

    The role of albumin overload in proximal tubules (PT) in the development of tubulointerstitial injury and, consequently, in the progression of renal disease has become more relevant in recent years. Despite the importance of leukotrienes (LTs) in renal disease, little is known about their role in tubulointerstitial injury. The aim of the present work was to investigate the possible role of LTs on tubulointerstitial injury induced by albumin overload. An animal model of tubulointerstitial injury challenged by bovine serum albumin was developed in SV129 mice (wild-type) and 5-lipoxygenase-deficient mice (5-LO–/–). The changes in glomerular morphology and nestin expression observed in wild-type mice subjected to kidney insult were also observed in 5-LO–/– mice. The levels of urinary protein observed in the 5-LO–/– mice subjected or not to kidney insult were lower than those observed in respective wild-type mice. Furthermore, the increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity, a marker of tubule damage, observed in wild-type mice subjected to kidney insult did not occur in 5-LO–/– mice. LTB4 and LTD4, 5-LO products, decreased the uptake of albumin in LLC-PK1 cells, a well-characterized porcine PT cell line. This effect correlated with activation of protein kinase C and inhibition of protein kinase B. The level of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6, increased in mice subjected to kidney insult but this effect was not modified in 5-LO–/– mice. However, 5-LO–/– mice subjected to kidney insult presented lower macrophage infiltration and higher levels of IL-10 than wild-type mice. Our results reveal that LTs have an important role in tubulointerstitial disease induced by albumin overload. PMID:25302946

  17. Vitamin D repletion does not alter urinary calcium excretion in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Penniston, Kristina L.; Jones, Andrea N.; Nakada, Stephen Y.; Hansen, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate, in a posthoc analysis of a previous study, whether vitamin D repletion in postmenopausal women with insufficient vitamin D increases urinary calcium excretion, as vitamin D therapy might contribute to hypercalciuria and calcium stones in susceptible individuals, and the effect of vitamin D on the risk of urolithiasis warrants attention. Subjects and methods We recruited 18 women at ≥ 5 years after menopause who had vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25(OH)-vitamin D, 16–24 mg/dL). We excluded women with a history of urolithiasis and kidney disease. Women had one calcium absorption study when vitamin D-insufficient, received vitamin D therapy, and completed a second calcium absorption study when vitamin D-replete. We fed subjects meals that mirrored the nutrient composition from self-reported 7-day diet diaries. To measure calcium absorption, we collected urine for 24 h during both visits. Results We achieved vitamin D repletion in all women (25(OH)-vitamin D before and after treatment, 22 and 63 mg/dL, respectively; P < 0.001). The mean calcium intake was 832 mg/day. Residual urine specimens were available for 16 women, allowing a measurement of 24-h urinary calcium. Calcium excretion did not change after vitamin D therapy (212 before vs 195 mg/day after; P = 0.60). Of four women with hypercalciuria (> 247 mg/day), calcium excretion decreased in three (377–312 mg/day, not significant). Conclusion Vitamin D supplementation did not increase the urinary calcium excretion in healthy postmenopausal women. Many stone formers are at risk of premature bone loss, vitamin D insufficiency, or both. Based on the present results we suggest a study of patients with hypercalciuria and nephrolithiasis to determine the risks of vitamin D therapy. PMID:19389005

  18. Effect of two sports drinks on urinary lithogenicity.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jeffrey W; Asplin, John R; Goldfarb, David S

    2009-02-01

    The effect of commercial oral rehydration solutions ("sports drinks") relative to water on risk of nephrolithiasis has not been studied previously. We studied the effect of two sports drinks, Performance (Shaklee Corp., Pleasanton, CA, USA) and Gatorade (Gatorade, Chicago, IL, USA) on urinary chemistry and measures of lithogenicity in non-stone formers. Performance has a pH of 4.3, and contains 21 mmol/L of sodium, 5.3 mmol/L of potassium, 0.8 mmol/L of calcium, and 19.5 mmol/L of citrate. Gatorade pH ranges from 2.9 to 3.2, and contains 20 mmol/L of sodium, 3.2 mmol/L of potassium, negligible calcium, and 13.9 mmol/L of citrate. Subjects drank 946 ml (32 oz) of tap water daily for 3 days, and recorded diet history. This was followed by a second 3-day experimental period during which subjects drank 946 ml (32 oz) of sports drink daily, duplicating diets from part 1. In each 3-day period, urine was collected for 24 h during days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, and supersaturations of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and uric acid were calculated. Nine subjects completed the study using Performance, ten used Gatorade. Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not different during the control and experimental periods. Performance increased mean citrate excretion by 170 mg/day (95% CI 57-284 mg/day; P = 0.01) and increased urine pH by 0.31 (95% CI 0.03-0.59; P = 0.03). Gatorade did not significantly change urinary citrate excretion or pH. Neither drink caused significant differences in the excretion of sodium and calcium or any supersaturation value. Ingestion of Performance, but not Gatorade, led to an increase in mean urinary citrate excretion and pH as compared to water. The increase in citrate is likely to be a clinically significant effect. pH is an important determinant of alkali load in beverages containing organic anions. Performance, with more citrate and a higher pH than Gatorade, could represent a superior alternative to water for

  19. Preclinical evaluation of novel urinary biomarkers of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Prozialeck, Walter C. Edwards, Joshua R.; Vaidya, Vishal S.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2009-08-01

    As a result of the widespread use of Cd in industry and its extensive dissemination in the environment, there has been considerable interest in the identification of early biomarkers of Cd-induced kidney injury. Kim-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is not detectable in normal kidney, but is up-regulated and shed into the urine following ischemic or nephrotoxic injury. Recent studies utilizing a sub-chronic model of Cd exposure in the rat have shown that Kim-1 is an early urinary marker of Cd-induced kidney injury. Kim-1 was detected in the urine 4-5 weeks before the onset of proteinuria and 1-3 weeks before the appearance of urinary metallothionein and Clara cell protein 16, which are standard markers of Cd nephrotoxicity. In the present study, we have compared the time course for the appearance of Kim-1 in the urine with the time course for the appearance of alpha glutathione-S-transferase ({alpha}-GST), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucose amidase (NAG) and Cd, each of which have been used or proposed as urinary markers of Cd nephrotoxicity. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given daily subcutaneous injections of 0.6 mg (5.36 {mu}moles)/kg Cd, 5 days per week for up to 12 weeks. One day each week, 24 h urine samples were collected and analyzed for protein, creatinine and the various markers. The results showed that significant levels of Kim-1 appeared in the urine as early as 6 weeks into the treatment protocol and then continued to rise for the remainder of the 12 week treatment period. By contrast, significant levels of {alpha}-GST and NAG did not appear in the urine until 8 and 12 weeks, respectively, while proteinuria was not evident until 10 weeks. The urinary excretion of Cd was below the level of detection until week 4 and then showed a slow, linear increase over the next 6 weeks before increasing markedly between weeks 10 and 12. These results provide additional evidence that Kim-1 is a sensitive biomarker of the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule

  20. A structurally driven analysis of thiol reactivity in mammalian albumins.

    PubMed

    Spiga, Ottavia; Summa, Domenico; Cirri, Simone; Bernini, Andrea; Venditti, Vincenzo; De Chiara, Matteo; Priora, Raffaella; Frosali, Simona; Margaritis, Antonios; Di Giuseppe, Danila; Di Simplicio, Paolo; Niccolai, Neri

    2011-04-01

    Understanding the structural basis of protein redox activity is still an open question. Hence, by using a structural genomics approach, different albumins have been chosen to correlate protein structural features with the corresponding reaction rates of thiol exchange between albumin and disulfide DTNB. Predicted structures of rat, porcine, and bovine albumins have been compared with the experimentally derived human albumin. High structural similarity among these four albumins can be observed, in spite of their markedly different reactivity with DTNB. Sequence alignments offered preliminary hints on the contributions of sequence-specific local environments modulating albumin reactivity. Molecular dynamics simulations performed on experimental and predicted albumin structures reveal that thiolation rates are influenced by hydrogen bonding pattern and stability of the acceptor C34 sulphur atom with donor groups of nearby residues. Atom depth evolution of albumin C34 thiol groups has been monitored during Molecular Dynamic trajectories. The most reactive albumins appeared also the ones presenting the C34 sulphur atom on the protein surface with the highest accessibility. High C34 sulphur atom reactivity in rat and porcine albumins seems to be determined by the presence of additional positively charged amino acid residues favoring both the C34 S⁻ form and the approach of DTNB.

  1. An electrochemical albumin-sensing system utilizing microfluidic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao-June; Lu, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Thong-Yueh; Chou, Tse-Chuan; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports an integrated microfluidic chip capable of detecting the concentration of albumin in urine by using an electrochemical method in an automatic format. The integrated microfluidic chip was fabricated by using microelectromechanical system techniques. The albumin detection was conducted by using the electrochemical sensing method, in which the albumin in urine was detected by measuring the difference of peak currents between a bare reference electrode and an albumin-adsorption electrode. To perform the detection of the albumin in an automatic format, pneumatic microvalves and micropumps were integrated onto the microfluidic chip. The albumin sample and interference mixture solutions such as homovanillic acid, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine were first stored in one of the three reservoirs. Then the solution comprising the albumin sample and interference solutions was transported to pass through the detection zone utilizing the pneumatic micropump. Experimental data showed that the developed system can successfully detect the concentration of the albumin in the existence of interference materials. When compared with the traditional albumin-sensing method, smaller amounts of samples were required to perform faster detection by using the integrated microfluidic chip. Additionally, the microfluidic chip integrated with pneumatic micropumps and microvalves facilitates the transportation of the samples in an automatic mode with lesser human intervention. The development of the integrated microfluidic albumin-sensing system may be promising for biomedical applications. Preliminary results of the current paper were presented at the 2nd International Meeting on Microsensors and Microsystems 2006 (National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, 15-18 January).

  2. Trimellitic anhydride-conjugated serum albumin activates rat alveolar macrophages in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Valstar, Dingena L; Schijf, Marcel A; Stelekati, Erietta; Nijkamp, Frans P; Bloksma, Nanne; Henricks, Paul AJ

    2006-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to airborne low molecular weight chemicals, like trimellitic anhydride (TMA), can result in occupational asthma. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are among the first cells to encounter these inhaled compounds and were previously shown to influence TMA-induced asthma-like symptoms in the Brown Norway rat. TMA is a hapten that will bind to endogenous proteins upon entrance of the body. Therefore, in the present study we determined if TMA and TMA conjugated to serum albumin induced the production of the macrophage mediators nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in vitro using the rat AM cell line NR8383 and primary AMs derived from TMA-sensitized and naïve Brown Norway rats. Methods Cells were incubated with different concentrations of TMA, TMA conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA), and BSA as a control for 24 h and the culture supernatant was analyzed for mediator content. Results TMA alone was not able to induce the production of mediators by NR8383 cells and primary AMs from sensitized and sham-treated rats. TMA-BSA, on the contrary, dose-dependently stimulated the production of NO, TNF, and IL-6 by NR8383 cells and of NO and TNF, but not IL-6, by primary AMs independent of sensitization. Conclusion Results suggest that although TMA is a highly reactive compound, conjugation to a suitable protein is necessary to induce mediator production by AMs. Furthermore, the observation that effects of TMA-BSA were independent of sensitization suggests involvement of an immunologically non-specific receptor. In the discussion it is argued that a macrophage scavenger receptor is a likely candidate. PMID:16796737

  3. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, D.N.; Micca, P.L.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1986-03-11

    A stable boronated (/sup 10/B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/, at a dose of about 200 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight. The infusion is preformed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of /sup 10/B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of /sup 10/B in the tumor. 1 tab.

  4. Safety and Efficacy of 24-h Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery in Well-Controlled Pregnant Women With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Helen R.; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M.; Caldwell, Karen; Biagioni, Martina; Simmons, David; Dunger, David B.; Nodale, Marianna; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Amiel, Stephanie A.; Hovorka, Roman

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery in well-controlled pregnant women with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 12 women with type 1 diabetes (aged 32.9 years, diabetes duration 17.6 years, BMI 27.1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 6.4%) were randomly allocated to closed-loop or conventional CSII. They performed normal daily activities (standardized meals, snacks, and exercise) for 24 h on two occasions at 19 and 23 weeks’ gestation. Plasma glucose time in target (63–140 mg/dL) and time spent hypoglycemic were calculated. RESULTS Plasma glucose time in target was comparable for closed-loop and conventional CSII (median [interquartile range]: 81 [59–87] vs. 81% [54–90]; P = 0.75). Less time was spent hypoglycemic (<45 mg/dL [0.0 vs. 0.3%]; P = 0.04), with a lower low blood glucose index (2.4 [0.9–3.5] vs. 3.3 [1.9–5.1]; P = 0.03), during closed-loop insulin delivery. CONCLUSIONS Closed-loop insulin delivery was as effective as conventional CSII, with less time spent in extreme hypoglycemia. PMID:22011408

  5. An Open Framework Aluminophosphate with Unique 12-Membered Ring Channels: Al 9(PO 4) 12(C 24H 91N 16)·17H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yao-Hua; Zhang, Bing-Guang; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Shu-Hua; Duan, Chun-Ying; You, Xiao-Zeng

    1999-06-01

    By using the hydrothermal method, a new large-pore three dimensional aluminophosphate Al9(PO)12(C24H81N16)·17H2O has been synthesized. The compound crystallizes in the cubic space group I-43m with a=16.7963(13) Å, V=4738.5(6) Å3, and Z=2. The P/Al ratio of this compound is 4:3 and the structure consists of Al-centered and P-centered tetrahedra in which all the AlO4 tetrahedra vertices and three of PO4 tetrahedra corners are shared. The framework contains unique 12-membered ring channels, which intersect each other with 12-membered ring windows in three dimensions, and almost spherical cavities, in which water and amine ions are located. The window containing three P=O groups selectively interacts with 4-(2-aminoethyl)diethylenetriamine by the effect of recognition in the hydrothermal condition. The compound could exist up to 260°C. At higher temperature, the amine was decomposed and released, and the compound was transferred into amorphous phase. The component Al of the compound can be partly substituted with other elements, such as Sn, Zn, Mg, Co, Mn, and Cd, by which the charge of the framework can be adjusted.

  6. Insights into ultraviolet-induced electrical degradation of thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeguchi, Daisuke; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji; Nakano, Yuki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2014-01-06

    The harmful impact of ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation on thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC structures was investigated by means of electrical measurements of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. Unlike Si-based MOS devices, significant electrical degradation, such as positive flatband voltage (V{sub FB}) shift and hysteresis in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves of SiC-MOS capacitors was induced by UV irradiation with a low-pressure mercury lamp. The interfacial fixed charge density increased with UV-irradiation (22.6 mW/cm{sup 2} for 16 h) to 1.7 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}, which was an order of magnitude larger than that of the as-grown SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface. A detailed study based on single wavelength solid-state UV lasers revealed that there was a threshold photon energy at around 5 eV and a moderate dependence of UV-induced degradation on temperature. These experimental findings imply that pre-existing inactive defects accumulated at the thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface were transformed to active carrier traps with high-energy UV irradiation through transparent SiO{sub 2} layers.

  7. Successful outcome after endovascular thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke with basis on perfusion-diffusion mismatch after 24 h of symptoms onset

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Tobias A.; Rehman, Azeem A.; Goulart, Carlos R.; Sória, Marília G.; Rizelio, Vanessa; Meneses, Murilo S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although intravenous thrombolysis is the Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within 3 h, combined intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis with endovascular techniques may be able to extend this traditional time window. Case Description: We present the clinical evolution of a 45-year-old male presenting with acute left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small diffusion restriction at the right basal ganglia with perfusion compromise in the entire right middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Angiography revealed a complete occlusion of MCA at its M1 segment. The patient underwent endovascular mechanical thrombectomy with additional intra-arterial thrombolysis more than 24 hours after the onset of the initial symptoms and experienced complete vessel recanalization. At 1 year, the patient had global independence with minor residual motor impairment in the left arm. Conclusions: We report the case of a successful thrombolytic therapy following AIS performed more than 24 h after the initial symptoms based on the presence of a perfusion-diffusion mismatch. This report is expected to stimulate the development of future prospective studies with special focus on the role of perfusion-diffusion mismatch in patient selection for treatment of AIS, especially in those presenting outside the traditional time window. PMID:27313971

  8. Synthesis of a novel layered double hydroxides [MgAl(4)(OH)(12)](Cl)(2)·2.4H(2)O and its anion-exchange properties.

    PubMed

    Chitrakar, Ramesh; Makita, Yoji; Sonoda, Akinari; Hirotsu, Takahiro

    2011-01-30

    A novel layered double hydroxide of Mg and Al with composition [Mg(0.96)Al(4.00)(OH)(12)]Cl(1.86)(CO(3))(0.03)·2.4H(2)O, designated as MgAl(4)-Cl, was synthesized by mixing crystalline gibbsite (γ-Al(OH)(3)) and solid MgCl(2)·6H(2)O with subsequent hydrothermal treatment at 160 °C for 72h. The MgAl(4)-Cl exhibited a crystalline material of a layered structure, as evidenced from X-ray diffraction. Anion uptake experiments with the MgAl(4)-Cl showed that Cl(-) in the interlayer space can be exchanged with anions such as Br(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), CO(3)(2-) or dodecyl sulfate (DS(-)) from aqueous solutions with preservation of the layered structure. Uptake of NO(3)(-), BrO(3)(-) or SO(4)(2-) on the MgAl(4)-Cl showed different behavior; these anions can be exchanged within 1h maintaining the layered structure, but a release of Mg(2+) cations from the sample was observed with increased reaction time, resulting in collapse of the layered structure and formation of the gibbsite phase, as determined from chemical analyses and X-ray diffraction.

  9. Effects of sodium ions on trapping and transport of electrons at the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, A. F. Mooney, P. M.; Ahyi, A. C.; Williams, J. R.; Feldman, L. C.

    2014-01-21

    Capacitance-voltage (C-V) and Deep-Level-Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were performed on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors fabricated on 4H-SiC with the SiO{sub 2} layer grown by Sodium-Enhanced Oxidation. This technique has yielded 4H-SiC MOS transistors with record channel mobility, although with poor bias stability. The effects of the mobile positive charge on the C-V characteristics and DLTS spectra were investigated by applying a sequence of positive and negative bias-temperature stresses, which drifted the sodium ions toward and away from the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface, respectively. Analytical modeling of the C-V curves shows that the drift of sodium ions in the SiO{sub 2} layer during the voltage sweep can explain the temperature dependence of the C-V curves. The effects of lateral fluctuations of the surface potential (due to a non-uniform charge distribution) on the inversion layer mobility of MOS transistors are discussed within a two-dimensional percolation model.

  10. Comparative effects on rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells cultures after 24-h exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar-García, Samuel; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel A.; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Rangel-López, Edgar; Castillo, Claudia G.; Santamaría, Abel; Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel A.; Gonzalez, Carmen

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of 24-h exposure of rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells to 7.8 nm AgNPs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and current treatments lead to diverse side-effects; for this reason, it is imperative to investigate new approaches, including those alternatives provided by nanotechnology, like nanomaterials (NMs) such as silver nanoparticles. Herein, we found that C6 rat glioma cells, but no primary astrocytes, decreased cell viability after AgNPs treatment; however, both cell types diminished their proliferation. The decrease of glioma C6 cells proliferation was related with necrosis, while in primary astrocytes, the decreased proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The ionic control (AgNO3) exerted a different profile than AgNPs; the bulk form did not modify the basal effect in each determination, whereas cisplatin, a well-known antitumoral drug used as a comparative control, promoted cytotoxicity in both cell types at specific concentrations. Our findings prompt the need to determine the fine molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the differential biological responses to AgNPs in order to develop new tools or alternatives based on nanotechnology that may contribute to the understanding, impact and use of NMs in specific targets, like glioblastoma cells.

  11. Structural and electronic properties of the transition layer at the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dejun; Zhao, Jijun

    2015-01-15

    Using first-principles methods, we generate an amorphous SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface with a transition layer. Based this interface model, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of the interfacial transition layer. The calculated Si 2p core-level shifts for this interface are comparable to the experimental data, indicating that various SiC{sub x}O{sub y} species should be present in this interface transition layer. The analysis of the electronic structures reveals that the tetrahedral SiC{sub x}O{sub y} structures cannot introduce any of the defect states at the interface. Interestingly, our transition layer also includes a C-C=C trimer and SiO{sub 5} configurations, which lead to the generation of interface states. The accurate positions of Kohn-Sham energy levels associated with these defects are further calculated within the hybrid functional scheme. The Kohn-Sham energy levels of the carbon trimer and SiO{sub 5} configurations are located near the conduction and valence band of bulk 4H-SiC, respectively. The result indicates that the carbon trimer occurred in the transition layer may be a possible origin of near interface traps. These findings provide novel insight into the structural and electronic properties of the realistic SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface.

  12. Serotonin turnover in different duration of sleep recovery in discrete regions of young rat brain after 24 h REM sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Senthilvelan, M; Ravindran, R; Samson, J; Devi, R Sheela

    2006-09-01

    Sleep plays an important role in restorative function and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5HT) equally plays important roles in sleep. Though various studies have revealed the roles of 5HT in sleep/wake cycle, the mechanism involved is yet unclear. In the present study we investigated alteration of the 5HT turnover in various regions of the young rat brains after 24 hours (h) REM sleep (sREM) deprivation to elucidate the roles of 5HT in sleep restoration function in the these regions. The 5HT turnover was evaluated by the ratio of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid against 5HT. The sREM deprivation was performed by the inverted flowerpot technique. The 5HT turnover showed significant alteration in the all regions of the brain examined after 24h sREM deprivation, particular depending on the brain region. These results revealed that sREM modulates the 5HT turnover in the brain with region specificity and this may be one of the restorative functions of sleep indicating that sREM is regionally generated.

  13. Urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine interrelations with obesity, insulin, and the metabolic syndrome in Hong Kong Chinese.

    PubMed

    Lee, Z S; Critchley, J A; Tomlinson, B; Young, R P; Thomas, G N; Cockram, C S; Chan, T Y; Chan, J C

    2001-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome is characterized by a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Elevated plasma insulin and urinary norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and reduced urinary epinephrine (adrenaline) excretion are associated with obesity in Caucasian populations. We examined the interrelationships between obesity, plasma insulin, and urinary catecholamine excretion in Chinese subjects with various components of the metabolic syndrome. A total of 577 Chinese subjects (aged 38 +/- 10 years; 68% with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and/or albuminuria and 32% healthy subjects) were studied, all of whom had a plasma creatinine less than 150 micromol/L. The blood pressure, height, weight, waist and hip circumference, and fasting plasma glucose, insulin, lipid, and creatinine levels were measured. A 24-hour urine sample was collected for measurement of albumin and catecholamine excretion. The body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were used as measures of general and central obesity, respectively. The insulin resistance index was estimated by the calculated product of fasting plasma insulin and glucose concentrations. Patients with an increasing number of components of the metabolic syndrome (type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and/or albuminuria) were more obese, hyperglycemic, dyslipidemic, and albuminuric and had higher blood pressure, plasma insulin, insulin resistance indices, and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine excretion but lower urinary epinephrine output (all P < .005). Increasing quintiles of BMI in the whole population or waist circumference in both sexes were associated with increasing trends for adverse lipid profiles, plasma insulin, insulin resistance indices, and urinary norepinephrine excretion but a decreasing trend for urinary epinephrine output (all P < .001). There were close associations between age, obesity

  14. Identification of urinary proteins potentially associated with diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Marikanty, R K; Gupta, M K; Cherukuvada, S V B; Kompella, S S S; Prayaga, A K; Konda, S; Polisetty, R V; Idris, M M; Rao, P V; Chandak, G R; Dakshinamurty, K V

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease. Although several parameters are used to evaluate renal damage, in many instances, there is no pathological change until damage is already advanced. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a novel tool to identify newer diagnostic markers. To identify urinary proteins associated with renal complications in diabetes, we collected urine samples from 10 type 2 diabetes patients each with normoalbuminuria, micro- and macro-albuminuria and compared their urinary proteome with that of 10 healthy individuals. Urinary proteins were concentrated, depleted of albumin and five other abundant plasma proteins and in-gel trypsin digested after prefractionation on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The peptides were analyzed using a nanoflow reverse phase liquid chromatography system coupled to linear trap quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. We identified large number of proteins in each group, of which many were exclusively present in individual patient groups. A total of 53 proteins were common in all patients but were absent in the controls. The majority of the proteins were functionally binding, biologically involved in metabolic processes, and showed enrichment of alternative complement and blood coagulation pathways. In addition to identifying reported proteins such as α2-HS-glycoprotein and Vitamin D binding protein, we detected novel proteins such as CD59, extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1), factor H, and myoglobin in the urine of macroalbuminuria patients. ECM1 and factor H are known to influence mesangial cell proliferation, and CD59 causes microvascular damage by influencing membrane attack complex deposition, suggestive their biological relevance to DN. Thus, we have developed a proteome database where various proteins exclusively present in the patients may be further investigated for their role as stage-specific markers and possible therapeutic targets.

  15. Identification of urinary proteins potentially associated with diabetic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Marikanty, R. K.; Gupta, M. K.; Cherukuvada, S. V. B.; Kompella, S. S. S; Prayaga, A. K.; Konda, S.; Polisetty, R. V.; Idris, M. M.; Rao, P. V.; Chandak, G. R.; Dakshinamurty, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease. Although several parameters are used to evaluate renal damage, in many instances, there is no pathological change until damage is already advanced. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a novel tool to identify newer diagnostic markers. To identify urinary proteins associated with renal complications in diabetes, we collected urine samples from 10 type 2 diabetes patients each with normoalbuminuria, micro- and macro-albuminuria and compared their urinary proteome with that of 10 healthy individuals. Urinary proteins were concentrated, depleted of albumin and five other abundant plasma proteins and in-gel trypsin digested after prefractionation on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The peptides were analyzed using a nanoflow reverse phase liquid chromatography system coupled to linear trap quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. We identified large number of proteins in each group, of which many were exclusively present in individual patient groups. A total of 53 proteins were common in all patients but were absent in the controls. The majority of the proteins were functionally binding, biologically involved in metabolic processes, and showed enrichment of alternative complement and blood coagulation pathways. In addition to identifying reported proteins such as α2-HS-glycoprotein and Vitamin D binding protein, we detected novel proteins such as CD59, extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1), factor H, and myoglobin in the urine of macroalbuminuria patients. ECM1 and factor H are known to influence mesangial cell proliferation, and CD59 causes microvascular damage by influencing membrane attack complex deposition, suggestive their biological relevance to DN. Thus, we have developed a proteome database where various proteins exclusively present in the patients may be further investigated for their role as stage-specific markers and possible therapeutic targets. PMID

  16. Albumin regeneration in liver support-comparison of different methods.

    PubMed

    Mitzner, Steffen; Klammt, Sebastian; Stange, Jan; Schmidt, Reinhart

    2006-04-01

    Albumin is the most abundant human plasma protein. Among many other functions it is an important transporter of hydrophobic internal and external substances such as intermediate and end products of metabolism and drugs. In liver failure the albumin binding capacity is decreased because of a disproportion between available albumin molecules caused by decreased hepatic synthesis and hydrophobic toxins because of decreased hepatic clearance. The resulting increase in plasma and tissue concentrations of these substances is associated with multiple organ dysfunctions frequently seen in severe liver failure. The scope of the present article is to compare different liver support strategies with regard to their ability to regenerate the patients albumin pool by removing albumin-bound toxins. Most prominent technique in this group is the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS). It will be compared with single pass albumin dialysis (SPAD), fractionated plasma separation and adsorption system (FPSA, Prometheus), and plasma perfusion/bilirubin adsorption with special regard to efficacy and selectivity.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid albumin.

    PubMed

    Bauer, H H; Ehmig, S; Engels, J W; Voelcker, G

    1998-06-01

    Autoimmune patients treated with ifosfamide (CAS 3778-73-2) and mesna (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid, CAS 3375-50-6) in some cases suffered from severe allergic reactions that were proposed to be due to mesna linked to serum albumin by a disulfide bond. To prove the existence of the hypothetic mesna albumin adduct in vivo it was synthesized: The free thiol group of albumin (molecular mass determined by MALDI spectroscopy: 67009 Da) was converted to S-phenylsulfonyl albumin and reacted with mesna to albumin mesna (molecular mass: 67159 Da). In an alternative synthesis albumin was incubated with mesna at pH 8, 40 degrees C (molecular mass of the adduct: 67166 Da).

  18. Post-mortem urinary myoglobin levels with reference to the causes of death.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B L; Ishida, K; Quan, L; Taniguchi, M; Oritani, S; Kamikodai, Y; Fujita, M Q; Maeda, H

    2001-01-15

    To evaluate pathophysiological significance of post-mortem urinary myoglobin levels in determining the cause of death, we investigated 210 forensic autopsy cases, partially in comparison with serum levels. Post-mortem serum myoglobin levels were extraordinary high in most cases possibly due to post-mortem change. Urinary myoglobin levels did not correlate with the serum levels, showing possible post-mortem elevation in cases of a prolonged post-mortem period over 48h. A high (>1000 ng/ml), moderate (100-1000 ng/ml), slight (50-100 ng/ml) and not significant (<50 ng/ml) elevation of urinary myoglobin were observed in 26, 43, 31 and 110 cases, respectively. Half the highly elevated cases were those with a survival time over 24h. In cases of minor muscle injury such as head trauma, elevation of urinary myoglobin level was closely related to longer survival. In acute/subacute deaths with a post-mortem interval within 48h, a significant difference was observed in relation to the blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels of fire victims: myoglobinuria over 100 ng/ml was more frequently and markedly observed in cases with COHb below 60% than over 60%, suggesting muscle damage in fatal burns. Similar elevation was observed in heat stroke victims, and also in some cases of acute and subacute death from polytrauma, asphyxiation, drowning, electricity and spontaneous cerebral bleeding, but not in myocardial infarction. Thus, it was suggested that high post-mortem urinary myoglobin levels in acute and subacute death cases may be a possible indicator of antemortem massive skeletal muscle damage as well as exertional muscle hyperactivity or convulsive disorders associated with hypoxia.

  19. Brassica vegetable consumption reduces urinary F2-isoprostane levels independent of micronutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Fowke, Jay H; Morrow, Jason D; Motley, Saundra; Bostick, Roberd M; Ness, Reid M

    2006-10-01

    Isothiocyanates and indoles (e.g. indole-3-carbinol) from Brassica vegetables (e.g. broccoli) induce Phase I and Phase II enzymes responsible for the oxidation, reduction and metabolism of endogenous and exogenous carcinogens. Brassica vegetables also contain micronutrients that may provide additional DNA protection from reactive oxygen species. This randomized crossover trial (n = 20) compares the effects of a Brassica Vegetable (BV) intervention against a Micronutrient and Fiber Supplementation (M+F) intervention on urinary F2-isoprostane levels (F2-iP), a stable biomarker of systemic oxidative stress. Brassica intake was monitored by repeated 24 h recalls, urinary ITC levels and questionnaire. Urinary F2-iP levels were measured by mass spectrometry from first-morning urine samples collected at Baseline and after each intervention, and change in natural log transformed urinary F2-iP levels were analyzed using repeated measures regression. Brassica consumption increased from 2 grams/day (g/d) during the Baseline or M+F intervention periods to 218 g/d during the BV intervention, whereas exposure to most antioxidant vitamins and minerals was greatest during the M+F intervention. F2-iP levels significantly decreased by 22.0 or 21.8% during the BV intervention compared with Baseline or the M+F intervention (P = 0.05, P = 0.05, respectively). Urinary F2-iP levels did not significantly differ between Baseline and the M+F intervention (difference = 0.2%; P = 0.98). Brassica intake has been associated with reduced risk of colon, lung, bladder, breast, prostate and other cancers. Our results suggest that Brassica consumption reduces systemic oxidative stress independent of the vitamin and mineral content of these vegetables.

  20. [Evolution of urinary bladder substitution].

    PubMed

    Kock, N G

    1992-11-01

    The historical background to the currently used methods for continent bladder substitution is shortly outlined. The significance for the patient's quality of life of various methods for bladder reconstruction or urinary diversion is briefly discussed. The importance of reservoir configuration for achieving a high compliant urinary receptacle is pointed out. Factors affecting reabsorption of urinary constituents are stressed and the significance of an antireflux mechanism is discussed. Currently the majority of patients undergoing cystectomy for cancer or for other reasons can be offered bladder substitutes providing continence and easy emptying; that is, complete control over voiding. This can be achieved by orthotopic bladder reconstruction or by diverting the urine to the augmented and valved rectum or to the skin via a continent intestinal reservoir.

  1. [Proteomic analysis of urinary exosomes].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Aki

    2014-07-01

    Exosomes are 40-100-nm membrane vesicles secreted into the extracellular space by various types of cell in many biological fluids, including serum, saliva, breast milk, amniotic fluid, and urine. Exosomes, which contain several key proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs, were considered as an alternative secretion pathway. In addition, recent findings suggest that the exosome itself is a functional biomolecule involved in intracellular communication; thus, its components can be transferred to recipient cells by fusion, changing the function of the target cell. Recently, urinary exosomes have attracted much attention because some of their proteins have been identified as biomarkers related to certain physiological events and disease-related metabolism of the kidney. This review provides an overview of urinary exosomes, including methods of isolation and associated problems, and focuses on urinary exosomes as protein biomarker sources involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes.

  2. Drug-induced urinary calculi.

    PubMed

    Matlaga, Brian R; Shah, Ojas D; Assimos, Dean G

    2003-01-01

    Urinary calculi may be induced by a number of medications used to treat a variety of conditions. These medications may lead to metabolic abnormalities that facilitate the formation of stones. Drugs that induce metabolic calculi include loop diuretics; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; and laxatives, when abused. Correcting the metabolic abnormality may eliminate or dramatically attenuate stone activity. Urinary calculi can also be induced by medications when the drugs crystallize and become the primary component of the stones. In this case, urinary supersaturation of the agent may promote formation of the calculi. Drugs that induce calculi via this process include magnesium trisilicate; ciprofloxacin; sulfa medications; triamterene; indinavir; and ephedrine, alone or in combination with guaifenesin. When this situation occurs, discontinuation of the medication is usually necessary.

  3. Bladder instillation of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide alters the muscle contractions in rat urinary bladder via a protein kinase C-related pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, T.I.; Chen, W.J.; Liu, S.H. . E-mail: shliu@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2005-10-15

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli is a common cause of urinary tract infection. We determined the effects of intravesical instillation of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) on muscle contractions, protein kinase C (PKC) translocation, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in rat urinary bladder. The contractions of the isolated rat detrusor muscle evoked by electrical field stimulations were measured short-term (1 h) or long-term (24 h) after intravesical instillation of LPS. One hour after LPS intravesical instillation, bladder PKC-{alpha} translocation from cytosolic fraction to membrane fraction and endothelial (e)NOS protein was elevated, and detrusor muscle contractions were significantly increased. PKC inhibitors chelerythrine and Ro32-0432 inhibited this LPS-enhanced contractile response. Application of PKC activator {beta}-phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate enhanced the muscle contractions. Three hours after intravesical instillation of LPS, iNOS mRNA was detected in the bladder. Immunoblotting study also demonstrated that the induction of iNOS proteins is detected in bladder in which LPS was instilled. 24 h after intravesical instillation of LPS, PKC-{alpha} translocation was impaired in the bladder; LPS did not affect PKC-{delta} translocation. Muscle contractions were also decreased 24 h after LPS intravesical instillation. Aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, blocked the decrease in PKC-{alpha} translocation and detrusor contractions induced by LPS. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms involved in the alteration of urinary bladder contractions after short-term and long-term treatment of LPS; an iNOS-regulated PKC signaling may participate in causing the inhibition of muscle contractions in urinary bladder induced by long-term LPS treatment.

  4. Experimental investigation of the serum albumin fascia microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.; Shishpor, I. V.

    2012-09-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of biological liquids are reported. Structural effects observed in fascias are considered with account of the molecular features of albumin and the concept of supramolecular organization of polymers. It is revealed that the morphology of human serum albumin fascias depends on the concentration and quality of the solvent. It is shown that the water-salt fascias of albumin are more structured than water solutions with the same concentration.

  5. [Characteristics of serum albumin in patients with intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke].

    PubMed

    Martynov, M Iu; Koplik, E V; Shchukin, I A; Smolina, N V; Kapel'nitskiĭ, P V; Chubykin, V I; Glukhareva, A P; Makarov, A N; Sudakov, K V

    2012-01-01

    Authors studied the influence of the psychoemotional stress preceding the stroke on the dynamics of neurological symptoms (Glasgo coma scale, Scandinavian stroke scale and Barthel index) and on the conformational changes of albumin in 59 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage due to arterial hypertension. The psychoemotional stress was associated with less favorable clinical course and outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage. Conformational properties of albumin were changed in all patients with intracerebral hemorrhage compared to controls. Psychoemotional stress preceding stroke aggravated changes in albumin molecule.

  6. Sinusoidal 50 Hz, 500 {micro}T magnetic field has no acute effect on urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, J.; Nagy, N.; Thuroczy, G.; Szabo, L.D.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of a 50 Hz, vertical magnetic field on the excretion of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) of male and female Wistar rats was studied in a self-controlled experiment. Twenty rats were kept in metabolic cages under 9:15 h light:dark conditions. The urine of the animals was collected twice per day for 5 consecutive days. The concentration of aMT6s in the rat urine was measured by {sup 125}I radioimmunoassay. The rats were exposed to 5 and 500 {micro}T flux density for 24 h. The excretion of urinary aMT6s did not show significant changes during or after magnetic field exposure.

  7. Urinary tract infection in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults. PMID:24391677

  8. Urinary tract infection in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-10-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults.

  9. Urinary incontinence - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... to help with my urinary incontinence? What are Kegel exercises? What can I do when I want ... tape Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Self catheterization - ...

  10. Urinary markers for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Zachary L.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer has the fifth highest incidence of all malignancies in the United States, with a propensity to recur, requiring lifelong surveillance after diagnosis. Urinary markers of disease have been of extreme interest in this field in an effort to simplify surveillance schedules and improve early detection of tumors. Many markers have been described, but most remain investigational. However, some markers have undergone clinical trials and are approved for clinical use. In this review, urinary markers and their application for screening and surveillance of bladder cancer are discussed. PMID:23864929

  11. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  12. Infrared spectroscopy of [XFeC24H12]+ (X = C5H5, C5(CH3)5) complexes in the gas phase: experimental and computational studies of astrophysical interest.

    PubMed

    Simon, Aude; Joblin, Christine; Polfer, Nick; Oomens, Jos

    2008-09-18

    We report the first experimental mid-infrared (700-1600 cm (-1)) multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra of [XFeC 24H 12] (+) (X = C 5H 5 or Cp, C 5(CH 3) 5 or Cp*) complexes in the gas phase obtained using the free electron laser for infrared experiments. The experimental results are complemented with theoretical infrared (IR) absorption spectra calculated with methods based on density functional theory. The isomers in which the XFe unit is coordinated to an outer ring of C 24H 12 (+) (Out isomers) were calculated to be the most stable ones. From the comparison between the experimental and calculated spectra, we could derive that, (i) for [CpFeC 24H 12] (+) complexes, the (1)A Out isomer appears to be the best candidate to be formed in the experiment but the presence of the (1)A In higher energy isomer in minor abundance is also plausible; and (ii) for [Cp*FeC 24H 12] (+) complexes, the three calculated Out isomers of similar energy are likely to be present simultaneously, in qualitative agreement with the observed dissociation patterns. This study also emphasizes the threshold effect in the IRMPD spectrum below which IR bands cannot be observed and evidence strong mode coupling effects in the [XFeC 24H 12] (+) species. The effect of the coordination of Fe in weakening the bands of C 24H 12 (+) in the 1000-1600 cm (-1) region is confirmed, which is of interest to search for such complexes in interstellar environments.

  13. Development of an albumin copper binding (ACuB) assay to detect ischemia modified albumin.

    PubMed

    Eom, Ji-Eun; Lee, Eunyoung; Jeon, Kyung-Hwa; Sim, Jeongeun; Suh, Minah; Jhon, Gil-Ja; Kwon, Youngjoo

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia (MI) induces many changes in the body, including pH decrease and electrolyte imbalance. No obvious symptoms of MI appear until irreversible cellular injuries occur. Since early treatment is critical for recovery from ischemia, the development of reliable diagnostic tool is demanded to detect the early ischemic status. Ischemia modified albumin (IMA), formed by cleavage of the last two amino acids of the human serum albumin (HSA) N-terminus, has been considered so far as the most trustworthy and accurate marker for the investigation of ischemia. IMA levels are elevated in plasma within a few minutes of ischemic onset, and may last for up to 6 h. In the present study, we developed a novel assay for the examination of IMA levels to ameliorate the known albumin cobalt binding (ACB) test established previously. We observed a stronger copper ion bound to the HSA N-terminal peptide than cobalt ion by HPLC and ESI-TOF mass spectrometric analyses. The copper ion was employed with lucifer yellow (LY), a copper-specific reagent to develop a new albumin copper binding (ACuB) assay. The parameters capable of affecting the assay results were optimized, and the finally-optimized ACuB assay was validated. The result of the IMA level measurement in normal versus stroke rat serum suggests that the ACuB assay is likely to be a reliable and sensitive method for the detection of ischemic states.

  14. Incorporation of intravenously injected albumin, immunoglobulin G, and fibrinogen in guinea pig megakaryocyte granules.

    PubMed Central

    Handagama, P J; Shuman, M A; Bainton, D F

    1989-01-01

    In a previous study we provide evidence for a circuitous pathway by which circulating plasma proteins enter megakaryocyte granules by an endocytic mechanism and are returned to the circulation in platelets (1987. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 84:861-865). Horseradish peroxidase (40,000 mol wt) was injected into guinea pigs and its uptake into megakaryocyte organelles examined by electron microscopy and cytochemistry. In the present study we tested the ability of guinea pig megakaryocytes to take up intravenously injected albumin, IgG, and fibrinogen. We used two types of proteins to study the endocytic pathway: (a) heterologous human proteins, which were detected immunohistochemically using antibodies that do not crossreact with the native guinea pig counterparts; and (b) human and guinea pig proteins labeled with the small (250 mol wt), inert molecule, biotin, which were detected using an antibody against biotin. We detected all three of the injected proteins in bone marrow megakaryocytes in patterns identical to those of native counterparts. The injected protein consistently appeared in platelets 24 h later and was secreted in response to thrombin. We conclude that there are at least two mechanisms by which guinea pig megakaryocyte granules acquire proteins (a) endogenous synthesis, as demonstrated by others, and (b) endocytosis of plasma proteins synthesized by other types of cells. Images PMID:2738161

  15. Effects of living at two ambient temperatures on 24-h blood pressure and neuroendocrine function among obese and non-obese humans: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2013-05-01

    The effects of environmental temperature on blood pressure and hormones in obese subjects in Japan were compared in two seasons: summer vs winter. Five obese (BMI, 32 ± 5 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23 ±3 kg/m2) men participated in this experiment at latitude 35°10' N and longitude 136°57.9' E. The average environmental temperature was 29 ± 1 °C in summer and 3 ± 1 °C in winter. Blood samples were analyzed for leptin, ghrelin, catecholamines, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and glucose. Blood pressure was measured over the course of 24 h in summer and winter. A Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire was also administered each season. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures in obese men were significantly higher in winter (lower environmental temperatures) than in summer (higher environmental temperatures). Noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations were also significantly higher at lower environmental temperatures in obese subjects, but ghrelin, TSH, fT3, fT4, insulin and glucose were not significantly different in summer and winter between obese and non-obese subjects. Leptin, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in winter in obese than non-obese men. Results from the POMS questionnaire showed a significant rise in Confusion at lower environmental temperatures (winter) in obese subjects. In this pilot study, increased blood pressure may have been due to increased secretion of noradrenaline in obese men in winter, and the results suggest that blood pressure control in obese men is particularly important in winter.

  16. Exploring the physiologic role of human gastroesophageal reflux by analyzing time-series data from 24-h gastric and esophageal pH recordings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Luo; Mu, John C; Sloan, Sheldon; Miner, Philip B; Gardner, Jerry D

    2014-07-16

    Our previous finding of a fractal pattern for gastric pH and esophageal pH plus the statistical association of sequential pH values for up to 2 h led to our hypothesis that the fractal pattern encodes information regarding gastric acidity and that depending on the value of gastric acidity, the esophagus can signal the stomach to alter gastric acidity by influencing gastric secretion of acid or bicarbonate. Under our hypothesis values of gastric pH should provide information regarding values of esophageal pH and vice versa. We used vector autoregression, a theory-free set of inter-related linear regressions used to measure relationships that can change over time, to analyze data from 24-h recordings of gastric pH and esophageal pH. We found that in pH records from normal subjects, as well as from subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease alone and after treatment with a proton pump inhibitor, gastric pH values provided important information regarding subsequent values of esophageal pH and values of esophageal pH provided important information regarding subsequent values of gastric pH. The ability of gastric pH and esophageal pH to provide information regarding subsequent values of each other was reduced in subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease compared to normal subjects. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that depending on the value of gastric acidity, the esophagus can signal the stomach to alter gastric acidity, and that this ability is impaired in subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  17. UK dietary exposure to PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDD/Fs, PBBs and PBDEs: comparison of results from 24-h duplicate diets and total diet studies.

    PubMed

    Bramwell, Lindsay; Mortimer, David; Rose, Martin; Fernandes, Alwyn; Harrad, Stuart; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Chemicals in food are monitored to check for compliance with regulatory limits and to evaluate trends in dietary exposures, among other reasons. This study compared two different methods for estimating human dietary exposure to lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during 2011/12: (1) the 2012 Total Diet Study (TDS) conducted by the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) and (2) a 24-h duplicate diet (DD) study of 20 adults from the North East of England. The equivalence of the two approaches was assessed; anything less than an order of magnitude could be considered reasonable and within three-fold (equivalent to 0.5 log) as good. Adult dietary exposure estimates derived from the DD study for both average and high-level (97.5th percentile) consumers compared well with those from the TDS. Estimates from the DD study when compared with those from the TDS were within 10% for P97.5 for total PCDD/F/PCB with divergence increasing to a factor of 3.4 for average BDE-209. Most estimates derived from the TDS were slightly higher than those derived from the DD. Comparison with earlier UK TDS data over the last 30 years or so confirmed a gradual decline in levels of PCDD/F/PCBs in food. Such comparisons also indicated peaks in dietary exposure to ∑PBDE (excluding BDE-209) between 2000 and 2005. Exposure estimates for all measured compounds using both TDS and DD data were found to be within recommended tolerable daily intakes where available or within acceptable margins of exposure.

  18. Impact of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink on ingestive behaviour, affect and self-selected intensity during recreational exercise after 24-h fluid restriction.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Oliver J; Thompson, Dylan; Stokes, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink on voluntary fluid intake, affect and self-selected intensity during recreational exercise after fluid restriction. In a randomised counterbalanced design, ten physically active adults were dehydrated via a 24-h period of fluid restriction before completing two 20-min bouts of cardiovascular exercise, 20-min of resistance exercise and 20 min on a cycle ergometer at a self-selected intensity with ad libitum access to water (W) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES). Fluid restriction induced hypohydration of ∼1.2% initial body mass. Fluid intake during exercise was greater with CES (2105 ± 363 vs. 1470 ± 429 mL; P<0.01) and resulted in more adequate hydration (-0.03 ± 0.65 vs. -1.26 ± 0.80%; P<0.01). Plasma glucose concentrations (4.48 ± 0.40 vs. 4.28 ± 0.32 mmol L(-1); P<0.01) and pleasure ratings (2.63 ± 1.17 vs. 1.81 ± 1.37; P<0.01) were greater with CES than W. Mean power output during exercise performed at a self-selected intensity was 5.6% greater with CES (171 ± 63 vs. 162 ± 60 W; P<0.05). In physically active adults performing a 'real-life' recreational exercise simulation, CES resulted in more adequate hydration and an enhanced affective experience that corresponded with an increase in self-selected exercise intensity.

  19. Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, Marion; Landais, Edwige; Bastard, Guillaume; Carriquiry, Alicia; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls) and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal. PMID:27775598

  20. No effect of route of exposure (oral; subcutaneous injection) on plasma bisphenol A throughout 24h after administration in neonatal female mice.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julia A; Welshons, Wade V; Vom Saal, Frederick S

    2008-02-01

    Route of administration of chemicals in adults is an important factor in pharmacokinetics of chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA), the monomer with estrogenic activity used to make polycarbonate plastic products and to line food and beverage cans. Based on findings in adults it has been proposed (CERHR, 2007) that non-oral routes of administration in newborn rodents would also lead to high exposure relative to oral administration. However, in fetuses and neonates, the enzyme that conjugates BPA (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) is expressed at low levels, suggesting that there may be no differences in pharmacokinetics between oral and non-oral dosing. We thus conducted an analysis of plasma concentrations of unconjugated 3H-BPA after HPLC separation in postnatal day 3 female mice throughout the 24h after administering 3H-BPA orally or via subcutaneous injection at doses above and below the current EPA reference dose. We found no significant difference in plasma BPA based on route of administration in neonatal mice at either dose. However, compared to data from other studies conducted with adults, there was a markedly higher plasma BPA level after oral administration of BPA in newborn mice. This finding sets aside the belief that non-oral administration of BPA renders data as not suitable for consideration of the hazard posed by low-dose exposure to BPA during neonatal life. Therefore the large numbers of BPA studies that used non-oral administration at very low doses during the neonatal period should not be dismissed by scientists or the regulatory community based on route of administration.

  1. Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Marion; Landais, Edwige; Bastard, Guillaume; Carriquiry, Alicia; Wieringa, Frank T; Berger, Jacques

    2016-10-20

    Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5-17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls) and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal.

  2. Urinary Aminopeptidase Activities as Early and Predictive Biomarkers of Renal Dysfunction in Cisplatin-Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, Andrés; Vargas, Félix; Montoro-Molina, Sebastián; O'Valle, Francisco; Rodríguez-Martínez, María Dolores; Osuna, Antonio; Prieto, Isabel; Ramírez, Manuel; Wangensteen, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the fluorimetric determination of alanyl- (Ala), glutamyl- (Glu), leucyl-cystinyl- (Cys) and aspartyl-aminopeptidase (AspAp) urinary enzymatic activities as early and predictive biomarkers of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 8 each group) received a single subcutaneous injection of either saline or cisplatin 3.5 or 7 mg/kg, and urine samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 14 days after treatment. In urine samples we determined Ala, Glu, Cys and AspAp activities, proteinuria, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), albumin, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and renal morphological variables were measured at the end of the experiment. CysAp, NAG and albumin were increased 48 hours after treatment in the cisplatin 3.5 mg/kg treated group. At 24 hours, all urinary aminopeptidase activities and albuminuria were significantly increased in the cisplatin 7 mg/kg treated group. Aminopeptidase urinary activities correlated (p<0.011; r2>0.259) with plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and/or kidney weight/body weight ratio at the end of the experiment and they could be considered as predictive biomarkers of renal injury severity. ROC-AUC analysis was made to study their sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between treated and untreated rats at day 1. All aminopeptidase activities showed an AUC>0.633. We conclude that Ala, Cys, Glu and AspAp enzymatic activities are early and predictive urinary biomarkers of the renal dysfunction induced by cisplatin. These determinations can be very useful in the prognostic and diagnostic of renal dysfunction in preclinical research and clinical practice. PMID:22792302

  3. Correlative study of fluoride content in urine, serum and urinary calculi.

    PubMed

    Rathee, N; Garg, P; Pundir, C S

    2004-07-01

    Fluoride content was measured in 100 urinary stones retrieved by open surgery of stone formers admitted at PGIMS Rohtak and their respective urine and serum and compared with those of healthy individuals. The concentration of fluoride was also measured in the sources of drinking water of these stone formers. The concentration of fluoride was definitely significantly higher in serum (p>0.01) and highly significantly higher in urine (p>-0.001) of stone formers compared to those of healthy individuals. The content of oxalate in serum and 24 h urine of the stone formers was also measured, which was increased significantly (p<0.005 and p<0.001) compared to healthy individuals. The concentration of fluoride was probably significantly higher in drinking water of these stone formers than the normal ones. There was a positive correlation between the content of fluoride of urinary stones and urine of stone patients (r=.88); stone and serum (r=.62); drinking water and stone (r=.85) and their urine and serum (r=.54); urine and drinking water (r=.83) and serum and water (r=.51). These results indicate a definite role of fluoride in urinary stone formation.

  4. Increased urinary excretion of platelet activating factor in mice with lupus nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Macconi, D.; Noris, M.; Benfenati, E.; Quaglia, R.; Pagliarino, G. ); Remuzzi, G. Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo )

    1991-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) is present in urine from humans and experimental animals in normal conditions. Very little is known about changes in PAF urinary excretion under pathologic conditions and no data are available about the origin of PAF in the urine. In the present study we explored the possibility that immunologic renal disease is associated with an increase in PAF urinary excretion using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. To clarify the renal or extrarenal origin of urinary PAF we evaluated whether exogenously administered PAF (1-(1{prime},2{prime}-{sup 3}H)alkyl) is filtered through the glomerulus and excreted in the urine. The results show that: (1) urine from mice with lupus nephritis in the early phase of the disease contained amounts of PAF comparable to those excreted in normal mouse urine, (2) PAF levels increased when animals started to develop high grade proteinuria, (3) after intravenous injection of ({sup 3}H) PAF In nephritic mice, a negligible amount of ({sup 3}H) ether lipid, corresponding to ({sup 3}H)1-alkyl -2-acyl-3-phosphocholine (alkyl-2-acyl-GPC), was recovered from the 24 h urine extract.

  5. Urinary D-glucaric acid and serum hepatic enzyme levels in chronic alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Tutor, J C; Alvarez-Prechous, A; Bernabeu, F; Pardiñas, M C; Paz, J M; Lareu, V

    1988-06-01

    Urinary D-glucaric acid (DGA) and the activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and other hepatic enzymes in serum were determined in 33 noncirrhotic male alcoholics who had continued to consume alcohol until at least 24 h prior to the taking of samples. DGA excretion was significantly greater in them than in a group of 30 healthy controls (p less than 0.001), exceeding the upper reference level in 38% of the alcoholic cases (as compared with 88% for GGT). In the alcoholic patients, there was highly significant correlation between urinary DGA and serum GGT (r = 0.613, p less than 0.001), suggesting that in both cases the increased levels are due to enzyme induction. None of the biochemical variables studied were significantly correlated with estimated daily alcohol consumption. Urinary DGA levels fell off rapidly with abstinence, and in 31 alcoholic patients who had consumed no alcohol for 5 days, there was no statistically significant correlation between DGA excretion and serum GGT (r = 0.158, p congruent to 0.4).

  6. [Urinary tract infections in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Naline, Charlotte; Cudennec, Tristan; Teillet, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    In the elderly, urinary tract infections are frequent. Diagnosis is not always evident because symptoms are often absent. In doubt, a urinary strip evaluation must be performed. Prevention begins with simple lifestyle and dietary rules, such as good voiding and adequate fluid intake. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is treated only in certain cases. Other urinary tract infections require antibiotics, which must be adapted to renal function.

  7. Striking association between urinary cadmium level and albuminuria among Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa Satarug, Soisungwan; O'Rourke, Peter; Moore, Michael; Ng, Jack; McGrath, Victor; Walmby, Maria

    2008-03-15

    Objectives: Indigenous people of the Torres Strait (Australia) have greater potential for cadmium exposure and renal damage than other Australians due to high cadmium in some traditional seafood and a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity. This study explored associations between albuminuria and an index of cadmium exposure (urinary cadmium excretion) in the presence and absence of Type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: Two population-based, cross-sectional studies were undertaken in the Torres Strait to obtain data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, chronic disease, smoking, urinary cadmium, and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Results: Age- and BMI-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) among people with diabetes and albuminuria (n=22, geometric mean (GM) 1.91 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine) compared to those with diabetes and normal ACR (n=21, GM 0.74 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine). Urinary cadmium was also strongly associated (p<0.001) with ACR among people with diabetes in regression models and remained significant after controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension (or continuous systolic and diastolic measurements). Conclusions: While the study has methodological limitations and the nature of the association is unclear, the striking dose-dependent links between markers of cadmium exposure and of Type 2 diabetic nephropathy highlight the need for further definitive research on the health effects of cadmium in the presence of diabetes.

  8. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits TGF-β-, angiotensin II-, aldosterone-, high glucose-, and albumin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang Han; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Ja Seon; Chang, Jai Won; Kim, Soon Bae; Park, Jung Sik; Lee, Sang Koo

    2013-03-15

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a novel mechanism that promotes renal fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), angiotensin II, aldosterone, high glucose, and urinary albumin are well-known causes of EMT and renal fibrosis. We examined whether and how activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suppressed EMT induced by the above agents in tubular epithelial cells. All experiments were performed using HK-2 cells. Protein expression was measured by Western blot analysis. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Exposure of tubular cells to TGF-β (10 ng/ml), angiotensin II (1 μM), aldosterone (100 nM), high glucose (30 mM), and albumin (5 mg/ml) for 5 days induced EMT, as shown by upregulation of α-smooth muscle actin and downregulation of E-cadherin. ROS and NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) expression were increased, and antioxidants such as tiron and N-acetylcysteine inhibited EMT induction. Metformin (the best known clinical activator of AMPK) suppressed EMT induction through inhibition of ROS via induction of heme oxygenase-1 and endogenous antioxidant thioredoxin. An AMPK inhibitor (compound C) and AMPK small interfering RNA blocked the effect of metformin, and another AMPK activator [5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1β riboside (AICAR)] exerted the same effects as metformin. In conclusion, AMPK activation might be beneficial in attenuating the tubulointerstitial fibrosis induced by TGF-β, angiotensin II, aldosterone, high glucose, and urinary albumin.

  9. Interactions of aptamers with sera albumins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortez, Célia Martins; Silva, Dilson; Silva, Camila M. C.; Missailidis, Sotiris

    2012-09-01

    The interactions of two short aptamers to human and bovine serum albumins were studied by fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. Intrinsic fluorescence of BSA and HSA were measured by selectively exciting their tryptophan residues. Gradual quenching was observed by titration of both proteins with aptamers. Aptamers are oligonucleic acid or peptide molecules that bind a specific target and can be used for both biotechnological and clinical purposes, since they present molecular recognition properties like that commonly found in antibodies. Two aptamers previously selected against the MUC1 tumour marker were used in this study, one selected for the protein core and one for the glycosylated MUC1. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Plots obtained from experiments carried out at 25 °C and 37 °C showed the quenching of fluorescence of by aptamers to be a collisional phenomenon. Stern-Volmer constants estimated for HSA quenched by aptamer A were 1.68 × 105 (±5 × 103) M-1 at 37 °C, and 1.37 × 105 (±103) M-1 at 25 °C; and quenched by aptamer B were 1.67 × 105 (±5 × 103) M-1 at 37 °C, and 1.32 × 105 (±103) M-1 at 25 °C. Results suggest that the primary binding site for aptamers on albumin is close to tryptophan residues in sub domain IIA.

  10. Automated measurement of urinary creatinine by multichannel kinetic spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Kirk, Andrea B; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2009-01-15

    Urinary creatinine analysis is required for clinical diagnosis, especially for evaluation of renal function. Creatinine adjustment is also widely used to estimate 24-h excretion from spot samples. Few convenient validated approaches are available for in-house creatinine measurement for small- to medium-scale studies. Here we apply the Jáffe reaction to creatinine determination with zone fluidic multichannel kinetic spectrophotometry. Diluted urine sample and reagent, alkaline picric acid, were mixed by a computer-programmed dispenser and rapidly delivered to a four-channel detection cell. The absorbance change was monitored by a flow-through light-emitting diode-photodiode-based detector. Validation results against high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV)/mass spectrometry (MS) are presented. Responses for 10-fold diluted samples were linear within clinically relevant ranges (0-250 mg/L after dilution). The system can analyze 70 samples per hour with a limit of detection of 0.76 mg/L. The relative standard deviation was 1.29% at 100 mg/L creatinine (n=225). Correlation with the HPLC (UV quantitation/MS confirmation) system was excellent (linear, r2=0.9906). The developed system allows rapid, simple, cost-effective, and robust creatinine analysis and is suitable for the analysis of large numbers of urine samples.

  11. Schistosome albumin is of host, not parasite, origin.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Ricardo; Mathieson, William; Dillon, Gary P; Wilson, R Alan

    2007-09-01

    Recent work has implicated schistosome albumin as part of a mechanism for neutralizing the oxidative assault by host immune defenses and suggested that the gene had been acquired by horizontal transfer from the mammalian host. In the course of proteomic analyses of Schistosoma mansoni adult worm vomitus and eggs recovered from mice, we identified numerous peptides, largely derived from murine rather than parasite albumin. We therefore conjectured that the supposed S. mansoni albumin sequence deposited on GenBank might be the result of contamination rather than horizontal gene transfer. Based on phylogenetic analysis the most likely source was the Syrian (golden) hamster Mesocricetus auratus. Proteomic analysis of Syrian hamster albumin generated peptide identities to S. mansoni as the top hit, with a high ion score >1,500 and 63% coverage of the translated cDNA sequence. RT-PCR using specific primers permitted amplification of the M. auratus albumin transcript, which is identical to the deposited S. mansoni albumin sequence. PCR amplification of a fragment of the M. auratus albumin gene from genomic DNA suggests a homologous structure to the Mus musculus albumin gene. We were unable to find the S. mansoni albumin gene sequence by in silico searching on either version 3 of the S. mansoni genome assembly or the >3 million shotgun DNA reads. Finally, Southern blotting detected the albumin gene in M. auratus but not in S. mansoni genomic DNA, even when the latter was present in a 10-fold excess. Collectively, our data make the strongest case that the schistosome albumin protein described in previous reports is of host origin and all nucleotide-derived data are the result of contamination with host material. By analogy, we suggest that other reported examples of horizontal gene transfer to schistosomes might similarly be explained by complementary/genomic DNA contamination.

  12. Intrarenal distribution of inorganic mercury and albumin after coadministration

    SciTech Connect

    Zalups, R.K. ); Barfuss, D.W. )

    1993-01-01

    The renal disposition and the intrarenal distribution of albumin and mercury were studied simultaneously in rats co-injected with a 0.5-[mu]mol/kg dose of albumin and a 0.25-[mu]mol/kg dose of inorganic mercury at 2, 5, 30, and 180 min after injection. These studies were carried out to test the hypothesis that one of the mechanisms involved in the renal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury is cotransport with albumin. By the end of the first 2 min after injection, the ratio of inorganic mercury to albumin in the renal cortex and outer strip of the outer medulla was approximately 2.6 and 1.6, respectively. Both the cortex and outer stripe contain segments of the proximal tubule, and it is these segments that have been shown to be principally involved in the renal tubular uptake of both albumin and inorganic mercury. The ration increased slightly in these two zones after 5 and 20 min after injection. These data demonstrate that there is a relatively close relationship in the renal content of inorganic mercury and albumin. However, the ratios are significantly greater than the ratio of inorganic mercury of albumin in the injection solution, which was 0.5. After 180 min following co-injection, the ratio increased to about 38 in the cortex and 15 in the outer stripe. This increase in the ratio is probably related to the metabolism of albumin. Based on the ratios of inorganic mercury to albumin in the renal cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla, it appears that some proximal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury occurs by mechanisms other than endocytotic cotransport of inorganic mercury with albumin. However, since the ratios were small during the early times after injection, cotransport of inorganic mercury with albumin cannot be excluded as one of the mechanisms involved in the proximal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury. 32 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    PubMed

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections in adults are frequent and can induce several septic situations. Their economic cost (drugs, microbiologic samples, consultations and/or hospitalizations and stop working) and ecologic cost (second reasons of antibiotic prescription in winter and first in the rest of the year) are important. A better respect of recommendations can improve the outcome of this different infections and decrease their cost.

  14. [Anatomic principles of urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Dorschner, W; Stolzenburg, J U; Neuhaus, J

    2001-05-01

    The morphological fundamentals of urinary continence are still subject to controversy. This was the reason for a renewed examination of the sphincter musculature of the lower urinary tract. This study included 50 male and 15 female autopsy specimens. The organs of the lower urinary tract including the neighboring organs had been removed in their entirety and histologically reprocessed en bloc as a complete series of sections. We were able to demonstrate that the internal sphincter or m. sphincter vesicae is represented as a circular, distinct structure which elliptically embraces the internal urethral orifice. Lamellas of the detrusor are not involved in the formation of the internal sphincter. In females and males, the external sphincter consists of a striated and a smooth muscular part (m. sphincter urethrae transversostriatus et glaber). In transverse sections, the muscle has a horseshoe shape. It is completely separated by connective tissue from the musculature of the pelvic floor. A deep transverse perineal muscle does not exist. The histological findings were used for the construction of a digital three-dimensional model of the anatomy of the lower urinary tract. Computer animations of the model with integrated original histologies were generated and stored as a computer video on a CD-ROM attached to this journal.

  15. Candida urinary tract infection: pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, John F; Kavanagh, Kevin; Sobel, Jack D; Kauffman, Carol A; Newman, Cheryl A

    2011-05-01

    Candida species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection (UTI) in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system. The urinary tract may be invaded in either an antegrade fashion from the bloodstream or retrograde via the urethra and bladder. Candida species employ a repertoire of virulence factors, including phenotypic switching, dimorphism, galvano - and thigmotropism, and hydrolytic enzymes, to colonize and then invade the urinary tract. Antegrade infection occurs primarily among patients predisposed to candidemia. The process of adherence to and invasion of the glomerulus, renal blood vessels, and renal tubules by Candida species was elegantly described in early histopathologic studies. Armed with modern molecular biologic techniques, the various virulence factors involved in bloodborne infection of the kidney are gradually being elucidated. Disturbances of urine flow, whether congenital or acquired, instrumentation of the urinary tract, diabetes mellitus, antimicrobial therapy, and immunosuppression underlie most instances of retrograde Candida UTI. In addition, bacterial UTIs caused by Enterobacteriaceae may facilitate the initial step in the process. Ascending infections generally do not result in candidemia in the absence of obstruction.

  16. [Conservative treatment of urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Soljanik, I; Schorsch, I; Stanislaus, P; Bauer, R; Mayer, M; Hocaoglu, Y; Becker, A; May, F

    2007-09-20

    Urinary incontinence can be treated with medicinal products in addition to active pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation. A local hormone therapy should be first discussed with the gynaecologist. The active substance duloxetine has been used for a few years for treating stress incontinence. Several older and newer active substances are available for treating irritable bladder and stress incontinence.

  17. Urinary zinc excretion in infancy.

    PubMed

    Sievers, E; Oldigs, H D; Dörner, K; Schaub, J

    1990-03-01

    In view of the conflicting data on urinary Zn excretion in infancy we investigated the possible influence of contamination, collecting methods, nutrition (human milk versus formula) and longitudinal changes during the first 16 weeks of life. Methodical investigation showed that special attention is necessary to avoid contamination due to the use of Zn-containing baby creams in the genital region. The sampling device for collection should include the smallest area of skin possible and the use of Zn-containing baby creams has to be avoided both during the collection and at least 24 hours prior to urine collection. Previous fractional urine sampling of the collecting method to be evaluated proves that erroneously high values are not obtained at the beginning of collection. Midstream urinary samples reduce the possibility of contamination. Increased urinary excretion was shown in pre-term infants under theophylline or coffeine medication. The median daily urinary Zn excretion in healthy breast-fed term infants declined significantly from 0.063 (0.027-0.111) mg per kg body weight at the age of 2 weeks to 0.018 (0.004-0.059) mg per kg body weight at the age of 16 weeks. Comparable values for formula-fed term infants were 0.029 (0.025-0.063) mg per kg body weight initially and 0.025 (0.007-0.059) mg per kg body weight at the end of the study. These values can be used as reference values for the urinary Zn excretion of healthy infants.

  18. Cold Stress and Urinary Frequency.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Osamu; Imamura, Tetsuya; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2012-03-01

    There have been few studies regarding the onset of urinary sensations and frequent urination induced by sudden whole-body cooling. In this article, we review the relationship between cold stress and urinary frequency based mainly on our previous studies. A recent study showed that cold stress induces bladder overactivity in conscious rats, and these effects were mediated, at least in part, by α1A -adrenergic receptor (AR) and α1D -AR. Another study suggested that the resiniferatoxin-sensitive nerves present in the urinary bladder may also be involved in the regulation of detrusor activity associated with cold stress. The mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family consists of 28 channels subdivided into five different classes: TRPV (vanilloid), TRPC (canonical), TRPM (melastatin), TRPML (mucolipin), and TRPA (ankyrin). TRP channels function as multifunctional sensors at the cellular level. They can be activated by physical (voltage, heat, cold, mechanical stress) or chemical stimuli and binding of specific ligands. In 2002, it was reported that a nonselective cation channel, TRPM8, could be activated by both menthol and thermal stimuli (8-28 °C). We demonstrated the presence of TRPM8 in the skin from the legs and back of rats by immunofluorescence staining and that stimulation of this receptor by menthol causes urinary frequency. There have been other reports demonstrating roles of TRPM8 not related to its thermosensory function. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of cold stress-induced urinary frequency, and the roles of TRPM8 in the micturition control system.

  19. Correlates of urinary symptom scores in men.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, B E; Klein, R; Lee, K E; Bruskewitz, R C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the prevalence of urinary symptoms and their relationship to characteristics of a cohort of men in Beaver Dam, Wis, from 1993 to 1995. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire concerning urinary symptoms (the American Urological Association Urinary Symptom Questionnaire) was administered. RESULTS: All outcomes were associated with age and history of enlarged prostate. Urinary frequency (57%) and nocturia (65%) were the most common individual symptoms. Diuretic usage, diabetes, history of cardiovascular disease, and smoking were related to specific symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: While urinary symptoms are associated with age and history of enlarged prostate, symptoms may also be attributable to other diseases and exposures. PMID:10553401

  20. [Urinary tract dysfunction in older patients].

    PubMed

    Verdejo, Carlos; Méndez, Santiago; Salinas, Jesús

    2016-11-18

    Urinary tract dysfunction in older patients has a multifactorial aetiology and is not a uniform clinical condition. Changes due to physiological ageing as well as comorbidity and polypharmacy, can produce several dynamic conditions such as urinary incontinence and urinary retention. Lower urinary tract symptoms increase with age in both sexes and are a major problem in older patients due to their medical and psychosocial consequences. For these reasons, in assessing urinary dysfunction in older patients, we should consider external circumstances such as polypharmacy, poor mobility, affective and cognitive disorders and also accessibility to housing.

  1. Structures of bovine, equine and leporine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Bujacz, Anna

    2012-10-01

    Serum albumin first appeared in early vertebrates and is present in the plasma of all mammals. Its canonical structure supported by a conserved set of disulfide bridges is maintained in all mammalian serum albumins and any changes in sequence are highly correlated with evolution of the species. Previous structural investigations of mammalian serum albumins have only concentrated on human serum albumin (HSA), most likely as a consequence of crystallization and diffraction difficulties. Here, the crystal structures of serum albumins isolated from bovine, equine and leporine blood plasma are reported. The structure of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was determined at 2.47 Å resolution, two crystal structures of equine serum albumin (ESA) were determined at resolutions of 2.32 and 2.04 Å, and that of leporine serum albumin (LSA) was determined at 2.27 Å resolution. These structures were compared in detail with the structure of HSA. The ligand-binding pockets in BSA, ESA and LSA revealed different amino-acid compositions and conformations in comparison to HSA in some cases; however, much more significant differences were observed on the surface of the molecules. BSA, which is one of the most extensively utilized proteins in laboratory practice and is used as an HSA substitute in many experiments, exhibits only 75.8% identity compared with HSA. The higher resolution crystal structure of ESA highlights the binding properties of this protein because it includes several bound compounds from the crystallization solution that provide additional structural information about potential ligand-binding pockets.

  2. Albumin binds self-assembling dyes as specific polymolecular ligands.

    PubMed

    Stopa, Barbara; Rybarska, Janina; Drozd, Anna; Konieczny, Leszek; Król, Marcin; Lisowski, Marek; Piekarska, Barbara; Roterman, Irena; Spólnik, Paweł; Zemanek, Grzegorz

    2006-12-15

    Self-assembling dyes with a structure related to Congo red (e.g. Evans blue) form polymolecular complexes with albumin. The dyes, which are lacking a self-assembling property (Trypan blue, ANS) bind as single molecules. The supramolecular character of dye ligands bound to albumin was demonstrated by indicating the complexation of dye molecules outnumbering the binding sites in albumin and by measuring the hydrodynamic radius of albumin which is growing upon complexation of self-assembling dye in contrast to dyes lacking this property. The self-assembled character of Congo red was also proved using it as a carrier introducing to albumin the intercalated nonbonding foreign compounds. Supramolecular, ordered character of the dye in the complex with albumin was also revealed by finding that self-assembling dyes become chiral upon complexation. Congo red complexation makes albumin less resistant to low pH as concluded from the facilitated N-F transition, observed in studies based on the measurement of hydrodynamic radius. This particular interference with protein stability and the specific changes in digestion resulted from binding of Congo red suggest that the self-assembled dye penetrates the central crevice of albumin.

  3. Effects of glycation on meloxicam binding to human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trynda-Lemiesz, Lilianna; Wiglusz, Katarzyna

    2011-05-01

    The current study reports a binding of meloxicam a pharmacologically important new generation, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to glycated form of the human serum albumin (HSA). The interaction of the meloxicam with nonglycated and glycated albumin has been studied at pH 7.4 in 0.05 M sodium phosphate buffer with 0.1 M NaCl, using fluorescence quenching technique and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Results of the present study have shown that the meloxicam could bind both forms of albumin glycated and nonglycated at a site, which was close to the tryptophan residues. Similarly, how for native albumin glycated form has had one high affinity site for the drug with association constants of the order of 10 5 M -1. The glycation process of the HSA significantly has affected the impact of the meloxicam on the binding of other ligands such as warfarin and bilirubin. The affinity of the glycated albumin for bilirubin as for native albumin has been reduced by meloxicam but observed effect was weaker by half (about 20%) compared with nonglycated albumin. In contrast to the native albumin meloxicam binding to glycated form of the protein only slightly affected the binding of warfarin. It seemed possible that the effects on warfarin binding might be entirely attributable to the Lys 199 modification which was in site I.

  4. The metabolic fate of the amido-N group of glutamine in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract in 24 h-fasted sheep.

    PubMed

    Gate, J J; Parker, D S; Lobley, G E

    1999-04-01

    Whole-body and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) metabolism of [5-(15)N]glutamine were monitored in lambs (33 kg live weight) fasted for 24 h. Animals were previously prepared with vascular catheters across the mesenteric-(MDV) and portal-drained viscera (PDV) to permit quantification of mass and isotopic transfers of metabolites by arterio-venous difference. Continuous infusions of [5-(15)N]glutamine into the jugular vein were conducted for 10 h and integrated blood samples withdrawn over 75 min intervals for the last 5 h of infusion. The lambs were then killed and portions from various tissues of the digestive tract and other body organs removed for determination of 15N enrichment in RNA, DNA and protein (the latter obtained by difference using total acid-precipitable N). Whole-body glutamine flux was 108 mumol/min of which 23 and 47% could be attributed to MDV and PDV metabolism (P < 0.001) respectively. There was a small net production of glutamine across the MDV. GIT blood-flows and NH3 production were partitioned 3:2 between MDV and non-MDV components. Less than 5% of the NH3 produced was derived from the amido-N of glutamine, while across the small intestine (MDV) 26% of the glutamine flux was converted to NH3, compared with 18% for non-MDV transfers. The 15N enrichments in protein were of the order jejunum > duodenum > ileum with mucosal cells more labelled than serosal (P < 0.001). Lesser enrichments were observed for other GIT tissues (abomasum > caecum > rumen) while liver and lymph were comparable with the abomasum; kidney, spleen and muscle were lower still (P < 0.05). Enrichments of RNA were similar to that of protein and followed the same pattern, except for higher relative values for liver, spleen and lymphoid tissue. The lowest enrichments