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Sample records for 24-h urinary excretion

  1. Neighbourhood food store availability in relation to 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies on the relationship of local food environment with residents' diets have relied exclusively on self-reported information on diet, producing inconsistent results. Evaluation of dietary intake using biomarkers may obviate the biases inherent to the use of self-reported dietary information. This cross-sectional study examined the association between neighbourhood food store availability and 24 h urinary Na and K excretion. The subjects were 904 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18-22 years. Neighbourhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence. Urinary Na and K excretion and the ratio of urinary Na to K were estimated from a single 24 h urine sample. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, neighbourhood availability of confectionery stores/bakeries was inversely associated with urinary K, and was positively associated with the ratio of Na to K (P for trend = 0.008 and 0.03, respectively). Neighbourhood availability of rice stores showed an independent inverse association with urinary K (P for trend = 0.03), whereas neighbourhood availability of supermarkets/grocery stores conversely showed an independent positive association with this variable (P for trend = 0.03). Furthermore, neighbourhood availability of fruit/vegetable stores showed an independent inverse association with the ratio of Na to K (P for trend = 0.049). In a group of young Japanese women, increasing neighbourhood availability of supermarkets/grocery stores and fruit/vegetable stores and decreasing availability of confectionery stores/bakeries and rice stores were associated with favourable profiles of 24 h urinary K (and Na) excretion.

  2. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    PubMed

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake.

  3. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children’s discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother’s 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child’s salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  4. Temporal variability in urinary excretion of bisphenol A and seven other phenols in spot, morning, and 24-h urine samples.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Main, Katharina M; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Jørgensen, Niels; Kranich, Selma Kløve; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2013-10-01

    Human exposure to modern non-persistent chemicals is difficult to ascertain in epidemiological studies as exposure patterns and excretion rates may show temporal and diurnal variations. The aim of this study was to assess the temporal variability in repeated measurements of urinary excretion of bisphenol A (BPA) and seven other phenols. All analytes were determined using TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS. Two spot, three first morning and three 24-h urine samples were collected from 33 young Danish men over a three months period. Temporal variability was estimated by means of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). More than 70% of the urine samples had detectable levels of BPA, triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and sum of 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorophenol (ΣDCP). We found low to moderate ICCs for BPA (0.10-0.42) and ΣDCP (0.39-0.72), whereas the ICCs for BP-3 (0.69-0.80) and TCS (0.55-0.90) were higher. The ICCs were highest for the two spot urine samples, which were collected approximately 4 days apart, compared with the 24-h urine samples and the first morning urine samples, which were collected approximately 40 days apart. A consequence of the considerable variability in urinary excretion of BPA may be misclassification of individual BPA exposure level in epidemiological studies, which may lead to attenuation of the association between BPA and outcomes. Our data do not support that collection of 24-h samples will improve individual exposure assessment for any of the analysed phenols.

  5. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: The 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8-53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7-45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885-4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654-4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4-23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1-4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33-1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34-2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49-2.53, P < 0.001) in women. In this

  6. 24-h urinary sodium excretion is associated with obesity in a cross-sectional sample of Australian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2016-03-28

    Emerging evidence indicates that dietary Na may be linked to obesity; however it is unclear whether this relationship is independent of energy intake (EI). The aim of this study was to assess the association between Na intake and measures of adiposity, including BMI z score, weight category and waist:height ratio (WHtR), in a sample of Australian schoolchildren. This was a cross-sectional study of schoolchildren aged 4-12 years. Na intake was assessed via one 24-h urine collection. BMI was converted to age- and sex-specific z scores, and WHtR was used to define abdominal obesity. In children aged ≥8 years, EI was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Of the 666 children with valid urine samples 55 % were male (average age 9·3 (sd 1·8) years). In adjusted models an additional 17 mmol/d of Na was associated with a 0·10 higher BMI z score (95 % CI 0·07, 0·13), a 23 % (OR 1·23; 95 % CI 1·16, 1·31) greater risk of being overweight/obese and a 15 % (OR 1·15; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·23) greater risk of being centrally obese. In the subsample of 8-12-year-old children (n 458), adjustment for EI did not markedly alter the associations between Na and adiposity outcomes. Using a robust measure of daily Na intake we found a positive association between Na intake and obesity risk in Australian schoolchildren, which could not be explained by total energy consumption. To determine whether this is a causal relationship, longitudinal studies, with high-quality measures of Na and EI, are required.

  7. Association between 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zeng; Guo, Xiaolei; Chen, Xiaorong; Tang, Junli; Yan, Liuxia; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Jiyu; Lu, Zilong; Dong, Jing; Xu, Jianwei; Cai, Xiaoning; Liang, Hao; Ma, Jixiang

    2015-03-28

    The association of 24 h urinary Na and potassium excretion with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been studied in China. The aim of the present study was to examine this association by analysing the data from 1906 study participants living in north China. To this end, 24 h urine samples were collected. Of the 1906 participants, 471 (24·7 %) had the MetS. The mean urinary Na and K excretion was 228·7 and 40·8 mmol/d, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the odds of the MetS significantly increased across the increasing tertiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·40 and 1·54, respectively). For the components of the MetS, the odds of central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG, but not the odds of low HDL-cholesterol and elevated fasting glucose, significantly increased with the successive tertiles of urinary Na excretion. Furthermore, for every 100 mmol/d increase in urinary Na excretion, the odds of the MetS, central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG was significantly increased by 29, 63, 22 and 21 %, respectively. However, urinary K excretion was not significantly associated with the risk of the MetS. These findings suggest that high Na intake might be an important risk factor for the MetS in Chinese adults.

  8. The Association of Knowledge and Behaviours Related to Salt with 24-h Urinary Salt Excretion in a Population from North and South India

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J.; MacGregor, Graham A.; Webster, Jacqui; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Consumer knowledge is understood to play a role in managing risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and may be influenced by level of education. The association between population knowledge, behaviours and actual salt consumption was explored overall, and for more-educated compared to less-educated individuals. A cross-sectional survey was done in an age-and sex-stratified random sample of 1395 participants from urban and rural areas of North and South India. A single 24-h urine sample, participants’ physical measurements and questionnaire data were collected. The mean age of participants was 40 years, 47% were women and mean 24-h urinary salt excretion was 9.27 (8.87–9.69) g/day. Many participants reported favourable knowledge and behaviours to minimise risks related to salt. Several of these behaviours were associated with reduced salt intake—less use of salt while cooking, avoidance of snacks, namkeens, and avoidance of pickles (all p < 0.003). Mean salt intake was comparable in more-educated (9.21, 8.55–9.87 g/day) versus less-educated (9.34, 8.57–10.12 g/day) individuals (p = 0.82). There was no substantively different pattern of knowledge and behaviours between more-versus less-educated groups and no clear evidence that level of education influenced salt intake. Several consumer behaviours related to use of salt during food preparation and consumption of salty products were related to actual salt consumption and therefore appear to offer an opportunity for intervention. These would be a reasonable focus for a government-led education campaign targeting salt. PMID:28212309

  9. D-penicillamine does not increase urinary bismuth excretion in patients treated with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate.

    PubMed

    Nwokolo, C U; Pounder, R E

    1990-10-01

    Twenty-four urinary bismuth excretion was measured in five patients who had been treated with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate, before and after single 1 g oral dose of D-penicillamine. Before dosing with D-penicillamine, the median 24 h urinary bismuth output was 55 micrograms 24 h-1 (range 17-156 micrograms 24 h-1) and following dosing with D-penicillamine the median 24 h urinary bismuth output was 53 micrograms 24 h-1 (range 12-156 micrograms 24 h-1). D-penicillamine does not facilitate the urinary excretion of bismuth, hence it is unsuitable for use as an oral chelator in patients with bismuth intoxication.

  10. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and CKD Progression.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Mills, Katherine T; Appel, Lawrence J; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Lee, Belinda T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Porter, Anna; Makos, Gail; Weir, Matthew R; Hamm, L Lee; Kusek, John W

    2016-04-01

    CKD is a major risk factor for ESRD, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Whether dietary sodium and potassium intake affect CKD progression remains unclear. We prospectively studied the association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with CKD progression and all-cause mortality among 3939 patients with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured using three 24-hour urine specimens, and CKD progression was defined as incident ESRD or halving of eGFR. During follow-up, 939 CKD progression events and 540 deaths occurred. Compared with the lowest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (<116.8 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (≥194.6 mmol/24 h) were 1.54 (1.23 to 1.92) for CKD progression, 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for all-cause mortality, and 1.43 (1.18 to 1.73) for the composite outcome of CKD progression and all-cause mortality after adjusting for multiple covariates, including baseline eGFR. Additionally, compared with the lowest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (<39.4 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios for the highest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (≥67.1 mmol/24 h) were 1.59 (1.25 to 2.03) for CKD progression, 0.98 (0.71 to 1.35) for all-cause mortality, and 1.42 (1.15 to 1.74) for the composite outcome. These data indicate that high urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with increased risk of CKD progression. Clinical trials are warranted to test the effect of sodium and potassium reduction on CKD progression.

  11. Urinary zinc excretion in infancy.

    PubMed

    Sievers, E; Oldigs, H D; Dörner, K; Schaub, J

    1990-03-01

    In view of the conflicting data on urinary Zn excretion in infancy we investigated the possible influence of contamination, collecting methods, nutrition (human milk versus formula) and longitudinal changes during the first 16 weeks of life. Methodical investigation showed that special attention is necessary to avoid contamination due to the use of Zn-containing baby creams in the genital region. The sampling device for collection should include the smallest area of skin possible and the use of Zn-containing baby creams has to be avoided both during the collection and at least 24 hours prior to urine collection. Previous fractional urine sampling of the collecting method to be evaluated proves that erroneously high values are not obtained at the beginning of collection. Midstream urinary samples reduce the possibility of contamination. Increased urinary excretion was shown in pre-term infants under theophylline or coffeine medication. The median daily urinary Zn excretion in healthy breast-fed term infants declined significantly from 0.063 (0.027-0.111) mg per kg body weight at the age of 2 weeks to 0.018 (0.004-0.059) mg per kg body weight at the age of 16 weeks. Comparable values for formula-fed term infants were 0.029 (0.025-0.063) mg per kg body weight initially and 0.025 (0.007-0.059) mg per kg body weight at the end of the study. These values can be used as reference values for the urinary Zn excretion of healthy infants.

  12. Urinary oxalate excretion in urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, T.; Belzer, T.; Blau, N.; Hoppe, B.; Sidhu, H.; Leumann, E.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate urinary oxalate excretion in children with urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis and to classify hyperoxaluria (HyOx).
METHODS—A total of 106 patients were screened. In those in whom the oxalate: creatinine ratio was increased, 24 hour urinary oxalate excretion was measured. Liver biopsy and/or genomic analysis was performed if primary hyperoxaluria (PH) was suspected. Stool specimens were examined for Oxalobacter formigenes in HyOx not related to PH type 1 or 2 (PH1, PH2) and in controls.
RESULTS—A total of 21 patients screened had HyOx (>0.5 mmol/24 h per 1.73 m2); they were classified into five groups. Eleven had PH (PH1 in nine and neither PH1 nor PH2 in two). Six had secondary HyOx: two enteric and four dietary. Four could not be classified. Seven patients had concomitant hypercalciuria. Only one of 12 patients was colonised with O formigenes compared to six of 13controls.
CONCLUSIONS—HyOx is an important risk factor for urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis in children, and can coexist with hypercalciuria. A novel type of PH is proposed. Absence of O formigenes may contribute to HyOx not related to PH1.

 PMID:10735843

  13. Clinical study of urinary excretion of Ga-67

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Ibuka, K.; Hashizume, T.; Noguchi, A.; Kojima, J.; Sasakuma, F.; Ishigami, S. )

    1990-04-01

    Ga-67 urinary excretion was examined in 59 patients. The 72-hour urinary excretion rate ranged from 4.3 to 67.8% of the injected dose. Within the first 24 hours, 60.9% of the 72-hour urinary excretion was excreted. There was no significant difference in the Ga-67 urinary excretion rate between males and females, nor between the Ga-67 positive and negative cases. A significant negative correlation was found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and the unsaturated iron binding capacity. Notably, four patients with hyperferremia, which was considered secondary to leukemia and/or chemotherapy or liver cirrhosis, excreted more than 46.8% of Ga-67 within 72 hours. A significant negative correlation was also found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and age. Urinary excretion of Ga-67 may be related to the glomerular filtration rate, which decreases with age.

  14. Four to seven random casual urine specimens are sufficient to estimate 24-h urinary sodium/potassium ratio in individuals with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Iwahori, T; Ueshima, H; Torii, S; Saito, Y; Fujiyoshi, A; Ohkubo, T; Miura, K

    2016-05-01

    This study was done to clarify the optimal number and type of casual urine specimens required to estimate urinary sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio in individuals with high blood pressure. A total of 74 individuals with high blood pressure, 43 treated and 31 untreated, were recruited from the Japanese general population. Urinary sodium, potassium and Na/K ratio were measured in both casual urine samples and 7-day 24-h urine samples and then analyzed by correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. Mean Na/K ratio from random casual urine samples on four or more days strongly correlated with the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.80-0.87), which was similar to the correlation between 1 and 2-day 24-h urine and 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.75-0.89). The agreement quality for Na/K ratio of seven random casual urine for estimating the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine was good (bias: -0.26, limits of agreements: -1.53-1.01), and it was similar to that of 2-day 24-h urine for estimating 7-day 24-h values (bias: 0.07, limits of agreement: -1.03 to 1.18). Stratified analyses comparing individuals using antihypertensive medication and individuals not using antihypertensive medication showed similar results. Correlations of the means of casual urine sodium or potassium concentrations with 7-day 24-h sodium or potassium excretions were relatively weaker than those for Na/K ratio. The mean Na/K ratio of 4-7 random casual urine specimens on different days provides a good substitute for 1-2-day 24-h urinary Na/K ratio for individuals with high blood pressure.

  15. Urinary Excretion of Antidiuretic Hormone in Man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that urinary excretion of ADH can be detected readily and quantitated accurately. The ADH excretion in normal subjects is inhibited following the administration of a water load and stimulated following water deprivation. It appears that measurement of ADH excretion in man provides a means of quantitating alterations in neurohypophyseal ADH secretion. By determining not only the basal excretion of ADH but also the response to such physiological influences as water loading and dehydration, it becomes possible to study the dynamics of ADH release. Thus, the ability to extract ADH efficiently from urine combined with a sensitive and specific technique for determination of ADH concentration allows the exploration of regulatory systems for ADH control in the normal state as well as the etiological role of altered ADH secretion in clinical disorders of water balance.

  16. Validation of soy protein estimates from a food-frequency questionnaire with repeated 24-h recalls and isoflavonoid excretion in overnight urine in a Western population with a wide range of soy intakes2

    PubMed Central

    Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fraser, Gary E; Chan, Jacqueline; Franke, Adrian; Sabaté, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence of the benefits of soy on cancer risk in Western populations is inconsistent, in part because of the low intake of soy in these groups. Objective We assessed the validity of soy protein estimates from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) in a sample of Adventist Health Study-2 participants with a wide range of soy intakes. Design We obtained dietary intake data from 100 men and women (43 blacks and 57 nonblacks). Soy protein estimates from FFQs were compared against repeated 24-h recalls and urinary excretion of daidzein, genistein, total isoflavonoids (TIFLs), and equol (measured by HPLC/photodiode array/mass spectrometry) as reference criteria. We calculated Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients (with 95% CIs) for FFQ–24-h recall, 24 h-recall–urinary excretion, and FFQ–urinary excretion pairs. Results Among soy users, mean (± SD) soy protein values were 12.12 ± 10.80 g/d from 24-h recalls and 9.43 ± 7.83 g/d from FFQs. The unattenuated correlation (95% CI) between soy protein estimates from 24-h recalls and FFQs was 0.57 (0.32, 0.75). Correlation coefficients between soy protein intake from 24-h recalls and urinary isoflavonoids were 0.72 (0.43, 0.96) for daidzein, 0.67 (0.43, 0.91) for genistein, and 0.72 (0.47, 0.98) for TIFLs. Between FFQs and urinary excretion, these were 0.50 (0.32, 0.65), 0.48 (0.29, 0.61), and 0.50 (0.32, 0.64) for daidzein, genistein, and TIFLs, respectively. Conclusions Soy protein estimates from questionnaire were significantly correlated with soy protein from 24-h recalls and urinary excretion of daidzein, genistein, and TIFLs. The Adventist Health Study-2 FFQ is a valid instrument for assessing soy protein in a population with a wide range of soy intakes. PMID:18469267

  17. Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption.

    PubMed

    Meharg, A A; Williams, P N; Deacon, C M; Norton, G J; Hossain, M; Louhing, D; Marwa, E; Lawgalwi, Y; Taggart, M; Cascio, C; Haris, P

    2014-11-01

    Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ∼40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed that there was considerable variation (up to 13-fold) for an individual's total arsenic urine content, and that there was a time dependent variation in urinary total arsenic content. This calls into question the robustness of routinely used first pass/spot check urine sampling for arsenic analysis.

  18. Daily Intake of Magnesium and its Relation to Urinary Excretion in Korean Healthy Adults Consuming Self-Selected Diets.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Weaver, Connie M

    2017-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is an essential nutrient as a structural constituent of bone and regulator of >300 enzymes. However, studies on intake and urinary excretion of Mg are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Mg intake and its relation to 24-h urinary excretion in healthy adults. Anthropometric measurements and dietary intake by the 24-h recall method were conducted in 80 adults aged 21-69 (average 44.3) years. Urine was collected for 24 h on the day following the dietary survey. Dietary assessment and 24-h urine collection were repeated 3 days later. Daily intake and urinary excretion of Mg were analyzed using Can-Pro and ICP-OES, respectively. The statistical analysis was conducted using SAS program. Mg intake of the subjects was 319 ± 129 mg/day for men and 277 ± 94 mg/day for women and the proportion of subjects who did not meet the estimated average requirement was 50 and 67.5 % for men and women, respectively. Urinary Mg excretion was 30.3 % of the daily Mg intake. Urinary Mg excretion was not significantly correlated with the daily Mg intake. Korean adults are not meeting the recommended intake of Mg, but its urinary excretion suggests homeostasis is not compromised.

  19. Decrease in Urinary Creatinine Excretion in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tynkevich, Elena; Flamant, Martin; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Metzger, Marie; Thervet, Eric; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Vrtovsnik, François; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Stengel, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. Methods We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) by 51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. Results Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3±3.1 to 12.1±3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20±0.03 to 0.15±0.04 mmol/kg/24 h) in men, with mGFR falling from ≥60 to <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, and from 9.6±1.9 to 7.6±2.5 (0.16±0.03 to 0.12±0.03) in women. In addition to mGFR, an older age, diabetes, and lower levels of body mass index, proteinuria, and protein intake assessed by urinary urea were associated with lower mean urinary creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53±0.12 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28±0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. Conclusions Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass. PMID:25401694

  20. Plasma pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of hexamethylene bisacetamide metabolites.

    PubMed

    Egorin, M J; Zuhowski, E G; Cohen, A S; Geelhaar, L A; Callery, P S; Van Echo, D A

    1987-11-15

    In order to further understand the clinical toxicities of hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) and to allow appropriate in vitro studies, we developed a suitable gas chromatographic assay and quantified plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of four metabolites which we had previously identified in urine of patients receiving 5-day HMBA infusions at 4.8-43.2 g/m2/day. 6-Acetamidohexanoic acid (AcHA) was the major plasma metabolite and reached steady state concentration (Css) by 24 h. AcHA Css increased from 0.12 +/- 0.02 (SD) mM at 4.8 g/m2/day to 0.72 mM at 43.2 g/m2/day. The Css AcHA:Css HMBA ratio decreased with increasing HMBA dosage. At dosages below 24 g/m2/day plasma Css of N-acetyl-1,6-diaminohexane (NADAH), the initial metabolite of HMBA, were below the limit of detection of our assay. With HMBA infusions of 24, 33.6, and 43.2 g/m2/day, Css of NADAH were 0.16 +/- 0.05, 0.14 +/- 0.06, and 0.19 +/- 0.04 mM, respectively. Css NADAH:Css HMBA ratios at 24, 33.6, and 43.2 g/m2/day were 0.18 +/- 0.06, 0.08 +/- 0.02, and 0.31 +/- 0.05, respectively. Plasma Css of 1,6-diaminohexane and 6-aminohexanoic acid were below the limit of detection of our assay. Each patient's urinary excretion of NADAH, AcHA, and 1,6-diaminohexane was consistent from day to day. The fraction of dose excreted in urine as AcHA was not affected by HMBA dosage and accounted for 12.7 +/- 3.9% of the daily dose. The percentage of daily HMBA dose accounted for by excretion of NADAH decreased with increasing HMBA dosage (10.8 +/- 6.0% at 4.8 g/m2/day to 4.2 +/- 1.2% at 33.6 g/m2/day). Urinary excretion of 1,6-diaminohexane always accounted for less than 3% of the daily dose. Our results indicate that: (a) plasma concentrations of AcHA alone cannot explain the degree of acidosis observed with toxic doses of HMBA; (b) NADAH is present in plasma at concentrations that we have found to cause differentiation in vitro; and (c) the probable rate-limiting step in HMBA metabolism is the initial

  1. Relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation, using urinary excretion

    PubMed Central

    Aswania, O A; Corlett, S A; Chrystyn, H

    1999-01-01

    Aims To determine if a urinary excretion method, previously described for salbutamol, could also indicate the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation from a metered dose inhaler. Method Inhaled (INH), inhaled+oral charcoal (INHC), oral (ORAL) and oral+oral charcoal (ORALC) 20 mg doses of sodium cromoglycate were given via a randomised cross-over design to 11 healthy volunteers trained on how to use a metered dose inhaler. Urine samples were collected at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and up to 24 h post dosing and the sodium cromoglycate urinary concentration was measured using a high performance liquid chromatographic method. Results No sodium cromoglycate was detected in the urine up to 24 h following ORALC dosing. A mean (s.d.) of 3.6 (4.3) μg, 10.4 (10.9) μg and 83.7 (71.1) μg of the ORAL dose was excreted, in the urine, during the 0.5, 1.0 and 24 h post dose collection periods, respectively. Following INH dosing, the renal excretion was significantly higher (P < 0.01) with 32.9 (14.5) μg, 61.2 (28.3) μg and 305.6 (82.3) μg excreted, respectively. The SCG excreted at 0.5, 1.0 and 24 h collection periods following INHC dosing were 26.3 (8.4) μg, 49.3 (18.1) μg and 184.9 (98.4) μg, respectively. There was no significant difference between the excretion rate of sodium cromoglycate following INHC when compared with INH dosing in the first 0.5 and 1.0 h. Conclusions The urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate in the first 0.5 h post inhalation can be used to compare the relative lung deposition of two inhaled products or of the same product using different inhalation techniques. This represents the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation. Similar 24 h urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate can be use to compare the total dose delivered to the body from two different inhalation products/inhalation methods. This represents the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the body

  2. Validation of web-based, multiple 24-h recalls combined with nutritional supplement intake questionnaires against nitrogen excretions to determine protein intake in Dutch elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Wardenaar, F C; Steennis, J; Ceelen, I J M; Mensink, M; Witkamp, R; de Vries, J H M

    2015-12-28

    Information on dietary composition is vitally important for elite athletes to optimise their performance and recovery, which requires valid tools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of assessing protein intake using three web-based 24-h recalls and questionnaires, by comparing these with three urinary N excretions on the same day. A total of forty-seven Dutch elite top athletes, both disabled and non-disabled, aged between 18 and 35 years, with a BMI of 17·5-31 kg/m2, exercising >12 h/week were recruited. Estimated mean dietary protein intake was 109·6 (sd 33·0) g/d by recalls and questionnaires v. 141·3 (sd 38·2) g/d based on N excretions in urine; the difference was 25·5 (sd 21·3) % between the methods (P<0·05). We found a reasonably good association between methods for protein intake of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·79). On an individual level, under-reporting was larger with higher protein intakes than with lower intakes. No significant differences were found in reporting absolute differences between subcategories (sex, under-reporting, BMI, collection of recalls within a certain amount of time and using protein supplements or not). In conclusion, combined, multiple, 24-h recalls and questionnaires underestimated protein intake in these young elite athletes more than that reported for non-athlete populations. The method proved to be suitable for ranking athletes according to their protein intake as needed in epidemiological studies. On an individual level, the magnitude of underestimation was about equal for all athletes except for those with very high protein intakes.

  3. Urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid excretion in thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Fessas, Ph.; Koniavitis, A.; Zeis, P. M.

    1969-01-01

    The quantity of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) excreted in the urine of patients with an intact spleen suffering from thalassaemia major appears to be proportional to the number of the circulating normoblasts and inversely proportional to the haemoglobin level. After splenectomy only minute amounts of BAIB are excreted. Transfusion constantly, but temporarily, reduces urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid. Other anaemic but non-thalassaemic patients may excrete low levels. Images PMID:5776546

  4. Urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid excretion in thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Fessas, P; Koniavitis, A; Zeis, P M

    1969-03-01

    The quantity of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) excreted in the urine of patients with an intact spleen suffering from thalassaemia major appears to be proportional to the number of the circulating normoblasts and inversely proportional to the haemoglobin level. After splenectomy only minute amounts of BAIB are excreted. Transfusion constantly, but temporarily, reduces urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid. Other anaemic but non-thalassaemic patients may excrete low levels.

  5. Measurement of urinary copper excretion after 48-h d-penicillamine cessation as a compliance assessment in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dzieżyc, Karolina; Litwin, Tomasz; Chabik, Grzegorz; Członkowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of Wilson's disease (WD) with anti-copper agents is effective in most compliant patients. During long-term treatment with chelating agents, a two-day interruption of the treatment should result in normal urinary copper concentrations (<50 μg/dl). The aim of this study was to establish the usefulness of this method as a compliance assessment in these patients. We examined consecutive patients treated with d-penicillamine (DPA) undergoing routine follow-up studies at our center. We performed 24-h urinary copper excretion analysis 48 h after interruption of chelating therapy. Thirty-two patients were enrolled. After DPA cessation, normalization of copper excretion was observed in 91% of reportedly compliant patients. The specificity and sensitivity values of this test were 87% and 77%, respectively. Measurement of 24-h urinary copper excretion after a 48-h interruption of DPA therapy in patients with WD is a reliable method for confirming patients' compliance.

  6. Parallel assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes: validation against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; De Marees, Markus; Fusch, Gerhard; Fusch, Christoph; Mester, Joachim; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2010-11-01

    The assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes requires accurate and precise methods. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for parallel assessment of diet and exercise against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and respiratory gas exchange. The participants were 14 male triathletes under normal training conditions. Energy intake and doubly labelled water were weakly associated with each other (r = 0.69, standard error of estimate [SEE] = 304 kcal x day(-1)). Protein intake was strongly correlated with 24-h urea (r = 0.89) but showed considerable individual variation (SEE = 0.34 g kg(-1) x day(-1)). Total energy expenditure based on recorded activities was highly correlated with doubly labelled water (r = 0.95, SEE = 195 kcal x day(-1)) but was proportionally biased. During running and cycling, estimated exercise energy expenditure was highly correlated with gas exchange (running: r = 0.89, SEE = 1.6 kcal x min(-1); cycling: r = 0.95, SEE = 1.4 kcal x min(-1)). High exercise energy expenditure was slightly underestimated during running. For nutrition data, variations appear too large for precise measurements in individual athletes, which is a common problem of dietary assessment methods. Despite the high correlations of total energy expenditure and exercise energy expenditure with reference methods, a correction for systematic errors is necessary for the valid estimation of energetic requirements in individual athletes.

  7. The effect of modified citrus pectin on urinary excretion of toxic elements.

    PubMed

    Eliaz, Isaac; Hotchkiss, Arland T; Fishman, Marshall L; Rode, Dorena

    2006-10-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of modified citrus pectin (MCP) on the urinary excretion of toxic elements in healthy individuals. MCP is a reduced molecular weight pectin (weight-average molar mass = 15,400) that is mostly linear homogalacturonan with a 3.8% degree of esterification and approximately 10% rhamnogalacturonan II based on the presence of 2-keto-3-deoxy-octonic acid. Subjects ingested 15 g of MCP (PectaSol, EcoNugenics Inc., Santa Rosa, California 95407) each day for 5 days and 20 g on day 6. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected on day 1 and day 6 for comparison with baseline. The urine samples were analysed for toxic and essential elements. In the first 24 h of MCP administration the urinary excretion of arsenic increased significantly (130%, p < 0.05). On day 6, urinary excretion was increased significantly for cadmium (150%, p < 0.05). In addition, lead showed a dramatic increase in excretion (560%, p < 0.08). This pilot trial provides the first evidence that oral administration of MCP increases significantly the urinary excretion of toxic metals in subjects with a 'normal' body load of metals. It is suggested that systemic chelation of toxic metals by MCP may in part be attributable to the presence of rhamnogalacturonan II, which has been shown previously to chelate metals.

  8. Increasing urinary calcium excretion after ceftriaxone and cephalothin therapy in adults: possible association with urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Otunctemur, Alper; Ozbek, Emin; Polat, Emre Can; Cekmen, Mustafa; Dursun, Murat; Cakir, Suleyman Sami

    2014-04-01

    In children, stone formation after ceftriaxone (CTRX) therapy by increasing calcium excretion was showed in the literature. In this study, we investigated the effect of CTRX, cephalothin (CP) and ampicillin (AS) therapy on urinary calcium excretion in adults. 180 participants included in the study who divided into six equal groups. The groups were; (1) CTRX therapy in stone free patients, (2) CTRX therapy in patients who have urinary stone; (3) CP therapy in stone free patients, (4) CP therapy in patients with urinary stone, (5) AS therapy in stone free patients, (6) AS therapy in patients with urinary stone. The patients received 2 g/day intravenous CTRX, CP and AS for 5 days in all groups respectively. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics and blood biochemistry between the groups. Before and 5 days after the antibiotic therapies, the participants were evaluated by 24-h urinary calcium to creatinine ratio. Results were compared between the groups statistically by ANOVA and Tukey test. After drug therapies in group 2 and 4, the excretion of calcium to creatinine ratio in 24-h urine was more than the other groups. We found that both groups of two drugs therapy with or without stones (groups 1, 2, 3, 4), have significantly increased calcium to creatinine ratio in 24-h urine (p < 0.05). We did not find statistically difference in groups 5 and 6, after AS therapy. As a result of the study, we suggest that the patients who have taken antibiotic therapy with CTRX or CP, have an increased risk for the urolithiasis. In addition, we think that these drugs should be used carefully especially in patients with urolithiasis.

  9. [Microalbuminuria and urinary albumin excretion in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Tagle, Rodrigo; González, Fernando; Acevedo, Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Microalbuminuria is a new tool in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Microalbuminuria is an easily measured biomarker in a urine sample. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in first morning urine sample correlates with 24 hours urinary albumin excretion, but it is easier to obtain, and can identify hypertensive or diabetic patients with high risk for cardiovascular events. Therapeutic interventions such as renin angiotensin system blockade have demonstrated their usefulness in reducing urinary albumin excretion in clinical studies. It would be advisable to incorporate urinary albumin to creatinine ratio to the routine clinical monitoring of patients with cardiovascular risk, such as those with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

  10. Oral intake of ranitidine increases urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2016-06-01

    The H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, is among the most widely used pharmaceuticals to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcers. While previous studies have demonstrated that amines can form N-nitrosamines when exposed to nitrite at stomach-relevant pH, N-nitrosamine formation from ranitidine, an amine-based pharmaceutical, has not been demonstrated under these conditions. In this work, we confirmed the production of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potent carcinogen, by nitrosation of ranitidine under stomach-relevant pH conditions in vitro We also evaluated the urinary NDMA excretion attributable to ingestion of clinically used ranitidine doses. Urine samples collected from five female and five male, healthy adult volunteers over 24-h periods before and after consumption of 150mg ranitidine were analyzed for residual ranitidine, ranitidine metabolites, NDMA, total N-nitrosamines and dimethylamine. Following ranitidine intake, the urinary NDMA excreted over 24h increased 400-folds from 110 to 47 600ng, while total N-nitrosamines increased 5-folds. NDMA excretion rates after ranitidine intake equaled or exceeded those observed previously in patients with schistosomiasis, a disease wherein N-nitrosamines are implicated as the etiological agents for bladder cancer. Due to metabolism within the body, urinary NDMA measurements represent a lower-bound estimate of systemic NDMA exposure. Our results suggest a need to evaluate the risks attributable to NDMA associated with chronic consumption of ranitidine, and to identify alternative treatments that minimize exposure to N-nitrosamines.

  11. Secretion of melatonin and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin urinary excretion in functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Chojnacki, Cezary; Poplawski, Tomasz; Klupinska, Grażyna; Blasiak, Janusz; Chojnacki, Jan; Reiter, Russel J

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate blood concentration of melatonin and urinary excretion of its metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-OHMS), in functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS: Ninety individuals were enrolled in the study: 30 in each study group: patients with postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), epigastric pain syndrome (EPS), and controls. Blood samples were drawn at 02:00 and 09:00 h and 24-h urine collection was performed. Serum melatonin and urinary 6-OHMS concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Serum melatonin concentration at night and in the morning was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in PDS patients [at 02:00 h-93.3 pg/mL, quartile range (QR): 79.8-116.2; at 09.00 h-14.3 pg/mL, QR: 7.06-19.0] than in EPS (57.2 pg/mL, QR: 42.6-73.1; 8.1 pg/mL, QR: 4.1-9.3) and control patients (57.7 pg/mL, QR: 51.2-62.5; 8.1 pg/mL, QR: 5.4-10.3). A similar relationship was observed for urinary 6-OHMS excretion. Patients with severe PDS symptoms had a higher melatonin concentration than these with moderate syndromes, whereas patients with severe EPS had a lower urinary 6-OHMS excretion than patients with moderate symptoms. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of melatonin serum concentrations and 24-h urinary 6-OHMS excretion are useful methods for differential diagnosis of various clinical forms of FD. PMID:21677834

  12. Increased urinary excretion of thioether in new rubber workers

    PubMed Central

    Kilpikari, I; Savolainen, H

    1982-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary excretion of thioether before starting work and in the early work period in a rubber factory was measured in urine samples collected after one, two to four, and five or more months of starting work. The study population consisted of 84 new workers. The urinary excretion of thioether decreased after one month's exposure and increased thereafter up to five months. Measurement of urinary thioethers in groups of new workers is therefore informative of exposure to alkylating agents only after several months from starting work. This effect may be mediated by the induction of the pertinent metabolic pathway. PMID:7138800

  13. Reduction in urinary prostaglandin excretion in the premenstrual syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, A; Modena, F; Calò, L; Cantaro, S; Avogadro, A; Nardo, G; Cerutti, R

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study some factors involved in renal handling of salt and water in the premenstrual syndrome (PMS), in which salt and water retention is frequently observed. In 18 women with PMS and in 18 healthy women we studied the levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, aldosterone, prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2 alpha and kallikrein in urinary samples collected during the luteal phase. There was no difference between the two groups regarding sodium, aldosterone and kallikrein urinary excretion. In the PMS group there was a significant reduction in urinary excretion of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2 alpha with respect to the control group. At multivariate analysis sodium urinary excretion proved not to be the same as the model validated in healthy women. There may be different renal handling of water and electrolytes during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in women with PMS.

  14. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion and dietary intake: a cross-sectional analysis in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Padrão, Patrícia; Pinho, Olívia; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the leading cause for heart disease and stroke, for mortality and morbidity worldwide, and a high sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is considered a stronger risk factor for hypertension than sodium alone. Objective This study aims to evaluate sodium and potassium urinary excretion, and assess the food sources of these nutrients in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Design A cross-sectional study with a sample of 250 Portuguese adolescents. Sodium and potassium excretion were measured by one 24-h urinary collection, and the coefficient of creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. Dietary sources of sodium and potassium were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Results Valid urine collections were provided by 200 adolescents (118 girls) with a median age of 14.0 in both sexes (p=0.295). Regarding sodium, the mean urinary excretion was 3,725 mg/day in boys and 3,062 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 9.8% of boys and 22% of girls met the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for sodium intake. Concerning potassium, the mean urinary excretion was 2,237 mg/day in boys and 1,904 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 6.1% of boys and 1.7% of girls met the WHO recommendations for potassium intake. Major dietary sources for sodium intake were cereal and cereal products (41%), meat products (16%), and milk and milk products (11%); and for potassium intake, main sources were milk and milk products (21%), meat products (17%), and vegetables (15%). Conclusions Adolescents had a high-sodium and low-potassium diet, well above the WHO recommendations. Health promotion interventions are needed in order to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake. PMID:27072344

  15. Urinary excretion of dietary Maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats.

    PubMed

    van Rooijen, C; Bosch, G; Butré, C I; van der Poel, A F B; Wierenga, P A; Alexander, L; Hendriks, W H

    2016-01-01

    During processing of foods, the Maillard reaction occurs, resulting in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRP). Varying amounts of MRP have been found in commercially processed pet foods. Dietary MRP can be absorbed and contribute to the endogenous pool of MRP and possibly the etiology of age-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine urinary excretion of dietary MRP in cats fed commercial moist and dry foods. A pilot study with 10 cats, conducted to determine the adaptation time required for stable urinary excretion of MRP when changing to a diet with contrasting MRP content, showed an adaptation time of 1 d for all components. In the main study, 6 commercially processed dry and 6 moist diets were fed to 12 adult female cats in 2 parallel randomized, 36-d Latin square designs. The 24-h urine was collected quantitatively using modified litter boxes, and fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine (CML), and lysinoalanine (LAL) were analyzed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) - mass spectrometer. Daily urinary excretion of FL and CML showed a positive relationship with daily intake in the dry ( = 0.03 and < 0.01, respectively) and moist ( < 0.01) foods. For LAL, no significant relationship was observed. Urinary recovery (% ingested) showed a negative relationship with daily intake for FL, CML, and LAL in the dry foods ( < 0.01, < 0.01, and = 0.08, respectively) and for CML and LAL in the moist foods ( < 0.01). The observed increase in urinary excretion with increasing dietary intake indicates that dietary MRP were absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of cats and excreted in the urine. The adaptation time with change in diet indicates a likely effective excretion of MRP. Minimum apparent absorption of FL, CML, and LAL was found to range between 8% and 23%, 25% and 73%, and 6% and 19%, respectively. The observed decrease in urinary recovery suggests a limiting factor in digestion, absorption, metabolism

  16. Effect of metoprolol on 24-hour urinary excretion of adrenal steroids and kallikrein in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Fritschka, E.; Gotzen, R.; Kittler, R.; Schöneshöfer, M.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of fifteen patients with essential hypertension over four weeks using the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocking agent, metoprolol, resulted in a decrease in 24 h urinary excretion of kallikrein and aldosterone along with a decrease in plasma renin activity. There was no significant change in 24 h excretion rates of the free adrenal steroids deoxycorticosterone, 18-OH-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, cortisol or 18-OH-corticosterone during treatment, which were not significantly different from excretion rates of normal males, thus excluding inhibitory effects of adrenal steroids on urinary kallikrein activity. A positive correlation was found between plasma renin activity and urinary excretion of kallikrein during the control period and after 2 weeks on metoprolol, supporting the assumption of a preserved link between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the renal excretion of kallikrein in these patients. The decrease in kallikrein excretion during beta 1-adrenoceptor blockade in patients with essential hypertension may be explained by a reduction in sympathetic tone and by reduced activity of the renin-aldosterone system. PMID:6367871

  17. Increased urinary excretion of platelet activating factor in mice with lupus nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Macconi, D.; Noris, M.; Benfenati, E.; Quaglia, R.; Pagliarino, G. ); Remuzzi, G. Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo )

    1991-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) is present in urine from humans and experimental animals in normal conditions. Very little is known about changes in PAF urinary excretion under pathologic conditions and no data are available about the origin of PAF in the urine. In the present study we explored the possibility that immunologic renal disease is associated with an increase in PAF urinary excretion using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. To clarify the renal or extrarenal origin of urinary PAF we evaluated whether exogenously administered PAF (1-(1{prime},2{prime}-{sup 3}H)alkyl) is filtered through the glomerulus and excreted in the urine. The results show that: (1) urine from mice with lupus nephritis in the early phase of the disease contained amounts of PAF comparable to those excreted in normal mouse urine, (2) PAF levels increased when animals started to develop high grade proteinuria, (3) after intravenous injection of ({sup 3}H) PAF In nephritic mice, a negligible amount of ({sup 3}H) ether lipid, corresponding to ({sup 3}H)1-alkyl -2-acyl-3-phosphocholine (alkyl-2-acyl-GPC), was recovered from the 24 h urine extract.

  18. Quantitative studies of human urinary excretion of uropontin.

    PubMed

    Min, W; Shiraga, H; Chalko, C; Goldfarb, S; Krishna, G G; Hoyer, J R

    1998-01-01

    Uropontin is the urinary form of osteopontin, an aspartic acid-rich phosphorylated glycoprotein. Uropontin has been previously shown to be a potent inhibitor of the nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and the binding of these crystals to renal epithelial cells. Quantitative data defining the excretion of this protein are necessary to determine its role in urinary stone formation. In the present studies, we determined uropontin excretion rates of normal humans. Urine samples were obtained under conditions of known dietary intake from young adult human volunteers with no history, radiographic or laboratory evidence of renal disease. Urinary concentrations of uropontin were measured by a sensitive ELISA employing an affinity purified polyclonal antiserum to uropontin. Thirteen normal subjects ingested a constant diet providing 1 gram of calcium, 1 gram of phosphorus, 150 mEq of sodium and 1 gram of protein per kilogram of body wt per day during an eight day study period. The relationship of urinary volume to uropontin excretion was assessed by varying fluid intake on the last four days of the study to change the mean urine volume/24 hr by > 500 ml. Urine collected in six hour aliquots for eight days was analyzed for uropontin by ELISA, and for calcium, and creatinine. Daily uropontin excretion of 13 individual subjects was 3805 +/- 1805 micrograms/24 hr (mean +/- 1 SD). The mean urinary levels (1.9 micrograms/ml) detected in the present study are sufficient for inhibition of crystallization; our previous studies have demonstrated that the nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and their binding to renal cells in vitro are inhibited by this concentration of purified uropontin. In contrast to the regular pattern of diurnal variation of calcium excretion seen in most subjects, uropontin excretion showed no regularity of diurnal variation and was not directly related to either calcium or creatinine excretion or changes in

  19. Habitual dietary phosphorus intake and urinary excretion in chronic kidney disease patients: a 3-day observational study.

    PubMed

    Salomo, L; Kamper, A-L; Poulsen, G M; Poulsen, S K; Astrup, A; Rix, M

    2016-12-14

    Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate the daily dietary phosphorus intake compared with recommendations in CKD patients and to evaluate the reproducibility of the 24-h urinary phosphorus excretion. Twenty CKD patients stage 3-4 from the outpatient clinic, collected 24-h urine and kept dietary records for 3 consecutive days. The mean daily phosphorus intake was 1367±499, 1642±815 and 1426±706 mg/day, respectively (P=0.57). The mean urinary phosphorus excretion was 914±465, 954±414 and 994±479 mg/day, respectively (P=0.21). In this population of CKD patients stage 3-4 the daily phosphorus intake was above the recommended. Twenty-four-hour urinary phosphorus excretion was reproducible and the data indicate that a single 24-h urine collection is sufficient to estimate the individual phosphorus excretion.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 14 December 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.247.

  20. Contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. P.; Goodman, H. O.; Assimos, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate excreted in urine has a significant impact on calcium oxalate supersaturation and stone formation. Dietary oxalate is believed to make only a minor (10 to 20%) contribution to the amount of oxalate excreted in urine, but the validity of the experimental observations that support this conclusion can be questioned. An understanding of the actual contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion is important, as it is potentially modifiable. METHODS: We varied the amount of dietary oxalate consumed by a group of adult individuals using formula diets and controlled, solid-food diets with a known oxalate content, determined by a recently developed analytical procedure. Controlled solid-food diets were consumed containing 10, 50, and 250 mg of oxalate/2500 kcal, as well as formula diets containing 0 and 180 mg oxalate/2500 kcal. Changes in the content of oxalate and other ions were assessed in 24-hour urine collections. RESULTS: Urinary oxalate excretion increased as dietary oxalate intake increased. With oxalate-containing diets, the mean contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion ranged from 24.4 +/- 15.5% on the 10 mg/2500 kcal/day diet to 41.5 +/- 9.1% on the 250 mg/2500 kcal/day diet, much higher than previously estimated. When the calcium content of a diet containing 250 mg of oxalate was reduced from 1002 mg to 391 mg, urinary oxalate excretion increased by a mean of 28.2 +/- 4.8%, and the mean dietary contribution increased to 52.6 +/- 8.6%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that dietary oxalate makes a much greater contribution to urinary oxalate excretion than previously recognized, that dietary calcium influences the bioavailability of ingested oxalate, and that the absorption of dietary oxalate may be an important factor in calcium oxalate stone formation.

  1. Vitamin D repletion does not alter urinary calcium excretion in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Penniston, Kristina L.; Jones, Andrea N.; Nakada, Stephen Y.; Hansen, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate, in a posthoc analysis of a previous study, whether vitamin D repletion in postmenopausal women with insufficient vitamin D increases urinary calcium excretion, as vitamin D therapy might contribute to hypercalciuria and calcium stones in susceptible individuals, and the effect of vitamin D on the risk of urolithiasis warrants attention. Subjects and methods We recruited 18 women at ≥ 5 years after menopause who had vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25(OH)-vitamin D, 16–24 mg/dL). We excluded women with a history of urolithiasis and kidney disease. Women had one calcium absorption study when vitamin D-insufficient, received vitamin D therapy, and completed a second calcium absorption study when vitamin D-replete. We fed subjects meals that mirrored the nutrient composition from self-reported 7-day diet diaries. To measure calcium absorption, we collected urine for 24 h during both visits. Results We achieved vitamin D repletion in all women (25(OH)-vitamin D before and after treatment, 22 and 63 mg/dL, respectively; P < 0.001). The mean calcium intake was 832 mg/day. Residual urine specimens were available for 16 women, allowing a measurement of 24-h urinary calcium. Calcium excretion did not change after vitamin D therapy (212 before vs 195 mg/day after; P = 0.60). Of four women with hypercalciuria (> 247 mg/day), calcium excretion decreased in three (377–312 mg/day, not significant). Conclusion Vitamin D supplementation did not increase the urinary calcium excretion in healthy postmenopausal women. Many stone formers are at risk of premature bone loss, vitamin D insufficiency, or both. Based on the present results we suggest a study of patients with hypercalciuria and nephrolithiasis to determine the risks of vitamin D therapy. PMID:19389005

  2. Urinary potassium excretion and risk of developing hypertension: the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study.

    PubMed

    Kieneker, Lyanne M; Gansevoort, Ron T; Mukamal, Kenneth J; de Boer, Rudolf A; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; Joosten, Michel M

    2014-10-01

    Previous prospective cohort studies on the association between potassium intake and risk of hypertension have almost exclusively relied on self-reported dietary data, whereas repeated 24-hour urine excretions, as estimate of dietary uptake, may provide a more objective and quantitative estimate of this association. Risk of hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or initiation of blood pressure-lowering drugs) was prospectively studied in 5511 normotensive subjects aged 28 to 75 years not using blood pressure-lowering drugs at baseline of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study. Potassium excretion was measured in two 24-hour urine specimens at baseline (1997-1998) and midway during follow-up (2001-2003). Baseline median potassium excretion was 70 mmol/24 h (interquartile range, 57-85 mmol/24 h), which corresponds to a dietary potassium intake of ≈91 mmol/24 h. During a median follow-up of 7.6 years (interquartile range, 5.0-9.3 years), 1172 subjects developed hypertension. The lowest sex-specific tertile of potassium excretion (men: <68 mmol/24 h; women: <58 mmol/24 h) had an increased risk of hypertension after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.37), compared with the upper 2 tertiles (Pnonlinearity=0.008). The proportion of hypertension attributable to low potassium excretion was 6.2% (95% confidence interval, 1.7%-10.9%). No association was found between the sodium to potassium excretion ratio and risk of hypertension after multivariable adjustment. Low urinary potassium excretion was associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension. Dietary strategies to increase potassium intake to the recommended level of 90 mmol/d may have the potential to reduce the incidence of hypertension.

  3. Urinary Albumin Excretion and Vascular Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion is a marker of CV risk. There are only few data on urinary albumin excretion in RA patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate urinary albumin excretion in RA patients and analyze, whether there is an association between urinary albumin excretion and vascular function as measured by the augmentation index (AIx). In a total of 341 participants (215 with RA, 126 without RA) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined and the AIx was measured. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test was used to cluster patient groups whose distributions of ACR can be considered to be equal. A crude analysis showed a median ACR of 6.6 mg/g in the RA group and 5.7 mg/g in patients without RA (P > 0.05). In order to account for diabetes (DM) we formed 4 distinct patient groups. Group 1: RA-/DM- (n = 74); group 2: RA+/DM- (n = 195); group 3: RA-/DM+ (n = 52); group 4: RA+/DM+ (n = 20). Clustering of these groups revealed two distinct patient groups: those without RA and DM, and those with either RA or DM or both. The latter group showed statistically significant higher ACR (median 8.1 mg/g) as the former (median 4.5 mg/g). We found no significant correlation between AIx and ACR. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with RA or DM or both is higher than in subjects without RA and DM. This can be seen as a sign of vascular alteration and increased CV risk in these patients. PMID:26955238

  4. 24h Urinary Protein Levels and Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratios Could Probably Forecast the Pathological Classification of HSPN

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qing; Shang, Shi-qiang; Liu, Ai-min; Zhang, Ting; Shen, Hong-qiang; Chen, Xue-jun; Mao, Jian-hua

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the relevance of laboratory tests in Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) classification, and determine accurate classification factors. This prospective study included 694 HSPN patients who underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB). Renal specimens were scored according to International Study of Kidney Disease in Children (ISKDC) classification. Meanwhile, blood samples were immediately collected for laboratory examination. The associations between laboratory parameters and HSPN classification were assessed. Significant differences in levels of serum Th1/Th2 cytokines, immunoglobulins, T-lymphocyte subsets, complement, and coagulation markers were obtained between HSPN patients and healthy children. Interestingly, 24h urinary protein (24h-UPRO) levels and urine protein/urine creatinine ratios could determine HPSN grade IIb, IIIa, and IIIb incidences, with areas under ROC curve of 0.767 and 0.731, respectively. At 24h-UPRO >580.35mg/L, prediction sensitivity and specificity were 75.2% and 70.0%, respectively. These values became 53.0% and 82.3%, respectively, with 24h-UPRO exceeding 1006.25mg/L. At urine protein/urine creatinine > 0.97, prediction sensitivity and specificity were 65.5% and 67.2%, respectively, values that became 57.4% and 80.0%, respectively, at ratios exceeding 1.2. Cell and humoral immunity, coagulation and fibrinolytic systems are all involved in the pathogenesis of HSPN, and type I hypersensitivity may be the disease trigger of HSPN. 24h-UPRO levels and urine protein/creatinine ratios could probably forecast the pathological classification of HSPN. PMID:25996387

  5. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY ARSENIC ON URINARY ARSENIC METABOLITE EXCRETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influence of Dietary Arsenic on Urinary Arsenic Metabolite Excretion

    Cara L. Carty, M.S., Edward E. Hudgens, B.Sc., Rebecca L. Calderon, Ph.D., M.S.P.H., Richard Kwok, M.S.P.H., Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch/HSD, NHEERL/US EPA; David J. Thomas, Ph.D., Pharmacokinetics...

  6. Lowering urinary oxalate excretion to decrease calcium oxalate stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary modifications should be considered as a first line approach in the treatment of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The amounts of oxalate and calcium consumed in the diet are significant factors in the development of the disease due to their impact on urinary oxalate excretion. There are a number of strategies that can be employed to reduce oxalate excretion. The consumption of oxalate-rich foods should be avoided and calcium intake adjusted to 1000–1200 mg/day. To encourage compliance it should be emphasized to patients that they be vigilant with this diet as a deviation in any meal or snack could potentially result in significant stone growth. The evidence underlying these two modifications is outlined and other strategies to reduce urinary oxalate excretion are reviewed. PMID:26614109

  7. Relative lung and systemic bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate inhaled products using urinary drug excretion post inhalation.

    PubMed

    Aswania, Osama; Chrystyn, Henry

    2002-05-01

    The relative lung and systemic bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate following inhalation by different methods have been determined using a urinary excretion pharmacokinetic method. On three separate randomised study days, 7 days apart, subjects inhaled (i) 4x5 mg from an Intal metered dose inhaler (MDI), (ii) 4x5 mg from an MDI attached to a large volume spacer (MDI+SP) and (iii) 20 mg from an Intal Spinhaler (DPI). Urine samples were provided at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 24 h post dose. The mean (S.D.) amount of sodium cromoglycate excreted in the urine during the first 30 min post inhalation was 38.1 (27.5), 222.3 (120.3) and 133.1 (92.2) microg following MDI, MDI+SP and DPI, respectively. The mean ratio (90% confidence interval) of these amounts excreted in the urine over the first 30 min for MDI+SP vs. MDI, DPI vs. MDI and MDI+SP vs. DPI was 801.0 (358.0, 1244; p<0.002)%, 457.0 (244.0, 670.0; p<0.02)% and 262.4 (110.2, 414.5)%, respectively. Similarly for the 24 h cumulative amount of sodium cromoglycate excreted over the 24 h post inhalation the ratios were 375.4 (232.9, 517.9; p<0.005)%, 287.5 (183.4, 391.6; p<0.02)% and 211.4 (88.3, 334.5)%, respectively. The results highlight better lung deposition of sodium cromoglycate from a metered dose inhaler attached to a large volume spacer.

  8. Urinary Acid Excretion Can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and a dietary countermeasure would be ideal. We present here preliminary data from a study where we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crewmembers (n=5) were asked to consume a prescribed diet with either a low (0.3-0.6) or high (1.0-1.3) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K) before and during space flight for 4-d periods. Diets were controlled for energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium. 24-h urine samples were collected on the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions. 24-h urinary acid excretion, which was predicted by dietary potential renal acid load, was correlated with urinary n-telopeptide (NTX, Pearson R = 0.99 and 0.80 for the high and low APro:K sessions, respectively, p<0.001). The amount of protein when expressed as the percentage of total energy (but not as total grams) was also correlated with urinary NTX (R = 0.66, p<0.01). These results, from healthy individuals in a unique environment, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. The study was funded by the NASA Human Research Program.

  9. Urinary selenium excretion in patients with cervical uterine cancer.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, M; Gaudry, A; Revel, G; Martínez, T; Cabrera, L

    2001-02-01

    In this work, we report on a relationship between urinary selenium and the development of cervical uterine cancer. A simple chemical method was developed to concentrate trace amounts of selenium from relatively large urine samples by use of small activated carbon filters. When these filters are irradiated with thermal neutrons, selenium can be determined either by 77mSe (t1/2 = 17.5 s) or 75Se (t1/2 = 120 d). In this article, we report the results for 82 urine samples from women with cervical uterine cancer in several stages of development and from healthy controls. These results show a statistically significant increase of selenium excretion in cancer patients as compared to controls. Urinary selenium excretion is highest for patients in the intermediate stages of the disease.

  10. Comparative microRNA profiling in relation to urinary albumin excretion in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Parthenakis, F I; Marketou, M E; Kontaraki, J E; Maragoudakis, F; Maragkoudakis, S; Nakou, H; Roufas, K; Patrianakos, A; Chlouverakis, G; Malliaraki, N; Vardas, P E

    2016-11-01

    Microalbuminuria is an established early marker of endothelial dysfunction and damage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as essential modulators of cardiovascular physiology and disease. In the present study, we sought an association between the differential expression of related miRNAs in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of untreated patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension and the levels of urinary albumin excretion. We assessed the expression of the miRNAs miRNA-1, miRNA-133a, miRNA-26b, miRNA-208b, miRNA-499 and miRNA-21 in consecutive subjects with untreated newly diagnosed essential hypertension (aged 62.5±9.7 years) and with no indications of other organic heart disease. MiRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 9.8%. miRNA-208b and miRNA-133a were independently correlated with 24-h urinary albumin excretion. More specifically, a strong association was found between the gene expression levels of miRNA-208b in our patients' peripheral blood cells and urinary albumin (r=0.72, P<0.001). A similar association was found for miRNA-133a (r=0.372, P<0.001). In conclusion, miRNA-208b and miRNA-133a show distinct profiling in peripheral blood cells isolated from untreated patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension. Their gene expression levels reveal a strong correlation with urinary albumin excretion levels. Our findings provide new perspectives on the development of a new generation of biomarkers for the better monitoring of end-organ damage in hypertension.

  11. Fecal and urinary excretion of six iodothyronines in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, J.J. III; Sapin, V.

    1987-11-01

    Fecal and urinary excretion rates of six iodothyronines were assessed in the rat maintained under normal steady state physiological conditions, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of control of normal thyroid hormone economy and metabolism. Groups of young adult male rats were injected with trace doses of T4, T3, rT3, 3,3'-diiodothyronine (T2), 3',5'-T2, or 3'-monoiodothyronine, each labeled with /sup 125/I, and feces and urine were collected separately for up to 10 days. Pooled fecal pellets were homogenized in saline, extracted in ethanol, evaporated under vacuum, and reconstituted in NaOH. Fecal extracts and urine were chromatographed on Sephadex G25 columns under conditions providing quantitative separations of components of interest. A new technique was also developed, based on a model of the in vitro extraction and measurement process, to correct chromatographic results for possible variable recoveries and possible artifactious degradation of radioactively labeled components. No iodothyronines or their conjugates were excreted in urine; all radioactivity was in the form of iodide. In feces, about 30% of the (/sup 125/I)T3 injected was excreted as T3; and 24% of the (/sup 125/I)T4 injected was excreted as T4, plus 4% as T3. Together, these results imply that about 24% of endogenous T4 production is excreted as T4 and 76% is irreversibly metabolized; and for T3, about 30% of endogenous T3 production is excreted as T3 and 70% is degraded. For the nonhormonal iodothyronines, about 6% of injected monoiodothyronine, 3% of injected 3',5'-T2, 2% of injected 3,3'-T2, and less than 1% of injected rT3 were excreted in feces as such, indicating that these substances are nearly completely deiodinated in vivo. Very little (1-7%) iodide was excreted as such in feces, which also were devoid of measurable conjugates.

  12. Urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion in intellectually disabled subjects with sleep disorders and multiple medications: validation of measurements in urine extracted from diapers.

    PubMed

    Laakso, M-L; Lindblom, N; Kaipainen, P; Kaski, M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (MT6s) measurements in the evaluation of melatonin secretion in intellectually disabled patients with sleep disorders. All 17 patients received drugs with potential interactions with melatonin metabolism. Serum melatonin 24-h profiles were determined at hourly intervals. The area under the curve (AUC) value, peak amplitude, half-rise time, and half-decline time were calculated individually. Urinary MT6s excretion was determined from samples collected from disposable diapers during three consecutive days at varying intervals. The average excretion rate for each hour of the day was calculated. The excretion profiles were characterized by total amount of MT6s excretion/24 h/kg body mass, amount of excreted MT6s during 6 h of maximum excretion (MAX 6h), and start time of the maximum excretion (start MAX 6h). There were significant positive correlations between serum melatonin AUC value and total excretion of MT6s/body mass, between serum melatonin amplitude and urinary MAX 6h, and between melatonin half-rise time and start MAX 6h; one patient on phenobarbital medication was out of line. The serum melatonin profiles of the patients were classified by comparing them with those of matched healthy volunteers (low-, normal-, or high secretors, normal or delayed rhythm). Similarly, the parameters of MT6s profiles were compared with those obtained from healthy controls, and the patients were reclassified as normal or aberrant. The classifications based on serum melatonin and urinary MT6s measurements were mostly concordant. The daily pattern of urinary MT6s excretion reliably reflected the phase of the serum melatonin rhythm irrespective of the medications, but in some cases, the total amount of excreted MT6s was lower than expected based on serum melatonin measurements.

  13. The pharmacokinetics, urinary and biliary excretion of pipecuronium bromide.

    PubMed

    Wierda, J M; Szenohradszky, J; De Wit, A P; Zentai, G; Agoston, S; Kakas, M; Kleef, U W; Meijer, D K

    1991-11-01

    The pharmacodynamics and -kinetics of pipecuronium were studied in 12 patients, six of whom received 100 micrograms kg-1 for laryngectomy (Group L), and six who underwent choledochotomy after insertion of the T-drain and were given 50 micrograms kg-1 (Group C). Onset time and clinical duration were 2.3 and 109 min and 2.8 and 39 min in Groups L and C, respectively. All patients could be sufficiently reversed with neostigmine. Terminal half-lives were 101.5 min (Group L) and 179 min (Group C) in a three-exponent decay; the distribution volumes at steady state 0.339 l kg-1 (Group L) and 0.506 l kg-1 (Group C); the plasma clearance 3.4 ml kg-1 min-1 (Group L) and 2.5 ml kg-1 min-1 (Group C). Within 24 h, 38.6% and 37% were excreted unchanged in the urine and 4.4% and 1% as 3-desacetyl pipecuronium in Groups L and C, respectively. Within 24 h only 2% was excreted into the bile in Group C. Distribution volume and terminal half-life in Group C were positively correlated with pre-operative serum aminotransferase levels (P less than 0.005).

  14. Metal element excretion in 24-h urine in patients with Wilson disease under treatment of D-penicillamine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lisu; Yu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yongjun; Jiao, Xianting; Yu, Xiaogang

    2012-05-01

    Wilson disease is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder causing copper accumulation and consequent toxicity. D-Penicillamine, a potent metal chelator, is an important therapy for Wilson disease. To investigate the changes of metal elements under the treatment of D-penicillamine, we determined the levels of Cu, Zn, Mg, Ca, Fe, Se, Mn, Pb, Hg, Cd, As, Tl, and Al by ICP-MS in 24-h urine of 115 Wilson disease patients who had received treatment with D: -penicillamine for 1 month to 22 years at maintenance doses, as well as 115 age-matched, healthy controls. The levels of Cu, Mg, Ca, Zn, Hg, Pb, Tl, Cd, and Mn in the 24-h urine of the cases were significantly higher than those of the controls (P < 0.05), and the observed increases in the levels of Mg, Ca, and Zn were directly correlated with the treatment duration with Pearson Correlation Coefficient (R) of 0.356 (Mg), 0.329 (Ca), and 0.313 (Zn), respectively (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the levels of Al and As in the 24-h urine were lower than those of the controls (P < 0.05) and were negatively correlated with the treatment time with R of -0.337 (Al) and -0.398 (As), respectively, (P < 0.05). Thus, this study indicates that the levels of metal elements may be altered in patients with Wilson disease under the treatment of D-penicillamine.

  15. Magnesium, zinc, arsenic, selenium and platinum urinary excretion from cancer patients of Antofagasta region, Chile: multi-metal approach

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, I; Rivera, L; Ávila, J; Cortés, P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the short-term 24 h urinary excretion of platinum, arsenic, selenium, magnesium and zinc in patients with lung cancer and with cancer other than lungs treated with cisplatin or/and carboplatin from Antofagasta, Chile. Design Urine measurements of Pt and Se were made by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, As by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry and Mg and Zn by means of flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Setting All samples were provided by the Oncological Centre of Antofagasta Regional Hospital (Region of Antofagasta, Chile). Participants Ninety 24-h urine samples from cancer patients after the infusion of Pt-base drugs and 10 24-h urine samples from cancer patients not treated with metal-base drugs. Main outcome measures Concentrations of Pt, Se, As, Zn and Mg coming from 24-h urine samples. Results Pt excreted was not significantly different between patients with lung and other cancers treated with cisplatin. The excretion of Mg, Zn and Se was greater than As. Then, Pt favours the excretion of essential elements. For lung and other types of cancers treated with drugs without Pt, excretion of Mg, Zn and Se was also greater than that of As, suggesting antagonism Mg-Zn-Se–anti-cancer drug relationship. Conclusions The amounts of Mg, Zn and Se excreted were greater than for As either with or without Pt-containing drugs, suggesting antagonist Mg-Zn-Se–anti-cancer drug relationships. The excretion of As, Mg, Zn and Se is induced by Pt. Knowledge obtained can contribute to understanding the arsenic cancer mechanism and the As-Mg-Zn-Se-Pt inter-element association for lung cancer and other types of cancer. PMID:27757244

  16. Urinary calcium excretion in postmenopausal African American women

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, John F.; Shieh, Albert; Mikhail, Mageda; Islam, Shahidul

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to develop a reference range for urine calcium excretion (both 24-hour and fasting) for African American women compared to White women. In addition, the variables that determine urine calcium excretion were identified. Material: Data were analyzed for baseline studies of healthy postmenopausal volunteers who participated in seven separate studies conducted at one site. Methods: Some studies included fasting urine Ca/Cr and others 24-hour urine calcium excretion. 24-hour urine calcium was considered with and without correction for urinary creatinine excretion. Calcium was measured initially by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and more recently by an automated method (ADVIA 2400 Chemistry System). Results: Participants were considered healthy based on history and physical and routine laboratory studies. Those screened who had a history of nephrolithiasis were excluded. A reference range for 24-hour urine calcium and fasting urine calcium/creatinine was developed. Reference intervals of 11 – 197 mg/24-hour urine calcium excretion and of 0.007 – 0.222 of fasting Ca/Cr were found for African American women compared to 21 – 221 mg/24 hours and 0.019 – 0.264 in White women, respectively. Urine creatinine excretion was higher in African Americans consistent with their higher muscle mass. Conclusion: Urine calcium excretion is lower in postmenopausal African American than White women. The reference range developed should be considered in the diagnosis of hypocalciuric states and may also be useful in the diagnosis of hypercalciuria. PMID:26226948

  17. Urinary excretion of 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid in dystimic/depressed, adult obese women: what correlations to hepatic steatosis?

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Savastano, S; Colao, A; Polichetti, G; Capone, D

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of serotonin at CNS level is influenced by diet. Moreover, insulin resistance is associated with lower serotonin levels. Visceral obesity, strictly linked to hepatic steatosis is specifically associated with mild to severe somatic affective-depressive symptom clusters. Previous data support the view that depression involves serotonergic systems, reflecting low levels of urinary 5- hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The 24-h urinary excretion of 5-HIAA was evaluated in 76 dystimic/depressed, obese/overweight females, divided into two groups, i.e., on a hyper-caloric diet, associated with a life style characterized by leisure time sedentary behavior (LTSB, 35 women), or on a normo-caloric diet, assisted by program-based strategies aimed at promoting physical activity participation (PAP, 41 women). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was carried out to score the severity of dystimia/depression. Anthropometric measures, metabolic indices, severity of hepatic steatosis at sonography and HOMA were studied. Urinary levels of 5-HIAA in controls and PAP groups were comparable with a great overlap, while in the LTSB group the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA was significantly reduced in respect to that of the PAP group and obviously compared to that of the control group, 3.4±1.4 mg/L versus 6.2±2.7 mg/L and 6.4±2.6 mg/L, respectively, ANOVA test, P= 0.001. Among metabolic indices, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid were not able to predict urinary concentrations of 5-HIAA, which were not associated with hepatic steatosis; vice versa, ferritin levels, and mainly HOMA values, were independent predictors of the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA (β=0.235 and 0.45, respectively). Dystimia/depression severity was negatively predicted by urinary 5-HIAA levels in the sense that the highest BDI values were forecast by the lowest values of urinary 5-HIAA (β= -0.72).The importance of measuring the 24-h urinary excretion of 5-HIAA in follow-ups could rely

  18. Observation of changes in urinary excretion of thorium in humans following ingestion of a therapeutic soil.

    PubMed

    Höllriegl, V; Greiter, M; Giussani, A; Gerstmann, U; Michalke, B; Roth, P; Oeh, U

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the changes in urinary thorium excretion by humans following ingestion of a therapeutic soil, which contains about 10 ppm of thorium. This well-known healing earth in Germany has been considered as an alternative medicine for diarrhoea and gastric hyper-acidity. Six adult volunteers ingested this therapeutic soil in varying quantities for 1-15 days at levels approximating those described in the package insert of the medicine (10-60 g of soil per day). The subjects ingested about 0.1-0.6 mg of thorium daily, which is 100-600 times higher than the normal daily intake of about 1 microg thorium in Germany. All 24-h urine samples collected from the subjects during pre-ingestion, ingestion and post-ingestion periods of the soil were analyzed for (232)Th using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The measured excretion values varied in a wide range. Apparently, the high thorium amounts administered did not increase the (232)Th excretion in urine as expected, suggesting that this soil ingestion will not result in a considerably higher and harmful uptake of thorium into the human body.

  19. Urinary excretion of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin in hypertensive and normotensive renal transplant recipients during urinary diluting and concentrating tests.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, B; Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Kornerup, H J; Knudsen, F; Mogensen, C E; Nielsen, A H

    1986-11-01

    Urinary excretion of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin was measured in nine hypertensive and nine normotensive renal transplant recipients and 10 healthy control subjects before and after an oral water load of 20 ml (kg body weight)-1 (study 1) and in eight hypertensive and 11 normotensive renal transplant recipients and 11 healthy control subjects during 24-h water deprivation (study 2). In both studies 1 and 2 urinary albumin excretion was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients that in the normotensive patients and the control subjects (levels before loading; hypertensives: 23.9 micrograms/min (median), range 7.5-58.7; normotensives: 3.4 micrograms/min, range 1.0-49.3; controls: 2.9 micrograms/min, range 1.3-10.3). Urinary albumin excretion was significantly positive correlated to both systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure (for mean blood pressure: rho = 0.625, n = 18, p less than 0.01) in transplanted patients. Albumin excretion tended to increase after water loading and to decrease during water deprivation in all groups. Beta-2-microglobulin excretion was approximately the same in all groups in both studies 1 and 2 and was not correlated to blood pressure. During a follow-up period of at least 18 months, none of the renal transplant recipients developed signs of chronic graft failure. Increased urinary albumin excretion in hypertensive renal transplant recipients thus appears to be caused by increased glomerular permeability that may be due to glomerular damage induced by arterial hypertension corresponding to the findings in essential hypertension.

  20. Intake and urinary excretion of sodium chloride under varying conditions of effort and environment heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, E.; Adar, R.; Tennenbaum, J.; Kesten, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intake and urinary excretion of sodium were investigated in a group of young, healthy and acclimated men. The sodium excretions of workers and of machinists in the engine rooms of a ship were also investigated.

  1. Urinary excretion of N-nitroso compounds in rats fed sodium nitrite and/or hot dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Anwar, Muhammad M; Zahid, Muhammad; Shostrom, Valerie; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2014-10-20

    Nitrite-treated meat is a reported risk factor for colon cancer. Mice that ingested sodium nitrite (NaNO2) or hot dogs (a nitrite-treated product) showed increased fecal excretion of apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC). Here, we investigated for the first time whether rats excrete increased amounts of ANC in their urine after they are fed NaNO2 and/or hot dogs. Rats were treated for 7 days with NaNO2 in drinking water or were fed hot dogs. Their 24 h urine samples were analyzed for ANC by thermal energy analysis on days 1-4 after nitrite or hot dog treatment was stopped. For two rats fed 480 mg NaNO2/L drinking water, mean urinary ANC excretion on days 1-4 was 30, 5.2, 2.5, and 0.8 nmol/day, respectively. For two to eight rats/dose given varied NaNO2 doses, mean urinary ANC output on day 1 increased from 0.9 (for no nitrite) to 37 (for 1000 mg NaNO2/L drinking water) nmol ANC/day. Urine samples of four rats fed 40-60% hot dogs contained 12-13 nmol ANC on day 1. Linear regression analysis showed highly significant correlations between urinary ANC excretion on day 1 after stopping treatment and varied (a) NaNO2 level in drinking water for rats fed semipurified or commercials diet and (b) hot dog levels in the diet. Some correlations remained significant up to 4 days after nitrite treatment was stopped. Urinary output of ANC precursors (compounds that yield ANC after mild nitrosation) for rats fed semipurified or commercial diet was 11-17 or 23-48 μmol/day, respectively. Nitrosothiols and iron nitrosyls were not detected in urinary ANC and ANCP. Excretion of urinary ANC was about 60% of fecal ANC excretion for 1 to 2 days after NaNO2 was fed. Administered NaNO2 was not excreted unchanged in rat urine. We conclude that urinary ANC excretion in humans could usefully be surveyed to indicate exposure to N-nitroso compounds.

  2. Arsenic drinking water exposure and urinary excretion among adults in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Meza, Maria Mercedes; Kopplin, Michael J; Burgess, Jefferey L; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine arsenic exposure via drinking water and to characterize urinary arsenic excretion among adults in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2001 to May 2002. Study subjects were from the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico, residents of four towns with different arsenic concentrations in their drinking water. Arsenic exposure was estimated through water intake over 24 h. Arsenic excretion was assessed in the first morning void urine. Total arsenic concentrations and their species arsenate (As V), arsenite (As III), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), and dimethyl arsenic (DMA) were determined by HPLC/ICP-MS. The town of Esperanza with the highest arsenic concentration in water had the highest daily mean intake of arsenic through drinking water, the mean value was 65.5 microg/day. Positive correlation between total arsenic intake by drinking water/day and the total arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.001) was found. Arsenic excreted in urine ranged from 18.9 to 93.8 microg/L. The people from Esperanza had the highest geometric mean value of arsenic in urine, 65.1 microg/L, and it was statistically significantly different from those of the other towns (P < 0.005). DMA was the major arsenic species in urine (47.7-67.1%), followed by inorganic arsenic (16.4-25.4%), and MMA (7.5-15%). In comparison with other reports the DMA and MMA distribution was low, 47.7-55.6% and 7.5-9.7%, respectively, in the urine from the Yaqui Valley population (except the town of Cocorit). The difference in the proportion of urinary arsenic metabolites in those towns may be due to genetic polymorphisms in the As methylating enzymes of these populations.

  3. Biological monitoring of hospital pharmacy personnel occupationally exposed to cytostatic drugs: urinary excretion and cytogenetics studies.

    PubMed

    Ensslin, A S; Huber, R; Pethran, A; Römmelt, H; Schierl, R; Kulka, U; Fruhmann, G

    1997-01-01

    For evaluation of the risk borne by hospital pharmacy personnel exposed to antineoplastic agents, the incorporation of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and platinum-containing drugs was quantified by the determination of urinary concentrations. In addition, the induction of micronuclei (MN) and sister-chromatid-exchange (SCE) rates in peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied for correlation with the urinary excretion of cytostatic drugs. Cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide were determined in 24-h urine samples using gas chromatography with electron capture (detection limit 2.5 micrograms/l). Voltammetric analysis enabled the determination of platinum concentrations of 4 ng/l. Heparinized blood (20 ml) was drawn and lymphocytes were cultured for MN and SCE studies. In all, 13 hospital pharmacists and pharmacy technicians regularly involved in the preparation of cytostatic drugs participated in this investigation (7 persons represent a follow-up group). All subjects applied standard safety precautions, including the use of a vertical laminar air-flow hood, protective gowns, and latex gloves. On the day of urine sampling an average of 4,870 mg cyclophosphamide, 5,580 mg ifosfamide, and 504 mg platinum-containing drugs were handled. The excretion of 5 and 9 micrograms cyclophosphamide/l urine was measured in two samples, respectively. An elevated level of urinary platinum was found in one pharmacist (22.3 ng/g creatinine) in comparison with a nonexposed control group. Mean frequencies of MN and SCE did not differ significantly between the drug exposed group and control group. The employees who had incorporated chemotherapeutic agents were part of the follow-up group and, thus, particularly cautious and sensitive to a possible hazard. The results emphasize the necessity of improving personal protection of hospital pharmacy personnel occupationally exposed to cytostatic drugs and support the importance of biological monitoring. In an ongoing project in our department the

  4. Urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion in man: the role of protein-bound and soluble 3-methylhistidine.

    PubMed

    Huszar, G; Golenwsky, G; Maiocco, J; Davis, E

    1983-05-01

    The influence of dietary meat and meat stock intake on urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine (3MH) was examined in human adults. In the absence of 3MH ingestion for 48 h, the study subjects adjusted to an intrinsic urinary 3MH: creatinine value. If the meat and meat stock-free diet was maintained on subsequent days, only minute diurnal variations occurred, and the values of random urine samples during the day were representative of the 24 h 3MH: creatinine value. The mean 3MH: creatinine value (SD) for a group of adults (n 7) was 0.105 +/- 0.023 (mumol of 3MH/mg creatinine), which is approximately 35% lower than the corresponding value in healthy growing infants (0.148 +/- 0.039) (Seashore et al. 1981). Ingestion of meat soup and meat causes different patterns of urinary excretion of 3MH which are consistent with the finding that meat extracts, such as soup and stock, contain considerable amounts of 3MH. The 3MH contents of beef, chicken and turkey were 3.8 +/- 0.15, 3.0 +/- 0.09 and 2.3 +/- 0.29 mumol/g dry wt meat respectively. All three meats contained a water-soluble 3MH-fraction (% total 3MH: beef 8, chicken 21, turkey 23). Amino acid analysis of the soluble fraction with or without hydrochloric acid hydrolysis demonstrated free 3MH in chicken and turkey (5.2 and 2.8% of the total respectively) but not in beef. Patients undergoing urinary 3MH measurements should maintain a diet that is free not only of solid meats, but also of meat stock. The ingestion of commercial food products (e.g. frozen or canned meals, sauces, pizza, etc.) may impair the validity of such measurements because of their meat-stock content. A dietary regimen is presented which is based on a shorter 12 h urine collection. The shorter collection time is satisfactory in the light of the steady rate of 3MH-excretion after 2 d of a diet free of meat and meat stock.

  5. Elevated urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid and exposure to inorganic lead.

    PubMed

    Farkas, W R; Fischbein, A; Solomon, S; Buschman, F; Borek, E; Sharma, O K

    1987-01-01

    beta-Aminoisobutyric acid (beta-AIB), a normal degradation product of thymine, a constituent of DNA and, to a lesser extent, of transfer RNA, is excreted in low levels in human urine. We found that a group of iron workers occupationally exposed to inorganic lead excreted high levels of urinary beta-AIB. Elevated urinary excretion of beta-AIB was also observed in marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, that received lead acetate in drinking water. Our results suggest that increased urinary excretion of beta-AIB could stem from damage to DNA on exposure to lead.

  6. Predicting urinary creatinine excretion and its usefulness to identify incomplete 24 h urine collections.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Huybrechts, Inge; Dekkers, Arnold L M; Geelen, Anouk; Crispim, Sandra; Hulshof, Paul J M; Andersen, Lene F; Řehůřková, Irena; Ruprich, Jiří; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Van Maele, Georges; Slimani, Nadia; van't Veer, Pieter; de Boer, Evelien; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-09-28

    Studies using 24 h urine collections need to incorporate ways to validate the completeness of the urine samples. Models to predict urinary creatinine excretion (UCE) have been developed for this purpose; however, information on their usefulness to identify incomplete urine collections is limited. We aimed to develop a model for predicting UCE and to assess the performance of a creatinine index using para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as a reference. Data were taken from the European Food Consumption Validation study comprising two non-consecutive 24 h urine collections from 600 subjects in five European countries. Data from one collection were used to build a multiple linear regression model to predict UCE, and data from the other collection were used for performance testing of a creatinine index-based strategy to identify incomplete collections. Multiple linear regression (n 458) of UCE showed a significant positive association for body weight (β = 0·07), the interaction term sex × weight (β = 0·09, reference women) and protein intake (β = 0·02). A significant negative association was found for age (β = -0·09) and sex (β = -3·14, reference women). An index of observed-to-predicted creatinine resulted in a sensitivity to identify incomplete collections of 0·06 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·20) and 0·11 (95 % CI 0·03, 0·22) in men and women, respectively. Specificity was 0·97 (95 % CI 0·97, 0·98) in men and 0·98 (95 % CI 0·98, 0·99) in women. The present study shows that UCE can be predicted from weight, age and sex. However, the results revealed that a creatinine index based on these predictions is not sufficiently sensitive to exclude incomplete 24 h urine collections.

  7. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Růzicka, M; Stríbrná, J; Englis, M; Lánská, V; Skibová, J; Peregrin, J

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of albumin (UEalb), IgG and beta-2 microglobulin was investigated at a 3 hour-interval in a control group (C) of healthy subjects, in 30 patients with renovascular hypertension (RVH), and in 16 patients with essential hypertension (EH). Mean UEalb in RVH was significantly higher than in C. A significant direct correlation was demonstrated between diastolic blood pressure and UEalb (p < 0.01). Microalbuminuria (MA) > or = 30 micrograms.min-1 was found in about 18% of RVH patients; it was higher than 16.7 micrograms.min-1 in approx. 31%. These results did not substantially differ from those obtained in patients with EH. The cause for increased UEalb in hypertensive patients may be functional, haemodynamic changes, or structural ones. In either case, MA indicates renal injury, and these patients should be given increased attention when monitoring their blood pressure and when selecting antihypertensive drugs.

  8. Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Sayaka; Suzuki, Yayoi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women. Frequent detection of parabens and their metabolite indicated that exposure takes place daily for pregnant Japanese women. The estrogenic potency of PP was 20 times higher than those of the other 3 parabens for the present subjects when both abundance in the urine and the relative estrogenic activity of each compound was considered. Detection of free parabens suggested dermal exposure, probably from their inclusion in personal care products. No statistical association was found between the anogenital index (birth weight-adjusted AGD) of male offspring and the concentrations of any parabens in the urine of the mothers suggesting that the parabens were not apparently estrogenically active at the exposure level of the present subjects.

  9. Urinary potassium excretion and sodium sensitivity in blacks.

    PubMed

    Aviv, Abraham; Hollenberg, Norman K; Weder, Alan

    2004-04-01

    Based on racial differences in urinary potassium excretion and responses to diuretics, we present a model suggesting that a major cause of sodium sensitivity in blacks is an augmented activity of the Na-K-2Cl cotransport in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. This would result in an increased ability to conserve not only sodium but also water, and an upward and rightward shift in the operating point of tubuloglomerular feedback, which may cause an increase in the glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure and predilection to glomerular injury with and without hypertension. In this sense, the biological implication of sodium sensitivity in blacks and in humans in general has ramifications above and beyond salt-evoked increase in blood pressure.

  10. Effect of chloroquine on the urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Ilo, Cajetan E; Ezejiofor, Ndidi A; Agbakoba, Nneka; Brown, Sinye A; Maduagwuna, Chinonye A; Agbasi, Patrick U; Orisakwe, Orish E; Orisakweph, Orish E

    2008-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is an inexpensive antibacterial, whereas chloroquine is an inexpensive antimalarial. The coadministration of chloroquine and ciprofloxacin is easily encountered because both drugs are commonly prescribed to patients in the tropics. Five healthy male volunteers aged 19 to 31 years who were not taking any of the prescribed medications and who had no sensitivity to either ciprofloxacin or chloroquine each received 500 mg ciprofloxacin orally with 250 mL of water, and after a 2-week washout period, 500 mg ciprofloxacin plus 600 mg chloroquine was administered orally with 250 mL of water after providing informed consent. A urine sample (7 mL) was collected just before taking the drug at 8:00 AM representing 0 hour and continued afterward at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours the next day. The samples were stored at -20 degrees C until analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentrations by diffusion through agar technique were used for the assay of urine ciprofloxacin. The rate of ciprofloxacin excretion and cumulative urine ciprofloxacin were significantly increased. The coadministration of chloroquine increased the cumulative urinary concentration and excretion rate of ciprofloxacin.

  11. Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Nicolli, Annamaria; Chiara, Federica; Gambalunga, Alberto; Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Trevisan, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The urinary excretion rate is calculated based on short-term, defined time sample collections with a known sample mass, and this measurement can be used to remove the variability in urine concentrations due to urine dilution. Adjustment to the urinary excretion rate of hippuric acid was evaluated in 31 healthy volunteers (14 males and 17 females). Urine was collected as short-term or spot samples and tested for specific gravity, creatinine and hippuric acid. Hippuric acid values were unadjusted or adjusted to measurements of specific gravity, creatinine or urinary excretion rate. Hippuric acid levels were partially independent of urinary volume and urinary flow rate, in contrast to specific gravity and creatinine, which were both highly dependent on the hippuric acid level. Accordingly, hippuric acid was independent on urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion. Unadjusted and adjusted values for specific gravity or creatinine were generally closely correlated, especially in spot samples. Values adjusted to the urinary excretion rate appeared well correlated to those unadjusted and adjusted to specific gravity or creatinine values. Thus, adjustment of crude hippuric acid values to the urinary excretion rate is a valid procedure but is difficult to apply in the field of occupational medicine and does not improve the information derived from values determined in spot urine samples, either unadjusted or adjusted to specific gravity and creatinine. PMID:25019265

  12. High urinary calcium excretion and genetic susceptibility to hypertension and kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Mente, Andrew; Honey, R John D' A; McLaughlin, John M; Bull, Shelley B; Logan, Alexander G

    2006-09-01

    Increased urinary calcium excretion commonly is found in patients with hypertension and kidney stone disease (KSD). This study investigated the aggregation of hypertension and KSD in families of patients with KSD and hypercalciuria and explored whether obesity, excessive weight gain, and diabetes, commonly related conditions, also aggregate in these families. Consecutive patients with KSD, aged 18 to 50 yr, were recruited from a population-based Kidney Stone Center, and a 24-h urine sample was collected. The first-degree relatives of eligible patients (n = 333) and their spouse were interviewed by telephone to collect demographic and health information. Familial aggregation was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (OR) revealed significant associations between hypercalciuria in patients and hypertension (OR 2.9; 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 6.2) and KSD (OR 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 3.5) in first-degree relatives, specifically in siblings. No significant associations were found in parents or spouses or in patients with hyperuricosuria. Similarly, no aggregation with other conditions was observed. In an independent study of siblings of hypercalciuric patients with KSD, the adjusted mean fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was significantly higher in the hypertensive siblings compared with normotensive siblings (0.60 +/- 0.32 versus 0.46 +/- 0.28 mmol/mmol; P < 0.05), and both sibling groups had significantly higher values than the unselected study participants (P < 0.001). Urinary sodium/creatinine and uric acid/creatinine ratios were not different among the groups. Although an environmental effect cannot be excluded fully, our findings suggest that the disturbance in calcium metabolism in hypertension and KSD has a genetic basis.

  13. Anthropometrics provide a better estimate of urinary organic acid anion excretion than a dietary mineral intake-based estimate in children, adolescents, and young adults.

    PubMed

    Berkemeyer, Shoma; Remer, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    The role of elevated net endogenous acid production (NEAP) in the causation of osteoporosis, muscle wasting, and kidney stones is currently under discussion. The aim of this study was to examine whether urinary organic acid anion excretion, a major component of NEAP, is predicted primarily by anthropometric- (OA(anthro)) or diet- (OA(diet)) based estimates. Dietary intakes, anthropometric data, and 24-h urinary excretion rates of organic acids (24h-OA(urine)) were determined cross sectionally in healthy children (6-7 y; n = 217), adolescents (13-14 y; n = 91), and young adults (18-22 y; n = 82). OA(anthro) was computed from body surface area and OA(diet) calculated using a published algorithm based on dietary intakes of mineral anions and cations. There was a significant increase (P < 0.0001) in 24h-OA(urine) across the age groups that was no longer discernible after correction for body surface area. In almost all sex-stratified subsamples, OA(anthro) had a higher correlation with 24h-OA(urine) than OA(diet). Multiple regression analyses, using energy-corrected diet variables, revealed that OA(anthro) was consistently the primary predictor of 24h-OA(urine) (R(2) varying from 0.15 to 0.39) and dietary fat and protein were sporadic predictors. In accordance with the observed age independency of 24h-OA(urine) after body surface area correction, our findings indicate that OA(anthro) is a better estimate of 24h-OA(urine) in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults than OA(diet). This further confirms that the (principally diet-dependent) NEAP comprises a component, i.e., organic acid anions, that is reasonably predictable by anthropometrics. Consequently, the other component, i.e., the potential renal acid load, appears to be the primary parameter that characterizes the diet-induced acid load.

  14. High sodium intake increases the urinary excretion of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine but fails to alter the urinary excretion of dopamine and amine metabolites in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Coelho, M A; Pestana, M; Soares-da-Silva, P

    1996-12-01

    1. The present study has examined the daily urinary excretion of L-DOPA, dopamine and its metabolites (DOPAC, 3-MT and HVA) during normal salt (NS) and high salt(HS) diets. 2. Daily urinary excretion of L-DOPA, DA, DOPAC, 3-MT and HVA during the 4-day period of NS diet averaged, respectively, 7.6 +/- 0.4, 71 +/- 5, 217 +/- 22, 570 +/- 90 and 1217 +/- 110 nmol/kg/day. The slight increase in the urinary excretion of DA, DOPAC and 3-MT (16% to 42% increase), when rats were fed a HS diet, did not achieve statistical significance. 3. In contrast, the urinary levels of L-DOPA during the HS diet period (11 +/- 1 nmol/kg/day) were found to be significantly higher than during the NS diet period; the maximal increase in the urinary excretion of L-DOPA (93% increase) was observed in the first day and then a progressive decline was observed towards the end of the HS intake period. 4. During the first 5 days of the HS intake period, the urine output of noradrenaline (NA) was found to increase (27% to 83%) and then to progressively decline to baseline values (13.5 +/- 0.7 nmol/ kg/day). Urinary excretion of adrenaline (AD) during the HS intake period was found to increase (72% to 146%); the mean daily urinary excretion of AD during the NS diet period averaged 2.5 +/- 0.4 nmol/ kg/day. NS and DA contents in the kidney of rats on a NS diet were not significantly different from that of rats in a HS diet. 6. It is concluded that long-term HS intake in Wistar rats fail to change the urinary excretion of DA and of its metabolites (DOPAC, 3-MT and HVA). Furthermore, the discrepant profile in the urinary excretion of L-DOPA and DA during HS intake might be related to a reduction in the tubular uptake of the amino acid, rather than reflecting a decrease in its decarboxylation.

  15. Nitrogen dioxide exposure and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline and desmosine

    SciTech Connect

    Adgate, J.L.; Reid, H.F.; Morris, R.; Helms, R.W.; Berg, R.A.; Hu, P.C.; Cheng, P.W.; Wang, O.L.; Muelenaer, P.A.; Collier, A.M. )

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between average and peak personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline and desmosine was investigated in a population of preschool children and their mothers. Weekly average personal nitrogen dioxide exposures for subjects who resided in homes with one or more potential nitrogen dioxide source (e.g., a kerosene space heater, gas stove, or tobacco smoke) ranged between 16.3 and 50.6 ppb (30.6 and 95.1 micrograms/m3) for children and between 16.9 and 44.1 ppb (12.8 and 82.9 micrograms/m3) for mothers. In these individuals, the hydroxyproline-to-creatinine and desmosine-to-creatinine ratios were unrelated to personal nitrogen dioxide exposure--even though continuous monitoring documented home nitrogen dioxide concentration peaks of 100-475 ppb lasting up to 100 h in duration. Significantly higher hydroxyproline-to-creatinine and desmosine-to-creatinine ratios were observed in children, compared with mothers (p < .001 and .003, respectively).

  16. Persistence of urinary excretion products of benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Uziel, M.; Haglund, R.; White, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Persistence of DNA-adducts has been observed in a variety of experimental circumstances and has been suggested as one potential mechanism for explaining the long-term delay before expression of proliferative disease. In this concept, a stable DNA-adduct, which is a remnant of a prior exposure in a nondividing cell, would not express the genotoxic effect until the cells were stimulated to divide, and thus explain the long-term delay in expression of cancer. An alternative view of the observation of persistent DNA-adducts, described in this communication, is the continuing replenishment of DNA adducts by formation and turnover of these adducts from exposure to a constant supply of the ultimate carcinogenic species derived from a prior exposure. It is of interest to note that virtually all experiments where ''persistent'' adducts have been observed have been high dose exposures. During the course of experiments designed to develop improved methods for detection of DNA adducts and related derivatives derived from polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), we observed that there was a continuous excretion of urinary derivatives of the injected benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) beyond the initial burst of detoxification. This report describes the time dependent distribution of those derivatives in blood, urine, feces, and at the site of injection. 11 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Measurement of urinary mercury excretion by atomic absorption in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew; Marks, Vincent

    1973-01-01

    Taylor, A., and Marks, V. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 293-296. Measurement of urinary excretion by atomic absorption in health and disease. Excretion of mercury was measured by a cold-vapour atomic absorption technique on samples of urine from five groups of people having varying exposure to mercury. Serial investigations of up to 14 days were carried out on eight subjects to determine the temporal relationship between exposure and excretion. Subjects with no exposure excreted 0-10 μg mercury per gramme creatinine. Similar values were found in laboratory staff and men assembling hollow cathode lamps. Excretion of mercury by dental workers was significantly increased. No correlation between exposure and excretion of mercury was seen in the subjects investigated. The significance of measuring urinary excretion in the detection of mercury intoxication is discussed. The suggestion is made that urinary mercury excretion of more than 20 μg/g creatinine or 40 μg mercury per 24 hours should be considered evidence of recent or remote exposure to mercury. It is concluded that measurement of urinary mercury excretion is important in revealing those persons who may ultimately develop symptoms of toxicity. PMID:4723792

  18. Effect of demographics on excretion of key urinary factors related to kidney stone risk

    PubMed Central

    Perinpam, Majuran; Ware, Erin B.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Lieske, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of demographics including age and sex on excretion of four key urinary factors (calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), oxalate (Ox) and uric acid (UA)) related to kidney stone risk. Methods Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected from non-Hispanic white sibships in Rochester, MN. Height, weight, blood pressure, serum creatinine and cystatin C (CC) were measured. Diet was assessed using the Viocare food frequency questionnaire. Effects of demographics and dietary elements on urinary excretions were evaluated in univariate, multivariate, and interaction models that included age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Results Samples were available from 709 individuals. In multivariate models, sex was a significant predictor of all four urinary factors, age was significant for all but UA excretion, and serum creatinine was significant only for Ca and Mg excretion (p<0.05). BMI or weight positively correlated with Mg, Ox and UA excretion (p<0.05). Use of a thiazide diuretic (lower) and dietary protein (higher) were associated with Ca excretion, while dietary Ca was associated with higher Mg excretion. Urinary UA excretion increased with animal protein intake and CC estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and was lower with concurrent loop diuretic use. Significant interaction effects on urinary UA excretion were observed for loop diuretic use and sex, eGFR and sex, age and animal protein intake, and BMI and eGFR (p<0.05). Conclusions Age and sex influence excretion of key urinary factors related to kidney stone risk, and should be taken into account when evaluating kidney stone patients. PMID:26206452

  19. Urinary excretion of orally administered oxalic acid in saccharin and o-phenylphenol-fed NMRI mice.

    PubMed

    Salminen, E; Salminen, S

    1986-01-01

    Both saccharin and o-phenylphenol have been suggested to be carcinogenic to the urinary bladder in experimental animals, but the mechanism has remained unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary saccharin and o-phenylphenol on the urinary excretion of dietary oxalic acid. Male NMRI mice were gradually adapted to either 3% o-phenylphenol or 5% saccharin in their diet. Having being adapted to these diets for 1 week or after consuming them for 3 months, the animals were fasted for 6 h and given a 2.5-microCi oral dose of U-14C-oxalic acid. Dosed animals were kept in metabolism cages for 48 h to monitor urinary and fecal excretion of the label. Adaptation to dietary o-phenylphenol appeared to increase the urinary excretion of orally administered U-14C-oxalic acid when food and water were available during urinary and fecal collections. Adaptation to dietary saccharin had little effect on urinary oxalate levels when compared to control animals. These results indicate that changes in urinary oxalate levels should be more carefully studied in connection with potential urinary bladder carcinogens to avoid the possibility of bladder irritation by increased urinary oxalate excretion.

  20. The urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline during rheumatoid arthritis therapy with infliximab.

    PubMed

    Ostanek, Lidia; Pawlik, Andrzej; Brzosko, Iwona; Brzosko, Marek; Sterna, Rozalia; Droździk, Marek; Gawrońska-Szklarz, Barbara

    2004-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disease that causes inflammation and joint destruction. As a result of pathological destruction in bone and cartilage, crosslinks in collagen are resorbed more rapidly. This causes a rise in circulating collagen crosslink levels and their urinary excretion. In RA, apart from the crosslink resorption at the site of inflamed joints, there may be increased resorption due to general bone loss associated with disease activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of therapy with infliximab on urinary excretion of pyridinoline (PYD) and deoxypyridinoline (DPYR) as a markers of collagen degradation and its correlation with clinical and biochemical parameters of disease activity. Seventeen patients with active rheumatoid arthritis treated with infliximab were recruited into the study. The therapy resulted in the reduction in the symptoms of RA and urinary excretion of PYD and DPYR. The urinary excretion of PYD correlated with a number of swollen joints, morning stiffness, CRP and ESR. The urinary excretion of DPYR correlated during infliximab therapy with the number of swollen and tender joints and morning stiffness. The measurement of urinary excretion of PYR and DPYR may give insight into bone metabolism and help us to better understand the actual changes in bone and cartilage caused by RA and its treatment.

  1. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    PubMed

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values <0.040). Similar inverse associations were observed for paraxanthine and theophylline. Adjusted night-time systolic blood pressure in the first (lowest), second, third, and fourth (highest) quartile of paraxanthine urinary excretions were 110.3, 107.3, 107.3, and 105.1 mm Hg, respectively (P trend <0.05). No associations of urinary excretions with diastolic blood pressure were generally found, and theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure.

  2. Urinary cyclophosphamide excretion and micronuclei frequencies in peripheral lymphocytes and in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of nurses handling antineoplastics.

    PubMed

    Burgaz, S; Karahalil, B; Bayrak, P; Taşkin, L; Yavuzaslan, F; Bökesoy, I; Anzion, R B; Bos, R P; Platin, N

    1999-02-02

    In this study, urinary cyclophosphamide (CP) excretion rate, as well as micronuclei (MN) in peripheral lymphocytes and in buccal epithelial cells were determined for 26 nurses handling antineoplastics and 14 referents matched for age and sex. In urine samples of 20 out of 25 exposed nurses CP excretion rate was found in a range of 0.02-9.14 microg CP/24 h. Our results of the analyses of CP in urine demonstrates that when the nurses were handling CP (and other antineoplastic drugs) this particular compound was observed in urine. The mean values (+/-SD) of MN frequencies (%) in peripheral lymphocytes from the nurses and controls were 0.61 (+/-0. 32) and 0.28 (+/-0.16), respectively (p<0.01). The mean value (+/-SD) of MN frequency (%) in buccal epithelial cells of nurses was 0.16 (+/-0.19) and also mean MN frequency in buccal epithelial cells for controls was found to be as 0.08 (+/-0.08), (p>0.05). Age, sex and smoking habits have not influenced the parameters analyzed in this study. Handling time of antineoplastics, use of protective equipment and handling frequency of drugs have no effect on urinary and cytogenetic parameters analyzed. No correlation was found between the urinary CP excretion and the cytogenetic findings in nurses. Neither could we find any relationship between two cytogenetic endpoints. Our results have identified the possible genotoxic damage of oncology nurses related to occupational exposure to at least one antineoplastic agent, which is used as a marker for drug handling. As a whole, there is concern that the present handling practices of antineoplastic drugs used in the several hospitals in Ankara will not be sufficient to prevent exposure.

  3. The effect of ethanol on the urinary excretion and differential metabolism of folate compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenga, B.H.

    1989-01-01

    In rats chronically fed ethanol and folate-containing diets for 12 weeks, urinary folate excretion was increased. However, no significant tissue depletion was noted unless rats were fed folate deficient diets. In rats fed folate-deficient diets urinary folate excretion was dramatically decreased at two weeks, when tissue folate stores were replete. After 16 weeks of diet treatment, the urinary excretion of an intraperitoneal dose of {sup 3}H-PteGlu was not altered in folate-deficient rats. Although acute ethanol administration (oral or intravenous) increased endogenous folate excretion that of {sup 3}H-PteGlu was not significantly altered, nor was the fractional excretion of {sup 3}H-label. To clarify this effect, the metabolism of {sup 3}H-PteGlu was studied. HPLC analysis of urine showed extensive metabolism of {sup 3}H-PteGlu to other folate substrates. Oral ethanol-treatment increased the fractional excretion of endogenous 5-CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}PteGlu with no increase in urinary excretion or fractional excretion of other {sup 3}H-labeled derivatives. After infusion of tritium labeled 5-CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}PteGlu, ethanol treatment increased the fractional excretion of endogenous and {sup 3}H-5-CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}PteGlu, but not that of other folates. There was rapid uptake of {sup 3}H-label by the kidney with only 10% of the urinary {sup 3}H-label as {sup 3}H-5-CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}PteGlu.

  4. Evaluation of urinary porphyrin excretion in neonates born to mothers exposed to airborne hexachlorobenzene.

    PubMed Central

    Ozalla, Dolores; Herrero, Carmen; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; To-Figueras, Jordi; Toll, Agustí; Sala, Maria; Grimalt, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier; Lecha, Màrius; Sunyer, Jordi

    2002-01-01

    The existence of a link between hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and porphyria cutanea tarda has been known for a long time. However, the epidemiologic data on effects on health caused by prenatal exposure have not provided convincing evidence that HCB alters porphyrin metabolism. Our objectives were to analyze urinary porphyrin excretion and HCB in maternal serum and fetal cord blood in neonates born in a village (Flix) near a chlorinated solvent factory, to detect possible adverse effects in urinary porphyrin excretion caused by prenatal exposure, and to assess their relationship with HCB blood levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Porphyria Unit at a tertiary care facility in Barcelona, Spain, and the Pediatric Unit of the Móra d'Ebre Hospital, the reference hospital of the study area. We included in the study all neonates (n = 68) born in Móra d'Ebre Hospital 1997-1999 and their mothers. We obtained 68 urine specimens of singleton neonates on the third day after birth to test for urinary porphyrin excretion. We obtained 52 fetal cord blood and 56 maternal serum samples for HCB analysis. Total urinary porphyrins were quantified using spectrofluorometry. Porphyrin profile was determined by HPLC. Serum HCB was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. In total population, median HCB levels were 1.08 ng/mL in cord blood and 3.31 ng/mL in maternal serum. Total urinary porphyrin concentration was 37.87 micromol/mol creatinine. Coproporphyrin I and coproporphyrin III were the major porphyrins excreted. We found no positive relationship between urinary porphyrin excretion and HCB levels. However, we observed an association between maternal smoking and coproporphyrin excretion. Although high environmental levels of HCB are reported in the town of Flix, we found no alteration in urinary porphyrin excretion. PMID:11836151

  5. Metabolic effects of D-psicose in rats: studies on faecal and urinary excretion and caecal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Hashiguchi, Mineo; Izumori, Ken; Suzuki, Hiroo

    2003-01-01

    D-psicose (D -ribo-2-hexulose), a C-3 epimer of D-fructose, is one of the "rare sugars" present in small quantities in commercial carbohydrate complex or agricultural products. We investigated the absorption and excretion of D-psicose when orally administrated (5g/kg body weight) to Wistar rats, and the fermentation of D-psicose was measured as caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) when fed to rats in controlled diets (0, 10, 20 and 30%). Urinary and faecal excretions of D-psicose over the 24 h, following a single oral administration, were 11-15% of dosage for the former and 8-13% of dosage for the latter. Serum D-psicose concentration and D-psicose in the contents of stomach and small intestines decreased progressively after administration. D-psicose in caecum contents was detected after 3h and 7h administration, but not after 1h. Rats fed on D-psicose diets showed short-chain fatty acid production with caecal hypertrophy. These results suggest that D-psicose is partly absorbable in the digestive tract and is excreted into urine and faeces. As with other poorly absorbed dietary carbohydrates, D-psicose is fermented in the caecum by intestinal microflora.

  6. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion is increased in rats after 24 hours of exposure to vertical 50 Hz, 100 {micro}T magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, J.; Nagy, N.; Thuroczy, G.; Szabo, L.D.

    1997-05-01

    The effect of exposure to a 50 Hz, vertical magnetic field on the excretion of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) of rats was studied in a self-controlled experiment. Ten male Wistar rats were kept under 9:15 h light:dark conditions in metabolic cages. The rats were exposed to 1.0 or 100 {micro}T flux density for 24 h. The excretion of aMT6s, which is the primary metabolite of melatonin in the urine, did not show a statistically significant decrease, as measured by {sup 125}I radioimmunoassay, during or after magnetic field exposure of rats to either flux density. At 100 {micro}T flux density, the increase of aMT6s excretion on the day after exposure was statistically significant (P < .02), compared with the value under exposure, but was not significant compared with the baseline values before exposure.

  7. Organic Anion Transporter 5 Renal Expression and Urinary Excretion in Rats with Vascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Hazelhoff, María Herminia; Bulacio, Romina Paula; Torres, Adriana Mónica

    2013-01-01

    It has been described renal damage in rats with vascular calcification. The organic anion transporter 5 (Oat5) is only expressed in kidney, and its urinary excretion was proposed as potential early biomarker of renal injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Oat5 renal expression and its urinary excretion in an experimental model of vascular calcification in comparison with traditional markers of renal injury. Vascular calcification was obtained by the administration of an overdose of vitamin D3 (300,000 IU/kg, b.w., i.m.) to male Wistar rats. Oat5 urinary abundance was evaluated by Western blotting. Traditional markers of renal injury, such as creatinine and urea plasma levels, urinary protein levels, and urinary alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, were determined using commercial kits. Histology was assessed by hematoxylin/eosin staining. Oat5 renal expression was evaluated by Western blotting and by immunohistochemistry. An increased expression of Oat5 in renal homogenates, in apical membranes, and in its urinary excretion was observed in rats with vascular calcification. The traditional parameters used to evaluate renal function were not modified, with the exception of histology. It is possible to postulate the urinary excretion of Oat5 as a potential noninvasive biomarker of renal injury associated with vascular calcification. PMID:24199190

  8. Impact of water-induced diuresis on excretion profiles of ethanol, urinary creatinine, and urinary osmolality.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, P; Jones, A W

    1999-01-01

    This article reports the impact of diuresis on urinary excretion of ethanol in seven healthy volunteers who drank 1000 mL of export beer (44 g ethanol) in 30 min and, 120 min later, ingested 500 or 1000 mL of water within 5 min. Urine was voided before drinking started and every 30-60 min for 360 min after the start of drinking. The concentration of ethanol in urine (UAC) was determined by headspace gas chromatography, the creatinine content was determined by Jaffe's method, and osmolality was measured by freezing point depression. Maximum diuresis coincided with the peak UAC and was reached 60-90 min after the end of drinking. The urinary creatinine and osmolality dropped appreciably after drinking beer, and the lowest values coincided with peak diuresis. Creatinine was < 0.2 g/L in 22% of urine specimens, and osmolality was < 200 mOsm/kg in 31% of specimens. Production of urine decreased as UAC entered the postabsorptive phase but increased again after the subjects drank water 120 min after alcohol consumption. The amount of ethanol recovered in urine was 681 mg (standard deviation [SD] 203 mg) corresponding to 1.5% (SD 0.46%) of the dose administered. The concentrations of ethanol in successive voids during the postabsorptive phase were not influenced after subjects drank 500 or 1000 mL of water although diuresis increased and urinary creatinine and osmolality decreased. Measuring UAC provides a reliable way to monitor recent drinking, and unlike the analysis of illicit drugs in urine, the concentrations of ethanol are not influenced by diuresis.

  9. Renal Expression and Urinary Excretion of Na-K-2Cl Cotransporter in Obstructive Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Renal damage due to urinary tract obstruction accounts for up to 30% of acute kidney injury in paediatrics and adults. Bilateral ureteral obstruction (BUO) is associated with polyuria and reduced urinary concentrating capacity. We investigated the renal handling of water and electrolytes together with the renal expression and the urinary excretion of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) after 1 (BUO-1), 2 (BUO-2), and 7 (BUO-7) days of release of BUO. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemical studies showed that NKCC2 expression was upregulated in apical membranes both from BUO-2 and from BUO-7 rats. The apical membrane expression, where NKCC2 is functional, may be sufficient to normalize water, potassium, sodium, and osmolytes tubular handling. NKCC2 abundance in homogenates and mRNA levels of NKCC2 was significantly decreased in almost all groups suggesting a decrease in the synthesis of the transporter. Urinary excretion of NKCC2 was increased in BUO-7 groups. These data suggest that the upregulation in the expression of NKCC2 in apical membranes during the postobstructive phase of BUO could contribute to improving the excretion of sodium and consequently also the excretion of potassium, osmolytes, and water. Moreover, the increase in urinary excretion of NKCC2 in BUO-7 group could be a potential additional biomarker of renal function recovery. PMID:28164127

  10. Dietary and Lifestyle Factors and Medical Conditions Associated with Urinary Citrate Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Eric N.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Lower urinary citrate excretion is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis and associated with metabolic acidosis and higher prevalence of hypertension and insulin resistance. This study sought to quantify the independent predictors of urinary citrate excretion in population-based cohorts. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A cross-sectional study of 2561 individuals from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and Nurses’ Health Studies I and II who provided two 24-hour urine collections was conducted. Dietary data were ascertained from the semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Lifestyle and disease data were derived from responses to biennial questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression was used to quantify the predictors of urinary citrate excretion. Results After adjusting for age, urinary creatinine, dietary, and other factors, higher intake of nondairy animal protein (per 10 g/d; −20 mg/d; 95% confidence interval [−29 to −11]), higher body mass index (per 1 kg/m2; −4 mg/d; [−6 to −2]), and history of nephrolithiasis (−57 mg/d; [−79 to −36]), hypertension (−95 mg/d; [−119 to −71]), gout (−104 mg/d; [−155 to −54]), and thiazide use (−34 mg/d; [−68 to −1]) were independently associated with lower 24-hour urinary citrate excretion. Higher intake of potassium (per 1000 mg/d; 53 mg/d; [33 to 74]), higher urinary sodium (per 100 mEq/d; 56 mg/d; [31 to 80]), and history of diabetes (61 mg/d; [21 to 100]) were independently associated with higher citrate excretion. Conclusions Several dietary and lifestyle factors and medical conditions are independently associated with urinary citrate excretion. PMID:23449767

  11. The quantitative relationship of urinary peptide hydroxyproline excretion to collagen degradation

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Phillip H.; Klein, LeRoy

    1969-01-01

    To determine the quantitative relationship of urinary hydroxyproline peptide excretion to collagen breakdown, known quantities of radioactive hydroxyproline peptides were administered to unlabeled animals and excertion of radioactivity in respiratory carbon dioxide, urine, and feces was measured. The major routes of excretion of collagen peptide metabolites were respiratory carbon dioxide (75%) and urine, as hydroxyproline-containing peptides (25%). Since the predominant urine hydroxyproline peptide linkage is proly-hydroxyproline, L-prolyl-L-hydroxyproline-3H was administered to unlabeled animals. Greater than 80% of the administered dipeptide was excreted in urine, suggesting that this peptide linkage is not hydrolyzed to a significant extent in vivo. These data suggest that urinary hydroxyproline excretion is a “fairly” sensitive indicator of collagen breakdown and can be used at the clinical level to quantitate changes in collagen breakdown. PMID:5765022

  12. Increased Klk9 Urinary Excretion Is Associated to Hypertension-Induced Cardiovascular Damage and Renal Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez-Medela, Ana M.; García-Sánchez, Omar; Quirós, Yaremi; Blanco-Gozalo, Victor; Prieto-García, Laura; Sancho-Martínez, Sandra M.; Romero, Miguel; Duarte, Juan M.; López-Hernández, Francisco J.; López-Novoa, José M.; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early detection of hypertensive end-organ damage and secondary diseases are key determinants of cardiovascular prognosis in patients suffering from arterial hypertension. Presently, there are no biomarkers for the detection of hypertensive target organ damage, most outstandingly including blood vessels, the heart, and the kidneys. We aimed to validate the usefulness of the urinary excretion of the serine protease kallikrein-related peptidase 9 (KLK9) as a biomarker of hypertension-induced target organ damage. Urinary, plasma, and renal tissue levels of KLK9 were measured by the Western blot in different rat models of hypertension, including angiotensin-II infusion, DOCA-salt, L-NAME administration, and spontaneous hypertension. Urinary levels were associated to cardiovascular and renal injury, assessed by histopathology. The origin of urinary KLK9 was investigated through in situ renal perfusion experiments. The urinary excretion of KLK9 is increased in different experimental models of hypertension in rats. The ACE inhibitor trandolapril significantly reduced arterial pressure and the urinary level of KLK9. Hypertension did not increase kidney, heart, liver, lung, or plasma KLK9 levels. Hypertension-induced increased urinary excretion of KLK9 results from specific alterations in its tubular reabsorption, even in the absence of overt nephropathy. KLK9 urinary excretion strongly correlates with cardiac hypertrophy and aortic wall thickening. KLK9 appears in the urine in the presence of hypertension as a result of subtle renal handling alterations. Urinary KLK9 might be potentially used as an indicator of hypertensive cardiac and vascular damage. PMID:26469898

  13. PLasma half-life and urinary excretion of cyclophosphamide in children.

    PubMed

    Sladek, N E; Priest, J; Doeden, D; Mirocha, C J; Pathre, S; Krivit, W

    1980-01-01

    The plasma half-life and urinary excretion of cyclophosphamide were determined in 13 children who had various malignancies and/or who were being prepared for bone marrow transplantation. Disappearance from the plasma following iv infusion over a 1-2 hour period was first-order. Urinary excretion was maximal during the first 8 hours after administration and was essentially complete in 24 hours. The plasma half-life in children not receiving known inducers of hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxygenase activity or cyclophosphamide in the 3-week period prior to each determination ranged from 145 to 390 minutes. These values are lower than those ordinarily found in adult patients. The fraction of the total dose excreted in the urine as the parent compound ranged from 4% to 27%. Repeated administration of cyclophosphamide at approximately 30-60 day intervals did not appear to alter its plasma half-life but did appear to increase its urinary excretion. Daily administration of cyclophosphamide (approximately 50 mg/kg/day x 2 or 4) significantly decreased its plasma half-life and urinary excretion suggesting that it may reversibly induce its own metabolism.

  14. Abnormal urinary excretion of polyamines in HHH syndrome (hyperornithinemia associated with hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria).

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H; Maekawa, K; Eto, Y

    1990-01-01

    The HHH syndrome (hyperornithinemia associated with hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria) is characterized by a very rare genetic defect of ornithine transport in mitochondrial membrane. We first demonstrated that a patient with HHH syndrome excreted about 6 times higher amount of polyamines in urine than the control when supplemented with high protein diets and ornithine loading. Each urinary polyamine fraction measured by HPLC method in HHH syndrome appears to be increased, as compared with those of the control. These data suggest that increased urinary excretion of polyamines in this syndrome is closely related to overflowing of plasma polyamine due to an ornithine transport defect in the mitochondrial membrane.

  15. Single dose povidone-iodine on thyroid functions and urinary iodine excretion.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Deniz; Teziç, H Tahsin; Zorlu, Pelin; Firat, Serap; Bilaloğlu, Eriş; Kutlu, Alev Oğuz

    2003-08-01

    The effect of single dose povidone-iodine on serum thyrotropin and thyroxine levels and urinary iodine excretion in 30 preterm, 40 full-term newborns and 50 infants at Dr. Sami Ulus Children's Hospital was studied. There was no significant change of thyroid function in any of the groups (p>0.05). Urinary iodine excretion in preterm and full-term groups elevated significantly (p<0.05). The authors conclude that patients who receive single dose povidone-iodine for skin disinfection are not at risk for thyroid disorders.

  16. Assessment of urinary excretion of antimalarial drugs in large-scale chemotherapeutic eradication projects

    PubMed Central

    Bruce-Chwatt, L. J.

    1959-01-01

    Assessment of the urinary excretion of an antimalarial drug is a useful means of checking the amount of drug administered and the regularity of intake. The author describes the various methods available for the qualitative and quantitative estimation of antimalarial drugs in urine and discusses their relative merits, with special reference to their suitability for use in the field. He points out the difficulties involved in estimating the urinary excretion of antimalarials in large-scale chemotherapeutic eradication projects and stress the importance of simplifying testing techniques as far as possible. PMID:13805135

  17. Urinary folate excretion in chronic ethanol- and diet-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, T.D.; McMartin, K.E.; Bairnsfather, L.

    1986-03-05

    Acute ethanol treatment of rats produces a marked increase in urinary folate excretion, which accumulates in correlation with the duration of ethanol treatment. In order to study the role of excess urinary folate excretion in the development of folate deficiency by chronic ethanol feeding, groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for four months on one of the following liquid diets: ethanol, pair-fed control, ethanol minus folic acid, and pair-fed control minus folic acid. A fifth group was provided a control chow diet ad libitum. Blood ethanol levels were generally maintained between 80-150 mg/dl at various times of the day. Decrease in plasma and tissue folate levels occurred within four weeks in all liquid diet groups compared to chow rats and within two weeks for urinary folate levels. Greater effects were generally observed in both folate-deficient groups than in the control or ethanol group. Acute ethanol treatment of rats from the various diet groups produced increases in urinary folate excretion in all groups except the ethanol minus folic acid diet group. When the folate system of rats are compromised by dietary deprivation and/or chronic ethanol treatment, these results suggest that urinary folate excretion is greatly reduced as a conservation measure.

  18. Effect of para-aminobenzoic acid on the pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) in rats.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M; Vannozzi, M; Viale, M; Pellecchia, C; Civalleri, D; Gogioso, L

    1995-01-01

    Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) has been previously reported as being an inhibitor of DDP toxicity, and its use did not result in any observable loss in antitumor activity of DDP. The following studies investigated the effect of PABA on the pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (DDP) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. DDP was injected i.p. at the dose of 7.5 mg/kg in normal saline alone and with a concurrent i.p. injection of PABA (100 mg/kg). The combined treatment with PABA produced a significant increase in the plasma concentrations of total platinum, without affecting the levels of platinum species in the plasma ultrafiltrate. Similar results were also obtained in additional studies in rats receiving the same dose of DDP plus PABA through different routes of administration (i.e. DDP i.v. and PABA i.p.). Both the area under the total platinum plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) up to 60 min and AUC0-120 min were increased by PABA by an average of 113% and 66% respectively. The administration of PABA in rats was followed by a substantial reduction in total urinary excretion of platinum (P < 0.05) and by a significant (P < 0.01) lower concentration of DDP derived platinum in the urine collected during the first 4 h after treatment. The renal clearance of filterable platinum was reduced by PABA by an average of 67.5% from 1.11 to 0.36 ml/min/100 g body wt. Total 24-h urinary excretion of platinum was also decreased, although not significantly, by PABA. Urine volumes from rats treated with DDP+PABA were similar to those from animals receiving DDP alone. HPLC studies indicate that PABA reacts readily with the species generated from DDP in vitro, while the agent is essentially unreactive toward the parent DDP and does not influence its decomposition rate. The overall data of this study suggest that the protective effect exerted by PABA on DDP toxicity may be at least partially due to its ability to interact with aquated DDP as well as to

  19. Moderate alcohol consumption and urinary excretion of magnesium and calcium.

    PubMed

    Rylander, R; Mégevand, Y; Lasserre, B; Amstutz, W; Granbom, S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnesium (Mg) status of male subjects consuming moderate amounts of alcohol (n = 14) in comparison with that of a group of non-consumers of alcohol (n = 10). Plasma ionized Mg levels and total erythrocyte Mg content were determined as well as the excretion of Mg in urine before and after an oral loading test. Intake of Mg via food and water was estimated using a one-week dietary records. The results showed a significantly higher, alcohol dose-related excretion of Mg and Ca (calcium) in the urine after the oral Mg load among consumers of alcohol. Although the study is based on a small number of subjects with differences in smoking habits, it is suggested that alcohol consumption even in moderate amounts could contribute to Mg deficiency.

  20. Results of a quality assurance exercise for urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion.

    PubMed

    Brimble, A; Pennock, C; Stone, J

    1990-03-01

    Urine samples collected from four patients with a mucopolysaccharide storage disease (MPS) and two non-MPS patients were distributed to up to 33 laboratories as a test of their ability to detect abnormal glycosaminoglycan excretion. Seven national reference laboratories made a correct diagnostic assignment to all samples analysed. Qualitative turbidity and spot tests were shown to be unreliable. Failure to identify the excretion pattern occurred when reliance was placed on one-dimensional electrophoresis or thin layer chromatography as the sole method for glycosaminoglycan identification. Two-dimensional electrophoresis appeared to be the method of choice provided that staff had adequate experience in interpretation. Clinically unacceptable delays in analysis were common, with 80% of laboratories taking longer than 10 days to issue a report.

  1. Urinary excretion of morphine and biosynthetic precursors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Grobe, Nadja; Lamshöft, Marc; Orth, Robert G.; Dräger, Birgit; Kutchan, Toni M.; Zenk, Meinhart H.; Spiteller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    It has been firmly established that humans excrete a small but steady amount of the isoquinoline alkaloid morphine in their urine. It is unclear whether it is of dietary or endogenous origin. There is no doubt that a simple isoquinoline alkaloid, tetrahydropapaveroline (THP), is found in human and rodent brain as well as in human urine. This suggests a potential biogenetic relationship between both alkaloids. Unlabeled THP or [1,3,4-D3]-THP was injected intraperitoneally into mice and the urine was analyzed. This potential precursor was extensively metabolized (96%). Among the metabolites found was the phenol-coupled product salutaridine, the known morphine precursor in the opium poppy plant. Synthetic [7D]-salutaridinol, the biosynthetic reduction product of salutaridine, injected intraperitoneally into live animals led to the formation of [7D]-thebaine, which was excreted in urine. [N-CD3]-thebaine was also administered and yielded [N-CD3]-morphine and the congeners [N-CD3]-codeine and [N-CD3]-oripavine in urine. These results show for the first time that live animals have the biosynthetic capability to convert a normal constituent of rodents, THP, to morphine. Morphine and its precursors are normally not found in tissues or organs, presumably due to metabolic breakdown. Hence, only that portion of the isoquinoline alkaloids excreted in urine unmetabolized can be detected. Analysis of urine by high resolution-mass spectrometry proved to be a powerful method for tracking endogenous morphine and its biosynthetic precursors. PMID:20421505

  2. Urinary Excretion of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arellano-Buendía, Abraham Said; García-Arroyo, Fernando Enrique; Cristóbal-García, Magdalena; Loredo-Mendoza, María Lilia; Tapia-Rodríguez, Edilia; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Osorio-Alonso, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that tubular damage precedes glomerular damage in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, we evaluated oxidative stress and urinary excretion of tubular proteins as markers of tubular dysfunction. Methods. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin administration (50 mg/kg). Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD); additionally, expression levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and oxidized protein (OP) were quantified. Whole glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured. Urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), osteopontin (uOPN), and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) was also determined. Results. Diabetic rats showed an increase in uNGAL excretion 7 days following induction of diabetes. Diuresis, proteinuria, albuminuria, creatinine clearance, and GFR were significantly increased by 30 days after induction. Furthermore, there was an increase in both CAT and SOD activity, in addition to 3-NT, 4-HNE, and OP expression levels. However, GPx activity was lower. Serum levels of NGAL and OPN, as well as excretion levels of uNGAL, uOPN, and uNAG, were increased in diabetics. Tubular damage was observed by 7 days after diabetes induction and was further aggravated by 30 days after induction. Conclusion. The tubular dysfunction evidenced by urinary excretion of NGAL precedes oxidative stress during diabetes. PMID:25243053

  3. Urinary trimethylselenonium excretion by the rat: effect of level and source of selenium-75

    SciTech Connect

    Nahapetian, A.T.; Janghorbani, M.; Young, V.R.

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore in rats the urinary metabolites of selenium (Se), by using (/sup 75/Se)selenomethionine, (/sup 75/Se)selenocystine, and (/sup 75/Se)selenite, and to assess the effects of low and high levels of Se intake on trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) excretion in urine. Male adult rats were adapted for 6 weeks to a commercial rat laboratory stock diet (0.25 ppm Se). They were then starved for 24 hours and given an oral dose of either low (16 micrograms Se/kg body weight) or high (1500 micrograms Se/kg body weight) Se as the test Se compounds. Appearance of radioactivity in TMSe and non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine was monitored for 48 hours. About 40% of the /sup 75/Se dose was excreted in urine. TMSe was the major urinary Se metabolite at high, and a minor urinary Se metabolite at low dose levels of Se and for all three Se test compounds. At least 80% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 26-42% of the orally administered /sup 75/Se were excreted as non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine under the latter condition. It is hypothesized that at a requirement intake of Se either a trace or no TMSe is excreted in urine, and it becomes a major excretory metabolite of Se when the dietary trace mineral intake exceeds a requirement level, probably serving as a means of detoxification.

  4. Increased urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in a Danish family.

    PubMed

    Sjølin, K E

    1988-08-01

    During collection of a control material for determination of urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (beta-AIB), female high excretors were found in four generations in a Danish family. The heredity seemed to be sex related and dominant, unlike previous communications about genetically conditioned high excretors of beta-AIB.

  5. Clinical features of two cases of Legionnaires' disease with persistence of Legionella urinary antigen excretion.

    PubMed

    Higa, Futoshi; Fujita, Jiro; Koide, Michio; Haranaga, Shusaku; Tateyama, Masao

    2008-01-01

    The advantages of diagnosing legionellosis by urinary antigen detection are widely recognized, and include early detection, rapidity of testing, and ease of specimen collection. However, the persistence of Legionella urinary antigen excretion has been suggested in some selected patients, although the clinical features of these patients have not yet been clearly described. Here, we describe the clinical features of two patients with Legionnaires' disease with persistence of Legionella urinary antigen excretion (117 days and 247 days). One patient had an underlying disease, adult T-cell leukemia, and the other patient had ulcerative colitis and was receiving oral corticosteroids. Unusual clinical and radiological findings as well as a review of the literature are presented.

  6. Testosterone urinary excretion rate increases during hypergravity in male monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strollo, F.; Barger, L.; Fuller, C.

    2000-01-01

    Real and simulated microgravity impairs T secretion both in animals and in the human. To verify whether hypergravity might enhance T secretion as a consequence of an opposite mechanical effect, 6 male monkeys were centrifuged at 2 G for 3 weeks after a 1 G stabilization period lasting 3 weeks and then taken back to 1 G for 1 week and urine were collected daily for T excretion measurement. Significantly higher level were observed during the initial 2 G phase as compared to pre- and post centrifugation periods and the trend was the same during the remaining 2 G period. This may reflect changes in testicular perfusion rather than endocrine adaptation per se.

  7. Urinary trimethylselenonium excretion by the rat: effect of level and source of /sup 75/Se

    SciTech Connect

    Nahapetian, A.T.; Janghorbani, M.; Young, V.R.

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore in rats the urinary metabolites of selenium (Se), by using (/sup 75/Se)selenomethionine, (/sup 75/Se)selenocystine, and (/sup 75/Se)selenite, and to assess the effects of low and high levels of Se intake on trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) excretion in urine. Male adult rats were adapted for 6 weeks to a commercial rat laboratory stock diet (0.25 ppm Se). They were then starved for 24 hours and given an oral dose of either low (16 micrograms Se/kg body weight) or high (1500 micrograms Se/kg body weight) Se as the test Se compounds. Appearance of radioactivity in TMSe and non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine was monitored for 48 hours. About 40% of the /sup 75/Se dose was excreted in urine. TMSe was the major urinary Se metabolite (57-69% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 16-25% of oral /sup 75/Se dose) at high, and a minor urinary Se metabolite (10% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 3-4% of oral /sup 75/Se dose) at low dose levels of Se and for all three Se test compounds. At least 80% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 26-42% of the orally administered /sup 75/Se were excreted as non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine under the latter condition. It is hypothesized that at a requirement intake of Se either a trace or no TMSe is excreted in urine, and it becomes a major excretory metabolite of Se when the dietary trace mineral intake exceeds a requirement level, probably serving as a means of detoxification.

  8. Possible parameters in the urinary excretion of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Cawley, C.N.; Lewis, B.A.; Cannon, L.A.

    1985-11-01

    Because of its mobility in both physical and biological systems, tritium is interesting both as a tracer and as an issue in health physics. Because tritium is extremely difficult to contain, it is one of the major radionuclides of concern if released to the environment from nuclear facilities. Relatively very large releases are tolerated because the beta particle has low energy and, therefore, the radioisotope is not a health hazard unless deposited internally. Moreover, on release to the environment, tritium enters the hydrologic cycle and is diluted and dispersed widely through the hydrosphere. It is likely that tritium uptake and loss in humans is more complex than generally believed and may be more functionally related to physiological processes, such as the bicarbonate and electrolyte balances, than to ambient environmental conditions such as temperature. Despite the many uncertainties in the analyses of experimental data on tritium contamination and excretion, it is likely that further investigations will establish both a better understanding of the tritium health hazard and the physiological processes governing excretion and, perhaps, its indefinite recycling through metabolic pools.

  9. Urinary excretion of phytoestrogens and risk of breast cancer among Chinese women in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qi; Franke, Adrian A; Jin, Fan; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Hebert, James R; Custer, Laurie J; Cheng, Jiarong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2002-09-01

    Although the majority of ecological and experimental studies have suggested a potential role of phytoestrogens in breast cancer prevention, findings from epidemiological studies have been inconsistent. Part of the inconsistencies may be attributable to the difficulty in measuring intake levels of phytoestrogens. Overnight urine samples from 250 incident breast cancer cases and their individually matched controls were analyzed for urinary excretion rates of isoflavonoids, mammalian lignans, and citrus flavonoids. The study subjects were a subset of the participants in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study, a large population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai from 1996-1998. To minimize potential influence of treatment on the exposure of interest, urine samples from breast cancer cases were collected before cancer therapy. Urinary excretion of total isoflavonoids and mammalian lignans was substantially lower in breast cancer cases than in controls. The median excretion rate of total isoflavonoids was 13.97 nmol/mg creatinine in cases and 23.09 in controls (P = 0.01), and the median excretion rate of total lignans was 1.77 in cases and 4.16 in controls (P < 0.01). The risk of breast cancer was reduced with increasing excretion of total isoflavonoids (P for trend, 0.04) and total lignans (P for trend, <0.01), with adjusted odds ratios of 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.99) and 0.40 (95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.64) observed for the highest versus the lowest tertile of total isoflavonoid and lignan excretion, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio was 0.28 (95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.50) for women who had a high excretion rate of both total lignans and isoflavonoids compared with those with a low excretion of both groups of phytoestrogens. No association was observed with citrus flavonoids. The results from this study suggest that high intake of certain phytoestrogens may reduce the risk of breast cancer.

  10. Urinary excretion patterns of pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in patients with tumours of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Kvist, E; Sjølin, K E; Iversen, J; Nyholm, K

    1993-01-01

    The preoperative and postoperative values of urinary pseudouridine:creatinine (phi:C) and beta-aminoisobutyric acid:creatinine (beta AIB:C) were estimated, in 192 patients with urothelial tumours of the bladder, 92 of whom had not previously been diagnosed. Urinary phi:C ratio correlated with the grade of tumour cell dysplasia (being highest in dysplasia grade 3), and to a lesser extent with the clinical stage. The treatment had no major influence on the excretion ratios. Decreased ratios, or those within the reference range, were associated with a better prognosis than increased ratios, and if both were increased at the same time the risk for progression of the disease was high. The biological tumour markers pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid may be helpful in the diagnosis of tumours in the upper urinary tract, and in the follow-up of patients with tumours of the bladder.

  11. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Chinese Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Ying; Guan, Ke; Su, Yi-Xiang; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2016-10-01

    Limited studies have examined the association between sodium (Na) and potassium (K) levels and the risk of atherosclerosis. This study examined whether higher Na and Na/K levels and low K levels were independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. This community-based cross-sectional study included 3290 subjects (1067 men and 2223 women) 40 to 75 years of age in Guangzhou, China, between 2011 and 2013. Urinary excretion of Na and K were measured from the first morning void, and creatinine-adjusted values were used. The intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid common artery and the carotid bifurcation was measured with high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Dietary K and Na intake and other covariates were obtained by face-to-face interviews. A significant positive association was seen between urinary Na excretion and carotid atherosclerosis after adjustment for age, sex, and other lifestyle covariates. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of urinary Na were 1.32 (1.04-1.66) for carotid plaques, 1.48 (1.18-1.87) for increased common carotid artery IMT, and 1.55 (1.23-1.96) for increased carotid bifurcation IMT (all p-trend < 0.01). A similar positive association was observed between urinary Na/K levels and carotid plaque and increased IMT, and between dietary Na intake and increased bifurcation IMT. Regarding potassium data, we only found a significantly lower presence of carotid plaque (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57-0.91) for quartile 2 (vs. 1) of urinary K. Our findings suggest that higher levels of urinary excretion Na and Na/K are significantly associated with greater presence of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese adults.

  12. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Chinese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Ying; Guan, Ke; Su, Yi-Xiang; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Limited studies have examined the association between sodium (Na) and potassium (K) levels and the risk of atherosclerosis. This study examined whether higher Na and Na/K levels and low K levels were independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. This community-based cross-sectional study included 3290 subjects (1067 men and 2223 women) 40 to 75 years of age in Guangzhou, China, between 2011 and 2013. Urinary excretion of Na and K were measured from the first morning void, and creatinine-adjusted values were used. The intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid common artery and the carotid bifurcation was measured with high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Dietary K and Na intake and other covariates were obtained by face-to-face interviews. A significant positive association was seen between urinary Na excretion and carotid atherosclerosis after adjustment for age, sex, and other lifestyle covariates. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of urinary Na were 1.32 (1.04–1.66) for carotid plaques, 1.48 (1.18–1.87) for increased common carotid artery IMT, and 1.55 (1.23–1.96) for increased carotid bifurcation IMT (all p-trend < 0.01). A similar positive association was observed between urinary Na/K levels and carotid plaque and increased IMT, and between dietary Na intake and increased bifurcation IMT. Regarding potassium data, we only found a significantly lower presence of carotid plaque (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57–0.91) for quartile 2 (vs. 1) of urinary K. Our findings suggest that higher levels of urinary excretion Na and Na/K are significantly associated with greater presence of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese adults. PMID:27706075

  13. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations: the INTERSALT study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie; Cogswell, Mary E; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

    2013-06-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984-1987 at the ages of 20-59 years from 29 North American and European samples. Participants were randomly assigned to test or validation data sets. Equations derived from casual urinary sodium concentration and other variables in the test data were applied to the validation data set. Correlations between observed and estimated 24-hour sodium excretion were 0.50 for individual men and 0.51 for individual women; the values were 0.79 and 0.71, respectively, for population samples. Bias in mean values (observed minus estimated) was small; for men and women, the values were -1.6 mmol per 24 hours and 2.3 mmol per 24 hours, respectively, at the individual level and -1.8 mmol per 24 hours and 2.2 mmol per 24 hours, respectively, at the population level. Proportions of individuals with urinary 24-hour sodium excretion above the recommended levels were slightly overestimated by the models. Casual urine specimens may be a useful, low-burden, low-cost alternative to 24-hour urine collections for estimation of population sodium intakes; ongoing calibration with study-specific 24-hour urinary collections is recommended to increase validity.

  14. Activation of the serotonergic 5-HT1A receptor in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus inhibits water intake and increases urinary excretion in water-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    de Souza Villa, Patrícia; Menani, José Vanderlei; de Arruda Camargo, Gabriela Maria Pavan; de Arruda Camargo, Luiz Antônio; Saad, Wilson Abrão

    2008-10-09

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) may be considered as a dynamic mosaic of chemically-specified subgroups of neurons. 5-HT(1A) is one of the prime receptors identified and there is expressed throughout all magnocellular regions of the PVN. Several reports have demonstrated that a subpopulation of the magnocellular neurons expressing 5-HT(1A) receptors are oxytocin (OT) neurons and activation of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the PVN increases the plasma OT. Increasing evidence shows that OT inhibits water intake and increases urinary excretion in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of serotonergic 5-HT(1A) receptors in the lateral-medial posterior magnocellular region of the PVN in the water intake and diuresis induced by 24 h of water deprivation. Cannulae were implanted in the PVN of rats. 5-HT injections in the PVN reduced water intake and increased urinary excretion. 8-OH-DPAT (a 5-HT(1A) agonist) injections blocked the water intake and increased urinary output in all the periods of the observation. pMPPF (a 5-HT(1A) antagonist) injected bilaterally before the 8-OH-DPAT blocked its inhibitory effect on water intake and its diuretic effect. We suggest that antidipsogenic and diuretic responses seem to be mediated via 5-HT(1A) receptors of the lateral-medial posterior magnocellular region of the PVN in water-deprived rats.

  15. Air pollution and urinary thioether excretion in children of Barcelona

    SciTech Connect

    Mallol, J.; Nogues, M.R. )

    1991-06-01

    The polluted environment found in highly industrialized areas and in big cities contains a great quantity of electrophilic (EC) and proelectrophilic (PEC) compounds, which largely contribute to the development of several pathological processes in humans. EC and PEC can be coupled to the cysteine moiety of glutathione spontaneously or by the glutathione S-transferase system (GST), giving nontoxic metabolites that can be eliminated as urinary thioethers (UT). Therefore one approach to establishing the degree of impact of EC and PEC on the human body is the analysis of UT in the population living in polluted environments. The work presented here has been carried out in the city of Barcelona with a group of 50 children living in a polluted area, over a 12-mo period. Our results demonstrate that UT are significantly higher when the amounts of air pollutants (AP) increase; although the level of contamination never exceeded the established safe limits, UT reached values similar to those found in people smoking more than 10 cigarettes/d. These results may contribute to establishing the maximal levels of contamination compatible with a healthy life, on the basis of patterns of true salubrity rather than on political and economic criteria.

  16. Urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in hematological diseases.

    PubMed

    Enkhjargal, Ts; Tserennadmid, Ch

    2004-01-01

    The level of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (beta-AIB), a thymine catabolite, has been measured in urine samples of 160 healthy individuals, 28 patients with renal, 27 patients with cardiovascular and 27 patients with hematological diseases and of 36 tumor patients. No significant difference in the prevalence of high excretors of beta-AIB between patients with cancer, renal and cardiovascular diseases and the healthy group was found, whereas all but two patients with hematological diseases were high excretors. Urinary beta-AIB shows a reverse correlation with the hemoglobin level and erythrocyte count in the cases of anemia, and appears to be directly correlated with the leukocyte count and blast cell content in the cases of leukemia, with its amount decreasing two to five-fold with the return of the hematological markers to normal levels after medicinal treatment. Therefore the beta-AIB concentration in urine may be used in combination with hematological indicators in assessing the disease status and in monitoring of the treatment response.

  17. LP-925219 maximizes urinary glucose excretion in mice by inhibiting both renal SGLT1 and SGLT2.

    PubMed

    Powell, David R; Smith, Melinda G; Doree, Deon D; Harris, Angela L; Xiong, Wendy W; Mseeh, Faika; Wilson, Alan; Gopinathan, Suma; Diaz, Damaris; Goodwin, Nicole C; Harrison, Bryce; Strobel, Eric; Rawlins, David B; Carson, Ken; Zambrowicz, Brian; Ding, Zhi-Ming

    2015-03-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of oral anti-diabetic agents that improve glycemic control by inhibiting SGLT2-mediated renal glucose reabsorption. Currently available agents increase urinary glucose excretion (UGE) to <50% of maximal values because they do not inhibit SGLT1, which reabsorbs >50% of filtered glucose when SGLT2 is completely inhibited. This led us to test whether LP-925219, a small molecule dual SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitor, increases UGE to maximal values in wild-type (WT) mice. We first tested LP-925219 inhibition of glucose transport by HEK293 cells expressing SGLT1 or SGLT2, and then characterized LP-925219 pharmacokinetics. We found that LP-925219 was a potent inhibitor of mouse SGLT1 (IC50 = 22.6 nmol/L) and SGLT2 (IC50 = 0.5 nmol/L), and that a 10 mg/kg oral dose was bioavailable (87%) with a long half-life (7 h). We next delivered LP-925219 by oral gavage to WT, SGLT1 knockout (KO), SGLT2 KO, and SGLT1/SGLT2 double KO (DKO) mice and measured their 24-h UGE. We found that, in vehicle-treated mice, DKO UGE was maximal and SGLT2 KO, SGLT1 KO, and WT UGEs were 30%, 2%, and 0.2% of maximal, respectively; we also found that LP-925219 dosed at 60 mg/kg twice daily increased UGE of SGLT1 KO, SGLT2 KO, and WT mice to DKO UGE levels. These findings show that orally available dual SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitors can maximize 24-h UGE in mammals, and suggest that such agents merit further evaluation for their potential, in diabetic patients, to achieve better glycemic control than is achieved using selective SGLT2 inhibitors.

  18. Validity of a self-administered diet history questionnaire for assessment of sodium and potassium: comparison with single 24-hour urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, S; Yanagibori, R; Amano, K

    1998-06-01

    We developed a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) for use in prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and validated it by comparison with single 24-h urinary excretion of sodium (Na) and potassium (K). The subjects were 154 male and 69 female freshmen university students. Mean intakes (mmol/day) assessed by DHQ and the urinary excretion of Na were 196 and 165 respectively for men and 179 and 136 respectively for women. Those of K were 61.5 and 43.9 respectively for men and 56.8 and 41.6 respectively for women. The ratios of urinary excretion to dietary intake of Na were 0.97 in men and 0.84 in women. Those of K were 0.78 in men and 0.80 in women. The results for both Na and K were reasonable, except for Na in men. When Pearson correlation was examined between dietary and urinary Na and K, no significant correlations for Na in men (r=0.14) or women (r=0.23, p=0.06), or significant correlations for K in men (r=0.34, p<0.001) or women (r=0.40, p<0.001) were observed. The results suggest a reasonable ability to estimate a subject mean for Na in women, K in both sexes, and individual level for K for both sexes. The validity for individual level for Na intake is not conclusive because the duration of urine collection was too short.

  19. Organic Anion Transporter 5 (Oat5) Urinary Excretion Is a Specific Biomarker of Kidney Injury: Evaluation of Urinary Excretion of Exosomal Oat5 after N-Acetylcysteine Prevention of Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bulacio, Romina Paula; Anzai, Naohiko; Ouchi, Motoshi; Torres, Adriana Mónica

    2015-08-17

    Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. Its main side-effect is nephrotoxicity. It was reported that the organic anion transporter 5 (Oat5) urinary excretion is elevated, implying renal perturbation, when no modifications of traditional markers of renal damage are still observed in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). It was also demonstrated that Oat5 is excreted in urine by the exosomal pathway. This study was designated to demonstrate the specific response of the urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 to kidney injury independently of other cisplatin toxic effects, in order to strengthen Oat5 urinary levels as a specific biomarker of AKI. To accomplish that aim, we evaluated if urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 returns to its basal levels when cisplatin renal damage is prevented by the coadministration of the renoprotective compound N-acetylcysteine. Four days after cisplatin administration, AKI was induced in cisplatin-treated male Wistar rats (Cis group), as it was corroborated by increased urea and creatinine plasma levels. Tubular damage was also observed. In cotreated animals (Cis + NAC group), plasma urea and creatinine concentrations tended to return to their basal values, and tubular damage was improved. Urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 was notably increased in the Cis group, but when renal injury was ameliorated by N-acetylcysteine coadministration, that increase was undetected. So, in this work we observed that urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 was only increased if renal insult is produced, demonstrating its specificity as a renal injury biomarker.

  20. The Kinetics of Urinary Fumonisin B1 Excretion in Humans Consuming Maize-Based Diets

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Ronald T.; Torres, Olga; Showker, Jency L.; Zitomer, Nicholas C.; Matute, Jorge; Voss, Kenneth A.; Gelineau-van Waes, Janee; Maddox, Joyce R.; Gregory, Simon G.; Ashley-Koch, Allison E.

    2013-01-01

    Fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins found in maize. The purpose of this study was to 1) determine the relationship between FB1, FB2 and FB3 intake and urinary excretion in humans, 2) validate a method to isolate urinary FB on C18-SPE cartridges for international shipment, and 3) test the method using samples from Guatemala. Volunteers (n=10) consumed 206 grams/day of tortillas and biscuits prepared from masa flour and a product containing maize flour. Volunteers estimated their daily urine output and samples were analyzed for FB1, FB2 and FB3 and hydrolyzed FB1. Only FB1 was detected in urine suggesting lower absorption of FB2 and FB3. Excretion was highly variable peaking soon after consumption began and decreasing rapidly after consumption stopped. Within five days after consumption ended FB1 was not detected in urine. In a study with eight volunteers, the average total urinary FB1 was 0.5% of the intake. FB1 was detected in 61% (107/177) of the samples collected in Guatemala. The results support the use of urinary FB1 to assess ongoing exposure in population based studies. However, relating the FB1 concentration in urine to dietary intake of FB by individual subjects will be complicated due to inter-individual variability and the rapidity of clearance. PMID:22815244

  1. Urinary excretion of uranium in adult inhabitants of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Malátová, Irena; Bečková, Věra; Kotík, Lukáš

    2016-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine and evaluate urinary excretion of uranium in the general public of the Czech Republic. This value should serve as a baseline for distinguishing possible increase in uranium content in population living near legacy sites of mining and processing uranium ores and also to help to distinguish the proportion of the uranium content in urine among uranium miners resulting from inhaled dust. The geometric mean of the uranium concentration in urine of 74 inhabitants of the Czech Republic was 0.091 mBq/L (7.4 ng/L) with the 95% confidence interval 0.071-0.12 mBq/L (5.7-9.6 ng/L) respectively. The geometric mean of the daily excretion was 0.15 mBq/d (12.4 ng/d) with the 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.20 mBq/d (9.5-16.1 ng/d) respectively. Despite the legacy of uranium mines and plants processing uranium ore in the Czech Republic, the levels of uranium in urine and therefore, also human body content of uranium, is similar to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA. Significant difference in the daily urinary excretion of uranium was found between individuals using public supply and private water wells as a source of drinking water. Age dependence of daily urinary excretion of uranium was not found. Mean values and their range are comparable to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA.

  2. Urinary corticosteroid excretion predicts left ventricular mass and proteinuria in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Freel, E Marie; Mark, Patrick B; Fraser, Robert; Patel, Rajan K; Dargie, Henry G; Connell, John M C; Jardine, Alan G

    2012-09-01

    Blockade of the MR (mineralocorticoid receptor) in CKD (chronic kidney disease) reduces LVMI [LV (left ventricular) mass index] and proteinuria. The MR can be activated by aldosterone, cortisol and DOC (deoxycorticosterone). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of mineralocorticoids on LVMI and proteinuria in patients with CKD. A total of 70 patients with CKD and 30 patients with EH (essential hypertension) were recruited. Patients underwent clinical phenotyping; biochemical assessment and 24 h urinary collection for THAldo (tetrahydroaldosterone), THDOC (tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone), cortisol metabolites (measured using GC-MS), and urinary electrolytes and protein [QP (proteinuira quantification)]. LVMI was measured using CMRI (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging). Factors that correlated significantly with LVMI and proteinuria were entered into linear regression models. In patients with CKD, significant predictors of LVMI were male gender, SBP (systolic blood pressure), QP, and THAldo and THDOC excretion. Significant independent predictors on multivariate analysis were THDOC excretion, SBP and male gender. In EH, no association was seen between THAldo or THDOC and LVMI; plasma aldosterone concentration was the only significant independent predictor. Significant univariate determinants of proteinuria in patients with CKD were THAldo, THDOC, USod (urinary sodium) and SBP. Only THAldo excretion and SBP were significant multivariate determinants. Using CMRI to determine LVMI we have demonstrated that THDOC is a novel independent predictor of LVMI in patients with CKD, differing from patients with EH. Twenty-four hour THAldo excretion is an independent determinant of proteinuria in patients with CKD. These findings emphasize the importance of MR activation in the pathogenesis of the adverse clinical phenotype in CKD.

  3. Urinary isothiocyanate excretion, brassica consumption, and gene polymorphisms among women living in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Fowke, Jay H; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Dai, Qi; Shintani, Ayumi; Conaway, C Clifford; Chung, Fung-Lung; Cai, Qiuyin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2003-12-01

    Alternative measures of Brassica vegetable consumption (e.g., cabbage) may clarify the association between Brassica and cancer risk. Brassica isothiocyanates (ITCs) are excreted in urine and may provide a sensitive and food-specific dietary biomarker. However, the persistence of ITCs in the body may be brief and dependent on the activity of several Phase II enzymes, raising questions about the relationship between a single ITC measure and habitual dietary patterns. This study investigates the association between urinary ITC excretion and habitual Brassica consumption, estimated by a food frequency questionnaire, among healthy Chinese women enrolled in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Participants (n = 347) completed a validated food frequency questionnaire querying habitual dietary intake during the prior 5 years and provided a fasting first-morning urine specimen. Genetic deletion of glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1/GSTT1), and single nucleotide substitutions in GSTP1 (A313G) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1: C609T), were identified from blood DNA. Urinary ITC excretion levels were marginally higher with the GSTT1-null or GSTP1-G/G genotypes (P = 0.07, P = 0.05, respectively). Mean habitual Brassica intake was 98.3 g/day, primarily as bok choy, and Brassica intake significantly increased across quartile categories of ITC levels. The association between habitual Brassica intake and urinary ITC levels was stronger among women with GSTT1-null or GSTP1-A/A genotypes, or NQO1 T-allele, and the interaction was statistically significant across GSTP1 genotype. In conclusion, a single urinary ITC measure, in conjunction with markers of Phase II enzyme activity, provides a complementary measure of habitual Brassica intake among Shanghai women.

  4. Response of urinary purine derivatives excretion to different levels of ruminal glucose infusion in heifers.

    PubMed

    Dickhoefer, Uta; Ahnert, Sandra; Schoof, Hartwig; Moritz, Niels; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the response of urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion to increasing levels of intraruminal glucose infusion to evaluate how well this indicator reflects induced changes in microbial crude protein flow. Four rumen-cannulated heifers (482 ± 25 kg body weight) were fed at maintenance energy level with a basal diet (on fresh matter basis) of 4 kg/d hay, 1.5 kg/d concentrate and 60 g/d minerals in two equal meals. The trial comprised a control period (Control I) without glucose infusion followed by four consecutive periods in which all animals received 125 g, 250 g, 500 g or 1000 g/d of glucose, respectively. For this, daily dosages of glucose and urea (90 g/d during all periods) were divided into three portions that were dissolved in water and directly administered into the rumen during morning and afternoon feedings and once during noon. After the highest glucose dosage, a second control period was carried out (Control II). Urinary PD excretion increased with glucose infusion of 125 g/d (71.4 mmol/d) and 1000 g/d (74.2 mmol/d) over the level at Control I (53.9 mmol/d (standard error of the mean (SEM) 3.4; p = 0.012). After withdrawing glucose infusion, PD excretion (79.0 mmol/d) did not return to Control I level (p = 0.001). In contrast, faecal nitrogen (N) excretions linearly increased with incremental glucose infusion (p < 0.001) from 33.9 g/d at Control I to 39.7 g/d (SEM 0.5) at 1000 g/d of glucose and were similar in Control I and II (p = 0.086). The contradicting responses in the excretions of faecal N and urinary PD to increasing glucose infusions highlight the limited accuracy of the PD excretion as a non-invasive indicator when incremental dosages of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates are supplied.

  5. Cortisol-mediated synchronization of circadian rhythm in urinary potassium excretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore-Ede, M. C.; Schmelzer, W. S.; Kass, D. A.; Herd, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Conscious chair-acclimatized squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) studied with lights on (600 lx) from 0800 to 2000 hr daily (LD 12:12) display a prominent circadian rhythm in renal potassium excretion. The characteristics of this rhythm were reproduced in adrenalectomized monkeys by infusing 5 mg cortisol and 0.001 mg aldosterone, or 5 mg cortisol alone, between 0800 and 0900 kr daily. When the timing of cortisol administration (with or without aldosterone) was phase-delayed by 8 hr, the urinary potassium rhythm resynchronized by 80% of the cortisol phase shift, but only after a transient response lasting 3-4 days. With the same daily dose of adrenal steroids given as a continuous infusion throughout each 24 hr, urinary potassium excretion showed free-running oscillations no longer synchronized to the light-dark cycle. These results indicate that the circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol concentration acts as an internal mediator in the circadian timing system, synchronizing a potentially autonomous oscillation in renal potassium excretion to environmental time cues and to other circadian rhythms within the animal.

  6. Protein intake and urinary excretion of protein-derived metabolites in aging female vegetarians and nonvegetarians.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, M E; Beauchene, R E

    1991-08-01

    Relationships among age, protein intake, and urinary excretion of protein-derived metabolites were studied in 125 vegetarian and nonvegetarian women ages 40-92. There were 63 women in the vegetarian (AV) group and 62 women in the nonvegetarian (NV) group. Average daily intakes of energy and total animal and vegetable protein were calculated from 7-day dietary records. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were analyzed for total nitrogen, urea, creatinine, hydroxyproline, and inorganic sulfate. Energy intakes for the two groups were similar. AVs consumed less total and animal protein and more vegetable protein than NVs, even though both groups consumed more than the RDA for protein. No significant differences existed between the groups in the urinary excretion of total nitrogen, urea nitrogen, hydroxyproline, or inorganic sulfate. Energy and protein intakes and total nitrogen excretion were lower in older AVs than in younger AVs, while those of NVs increased between 40 and 55 years of age, and decreased among the older NV women. The relationship between these variables and age in NVs was more accurately described by polynomial rather than linear regression models.

  7. Urinary chromium excretion in response to an insulin challenge is not a biomarker for chromium status.

    PubMed

    Love, Sharifa T; Di Bona, Kristin R; Sinha, Sarmistha Halder; McAdory, DeAna; Skinner, Brittany R; Rasco, Jane F; Vincent, John B

    2013-04-01

    Over 50 years ago, chromium (Cr) was proposed to be an essential trace element; however, recent studies indicate that this status should be removed as the effects of Cr supplementation appear to be pharmacological rather than nutritional. The pharmacological basis for Cr's effects can explain the inability of investigators to discover a biomarker for Cr status. One potential biomarker has not been examined to date. Cr is known to be mobilized in the body in response to insulin (or insulin release in response to a glucose challenge), resulting in an increase in urinary Cr excretion. The magnitude of increase in urinary Cr loss as a function of dietary Cr intake was tested as a potential biomarker for Cr. Zucker lean rats housed in carefully controlled metal-free conditions were provided a series of purified diets containing variable Cr contents (from 16 μg/kg diet to 2,000 μg/kg) for 23 weeks. The 16 μg/kg diet contained less Cr than any diet examined to date. Urine samples were collected before and after insulin and glucose challenges (0, 2, 6, and 12 h postinjection). Urinary Cr levels were analyzed by the standard method of addition using graphite furnace atomic absorption. The rate of urinary Cr loss after a glucose or insulin challenge was found to not be dependent on the Cr content of the rats' diets. Blood iron levels of the rats were also measured to determine if the addition of Cr to the diet altered iron status. The Cr content of the diet was found to have no affect on blood iron levels. Overall, the study demonstrated that insulin-stimulated urinary Cr excretion cannot be used as a biomarker for Cr status.

  8. Relation of dietary inorganic arsenic exposure and urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites excretion in Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Suzuki, Yayoi; Tao, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Tetsuya

    2017-03-08

    Inorganic arsenic (InAs) is a ubiquitous metalloid that has been shown to exert multiple adverse health outcomes. Urinary InAs and its metabolite concentration has been used as a biomarker of arsenic (As) exposure in some epidemiological studies, however, quantitative relationship between daily InAs exposure and urinary InAs metabolites concentration has not been well characterized. We collected a set of 24-h duplicated diet and spot urine sample of the next morning of diet sampling from 20 male and 19 female subjects in Japan from August 2011 to October 2012. Concentrations of As species in duplicated diet and urine samples were determined by using liquid chromatography-ICP mass spectrometry with a hydride generation system. Sum of the concentrations of urinary InAs and methylarsonic acid (MMA) was used as a measure of InAs exposure. Daily dietary InAs exposure was estimated to be 0.087 µg kg(-1) day(-1) (Geometric mean, GM), and GM of urinary InAs+MMA concentrations was 3.5 ng mL(-1). Analysis of covariance did not find gender-difference in regression coefficients as significant (P > 0.05). Regression equation Log 10 [urinary InAs+MMA concentration] = 0.570× Log 10 [dietary InAs exposure level per body weight] + 1.15 was obtained for whole data set. This equation would be valuable in converting urinary InAs concentration to daily InAs exposure, which will be important information in risk assessment.

  9. Dynamics of pregnancy-associated polyomavirus urinary excretion: a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    McClure, Gloria B; Gardner, J Suzette; Williams, Jason T; Copeland, Christina M; Sylvester, Sarah K; Garcea, Robert L; Meinerz, Natalie M; Groome, Lynn J; Vanchiere, John A

    2012-08-01

    Asymptomatic polyomaviruria of pregnancy has been documented in point prevalence studies, but little attention has been given to the dynamics of polyomavirus excretion during pregnancy because of its benign course. We tested the hypothesis that the frequency and/or magnitude of polyomavirus excretion would increase as pregnancy progresses. Urine specimens were obtained prospectively from 179 healthy women during uncomplicated pregnancies and 37 healthy non-pregnant women. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine BK virus (BKV) and JC virus (JCV) viral loads in urine, blood, and rectal and vaginal swabs collected during routine obstetric and gynecologic clinic visits. Asymptomatic urinary shedding of BKV and/or JCV was observed in 384 (48.0%) of 800 specimens from 100 (55.8%) pregnant women. BKV excretion was more common in pregnant than non-pregnant women (41.3% vs. 13.5%, P = 0.0026). The frequency of JCV excretion was no different in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women. The frequency and magnitude of polyomavirus shedding did not vary with gestational age. Post-partum shedding of BKV, but not JCV, rapidly decreased to undetectable levels. Pregnancy-associated BKV excretion begins early in pregnancy and terminates rapidly post-partum. Neither the frequency nor magnitude of BKV or JCV shedding increased with pregnancy progression. Further study into the host factors that regulate pregnancy-associated BKV excretion may allow identification of the host factors that predict susceptibility to BKV-associated diseases in immune compromised patients.

  10. Increased urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in engine room personnel exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R; Moen, B; Ovrebo, S; Bleie, K; Skorve, A; Hollund, B; Tagesson, C

    2004-01-01

    Background: Previous investigations indicate that engine room personnel on ships are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from oil and oil products, with dermal uptake as the major route of exposure. Several PAH are known carcinogens and mutagens. Aims: To investigate the urinary excretion of a marker for oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxy-guanosine (8OHdG), in engine room personnel, and to study the association between 8OHdG and 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP), a biological marker for PAH exposure. Methods: Urine samples were collected from engine room personnel (n = 36) on 10 Swedish and Norwegian ships and from unexposed controls (n = 34) with similar age and smoking habits. The exposure to oils, engine exhaust, and tobacco smoke 24 hours prior to sampling was estimated from questionnaires. The urinary samples were frozen for later analyses of 8OHdG and 1OHP by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Excretion in urine of 8OHdG (adjusted to density 1.022) was similar for controls (mean 18.0 nmol/l, n = 33), and for those who had been in the engine room without skin contact with oils (mean 18.7 nmol/l, n = 15). Engine room personnel who reported skin contact with oil had increased excretion of 8OHdG (mean 23.2 nmol/l, n = 19). The difference between this group and the unexposed controls was significant. The urinary levels of ln 1OHP and ln 8OHdG were significantly correlated, and the association was still highly significant when the effects of smoking and age were accounted for in a multiple regression analysis. Conclusion: Results indicate that exposure to PAH or possibly other compounds from skin contact with oils in engine rooms may cause oxidative DNA damage. PMID:15258276

  11. Effect of urinary excretion on the bladder tissue distribution of fluoroquinolones in rats.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shigeru; Yamaoka, Makiko; Deguchi, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate which of blood or urine has the greater effect on bladder tissue concentrations of fluoroquinolones important for the treatment of urinary tract infections by measuring concentrations of fluoroquinolones in the vesical tissue (chemically and immunohistochemically) and intravesical space (chemically). Thirty-minute incubation of isolated rat bladders with fluoroquinolones showed only a 1.9-fold difference in transferability among norfloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin. Intravesical instillation of norfloxacin and sparfloxacin in rats yielded similar vesical tissue distributions. Thus, there were no large differences in vesical tissue transfer among the four fluoroquinolones. The bladder tissue/plasma concentration ratios of norfloxacin (high urinary excretion-type) and sparfloxacin (low urinary excretion-type) at 1 h after a single oral dose (10 mg/kg) to rats were 15.4 and 1.3, respectively. The bladder tissue/plasma concentration ratios of norfloxacin after an intravenous injection (10 mg/kg) to ureter-catheterized and sham-operated rats were 1.36 and 57.8. Thus the bladder tissue distribution was significantly higher in the urine-exposed bladder. Immunohistochemical examination of the vesical tissue localization of norfloxacin in rats given a single intravenous dose revealed the presence of the drug-positive image in the cytoplasm of surface layer cells (both in umbrella and cover cells) of the bladder transitional epithelium. In conclusion, the results suggest that norfloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are excreted into urine and then transferred to the surface layer of the bladder transitional epithelium. Therefore, the urine levels have a greater effect on the vesicle tissue distribution of fluoroquinolones than the plasma levels in rats.

  12. Urinary excretion values in 2-day food-deprived, unrestrained chimpanzees.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnew, J. J.; Sabbot, I. M.; Hoshizaki, T.; Mandell, A. J.; Spooner, C. E.; Marcus, I.; Adey, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the baseline 24-hr urinary excretion values in the young, unrestrained chimpanzee, and also changes in urinary values, if any, induced by the two-day food deprivation stress. Urine was analyzed for volume, osmolarity, creatinine, creatine, urea nitrogen, 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), calcium, and inorganic phosphorus. Significant increases due to food deprivation stress were observed for volume, creatine, urea nitrogen, 17-OHCS, VMA, and phosphorus values, with significant decreases in osmolarity and calcium. All values approached normal levels by the second poststress day. No significant changes were observed in creatinine. A comparison is drawn between human and chimpanzee adaptation to stress.

  13. Sex-related differences in urinary excretion of egualen sodium in rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Suzaka, H; Miyazaki, H

    2000-01-01

    Egualen sodium (sodium 3-ethyl-7-isopropyl-1-azulenesulfonate 1/3 hydrate) is a new antiulcer drug. There has been no difference observed in absorption between male and female rats, the relative amount of metabolites in male plasma has been higher than that in females, and the excretion ratios of metabolites in males have been significantly higher than those in females. However, the plasma concentration profile of total radioactivity in males has been higher than that in females. To clarify this discrepancy, the renal clearances and plasma concentrations of the unchanged drug and its metabolites were determined. The renal clearance of the unchanged drug in males was 21 times lower than that in females, and the urinary excretions in males and females were 2.1 and 39.5% of dose, respectively. This indicates that the major factor in the sex-related difference observed in the plasma concentration of total radioactivity is due to the difference in the renal clearance of the unchanged drug between the sexes. The results of treatments with probenecid in normal and gonadectomized rats revealed that egualen sodium was mainly excreted into urine by secretion through the renal tubule. Furthermore, the results of treatments with testosterone in rats revealed that the excretion of egualen sodium was highly affected by androgens. These facts indicated that the sex-related difference observed in the plasma concentration of total radioactivity can be attributed to the inhibition of renal tubular secretion of the unchanged drug by androgens. This is the first example of sex-related differences in both metabolism and excretion.

  14. Urinary magnesium excretion and risk of hypertension: the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Michel M; Gansevoort, Ron T; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E; Feskens, Edith J M; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2013-06-01

    Observational studies on dietary or circulating magnesium and risk of hypertension have reported weak-to-modest inverse associations, but have lacked measures of actual dietary uptake. Urinary magnesium excretion, an indicator of intestinal magnesium absorption, may provide a better insight in this association. We examined 5511 participants aged 28 to 75 years free of hypertension in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study, a prospective population-based cohort study. Circulating magnesium was measured in plasma and urinary magnesium in two 24-hour urine collections, both at baseline. Incident hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic, or initiation of antihypertensive medication. During a median follow-up of 7.6 years (interquartile range, 5.0-9.3 years), 1172 participants developed hypertension. The median urinary magnesium excretion was 3.8 mmol/24 hour (interquartile range, 2.9-4.8 mmol/24 hour). Urinary magnesium excretion was associated with risk of hypertension in an inverse log-linear fashion, and this association remained after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, parental history of hypertension, and urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and calcium. Each 1-unit increment in ln-transformed urinary magnesium excretion was associated with a 21% lower risk of hypertension after multivariable adjustment (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.88). No associations were observed between circulating magnesium and risk of hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of men and women, urinary magnesium excretion was inversely associated with risk of hypertension across the entire range of habitual dietary intake.

  15. Urinary excretion of mercury after occupational exposure to mercury vapour and influence of the chelating agent meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA).

    PubMed Central

    Roels, H A; Boeckx, M; Ceulemans, E; Lauwerys, R R

    1991-01-01

    The spontaneous and chelator mediated excretion of mercury in urine was investigated in male subjects occupationally exposed to mercury vapour (alkaline battery and chloralkali plants) who did not exhibit any sign of kidney damage. The time course of the spontaneous elimination of mercury in urine was examined in seven workers (age 22-40) who had been removed from exposure to mercury vapour (average duration of exposure 4.4 years) because their urinary mercury concentrations repeatedly exceeded 100 micrograms/g creatinine. The post exposure observation period started 10 to 29 days after the date of removal and lasted about 300 days (slow HgU elimination phase). For each worker, the kinetics of the spontaneous HgU decline followed a first order process; the biological half life ranged from 69 to 109 days (mean 90 days). The increased urinary excretion of mercury after a single oral administration of 2 g meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was investigated in 16 control workers (group A; age 23 to 49), in 11 workers removed from exposure for at least two years (group B; age 27 to 41), and in 16 workers currently exposed to mercury vapour (group C; age 21 to 58). In group C, the DMSA experiment was repeated twice (three weeks before and three weeks after a holiday) after measures had been taken to reduce the mercury emission. The urinary mercury excretion was significantly higher during the 24 hours after DMSA administration in all groups compared with that in the 24 hours before. The bulk (50-70%) of the DMSA stimulated mercury excretion appeared within the first eight hours. In each group, the amount of mercury (microgram Hg/24h) excreted after DMSA was significantly correlated with that before administration of DMSA. The groups whose exposure had ceased, however, exhibited much higher correlation for coefficients (r=0.97 for group B and 0.86 for group C after three weeks of holiday) than those currently exposed to mercury vapour (r-0.66 for group C before and 9

  16. Urinary Excretion of Phenolic Acids by Infants and Children: A Randomised Double-Blind Clinical Assay

    PubMed Central

    Uberos, J.; Fernández-Puentes, V.; Molina-Oya, M.; Rodríguez-Belmonte, R.; Ruíz-López, A.; Tortosa-Pinto, P.; Molina-Carballo, A.; Muñoz-Hoyos, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study, which is part of the ISRCTN16968287 clinical assay, is aimed at determining the effects of cranberry syrup or trimethoprim treatment for UTI. Methods: This Phase III randomised clinical trial was conducted at the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada, Spain) with a study population of 192 patients, aged between 1 month and 13 years. Criteria for inclusion were a background of recurrent UTI, associated or otherwise with vesico-ureteral reflux of any degree, or renal pelvic dilatation associated with urinary infection. Each child was randomly given 0.2 mL/Kg/day of either cranberry syrup or trimethoprim (8 mg/mL). The primary and secondary objectives, respectively, were to determine the risk of UTI and the levels of phenolic acids in urine associated with each intervention. Results: With respect to UTI, the cranberry treatment was non-inferior to trimethoprim. Increased urinary excretion of ferulic acid was associated with a greater risk of UTI developing in infants aged under 1 year (RR 1.06; CI 95% 1.024–1.1; P = 0.001). Conclusions: The results obtained show the excretion of ferulic acid is higher in infants aged under 1 year, giving rise to an increased risk of UTI, for both treatment options. PMID:23641168

  17. Monitoring and managing urinary albumin excretion: practical advice for primary care clinicians.

    PubMed

    Bakris, George L; Kuritzky, Louis

    2009-07-01

    Albuminuria has a strong, continuous, direct, linear relationship with adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. Even at levels below the accepted upper limit of what is considered "normal" daily albumin excretion (< 30 mg/24 h), a relationship between albumin excretion level and adverse CV events is evident. Primary care clinicians (eg, physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians' assistants) are usually the first point of contact for patients at risk for CV and kidney disease. Hence, identifying and treating problematic albuminuria levels are important in primary care. Both the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) endorse routine annual screening for microalbuminuria (small amounts of albumin in the urine). Once excess albumin excretion is detected, clinicians must employ aggressive CV risk reduction. To optimize outcomes, treatment of microalbuminuria often requires the combined skills of experts in primary care, cardiology, metabolic disease, and nephrology. Although blood pressure reduction usually improves microalbuminuria, agents that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are most efficacious. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers (ie, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors) may confer CV and kidney advantages in high-risk patients. Their effects on microalbuminuria reduction are greater than those associated with attaining guideline-recommended blood pressure goals. Effective RAAS blockade sometimes induces transient changes in creatinine and potassium, which merit consistent monitoring for the first 2 to 3 months of their use, but rarely necessitate discontinuation. This article also presents an approach to managing increases in creatinine and potassium that should fit comfortably in the hands of primary care clinicians.

  18. Urinary excretion of 2,5-hexanedione and peripheral polyneuropathies in workers exposed to hexane

    SciTech Connect

    Governa, M.; Calisti, R.; Coppa, G.; Tagliavento, G.; Colombi, A.; Troni, W.

    1987-01-01

    Forty shoe factory workers who were exposed to hexane were investigated to see if there was a correlation between electroneuromyographic changes indicative of neuropathy and urinary excretion of 2,5-hexanedione. Urinary samples were analyzed for the presence of the metabolic products of n-hexane and its isomers. Electrodiagnostic examination was carried out following the urinary sampling. A rating scale was used to obtain a cumulative numeric index of electrodiagnostic findings. 2,5-Hexanedione and ..gamma..-valerolactone were discovered in all cases, while 2-hexanol was found in 11 cases. 2,5-Hexanedione was the main metabolite in most cases (39 of 40). Only in 1 case was a low level of 2-methyl-2-pentanol detected; 3-methyl-2-pentanol was never detected. Metabolic products of cyclohexane were present in about one-fifth of the cases, while trichloroethanol, a metabolic product of trichloroethylene, was nearly always present, all at very low concentrations. Electromyographic abnormalities significant for early detection of toxic polyneuropathy were found in 14 cases. A statistically significant correlation of the electroneuromyographic scoring on the urinary concentrations of measured metabolites was observed only with 2,5-hexanedione and ..gamma..-valerolactone, both derived from n-hexane. Since ..gamma..-valerolactone is probably not a true metabolite of n-hexane, the authors results support the hypothesis that polyneuropathies in shoemakers are due to 2,5-hexanedione. For practical purposes the urinary concentration of 2,5-hexanedione can serve as a predictive measurement for early detection of neurotoxic lesions at preclinical states.

  19. The factors influencing urinary arsenic excretion and metabolism of workers in steel and iron smelting foundry.

    PubMed

    Shuhua, Xi; Qingshan, Sun; Fei, Wang; Shengnan, Liu; Ling, Yan; Lin, Zhang; Yingli, Song; Nan, Yan; Guifan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the degree of arsenic (As) exposure and the factors influencing urinary As excretion and metabolism, 192 workers from a steel and iron smelting plant, with different type of work in production such as roller, steel smelting, iron smelting and metallic charge preparation, were recruited. Information about characteristics of each subject was obtained by questionnaire and inorganic As (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine were determined. The results showed that steel smelters had significantly higher concentrations of DMA and total As (TAs) than rollers and metallic charge preparation workers, and iron and steel smelters had a higher value of primary methylation index and lower proportion of the iAs (iAs%) than rollers and metallic charge preparation workers. In steel smelters, urinary As level exceeded the biological exposure index (BEI) limit for urinary As of 35 μg/l by 65.52%, and higher than metallic charge preparation workers (35.14%). The individuals consumed seafood in recent 3 days had a higher TAs than the individuals without seafood consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that different jobs, taken Chinese medicine of bezoar and seafood consumption in recent 3 days were significantly associated with urinary TAs exceeded BEI limit value 35 μg/l. Our results suggest that workers in steel and iron smelting plant had a lower level of As exposure, and seafood consumption and taking Chinese medicine of bezoar also could increase the risk of urinary TAs exceeded BEI limit value.

  20. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, P<0.05) with ephedrine than with placebo, but mechanical work was not different between the ephedrine and placebo periods. Noradrenaline excretion was lower with ephedrine (0.032+/-0.011 microg/mg creatinine) compared with placebo (0.044+/-0.012 microg/mg creatinine) (P<0.05). (+/-)Ephedrine is a relatively weak partial agonist of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors, and had no detectable activity at human beta3-adrenoreceptors. Ephedrine (50 mg thrice daily) modestly increases energy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  1. Mercury excretion and intravenous ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Dirks, M J; Davis, D R; Cheraskin, E; Jackson, J A

    1994-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intravenous ascorbic acid increases urinary excretion of mercury in subjects with low mercury levels from dental amalgam, food, and other sources. From 89 adult volunteers we selected 28 subjects with the highest mercury excretions (2 to 14 micrograms/24 h). We administered intravenous infusions of 500 ml lactated Ringer's solution with and without addition of 750 mg of ascorbic acid/kg body weight, up to 60 g ascorbic acid. Average mercury excretion during the 24 h after infusion of ascorbic acid was 4.0 +/- 0.5 micrograms (mean +/- SEM), which was not significantly more than after infusion of Ringer's solution alone (3.7 +/- 0.5 micrograms). Lead excretion was similarly unaffected. If ascorbic acid administered intravenously benefits some persons with suspected adverse reactions to mercury, the benefit in subjects similar to ours appears unrelated to short-term enhanced excretion of mercury or lead.

  2. Human urinary excretion profile after smoking and oral administration of ( sup 14 C)delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E.; Gillespie, H.K.; Halldin, M.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The urinary excretion profiles of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 1-THC) metabolites have been evaluated in two chronic and two naive marijuana users after smoking and oral administration of ({sup 14}C)delta 1-THC. Urine was collected for five days after each administration route and analyzed for total delta 1-THC metabolites by radioactivity determination, for delta 1-THC-7-oic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography, and for cross-reacting cannabinoids by the EMIT d.a.u. cannabinoid assay. The average urinary excretion half-life of {sup 14}C-labeled delta 1-THC metabolites was calculated to be 18.2 +/- 4.9 h (+/- SD). The excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings were similar to the excretion profile of {sup 14}C-labeled metabolites in the naive users. However, in the chronic users the excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings did not resemble the radioactive excretion due to the heavy influence from previous Cannabis use. Between 8-14% of the radioactive dose was recovered in the urine in both user groups after oral administration. Lower urinary recovery was obtained both in the chronic and naive users after smoking--5 and 2%, respectively.

  3. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  4. Increased angiotensinogen expression, urinary angiotensinogen excretion, and tissue injury in nonclipped kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, Weijian; Miyata, Kayoko; Katsurada, Akemi; Satou, Ryousuke; Seth, Dale M; Rosales, Carla B; Prieto, Minolfa C; Mitchell, Kenneth D; Navar, L Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    In angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension, there is an angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent amplification mechanism enhancing intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT) formation and secretion in the tubular fluid. To evaluate the role of increased arterial pressure, AGT mRNA, protein expression, and urinary AGT (uAGT) excretion and tissue injury were assessed in both kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip Sprague-Dawley hypertensive rats subjected to left renal arterial clipping (0.25-mm gap). By 18-21 days, systolic arterial pressure increased to 180 ± 3 mmHg, and uAGT increased. Water intake, body weights, 24-h urine volumes, and sodium excretion were similar. In separate measurements of renal function in anesthetized rats, renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate were similar in clipped and nonclipped kidneys and not different from those in sham rats, indicating that the perfusion pressure to the clipped kidneys remained within the autoregulatory range. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited increased urine flow and sodium excretion. The uAGT excretion was significantly greater in nonclipped kidneys compared with clipped and sham kidneys. AGT mRNA was 2.15-fold greater in the nonclipped kidneys compared with sham (1.0 ± 0.1) or clipped (0.98 ± 0.15) kidneys. AGT protein levels were also greater in the nonclipped kidneys. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited greater glomerular expansion and immune cell infiltration, medullary fibrosis, and cellular proliferation than the clipped kidneys. Because both kidneys have elevated ANG II levels, the greater tissue injury in the nonclipped kidneys indicates that an increased arterial pressure synergizes with increased intrarenal ANG II to stimulate AGT production and exert greater renal injury.

  5. Tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate: absorption and urinary excretion of bismuth in patients with normal and impaired renal function.

    PubMed

    Treiber, G; Gladziwa, U; Ittel, T H; Walker, S; Schweinsberg, F; Klotz, U

    1991-10-01

    We have investigated the absorption and urinary excretion of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate during a treatment course of 4 weeks in 7 patients with normal renal function (creatinine clearance 115 +/- 29 ml/min; mean +/- S.D.), in 7 patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance = 34 +/- 19 ml/min) and in 4 dialysed patients. Following the first dose of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (216 mg bismuth b.d.), and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment (dialysed patients received only 108 mg/b.d.), plasma and urine concentrations of bismuth were monitored for 2 and 24 h, respectively. After stopping therapy plasma and urine concentrations of bismuth were followed for 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. In all three groups of patients small amounts of bismuth (mean values 0.26 to 0.28% of dose) were rapidly (transient mean peak concentrations between 40 and 134 micrograms/L) reached within about 30 to 40 min, absorbed and plasma levels demonstrated a wide intra- and inter-individual variability. Absorption profiles were not altered during the treatment course; however, the trough plasma concentration of bismuth demonstrated an about 3- to 5-fold accumulation (correlated to creatinine clearance) from about 5 micrograms/L to 15 micrograms/L (normal renal function) or to 20-25 micrograms/L (impaired renal function). Pre-study bismuth levels could be detected within 2 to 4 weeks after stopping therapy in all subjects whereas urinary concentrations were still elevated 6 weeks after the course of treatment. Our results indicate that tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate is absorbed in very low amounts during standard therapy. However, dependent on renal function, accumulation to non-toxic levels does occur during a course of treatment. It appears prudent to halve tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate dosage in patients with severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance less than or equal to 20 ml/min) to avoid any possible toxic risks. In such patients monitoring of the

  6. Tamm-Horsfall protein in recurrent calcium kidney stone formers with positive family history: abnormalities in urinary excretion, molecular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Markus; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Zipperle, Ljerka; Hess, Bernhard

    2007-04-01

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) powerfully inhibits calcium oxalate crystal aggregation, but structurally abnormal THPs from recurrent calcium stone formers may promote crystal aggregation. Therefore, increased urinary excretion of abnormal THP might be of relevance in nephrolithiasis. We studied 44 recurrent idiopathic calcium stone formers with a positive family history of stone disease (RCSF(fam)) and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (C). Twenty-four-hour urinary THP excretion was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Structural properties of individually purified THPs were obtained from analysis of elution patterns from a Sepharose 4B column. Sialic acid (SA) contents of native whole 24-h urines, crude salt precipitates of native urines and individually purified THPs were measured. THP function was studied by measuring inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation in vitro (pH 5.7, 200 mM sodium chloride). Twenty-four-hour urine excretion of THP was higher in RCSF(fam) (44.0 +/- 4.0 mg/day) than in C (30.9 +/- 2.2 mg/day, P = 0.015). Upon salt precipitation and lyophilization, elution from a Sepharose 4B column revealed one major peak (peak A, cross-reacting with polyclonal anti-THP antibody) and a second minor peak (peak B, not cross-reacting). THPs from RCSF(fam) eluted later than those from C (P = 0.021), and maximum width of THP peaks was higher in RCSF(fam )than in C (P = 0.024). SA content was higher in specimens from RCSF(fam) than from C, in native 24-h urines (207.5 +/- 20.4 mg vs. 135.2 +/- 16.1 mg, P = 0.013) as well as in crude salt precipitates of 24-h urines (10.4 +/- 0.5 mg vs. 7.4 +/- 0.9 mg, P = 0.002) and in purified THPs (75.3 +/- 9.3 microg/mg vs. 48.8 +/- 9.8 microg/mg THP, P = 0.043). Finally, inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal aggregation by 40 mg/L of THP was lower in RCSF(fam) (6.1 +/- 5.5%, range -62.0 to +84.2%) than in C (24.9 +/- 6.0%, range -39.8 to +82.7%), P = 0.022, and only 25 out of 44 (57%) THPs from RCSF

  7. Arsenic levels in the groundwater of Korea and the urinary excretion among contaminated area.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Duck; Choi, Seong-Jin; Choi, Byung-Sun; Lee, Choong-Ryeol; Kim, Heon; Kim, Yong-Dae; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Young-Jo; Kang, Seojin; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water is a main source of human exposure to arsenic. Hence, the determination of arsenic in groundwater is essential to assess its impact on public health. Here, we report arsenic levels in the groundwater of 722 sites covering all six major provinces of Korea. Water was sampled in two occasions (summer, 722 sites and winter, 636 sites) and the arsenic levels were measured with highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method (limit of detection, 0.1 μg/l) to encompass the current drinking water standard (<10 μg/l). Seasonal variation was negligible, but the geographical difference was prominent. Total arsenic in groundwater ranged from 0.1 to 48.4 μg/l. A 88.0-89.0% of sites were <2.0 μg/l and the remaining ones generally did not exceed 10 μg/l (6.4-7.0%, 2.0-4.9 μg/l; 2.4-3.0%, 5.0-9.9 μg/l). However, some areas (1.0-9.2%) exhibited >10 μg/l. Notably, urinary arsenic excretion of people around these regions was markedly higher compared with non-contaminated areas (<5 μg/l) (79.7±5.2 μg/g (N=122) vs 68.4±5.4 μg/g (N=65) creatinine, P=0.052). All stratified analysis also revealed higher urinary excretion, where a statistically significant difference was noted for non-smokers (85.9±12.7 vs 54.0±6.3, P=0.030), suggesting that arsenic-contaminated groundwater may contribute to its systemic exposure.

  8. Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Deckert, T.; Yokoyama, H.; Mathiesen, E.; Rønn, B.; Jensen, T.; Feldt-Rasmussen, B.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Jensen, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion precedes development of atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes independently of conventional atherogenic risk factors and of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN: Cohort study with 11 year follow up. SETTING: Diabetes centre in Denmark. SUBJECTS: 259 patients aged 19-51 with insulin dependent diabetes of 6-34 years' duration and without atherosclerotic vascular disease or diabetic nephropathy at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline variables: urinary albumin excretion, blood pressure, smoking habits, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor. End point: atherosclerotic vascular disease assessed by death certificates, mailed questionnaires, and hospital records. RESULTS: Thirty patients developed atherosclerotic vascular disease during follow up of 2457 person year. Elevated urinary albumin excretion was significantly predictive of atherosclerotic vascular disease (hazard ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.18) per 5 mg increase in 24 hour urinary albumin excretion, P = 0.002). Predictive effect was independent of age; sex; blood pressure; smoking; serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor; level of haemoglobin A(lc); insulin dose, duration of diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy (hazard ratio 1.04 (1.01 to 1.08) per 5 mg increase PMID:8611873

  9. Tissue accumulation and urinary excretion of Cr in chromium picolinate (CrPic)-supplemented lambs.

    PubMed

    Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Lima, Bárbara Alcântara Ferreira; Braz, Shélida Vasconcelos; Mustafa, Vanessa da Silva; McManus, Concepta; Paim, Tiago do Prado; Campeche, Aline; Gomes, Edgard Franco; Louvandini, Helder

    2016-05-01

    Chromium (Cr) concentrations in liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lymph node, skeletal muscle, bone, testis and urine of lambs were measured to trace the biodistribution and bioaccumulation of Cr after oral supplementation with chromium picolinate (CrPic). Twenty-four Santa Inês lambs were treated with four different concentrations of CrPic: placebo, 0.250, 0.375 and 0.500 mg of CrPic/animal/day for 84 days. The basal diet consisted of Panicum maximum cv Massai hay and concentrate. Cr concentrations were measured by ICP-MS measuring (52)Cr as collected mass. There was a positive linear relationship between dose administered and the accumulation of Cr in the heart, lungs and testis. Urinary excretion of Cr occurred in a time and dose-dependent manner, so the longer or more dietary Cr provided, the greater excretion of the element. As some non-carcass components (such as lungs or heart) are added to bone and visceral meal to feed animals, there is a risk of bioaccumulation and biomagnification due to Cr offered as CrPic in the diet.

  10. Availability of 24-h urine collection method on dietary phosphorus intake estimation

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Masae; Morimoto, Yuuka; Suzuki, Yukie; Suzuki, Akitsu; Noda, Saaya; Nishino, Kanaho; Ando, Sakiko; Ishikawa, Makoto; Arai, Hidekazu

    2017-01-01

    Accurate assessment of dietary phosphorus intake is necessary to prevent hyperphosphatemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-h urine collection method for estimation of phosphate intake in healthy males. Two experiments, a 1-day and a 5-day loading test, were performed. After an overnight fast, subjects consumed test meals, 24-h urine collection was performed, and blood samples were obtained. In the 5-day loading test, a phosphorus supplement was orally administered on day 3. The association between the phosphorus content of test meals and urinary excretion, anthropometric indices, and blood biomarkers was analyzed to develop a more precise formula for estimating phosphorus intake. In the 1-day loading test, the standard deviation of predictive phosphorus intake, based on multiple linear regression analysis, was less than that for the phosphorus absorption rate. In the 5-day loading test, urinary phosphorus excretion was similar on days 2, 4 and 5, but was significantly higher on day 3 after phosphorus supplementation. Our results indicate that estimation of dietary phosphorus intake with the 24-h urine collection method, using the amount of phosphorus and urea nitrogen excretion, may increase the precision of short-term monitoring. PMID:28366992

  11. Gastrointestinal absorption and urinary excretion of trans-cinnamic and p-coumaric acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Garrait, Ghislain; Jarrige, Jean-François; Blanquet, Stéphanie; Beyssac, Erick; Cardot, Jean-Michel; Alric, Monique

    2006-04-19

    trans-Cinnamic acid (CIN) and p-coumaric acid (COU) are ingested by humans in their diet. While the metabolism and health benefits of CIN have been widely documented, little is known about its absorption sites, and there have been few studies dedicated to COU. The gastrointestinal sac technique demonstrated that CIN and COU are absorbed by all digestive organs in rats and partially transported via MCT-mediated carrier. Absorption was lowest in the stomach. Regardless of the organs that were studied, CIN was more efficiently absorbed than COU. After their individual oral administration to rats, CIN and COU were excreted in 0-24 h urine (0.3% and 23% of ingested CIN and COU, respectively). This suggests that COU was less metabolized than CIN. CIN and COU are absorbed across the digestive epithelium and subsequently interact with target tissues. Despite its lower gastrointestinal absorption, COU may have greater health benefits because it seems to be less metabolized than CIN.

  12. Concentrations of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Blood and Urinary Excretion in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Iwakawa, Hiromi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Fukui, Tomiho; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Yukio; Shibata, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood and urinary excretion of 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2DM) and 20 healthy control participants. Macronutrient and vitamin intakes of type 2DM subjects were measured using a weighed food record method. Control participants consumed a semipurified diet for eight days. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine whether significant differences existed in vitamin concentrations in blood independent of age, sex, and other confounding factors. Concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors. Renal clearances of vitamins B6, C, niacin, and folate were significantly higher in type 2DM subjects than in controls. In conclusion, concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors; based on the evidence of increased urinary clearance of these vitamins, the lower levels were likely due to impaired reabsorption processes. PMID:27812289

  13. Variability in metabolism of imipramine and desipramine using urinary excretion data.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Kelley; Ma, Joseph D; Best, Brookie M; Atayee, Rabia S; Morello, Candis M

    2014-01-01

    Variability in imipramine and desipramine metabolism was evaluated using urinary excretion data from patients with pain. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantitate concentrations in urine specimens. Interpatient population contained 600 unique imipramine specimens, whereas intrapatient population had 137 patients with two or more specimens. Normal concentration ranges of imipramine, desipramine and the desipramine/imipramine metabolic ratio (MR) were established, and various factors were tested for MR impact. Geometric mean of imipramine urine concentration was 0.46 mg/g of creatinine, and desipramine was 0.67 mg/g of creatinine. Gender, concomitant known CYP2C19 inhibitor use and urine pH did not affect MR. However, proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) users had a significantly lower mean MR than those without a listed PPI. Early age group (18-36 years) had a significantly higher mean MR than middle (37-66 years) and late (67-90 years) age groups. Approximately one-third were positive for one or more of hydrocodone, oxycodone, hydromorphone or oxymorphone. Patients with no opioids reported in the medication list had a significantly lower geometric mean MR than those with prescribed opioids (1.03 vs. 1.54, P = 0.004). Patients with only one prescribed opioid had a lower MR than those with two or more prescribed opioids. Patients with younger age, prescribed opioids and no listed PPI were more likely to have a higher geometric mean urinary desipramine/imipramine MR.

  14. Effect of Ramipril on Urinary Protein Excretion in Maintenance Renal Transplant Patients Converted to Sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Mandelbrot, D A; Alberú, J; Barama, A; Marder, B A; Silva, H T; Flechner, S M; Flynn, A; Healy, C; Li, H; Tortorici, M A; Schulman, S L

    2015-12-01

    This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of ramipril on urinary protein excretion in renal transplant patients treated with sirolimus following conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor. Patients received ramipril or placebo for up to 6 weeks before conversion and 52 weeks thereafter. Doses were increased if patients developed proteinuria (urinary protein/creatinine ratio ≥0.5); losartan was given as rescue therapy for persistent proteinuria. The primary end point was time to losartan initiation. Of 295 patients randomized, 264 met the criteria for sirolimus conversion (ramipril, 138; placebo, 126). At 52 weeks, the cumulative rate of losartan initiation was significantly lower with ramipril (6.2%) versus placebo (23.2%) (p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed between ramipril and placebo for change in glomerular filtration rate from baseline (p = 0.148) or in the number of patients with biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (13 vs. 5, respectively; p = 0.073). One patient in the placebo group died due to cerebrovascular accident. Treatment-emergent adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of sirolimus and were not potentiated by ramipril co-administration. Ramipril was effective in reducing the incidence of proteinuria for up to 1 year following conversion to sirolimus in maintenance renal transplant patients.

  15. Dose-, route-, and sex-dependent urinary excretion of phenol metabolites in B6C3F, mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, E.M.; Seeley, M.E.; Janszen, D.; Medinsky, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    Phenol is the major oxidized metabolite of benzene, a known human leukemogen and ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Unlike benzene, phenol does not induce tumors in mice following oral exposure; benzene also exhibits sex-related differences in genotoxicity to bone marrow cells that are not observed following phenol administration. We studied the urinary excretion of phenol metabolites in mice as a means to further investigate the metabolic basis for differences in benzene- and phenol-induced toxicity. Male and female B6C3F, mice (n = 3/group) were exposed to 15, 40, 100, or 225 {mu}mol [{sup 14}C]phenol/kg by iv tail vein injection (6 {mu}Ci/mouse). First-pass intestinal metabolism of phenol was evaluated by comparison of urinary excretion of phenol metabolites following iv administration with additional groups of male mice that received the same dose levels by oral gavage. Mice were placed in glass metabolism cages, and urine was collected over dry ice for 48 h. Urinary metabolites were separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and quantified by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Urinary excretion of conjugated metabolites of phenol was dose-dependent in both male and female mice administered phenol by iv injection or gavage. The major urinary metabolites of phenol were phenol sulfate (PS), phenol glucuronide (PG), and hydroquinone glucoronide (HQG). Sulfation was the dominant pathway at all dose levels, but decreased as a percent of the excreted dose with a concomitant increase in glucorodination as the dose level increased. Male mice consistently excreted a higher proportion of phenol as the oxidized conjugated metabolite, HQG, compared to female mice, suggesting that male mice oxidize phenol to hydroquinone more rapidly than female mice. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Prevalence of hypercalciuria and urinary calcium excretion in school-aged children in the province of Tokat

    PubMed Central

    Gül, Ali; Özer, Samet; Yılmaz, Resul; Sönmezgöz, Ergün; Kasap, Tuba; Takçı, Şahin; Karaaslan, Erhan; Önder, Yalçın; Çıtıl, Rıza; Bütün, İlknur; Demir, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Aim Hypercalciuria is an important cause of urinary tract symptoms, and also frequently results in urolithiasis. Urinary calcium excretion varies for geographic areas. We aimed to assess percentiles of urinary calcium excretion and prevalence of hypercalciuria for school-aged children in Tokat (city located in inner northern region of Turkey). Material and Methods One thousand three hundred seventy-five children aged 6 to 18 years were enrolled in the study. Urine samples were obtained randomly. The children’s variables as sex, age, length, and weight were recorded. Urinary calcium and creatinine determined from the urine samples and urinary calcium/creatinine ratios (mg/mg) were calculated. Percentiles of urinary calcium/creatinine ratios were also assessed for each age of the children. Results Six hundred eighty-three of the 1 375 children were girls and 692 were boys. The mean age of the children was 11.68±3.43 years. Some 23.9% of the children were living in rural regions and 76.1% were were living in urban regions. The mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.080±0.24 and the 95th percentile value of the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.278. The hypercalciuria prevalence for school-aged children was 4.7% when the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio value for hypercalciuria was accepted as ≥0.21. The prevalence of hypercalciuria in rural and urban regions was 7.60% and 3.82%, respectively (p<0.05). Hypercalciuria was present in 7 of 141 patients who were obese (4.96%) and 58 of 1 234 patients who were not obese (4.70%) (p>0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of hypercalciuria and urinary calcium excretion vary for different geographic areas, not only for countries. The percentiles of urinary calcium excretion should be assesed for every geographic region and the prevalance of hypercalciuria should be determined with these values. There is controversy as to whether obesity is a risk factor for hypercalciuria. PMID:28123331

  17. Urinary excretion of digoxin-like immunoreactive factor and arginine-vasopressin in rats after several osmotic loads.

    PubMed

    Vargas, F; Andrade, J L; Jódar, E; Castillo, M A; Luna, J D; Haro, J M

    1991-01-01

    Urinary digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and other urinary parameters were investigated under normal conditions and after the i.p. injection of the following solutions: distilled water, isotonic and hypertonic NaCl, NaHCO3, KCl and urea, at a rate of 3 ml/100 g body weight. The measurement of digoxin-like immunoreactivity by two different radioimmunoassays showed that DLIF was stimulated by all volume loads regardless of the presence or absence of osmolar compounds. This dissociation between DLIF and urinary sodium excretion suggests that DLIF may not constitute the natriuretic hormone. Moreover, a dissociation between DLIF and AVP excretion also were found, which speaks against the hypothesis of a common mechanism of stimulation for both substances.

  18. Zea mays L. extracts modify glomerular function and potassium urinary excretion in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, D V O; Xavier, H S; Batista, J E M; de Castro-Chaves, C

    2005-05-01

    Diuretic and uricosuric properties have traditionally been attributed to corn silk, stigma/style of Zea mays L. Although the diuretic effect was confirmed, studies of the plant's effects on renal function or solute excretion were lacking. Thus, we studied the effects of corn silk aqueous extract on the urinary excretion of water, Na+, K+, and uric acid. Glomerular and proximal tubular function and Na+ tubular handling were also studied. Conscious, unrestrained adult male rats were housed in individual metabolic cages (IMC) with continuous urine collection for 5 and 3 h, following two protocols. The effects of 25, 50, 200, 350, and 500 mg/kg body wt. corn silk extract on urine volume plus Na+ and K+ excretions were studied in water-loaded conscious rats (2.5 ml/100 g body wt.) in the IMC for 5 h (Protocol 1). Kaliuresis was observed with doses of 350 (100.42 +/- 22.32-120.28 +/- 19.70 microEq/5 h/100 g body wt.; n = 13) and 500 mg/kg body wt. (94.97+/- 29.30-134.32 +/- 39.98 microEq/5h/100 g body wt.; n = 12; p<0.01), and the latter dose resulted in diuresis as well (1.98 +/- 0.44-2.41 +/- 0.41 ml/5 h/100 g body wt.; n = 12; p<0.05). The effects of a 500 mg/kg body wt. dose of corn silk extract on urine volume, Na+, K+ and uric acid excretions, and glomerular and proximal tubular function, were measured respectively by creatinine (Cler) and Li+ (ClLi) clearances and Na+ tubular handling, in water-loaded rats (5 ml/100 g body wt.) in the IMC for 3 h (Protocol 2). Clcr (294.6 +/- 73.2, n = 12, to 241.7 +/- 48.0 microl/ min/100 g body wt.; n = 13; p<0.05) and the Na+ filtered load (41.9 +/- 10.3, n = 12, to 34.3 +/- .8, n = 13, p<0.05) decreased and ClLi and Na+ excretion were unchanged, while K+ excretion (0.1044 +/- 0.0458, n=12, to 0.2289 +/- 0.0583 microEq/min/100 body wt.; n = 13; p<0.001) increased. For Na+ tubular handling, the fractional proximal tubular reabsorption (91.5 +/- 3.5, n = 12, to 87.5 +/- 3.4%; n = 13; p<0.01) decreased, and both fractional distal

  19. Urinary excretion of lipoxin A(4) and related compounds: development of new extraction techniques for lipoxins.

    PubMed

    Romano, Mario; Luciotti, Graziella; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Marinucci, Francesca; Prontera, Cesaria; D'Urbano, Etrusca; Davì, Giovanni

    2002-09-01

    LX are tetraene-containing eicosanoids generated by lipoxygenase (LO) transformation of arachidonic acid (Serhan and Romano, 1995). LX possess potent anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, and temporal biosynthesis of LX, concurrent with spontaneous resolution, has been observed during exudate formation (Levy et al, 2001). Limited results are currently available on the involvement of LX in clinical settings. Recently, a rabbit anti-LXA(4) antiserum has been raised to produce an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for LXA(4) (Levy et al, 1993). Although specific and accurate with isolated cells, this kit has not been tested with complex biological matrix such as urine. Initial attempts to determine urinary excretion of LXA(4) using the LXA(4) ELISA kit were unsuccessful because of high unspecific absorbance readings. In this report, we show that the LXA(4) extraction procedure indicated in the ELISA kit is inadequate for urinary measurements of immunoreactive (i)LXA(4). We present the development of a new extraction technique, more selective for LX, that abolishes background contamination and minimizes the unspecific readings. Using this method, we show for the first time that urine from healthy subjects contain (i)LXA(4) material and identify a urinary tetraene with the physical properties of a LXA(4) metabolite. Although reliable methods have been previously established to quantitate LXA(4) from whole blood (Brezinski et al, 1992), the present extraction technique, which optimizes for LXA(4) recovery from human urine, represents a substantial achievement for LX investigation and may open a new avenue of clinical studies on LXA(4).

  20. [Urinary excretion of steroid hormone and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in normal young adult women].

    PubMed

    Takeyasu, M; Kato, T

    1999-01-01

    The urinary steroid hormone metabolites and the ratio of pregnenetriol (delta 5P3) to pregnanetriol (P3) as indicators of 3 beta HSD activity in the urine of healthy young female were measured by means of capillary gas chromatography. All of the subjects have finished the normal pubertal development, and their adrenal steroid hormone secretion had reached to the stable state. We analyzed the diurnal variation, fluctuation during menstrual cycle and seasonal variation of delta 5P3/P3. We found that the hormone excretion in the urine of the morning during the follicular phase of menstrual cycle was relatively stable, and that the ratio of delta 5P3/P3 correlated highly with that in the total daily urine. In the seasonal variation, the urinary delta 5P3/P3 ratio in the subjects of high urinary DHEA group was relatively high, and that of the low DHEA group was low. Although the difference of delta 5P3/P3 ratio of the both groups was small, but statistically significant. Individual difference in the delta 5P3/P3 ratio was relatively small in comparison with that of the urinary DHEA excretion. About 5% of the all subjects showed marked high value of delta 5P3/P3 ratio. About 80% of the high urinary excretion group showed higher value than the average delta 5P3/P3 ratio. These findings suggest that the normal young female subjects were divided into several groups with regard to the urinary DHEA excretion pattern and delta 5P3/P3 ratio in the urine. Both of them may be a specific individual marker.

  1. Higher Urinary Sodium, a Proxy for Intake, Is Associated with Increased Calcium Excretion and Lower Hip Bone Density in Healthy Young Women with Lower Calcium Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, Jennifer L.; Barr, Susan I.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed 24-h urinary sodium (Na) and its relationship with urinary calcium (Ca) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the whole body, lumbar spine and total hip in a cross-sectional study. 102 healthy non-obese women completed timed 24-h urine collections which were analyzed for Na and Ca. Dietary intakes were estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were grouped as those with lower vs. higher calcium intake by median split (506 mg/1000 kcal). Dietary Na intake correlated with 24-h urinary loss. Urinary Na correlated positively with urinary Ca for all participants (r = 0.29, p < 0.01) and among those with lower (r = 0.37, p < 0.01) but not higher calcium intakes (r = 0.19, p = 0.19). Urinary Na was inversely associated with hip aBMD for all participants (r = −0.21, p = 0.04) and among women with lower (r = −0.36, p < 0.01) but not higher (r = −0.05, p = 0.71) calcium intakes. Urinary Na also entered a regression equation for hip aBMD in women with lower Ca intakes, contributing 5.9% to explained variance. In conclusion, 24-h urinary Na (a proxy for intake) is associated with higher urinary Ca loss in young women and may affect aBMD, particularly in those with lower calcium intakes. PMID:22254088

  2. Relation between urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid excretion and concentration of lead in the blood of workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Tomokuni, K; Ichiba, M; Mori, K

    1992-05-01

    Urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid (ABA) concentration was determined by fluorometric high performance liquid chromatography in 22 workers occupationally exposed to lead. The urinary excretion of ABA was increased with increasing exposure to lead. The excretion of urinary ABA had a significant correlation with concentration of lead in blood (Pb-B) (r = 0.581), similar to the correlation of Pb-B with urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) concentration (r = 0.563). The determination of urinary ABA concentration in workers exposed to lead, therefore, may offer a new approach for evaluating the health effect of lead.

  3. Urinary excretion of metabolites following a single dermal dose of [14C]methyl parathion in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qare, A W; Abou-Donia, M B

    2000-09-07

    The identification and kinetics of urinary excretion of metabolites of uniformly phenyl-labeled O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate ([14C]methyl parathion) were carried out following a single dermal dose of 10.0 mg (10 microCi)/kg in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at 14-18 days of gestation. Urine was collected at each time interval of 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after dosing. Total p-nitrophenol in the conjugated and non-conjugated metabolites was measured as a marker of methyl parathion exposure. Elimination of radioactivity in the urine was rapid. Of the total 14C urinary excretion, 30% of the dose was excreted within 4 h, while 50 and 90% of the dose were recovered in the urine by 24 and 96 h, respectively. Excretion rate of total radioactivity was 60 microgram methyl parathion equivalent/h (1.4 mg/day). By the end of the 96-h experiment, conjugated and non-conjugated metabolites accounted for 78.1 and 21.9%, respectively. Of the non-conjugated metabolites, p-nitrophenol and O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphate (methyl paraoxon) were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that accounted for 20%, and 1.9% of total urinary excretion, respectively. Appearance and disappearance rate constants of p-nitrophenol in urine were 0.12 and 0.048 microgram/h, respectively. Conjugated metabolites were classified as: glucuronides 12% of urinary excretion, sulfates 3%, hot sulfuric acid hydrolysable residues 47% and 16.1% remained as unidentified water soluble metabolites. Direct hot acid hydrolysis of urine yielded 49% of extractable 14C-radioactivity compared to 62% when hot acid hydrolysis followed the enzymatic hydrolysis. The presence of the conjugated metabolites as the major class of metabolites of the total excretion indicates that determining only unbound p-nitrophenol as a biological marker for methyl parathion exposure underestimates total urinary excretion of p-nitrophenol. Sequential enzymatic and acid hydrolyses of urine prior

  4. Ability of self-reported estimates of dietary sodium, potassium and protein to detect an association with general and abdominal obesity: comparison with the estimates derived from 24 h urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-28

    As under-reporting of dietary intake, particularly by overweight and obese subjects, is common in dietary surveys, biases inherent in the use of self-reported dietary information may distort true diet-obesity relationships or even create spurious ones. However, empirical evidence of this possibility is limited. The present cross-sectional study compared the relationships of 24 h urine-derived and self-reported intakes of Na, K and protein with obesity. A total of 1043 Japanese women aged 18-22 years completed a 24 h urine collection and a self-administered diet history questionnaire. After adjustment for potential confounders, 24 h urine-derived Na intake was associated with a higher risk of general obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥80 cm; both P for trend=0·04). For 24 h urine-derived protein intake, positive associations with general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·02 and 0·053, respectively). For 24 h urine-derived K intake, there was an inverse association with abdominal obesity (P for trend=0·01). Conversely, when self-reported dietary information was used, only inverse associations between K intake and general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·04 and 0·02, respectively), with no associations of Na or protein intake. In conclusion, we found positive associations of Na and protein intakes and inverse associations of K intake with obesity when using 24 h urinary excretion for estimating dietary intakes. However, no association was observed based on using self-reported dietary intakes, except for inverse association of K intake, suggesting that the ability of self-reported dietary information using the diet history questionnaire for investigating diet-obesity relationships is limited.

  5. Reassessment of individual dosimetry of long-lived alpha radionuclides of uranium miners through experimental determination of urinary excretion of uranium.

    PubMed

    Malátová, I; Becková, V; Tomásek, L; Slezáková-Marusiaková, M; Hůlka, J

    2013-04-01

    Urinary excretion of uranium of 40 uranium miners was determined by the high-resolution inductively coupled mass spectrometry method. The concentration of uranium in the urine of the miners was converted to daily excretion of (238)U either under the assumption that the daily urinary excretion is 1.6 l or daily urinary excretion of creatinine is 1.7 g and compared with the excretion of (238)U calculated with a biokinetic model. Input data to the excretion model were derived from personal three- component ALGADE dosemeters, using the component for the estimation of inhalation of long-lived alpha radionuclides. Experimentally found contents of uranium in the urine of uranium miners are generally lower than the modelled ones, which means that the dosimetric approach is conservative. The uncertainty of inhalation intakes, derived from the measurements of filters from personal dosemeters, and the uncertainty of the concentration of uranium in the urine are discussed.

  6. Pharmacokinetic modeling and prediction of plasma pyrrole-imidazole polyamide concentration in rats using simultaneous urinary and biliary excretion data.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Takashi; Aoyama, Takahiko; Yokoe, Tsubasa; Fukasawa, Akiko; Fukuda, Noboru; Ueno, Takahiro; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Nagase, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki

    2009-05-01

    The use of urinary and/or biliary excretion data was considered as an alternative approach if the bioanalytical method lacked the appropriate sensitivity to adequately characterize the serum or plasma concentration-time profile. This approach is used for the analysis of plasma concentration-time profile under the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of various analytical instruments. The objective of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic (PK) model that describes the plasma concentration-time profiles under LLOQ of HPLC using urinary and biliary excretion data. As model compounds, pyrrole (Py)-imidazole (Im) polyamides 1035 (MW, 1035.12) and 1666 (MW, 1665.78) were used. The cumulative urinary excretions of Py-Im polyamides 1035 and 1666 were 72.4+/-11.6 and 4.8+/-0.5% of the administered dose, respectively. The cumulative biliary excretion of Py-Im polyamide 1035 was 4.3+/-0.4% of the administered dose, and Py-Im polyamide 1666 was not detected. The plasma concentration-time profiles of Py-Im polyamide 1035 were adequately described using linear and non-linear output compartments. The developed PK model could be used to describe the plasma concentration profiles using the linear output compartment interpreted as the urine compartment and the non-linear output compartment interpreted as the bile compartment. This PK model will be able to provide a more accurate prediction of the plasma concentration profiles under LLOQ.

  7. Interesting Layering of Excreted 18F-FDG in the Urinary Bladder in Patients with Urinary Tract Infection and Distended Bladder.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guohua; Zhang, Wenjie; Jia, Zhiyun; Deng, Houfu

    2015-09-01

    Settling of (18)F-FDG in the bladder is often noted on whole-body PET/CT images, but this phenomenon has never received any careful attention and the mechanism has been unclear. The 2 patients described in this report, one with a T1 pathologic fracture and another with widespread bone and lymph node metastases from an unknown primary tumor, underwent PET/CT. Both had urinary tract infection and a distended bladder during scanning. The interesting layering of (18)F-FDG in the urinary bladder was observed in both patients. The presence of this phenomenon demands careful evaluation of the urine by the clinician, and the mechanism is hypothesized to be slow (18)F-FDG excretion in patients with a distended urinary bladder, resulting in delayed mixing with urine. In addition, urinary tract infection may be a potential cause. Images showing this interesting layering should be interpreted with care.

  8. Influence of renal insufficiency on the pharmacokinetics of cicletanine and its effects on the urinary excretion of electrolytes and prostanoids.

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, N; Geoffroy, J; Pozet, N; Cuisinaud, G; Benzoni, D; Zech, P Y; Sassard, J

    1988-01-01

    1. The kinetics of a single oral dose (300 mg) of cicletanine a new antihypertensive drug with diuretic properties, and its effects on the urinary excretion of electrolytes and of the major stable metabolites of prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 were studied in patients with normal renal function (n = 6), mild (n = 9) and severe (n = 10) renal insufficiency. 2. In normotensive subjects with normal renal function, cicletanine was rapidly and regularly absorbed, its apparent elimination half-life established around 7 h, and both its renal clearance (0.4 ml min-1) and its cumulative renal excretion (0.85% of the administered dose), were low. Mild renal insufficiency did not significantly alter these parameters, while severe renal impairment reduced the renal clearance and the cumulative urinary excretion of cicletanine and increased its apparent elimination half-life (31 h). However the area under the plasma curve was not changed due to reduced plasma concentrations in these patients. 3. Cicletanine induced a rapid and marked (four fold as a mean) increase in the urinary excretion of water, sodium and potassium which lasted for 6 to 10 h, in subjects with normal renal function. Renal insufficiency did not alter the slope of the calculated plasma concentration-effects curves but reduced the maximum effect observed for water, sodium and potassium. 4. A single oral dose of cicletanine did not change the urinary excretion of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha and thromboxane B2 in the three groups of patients studied, the basal values of which being found to be closely related to the creatinine clearance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3358898

  9. Urinary pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in patients with low grade urothelial tumours. Relations between excretion and tumour recurrence.

    PubMed

    Nyholm, K K; Sjolin, K E; Wolf, H; Hammer, M; Knudsen, J; Stahl, D; Nielsen, H R

    1976-05-01

    The simultaneous 24 hours excretion of pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in the urine from patients treated for low grade urothelial tumours has been determined and related to tumour recurrence inside of 6 months after the determinations. The results of 53 assays in 39 patients without clinical signs of recurrence at the time of the detrmination showed a high excretion of pseudouridine in 53% and of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in 28.5% of the assays. Recurrences appeared more often after a high urinary pseudouridine (53.5%) than after a low, but the difference was not statistically significant (p more than 0.05) and more often after a low urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid (52.5%) than after a high (p less than 0.01). The highest incidence of recurrence was in patients with a simultaneously high urinary pseudouridine and a low urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid. Seventy per cent of these excretion patterns were from patients, who developed a recurrence before 6 months (p less than 0.002).

  10. Aldosterone Receptor Antagonism Reduces Urinary C-Reactive Protein Excretion in Angiotensin II-Infused, Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Mamalis, Andrew; Navar, L. Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Background Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) may contribute to elevated arterial pressure in Ang II-dependent hypertension. However, the in vivo effects of Ang II and of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism on CRP during Ang II-dependent hypertension have not been examined. In addition, urinary CRP excretion as a method to monitor the progression of Ang II-induced inflammation has not been evaluated. Methods Urine samples were collected from three groups (n = 10/group) of rats: 1) normotensive control, 2) angiotensin II infused (Ang II; 60 ng/min), and 3) Ang II + eplerenone (epl; 25 mg/d). A diet containing epl (0.1 %) was provided after 1 week of Ang II infusion. Results After 28 d, Ang II increased SBP from 136 ± 5 to 207 ± 8 mmHg; this response in SBP was not altered following MR antagonism (215 ± 6 mmHg). Ang II-infusion increased plasma CRP from 14 ± 2 to 26 ± 3 μg/mL and increased urinary CRP excretion nearly 8-fold (143 ± 26 vs 1102 ± 115 ng/d). Treatment with eplerenone reduced plasma CRP by 25 % and urinary immunoreactive CRP (irCRP) by 34 % in Ang II-infused rats suggesting that aldosterone contributes to the CRP-associated inflammatory response in Ang II-dependent hypertension. Conclusions The increase in SBP preceded the increase in irCRP excretion by at least 4 days suggesting that CRP does not significantly contribute to increased arterial blood pressure in Ang II-dependent hypertension. The blockade of MR reduced plasma CRP and urinary irCRP excretion demonstrating the contribution of aldosterone to the Ang II-induced generation of CRP. Furthermore, urinary CRP may serve as a non-invasive index for monitoring cardiovascular inflammation during hypertension. PMID:20161115

  11. Estimation of oxidative DNA damage in man from urinary excretion of repair products.

    PubMed

    Loft, S; Poulsen, H E

    1998-01-01

    DNA is constantly damaged and repaired in living cells. The repair products of the oxidative DNA lesions, i.e. oxidised nucleosides and bases, are poor substrates for the enzymes involved in nucleotide synthesis, are fairly water soluble, and generally excreted into the urine without further metabolism. Among the possible products, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-oxoguanine, thymine glycol, thymidine glycol and, 5-hydroxymethyluracil have so far been identified in urine. It should be emphasised that the excretion of the repair products in urine represents the average rate of damage in the total body whereas the level of oxidised bases in nuclear DNA is a concentration measurement in that specific tissue/cells in the moment of sampling. The rate of oxidative DNA modifications has been studied in humans by means of the repair products as urinary biomarkers, particularly with respect to 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine. The data obtained so far indicate that the important determinants of the oxidative damage rate include tobacco smoking, oxygen consumption and some inflammatory diseases whereas diet composition, energy restriction and antioxidant supplements have but a minimal influence, possibly with the exception of yet unidentified phytochemicals, e.g. from cruciferous vegetables. The data are consistent with the experimentally based notion that oxidative DNA damage is an important mutagenic and apparently carcinogenic factor. However, the proof of a causal relationship in humans is still warranted. In the future the use of biomarkers may provide this evidence and allow further investigations on the qualitative and quantitative importance of oxidative DNA modification and carcinogenesis in man, as well as elucidate possible preventive measures.

  12. Stereoselective urinary MDMA (ecstasy) and metabolites excretion kinetics following controlled MDMA administration to humans.

    PubMed

    Schwaninger, Andrea E; Meyer, Markus R; Barnes, Allan J; Kolbrich-Spargo, Erin A; Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Huestis, Marilyn A; Maurer, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    The R- and S-enantiomers of racemic 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) exhibit different dose-concentration curves. In plasma, S-MDMA was eliminated at a higher rate, most likely due to stereoselective metabolism. Similar data were shown in various in vitro experiments. The aim of the present study was the in vivo investigation of stereoselective elimination of MDMA's phase I and phase II metabolites in human urine following controlled oral MDMA administration. Urine samples from 10 participants receiving 1.0 and 1.6 mg/kg MDMA separated by at least one week were analyzed blind by liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after chiral derivatization with S-heptafluorobutyrylprolyl chloride. R/S ratios at C(max) were comparable after low and high doses with ratios >1 for MDMA, free DHMA, and HMMA sulfate, and with ratios <1 for MDA, free HMMA, DHMA sulfate and HMMA glucuronide. In the five days after the high MDMA dose, a median of 21% of all evaluated compounds were excreted as R-stereoisomers and 17% as S-stereoisomers. Significantly greater MDMA, DHMA, and HMMA sulfate R-enantiomers and HMMA and HMMA glucuronide S-stereoisomers were excreted. No significant differences were observed for MDA and DHMA sulfate stereoisomers. Changes in R/S ratios could be observed over time for all analytes, with steady increases in the first 48 h. R/S ratios could help to roughly estimate time of MDMA ingestion and therefore, improve interpretation of MDMA and metabolite urinary concentrations in clinical and forensic toxicology.

  13. Immunocytoma effect upon circadian variation in murine urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid, beta-alanine, phenylalanine and tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Halberg, F; Gehrke, C W; Kuo, K; Nelson, W L; Sothern, R B; Cadotte, L M; Haus, E; Scheving, L E

    1978-01-01

    Under the conditions of disynchronization by the manipulation of both the alternation of light and darkness and the availability and unavailability of food, circadian rhythms characterize the excretion of several amino acids by inbred LOU rats bearing an immunocytoma. Large amplitude rhythms can be demonstrated for urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid, beta-alanine, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Under the same conditions of disynchronization, control animals excrete the same compounds also with a marked circadian variation but at an invariably lower average rate. These excretory rhythms, along with those demonstrated earlier for polyamines and light-chains, are of interest as potential markers for the chronotherapy of cancer.

  14. Urinary Excretion of Liver Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein Accurately Reflects the Degree of Tubulointerstitial Damage

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Takeshi; Kamijo-Ikemori, Atsuko; Sugaya, Takeshi; Hoshino, Seiko; Yasuda, Takashi; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), a biomarker of chronic kidney disease, in the kidney and the degree of tubulointerstitial damage, folic acid (FA)-induced nephropathy was studied in a mouse model system. As renal L-FABP is not expressed in wild-type mice, human L-FABP (hL-FABP) transgenic mice were used in this study. hL-FABP is expressed in the renal proximal tubules of the transgenic mice that were injected intraperitoneally with FA in NaHCO3 (the FA group) or only NaHCO3 (the control group) and oral saline solution daily during the experimental period. The FA group developed severe tubulointerstitial damage with the infiltration of macrophages and the deposition of type I collagen on days 3 and 7 and recovered to the control level on day 14. The gene and protein expression levels of hL-FABP in the kidney were significantly enhanced on days 3 and 7. Urinary hL-FABP in the FA group was elevated on days 3 and 7 and decreased to the control level on day 14. The protein expression levels of hL-FABP in both the kidney and urine significantly correlated with the degree of tubulointerstitial damage, the infiltration of macrophages, and the deposition of type I collagen. In conclusion, renal expression and urinary excretion of hL-FABP significantly reflected the severity of tubulointerstitial damage in FA-induced nephropathy. PMID:19435794

  15. Interaction between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Urinary Sodium, Potassium, and Sodium-Potassium Ratio on the Risk of Hypertension in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeong Mi; Kwock, Chang Keun; Kim, Kyunga; Kim, Jihye; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex disease explained with diverse factors including environmental factors and genetic factors. The objectives of this study were to determine the interaction effects between gene variants and 24 h estimated urinary sodium and potassium excretion and sodium-potassium excretion ratios on the risk of hypertension. A total of 8839 participants were included in the genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic factors associated with hypertension. Tanaka and Kawasaki formulas were applied to estimate 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion. A total of 4414 participants were included in interaction analyses to identify the interaction effects of gene variants according to 24 h estimated urinary factors on the risk of hypertension. CSK rs1378942 and CSK-MIR4513 rs3784789 were significantly modified by urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio. In addition, MKLN rs1643270 with urinary potassium excretion, LOC101929750 rs7554672 with urinary sodium and potassium excretion, and TENM4 rs10466739 with urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio showed significant interaction effects. The present study results indicated that the mutant alleles of CSK rs1378942 and CSK-MIR4513 rs3784789 had the strongest protective effects against hypertension in the middle group of 24 h estimated urinary sodium-potassium excretion ratio. Further studies are needed to replicate these analyses in other populations. PMID:28273873

  16. Urinary excretion rates of natural estrogens and androgens from humans, and their occurrence and fate in the environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Kanjo, Yoshinori; Mizutani, Satoshi

    2009-09-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are pollutants with estrogenic or androgenic activities at very low concentrations and are emerging as a major concern for water quality. For sewage of municipal wastewater treatment plants in cities, one of the most important sources of EDCs are natural estrogens and natural androgens (NEAs) excreted from humans. Therefore, estrogenic/androgenic potencies or relative binding affinity of the NEAs were first outlined from different sources, and data of urinary excretion rates of NEAs were summarized. To evaluate their estrogenic activities, their excretion rates of estrogen equivalent (EEQ) or testosterone (T) equivalent (TEQ) were also calculated. Based on our summary, the total excretion rates of EEQ by estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) only accounted for 66-82% of the total excretion rate of EEQ among four different groups, and the other corresponding natural estrogens contributed 18-34%, which meant that some of the other natural estrogens may also exist in wastewater with high estrogenic activities. Based on the contribution ratio of individual androgens to the total excretion rate of TEQ, five out of 12 natural androgens, T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (AD), 5beta-androstanediol (beta-ADL), and androstenediol (ANL) were evaluated as the priority natural androgens, which may exist in wastewater with high androgenic activities. Published data on occurrence and fate of the NEAs including natural estrogen conjugates in the environment were also summarized here.

  17. Urinary excretion of the C5b-9 membrane attack complex of complement is a marker of immune disease activity in autologous immune complex nephritis.

    PubMed

    Pruchno, C J; Burns, M M; Schulze, M; Johnson, R J; Baker, P J; Alpers, C E; Couser, W G

    1991-01-01

    The urinary excretion of the C5b-9 membrane attack complex of complement correlates with glomerular deposition of antibody in the passive Heymann nephritis (PHN) model of membranous nephropathy (MN). To determine if this parameter can be correlated with antibody deposition in a model of MN induced by an autologous mechanism and thus more analogous to human MN, the relationship of urinary C5b-9 to ongoing glomerular immune complex formation late in autologous immune complex nephritis (AICN) was studied. Based on urinary C5b-9, the animals were divided into two groups at 12 weeks after induction of AICN, those with persistently high urinary C5b-9 excretion and those in whom urinary excretion of C5b-9 returned to undetectable levels. While all rats developed glomerular deposition of rat IgG and significant proteinuria, high C5b-9 excretors had greater proteinuria and prolonged positive staining for glomerular C3. When normal syngeneic kidneys were transplanted into rats (n = 3) from each group, only those with persistent C5b-9 excretion developed subepithelial immune deposits of rat IgG in the transplanted kidney. As in the PHN model of MN, proteinuria was dissociated widely from urinary C5b-9 excretion, glomerular C3 staining, and evidence of circulating antibody. Thus these findings demonstrate that urinary excretion of C5b-9 serves as an index of on-going immunologic disease activity in the AICN model of MN, while proteinuria does not.

  18. Comparison of the urinary excretion of quercetin glycosides from red onion and aglycone from dietary supplements in healthy subjects: a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuanlu; Williamson, Gary

    2015-05-01

    Some intervention studies have shown that quercetin supplementation can regulate certain biomarkers, but it is not clear how the doses given relate to dietary quercetin (e.g. from onion). We conducted a two-period, two-sequence crossover study to compare the bioavailability of quercetin when administered in the form of a fresh red onion meal (naturally glycosylated quercetin) or dietary supplement (aglycone quercetin) under fasting conditions. Six healthy, non-smoking, adult males with BMI 22.7 ± 4.0 kg m(-2) and age 35.3 ± 12.3 y were grouped to take the two study meals in random order. In each of the 2 study periods, one serving of onion soup (made from 100 g fresh red onion, providing 156.3 ± 3.4 μmol (47 mg) quercetin) or a single dose of a quercetin dihydrate tablet (1800 ± 150 μmol (544 mg) of quercetin) were administered following 3 d washout. Urine samples were collected up to 24 h, and after enzyme deconjugation, quercetin was quantified by LC-MS. The 24 h urinary excretion of quercetin (1.69 ± 0.79 μmol) from red onion in soup was not significantly different to that (1.17 ± 0.44 μmol) for the quercetin supplement tablet (P = 0.065, paired t-test). This means that, in practice, 166 mg of quercetin supplement would be comparable to about 10 mg of quercetin aglycone equivalents from onion. These data allow intervention studies on quercetin giving either food or supplements to be more effectively compared.

  19. Skin surface lipid composition, acne, pubertal development, and urinary excretion of testosterone and 17-ketosteroids in children.

    PubMed

    Pochi, P E; Strauss, J S; Downing, D T

    1977-11-01

    Fifty-two children, age 5-10, from acne-prone families, were studied for a period of 1 year to examine the interrelationship between sebum, acne, pubertal development, and urinary steroid excretion. In each of the subjects, 30 boys and 22 girls, the composition of forehead skin lipid was determined 4 times yearly by thin-layer chromatography, with measurement of triglycerides, diglycerides, free fatty acids, wax esters, squalene, cholesterol, and cholesterol esters. Twice yearly, examination was made of the presence or absence of acne, pubertal maturation and the 24-hour urinary excretion of testosterone as determined by radioimmunnoassay, and of total 17-ketosteroids, dehydroepiandrosterone, androsterone, and etiocholanolone, as determined by paper chromatography. The relative amount of sebaceous lipids was positively correlated with age of the subjects (wax esters p less than .001, squalene p less than .05), as was the triglyceride-diglyceride component (p less than .05). No significant correlation was seen with the fatty acids. Acne, primarily comedonal, occurred in 27/52 subjects (15 girls, 12 boys) and was associated with higher sebum values. One-half of the children with acne had no signs of pubertal development. A significantly positive correlation was observed between the relative amount of sebaceous lipid and the urinary excretion of 17-ketosteroids, androsterone, and etiocholanolone in both sexes, and of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in boys. The development of acne in children is an early pubertal event, often evident before other signs of pubertal maturation, and it is associated with an increase in sebum and in the urinary excretion of androgenic steroids.

  20. Comparison of pharmacokinetics and urinary iron excretion of two single doses of deferiprone in β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E patients.

    PubMed

    Rodrat, Supot; Yamanont, Pavena; Tankanitlert, Jeeranut; Chantraraksri, Udom; Fucharoen, Suthat; Morales, Noppawan Phumala

    2012-01-01

    Dose-related pharmacokinetics and urinary iron excretion (UIE) of an orally active iron chelator, deferiprone (L1), was investigated in 12 severe β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E patients. The patients received two single doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg with a 2-week washout period. Deferiprone was rapidly absorbed and reached maximum concentration (C(max)) within 1 h after administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters including C(max) and area under concentration time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) as well as urinary excretion of non-conjugated and glucuronide-conjugated deferiprone (L1 and L1-G) increased proportionally with the dose of deferiprone. A constant ratio of AUC(0-∞) of L1-G to L1 and a percentage of urinary excretion of L1-G indicated that increasing the dosage does not influence deferiprone biotransformation. Longer terminal elimination half-lifeand higher volume of distribution of L1 were observed with the high dose and correlated with deferiprone-chelated iron in serum. Unexpectedly, UIE did not show a linear relationship with the increased dose of deferiprone. The correlation between UIE and creatinine clearance suggested the possibility of L1-iron complex redistribution in patients with renal impairment treated with high-dose deferiprone.

  1. Supplementation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) with condensed tannin-containing pellets of sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata): Effects on ruminant urinary urea excretion and digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some feedstuffs that contain condensed tannins can reduce urinary urea excretion without compromising nutrition for ruminant livestock. This results in reducing environmental impact, improving productivity and enhancing sustainability of ruminant farming operations. In some situations there are adva...

  2. Urinary excretion profiles of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol: a Delta9-THC-COOH to creatinine ratio study #2.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Albert D; Worth, David

    2003-04-23

    Subjects with a history of chronic marijuana use were screened for cannabinoids in urine specimens with the EMIT((R)) II Plus cannabinoids assay with a cut-off value of 50 ng/ml. All presumptively positive specimens were submitted for confirmatory analysis for the major urinary cannabinoid metabolite (Delta(9)-THC-COOH) by GC-MS with a cut-off value of 15 ng/ml. Creatinine was analyzed in each specimen as an index of dilution. Huestis and Cone [J. Anal. Toxicol. 22 (1998) 445] reported that serial monitoring of Delta(9)-THC-COOH to creatinine ratios in paired urine specimens collected at least 24h apart could differentiate new drug use from residual Delta(9)-THC-COOH excretion. The best accuracy (85.4%) for predicting new marijuana use was a Delta(9)-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio > or =0.5 (dividing the Delta(9)-THC-COOH to creatinine ratio of specimen 2 by the specimen 1 ratio). In a previous study in this laboratory [J. Anal. Toxicol. 23 (1999) 531], urine specimens were collected from chronic marijuana users at least 24h apart and dilute urine specimens (creatinine values <2.2 micromol/l) were excluded from the data analysis. The objective of the present study was to determine whether creatinine corrected urine specimens positive for cannabinoids could differentiate new marijuana use from the excretion of residual Delta(9)-THC-COOH in chronic users of marijuana based on the Huestis 0.5 ratio. Urine specimens (N=946) were collected from 37 individuals with at least 48h between collections. All urine specimens were included in the data review irrespective of creatinine concentration. The mean urinary Delta(9)-THC-COOH concentration was 302.4 ng/ml, mean Delta(9)-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio (ng/ml Delta(9)-THC-COOH/(mmol/l) creatinine) was 29.3 and the Huestis ratio calculation indicated new drug use in 83% of all sequentially paired urine specimens. The data were sub-divided into three groups (A-C) based on the mean Delta(9)-THC-COOH/creatinine values. Interindividual

  3. The effect of lithium salts on the urinary excretion of α-oxoglutarate in man

    PubMed Central

    Bond, P. A.; Jenner, F. A.; Lee, C. R.; Lenton, Elizabeth; Pollitt, R. J.; Sampson, Gwyneth A.

    1972-01-01

    1. Lithium ions in therapeutic doses cause an increase in the renal excretion of α-oxoglutarate and glutaric acid. 2. The excretion is probably due to reduced renal tubular reabsorption. 3. Neither citrate, lactate nor pyruvate excretion rises. PMID:5084816

  4. Intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary excretion of the rare sugar D-psicose

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Hossain, Akram; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Hirata, Yuko; Dong, Youyi; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Sui, Li; Nonaka, Machiko; Ueno, Masaki; Nishimoto, Kazuyuki; Suda, Hirofumi; Morimoto, Kenji; Shimonishi, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Madoka; Song, Tao; Konishi, Ryoji; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary elimination of the rare sugar D-psicose, a 3-carbon stereoisomer of D-fructose that is currently being investigated and which has been found to be strongly effective against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Methods This study was performed using radioactive D-psicose, which was synthesized enzymatically from radioactive D-allose. Concentrations in whole blood, urine, and organs were measured at different time points until 2 hours after both oral and intravenous administrations and 7 days after a single oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to Wistar rats. Autoradiography was also performed by injecting 100 mg/kg body weight of 14C-labeled D-psicose or glucose intravenously to C3H mice. Results Following oral administration, D-psicose easily moved to blood. The maximum blood concentration (48.5±15.6 μg/g) was observed at 1 hour. Excretion to urine was 20% within 1 hour and 33% within 2 hours. Accumulation to organs was detected only in the liver. Following intravenous administration, blood concentration was decreased with the half-life=57 minutes, and the excretion to urine was up to almost 50% within 1 hour. Similarly to the results obtained with oral administration, accumulation to organs was detected only in the liver. Seven days after the single-dose oral administration, the remaining amounts in the whole body were less than 1%. Autoradiography of mice showed results similar to those in rats. High signals of 14C-labeled D-psicose were observed in liver, kidney, and bladder. Interestingly, no accumulation of D-psicose was observed in the brain. Conclusion D-psicose was absorbed well after oral administration and eliminated rapidly after both oral and intravenous administrations, with short duration of action. The study provides valuable pharmacokinetic data for further drug development of D-psicose. Because the findings were mainly based on animal

  5. A quantitative threshold for high/low extent of urinary excretion of compounds in humans.

    PubMed

    Dave, Rutwij A; Morris, Marilyn E

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a quantitative threshold was determined for the high/low extent of urinary excretion (UE) of compounds in humans, using a straightforward but robust statistical method known as receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, and also 18 potential physicochemical determinants of UE were evaluated. Data on the percent of drug excreted unchanged into the urine, %Ae , were used to determine the threshold for high/low UE. Compounds can be divided into high/low UE groups using the threshold value of Ae  = 16.8%, namely those with Ae  > 16.8% are classified as high UE and those with Ae  ≤ 16.8% as low UE. The %Ae negatively correlated with cLogP (r = -0.56); however, cLogP could not quantitatively predict the value of %Ae (R(2) adj. = 0.32). Several determinants of the extent of UE, including cLogP, ACD labs cLogP and ACD labs cLogD(pH=7.4) , were successfully evaluated as a priori indicators of the extent of UE using two cut-off values for each parameter. Moreover, 87% of the 90 compounds in the external validation set were correctly classified using this approach. Analysis of the physicochemical spaces of compounds in these two groups showed significant overlap, which hinders the a priori determination of the extent of UE of compounds using a single threshold/cut-off value of simple physicochemical parameters. In conclusion, 16.8% is a quantitative threshold value to distinguish between high and low UE and new molecular entities with cLogP and ACD labs cLogP values of ≤0.7 and ≥1.0 and ACD labs cLogD(pH=7.4) values of ≤0.0 and ≥0.5 could be identified as exhibiting high and low UE, respectively. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A study on the effect of the internal exposure to (210)Po on the excretion of urinary proteins in rats.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Baki; Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Daka, Joseph; Yusuf, Hamdi; Wyatt, Heather; Surette, Joel; Priest, Nick; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of a noninvasive urine specimen for the detection of proteins as indicators of internal exposure to ionizing radiation. Three groups of rats (five in each group) were intravenously injected with 1601 ± 376, 10,846 ± 591 and 48,467 ± 2812 Bq of (210)Po in citrate form. A sham-exposed control group of five rats was intravenously injected with sterile physiological saline. Daily urine samples were collected over 4 days following injection. Purification and pre-concentration of urinary proteins were carried out by ultrafiltration using a 3000 Da molecular weight cutoff membrane filter. The concentration of common urinary proteins, namely albumin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary excretion of albumin decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.05) 96 h post-injection relative to the control group. In contrast, no statistically significant effects were observed for other proteins tested. The dose-dependent decrease in urinary excretion of albumin observed in this study underscores the need for further research, which may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers that would reflect the changes in the primary target organs for deposition of (210)Po.

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation of gallic acid on nitrogen balance, nitrogen excretion pattern and urinary nitrogenous constituents in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chen; Yang, Kai; Zhao, Guangyong; Lin, Shixin; Xu, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the trial was to study the effects of dietary supplementation of gallic acid (GA) on nitrogen (N) balance, N excretion pattern and urinary N constituents in beef cattle. In a 4 × 4 Latin square design, four male 30-month-old Simmental cattle (443 ± 22 kg live weight) received four levels of GA (purity ≥ 98.5%), i.e. 0, 5.3, 10.5, 21.1 g/kg DM, added to a basal ration. Each experimental period lasted 17 d, consisting of 12 d adaptation and 5 d sampling. The results showed that supplementation of GA at 5.3, 10.5 or 21.1 g/kg DM did not affect the N balance but regulated the N excretion pattern by increasing the ratio of faecal N/urinary N and decreasing the ratio of urinary urea N/total urinary N in beef cattle fed at maintenance level.

  8. Excretion patterns of pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in patients with tumours of the upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Kvist, E; Sjølin, K E; Iversen, J

    1990-01-01

    In 39 patients with either pelvic or renal cell tumours, the pre-operative urinary excretion ratios of pseudouridine/creatinine (psi:C) and beta-aminoisobutyric acid/creatinine (BAIB:C) were estimated. In 34/39 of the patients (87%), including both types of tumours, psi: C was found to be increased, and in only one patient was the value decreased. Twenty-five of the patients (64%) had a BAIB:C ratio within the normal range. 10 (25%) had increased and 4 (11%) decreased values. In 13 patients the psi:C and BAIB:C ratios from the affected side were compared with the values in urine from the bladder. Twelve of the patients had higher values of psi:C in the urine from the ureter. In seven patients the ureteric BAIB:C ratio was higher than the bladder BAIB:C ratio and in five patients the ureteric BAIB:C ratio was less than the bladder BAIB:C ratio. In only one patient were the values similar. The results indicate that patients with tumours of the upper urinary tract have changed excretion patterns compared with normal subjects and the urinary ratios on the affected side are different from those on the healthy side. The biological tumour markers pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid may be helpful in the diagnosis of tumours in the upper urinary tract.

  9. The Effects of Probenecid and Thiazides and Their Combination on the Urinary Excretion of Electrolytes and on Acid-base Equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, D. A.; Yendt, E. R.

    1970-01-01

    The effects of commonly used therapeutic doses of hydrochlorothiazide and probenecid, given singly and in combination, on the urinary excretion of monovalent and divalent ions and on acid-base equilibrium were studied in four patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Probenecid had no effect on the urinary excretion of monovalent ions but resulted in a sustained increase in the urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium and citrate and a temporary increase in the urinary excretion of ammonium, in addition to its well-known effects on uric acid metabolism. A temporary fall in serum phosphorus levels was also observed. Probenecid also modified the response to hydrochlorothiazide in that the urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium and citrate was greater during combined therapy than when hydrochlorothiazide was administered alone. Probenecid prevented or abolished the increase in serum uric acid levels associated with the use of thiazide but did not modify the effects of hydrochlorothiazide on the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, potassiu, phosphorus, ammonium, titratable acid and bicarbonate. PMID:5469617

  10. Effect of feeding sweet-potato condensed distillers solubles on intake and urinary excretion of minerals in Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Yuko; Kamiya, Misturu; Hattori, Ikuo; Hayashi, Yoshiro; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Four Japanese Black steers (16 months of age) were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to investigate the effect of graded levels of sweet-potato condensed distillers solubles (SCDS) in their diets on intake and urinary excretion of minerals. The four diets consisted of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% (dry matter (DM) basis) SCDS, with SCDS replacing commercial concentrate (CC). Intake of K, Cl, S, P and Mg increased linearly with increasing SCDS content. Urinary pH increased linearly with increasing dietary SCDS content. SCDS feeding increased urinary K concentrations (linear and quadratic effects). Urinary concentrations of Cl increased linearly with increasing SCDS content. In contrast, urinary concentrations of Mg decreased with increasing SCDS content. Feeding of SCDS did not apparently affect urinary NH3 ,P, Na or Ca concentrations. These results suggest that high SCDS feeding is not a risk for crystallization of minerals leading to the formation of magnesium-phosphate type calculi: although SCDS contains large amounts of P and Mg, high SCDS feeding decreased the Mg concentration and did not affect the P concentration in urine. Additionally, high SCDS feeding had no apparent effects on plasma concentrations of Na, K, Cl, Ca or inorganic P.

  11. Quantitative measurement of urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl carnitine by LC-MS/MS as an indicator of biotin status in humans.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Thomas D; Stratton, Shawna L; Bogusiewicz, Anna; Owen, Suzanne N; Mock, Donald M; Moran, Jeffery H

    2010-11-15

    Abnormally increased urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl carnitine (3HIA-carnitine) results from impairment in leucine catabolism caused by reduced activity of the biotin-dependent enzyme 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase. Accordingly, urinary 3HIA-carnitine might reflect biotin status. Here, we describe an LC-MS/MS method for accurately quantitating the urinary concentration of 3HIA-carnitine at concentrations that are typical for excretion rates that are normal or only modestly increased. This method allows for high sample throughput and does not require solid-phase extraction. We used this method to provide evidence validating urinary 3HIA-carnitine as a biomarker of biotin deficiency in humans. Four healthy adult subjects were successfully made marginally biotin deficient by feeding a 30% egg white diet for 28 days. From study day 0 to 28, the mean urinary excretion of 3HIA-carnitine increased 3.5-fold (p = 0.026). These preliminary results indicate that urinary excretion of 3HIA-carnitine increases with marginal biotin deficiency. If these results are confirmed in studies involving larger numbers of subjects, urinary excretion of 3HIA-carnitine may potentially be a clinically useful indicator of biotin status.

  12. Urinary excretion of LH and testosterone from male rats during exposure to increased gravity: post-spaceflight and centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Morey-Holton, E.

    2000-01-01

    A dissociation between plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) appears to exist during exposure to altered gravity. The pulsatile nature of LH release and the diurnal variability of T secretion may mask or bias the effects of altered gravity on the pituitary-gonadal axis when analyzing plasma concentrations. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the excretion of urinary LH and T in male Sprague-Dawley rats during exposure to increased gravity upon return to Earth following a 14-day spaceflight (n = 6) and by 12 days of centrifugation at 2g (n = 8). Excreted LH and T were elevated on the first 3 days postflight. Excreted T was elevated between Days 1 and 8 of centrifugation; however, excreted LH was reduced on Days 2 and 3 compared with control animals. Excreted LH and T were significantly correlated (R = 0.731 and 0.706, respectively) in postspaceflight and centrifuged animals. Correlation curves had similar slopes (0.0213 and 0.023, respectively), but different y-intercepts (-1.43 and 3.32, respectively). The sustained increase in excreted T during centrifugation suggests that the pituitary-gonadal axis in postspaceflight animals may adapt quicker to increased gravity. The upward shift in the correlation curve exhibited by the centrifuged animals suggests that the sensitivity of LH-induced T release is increased in these animals. The previous dissociation between plasma LH and T during altered gravity was not observed in the present study in which excreted LH and T were measured.

  13. Excretion Profiles and Half-Lives of Ten Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolites after Dietary Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa; Bartell, Scott; Pittman, Erin N.; Trinidad, Debra A.; McClean, Michael; Webster, Thomas F.; Sjödin, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be assessed by biomonitoring of their urinary mono-hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PAHs). Limited information exists on the human pharmacokinetics of OH-PAHs. This study aimed to investigate the excretion half-life of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR), the most used biomarker for PAH exposure, and 9 other OH-PAHs following a dietary exposure in 9 non-smoking volunteers with no occupational exposure to PAHs. Each person avoided food with known high PAH-content during the study period, except for a high PAH-containing lunch (barbecued chicken) on the first day. Individual urine samples (n = 217) were collected from 15 hours before to 60 hours following the dietary exposure. Levels of all OH-PAHs in all subjects increased rapidly by 9–141 fold after the exposure, followed by a decrease consistent with first order kinetics, and returned to background levels 24–48 hours after the exposure. The average time to reach maximal concentration ranged from 3.1 h (1-naphthol) to 5.5 h (1-PYR). Creatinine-adjusted urine concentrations for each metabolite were analyzed using a non-linear mixed effects model including a term to estimate background exposure. The background-adjusted half-life estimate was 3.9 h for 1-PYR and ranged 2.5–6.1 h for the other 9 OH-PAHs, which in general, were shorter than those previously reported. The maximum concentrations after the barbecued chicken consumption were comparable to the levels found in reported occupational settings with known high PAH exposures. It is essential to consider the relatively short half-life, the timing of samples relative to exposures, and the effect of diet when conducting PAH exposure biomonitoring studies. PMID:22663094

  14. Relationship between the urinary excretion mechanisms of drugs and their physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ito, Sumito; Ando, Hirotaka; Ose, Atsushi; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Ando, Tomohiro; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the physicochemical properties of drugs and their urinary excretion mechanisms. Three hundred twenty-five drugs were classified into the reabsorption, intermediate, and secretion types based on their ratio of renal clearance to protein-unbound fraction glomerular filtration rate. Fifty percent of ionized and neutral drugs were the secretion and reabsorption types, respectively. The mean molecular weight of the neutral drugs was slightly smaller than those of the ionized drugs (296 vs. 330-368 g/mol). The reabsorption-type anionic drugs were characterized by their low molecular weights (mean value 269 g/mol) and the logarithmic measure of the acid dissociation constants (pKa s) greater than 4.5, whereas the secretion-type anionic drugs all had pKa s below 4.5. Cationic drugs with pKa s lower than 8.0 tended to be the reabsorption type. Some cationic drugs were classified as the secretion type, despite their high molecular weights (734-811 g/mol) and high log P values (3.1-5.3). The organic anion transporter (OAT)1 and OAT3 substrates were all secretion-type drugs. The same trend was observed for the substrates of organic cation transporter 2, multidrug and toxin extrusion, multidrug resistance-associated protein 4, and multidrug resistance 1/breast cancer resistance protein, but substantial fractions of the substrates were categorized as the intermediate or reabsorption types (9%-38%). This work provides a clue to the renal elimination mechanism of new chemical entities during drug development.

  15. Administration of ascorbic acid and an aldose reductase inhibitor (tolrestat) in diabetes: effect on urinary albumin excretion.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, A V; Brooks, B A; Fisher, E J; Molyneaux, L M; Yue, D K

    1998-11-01

    The important role of ascorbic acid (AA) as an anti-oxidant is particularly relevant in diabetes mellitus where plasma concentrations of AA are reduced. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of treatment with AA or an aldose reductase inhibitor, tolrestat, on AA metabolism and urinary albumin excretion in diabetes. Blood and urine samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months from 20 diabetic subjects who were randomized into two groups to receive either oral AA 500 mg twice daily or placebo. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, HbA1c, plasma lipids, urinary albumin, and total glycosaminoglycan excretion were measured at all time points, and heparan sulphate (glycosaminoglycan) was measured at 0 and 12 months. The same parameters, as well as urinary AA excretion, were determined at 0 and 3 months for 16 diabetes subjects receiving 200 mg tolrestat/day. AA treatment increased plasma AA (ANOVA, F ratio = 12.1, p = 0.004) and reduced albumin excretion rate (AER) after 9 months (ANOVA, F ratio = 3.2, p = 0.03), but did not change the other parameters measured. Tolrestat lowered plasma AA (Wilcoxon's signed-rank test, p < 0.05), but did not change AER or the other parameters measured. The ability of AA treatment to decrease AER may be related to changes in extracellular matrix or improvement in oxidative defence mechanism. Unlike the rat model of diabetes, inhibition of aldose reductase did not normalize plasma AA or AER in humans. In fact, tolrestat reduced the plasma AA concentration, a phenomenon which may be due to increased utilization of AA. Dietary supplementation of AA in diabetic subjects may have long-term benefits in attenuating the progression of diabetic complications.

  16. Investigation of urinary excretion of hydroxyethyl starch and dextran by uhplc-hrms in different acquisition modes.

    PubMed

    Esposito, S; Deventer, K; Giron, A J; Roels, K; Herregods, L; Verstraete, A; Van Eenoo, P

    2014-06-01

    Plasma volume expanders (PVEs) such as hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and dextran are misused in sports because they can prevent dehydration and reduce haematocrit values to mask erythropoietin abuse. Endogenous hydrolysis generates multiple HES and dextran oligosaccharides which are excreted in urine. Composition of the urinary metabolic profiles of PVEs varies depending on post-administration time and can have an impact on their detectability. In this work, different mass spectrometry data acquisition modes (full scan with and without in-source collision-induced dissociation) were used to study urinary excretion profiles of HES and dextran, particularly by investigating time-dependent detectability of HES and dextran urinary oligosaccharide metabolites in post-administration samples. In-source fragmentation yielded the best results in terms of limit of detection (LOD) and detection times, whereas detection of HES and dextran metabolites in full scan mode with no in-source fragmentation is related to recent administration (< 24 hours). Urinary excretion studies showed detection windows for HES and dextran respectively of 72 and 48 hours after administration. Dextran concentrations were above the previously proposed threshold of 500 µg · mL(-1) for 12 hours. A "dilute-and-shoot" method for the detection of HES and dextran in human urine by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-high resolution Orbitrap™ mass spectrometry was developed for this study. Validation of the method showed an LOD in the range of 10-500 µg · mL(-1) for the most significant HES and dextran metabolites in the different modes. The method allows retrospective data analysis and can be implemented in existing high-resolution mass spectrometry-based doping control screening analysis.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF URINARY EXCRETION OF HYDROXYETHYL STARCH AND DEXTRAN BY UHPLC-HRMS IN DIFFERENT ACQUISITION MODES

    PubMed Central

    Deventer, K.; Giron, A.J.; Roels, K.; Herregods, L.; Verstraete, A.; Van Eenoo, P.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma volume expanders (PVEs) such as hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and dextran are misused in sports because they can prevent dehydration and reduce haematocrit values to mask erythropoietin abuse. Endogenous hydrolysis generates multiple HES and dextran oligosaccharides which are excreted in urine. Composition of the urinary metabolic profiles of PVEs varies depending on post-administration time and can have an impact on their detectability. In this work, different mass spectrometry data acquisition modes (full scan with and without in-source collision-induced dissociation) were used to study urinary excretion profiles of HES and dextran, particularly by investigating time-dependent detectability of HES and dextran urinary oligosaccharide metabolites in post-administration samples. In-source fragmentation yielded the best results in terms of limit of detection (LOD) and detection times, whereas detection of HES and dextran metabolites in full scan mode with no in-source fragmentation is related to recent administration (< 24 hours). Urinary excretion studies showed detection windows for HES and dextran respectively of 72 and 48 hours after administration. Dextran concentrations were above the previously proposed threshold of 500 µg · mL−1 for 12 hours. A “dilute-and-shoot” method for the detection of HES and dextran in human urine by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-high resolution Orbitrap™ mass spectrometry was developed for this study. Validation of the method showed an LOD in the range of 10-500 µg · mL−1 for the most significant HES and dextran metabolites in the different modes. The method allows retrospective data analysis and can be implemented in existing high-resolution mass spectrometry-based doping control screening analysis. PMID:24899772

  18. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-07-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record.

  19. [Increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage as a predictor of cerebral salt wasting syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Ichiro; Kurokawa, Shinichiro; Takayama, Katsutoshi; Wada, Takeshi; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is considered to correlate with delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) induced by cerebral vasospasm; however, its exact mechanism is still not well-known. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between hyponatremia caused by CSWS and the increase of the urinary sodium excretion in early phase following SAH. Fifty-four patients with SAH were divided into 2 groups, normonatremia group and hyponatremia group which suffered hyponatremia after SAH. The hyponatremia group comprise 14 patients (26%) in whom the hyponatremia developed of the SAH. In this group, the serum level of sodium significantly decreased 7 days after SAH and then gradually normalised. Further, excretion of sodium in the urine tended to increase 3 days after SAH and significantly increased 7 days after SAH. In conclusion, the increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of SAH would serve as a predictive factor for CSWS after SAH. We consider that it is important to start sodium and fluid supplementation and inhibit natriuresis by fludrocortisone acetate administration before hyponatremia occurs in order to prevention delayed ischemic neurological deficits in SAH patients.

  20. Influence of dietary source of phosphorus on fecal and urinary excretion of phosphorus and other minerals by male cats.

    PubMed

    Finco, D R; Barsanti, J A; Brown, S A

    1989-02-01

    Twelve male cats were fed 2 diets that differed in the source of P. In diet 1 (1.4% P), 62.7% of P originated from poultry, meat, and fish meal, and the remainder from other organic ingredients of food. In diet 2 (1.6% P), 63.5% of P was derived from neutral monobasic/dibasic salts, and the remainder from other organic ingredients of the food. The P intake was nearly the same with both diets, but there was a significant (P less than 0.05) difference between diets in the percentage of ingested P that was excreted in the urine (14.7 +/- 5.3% for diet 1; 34.9 +/- 8.4% for diet 2), and in 6-day urinary P excretion (774 +/- 290 mg for diet 1; 2,004 +/- 556 mg for diet 2). The P concentrations in urine samples obtained by cystocentesis after cats ate were significantly (P less than 0.05) higher when cats were fed diet 2 than when those same cats were fed diet 1. Plasma P concentrations increased after ingestion of diet 2, but were unchanged after ingestion of diet 1. Seemingly, urinary excretion of P was markedly influenced by dietary composition. Diets with the same P content have potential for different biologic effects because of differences in availability of P.

  1. Urinary excretion profiles of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Study III. A Delta9-THC-COOH to creatinine ratio study.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Albert D; Worth, David

    2003-11-26

    Huestis and Cone reported in [J. Anal. Toxicol. 22 (1998) 445] that serial monitoring of Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratios in paired urine specimens collected at least 24h apart could differentiate new drug use from residual Delta(9)-THC-COOH excretion following acute marijuana use in a controlled setting. The best accuracy (85.4%) for predicting new marijuana use was for a Delta(9)-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio > or = 0.5 (dividing the Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio of specimen no. 2 by the specimen no. 1 ratio). In previous studies in this laboratory [J. Anal. Toxicol. 23 (1999) 531 and Forensic Sci. Int. 133 (2003) 26], urine specimens were collected from chronic marijuana users > or = 24 h or > = 48 h apart in an uncontrolled setting. Subjects with a history of chronic marijuana use were screened for cannabinoids with the EMIT II Plus cannabinoids assay (cut-off 50 ng/ml) followed by confirmation for Delta9-THC-COOH by GC-MS (cut-off 15 ng/ml). Creatinine was analyzed as an index of dilution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether creatinine corrected specimens could differentiate new marijuana or hashish use from the excretion of residual Delta(9)-THC-COOH in chronic marijuana users based on the Huestis 0.5 ratio. Urine specimens (N=376) were collected from 29 individuals > or = 96 h between urine collections. The mean urinary Delta9-THC-COOH concentration was 464.4 ng/ml, mean Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio (ng/(ml Delta9-THC-COOH mmoll creatinine)) was 36.8 and the overall mean Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio of specimen 2/mean Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio of specimen 1 was 1.37. The Huestis ratio calculation indicated new drug use in 83% of all sequentially paired urine specimens. The data were sub-divided into three groups (Groups A-C) based on mean Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine values. Interindividual mean Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine values ranged from 4.7 to 13.4 in Group A where 80% of paired specimens indicated new drug use (N=10

  2. Simplified structure of a new model to describe urinary excretion of plutonium after systemic, liver or pulmonary contamination of rats associated with Ca-DTPA treatments.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, P; Sérandour, A L; Grémy, O; Phan, G; Tsapis, N; Abram, M C; Renault, D; Fattal, E; Benech, H; Deverre, J R; Poncy, J L

    2009-06-01

    This study validates, by targeted experiments, several modeling hypotheses for interpretation of urinary excretion of plutonium after Ca-DTPA treatments. Different formulations and doses of Ca-DTPA were administered to rats before or after systemic, liver or lung contamination with various chemical forms of plutonium. The biokinetics of plutonium was also characterized after i.v. injection of Pu-DTPA. Once formed, Pu-DTPA complexes are stable in most biological environments. Pu-DTPA present in circulating fluids is rapidly excreted in the urine, but 2-3% is retained, mainly in soft tissues, and is then excreted slowly in the urine after transfer to blood. Potentially, all intracellular monoatomic forms of plutonium could be decorporated after DTPA internalization involving slow urinary excretion of Pu-DTPA with half-lives varying from 2.5 to 6 days as a function of tissue retention. The ratio of fast to slow urinary excretion of Pu-DTPA depends on both plutonium contamination and Ca-DTPA treatment. Fast urinary excretion of Pu-DTPA corresponds to extracellular decorporation that occurs beyond a threshold of the free DTPA concentration in circulating fluids. Slow excretion corresponds mostly to intracellular decorporation and depends on the amount of intracellular DTPA. From these results, the structure of a simplified model is proposed for interpretation of data obtained with Ca-DTPA treatments after systemic, wound or pulmonary contamination by plutonium.

  3. Urinary iodine excretion during normal pregnancy in healthy women living in the southwest of France: correlation with maternal thyroid parameters.

    PubMed

    Caron, P; Hoff, M; Bazzi, S; Dufor, A; Faure, G; Ghandour, I; Lauzu, P; Lucas, Y; Maraval, D; Mignot, F; Réssigeac, P; Vertongen, F; Grangé, V

    1997-10-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate urinary iodine excretion and changes of maternal thyroid function during pregnancy in healthy women living in the southwest of France. The cohort included a total of 347 pregnant women (mean age 28.0+/-0.5 years). Iodine concentration in a random urine sample and thyroid tests (free thyroxine [FT4], free triiodothyronine [FT3], thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine-binding globulin [TBG], and thyroglobulin [Tg]) were measured at initial presentation (before 12 weeks of gestation), and during the ninth month of pregnancy. A thyroid ultrasound was performed 1 to 5 days after delivery in 246 mothers. Mean urinary iodine levels were low during the first trimester (6.9+/-0.4 microg/dL), as well as during the ninth month of pregnancy (8.6+/-0.6 microg/dL). During pregnancy, FT4 and T3 concentrations decreased (p < .001), and TSH and Tg concentrations increased (p < .001). Thyroid hypertrophy (thyroid volume greater than 18 mL) was present in 15.4% of women whose first trimester urinary iodine concentration was less than 5 microg/dL, but was present in only 3.5% of women whose urinary iodine concentration was greater than 10 microg/dL. A goiter (thyroid volume greater than 22 mL) was present in 11% of the mothers. In conclusion, this prospective study shows that urinary iodine excretion is low in pregnant women living in the southwest of France. This low iodine intake is associated with reduced circulating thyroid hormone levels and growth of the thyroid gland. These data point to the need of an increased iodine supply in these pregnant women to reduce the potential consequences of low iodine intake on maternal thyroid economy.

  4. Urinary excretion of copper, zinc and iron with and without D-penicillamine administration in relation to hepatic copper concentration in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fieten, H; Hugen, S; van den Ingh, T S G A M; Hendriks, W H; Vernooij, J C M; Bode, P; Watson, A L; Leegwater, P A J; Rothuizen, J

    2013-08-01

    Hereditary copper-associated hepatitis in dogs resembles Wilson's disease, a copper storage disease in humans. Values for urinary copper excretion are well established in the diagnostic protocol of Wilson's disease, whereas in dogs these have not been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to characterize both basal and D-penicillamine induced urinary copper, zinc and iron excretion in dogs in relation to hepatic copper concentration. Beagles, Beagle-Bedlington terrier cross-breeds homozygous for the COMMD1 gene mutation that causes copper toxicosis, and Labrador retrievers with normal or increased hepatic copper concentrations were investigated. The hepatic copper phenotype was determined by histological evaluation of liver biopsies and measurement of the hepatic copper concentration by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Urinary excretion of copper, iron and zinc was measured via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry under basal conditions and after oral administration of a single dose (20mg/kg bodyweight) of the chelator D-penicillamine. There was a rapid increase in urinary excretion of copper and zinc, but not iron after D-penicillamine administration. This increase was not different between dogs with high or normal hepatic copper concentrations. D-penicillamine-induced urinary copper excretion and the copper/creatinine ratio did not correlate with hepatic copper concentrations in the dogs studied, although basal urinary copper/zinc ratios did correlate with hepatic copper concentrations in Labrador retrievers. The latter parameter may be useful in diagnostic and follow-up protocols for copper-associated hepatitis in Labrador retrievers.

  5. Concentrations in plasma, urinary excretion, and bactericidal activity of linezolid (600 milligrams) versus those of ciprofloxacin (500 milligrams) in healthy volunteers receiving a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Wydra, Stephan; Onda, Hajime; Kinzig-Schippers, Martina; Sörgel, Fritz; Naber, Kurt G

    2003-12-01

    In a randomized crossover study, 12 volunteers (6 males, 6 females) received a single oral dose of 600 mg of linezolid or 500 mg of ciprofloxacin to assess the concentrations in plasma (up to 24 h), urinary excretion (by high-pressure liquid chromatography), and bactericidal titers in urine (UBT) at intervals up to 120 h. The mean maximum concentration of linezolid in plasma was 13.1 mg/liter, and that of ciprofloxacin was 2.46 mg/liter. The median cumulative levels of renal excretion of the administered dose of the parent drug were 44% for linezolid (range, 28 to 47%; mean +/- standard deviation, 40% +/- 7.8%) and 43% for ciprofloxacin (range, 20 to 56%; mean +/- standard deviation, 40% +/- 9.3%). The UBTs, i.e., the highest twofold dilution (with antibiotic-free urine used as the diluent) of urine that was still bactericidal, were determined for a reference strain and five gram-positive clinical uropathogens for which the MICs of linezolid and ciprofloxacin were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 27278, 2 and 0.25 mg/liter, respectively; Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin susceptible), 1 and 16 mg/liter, respectively; Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin resistant), 2 and 64 mg/liter, respectively; Staphylococcus saprophyticus (methicillin susceptible), 1 and 0.25 mg/liter, respectively; Enterococcus faecalis, 2 and 1 mg/liter, respectively; and Enterococcus faecium, 2 and 1 mg/liter, respectively. The median UBTs of linezolid measured within the first 6 h were 1:96 for each of the two enterococcal strains and between 1:128 and 1:256 for the four staphylococcal strains. The median UBTs of ciprofloxacin were 1:64 for the two enterococcal strains; between 1:384 and 1:512 for the two ciprofloxacin-susceptible strains; and 1 (bactericidal activity of undiluted urine only) and 1:2 for the two resistant staphylococcal strains, respectively. The areas under the UBT-time curve (AUBT) for linezolid and ciprofloxacin showed no statistically significant (P<0

  6. Effects of saline loading during head down tilt on ANP and cyclic GMP levels and on urinary fluid excretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummer, C.; Lang, R. E.; Baisch, F.; Blomqvist, G.; Heer, M.; Gerzer, R.

    In the present study the renal and humoral effects of acute saline infusions were investigated in six healthy male volunteers before, during and after a ten day period of -6° head-down-tilt (HDT). During the whole 23-day study period the subjects received a standardized diet including 40 ml water and 125 mg NaCl per kg body weight per day. After the infusion of 0.9% saline (22 ml/kg within 20 minutes) plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were only slightly increased (not significant) at the end of the infusion, while plasma cyclic GMP levels were significantly increased by about 40% (p<0.05) one hour later. No difference was observed in the plasma ANP and cyclic GMP changes between the pre-HDT, the HDT and the post-HDT infusion experiment. Urine flow, sodium excretion and urinary cyclic GMP excretion were significantly increased (p<0.05 and below) by 100 to 300% during the second and third hour after each saline infusion. However, during these short-term periods only 20% of the infused water and less than 20% of the infused sodium were excreted. Furthermore, a significantly increased volume, sodium and cyclic GMP excretion was observed for over 48 hours after each fluid load experiment. These data suggest that HDT does not induce major alterations in the regulation of an acute saline infusion and plasma ANP does not play a major role in the diuretic/natriuretic effects of volume loading.

  7. alpha-Benzyl-N-methylphenethylamine (BNMPA), an impurity of illicit methamphetamine synthesis: II. Metabolism and urinary excretion (human).

    PubMed

    Moore, K A; Poklis, A

    1995-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a popular drug of abuse, which is readily synthesized in clandestine laboratories. Illicit synthesis results in the formation of various contaminants. Few impurities have been studied in vivo, and their metabolic fate is unknown. One such impurity is alpha-benzyl-N-methylphenethylamine (BNMPA). The detection of BNMPA or its metabolites in urine samples may provide a marker of use of illicitly synthesized methamphetamine. Benzphetamine is structurally similar to BNMPA. Based on metabolic studies of benzphetamine, we predicted the four major metabolites of BNMPA to be the N-demethyl compound, diphenyl-2-propanone (DP2P), p-hydroxy-N-demethyl BNMPA, and p-hydroxy-BNMPA. One male volunteer ingested 5 mg BNMPA. Seventeen urine specimens were collected over 50 h post ingestion. These specimens were analyzed for BNMPA and its four predicted major metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following beta-glucuronidase hydrolysis or acid hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. Specimens were also analyzed without hydrolysis to determine the abundance of nonconjugated ("free") metabolites. Only trace amounts of BNMPA and its N-demethyl metabolites were detected, and maximum excretion was from 2 to 4 h post ingestion. In the nonhydrolyzed samples, the phenyl-OH metabolites were also present in only trace amounts. Maximum excretion of DP2P was at 2 h. Following either hydrolysis procedure, phenyl-OH-BNMPA and phenyl-OH-N-demethyl BNMPA were the major metabolites detected. Maximum excretion of these two metabolites occurred at 4 h. With the exception of the parent compound and the N-demethyl metabolite, excretion of metabolites was greater than the limit of detection of this procedure (2.5 ng/mL) up to 21 h post ingestion. Metabolites were detectable in sufficient quantities to serve as an adequate marker of illicit methamphetamine consumption within the preceding 24 h.

  8. Tissue distribution and urinary excretion of dimethylated arsenic and its metabolites in dimethylarsinic acid- or arsenate-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, Blakely M.; Moore, Tanya; Conklin, Sean D.; Creed, John T.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Thomas, David J. . E-mail: thomas.david@epa.gov

    2007-07-15

    Adult female Fisher 344 rats received drinking water containing 0, 4, 40, 100, or 200 parts per million of dimethylarsinic acid or 100 parts per million of arsenate for 14 days. Urine was collected during the last 24 h of exposure. Tissues were then taken for analysis of dimethylated and trimethylated arsenicals; urines were analyzed for these arsenicals and their thiolated derivatives. In dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats, highest concentrations of dimethylated arsenic were found in blood. In lung, liver, and kidney, concentrations of dimethylated arsenic exceeded those of trimethylated species; in urinary bladder and urine, trimethylated arsenic predominated. Dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide were present in urine of dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats. Concentrations of dimethylated arsenicals were similar in most tissues of dimethylarsinic acid- and arsenate-treated rats, including urinary bladder which is the target for dimethylarsinic acid-induced carcinogenesis in the rat. Mean concentration of dimethylated arsenic was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in urine of dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than in arsenate-treated rats, suggesting a difference between treatment groups in the flux of dimethylated arsenic through urinary bladder. Concentrations of trimethylated arsenic concentrations were consistently higher in dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than in arsenate-treated rats; these differences were significant (P < 0.05) in liver, urinary bladder, and urine. Concentrations of dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide were higher in urine from dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than from arsenate-treated rats. Dimethylarsinic acid is extensively metabolized in the rat, yielding significant concentrations of trimethylated species and of thiolated derivatives. One or more of these metabolites could be the species causing alterations of cellular function that lead to tumors in the urinary bladder.

  9. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-08-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impactor air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions >/= 3.5 micron. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 microg/m3 (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (SigmaAs) metabolites was 16.9 microg As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 microg/m3 arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration of the SigmaAs urinary metabolites was 13.2 microg As/G creatinine [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.1-16.3). Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic.

  10. Glycerol administration before endurance exercise: metabolism, urinary glycerol excretion and effects on doping-relevant blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; de Marees, Markus; Geyer, Hans; Thevis, Mario; Mester, Joachim; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2014-03-01

    Glycerol is prohibited as a masking agent by the World Anti-Doping Agency and a urinary threshold has recently been recommended. However, little is known about urinary glycerol excretion after exercise, when (1) exogenous glycerol is metabolized increasingly and (2) endogenous glycerol levels are elevated. The purpose of the placebo-controlled cross-over study was to determine the effects of pre-exercise glycerol administration on glycerol metabolism, urinary excretion, and selected blood parameters. After administration of glycerol (G; 1.0 g/kg body weight (BW) + 25 ml fluid/kg BW) or placebo (P; 25 ml fluid/kg), 14 cyclists exercised 90 min at 60% VO2max . Samples were taken at 0 h (before administration), 2.5 h (before exercise), 4 h (after exercise) and 6.5 h and additional urine samples were collected until 24 h. Exercise increased endogenous plasma glycerol (0.51 ± 0.21 mmol/l) but peak concentrations were much higher in G (2.5 h: 15.6 ± 7.8 mmol/l). Urinary glycerol increased rapidly (58,428 ± 71,084 µg/ml after 2.5 h) and was significantly higher than in P until 13.6 ± 0.9 h (p < 0.01). In comparison with placebo administration, G caused significantly greater changes in plasma volume and haemoglobin concentrations after 2.5 h. BW and urine production were significantly different between P and G after 2.5 h and post-exercise. Despite exercise-induced increases in endogenous glycerol in the control group, urinary excretion remained well below the previously recommended threshold. In addition, exercise-related glycerol degradation did not appear to negatively affect the detection of exogenously administered glycerol.

  11. Technical Basis Document: A Statistical Basis for Interpreting Urinary Excretion of Plutonium Based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for Selected Atoll Populations in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K; Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Martinelli, R E; Marchetti, A A; Kehl, S R; Langston, R G

    2007-05-01

    We have developed refined statistical and modeling techniques to assess low-level uptake and urinary excretion of plutonium from different population group in the northern Marshall Islands. Urinary excretion rates of plutonium from the resident population on Enewetak Atoll and from resettlement workers living on Rongelap Atoll range from <1 to 8 {micro}Bq per day and are well below action levels established under the latest Department regulation 10 CFR 835 in the United States for in vitro bioassay monitoring of {sup 239}Pu. However, our statistical analyses show that urinary excretion of plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) from both cohort groups is significantly positively associated with volunteer age, especially for the resident population living on Enewetak Atoll. Urinary excretion of {sup 239}Pu from the Enewetak cohort was also found to be positively associated with estimates of cumulative exposure to worldwide fallout. Consequently, the age-related trends in urinary excretion of plutonium from Marshallese populations can be described by either a long-term component from residual systemic burdens acquired from previous exposures to worldwide fallout or a prompt (and eventual long-term) component acquired from low-level systemic intakes of plutonium associated with resettlement of the northern Marshall Islands, or some combination of both.

  12. Urinary excretion of cyclic nucleotides, creatinine prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 from mice exposed to whole-body irradiation from an enhanced neutron field

    SciTech Connect

    Steel, L.K.; Rafferty, M.A.; Wolfe, W.W.; Egan, J.E.; Kennedy, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Urine volume and excretion of cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and creatinine were evaluated as potential indicators of radiation damage in mice given 2-5 Gy to the whole body from an enhanced neutron field. In general, urinary cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, creatinine and urine volumes were positively correlated across time postexposure, for each radiation dose. TxB2 levels positively correlated with urine volume and cyclic AMP excretion only in animals given 2.0Gy. None of these parameters suggests their use as a prognostic indicator of the extent of radiation damage. Urinary excretion of PGE2 was negatively correlated with other urinary parameters. Biphasic increases in urinary PGE2 were also observed. The initial transient elevation 2-3 days postexposure was not correlated with the dose (2-5 Gy). The second elevation of PGE2 excretion occurred at 6-10 days. The magnitude of the latter increase suggests that urinary PGE2 excretion may be a useful indicator of whole-body or kidney exposure to neutron fields.

  13. Urinary excretions of 34 dietary polyphenols and their associations with lifestyle factors in the EPIC cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Achaintre, David; Rothwell, Joseph A.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Leitzmann, Michael; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Auffret, Aurélie; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin

    2016-01-01

    Urinary excretion of 34 dietary polyphenols and their variations according to diet and other lifestyle factors were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 475 adult participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study. A single 24-hour urine sample was analysed for each subject from 4 European countries. The highest median levels were observed for phenolic acids such as 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (157 μmol/24 h), followed by 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, ferulic, vanillic and homovanillic acids (20–50 μmol/24 h). The lowest concentrations were observed for equol, apigenin and resveratrol (<0.1 μmol/24 h). Urinary polyphenols significantly varied by centre, followed by alcohol intake, sex, educational level, and energy intake. This variability is largely explained by geographical variations in the diet, as suggested by the high correlations (r > 0.5) observed between urinary polyphenols and the intake of their main food sources (e.g., resveratrol and gallic acid ethyl ester with red wine intake; caffeic, protocatechuic and ferulic acids with coffee consumption; and hesperetin and naringenin with citrus fruit intake). The large variations in urinary polyphenols observed are largely determined by food preferences. These polyphenol biomarkers should allow more accurate evaluation of the relationships between polyphenol exposure and the risk of chronic diseases in large epidemiological studies. PMID:27273479

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of the urinary albumin: creatinine ratio determined by the CLINITEK Microalbumin and DCA 2000+ for the rule-out of albuminuria in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Guy, Mark; Newall, Ronald; Borzomato, Joanna; Kalra, Philip A; Price, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    An increased urinary albumin excretion (albuminuria) is an established test for the early detection of renal disease and is also recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality in a number of clinical settings. There is an established body of data which shows that a random urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) based on a random urine sample correlates well with 24-hour urinary albumin excretion measurement. However, there is little data to show whether specific point-of-care testing devices can be used to rule-in or rule-out increased urinary albumin excretion in comparison to a 24-hour urinary albumin excretion measurement. This study evaluated the ability to rule-in or rule-out albuminuria in a cohort of patients attending a renal outpatient clinic, using the urinary ACR determined by the CLINITEK Microalbumin (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., Deerfield, US) a semi-quantitative strip test, and by the DCA 2000+ (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc.) a quantitative cassette based test using 3 random urine samples collected within a 24-hour period compared to 24-hour urinary albumin measurement. The CLINITEK system was shown to be a reliable test for ruling out increased urinary albumin excretion with negative likelihood ratios less than 0.05 above the 24-hour urinary albumin excretion rate of 30 mg/24 h (threshold for microalbuminuria), and less than 0.01 above the albumin excretion rate of 100 mg/24 h. The DCA 2000+ system demonstrated similar performance as a rule-out test, with likelihood ratios of less than 0.02 at 24-hour albumin excretion rates above 30 mg/24 h. Both the CLINITEK and DCA 2000+ systems could be used to rule-out increased urinary albumin excretion at the albumin excretion cut-off rate of 30 mg/24 h in this cohort of patients.

  15. Urinary excretion of the acrylonitrile metabolite 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid is correlated with a variety of biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and consumption.

    PubMed

    Minet, Emmanuel; Cheung, Francis; Errington, Graham; Sterz, Katharina; Scherer, Gerhard

    2011-02-01

    Acrylonitrile is an IARC class 2B carcinogen present in cigarette smoke. Urinary 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) is an acrylonitrile metabolite and a potential biomarker for acrylonitrile exposure. The objective of this work was to study the dose response of CEMA in urine of non-smokers and smokers of different ISO tar yield cigarettes. We observed that smokers excreted >100-fold higher amounts of urinary CEMA than non-smokers. The CEMA levels in smokers were significantly correlated with ISO tar yield, daily cigarette consumption, and urinary biomarkers of smoke exposure. In conclusion, urinary CEMA is a suitable biomarker for assessing smoking-related exposure to acrylonitrile.

  16. Urinary excretion of the acrylonitrile metabolite 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid is correlated with a variety of biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and consumption

    PubMed Central

    Minet, Emmanuel; Cheung, Francis; Errington, Graham; Sterz, Katharina; Scherer, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Acrylonitrile is an IARC class 2B carcinogen present in cigarette smoke. Urinary 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) is an acrylonitrile metabolite and a potential biomarker for acrylonitrile exposure. The objective of this work was to study the dose response of CEMA in urine of non-smokers and smokers of different ISO tar yield cigarettes. We observed that smokers excreted >100-fold higher amounts of urinary CEMA than non-smokers. The CEMA levels in smokers were significantly correlated with ISO tar yield, daily cigarette consumption, and urinary biomarkers of smoke exposure. In conclusion, urinary CEMA is a suitable biomarker for assessing smoking-related exposure to acrylonitrile. PMID:21108560

  17. INCREASED LEVELS OF MEDIAN URINARY IODINE EXCRETION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN THE SUBURBAN AREA, KHON KAEN, THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Apirajkamol, Nahatai; Panamonta, Ouyporn; Panamonta, Manat

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is associated with a low IQ in children and is an important public health problem in northeastern Thailand. Despite campaigns to reduce IDD in northeastern Thailand, studies showed people in this region continue to have the lowest median urinary iodine (UI) excretion and Intelligence Quotient scores. We conducted a cross sectional study of median urinary iodine excretion among primary school children in suburban Khon Kaen Province, in northeastern Thailand, during December 2012 to evaluate the current status of IDD in this population. We studied 377 school children. Urine samples were collected and measured for UI using a simple microplate method. The median UI level was 229.0 μg/l (range 15.0-1,124.1). Forty school children (10.6%) had UI levels less than 100 μg/l and 10 children (2.7%) had UI levels less than 50 μg/l. One hundred nine children (28.9%) had UI levels greater than 300 μg/l. Our study shows that there are still children in the study population and study area with inadequate UI levels. Programs to prevent IDD need to include this population in this area.

  18. Urinary excretion of the main anthocyanin in lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Henna-Maria; Rantala, Milla; Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Viitanen, Matti; Kallio, Heikki

    2009-05-27

    In vitro trials have indicated various potential health effects of lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). Most of these studies have been performed with berry extract or juice, and the detailed chemical structures of active compounds in these products have not been elucidated. Lingonberry contains cyanidin-3-galactoside as its main anthocyanin. Absorption and metabolism of the compound is not fully understood, and no studies of anthocyanin metabolism have been performed with lingonberries. The aim of this study was to investigate the urinary excretion of cyanidin-3-galactoside and its metabolites in young and healthy subjects receiving a breakfast containing 300 g of lingonberries. A fast, selective, and sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (uHPLC-MS/MS) method was optimized for the analysis of the anthocyanin metabolites in urine. Both intact cyanidin-3-galactoside and its methylated and glucuronidated metabolites were identified from urine samples. The two metabolites represented >50% of cyanidin excreted in urine. Maximal excretion appeared between 4 and 8 h after the meal. Also, the compounds were absorbed more slowly than reported previously in several studies.

  19. Urinary protein excretion profile: A contribution for subclinical renal damage identification among environmental heavy metals exposure in Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlipp, C. R.; Bottini, P. V.; de Capitan, E. M.; Pinho, M. C.; Panzan, A. D. N.; Sakuma, A. M. A.; Paoliello, M. B.

    2003-05-01

    In Southeast Brazil. Ribeira Valley region has been a major public health concern due to he environmental heavy metals contamination indexes of vegetation, rocks and aquifers, caused by locai mining in the past. Human contamination low levels of heavy rnetals doesn't cause acute intoxication but ni chronic exposure, renal damage may occur with progressive tubuJointerstitial changes evolvil1g to glomemlar 1esiol1, ln this stndy we invesligated the relationship between thc profile of utillan, excreted proteins (glomerular or lubular origin) of arsenic and mercury and blood lead concentration in chiJdren and adults from highly e) qJosed regions of the Ribeira Valley. The subjects were classieed as GROUP 1 (GI; higher environmental risk n=333) and GROUP 2 (G2; lower risk of contamination. n=104). In order to determine the urinary excretion of total protein, albumin (MA, glomerular marker) and alpha i microglobulin (AIM, tubular marker) and the blood lead concentrations. random wine and blood samples were obtaiiied. Plasmatic lead levels were assessed by atomic absorption spectrometty with graphite fumace. Totai protein concentration (PROT) was assessed on a biochemical analyzer ,progallol red method). MA and AIM were determined by nephelometric method. Croup 1 showcd a higher frequency of altered urinary excretion of PROT (GI=3.4%; G2=1.0%), MA (Gl=9.0%; G2=5.1%) and AIM (Gt=7.5%, G2=3.8%), without significant differences between both groups. Elevated arscnic levels were more prevaient among subjects from Group 1 (2.8.8%) and demonstrated a significant corrolation with abiiormal iirinarv excretion of ilbumin and alpha-l-micrglobulin (p=0.019).Leadaand mercury levels showed no difference among the groups and no correlation will MAa and/or M. Oti-c dala suggests that abnormal itrinary protein excretion is relatively frequent in this population independently of the plasmatic or urinaryl heavy metal levels. The early detection of possible renal damage become necessary for

  20. Detection of fenspiride and identification of in vivo metabolites in horse body fluids by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: administration, biotransformation and urinary excretion after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Dumasia, M C; Houghton, E; Hyde, W; Greulich, D; Nelson, T; Peterson, Jackie

    2002-02-05

    Studies related to the in vivo biotransforrmation and urinary excretion of fenspiride hydrochloride in the horse are described. After oral administration, the drug is metabolised by both phase I functionalisation and phase II conjugation pathways. Following enzymatic deconjugation, fenspiride and its phase I metabolites were isolated from post-administration biofluids using bonded co-polymeric mixed mode solid-phase extraction cartridges to isolate the basic compounds. Following trimethylsilylation (TMS), the parent drug and metabolites were identified by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fenspiride (A) and seven metabolites (B-->G) arising from oxidation on both the aromatic and heterocyclic substructures were detected in urine. The positive ion electron ionisation mass spectra of the TMS derivatives of fenspiride and its metabolites provided useful information on its metabolism. Positive ion methane chemical ionisation-GC-MS of the derivatives provided both derivatised molecular mass and structural information. Unchanged fenspiride can be detected in post-administration plasma and urine samples for up to 24 h. Maximum urinary levels of 100-200 ng ml(-1) were observed between 3 and 5 h after administration. After enzymatic deconjugation, the major phenolic metabolite (G) can be detected in urine for up to 72 h. This metabolite is the analyte of choice in the GC-MS screening of post-race equine urine samples for detection of fenspiride use. However, a distinct difference was observed in the urinary excretion of this metabolite between the thoroughbred horses used in UK study and the quarterbred and standardbred horses used for the USA administrations.

  1. Urinary excretion of chromium following ingestion of chromite-ore processing residues in humans: implications for biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Gargas, M L; Norton, R L; Harris, M A; Paustenbach, D J; Finley, B L

    1994-12-01

    Biomonitoring programs for urinary chromium (Cr) typically attempt to evaluate occupational exposure via the inhalation route. This study investigated whether Cr can be detected in the urine of people following the ingestion of soils that contain relatively high concentrations of chromium in chromite ore processing residue (COPR). To evaluate the reasonableness of using urinary monitoring to assess environmental exposure, six volunteers ingested 400 mg of soil/day (low-dose group), two others ingested 2.0 g of soil/day (high-dose group) for 3 consecutive days, and one person ingested a placebo on each of 3 days. The soil and COPR mixture contained concentrations of total chromium (Cr) and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] of 103 +/- 20 and 9.3 +/- 3.8 mg/kg, respectively. Therefore, the low-dose group ingested 41 micrograms Cr/day [including 3.7 micrograms Cr(VI)] and the high-dose group ingested 206 micrograms Cr/day [including 18.6 micrograms Cr(VI)] on each of 3 consecutive days. All urine samples were collected and analyzed individually for total Cr on the day prior to dosing, during the 3 days of dosing, and up to the first void 48 h after the last dose. No significant increases in urinary Cr excretion were found when background excretion data were compared with data following each of the 3 days of dosing or in daily mean urine concentrations of the high- vs the low-dose groups. It appears that Cr present in a soil and COPR mixture at Cr doses up to 200 micrograms/day is not sufficiently bioavailable for biomonitoring of urine to be informative.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Increased urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion in long-distance bus drivers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Donovan, Maryann; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2010-05-01

    Professional bus drivers are exposed to environments containing air pollution and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can induce cellular oxidative stress and DNA damage. This study investigated environmental factors associated with oxidative DNA damage in a cohort of long-distance bus drivers. In a comparison study, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, was examined in 120 male long-distance bus drivers and 58 male office workers in Taiwan. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze association between urinary 8-OHdG levels and environmental factors. Bus drivers had higher urinary 8-OHdG levels (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=9.4, 95% confidence interval (CI)=3.5-28.2) compared with office workers. Increased urinary 8-OHdG level was significantly related to cigarette smoking (aOR=18.0, 95% CI=7.1-52.1), consumption of energy drinks (aOR=5.0, 95% CI=2.1-12.6), and regular exercise (aOR=3.8, 95% CI=1.5-10.2). A strong exposure-response relationship was found between urinary 8-OHdG and urinary cotinine (p<0.0001). Among nonsmokers, bus drivers (aOR=3.9, 95% CI=1.0-17.7) had higher urinary 8-OHdG than office workers. Among both bus drivers and office workers, those who drank energy drinks (aOR=3.7, 95% CI=1.2-12.2) had higher 8-OHdG levels than those who did not drink energy drinks. Adjusted for smoking, levels of 8-OHdG were increased in long-distance bus drivers exposed to traffic exhaust and ingested energy drinks. Future studies should explore what aspects of energy drinks may contribute to increased urinary 8-OHdG.

  3. Circadian rhythms of 6-sulphatoxy melatonin, cortisol and electrolyte excretion at the summer and winter solstices in normal men and women.

    PubMed

    Kennaway, D J; Royles, P

    1986-11-01

    Urinary excretion of 6-sulphatoxy melatonin, cortisol, potassium and sodium was monitored at four hourly intervals for 24 h in 30 normal subjects at the summer and winter solstices. The 24 h profiles were fitted to sine curves and mean 24-h excretion, time of maximum excretion and amplitude of the curves compared. The excretion of 6-sulphatoxy melatonin was remarkably stable at the two times of the year (24-h excretion 108 +/- 6.3 nmol in summer and 105 +/- 6.3 nmol in winter, mean +/- SEM). The time of maximum excretion was significantly delayed in winter by 1 h and 40 min. Urinary cortisol excretion was significantly higher in winter, however, the amplitude was unaltered. The time of maximum excretion of cortisol was significantly delayed by 1 h and 34 min. Postassium and sodium excretion were both unaffected by seasonal influences. These results contrast with results in some animal species in which the duration of the melatonin signal is thought to be the key determinant in subsequent melatonin action. In humans it is likely that the phasing of the melatonin rhythm is of prime importance.

  4. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase in children with type I diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ellis, E N; Brouhard, B H; Lagrone, L; Travis, L B

    1983-01-01

    N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), a lysosomal enzyme, has been shown to be increased in the urine of patients with various glomerulonephritides, tubulointerestitial diseases, renal allograft rejection, toxic renal injury, and diabetes mellitus. Although it has been suggested that urinary NAG may reflect blood glucose control, no studies have correlated this with other measures of metabolic control. Thirty-four children from a diabetic summer camp were found to have urinary NAG to creatinine ratios significantly above those of normal controls of similar age (5.22 +/- 1.19 versus 1.51 +/- 0.17 U). Urinary NAG was found to positively correlate with an arbitrary control index (r = 0.82; P less than 0.05) and in seven patients with hemoglobin A1c (r = 0.70; P less than 0.001). In a closely followed group of 40 clinic patients, urinary NAG to creatinine ratio was again found to be significantly increased over normal controls (7.55 +/- 0.70 versus 1.51 +/- 0.17 U; P less than 0.05). Again, urinary NAG was positively correlated with HbA1c (r = 0.62; P less than 0.001) and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (r = 0.47; P less than 0.01). In neither group was there a correlation with UNAG:UCr and duration of disease. Thus, these data suggest that urinary NAG to creatinine ratio appears to be a reflection of blood sugar control.

  5. Accelerated urinary excretion of methylmercury following administration of its antidote N-acetylcysteine requires Mrp2/Abcc2, the apical multidrug resistance-associated protein.

    PubMed

    Madejczyk, Michael S; Aremu, David A; Simmons-Willis, Tracey A; Clarkson, Thomas W; Ballatori, Nazzareno

    2007-07-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a sulfhydryl-containing compound that produces a dramatic acceleration of urinary methylmercury (MeHg) excretion in poisoned mice, but the molecular mechanism for this effect is poorly defined. MeHg readily binds to NAC to form the MeHg-NAC complex, and recent studies indicate that this complex is an excellent substrate for the basolateral organic anion transporter (Oat)-1, Oat1/Slc22a6, thus potentially explaining the uptake from blood into the renal tubular cells. The present study tested the hypothesis that intracellular MeHg is subsequently transported across the apical membrane of the cells into the tubular fluid as a MeHg-NAC complex using the multidrug resistance-associated protein-2 (Mrp2/Abcc2). NAC markedly stimulated urinary [(14)C]MeHg excretion in wild-type Wistar rats, and a second dose of NAC was as effective as the first dose in stimulating MeHg excretion. In contrast with the normal Wistar rats, NAC was much less effective at stimulating urinary MeHg excretion in the Mrp2-deficient (TR-) Wistar rats. The TR- rats excreted only approximately 30% of the MeHg excreted by the wild-type animals. To directly test whether MeHg-NAC is a substrate for Mrp2, studies were carried out in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from livers of TR- and control Wistar rats. Transport of MeHg-NAC was lower in vesicles prepared from TR- rats, whereas transport of MeHg-cysteine was similar in control and TR- rats. These results indicate that Mrp2 is involved in urinary MeHg excretion after NAC administration and suggest that the transported molecule is most likely the MeHg-NAC complex.

  6. Urinary Sodium Excretion Has Positive Correlation with Activation of Urinary Renin Angiotensin System and Reactive Oxygen Species in Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Shin-Young; Kim, Sejoong; Kim, Dong Ki; Shin, Sung Joon; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Bum Soon; Lim, Chun Soo

    2014-01-01

    It is not well described the pathophysiology of renal injuries caused by a high salt intake in humans. The authors analyzed the relationship between the 24-hr urine sodium-to-creatinine ratio (24HUna/cr) and renal injury parameters such as urine angiotensinogen (uAGT/cr), monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1 (uMCP1/cr), and malondialdehyde-to-creatinine ratio (uMDA/cr) by using the data derived from 226 hypertensive chronic kidney disease patients. At baseline, the 24HUna/cr group or levels had a positive correlation with uAGT/cr and uMDA/cr adjusted for related factors (P<0.001 for each analysis). When we estimated uAGT/cr in the 24HUna/cr groups by ANCOVA, the uAGT/cr in patients with ≥200 mEq/g cr was higher than in patients with <100 mEq/g cr (708 [95% CI, 448-967] vs. 334 [95% CI, 184-483] pg/mg cr, P=0.014). Similarly, uMDA/cr was estimated as 0.17 (95% CI, 0.14-0.21) pM/mg cr in patients with <100 mEq/g cr and 0.27 (95% CI, 0.20-0.33) pM/mg cr in patients with ≥200 mEq/g cr (P=0.016). During the 16-week follow-up period, an increase in urinary sodium excretion predicted an increase in urinary angiotensinogen excretion. In conclusion, high salt intake increases renal renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) activation, primarily, and directly or indirectly affects the production of reactive oxygen species through renal RAS activation. PMID:25317016

  7. In vivo cross-match by chromium-51 urinary excretion from labeled erythrocytes: A case of anti-Gerbich

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, T.; Tauxe, W.N.; Ramsey, G. )

    1990-12-01

    We studied a patient with an alloantibody to the high-frequency red blood cell (RBC) antigen Gerbich. A nationwide search for rare Gerbich-negative blood (less than 1:45,000 donors) located only seven units, and our supply was quickly exhausted. By using an in vivo cross-matching method, we demonstrated that this anti-Gerbich did not cause RBC destruction. Regular Gerbich-positive transfusions could then proceed without hemolysis. This cross-match test was based on the determination of the urinary excretion rates of injected radioactive chromium-labeled donor erythrocytes by which it was possible to determine compatibility only 24 hr after the test was begun. The procedure provides an easy and accurate means for in vivo cross-matching of conventionally incompatible donor blood.

  8. Tissue vitamin concentrations are maintained constant by changing the urinary excretion rate of vitamins in rats' restricted food intake.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that mild food restriction induces a reduction in tryptophan-nicotinamide conversion, which helps to explain why death secondary to pellagra is pandemic during the hungry season. In this study, we investigated the levels of B-group vitamins in the liver, kidney, blood, and urine in rats that underwent gradual restriction of food intake (80, 60, 40, and 20% restriction vs. ad libitum food intake). No significant differences in the B-group vitamin concentrations (mol/g tissue) in the liver and kidney were observed at any level of food restriction. However, the urine excretion rates exhibited some characteristic phenomena that differed by vitamin. These results show that the tissue concentrations of B-group vitamins were kept constant by changing the urinary elimination rates of vitamins under various levels of food restriction. Only vitamin B12 was the only (exception).

  9. Renal metabolism and urinary excretion of platelet-activating factor in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Noris, M.; Perico, N.; Macconi, D.; Nanni, V.; Dadan, J.; Peterlongo, F.; Remuzzi, G. )

    1990-11-15

    The origin of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the urine remains ill defined. The present study documents that (3H)PAF (3.5 mu Ci) injected into the renal artery of isolated control rat kidney preparations perfused at constant pressure with a cell-free medium containing 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) was excreted in negligible amounts (0.034%) in the urine, whereas 6% was retained by the kidney. When kidneys were perfused with a BSA-free medium, 0.029 and 71% of the total radioactivity added to the perfusate was recovered in the urine and in the renal tissue, respectively. (3H)PAF urine excretion in proteinuric kidneys from adriamycin-treated rats was still negligible (0.015%). Analysis of the renal tissue-retained radioactivity in control and proteinuric kidneys perfused with 1% BSA indicated metabolism into long chain acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine species, lyso-PAF, glycerols, and intact PAF. Thin layer chromatography analysis of (3H)glycerol fraction in these renal extracts showed two major components comigrating with 1-O-alkylglycerol and 1-O-alkyl-2-fatty acylglycerol. Isolated proximal tubules, but not glomeruli from nephrotic rats exposed to increasing concentrations of BSA (0-4%), had a higher PAF uptake than control tubules for BSA concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.1%. Our findings in the isolated perfused kidneys indicate that, in normal conditions, circulating PAF is excreted in the urine in negligible amounts and that the altered glomerular permeability to proteins does not affect this excretion rate. Moreover, analysis of renal tissue radioactivity documented that the renal metabolism of PAF is comparable in control and nephrotic kidneys.

  10. Effects of dairy cow diet forage proportion on duodenal nutrient supply and urinary purine derivative excretion.

    PubMed

    Moorby, J M; Dewhurst, R J; Evans, R T; Danelón, J L

    2006-09-01

    Four mature Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square change-over design experiment made up of four 4-wk periods to investigate the relationship between microbial protein flow to the duodenum and excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in the urine. Four dietary treatments based on ad libitum access to ryegrass silage were offered, with a standard dairy concentrate included at different forage:concentrate (F:C) ratios, calculated on a dry matter basis: 80:20, 65:35, 50:50, and 35:65. Feed intakes increased as the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased, despite a concurrent decrease in silage intake. Increased feed intake led to increased nutrient flow to the duodenum. Milk yields increased as the diet F:C ratio decreased, with cows offered the 35:65 diet yielding nearly 8 kg/d more milk than cows offered the 80:20 diet; the concentrations of milk fat decreased and milk protein increased with a decreasing F:C ratio. Purine derivative excretion in the urine increased with an increasing proportion of concentrate in the diet, and there was a strong linear relationship between total PD excretion (allantoin and uric acid) and microbial N flow to the duodenum: microbial N (g/d) = 19.9 + 0.689 x total PD (mmol/d); R = 0.887. This strengthens the case for using PD excretion as a noninvasive marker of microbial protein flow from the rumen in dairy cows.

  11. Dietary resistant starch prevents urinary excretion of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and vitamin D-binding protein in type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Smazal, Anne L; Borcherding, Nicholas C; Anderegg, Alysse S; Schalinske, Kevin L; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Rowling, Matthew J

    2013-07-01

    Diabetes is a rapidly growing epidemic affecting millions of Americans and has been implicated in a number of devastating secondary complications. We previously demonstrated that type 2 diabetic rats exhibit vitamin D deficiency due to aberrant megalin-mediated endocytosis and excessive urinary excretion of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25D3) and vitamin D-binding protein (DBP). Here, we examined whether a model of type 1 diabetes [T1D; streptozotocin (STZ)-treated Sprague-Dawley rats] would similarly excrete abnormally high concentrations of 25D3 and DBP due to renal damage and compromised expression of megalin and its endocytic partner, disabled-2 (Dab2). Moreover, we tested whether feeding diabetic rats starch that is resistant to digestion could alleviate these abnormalities. Control (n = 12) rats were fed a standard, semipurified diet (AIN-93G) containing 55% total dietary starch and STZ-treated rats were fed the AIN-93G diet (n = 12) or a diet containing 55% high-amylose maize that is partially resistant to digestion [20% total dietary resistant starch (RS); n = 12] for 2 and 5 wk. The RS diet attenuated weight loss and polyuria in STZ-treated rats. Histology and immunohistochemistry revealed that dietary RS also attenuated the loss of Dab2 expression in renal proximal tubules. Moreover, urinary concentrations of both 25D3 and DBP were elevated ∼10-fold in STZ-treated rats (5 wk post STZ injection), which was virtually prevented by the RS. We also observed a ∼1.5-fold increase in megalin mRNA expression in STZ-treated rats, which was attenuated by feeding rats the RS diet for 2 wk. Taken together, these studies indicate that consumption of low-glycemic carbohydrates can attenuate disruption of vitamin D homeostasis in T1D through the rescue of megalin-mediated endocytosis in the kidney.

  12. Turnover and urinary excretion of free and acetylated MS-222 rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, J.B.; Schoettger, R.A.; Willford, W.A.

    1968-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) anesthetized in 100 mg/liter of M.S. 222 at 12 C excreted the drug in free and acetylated forms via the urine during a 24-hr recovery period in freshwater. Of the M.S. 222 excreted, 77-96% was acetylated. Blood levels of free drug in anesthetized trout approximated 75% of the anesthetic concentration, but the amount of acetylated M.S. 222 was relatively insignificant. The blood and urine were cleared of the two fractions of M.S. 222 in 8 and 24 hr respectively. Low levels of aromatic amines of natural origin occurred in blood and urine and were subtracted from measurements of M.S. 222. Intraperitoneal injections of 10-100 mg/kg of M.S. 222 did not induce anesthesia; however, the 24-hr pattern of drug excretion was similar to that observed after anesthesia by immersion. Only 15-21 % of the injected dose was found in the urine, suggesting a second route of drug elimination.

  13. Urinary nitrate excretion in relation to murine macrophage activation. Influence of dietary L-arginine and oral NG-monomethyl-L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Granger, D L; Hibbs, J B; Broadnax, L M

    1991-02-15

    Murine macrophage oxidation of L-arginine guanidino nitrogen to nitrite/nitrate yields an intermediate effector, possibly nitric oxide, with antimicrobial activity. Total body nitrogen oxidation metabolism (NOM) was measured in vivo by determining the urinary nitrate excretion of mice ingesting a chemically defined nitrite/nitrate-free diet. As reported previously, mycobacterial infection with bacillus Calmétte-Guerin led to a large increase in urinary nitrate excretion. This increase was temporally related to macrophage activation in vivo. The substrate for macrophage nitrogen oxidation metabolism in vitro, L-arginine, was deleted from the diet without ameliorating the urinary nitrate excretion response induced by BCG. This suggested that L-arginine was synthesized endogenously because there are no other known natural substrates for NOM. A competitive inhibitor of NOM, the L-arginine analog, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine was fed to mice in their drinking water. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine ingestion blocked both basal and bacillus Calmétte-Guerin-induced urinary nitrate excretion over a 2-4 week time span. These experimental conditions should prove useful for further investigation on the role of macrophage NOM in host defense against intracellular microorganisms.

  14. Preeclampsia -- a state of prostaglandin deficiency? Urinary prostaglandin excretion, the renin-aldosterone system, and circulating catecholamines in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, E B; Christensen, N J; Christensen, P; Johannesen, P; Kornerup, H J; Kristensen, S; Lauritsen, J G; Leyssac, P P; Rasmussen, A; Wohlert, M

    1983-01-01

    Urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), plasma concentrations of renin, aldosterone, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) were determined during pregnancy, 5 days, 3, and 6 months after delivery in preeclampsia, normotensive pregnant, and nonpregnant control subjects. The PGE2 was higher in normotensive pregnant control subjects than in nonpregnant subjects. In preeclampsia, PGE2 was reduced to nonpregnant level. PGF2 alpha was the same in preeclampsia and in normotensive pregnancy, but elevated when compared to the normotensive nonpregnant control group. Plasma concentrations of renin and aldosterone were increased during pregnancy, but considerably less in preeclampsia than during normotensive pregnancy. NE and E were the same as in nonpregnant subjects during both hypertensive and normotensive pregnancy. All parameters were normal 3 months after delivery. There were no correlations between PGE2, PGF2 alpha, plasma concentrations of renin, aldosterone, NE, or E and blood pressure level in third trimester either in preeclampsia or in normotensive pregnancy. PGE2 was positively correlated to plasma concentrations of renin. It is suggested that the lack of renal PGE2 in preeclampsia might be responsible for the decrease in renal blood flow and sodium excretion. It is hypothesized that preeclampsia is a state of prostaglandin deficiency. The changes in the renin-aldosterone system may be secondary to changes in prostaglandin concentration both in preeclampsia and normotensive pregnancy.

  15. Melatonin production during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal study on the excretion of urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Griefahn, Barbara; Bröde, Peter; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Remer, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Cross-sectional data on urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) excretion in children suggest a constant melatonin secretion during growth. The present longitudinal study concerned, accordingly, the intra-individual stability of melatonin production during childhood and adolescence. Urine samples collected during a longitudinal investigation of healthy white children and adolescents were analyzed. Forty-six boys and 38 girls were chosen for the present study. They had passed 3-15 annual examinations between their 3rd and 18th yr of age. Each examination included the collection of urine over 24 hr. The daily urinary output of 6-OHMS of the overall 621 samples was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The analyses clearly revealed for the first time that, despite huge inter-individual differences, melatonin production remains constant in one and the same individual during childhood and adolescence. Additionally, neither a significant sex difference was observed nor was the 6-OHMS output affected by season. The dramatic decrease of plasma melatonin levels as described in the literature is mainly related to an increase in body size rather than to decreasing pineal secretion.

  16. Effects of the dietary supplements, activated charcoal and copper chlorophyllin, on urinary excretion of trimethylamine in Japanese trimethylaminuria patients.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Fujieda, Masaki; Togashi, Masahiro; Saito, Tetsuya; Preti, George; Cashman, John R; Kamataki, Tetsuya

    2004-04-16

    Trimethylaminuria (TMAU) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the inability to oxidize and convert dietary-derived trimethylamine (TMA) to trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). This disorder has been relatively well-documented in European and North American populations, but no reports have appeared regarding patients in Japan. We identified seven Japanese individuals that showed a low metabolic capacity to convert TMA to its odorless metabolite, TMAO. The metabolic capacity, as defined by the concentration of TMAO excreted in the urine divided by TMA concentration plus TMAO concentration, in these seven individuals ranged from 70 to 90%. In contrast, there were no healthy controls examined with less than 95% of the metabolic capacity to convert TMA to TMAO. The intake of dietary charcoal (total 1.5 g charcoal per day for 10 days) reduced the urinary free TMA concentration and increased the concentration of TMAO to normal values during charcoal administration. Copper chlorophyllin (total 180 mg per day for 3 weeks) was also effective at reducing free urinary TMA concentration and increasing TMAO to those of concentrations present in normal individuals. In the TMAU subjects examined, the effects of copper chlorophyllin appeared to last longer (i.e., several weeks) than those observed for activated charcoal. The results suggest that the daily intake of charcoal and/or copper chlorophyllin may be of significant use in improving the quality of life of individuals suffering from TMAU.

  17. Chemical synthesis of deuterated folate monoglutamate and in vivo assessment of urinary excretion of deuterated folates in man

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, J.F. III; Toth, J.P.

    1988-04-01

    The synthesis and in vivo application of stable-isotopically labeled folic acid was investigated to devise methods suitable for studies of folate metabolism in human subjects. Glutamate-labeled tetradeutero-pteroylglutamic acid (d4-folic acid) was prepared by mixed anhydride coupling of N10-trifluoroacetylpteroic acid and dimethyl L-(3,3,4,4-2H4)glutamic acid, saponification in sodium deuteroxide, and chromatographic purification. Retention of the isotopic label was verified by proton NMR and mass spectrometry of the para-aminobenzoylglutamic acid product of C9-N10 bond cleavage. A method was devised for determination of of isotopic enrichment of urinary d4-folates derived from orally administered d4-folic acid using affinity chromatographic purification, chemical cleavage of the C9-N10 bond, HPLC isolation of the p-(2H4)aminobenzoylglutamate product, followed by negative-ion chemical-ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Data concerning the urinary excretion of d4-folates derived from an oral dose of d4-folic acid in an adult human are presented.

  18. Assessment of the diurnal variations in urinary homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acid excretion for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, M; Robison, L L; Maynard, R C; Ramnaraine, M L; Krivit, W

    1985-06-01

    The diurnal variation of urinary homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) was studied in neuroblastoma patients and in a control group. Urinary HVA and VMA levels in four sequential 6-hour urine collections within a 24-hour period were compared. HVA and VMA levels were expressed in microgram/mg of urinary creatinine (UCr) and in mg/6h specimens. No statistically significant variations between the four time intervals were found when expressed in microgram/mg UCr or mg/6h. The small variations that exist in the excretion of HVA and VMA during different periods of the day are due to variations in renal excretion rather than variations in production. The results from this study indicate that a random urine sample should be as good as a 24-hour collection for diagnosis and follow-up of neural crest tumors.

  19. Infrequency of urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid by healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Evered, D F; Barley, J F

    1978-03-15

    Urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) levels were measured by modified ion-exchange chromatography. Daily BAIB levels are reported for a group of apparently healthy individuals, a subject with infective hepatitis and two human genetic variants who were high "excretors" of BAIB. The frequency of high "excretors" of BAIB was found using low-voltage paper electrophoresis. The frequency among 403 male European subjects was 5 (1.2%) and lower than previous estimates in the United Kingdom. The percentage recovery of fed BAIB suggests that Oriental "excretors" may have a different type of genetic lesion from non-Oriental "excretors". The clinical usefulness of urinary BAIB assays and qualitative screening is reviewed.

  20. Elevated urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid and delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and the inhibition of ALA-synthase and ALA-dehydratase activities in both liver and kidney in mice exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Tomokuni, K; Ichiba, M; Hirai, Y

    1991-12-01

    Urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (ABA) and delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was investigated in mice exposed to lead (500 p.p.m.) in drinking water for 14 days. Concentrations of both urinary ABA and urinary ALA increased significantly in the lead-exposed mice. However, the degree of increasing excretion was higher in urinary ALA (10-fold of the control) than in urinary ABA (2-fold of the control). On the other hand, it was demonstrated that ALA dehydratase in liver and kidney is inhibited by exposure to lead, while ALA synthase in these tissues has no inhibitory effect.

  1. Inhibitory effect of atenolol on urinary excretion of metformin via down-regulating multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (rMate1) expression in the kidney of rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan-rong; Huang, Jing; Shao, Yun-yun; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Guo-qiang; Zhou, Yan; Zhi, Rao; Qin, Hong-yan; Wu, Xin-an

    2015-02-20

    Renal tubular secretion is an important pathway for the elimination of many clinically used drugs. Metformin, a commonly prescribed first-line antidiabetic drug, is secreted primarily by the renal tubule. Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) receiving metformin may together be given selective β1 blockers (e.g., atenolol). Therefore, it is of great use to evaluate the effect of atenolol on metformin urinary excretion for exploring drug interactions and predicting the adverse effect of drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of atenolol on the pharmacokinetic of metformin and plasma lactate (LCA) level in rats, for high LCA is a serious adverse reaction of metformin after long-term metformin treatment. In this study, rats were treated with metformin alone or in combination with atenolol. Plasma, urine and tissue concentration of metformin was determined by HPLC method, while Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis were used to evaluate the renal expression of rat organic cation transporter 2 (rOct2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (rMate1). The results showed that, after 7 days drug treatment, the AUC0 → t of metformin in atenolol and metformin co-administration group was significantly increased by 19.5% compared to that in metformin group, while the 24h cumulative urinary excretion of metformin was significantly decreased by 57.3%. In addition, atenolol treatment significantly decreased the renal expression of rMate1, but had no effect on rOct2 expression, renal blood perfusion and glomerular filtration. Moreover, plasma LCA level in atenolol and metformin co-administration group was significantly increased by 83.3% compared to that in metformin group after 60 days drug treatment. These results indicated that atenolol can inhibit urinary excretion of metformin via decreasing renal rMate1 expression, and long-term atenolol and metformin co-administration may induce potential lactic acidosis. Our results, for

  2. The Association between the Urinary Excretion of Trimethylselenonium and Trimethylsulfonium in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lajin, Bassam; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a signaling molecule that plays important roles in several physiological processes, and its methylation product trimethylsulfonium (TMS) is a natural constituent of human urine that could serve as a biomarker for hydrogen sulfide. In vitro studies showed that the enzyme indole-ethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT) is responsible for the production of trimethylsulfonium as well as its selenium analogue trimethylselenonium (TMSe). Marked inter-individual variability in TMSe production is associated with genetic polymorphisms in the INMT gene, but it remains unclear whether these polymorphisms affect substrate specificity or general enzymatic activity. Therefore, we explore the association between the TMS and TMSe production phenotypes. Caucasian volunteers were recruited and grouped according to their TMSe status into “TMSe producers” and “TMSe non-producers”, and morning urine samples were collected over 5 consecutive days from each volunteer. A total of 125 urine samples collected from 25 volunteers (13 TMSe producers and 12 TMSe non-producers) were analyzed for total selenium and total sulfur using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), trimethylselenonium using HPLC/ICPMS, and trimethylsulfonium using HPLC/electrospray ionization—triple quadrupole—mass spectrometry (ESI-QQQ-MS). Although there was no correlation between TMS and TMSe urinary levels within the “TMSe producers” group, the “TMSe producers” had urinary levels of TMS 10-fold higher than those of the “TMSe non-producers” (P < 0.001). This result indicates that stratification according to TMSe status or genotype is crucial for the correct interpretation of urinary TMS as a possible biomarker for hydrogen sulfide body pools. PMID:27870899

  3. Urinary excretion profiles for total morphine, free morphine, and 6-acetylmorphine following smoked and intravenous heroin.

    PubMed

    Smith, M L; Shimomura, E T; Summers, J; Paul, B D; Jenkins, A J; Darwin, W D; Cone, E J

    2001-10-01

    Heroin is one of the major target drugs in workplace drug-testing programs because of its history of abuse, liability, and continued negative social impact. This study was a comprehensive examination of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, detection times, opiate immunoassay performance, and urine excretion profiles following single doses of heroin administered to human subjects via smoking and intravenous routes. Studies of the first four components of this investigation were previously published. This article describes the urine excretion profiles. Total morphine (Tmor), free morphine (Fmor), and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in 920 urine samples collected from 11 male human subjects following single doses of heroin. Eight received intravenous doses of 3, 6, and 12 mg heroin HCI and four smoked 3.5-, 5.2-, 7-, 10.5-, or 13.9-mg doses of heroin (base). In addition, 183 urine-based blind quality-control samples were added to the study set to assess assay performance. Creatinine was also measured in each sample by a colorimetric technique. The parameters studied were not significantly dependent on route of administration. Excretion half-life mean +/- SD for Tmor was 3.11 +/- 0.30 h. Range (median) of peak urine concentrations, time to peak, time to last positive sample for low cutoff (300 ng/mL) and high cutoff (2000 ng/mL) for Tmor following lower doses (< or = 7 mg) were, respectively, 1392-9250 (3620) ng/mL, 1.2-6.2 (2.3) h, 7.4-31.9 (7.4) h, and 0-10.1 (4.3) h. Following higher doses (> 10 mg) they were 2065-29,030 (16,470) ng/mL, 2.3-9.3 (4.5) h, 10.7-53.5 (34.4) h, 2.3-22.3 (8.3) h. Fmor peaked in the same sample as Tmor. Range (median) of peak Fmor concentrations and time to last positive using a cutoff of 100 ng/mL for low and high doses were, respectively, 117-1160 (415) ng/mL, 1.2-10.1 (4.5) h and 150-2580 (1400) ng/mL, 2.3-29.1 (9.3) h. The range (median) of peak urine concentrations for 6-AM was 6

  4. Measured versus modeled dietary arsenic and relation to urinary arsenic excretion and total exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Hartz, Vern; Harris, Robin B.; Burgess, Jefferey L.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) in food and water is a significant public health problem. Person-specific aggregate exposure is difficult to collect, and modeling based on limited food As residue databases is of uncertain reliability. Two, cross-sectional, population exposure studies—the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS)-Arizona and the Arizona Border Survey (ABS)— had a total of 252 subjects with diet, water, and urinary As data. Total As was measured in 24-hour duplicate diet samples and modeled using 24-hour diet diaries in conjunction with several published food surveys of As. Two-stage regression was used to assess the effects of dietary As on urinary total As (uAs): 1) generalized linear mixed models of uAs above versus below the limit of detection (LOD); and 2) restricted models limited to those subjects with uAs > LOD, using bootstrap sampling and mixed models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, ethnicity, current smoking, and As intake from drinking and cooking water. In restricted models, measured and modeled estimates were significant predictors of uAs. Modeled dietary As based on Total Diet Study mean residues greatly underestimated dietary intake. In households with tap water As ≤ 10 ppb, over 93% of total As exposure was attributable to diet. PMID:23321855

  5. Renal phenotype in Bardet-Biedl syndrome: a combined defect of urinary concentration and dilution is associated with defective urinary AQP2 and UMOD excretion.

    PubMed

    Zacchia, Miriam; Zacchia, Enza; Zona, Enrica; Capolongo, Giovanna; Raiola, Ilaria; Rinaldi, Luca; Trepiccione, Francesco; Ingrosso, Diego; Perna, Alessandra; Di Iorio, Valentina; Simonelli, Francesca; Moe, Orson W; Capasso, Giovambattista

    2016-10-01

    The renal phenotype in Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is highly variable. The present study describes renal findings in 41 BBS patients and analyzes the pathogenesis of hyposthenuria, the most common renal dysfunction. Five of 41 patients (12%) showed an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml·min(-1)·1.73 m(-2) Urine protein and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio were over 200 and 30 mg/g in 9/24 and 7/23 patients, respectively. Four of 41 patients showed no renal anomalies on ultrasound. Twenty of 34 patients had hyposthenuria in the absence of renal insufficiency. In all 8 of the hyposthenuric patients studied, dDAVP failed to elevate urine osmolality (Uosm), suggesting a nephrogenic origin. Interestingly, water loading (WL) did not result in a significant reduction of Uosm, indicating combined concentrating and diluting defects. dDAVP infusion induced a significant increase of plasma Factor VIII and von Willebrand Factor levels, supporting normal function of the type 2 vasopressin receptor at least in endothelial cells. While urinary aquaporin 2 (u-AQP2) abundance was not different between patients and controls at baseline, the dDAVP-induced increased u-AQP2 and the WL-induced reduction of u-AQP2 were blunted in patients with a combined concentrating and diluting defect, suggesting a potential role of AQP2 in the defective regulation of water absorption. Urine Uromodulin excretion was reduced in all hyposthenuric patients, suggesting a thick ascending limb defect. Interestingly, renal Na, Cl, Ca, but not K handling was impaired after acute WL but not at basal. In summary, BBS patients show combined urinary concentration and dilution defects; a thick ascending limb and collecting duct tubulopathy may underlie impaired water handling.

  6. Gender and age differences in mixed metal exposure and urinary excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, Marika; Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Yunus, Mohammad; Grander, Margaretha; Loennerdal, Bo; Vahter, Marie

    2011-11-15

    Background: Little is known about the variation in exposure to toxic metals by age and gender and other potential modifying factors. We evaluated age and gender differences by measurements of metal/element concentrations in urine in a rural population in Matlab, Bangladesh, in three age groups: 8-12 (N=238), 14-15 (N=107) and 30-88 (N=710) years of age, living in an area with no point sources of metal exposure but where elevated water arsenic concentrations are prevalent. Results: We found marked differences in urine concentrations of metals and trace elements by gender, age, tobacco use, socioeconomic and nutritional status. Besides a clearly elevated urinary arsenic concentration in all age groups (medians 63-85 {mu}g As/L), and despite the low degree of contamination from industries and traffic, the urine concentrations of toxic metals such as cadmium and lead were clearly elevated, especially in children (median 0.31 {mu}g Cd/L and 2.9 {mu}g Pb/L, respectively). In general, women had higher urinary concentrations of toxic metals, especially Cd (median 0.81 {mu}g/L) compared to men (0.66 {mu}g/L) and U (median 10 ng/L in women, compared to 6.4 ng/L in men), while men had higher urinary concentrations of the basic and essential elements Ca (69 mg/L in men, 30-50 years, compared to 52 mg/L in women), Mg (58 mg/L in men compared to 50 mg/L in women), Zn (182 {mu}g/L in men compared to 117 {mu}g/L in women) and Se (9.9 {mu}g/L in men compared to 8.7 {mu}g/L in women). Manganese was consistently higher in females than in males in all age groups, suggesting a biological difference between females and males in Mn metabolism. Increasing socioeconomic status decreased the toxic metal exposure significantly in children and especially in men. Poor iron status was detected in 17% of children, adolescents and women, but only in 6% of men. Also zinc deficiency was more prevalent in females than in males. Conclusions: Women and children seemed to be more at risk for toxic

  7. Acquired deficiency and urinary excretion of antithrombin III in nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, N D; Paule, P; Toohey, J; Hung, E; Alikhani, S; Darwish, R; Pahl, M V

    1984-09-01

    The published data concerning changes of antithrombin III (ATIII) in nephrotic syndrome (NS) are contradictory. While increased ATIII activity has been reported by some investigators, decreased concentration has been shown by others and normal values by yet another group of authors. We determined plasma and urine concentrations of ATIII in a group of 20 patients with NS using an immunologic assay. In addition, plasma ATIII activity was determined. The results were compared with those obtained in a group of normal volunteers. Plasma concentration and activity of ATIII were both greatly reduced in the patients with NS. In addition, substantial quantities of ATIII were recovered in the urine of all tested patients. The present study, therefore, substantiates the low plasma concentrations of ATIII and its urinary losses in NS. In addition, a parallel reduction in plasma ATIII activity is demonstrated providing functional evidence of acquired ATIII deficiency in this condition.

  8. LC-MS/MS characterization of the urinary excretion profile of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in human and rat.

    PubMed

    Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Solfrizzo, Michele; De Girolamo, Annalisa; Chulze, Sofía N; Torres, Adriana M; Visconti, Angelo

    2011-04-01

    The understanding of mycotoxins transfer to biological fluids is challenged by the difficulties in performing and replicating in vivo experiments as well as the lack of suitable methods of analysis to detect simultaneously a range of chemically different metabolites at trace levels. LC-MS/MS has been used herein to study the urinary excretion profile of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in human and Wistar rat. Deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol glucuronide were found in both human and rat urines, whereas de-epoxydeoxynivalenol and its glucuronide conjugate were only detected in rat urine. The presence of two deoxynivalenol glucuronide isomers in Wistar rat urine has been shown for the first time. Structure confirmation of the detected metabolites was provided by the analysis of fragmentation patterns. A solid phase extraction clean up procedure allowing recoveries in the range 72-102% for deoxynivalenol, de-epoxydeoxynivalenol, and their glucuronide conjugates was optimized. A multiple reaction monitoring method for the simultaneous determination of all investigated metabolites was elaborated allowing the direct detection of deoxynivalenol metabolites without the hydrolysis step. Deoxynivalenol urinary levels in the range 0.003-0.008 μg/ml were detected in healthy human subjects, whereas deoxynivalenol and de-epoxynivalenol levels between 1.9-4.9 μg/ml and 1.6-5.9 μg/ml, respectively were found in administered rat urine. These findings emphasize the relevance of the highly selective and sensitive LC-MS/MS technique for the direct detection and characterization of deoxynivalenol metabolites in complex biological matrices.

  9. Morning Spot Urine Glucose-to-Creatinine Ratios Predict Overnight Urinary Glucose Excretion in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Ra; Lee, Yong-ho; Lee, Sang-Guk; Lee, Sun Hee; Kang, Eun Seok; Cha, Bong-Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background With the advent of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors to control glucose and treat diabetes, laboratory data aided by either timed or spot glucose levels in the urine could be used as an alternative marker of drug response. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between overnight urinary glucose excretion (UGE) and morning spot urinary glucose-to-creatinine ratio (UGCR). Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, we enrolled a total of 215 participants with either normal glucose tolerance (NGT), pre-diabetes, or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To exclude external factors such as food intake and physical activity, urine samples collected overnight at an 8-hr interval and the first-voided morning spot urine were collected and compared. Results The median values of overnight 8-hr UGE in participants with NGT (N=14), pre-diabetes (N=41), and T2DM (N=160) were 35.0 mg, 35.6 mg, and 653.4 mg, respectively. In participants with T2DM, the median values of overnight 8-hr UGCR and first-voided morning spot UGCR (M-UGCR) were 1.37 mg/mg and 0.16 mg/mg, respectively. Quantitative analyses using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) demonstrated a good reliability of measurement of the overnight 8-hr UGCR and M-UGCR (ICC=0.943, P<0.001). The M-UGCR was also significantly related to the overnight 8-hr UGE (r=0.828, P<0.001). Conclusions M-UGCR and overnight 8-hr UGCR showed good agreement, suggesting that M-UGCR be used as a simple index for estimating overnight amounts of UGE in patients with T2DM. PMID:27834060

  10. Urinary Excretion of Kidney Aquaporins as Possible Diagnostic Biomarker of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Luigi; Nicoletti, Maria Celeste; Mastrofrancesco, Lisa; Di Franco, Antonella; Indrio, Francesca; Lella, Rossella; Laviola, Luigi; Giorgino, Francesco; Svelto, Maria; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a microangiopathic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) affecting one-third of diabetic patients. The large variability in the clinical presentation of renal involvement in patients with DM makes kidney biopsy a prerequisite for a correct diagnosis. However, renal biopsy is an invasive procedure associated with risk of major complications. Numerous studies aimed to identify a noninvasive biomarker of DN but, so far, none of these is considered to be sufficiently specific and sensitive. Water channel aquaporins (AQPs), expressed at the plasma membrane of epithelial tubular cells, are often dysregulated during DN. In this work, we analyzed the urine excretion of AQP5 and AQP2 (uAQP5 and uAQP2), via exosomes, in 35 diabetic patients: 12 normoalbuminuric with normal renal function (DM), 11 with proteinuric nondiabetic nephropathy (NDN), and 12 with histological diagnosis and classification of DN. ELISA and WB analysis independently showed that uAQP5 was significantly increased in DN patients. Interestingly, linear regression analysis showed a positive correlation between uAQP5 and the histological class of DN. The same analysis, focusing on uAQP2, showed comparable results. Taken together, these data suggest a possible use of AQP5 and AQP2 as novel noninvasive biomarkers to help in classifying the clinical stage of DN. PMID:28246612

  11. Increased leukotriene E4 excretion in systemic mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Joseph H

    2010-06-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes such as LTE(4) are produced by mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages. LTE(4) levels have not been reported in systemic mastocytosis, a disorder with a large increase in mast cell numbers. Urinary LTE(4) from patients referred for symptoms potentially due to mast cell degranulation or systemic mastocytosis was measured by a commercial cysteinyl leukotriene enzyme immunoassay kit. The diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis was established using current World Health Organization criteria. Compared with a control group of patients with various potential mast cell-related symptoms (e.g., "spells"), patients with systemic mastocytosis had a significant (P=.01) increase in urinary LTE(4) excretion, whether expressed as LTE(4) ng/g creatinine or as LTE(4) ng/24h. There was a moderate correlation of LTE(4) ng/24h with excretion of N-methyl histamine and serum tryptase but not with urinary 11beta-prostaglandin F(2alpha) (11beta-PGF(2alpha)) excretion. LTE(4) excretion is increased in patients with systemic mastocytosis and potentially contributes to clinical symptoms.

  12. Hippuric acid in 24 h urine collections as a biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Angela; Folesani, Giuseppina; Mena, Pedro; Ticinesi, Andrea; Allegri, Franca; Nouvenne, Antonio; Pinelli, Silvana; Del Rio, Daniele; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-12-01

    This work aimed to underline the prospects of hippuric acid, a product of the metabolism of polyphenols, as a new biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake associated with lithogenic risk. Biochemical parameters of lithogenic risk and hippuric acid were measured in the 24 h urine collections of a cohort of 696 Italian kidney stone formers divided into two subgroups according to their different dietary habits. The link between lithogenic risk parameters and hippuric acid was assessed and this compound was revealed as a valuable biomarker of fruits and vegetables intake in kidney stone formers. A cut-off value of urinary excretion of hippuric acid, 300 mg/24 h, was set as the threshold of discrimination between low and high intake of fruits and vegetables for these patients. These results highlight the importance of monitoring of the excretion hippuric acid in urine to address proper dietary guidelines for the management of stone former patients.

  13. Estimation of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Moo-Yong; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Sung-Joon; Gu, Namyi; Nah, Deuk-Young; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Cho, Eun-Joo; Sung, Ki-Chul

    2014-06-20

    The present study evaluated the reliability of equations using spot urine (SU) samples in the estimation of 24-hour urine sodium excretion (24-HUNa). Equations estimating 24-HUNa from SU samples were derived from first-morning SU of 101 participants (52.4 ± 11.1 years, range 24-70 years). Equations developed by us and other investigators were validated with SU samples from a separate group of participants (n = 224, 51.0 ± 10.9 years, range 24-70 years). Linear, quadratic, and cubic equations were derived from first-morning SU samples because these samples had a sodium/creatinine ratio having the highest correlation coefficient for 24-HUNa/creatinine ratio (r = 0.728, p < 0.001). In the validation group, the estimated 24-HUNa showed significant correlations with measured 24-HUNa values. The estimated 24-HUNa by the linear, quadratic, and cubic equations developed from our study were not significantly different from measured 24-HUNa, while estimated 24-HUNa by previously developed equations were significantly different from measured 24-HUNa values. The limits of agreement between measured and estimated 24-HUNa by six equations exceeded 100 mmol/24-hour in the Bland-Altman analysis. All equations showed a tendency of under- or over-estimation of 24-HUNa, depending on the level of measured 24-HUNa. Estimation of 24-HUNa from single SU by equations as tested in the present study was found to be inadequate for the estimation of an individual's 24-HUNa.

  14. Urinary excretion of radionuclides from Marshallese exposed to fallout from the 1954 Bravo nuclear test.

    PubMed

    Harris, Payne S; Simon, Steven L; Ibrahim, Shawki A

    2010-08-01

    Soon after the Bravo nuclear test at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands on 1 March 1954, urine samples were collected for analysis of excreted radioactivity from native residents exposed to radioactive fallout on two atolls as well as from U.S. military personnel on a third atoll. The earliest acquired samples, obtained by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), were assayed for various radionuclides and provided the first known measurements of (131)I in urine following exposure to fallout from a nuclear test. Over the course of 1954, many additional samples were collected by the LASL, as well as by the Atomic Energy Commission New York Operations Office's Health and Safety Laboratory and the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. Collectively, the groups sampled included Marshallese exposed on Rongelap and Ailinginae Atolls, American military weather observers temporarily resident on Rongerik Atoll, and sailors from the Japanese fishing vessel, the Lucky Dragon. While the bioassay measurement data and individual urine volumes have been crucial to various attempts to assess intakes of radioactivity and the related internal radiation doses among the Marshallese, those data have never been published in any peer-reviewed journal, but have been restricted to agency memoranda, laboratory reports, and summaries in some publications and book chapters. Reconstructions of internal doses to Marshallese in 1954 and in later years have depended on these data and, hence, they have considerable historical importance as well as importance to ongoing health risk projections for Marshallese. This paper presents much of the original data on urine volumes and radioactivity from the various assays of urine for radionuclides, and compares estimates of (131)I intakes made in 1954, 1985, 1987, and 2008.

  15. URINARY EXCRETION OF RADIONUCLIDES FROM MARSHALLESE EXPOSED TO FALLOUT FROM THE 1954 BRAVO NUCLEAR TEST

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Payne S.; Simon, Steven L.; Ibrahim, Shawki A.

    2014-01-01

    Soon after the Bravo nuclear test at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands on 1 March 1954, urine samples were collected for analysis of excreted radioactivity from native residents exposed to radioactive fallout on two atolls as well as from U.S. military personnel on a third atoll. The earliest acquired samples, obtained by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), were assayed for various radionuclides and provided the first known measurements of 131I in urine following exposure to fallout from a nuclear test. Over the course of 1954, many additional samples were collected by the LASL, as well as by the Atomic Energy Commission New York Operations Office’s Health and Safety Laboratory and the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. Collectively, the groups sampled included Marshallese exposed on Rongelap and Ailinginae Atolls, American military weather observers temporarily resident on Rongerik Atoll, and sailors from the Japanese fishing vessel, the Lucky Dragon. While the bioassay measurement data and individual urine volumes have been crucial to various attempts to assess intakes of radioactivity and the related internal radiation doses among the Marshallese, those data have never been published in any peer-reviewed journal, but have been restricted to agency memoranda, laboratory reports, and summaries in some publications and book chapters. Reconstructions of internal doses to Marshallese in 1954 and in later years have depended on these data and, hence, they have considerable historical importance as well as importance to ongoing health risk projections for Marshallese. This paper presents much of the original data on urine volumes and radioactivity from the various assays of urine for radionuclides, and compares estimates of 131I intakes made in 1954, 1985, 1987, and 2008. PMID:20622553

  16. Caffeine in sport. Urinary excretion of caffeine in healthy volunteers after intake of common caffeine-containing beverages.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, P J; Müller, F R; Müller, F O

    1988-08-20

    The presence of a concentration of caffeine greater than or equal to 15 micrograms/ml in urine of athletes participating in competitive sport is a disqualifying factor. A study was conducted to establish how much caffeine needs to be ingested--in the form of coffee, tea or Coca-Cola--to approach or exceed this limit. Nine healthy volunteers participated in a randomised cross-over study and received caffeine in the form of these beverages, ingested within 15 minutes, in doses ranging from 1.52 mg/kg to 17.53 mg/kg. The latter dose is equivalent to nearly 8 cups of ordinary percolated coffee. The maximum caffeine concentration in urine recorded was 14 micrograms/ml, 3 hours after ingestion. A significant correlation was found between the caffeine dose and the maximum urinary concentration. The mean recovery of caffeine in urine was between 0.74% and 0.91% of the administered dose. The nature of the beverage did not appear to influence the degree of caffeine excretion. It is concluded that if a concentration of 15 micrograms caffeine/ml urine is recorded, it can safely be accepted that the athlete purposely ingested large amounts of the substance, in whatever form.

  17. [An approach to a sanitary and social problem: urinary iodine excretion in pregnant women from a iodine deficient region].

    PubMed

    Olivares, Jorge L; Ortiz, Valeria A; Mayer, Marcos; Demaria, Cecilia I; Nancucheo, Ester; Cresto, Juan C

    2009-12-01

    The urinary iodine excretion (UIE) assay is an effective method to detect reduced iodine intake. UIE was measured in two different samples (morning and evening) from 121 pregnant women, with a turbid-metric method modified by Pino (normal value =150 ugl/1). Furthermore, thyroid function was evaluated in pregnant women with UIE <100 ug/l. From 121 pregnant women, the UIE was normal in 75 with similar morning and evening samples (morning: 305.2 +/- 7.0; evening: 319.2 +/- 8.8; p: NS). The UIE did no showed differences in different trimesters and in morning and evening samples. The UIE was low in 46 women (36.9%), without significant differences between morning and evening (morning: 88.12 +/- 5.07 microg/l; evening: 88.7 +/- 6.2 microg/l; p: NS). Normal or low UIE were not influenced by the age of pregnant women and 45% of pregnant women with UIE < 100 ug/l showed impaired thyroid function. Morning and evening study of UIE allowed us to detect a higher number of pregnant women with low iodine intake. This study let us to find thyroid function abnormalities likes a screening method, because in our state there is not a public screening program for gestational hypothyroidism.

  18. Biosynthesis and urinary excretion of methyl sulfonium derivatives of the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, and other thioethers

    SciTech Connect

    Mozier, N.M.; Hoffman, J.L. )

    1990-12-01

    Thioether methyltransferase was previously shown to catalyze the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation of diemthyl selenide, dimethyl telluride, and various thioethers to produce the corresponding methyl onium ions. In this paper we show that the following thioethers are also substrates for this enzyme in vitro: 2-hydroxyethyl ethyl sulfide, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, thiodiglycol, t-butyl sulfide, and isopropyl sulfide. To demonstrate thioether methylation in vivo, mice were injected with (methyl-{sup 3}H)methionine plus different thioethers, and extracts of lungs, livers, kidneys, and urine were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the presence of ({sup 3}H)methyl sulfonium ions. The following thioethers were tested, and all were found to be methylated in vivo: dimethyl sulfide, diethyl sulfide, methyl n-propyl sulfide, tetrahydrothiophene, 2-(methylthio)ethylamine, 2-hydroxyethyl ethyl sulfide, and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide. This supports our hypothesis that the physiological role of thioether methyltransferase is to methylate seleno-, telluro-, and thioethers to more water-soluble onium ions suitable for urinary excretion. Conversion of the mustard gas analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, to the methyl sulfonium derivative represents a newly discovered mechanism for biochemical detoxification of sulfur mustards, as this conversion blocks formation of the reactive episulfonium ion that is the ultimate alkylating agent for this class of compounds.

  19. Drinking water contribution to aggregate perchlorate intake of reproductive-age women in the United States estimated by dietary intake simulation and analysis of urinary excretion data.

    PubMed

    Mendez, William; Dederick, Elizabeth; Cohen, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    Estimates of perchlorate intake by the US population can be derived from either urinary excretion data or through simulation of dietary intake. Estimates from surveys of urinary excretion (NHANES) are subject to substantial uncertainty owing to the small numbers of subjects for which data are currently available. In addition, current excretion estimates are derived from "spot" urine samples and include a component of short-term (intra-day) variability that may give biased estimates of the variability in average daily intakes. Previous dietary estimates have generally not included any contribution from drinking water, owing to a lack of data related to perchlorate concentrations in water supplies. In this paper, we derive simulation (Monte Carlo) estimates of dietary perchlorate intake distributions for reproductive-age women, which include explicit contributions from drinking water, and compare them to estimates based on urinary excretion. Perchlorate concentrations in water were estimated based on measurements from the US Environmental Protection Agency's UCMR1 database, and from other regional studies of perchlorate contamination. We find that including the drinking water contributions in the dietary simulations yields increases in the population's geometric mean perchlorate intake of 3-8 percent, with a conservative maximum of about 24 percent, compared to intakes estimated based on food intake alone. The intake distributions estimated from dietary and water consumption were found to be very similar to estimates based on creatinine-adjusted perchlorate excretion data from the NHANES, except for having lower population variability. When the dietary simulation data were adjusted to include a contribution from short-term variability similar to that in the "spot" urine samples, the variability in the NHANES and diet-derived estimates were found to be very similar. Our analyses indicate that a reasonable upper-bound estimate for the 95th percentile perchlorate intake

  20. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables

  1. Effects of inhaled corticosteroids and inhaled cromolyn sodium on urinary growth hormone excretion in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Soferman, R; Sapir, N; Spirer, Z; Golander, A

    1998-11-01

    Over the past few years there has been an increasing awareness that asthma is a chronic inflammatory airways disease. The current therapeutic strategies for treating asthma focus on suppressing the inflammatory process by using cromones or inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). The beneficial effects of ICS in asthma are now well known, but its detrimental effect on linear growth remains a controversial issue. The aim of this open label, nonrandomized, cross-sectional, one-time study was to determine the influence of these drugs on urinary growth hormone (U-GH) levels in prepubertal asthmatic children. U-GH levels were measured in 47 prepubertal asthmatic children who had been treated for at least 6 months with either ICS (beclomethasone or budesonide at a mean daily dose of 360 microg) or with 80 mg daily dose of cromolyn sodium (CrS). There were also nine healthy children who served as a control. These three groups of children were matched for age and gender ratio. The mean level of U-GH in the CrS-treated group was 2.94 +/- 0.96 ng/night; this was significantly higher compared to the mean level of the ICS-treated group (1.99 +/- 0.83 ng/night; P < 0.001) and to the mean level of the control group (1.98 +/- 0.39 ng/night; P < 0.006). There was no significant difference between the mean level of U-GH in the group treated by ICS and the controls (P < 0.9). These results show that the mean levels of U-GH secretion of the children who were treated by CrS for 6 months was significantly increased, compared to the mean U-GH level of the ICS-treated group and the controls. The mean U-GH levels in the last two groups showed no statistically significant difference.

  2. B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-07-01

    Urinary dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential problems especially connected with energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, and nutritional individuality in autistic children. A diet rich in vitamins and macroelements is a new idea of intervention in autism. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and magnesium supplementation is effective in reducing the level of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of autistic children. We examined the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children before and after vitamin supplementation. Thirty children with autism received magnesium (daily dose, 200 mg), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine; daily dose, 500 mg), and vitamin B2 (riboflavin; daily dose, 20 mg). The treatment was provided for a period of 3 months. Organic acids were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Before supplementation, the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children were 41.47 ± 50.40 μmol/mmol creatinine, 15.61 ± 15.31 μmol/mmol creatinine, 8.02 ± 6.08 μmol/mmol creatinine; and after supplementation, the levels were 9.90 ± 8.26 μmol/mmol creatinine, 2.92 ± 2.41 μmol/mmol creatinine, and 2.57 ± 3.53 μmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. The results suggest that the supplementation reduces the level of dicarboxylic acid in the urine of autistic children.

  3. Relationship between urinary prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha excretion and plasma arginine vasopressin during renal concentrating and diluting tests in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, E B; Christensen, P; Danielsen, H; Eiskjaer, H; Jespersen, B; Knudsen, F; Kornerup, H J; Leyssac, P P; Nielsen, A H; Sørensen, S S

    1987-10-01

    Urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP) were determined during urinary concentrating and diluting tests in renal transplant recipients and control subjects. During the concentrating test PGE2 and PGF2 alpha remained unchanged in the renal transplant recipients, whereas both PGE2 and PGF2 alpha were significantly reduced in the control subjects. During the diluting test PGE2 and PGF2 alpha increased in both groups but, contrary to PGF2 alpha, PGE2 was significantly higher in all periods in the transplant recipients compared to the controls. However, the prostaglandin excretion rates per kidney were significantly higher in the renal transplant recipients than control subjects, for all periods during both the concentrating and the diluting test. Arginine vasopressin was significantly higher in renal transplant recipients than control subjects during basal conditions, increased to a significantly higher level in the transplant recipients after thirst, but was reduced to the same levels in the two groups during the diluting test. It is concluded that the increased excretion of prostaglandins in renal transplant recipients may be a compensatory phenomenon representing an adaptation to a reduced renal mass in order to maintain adequate renal water excretion. Although a direct relationship between the prostaglandin excretions of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha and AVP does not seem to exist, it is possible that the higher prostaglandin excretion in the renal transplant recipients may be a counterbalancing mechanism to the higher AVP level, which most likely is secondary to a decreased responsiveness to vasopressin of the renal collecting ducts in the transplanted kidney.

  4. Tissue distribution and urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites in C57BL6 mice following subchronic exposure to arsenate in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, E.M. Hughes, M.F.; Adair, B.M.; Highfill, J.H.; Crecelius, E.A.; Clewell, H.J.; Yager, J.W.

    2008-11-01

    The relationship of exposure and tissue concentration of parent chemical and metabolites over prolonged exposure is a critical issue for chronic toxicities mediated by metabolite(s) rather than parent chemical alone. This is an issue for As{sup V} because its trivalent metabolites have unique toxicities and relatively greater potency compared to their pentavalent counterparts for many endpoints. In this study, dose-dependency in tissue distribution and urinary excretion for inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites was assessed in female C57Bl/6 mice exposed to 0, 0.5, 2, 10 or 50 ppm arsenic (as arsenate, As{sup V}) in their drinking water for 12 weeks. No adverse effects were observed and body weight gain did not differ significantly among groups. Urinary excretion of arsenite monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}), and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) increased linearly with dose, whereas As{sup V} and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) excretion was non-linear with respect to dose. Total tissue arsenic accumulation was greatest in kidney > lung > urinary bladder >>> skin > blood > liver. Monomethyl arsenic (MMA, i.e. MMA{sup III} + MMA{sup V}) was the predominant metabolite in kidney, whereas dimethylarsenic (DMA, i.e., DMA{sup III} + DMA{sup V}) was the predominant metabolite in lung. Urinary bladder tissue had roughly equivalent levels of inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsenic, as did skin. These data indicate that pharmacokinetic models for arsenic metabolism and disposition need to include mechanisms for organ-specific accumulation of some arsenicals and that urinary metabolite profiles are not necessarily reflective of target tissue dosimetry.

  5. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    PubMed

    Passlack, Nadine; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A), 18.5 (B) and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C) and 16.1 (A), 17.6 (B) and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C). Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between), and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox), the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  6. Biliary and urinary excretion rates and serum concentration changes of four bilirubin photoproducts in Gunn rats during total darkness and low or high illumination.

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, S; Ogino, T; Yokoyama, T; Isobe, K; Itoh, S; Yamakawa, T; Hashimoto, T

    1984-01-01

    On cycled exposure of Gunn rats to total darkness and low and high illumination, biliary excretion rates of (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin and (EZ)-cyclobilirubin increased up to approx. 10-fold from the mean basal values of 1.2 and 0.2 microgram/h to the mean maximum values of 25.2 and 4.2 micrograms/h respectively, and at the same time those of (EE)-bilirubin and (EE)-cyclobilirubin also increased, but at very much lower rates than those of the first-mentioned two. During the low illumination only (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin and (EZ)-cyclobilirubin appeared in the urine; during the high illumination (EE)-bilirubin and (EE)-cyclobilirubin also appeared, showing a similar excretion pattern to that observed in the bile, but the total urinary excretion rates were lower than the total biliary excretion rates. The serum bilirubin concentrations fell gradually to lower values, accompanied by an increment in (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin, but (EZ)-cyclobilirubin was not detected. It is concluded that during phototherapy the predominant pathway for the removal of bilirubin from the body in the Gunn rat is by biliary excretion of the geometric photoisomers (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin, derived from Z----E isomerization, and the structural photoisomer (EZ)-cyclobilirubin, formed from intramolecular endo-vinyl cyclization. PMID:6477496

  7. Comparative effects of chelating agents on distribution, excretion, and renal toxicity of inorganic mercury in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, S.; Shimada, H.; Kiyozumi, M. )

    1989-06-01

    The effects of three chelating agents, sodium N-benzyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate(NBG-DTC), 2,3-dimercaptopropanol(BAL), and D-penicillamine(D-PEN), on the distribution, excretion, and renal toxicity of inorganic mercury were compared in rats exposed to HgCl2. Rats were injected i.p. with 203HgCl2 (300 micrograms of Hg and 2 microCi of 203Hg/kg) and 30 min or 24 h later they were injected with a chelating agent (a quarter of an LD50). The injection of the chelating agents significantly enhanced the biliary and urinary excretions of mercury. BAL was the most effective for removal of mercury from the body at 30 min after mercury treatment. The extent of enhancing effect of the chelating agents for removal of mercury at 24 h after mercury was in the order NBG-DTC = BAL greater than D-PEN. The injection of BAL at 24 h after mercury treatment caused the redistribution of mercury to the heart and lung. NBG-DTC did not result in the redistribution of mercury to the heart, lung, and brain. Urinary excretion of protein and AST significantly increased 24-48 h after mercury treatment and decreased to the control values 72 h after mercury. The injection of the chelating agents at 30 min after mercury treatment significantly decreased the urinary excretion of protein and AST. In rats pretreated with mercury 24 h earlier, the chelating agents significantly decreased the urinary protein at 48 h after mercury treatment, but did not decrease the urinary AST. The results of this study indicate that the chelating agents are effective in removing mercury from the body, resulting in the protective effect against the mercury-induced renal damage.

  8. Urinary Isoflavonoid Excretion is Similar after Consuming Soy Milk and Miso Soup in Japanese-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Watts, Kirsten; Kagihara, Jamie; Hebshi, Sandra M.; Franke, Adrian A.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that isoflavones are absorbed more efficiently from fermented than from non-fermented soy foods, we compared the urinary isoflavonoid excretion (UIE) after intake of miso soup or soy milk. We recruited 21 women with Japanese ancestry who consumed standardized soy portions containing 48 mg isoflavones. On day 1, half the women consumed soy milk, the other half started with miso soup. On day 3, the subjects ate the other soy food and on day 5, they repeated the first food. Each participant collected a spot urine sample before and an overnight urine sample after soy food intake. All urine samples were analyzed for the daidzein, genistein, and equol using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and were expressed as nmol per mg creatinine. We applied mixed models to evaluate the difference in UIE by food while including the baseline values and covariates. Relative to baseline, both groups experienced significantly higher UIE after consuming any of the soy foods. We observed no significant difference in UIE when soy milk was compared to miso soup (p = 0.87) among all women or in the seven equol producers (p = 0.88). Repeated intake of the same food on different days showed high reproducibility within subjects. These preliminary results indicate similar UIEs after consuming a fermented soy food (miso) as compared to a non-fermented soy food (soy milk). Therefore, recommendations favoring fermented soy foods are not justified as long as the intestinal microflora is capable of hydrolyzing the isoflavone glucosides from non-fermented soy foods. PMID:18275624

  9. Sclerostin alters serum vitamin D metabolite and fibroblast growth factor 23 concentrations and the urinary excretion of calcium

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Zachary C.; Ketha, Hemamalini; McNulty, Melissa S.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan; Craig, Theodore A.; Grande, Joseph P.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Singh, Ravinder J.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Inactivating mutations of the SOST (sclerostin) gene are associated with overgrowth and sclerosis of the skeleton. To determine mechanisms by which increased amounts of calcium and phosphorus are accreted to enable enhanced bone mineralization in the absence of sclerostin, we measured concentrations of calciotropic and phosphaturic hormones, and urine and serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus in mice in which the sclerostin (sost) gene was replaced by the β-D-galactosidase (lacZ) gene in the germ line. Knockout (KO) (sost−/−) mice had increased bone mineral density and content, increased cortical and trabecular bone thickness, and greater net bone formation as a result of increased osteoblast and decreased osteoclast surfaces compared with wild-type (WT) mice. β-Galactosidase activity was detected in osteocytes of sost KO mice but was undetectable in WT mice. Eight-week-old, male sost KO mice had increased serum 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, decreased 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, decreased intact fibroblast growth factor 23, and elevated inorganic phosphorus concentrations compared with age-matched WT mice. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (cyp27B1) mRNA was increased in kidneys of sost KO mice compared with WT mice. Treatment of cultured proximal tubule cells with mouse recombinant sclerostin decreased cyp27B1 mRNA transcripts. Urinary calcium and renal fractional excretion of calcium were decreased in sost KO mice compared with WT mice. Sost KO and WT mice had similar serum calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations. The data show that sclerostin not only alters bone mineralization, but also influences mineral metabolism by altering concentrations of hormones that regulate mineral accretion. PMID:23530237

  10. Independent associations of exposure to evening light and nocturnal urinary melatonin excretion with diabetes in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Iwamoto, Junko; Ikada, Yoshito; Kurumatani, Norio

    2014-04-01

    Circadian misalignment between internal and environmental rhythms dysregulates glucose homeostasis because of disruption of the biological clock, and increases risk of diabetes. Although exposure to evening light and decreased melatonin secretion are both associated with the circadian misalignment, it remains unclear whether they are associated with diabetes. In this cross-sectional study on 513 elderly individuals (mean age, 72.7 years), we measured ambulatory light intensity during the 4 h prior to bedtime at 1-min intervals during two consecutive days and overnight urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion (UME) along with glucose metabolism. The median average intensity of evening light exposure and UME were 25.4 lux (interquartile range 17.5-37.6) and 6.6 μg (interquartile range 3.9-9.7), respectively. Both log-transformed average intensity of evening light exposure and log-transformed UME were significantly associated with diabetes in a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for covariates, including gender, body mass index, duration in bed, and night-time light exposure [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.64; p = 0.01; and adjusted OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-0.97; p = 0.04; respectively]. An increase in evening light exposure from 17.5 to 37.6 lux (25-75th percentiles) was associated with a 51.2% (95% CI, 8.2-111.4%) increase in prevalent diabetes, and an increase in UME from 3.9 to 9.7 μg (25-75th percentiles) was associated with a 32.0% (95% CI, 1.9-52.8%) decrease in prevalent diabetes. In conclusion, this study in elderly individuals demonstrated that evening light exposure in home settings and UME were significantly and independently associated with diabetes.

  11. Improvements in Augmentation Index and Urinary Albumin Excretion With Benidipine in Hypertensive Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Tadateru; Yoda, Shunichi; Yajima, Yoshiharu; Kasamaki, Yuji; Kunimoto, Satoshi; Kanai, Takashi; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Although calcium channel blockers (CCB) are expected to improve the augmentation index (AI) in CKD patients, the potential effect of benidipine on AI has been poorly studied.The present study aimed to compare the effect of benidipine and amlodipine in the treatment of CKD patients as measured through AI and urinary albumin excretion (UAE). Eligible patients with CKD were randomized to either the benidipine group or amlodipine group. Changes in UAE and AI were compared with target blood pressure level set at < 130/80 mmHg. A total of 108 patients were enrolled; 88 patients who were followed up were included in the analysis. Although no significant change in renal function was noted in either group, there was a significant improvement in AI only in the benidipine group (85.7 ± 13.3% to 81.4 ± 15.2%; P = 0.021) A subgroup analysis of 64 patients who achieved SBP < 140 mmHg at the end of follow-up (31 on amlodipine and 33 on benidipine) was carried out. Significant improvement in AI was noted only in the benidipine group (84.5 ± 13.6% to 79.5 ± 15.2%; P = 0.0138). In another subgroup of patients with UAE ≥ 300 mg/g Cr, a significant improvement in UAE in the benidipine group was found compared with the amlodipine group (-25 ± 46, 51 ± 60%, P = 0.031, respectively).These results suggest that benidipine might reduce significantly AI and might have potentially greater improvements in UAE than amlodipine in advanced CKD patients receiving RAS inhibitors.

  12. Interspecies scaling of excretory amounts using allometry - retrospective analysis with rifapentine, aztreonam, carumonam, pefloxacin, miloxacin, trovafloxacin, doripenem, imipenem, cefozopran, ceftazidime, linezolid for urinary excretion and rifapentine, cabotegravir, and dolutegravir for fecal excretion.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2016-09-01

    1. Interspecies allometry scaling for prediction of human excretory amounts in urine or feces was performed for numerous antibacterials. Antibacterials used for urinary scaling were: rifapentine, pefloxacin, trovafloxacin (Gr1/low; <10%); miloxacin, linezolid, PNU-142300 (Gr2/medium; 10-40%); aztreonam, carumonam, cefozopran, doripenem, imipenem, and ceftazidime (Gr3/high; >50%). Rifapentine, cabotegravir, and dolutegravir was used for fecal scaling (high; >50%). 2. The employment of allometry equation: Y = aW(b) enabled scaling of urine/fecal amounts from animal species. Corresponding predicted amounts were converted into % recovery by considering the respective human dose. Comparison of predicted/observed values enabled fold difference and error calculations (mean absolute error [MAE] and root mean square error [RMSE]). Comparisons were made for urinary/fecal data; and qualitative assessment was made amongst Gr1/Gr2/Gr3 for urine. 3. Average correlation coefficient for the allometry scaling was >0.995. Excretory amount predictions were largely within 0.75- to 1.5-fold differences. Average MAE and RMSE were within ±22% and 23%, respectively. Although robust predictions were achieved for higher urinary/fecal excretion (>50%), interspecies scaling was applicable for low/medium excretory drugs. 4. Based on the data, interspecies scaling of urine or fecal excretory amounts may be potentially used as a tool to understand the significance of either urinary or fecal routes of elimination in humans in early development.

  13. Parabens in 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Moos, Rebecca K; Koch, Holger M; Angerer, Jürgen; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Brüning, Thomas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care and consumer products, food and pharmaceuticals. Due to their ubiquity, humans are constantly exposed to these chemicals. We assessed exposure to nine parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, n- and iso-propyl-, n- and iso-butyl-, benzyl-, pentyl- and heptyl paraben) in the German population from 1995 to 2012 based on 660 24h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) using on-line HPLC coupled to isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg/L for all parabens. We detected methyl-, ethyl- and n-propyl paraben in 79-99% of samples, followed by n-butyl paraben in 40% of samples. We infrequently detected iso-butyl-, iso-propyl- and benzyl paraben in 24%, 4% and 1.4% of samples, respectively. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 39.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 319 μg/L) followed by n-propyl paraben (4.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 74.0 μg/L) and ethyl paraben (2.1 μg/L; 95th percentile 39.1 μg/L). Women had significantly higher urinary levels for all parabens than men, except for benzyl paraben. Samples from the ESB revealed that over the investigation period of nearly 20 years urinary paraben levels remained surprisingly constant; only methyl paraben had a significant increase, for both men and women. We found strong correlations between methyl- and n-propyl paraben and between n- and iso-butyl paraben. These results indicate that parabens are used in combination and arise from common sources of exposure. Urinary excretion factors are needed to extrapolate from individual urinary concentrations to actual doses.

  14. Sex and age differences in mercury distribution and excretion in methylmercury-administered mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hirayama, K.; Yasutake, A.

    1986-01-01

    Sex differences in mercury distribution and excretion after single administration of methylmercury chloride (MMC, 5 mg/kg were studied in mice. A sex difference in urinary mercury excretion was found in sexually mature mice (age of 7 wk) of C57BL/6N and BALB/cA strains. Males showed higher mercury levels in urine than females, though no significant difference was found in fecal mercury levels 24 h post exposure to MMC. The higher urinary excretion rates in males accounted for significant lowering of mercury levels in the brain, liver, and blood, but not in the kidney, which showed higher values. At 5 min, however, the sex difference was found only in the kidney, showing higher levels in males. Changes in mercury distribution with time were studied in C57BL/6N mice. The brain mercury increased in both sexes up to 3 d, and decreased only in males on d 5. Liver and blood mercury decreased with time in both sexes, and these were constantly higher in females than in males. Renal mercury in males decreased to similar levels to females on d 3. The sex differences at various ages were studied with C57BL/6N mice 24 h after dosing. Two-week-old mice did not show significant sex differences in the mercury distribution and excretion, and their urinary mercury levels were much lower as compared to the older mice. Urinary mercury excretion in both sexes increased at 4 wk of age and then decreased at 45 wk of age. At 4, 7, 10, and 45 wk of age, males showed higher urinary mercury levels than females. From these findings, it has been suggested that urinary mercury excretion may be related to sex hormones, especially androgens.

  15. Field study of the urinary excretion of ethoxyacetic acid during repeated daily exposure to the ethyl ether of ethylene glycol and the ethyl ether of ethylene glycol acetate.

    PubMed

    Veulemans, H; Groeseneken, D; Masschelein, R; Van Vlem, E

    1987-06-01

    The urinary excretion of ethoxyacetic acid (EAA) was studied in a group of five women daily exposed to the ethyl ether of ethylene glycol (EGEE) and the ethyl ether of ethylene glycol acetate (EGEE-Ac) during 5 d of normal production and 7 d after a 12-d production stop. The mean combined exposure concentration of EGEE and EGEE-Ac (expressed in equivalent weight of EGEE) was 14.0 mg/m3 with occasional slight excursions above the current Belgian occupational exposure limit. The daily combined exposure profiles for EGEE and EGEE-Ac were rather constant during the first observation period, but they tended to decrease during the last week. The urinary EAA excretion clearly increased during the work week. Over the weekends the elimination was far from complete, and even after a prolonged nonexposure period of 12 d traces of the metabolite were still detectable. Based on the observations from the first period, a good linear correlation (r = 0.92) was found between the average exposure over 5 d (14.4 mg/m3) and the EAA excretion at the end of the week (105.7 mg/g creatinine). An EAA estimate of 150 +/- 35 mg/g was found to correspond with repeated 5-d full-shift exposures to the respective occupational exposure limit of EGEE (19 mg/m3) or EGEE-Ac (27 mg/m3).

  16. LC-MS/MS determination and urinary excretion study of seven alkaloids in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of Shuanghua Baihe tablets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Minlu; Liu, Ruijuan; Wu, Yao; Gu, Pan; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Yujie; Ma, Pengcheng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-25

    An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of magnoflorine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, epiberberine, palmatine and berberine in human urine. The sample preparation procedure involved the four-fold dilution of the urine samples with acetonitrile/water (1:3, v/v). The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hedera ODS-2 column under gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min with acetonitrile and water containing 0.5% formic acid as the mobile phase. The mass detection was performed in the positive mode. Calibration curves of the seven alkaloids showed good linearity (correlation coefficients>0.9973) over their concentration ranges. To meet the requirements of urinary excretion study for each alkaloid in human, the lower limit of quantification was set at different values from 0.05063 ng/mL to 2.034 ng/mL for the seven alkaloids, respectively. The intra- and inter-batch precision and accuracy were all within ± 15%. No matrix effect was observed for the analytes. The validated method was applied to the excretion study for the seven alkaloids in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of Shuanghua Baihe tablets. The average 72 h cumulative urinary excretion of magnoflorine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, epiberberine, palmatine and berberine accounted for 1.81%, 0.27%, 0.29%, 0.046%, 0.027%, 0.010% and 0.021% of the respective administered dose.

  17. Urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins increases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats without decreases in liver or blood vitamin content.

    PubMed

    Imai, Eri; Sano, Mitsue; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that the contents of water-soluble vitamins in the body are generally low in diabetic patients because large amounts of vitamins are excreted into urine. However, this hypothesis has not been confirmed. To investigate this hypothesis, diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats (6 wk old) by streptozotocin treatment, and they were then given diets containing low, medium or sufficient vitamins for 70 d. The contents of 6 kinds of B-group vitamins, namely vitamin B₁, vitamin B₂, vitamin B₆, vitamin B₁₂, folate and biotin, were determined in the urine, blood and liver. No basic differences among the dietary vitamin contents were observed. The urinary excretion of vitamins was higher in diabetic rats than in control rats. The blood concentrations of vitamin B₁₂ and folate were lowered by diabetes, while, those of vitamin B₁, vitamin B₂, vitamin B₆, and biotin were not. All liver concentrations of vitamins were increased in diabetic rats above those in control rats. These results showed that streptozotocin-induced diabetes increased urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins, though their blood and liver concentrations were essentially maintained in the rats.

  18. The atypical excretion profile of meldonium: Comparison of urinary detection windows after single- and multiple-dose application in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Görgens, Christian; Guddat, Sven; Bosse, Christina; Geyer, Hans; Pop, Valentin; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2017-05-10

    Following a one-year monitoring program providing unequivocal analytical evidence for a high prevalence in international elite sports, meldonium has been included in the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) list of prohibited substances that came into effect on 1 January 2016. Despite of the polar and hydrophilic nature of the molecule, an unusual long detection window was observed in pilot elimination studies. Consequently, in the present study, urinary excretion profiles after single-dose (5 volunteers, 1×500mg) and multiple-dose oral application (5 volunteers; 2×500mg/day for 6days) were determined in order to facilitate the result management concerning meldonium findings in doping controls. Particularly the option to differentiate between recent use and tapering concentrations was studied. Urinary meldonium concentrations were determined using an analytical approach based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. The study corroborates the hypothesis of a non-linear, dose-depended and biphasic excretion profile after oral application of meldonium and demonstrates that urinary detection windows are of considerable extent with up to 65 and 117days (concentrations>LOQ of 10ng/mL) following single- and multiple-dose applications, respectively.

  19. Lanthanum carbonate reduces urine phosphorus excretion: evidence of high-capacity phosphate binding.

    PubMed

    Pennick, Michael; Poole, Lynne; Dennis, Kerry; Smyth, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of phosphate binders can be assessed by evaluating urinary phosphorus excretion in healthy volunteers, which indicates the ability of the phosphate binder to reduce gastrointestinal phosphate absorption. Healthy volunteers were enrolled into one of five separate randomized trials; four were open label and one double blind. Following a screening period of ≤28 days, participants received differing tablets containing lanthanum carbonate [LC, 3000 mg/day of elemental lanthanum (in one study other doses were also used)]. Participants received a standardized phosphate diet and remained in the relevant study center throughout the duration of each treatment period. The end point in all studies was the reduction in urinary phosphorus excretion. Reductions in mean 24-h urinary phosphorus excretion in volunteers receiving a lanthanum dose of 3000 mg/day were between 236 and 468 mg/day over the five separate studies. These data in healthy volunteers can be used to estimate the amount of reduction of dietary phosphate absorption by LC. The reduction in 24-h urinary phosphorus excretion per tablet was compared with published data on other phosphate binders. Although there are limitations, evidence suggests that LC is a very effective phosphate binder in terms of binding per tablet.

  20. A comparison of the effects of glucose ingestion and NH4Cl acidosis on urinary calcium and magnesium excretion in man

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Edward J.; Piering, Walter F.

    1970-01-01

    Both glucose ingestion and NH4Cl acidosis have been reported to augment urinary calcium (UCa V) and magnesium (UMg V) excretion. Both also cause acidification of the urine and an increase in renal acid excretion. To examine whether a common mechanism of action was involved, the effects of glucose ingestion and NH4Cl acidosis on UCa V and UMg V were tested in the same subjects. Glucose ingestion caused significant increases in both UCa V and UMg V. During stable NH4Cl acidosis, UCa V increased significantly, while UMg V was unaffected. When a glucose load was given during acidosis, the separate effects of acidosis and glucose on UCa V were additive, whereas UMg V increased less than observed during normal acid-base balance. Although renal acid excretion increased and the urine was acidified after glucose in the normal steady state, when glucose was administered during NH4Cl acidosis urine pH rose and there was no change in renal acid excretion. We concluded that NH4Cl acidosis and glucose ingestion reduce the renal tubular reabsorption of magnesium and (or) calcium, but they act through separate mechanisms. PMID:5432375

  1. Canagliflozin Lowers Postprandial Glucose and Insulin by Delaying Intestinal Glucose Absorption in Addition to Increasing Urinary Glucose Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Polidori, David; Sha, Sue; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ciaraldi, Theodore P.; Ghosh, Atalanta; Vaccaro, Nicole; Farrell, Kristin; Rothenberg, Paul; Henry, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor, is also a low-potency SGLT1 inhibitor. This study tested the hypothesis that intestinal canagliflozin levels postdose are sufficiently high to transiently inhibit intestinal SGLT1, thereby delaying intestinal glucose absorption. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This two-period, crossover study evaluated effects of canagliflozin on intestinal glucose absorption in 20 healthy subjects using a dual-tracer method. Placebo or canagliflozin 300 mg was given 20 min before a 600-kcal mixed-meal tolerance test. Plasma glucose, 3H-glucose, 14C-glucose, and insulin were measured frequently for 6 h to calculate rates of appearance of oral glucose (RaO) in plasma, endogenous glucose production, and glucose disposal. RESULTS Compared with placebo, canagliflozin treatment reduced postprandial plasma glucose and insulin excursions (incremental 0- to 2-h area under the curve [AUC0–2h] reductions of 35% and 43%, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), increased 0- to 6-h urinary glucose excretion (UGE0–6h, 18.2 ± 5.6 vs. <0.2 g; P < 0.001), and delayed RaO. Canagliflozin reduced AUC RaO by 31% over 0 to 1 h (geometric means, 264 vs. 381 mg/kg; P < 0.001) and by 20% over 0 to 2 h (576 vs. 723 mg/kg; P = 0.002). Over 2 to 6 h, canagliflozin increased RaO such that total AUC RaO over 0 to 6 h was <6% lower versus placebo (960 vs. 1,018 mg/kg; P = 0.003). A modest (∼10%) reduction in acetaminophen absorption was observed over the first 2 h, but this difference was not sufficient to explain the reduction in RaO. Total glucose disposal over 0 to 6 h was similar across groups. CONCLUSIONS Canagliflozin reduces postprandial plasma glucose and insulin by increasing UGE (via renal SGLT2 inhibition) and delaying RaO, likely due to intestinal SGLT1 inhibition. PMID:23412078

  2. Effect of Pentoxifylline on Renal Function and Urinary Albumin Excretion in Patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease: The PREDIAN Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Fernández, Carmen; Muros de Fuentes, Mercedes; Chahin, Jesús; Méndez, María L.; Gallego, Eduardo; Macía, Manuel; del Castillo, Nieves; Rivero, Antonio; Getino, María A.; García, Patricia; Jarque, Ana; García, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of ESRD. We conducted an open-label, prospective, randomized trial to determine whether pentoxifylline (PTF), which reduces albuminuria, in addition to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade, can slow progression of renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and stages 3–4 CKD. Participants were assigned to receive PTF (1200 mg/d) (n=82) or to a control group (n=87) for 2 years. All patients received similar doses of RAS inhibitors. At study end, eGFR had decreased by a mean±SEM of 2.1±0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the PTF group compared with 6.5±0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the control group, with a between-group difference of 4.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.1 to 5.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2; P<0.001) in favor of PTF. The proportion of patients with a rate of eGFR decline greater than the median rate of decline (0.16 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per month) was lower in the PTF group than in the control group (33.3% versus 68.2%; P<0.001). Percentage change in urinary albumin excretion was 5.7% (95% CI, −0.3% to 11.1%) in the control group and −14.9% (95% CI, −20.4% to −9.4%) in the PTF group (P=0.001). Urine TNF-α decreased from a median 16 ng/g (interquartile range, 11–20.1 ng/g) to 14.3 ng/g (interquartile range, 9.2–18.4 ng/g) in the PTF group (P<0.01), with no changes in the control group. In this population, addition of PTF to RAS inhibitors resulted in a smaller decrease in eGFR and a greater reduction of residual albuminuria. PMID:24970885

  3. Different effect of testosterone and oestrogen on urinary excretion of metformin via regulating OCTs and MATEs expression in the kidney of mice.

    PubMed

    He, Rui; Ai, Ligen; Zhang, Dandan; Wan, Lili; Zheng, Taishan; Yin, Jun; Lu, Huijuan; Lu, Junxi; Lu, Fengdi; Liu, Fang; Jia, Weiping

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of testosterone and oestrogen on regulating organic cation transporters (Octs) and multidrug and toxin extrusions (Mates) expression in the kidney of mice and urinary excretion of metformin. 8 week-old male db/db mice were treated with estradiol (5 mg/kg), testosterone (50 mg/kg) or olive oil with same volume. Metformin (150 mg/kg) was injected in daily for successive 7 days. Plasma, urine and tissue concentrations of metformin were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS) assay. Western blotting and Real-time PCR analysis were successively used to evaluate the renal protein and mRNA expression of Octs and MATEs. After treatment, the protein expression of Mate1 and Oct2 in testosterone group was significantly increased than those in control group (both P < 0.05). The protein expression of Mate1 and Oct2 in estradiol group was significantly reduced by 29.4% and 43.3%, respectively, compared to those in control group (all P < 0.05). These data showed a good agreement with the change in mRNA level (all P < 0.05). The plasma metformin concentration (ng/ml) in mice treated with estradiol was significantly higher than control and testosterone group (677.56 ± 72.49 versus 293.92 ± 83.27 and 261.46 ± 79.45; P < 0.01). Moreover, testosterone increased the metformin urine excretion of mice while estradiol decreasing (both P < 0.01). Spearman correlation analysis showed that gonadal hormone was closely associated with Mate1 and Oct2 expression and metformin urine excretion in db/db mice (all P < 0.05). Testosterone and oestrogen exerted reverse effect on metformin urinary excretion via regulating Octs and Mates expression in the kidney of mice.

  4. Daytime cold exposure and salt intake based on nocturnal urinary sodium excretion: A cross-sectional analysis of the HEIJO-KYO study.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Keigo; Obayashi, Kenji; Tone, Nobuhiro; Kurumatani, Norio

    2015-12-01

    Increased cardiovascular incidence in winter is partly explained by higher blood pressure due to cold exposure. Although higher salt intake induced by cold exposure has been reported in mice, the association remains unclear in humans. To investigate the association between salt intake and cold exposure in winter, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 860 elderly subjects (mean ± standard deviation: 72.0 ± 7.1 years). We determined ambient temperature at every 10 min according to indoor temperature measured in the subjects' home, outdoor temperature, and self-administered diary logging time spent outdoors. Salt intake was estimated by nocturnal sodium excretion rate of overnight urine collection. A 1°C lower daytime ambient temperature was significantly associated with a higher urinary sodium excretion rate by 0.07 mmol/h in the subsequent night independent of age, sex, body weight, alcohol intake, calcium channel blocker use, diabetes, household income, estimated glomerular filtration rate, daytime physical activity (p=0.02). After further adjustment for outdoor temperature and day length, the lowest tertile groups of ambient daytime temperature (10.1 ± 2.3°C) showed the nocturnal urinary sodium excretion rate was higher by 14.2% (7.62 vs. 6.54 mmol/h) compared with the highest tertile group (19.3 ± 1.8°C). Higher sodium excretion rate was associated with higher nighttime ambulatory blood pressure (p<0.01) and its lower nocturnal dipping (p<0.01). Significant association between higher salt intake and daytime cold exposure partly explain the mechanism of higher blood pressure in winter, and suggest that a reduction of cold exposure might be effective to decrease salt intake.

  5. Urinary excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 (apolipoprotein H) and other markers of tubular malfunction in "non-tubular" renal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, F. V.; Lapsley, M.; Sansom, P. A.; Cohen, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1 assays can provide improved discrimination between chronic renal diseases which are primarily of tubular or glomerular origin. METHODS: Urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, alpha 1-microglobulin, beta 2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosa-minidase and albumin were measured in 51 patients with primary glomerular disease, 23 with obstructive nephropathy, and 15 with polycystic kidney disease, and expressed per mmol of creatinine. Plasma beta 2-glycoprotein-1 was assayed in 52 patients and plasma creatinine in all 89. The findings were compared between the diagnostic groups and with previously published data relating to primary tubular disorders. RESULTS: All 31 patients with plasma creatinine greater than 200 mumol/l excreted increased amounts of beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin, and 29 had increased N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase; the quantities were generally similar to those found in comparable patients with primary tubular pathology. Among 58 with plasma creatinine concentrations under 200 mumol/l, increases in beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin excretion were less common and much smaller, especially in those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. The ratios of the excretion of albumin to the other proteins provided the clearest discrimination between the patients with glomerular or tubular malfunction, but an area of overlap was present which embraced those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Increased excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 due to a raised plasma concentration or diminution of tubular reabsorption, or both, is common in all the forms of renal disease investigated, and both plasma creatinine and urinary albumin must be taken into account when interpreting results. Ratios of urinary albumin: beta 2-glycoprotein-1 greater than 1000 are highly suggestive

  6. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives, microbial protein synthesis, nitrogen use, and ruminal fermentation in sheep and goats fed diets of different quality.

    PubMed

    Carro, M D; Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Ranilla, M J; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare N balance, microbial N flow (MNF) estimated from purine derivatives (PD) urinary excretion, and its variation when estimated using purine bases:N ratios in liquid associated bacteria (LAB) from models reported in the literature (MNF - response models) or measured ratios in liquid and solid-associated bacterial (SAB) pellets (MNF-LAB+SAB), diet digestibility, and rumen fermentation variables in sheep and goats fed 3 different practical, quality diets to study interspecies differences concerning N use as accurately as possible. Four mature female Merino sheep and 4 mature female Granadina goats, each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were used in 3 × 3 Latin square design with an extra animal. Two experimental diets had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 70:30 (DM basis) with alfalfa hay (ALC) or grass hay (GRC) as forage, and the third diet contained 70% concentrate and 30% alfalfa hay (CAL). All animals were fed the diets at a daily rate of 56 g/kg BW(0.75) to minimize feed selection. Digestibility of nutrients was similar (P = 0.16 to 0.88) in the 2 species, but some animal species × diet interactions (P = 0.01 to 0.04) were detected. There were small differences between the fermentation patterns of both animal species. Goats showed decreased VFA concentrations (P = 0.005) and butyrate proportions (P = 0.04), and greater acetate proportions (P = 0.02) compared with sheep, whereas N intake and percentage of N intake excreted in feces were similar in both species (P = 0.58 and 0.15, respectively), the percentage excreted via the urine was greater in goats compared with sheep (P < 0.001). As a consequence, sheep had greater (P < 0.001) N retention than goats (averaged across diets, 32.6% and 16.1% of N intake, respectively). There were no differences (P = 0.95) between animal species in total PD excretion, but goats showed a greater excretion of allantoin (P = 0.01) and decreased excretion of xanthine (P = 0.008) and

  7. Tissue Distribution and Urinary Excretion of Dimethylated Arsenic and Its Metabolites in Dimethylarsinic acid- or Arsenate-treated Rats - MCEARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult female Fisher 344 rats received drinking water containing 0, 4, 40, 100, or 200 parts per million of dimethylarsinic acid or 100 parts per million of arsenate for 14 days. Urine was collected during the last 24 h of exposure. Tissues were then taken for analysis of dimethy...

  8. [Effects of excess vitamin B1 or vitamin B2 on growth and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in weaning rats].

    PubMed

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Kuzuya, Mako; Satoh, Shiori; Shibata, Katsumi

    2009-04-01

    To determine the tolerable upper intake levels of vitamin B(1) and vitamin B(2) in humans, we investigated the effects of excess thiamin or riboflavin administration on body weight gain, food intake, tissue weights, and urinary excretion of B-group vitamins in weaning rats. The weaning rats were freely fed ordinary diet containing 0.0006% thiamin-HCl or the same diet with 0.006%, 0.03%, 0.18% or 1.0% thiamin-HCl for 30 days, or the diet containing 0.0006% riboflavin or the same diet with 0.1%, 0.5 or 1.0% riboflavin for 22 days. Mild diarrhea was seen only in the rats fed with 1.0% thiamin-HCl diet. Excess thiamin-HCl or riboflavin did not affect body weight gains, food intake or tissue weights. The urinary excretions of water-soluble vitamins also did not differ among the diets. These results clearly showed that feeding a diet containing up to 1.0% thiamin-HCl or 1.0% riboflavin did not induce apparent adverse effects, and the no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAELs) for thiamin-HCl and riboflavin in rats might be 1.0% in diet, corresponding to 900 mg/kg body weight/day.

  9. Effects of phosphate binders on the gastrointestinal absorption of arsenate and of an SGLT2 inhibitor drug on the urinary excretion of arsenite in mice.

    PubMed

    Poór, Miklós; Németi, Balázs; Gregus, Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    Arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) are typical sources of acute and chronic arsenic poisoning. Therefore, reducing inner exposure to these arsenicals is a rational objective. Because As(V) mimics phosphate, phosphate binder drugs may decrease the intestinal As(V) absorption. Indeed, lanthanum and aluminium salts and sevelamer removed As(V) from solution in vitro, especially at acidic pH. In mice gavaged with As(V), lanthanum chloride, lanthanum carbonate and aluminium hydroxide given orally also lowered the urinary excretion and tissue levels of As(V) and its metabolites, indicating that they decreased the gastrointestinal As(V) absorption. As some glucose transporters may carry As(III), the effect of the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin was investigated in As(III)-injected mice. While producing extreme glucosuria, dapagliflozin barely affected the urinary excretion and tissue concentrations of As(III) and its metabolites. Thus, phosphate binders (especially lanthanum compounds) can reduce the gastrointestinal absorption of As(V); however, SGLT2 inhibition cannot diminish the renal reabsorption of As(III).

  10. Effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the elimination kinetics of pyrene and the urinary excretion profile of 1-hydroxypyrene in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lipniak-Gawlik, M

    1998-12-11

    Pyrene was chosen as a noncarcinogen model of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Groups of male Wistar rats were dosed with pyrene and with mixture of pyrene and fluoranthene, pyrene and benz[a]anthracene, or pyrene, fluoranthene, and benz[a]anthracene at 20 mg/kg by intravenous or oral routes. Blood samples were taken at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h after administration. The concentration of pyrene was determined by gas chromatography. The toxicokinetic parameters for pyrene were determined from the time course of blood concentration. A significant increase in the bioavailability of pyrene after treatment with other PAHs was observed. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene excretion was analyzed after pretreatment with acenaphthene, naphthalene, chrysene, phenanthrene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The urine from rats was collected for 3 d and the concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Most compounds examined caused a decrease in the urinary excretion of the metabolite of pyrene.

  11. [Urinary oestriol excretion and the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid in Bogota (2600 m) I. Normal pregnancy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sobrevilla, L A; Cristina Peña, M; Jaramillo, R

    1980-01-01

    We have studied 22 pregnancies in order to establish normal values for the urinary oestriol excretion in Bogotá, a city 2600 metres above sea level. The study subjects were normal pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic of the Hospital San José de Bogotá, and belong to a racially mixed community of medium to low socio-economic level. In the study, new born weight was found low (mean +/- SEM 2.97 +/-0.06 kg) while placental weight was high (0.6 +/- 0.02 kg) with a high placenta/newborn ratio. Maternal hemoglobin was elevated (12.8 +/- 0.2g/100 ml) reflecting the effect of altitude. In 66 determinations, oestriol excretion was more than 4mg/24 hours from week 31 to 36 and of more than 5 mg/24 hours from week 35 to 40. The decreased excretion of oestriol most likely reflects impaired intrauterine fetal growth, and is probably related to nutrional, racial and socio-economic factors as well as to the altitude. In five normal term pregnancies studied, the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio was of 2 or more and amniotic fluid creatinine was also elevated, indicating maturity of the pulmonary and renal enzyme systems of the fetus.

  12. Effects of potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate in the diet on urinary pH and mineral excretion of adult cats.

    PubMed

    Passlack, Nadine; Brenten, Thomas; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-03-14

    Low dietary K levels have been associated with increasing renal Ca excretion in humans, indicating a higher risk of calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether dietary K also affects the urine composition of cats. A total of eight adult cats were fed diets containing 0·31 % native K and 0·50, 0·75 and 1·00 % K from KCl or KHCO₃ and were evaluated for the effects of dietary K. High dietary K levels were found to elevate urinary K concentrations (P<0·001). Renal Ca excretion was higher in cats fed the KCl diets than in those fed the KHCO₃ diets (P=0·026), while urinary oxalate concentrations were generally lower in cats fed the KCl diets and only dependent on dietary K levels in cats fed the KHCO₃ diets (P<0·05). Fasting urine pH increased with higher dietary K levels (P=0·022), reaching values of 6·38 (1·00 % KCl) and 7·65 (1·00 % KHCO₃). K retention was markedly negative after feeding the cats with the basal diet (-197 mg/d) and the 0·50 % KCl diet (-131 mg/d), while the cats tended to maintain their balance on being fed the highest-KCl diet (-23·3 mg/d). In contrast, K from KHCO₃ was more efficiently retained (P=0·018), with K retention being between -82·5 and 52·5 mg/d. In conclusion, the dietary inclusion of KHCO₃ instead of KCl as K source could be beneficial for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation in cats, since there is an association between a lower renal Ca excretion and a generally higher urine pH. The utilisation of K is distinctly influenced by the K salt, which may be especially practically relevant when using diets with low K levels.

  13. Urinary excretion of vitamin B1, B2, B6, niacin, pantothenic acid, folate, and vitamin C correlates with dietary intakes of free-living elderly, female Japanese.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Tomiko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Shibata, Katsumi

    2010-03-01

    We hypothesized that 24-hour urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins might correlate with their intake in free-living Japanese elderly females aged 70 to 84 years. We performed a cross-sectional study composed of 37 healthy, elderly, Japanese females living freely. All foods and the corresponding weights consumed for 4 consecutive days were recorded accurately. A 24-hour urine sample was collected on the fourth day, and the urinary content of water-soluble vitamins was measured. The urinary levels of all vitamins, except for B(12) (r = 0.01; P = .936), were correlated positively with the mean intake over the recent 4 days (vitamin B1: r = 0.62; P < .001; vitamin B2: r = 0.57; P < .001; vitamin B6: r = 0.37; P < .005; niacin: r = 0.54; P < .001; niacin equivalents: r = 0.54; P < .001; pantothenic acid: r = 0.59; P < .001; folate: r = 0.55; P = .001; and vitamin C: r = 0.53; P < .001). Mean estimated intakes of water-soluble vitamins calculated using urinary concentrations and recovery rates showed 96% to 107% of their 3-day mean intake, except for vitamin B12 (65%). We conclude that urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins, except for B12, reflected their recent intake in free-living Japanese elderly females and could be used as a measure of their intake during the previous few days both for group means and for individual rankings within a group.

  14. Urinary Albumin Excretion Reflects Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women without Diabetes: The 2011 to 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hee Jung; Moon, Do Sik; Kang, Da Yeong; Lee, Jung In; Kim, Da Young; Kim, Jin Hwa; Bae, Hak Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of the current study was to determine whether there was an association between urinary albumin excretion and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by estimating the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in postmenopausal women without diabetes. Methods This study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare in 2011 to 2013. Data on 2,316 postmenopausal women from a total of 24,594 participants was included in the analysis. Results The mean FRS was significantly different in each of the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) subgroups, and it increased with UACR. The FRS was 12.69±0.12 in the optimal group, 14.30±0.19 in the intermediate normal group, 14.62±0.26 in the high normal group, and 15.86±0.36 in the microalbuminuria group. After fully adjusting for potential confounding factors, high normal levels and microalbuminuria were significantly associated with the highest tertile of FRS ([odds ratio (OR), 1.642; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.124 to 2.400] and [OR, 3.385; 95% CI, 2.088 to 5.488], respectively) compared with the optimal subgroup. High normal levels and microalbuminuria were also significantly associated with a ≥10% 10-year risk of CVD ([OR, 1.853; 95% CI, 1.122 to 3.060] and [OR, 2.831; 95% CI, 1.327 to 6.037], respectively) after adjusting for potential confounding covariates. Conclusion Urinary albumin excretion reflects CVD risk in postmenopausal women without diabetes, and high normal levels and microalbuminuria were independently associated with a higher risk of CVD. PMID:27834079

  15. Effect of dietary Quebracho tannin extract on feed intake, digestibility, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Henke, Anika; Dickhoefer, Uta; Westreicher-Kristen, Edwin; Knappstein, Karin; Molkentin, Joachim; Hasler, Mario; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Quebracho tannin extract (QTE) on feed intake, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), excretion of urinary purine derivatives (PD) and milk composition and yield in dairy cows. Fifty Holstein cows were divided into two groups. To reach a similar performance of both groups, cows were divided according to their milk yield, body weight, days in milk and number of lactations at the start of the experiment averaging 33.2 ± 8.2 kg/d, 637 ± 58 kg, 114 ± 73 d and 2.3 ± 1.6 lactations, respectively. The cows were fed a basal diet as total mixed ration containing on dry matter (DM) basis 34% grass silage, 32% maize silage and 34% concentrate feeds. Three dietary treatments were tested, the control (CON, basal diet without QTE), QTE15 (basal diet with QTE at 15 g/kg DM) and QTE30 (basal diet with QTE at 30 g/kg DM). Two treatments were arranged along six periods each 21 d (13 d adaptation phase and 8 d sampling phase). The ATTD of DM and organic matter were reduced only in Diet QTE30, whereas both QTE treatments reduced ATTD of fibre and nitrogen (N), indicating that QTE impaired rumen fermentation. Nevertheless, feed intake was unaffected by QTE. In Diet CON, urinary N excretion accounted for 29.8% of N intake and decreased in treatments QTE15 and QTE30 to 27.5% and 17.9%, respectively. Daily faecal N excretion increased in treatments CON, QTE15 and QTE30 from 211 to 237 and 273 g/d, respectively, which amounted to 39.0%, 42.4% and 51.7% of the N intake, respectively. Hence, QTE shifted N excretion from urine to faeces, whereas the proportion of ingested N appearing in milk was not affected by QTE (average 30.7% of N intake). Daily PD excretion as indicator for microbial crude protein (CP) flow at the duodenum decreased in treatment QTE30 compared with Diet CON from 413 to 280 mmol/d. The ratios of total PD to creatinine suggest that urinary PD excretion was already lower when feeding Diet

  16. [Evaluation of sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 of newborn infants feeding different types of nutrition, by means of urinary excretion determination].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Pereverzeva, O G; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Pustograev, N N

    2015-01-01

    With the help of non-invasive methods the sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 in 58 newborns (38-40 weeks of gestation) on breastfeeding as well as on mixed or artificial feeding has been evaluated. Urinary excretion and breast content of ascorbic acid (measured by visual titration), thiamin (by thiochrome fluorimetric method) andriboflavin (fluorimetrically by titration with riboflavin-binding protein) was determined on the 3-10th day after birth. 35 infants were exclusively breastfed. 40% of their mothers regularly took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy and 42.9%--both during pregnancy and after childbirth, 17.1% did not use vitamin complexes either duringpregnancy or after childbearing. The content of vitamins C, B1 and B2 in the breast milk of women who did not additionally intake vitamins during pregnancy and lactation, was reduced compared with that of mothers who took multivitamin supplements, and provided only a half of the needs of their child in these vitamins. All these babies have urinary excretion of vitamins below the lower limit of norm. Among infants whose mothers took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy, but stop taking them immediately after their birth, only 28.6% of newborns were provided with vitamin C, while all the children identified a lack of vitamins By and B2. The insufficiency with vitamins C and B1 was detected in one third of children breastfed by mothers who took vitamins during pregnancy and continued intaking them after birth, adequate supplied with vitamin B2 was 35.7% of the surveyed. Determination of vitamin urinary excretion (perg creatinine) is useful for vitamin status evaluation. The content of vitamins in breast milk can be used for assessment of vitamin status both a nursing woman and her child. Taking into consideration that the diet of a breastfeeding woman is not always the best, there is no doubt about the need to continue multivitamin intake during breastfeeding. The question on the doses of vitamins

  17. Gastric cancer in Zambian adults: a prospective case-control study that assessed dietary intake and antioxidant status by using urinary isoprostane excretion123

    PubMed Central

    Asombang, Akwi W; Kayamba, Violet; Mwanza-Lisulo, Mpala; Colditz, Graham; Mudenda, Victor; Yarasheski, Kevin; Chott, Robert; Rubin, Deborah C; Gyawali, C Prakash; Sinkala, Edford; Mwanamakondo, Stayner; Anderson-Spearie, Catherine; Kelly, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is increasingly recognized in Zambia. Although nutritional factors contribute to gastric cancer risk, their effect in Zambia is unknown. Objective: The objective was to investigate the association between intake of dietary antioxidants, urinary 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-iso PGF2α) as a marker of oxidative stress, and gastric cancer. Design: This was a case-control study at the University Teaching Hospital in Zambia. Gastric cancer cases were compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Urine 8-iso PGF2α was measured primarily by ELISA, and by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in a subset, expressed as a ratio to creatinine. Blood was collected for Helicobacter pylori, HIV serology, gastrin-17, and pepsinogen 1 and 2 concentrations. Clinical and dietary data were collected by using questionnaires. Food items were broadly classified into 7 major categories (fruit, vegetables, fish, meat, insects, cereals, and starches). Results: Fifty cases with gastric cancer (mean age: 61 y; n = 31 males) and 90 controls (mean age: 54 y; n = 41 males) were enrolled. Median urinary 8-iso PGF2α excretion was higher in cases (0.014; IQR: 0.008–0.021) than in controls (0.011; IQR: 0.006–0.018; P = 0.039). On univariate analysis, habitual fruit intake was lower in cases than in controls during the dry season (P = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, smoking (OR: 7.22; IQR: 1.38–37.9) and gastric atrophy (OR: 2.43; IQR: 1.12–5.13) were independently associated with cancer, and higher fruit intake was protective (OR: 0.44; IQR: 0.20–0.95). Isoprostane excretion was inversely correlated with total fruit intake (ρ = −0.23; n = 140; P = 0.006). Conclusion: Urinary 8-iso PGF2α excretion was associated with the risk of gastric cancer, as were smoking and gastric atrophy, but increased fruit intake conferred protection. This trial was registered at www.pactr.org as ISRCTN52971746. PMID:23535107

  18. Simultaneous determination of corynoline and acetylcorynoline in human urine by LC-MS/MS and its application to a urinary excretion study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruijuan; Zheng, Lu; Cheng, Minlu; Wu, Yao; Gu, Pan; Liu, Yujie; Ma, Pengcheng; Ding, Li

    2016-03-01

    Corynoline and acetycorynoline, the major active components derived from Corydalis bungeana Herba, showed multiple pharmacological activities. However, quantification of the two compounds in human urine has not been reported. A simple liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of corynoline and acetycorynoline in human urine has been developed and fully validated. The analytes were extracted from urine samples by simple liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hedera ODS-2C18 column with the mobile phase of water (containing 0.5% formic acid) and acetonitrile (28:72, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. A tandem mass spectrometric detection was conducted using multiple reaction monitoring via an electrospray ionization source in positive mode. The monitored ion transitions were m/z 368.1→289.1 for corynoline, m/z 410.2→289.2 for acetycorynoline and m/z 380.2→243.2 for donepezil (internal standard), respectively. The calibration curves were linear (correlation coefficients>0.9970) over the concentration ranges of 3.0-3000pg/mL for corynoline and 3.0-1000pg/mL for acetycorynoline. The established method was highly sensitive with the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 3.0pg/mL for both analytes. The intra- and inter-day precision was lower than 10% in terms of relative standard deviation for the low, medium, and high quality control samples, and lower than 16% for the LLOQ samples of the analytes. The accuracy was within ±10% in terms of relative error for both analytes. The method was successfully applied to a urinary excretion study after oral administration of the Chinese medicine formula Shuanghua Baihe tablets in healthy volunteers. The urinary excretion profiles of corynoline and acetycorynoline in human were first reported. The results of this study suggest that renal excretion was not the main excretion pathway of corynoline and acetycorynoline in humans.

  19. Fractional urinary fluoride excretion of 6-7-year-old children attending schools in low-fluoride and naturally fluoridated areas in the UK.

    PubMed

    Zohoori, F V; Walls, R; Teasdale, L; Landes, D; Steen, I N; Moynihan, P; Omid, N; Maguire, A

    2013-05-28

    F is an important trace element for bones and teeth. The protective effect of F against dental caries is well established. Urine is the prime vehicle for the excretion of F from the body; however, the relationship between F intake and excretion is complex: the derived fractional urinary F excretion (FUFE) aids understanding of this in different age groups. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between (1) total daily F intake (TDFI) and daily urinary F excretion (DUFE), and (2) TDFI and FUFE in 6-7-year-olds, recruited in low-F and naturally fluoridated (natural-F) areas in north-east England. TDFI from diet and toothbrushing and DUFE were assessed through F analysis of duplicate dietary plate, toothbrushing expectorate and urine samples using a F-ion-selective electrode. FUFE was calculated as the ratio between DUFE and TDFI. Pearson's correlation and regression analysis were used to investigate the relationship between TDFI and FUFE. A group of thirty-three children completed the study; twenty-one receiving low-F water (0·30 mg F/l) and twelve receiving natural-F water (1·06 mg F/l) at school. The mean TDFI was 0·076 (SD 0·038) and 0·038 (SD 0·027) mg/kg per d for the natural-F and low-F groups, respectively. The mean DUFE was 0·017 (SD 0·007) and 0·012 (SD 0·006) mg/kg per d for the natural-F and low-F groups, respectively. FUFE was lower in the natural-F group (30 %) compared with the low-F group (40 %). Pearson's correlation coefficient for (1) TDFI and DUFE was +0·22 (P= 0·22) and for (2) TDFI and FUFE was − 0·63 (P< 0·001). In conclusion, there was no correlation between TDFI and DUFE. However, there was a statistically significant negative correlation between FUFE and TDFI.

  20. A novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonist, NIP-222, reduces urinary albumin excretion in streptozotocin-diabetic mice independent of PPARgamma activation.

    PubMed

    Yotsumoto, Takashi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Kanaki, Tatsuro; Matsuda, Maho; Tsuruzoe, Nobutomo

    2003-12-01

    NIP-222 is a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonist. This study provides evidence that NIP-222 decreases urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in diabetic mice independent of its PPARgamma activation. We compared the effect of NIP-222 and another PPARgamma agonist, troglitazone, on UAE, plasma glucose level, blood pressure, and creatinine clearance (C(cr)) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Treatment for 3 weeks with NIP-222 (30 mg/kg) was associated with a significant decrease in UAE without any change in blood pressure, creatinine clearance, or plasma glucose level. In contrast, UAE did not decrease in mice treated with troglitazone (300 mg/kg). These results indicate that NIP-222 has PPARgamma independent effects on UAE in diabetic mice and suggest that this agent may have potential to minimize the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Intraarterial irradiation with rhenium-188 for inhibition of restenosis after PTCA - strategy and evaluation of Re-188-species for rapid urinary excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Guhlke, S.; Beets, A.L.

    1997-05-01

    Estimated costs for coronary restenosis therapy after PTCA are > $ 1 billion (U.S.). Radiation is a simple and effective tool for inhibition of neointimal proliferation an important component of restenosis. We propose use of Re-188 (t{sub {1/2}} 16.9 h, 2.1 MeV {beta}), obtained from decay of W-188 (T{sub {1/2}} 69 d). Our alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator has a shelf-life of several months and we have developed an on-line tandem cation/anion exchange column system to concentrate to > 18.5 BGq/mL. Estimates for targeted regional dose of 8.4 rad/37 MBq/min/mL, which is > 1,400 cGy for about 370 MBq Re-188 for 5 min. Balloon inflation with Re-188 solutions is a new approach for more uniform vascular dose distribution as an alternative to use of radioactive wires or other linear sources. Rapid urinary excretion kinetics are important in the unlikely event of balloon rupture (<0.1%). We have therefore evaluated relative excretion kinetics of Re-188-perrhenate and -MAG3 in rats; Re-188-perrhenate was obtained from generator elution with 0.9% NaCl and re-188-MAG3 was prepared be reaction of the ligand with Sn(II)-reduced perrhenate. Fischer rats (n=4-5/group) were injected i.v. and urine and feces collected every 2 h for 12 h and then daily for 5 d. Both agents excreted > 90% in urine; biodistribution studies showed low organ uptake with intestines as the major site. Rhenium-188-MAG3 excreted more rapidly (2 h = 59.6{+-}18.5%) then Re-188-MAG3 excreted more rapidly (2 h = 68.3{+-}13.5%) in same model. Both Re-188 species are thus good candidates for balloon inflation. Studies are in progress in a swine model to evaluate the effectiveness of Re-188 for inhibition of restenosis.

  2. Relationship between urinary protein changes in lupus nephritis and renal pathology.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Gao, W J; Ma, J J; Zhu, Y; Li, X F

    2015-07-28

    This study investigated the relationship between urinary protein excretion in lupus nephritis New Zealand black mice and renal pathology. A total of 328 lupus nephritis New Zealand black mice were established by a backcross hybridization method, and renal pathology was determined. The urinary protein excretion of the backcross mice over 24 h was compared and analyzed. Urinary protein excretion over 24 h differed significantly across different pathological types (1.9, 2.4, 2.9 and 4.9 g in types II, III, IV, and V, respectively) in the backcross mice (P < 0.05). Moreover, it correlated with pathology grade (r = 0.391, P = 0.0001) as well as activity index, chronic index, renal tubular interstitial activity index, and renal tubular interstitial lesions (P < 0.05) but not with vascular lesions (P = 0.683). Urinary protein excretion from lupus nephritis is closely associated with renal pathology. Urinary protein changes can be used to determine lupus nephritis pathology and have some clinical significance for treatment and prognosis.

  3. Short communication: Urinary excretion of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in a pregnant woman following heavy, chronic cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Westin, Andreas A; Huestis, Marilyn A; Aarstad, Kjell; Spigset, Olav

    2009-01-01

    Differentiating new intake of drugs-of-abuse from residual drug excretion may be difficult, especially following chronic drug usage and for drugs with long elimination half-lives such as cannabis. In the present case, cannabis was found in the urine of a young pregnant woman following heavy and chronic cannabis use. She was warned that if she continued using cannabis while pregnant she would be forced to be hospitalized. She was subjected to serial urine testing with 2-7-day intervals. Urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) concentrations, measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, declined from 348 to 3.9 ng/mL over a surprisingly long period of 12 weeks (84 days). Several algorithms for detecting new drug intake were applied during this time course; most indicated that the woman continued to smoke cannabis following the first urine test. The woman denied any use after the first specimen collection. In retrospect, her THCCOOH excretion profile supports her story. Algorithms for detecting new drug intake have been validated for occasional cannabis users only. We advise caution when interpreting urine test results from heavy, chronic cannabis users, especially when serious consequences are involved.

  4. Activation of the Endogenous Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System or Aldosterone Administration Increases Urinary Exosomal Sodium Channel Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ying; Wang, Xiaojing; Rose, Kristie L.; MacDonald, W. Hayes; Zhang, Bing; Schey, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary exosomes secreted by multiple cell types in the kidney may participate in intercellular signaling and provide an enriched source of kidney-specific proteins for biomarker discovery. Factors that alter the exosomal protein content remain unknown. To determine whether endogenous and exogenous hormones modify urinary exosomal protein content, we analyzed samples from 14 mildly hypertensive patients in a crossover study during a high-sodium (HS, 160 mmol/d) diet and low-sodium (LS, 20 mmol/d) diet to activate the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. We further analyzed selected exosomal protein content in a separate cohort of healthy persons receiving intravenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg per hour for 10 hours) versus vehicle infusion. The LS diet increased plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration, whereas aldosterone infusion increased only aldosterone concentration. Protein analysis of paired urine exosome samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry–based multidimensional protein identification technology detected 2775 unique proteins, of which 316 exhibited significantly altered abundance during LS diet. Sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and α- and γ-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits from the discovery set were verified using targeted multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry quantified with isotope-labeled peptide standards. Dietary sodium restriction or acute aldosterone infusion similarly increased urine exosomal γENaC[112–122] peptide concentrations nearly 20-fold, which correlated with plasma aldosterone concentration and urinary Na/K ratio. Urine exosomal NCC and αENaC concentrations were relatively unchanged during these interventions. We conclude that urinary exosome content is altered by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation. Urinary measurement of exosomal γENaC[112–122] concentration may provide a useful biomarker of ENaC activation in future clinical studies. PMID:26113616

  5. Activation of the Endogenous Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System or Aldosterone Administration Increases Urinary Exosomal Sodium Channel Excretion.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ying; Wang, Xiaojing; Rose, Kristie L; MacDonald, W Hayes; Zhang, Bing; Schey, Kevin L; Luther, James M

    2016-02-01

    Urinary exosomes secreted by multiple cell types in the kidney may participate in intercellular signaling and provide an enriched source of kidney-specific proteins for biomarker discovery. Factors that alter the exosomal protein content remain unknown. To determine whether endogenous and exogenous hormones modify urinary exosomal protein content, we analyzed samples from 14 mildly hypertensive patients in a crossover study during a high-sodium (HS, 160 mmol/d) diet and low-sodium (LS, 20 mmol/d) diet to activate the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. We further analyzed selected exosomal protein content in a separate cohort of healthy persons receiving intravenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg per hour for 10 hours) versus vehicle infusion. The LS diet increased plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration, whereas aldosterone infusion increased only aldosterone concentration. Protein analysis of paired urine exosome samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based multidimensional protein identification technology detected 2775 unique proteins, of which 316 exhibited significantly altered abundance during LS diet. Sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and α- and γ-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits from the discovery set were verified using targeted multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry quantified with isotope-labeled peptide standards. Dietary sodium restriction or acute aldosterone infusion similarly increased urine exosomal γENaC[112-122] peptide concentrations nearly 20-fold, which correlated with plasma aldosterone concentration and urinary Na/K ratio. Urine exosomal NCC and αENaC concentrations were relatively unchanged during these interventions. We conclude that urinary exosome content is altered by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation. Urinary measurement of exosomal γENaC[112-122] concentration may provide a useful biomarker of ENaC activation in future clinical studies.

  6. Copious urinary excretion of a male Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) salivary gland protein after its endocrine-like release upon β-adrenergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Ved Prakash; Srikantan, Subramanya; Mohammad, Mahabub Pasha; Rajan, Wenson David; De, Prabir Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Salivary glands, although widely considered as typically exocrine, may also release specific proteins in an endocrine manner. However, endocrine release of salivary gland proteins is not generally acknowledged since the evidences are not easily demonstrable. Submandibular salivary glands (SMG) of male Syrian hamsters express male-specific secretory proteins (MSP; which are lipocalins) visible in SDS-PAGE of SMG extracts, as major bands and also detectable in immunoblots of whole-saliva and urine as low MSP crossreactions. We report here that MSP is localized in acinar cells of SMG and acute treatment with isoproterenol (IPR; non-specific β1/β2-adrenergic agonist) results in considerable release of MSP in SMG-saliva. Moreover, acute IPR treatment markedly depletes SMG-MSP in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, MSP depleted from SMG, far exceeds that recovered in SMG-saliva. Blood, submandibular lymph nodes and kidney of IPR-treated males showed MSP crossreactions and SDS-PAGE of their urine revealed profuse MSP excretion; this was undetectable in IPR-treated-SMG-ablated males, confirming that a substantial amount of MSP depleted from SMG after IPR treatment enters circulation and is excreted in urine. Treatments with specific β1- or β2-adrenergic agonists also reduced SMG-MSP levels and resulted in copious urinary excretion of MSP. Co-treatments with specific β1/β2-blockers indicated that above effects of IPR, β1- and even β2-agonists are very likely mediated by β1-adrenoceptors. MSP's detection by SDS-PAGE in urine after β-agonist treatment is a compelling and easily demonstrable evidence of release into circulation of a salivary gland protein. The possible means (endocrine-like or otherwise) of MSP's release into circulation and significance of its presence in saliva, blood and urine of male hamsters are discussed.

  7. Identification of a mechanism by which the methylmercury antidotes N-acetylcysteine and dimercaptopropanesulfonate enhance urinary metal excretion: transport by the renal organic anion transporter-1.

    PubMed

    Koh, Albert S; Simmons-Willis, Tracey A; Pritchard, John B; Grassl, Steven M; Ballatori, Nazzareno

    2002-10-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) and dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS) are sulfhydryl-containing compounds that produce a dramatic acceleration of urinary methylmercury (MeHg) excretion in poisoned animals, but the molecular mechanism for this effect is unknown. NAC and DMPS are themselves excreted in urine in high concentrations. The present study tested the hypothesis that the complexes formed between MeHg and these anionic chelating agents are transported from blood into proximal tubule cells by the basolateral membrane organic anion transporters (Oat) 1 and Oat3. Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing rat Oat1 showed increased uptake of [(14)C]MeHg when complexed with either NAC or DMPS but not when complexed with L-cysteine, glutathione, dimercaptosuccinate, penicillamine, or gamma-glutamylcysteine. In contrast, none of these MeHg complexes were transported by Oat3-expressing oocytes. The apparent K(m) values for Oat1-mediated transport were 31 +/- 2 microM for MeHg-NAC and 9 +/- 2 microM for MeHg-DMPS, indicating that these are relatively high-affinity substrates. Oat1-mediated uptake of [(14)C]MeHg-NAC and [(14)C]MeHg-DMPS was inhibited by prototypical substrates for Oat1, including p-aminohippurate (PAH), and was trans-stimulated when oocytes were preloaded with 2 mM glutarate but not glutamate. Conversely, efflux of [(3)H]PAH from Oat1-expressing oocytes was trans-stimulated by glutarate, PAH, NAC, DMPS, MeHg-NAC, MeHg-DMPS, and a mercapturic acid, indicating that these are transported solutes. [(3)H]PAH uptake was competitively inhibited by NAC (K(i) of 2.0 +/- 0.3 mM) and DMPS (K(i) of 0.10 +/- 0.02 mM), providing further evidence that these chelating agents are substrates for Oat1. These results indicate that the MeHg antidotes NAC and DMPS and their mercaptide complexes are transported by Oat1 but are comparatively poor substrates for Oat3. This is the first molecular identification of a transport mechanism by which these antidotes may enhance urinary excretion of

  8. Strawberry processing does not affect the production and urinary excretion of urolithins, ellagic acid metabolites, in humans.

    PubMed

    Truchado, Pilar; Larrosa, Mar; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Cerdá, Begoña; Vidal-Guevara, María Luisa; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2012-06-13

    The study of fruit and vegetable processing and its effects on the levels of health-promoting constituents and their bioavailability and metabolism is very relevant to understanding the role of these constituents in human health. Strawberry polyphenols, and particularly ellagitannins and ellagic acid, have been associated with the health benefits of this berry for humans. These compounds are transformed into urolithins by the gut microbiota, and these metabolites exert several biological activities that could be responsible for the health effects of strawberries. Processing potentially increases the extraction of ellagitannins from the strawberry achenes and the release of ellagic acid from ellagitannins. It is of interest to evaluate the effect of processing on strawberry ellagitannin microbial metabolism compared with fresh strawberries. This study shows that no significant differences in the production and excretion of urolithins were found between the intake of fresh strawberries and that of a thermally processed strawberry puree containing the same amount of strawberries. Processing increases the amount of free ellagic acid 2.5-fold, but this had no effect on the transformation in urolithins by the gut microbiota or in the excretion of urolithin metabolites (urolithin glucuronides) in urine, showing that the release of ellagic acid from ellagitannins is not a relevant factor affecting the microbial metabolism. All of the volunteers produced urolithin A, but only 3 of 20 volunteers produced and excreted urolithin B. It is confirmed that some volunteers were efficient producers of urolithins, whereas other produced much lower amounts. These results show that processing does not modify the potential health effects of strawberry polyphenols.

  9. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy: Report of a case associated with high urinary excretion of Vanilmandelic acid

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, P. N.; Sah, Kunal; Kale, Alka; Kadam, Ajit; Shah, Hetul; Chandra, Sunira

    2011-01-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is a rare congenital neoplasm involving the head and neck region in young patients. A case of melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is presented. This tumor occurred in right maxillary alveolar ridge in a 4-month-old infant. The present case showed an increased urinary level of vanilmandelic acid, confirming that the tumor is originated from neural crest. Clinical assessment, histologic diagnosis, and laboratory findings supported the diagnosis. PMID:22346163

  10. Urinary excretion profiles of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-hydroxy-delta9-THC: cannabinoid metabolites to creatinine ratio study IV.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Albert D; Worth, David

    2004-07-16

    The objective of this study was to compare urinary excretion patterns of two cannabinoid metabolites in subjects with a history of chronic marijuana use. The first metabolite analyzed was nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC-COOH), the major urinary cannabinoid metabolite that is pharmacologically inactive. The second metabolite 11-OH-delta9-THC is an active cannabinoid metabolite and is not routinely measured. Urine specimens were collected from four subjects on 12-20 occasions > or = 96 h apart in an uncontrolled clinical setting. Creatinine was analyzed in each urine specimen by the colorimetric modified Jaffé reaction on a SYVA 30R biochemical analyzer. All urine specimens analyzed for 11-OH-delta9-THC had screened positive for cannabinoids with the EMIT II Plus cannabinoids assay (cut-off 50 ng/mL) on a SYVA 30R analyzer and submitted for delta9-THC-COOH confirmation by GC-MS (cut-off concentration 15 ng/mL). Eleven-OH-delta9-THC was measured by GC-MS with a cut-off concentration of 3 ng/mL. Both GC-MS methods for cannabinoid metabolites used deuterated internal standards for quantitative analysis. The mean (range) of urinary delta9-THC-COOH concentration was 1153 ng/mL (78.7-2634) with a cut-off of 15 ng/mL. The mean (range) of delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratios (ng/mL delta9-THC-COOH/mmol/L creatinine) was 84.1 (8.1-122.1). The mean (range) urinary of 11-OH-delta9-THC concentration was 387.6 ng/mL (11.9-783) with a cut-off of 3 ng/mL, and the mean (range) of 11-OH-delta9-THC/creatinine ratio (ng/mL 11-OH-delta9-THC/mmol/L creatinine) was 29.7 (1.2-40.7). Of the 63 urine specimens submitted for delta9-THC-COOH confirmation by GC-MS, 59/63 urine specimens (94%) were positive for delta9 -THC-COOH and 51/63 (81%) were positive for 11-OH-delta9-THC. Overall, the concentrations of 11-OH-delta9-THC in urine specimens collected > or = 96 h apart were lower than delta9-THC-COOH concentrations in 50/51 of the urine specimens in this population

  11. A Micropuncture Study of Potassium Excretion by the Remnant Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Bank, Norman; Aynedjian, Hagop S.

    1973-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of enhanced potassium excretion by the remaining nephrons of the remnant kidney, micropuncture and clearance experiments were carried out in rats after surgical ablation of 3/4 of the total renal mass. The potassium intake in all animals was approximately 5 meq/day. Animals were studied 24 h and 10-14 days after 3/4 nephrectomy. Balance measurements in the chronic animals before micropuncture study indicated that 24 h K+ excretion by the remnant kidney was equal to that of the two kidneys before ablation of renal mass. Measurements of distal tubular inulin and potassium concentrations revealed progressive reabsorption of potassium in this segment of the nephron in both the 24-h and chronic 3/4-nephrectomized rats, as well as in normal control rats. A large increase in tubular fluid potassium content occurred between the end of the distal tubule and the final urine in the 3/4-nephrectomized rats, but not in the normal controls. These observations suggest that the segment of the nephron responsible for enhanced potassium excretion by remaining nephrons was the collecting duct. In additional experiments, potassium was completely eliminated from the diet of chronic 3/4-nephrectomized rats before micropuncture study. In these animals, no addition of K+ occurred beyond the distal tubules. Normal rats infused with 0.15 M KCl to acutely elevate serum K+ concentration, demonstrated reabsorption of K+ in the distal tubule and a large addition of K+ to the urine beyond the distal tubule. We conclude that the collecting duct is the major site of regulation of urinary potassium excretion in normal rats and is responsible for the adaptation to nephron loss by the remnant kidney. PMID:4703232

  12. Confirming urinary excretion of mephentermine and phentermine following the ingestion of oxethazaine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Hsun; Liu, Chin-Hung; Liu, Ray H; Tseng, Ying Lung

    2010-03-01

    Mephentermine and phentermine, substances prohibited in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency, were found for the first time in urine specimens following the administration of a therapeutic medication, oxethazaine. In a recent sporting event, a urine specimen donor who tested positive for mephentermine and phentermine claimed consumption of Mucaine((R)) for treating stomach pain was the reason for testing positive. Five volunteers were administrated oxethazaine (a topical anesthetic found in the multi-ingredient medication Mucaine and its generic equivalent, Stoin, both of which are available in Taiwan), mephentermine, and phentermine. Excretion profiles of mephentermine and phentermine following the administration of these drugs were found to be similar. However, the mephentermine/phentermine ratios found in urine specimens collected at different time points following the administration of oxethazine and mephentermine were found to be characteristically different.

  13. [Comparative study of the urinary excretion of boron, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    José Ramón, Vielma; Mora Mora, Marylú; Marino Alarcón, Oscar; Hernández, Gladys; Josefina Linares, Ledy; Urdaneta Romero, Haideé; Arévalo González, Evelia

    2012-03-01

    In order to compare the possible relationship between urinary concentrations of boron, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in serum and urine of postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis, we selected 45 postmenopausal women over 47 years of age, divided into two groups: group I clinically healthy postmenopausal women and group II postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, without chronic kidney and hepatic diseases or diabetes mellitus. We determined the boron (B), phosphorus (P), total calcium (Ca) and total magnesium (Mg) in the urine of two hours, by atomic emission spectroscopy with induction-coupled plasma (ICPA-ES). Total calcium and total magnesium in serum were determined by atomic flame absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) and inorganic phosphorus in serum, and creatinine in serum and urine, by molecular absorption spectrometry. The preliminary results suggest the existence of a significant difference (p < 0.05) in boron and phosphorus concentrations in the urine of two hours between the groups. The model of linear regression analysis used showed a relationship between urinary concentrations of boron/creatinine index and calcium/ creatinine, magnesium/creatinine and phosphorus/creatinine indexes in the urine of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

  14. Significance of dermal and respiratory uptake in creosote workers: exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene.

    PubMed Central

    Elovaara, E; Heikkilä, P; Pyy, L; Mutanen, P; Riihimäki, V

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate workers' exposure in a creosote impregnation plant by means of ambient and biological monitoring. METHODS--Naphthalene (vapour phase) and 10 large molecular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (particulate phase) were measured in the breathing zone air during an entire working week. 1-Hydroxypyrene (1-HP) was measured in 24 hour urine as a metabolite of the pyrene found in neat (dermal exposure) and airborne creosote. RESULTS--Naphthalene (0.4-4.2 mg/m3) showed 1000 times higher concentrations in air than did the particulate PAHs. In total, the geometric mean (range) of three to six ring PAHs was 4.8 (1.2-13.7) micrograms/m3; pyrene 0.86 (0.23-2.1) micrograms/m3, and benzo(a)pyrene 0.012 (0.01-0.05) micrograms/m3. There was no correlation between pyrene and gaseous naphthalene. The correlations between pyrene and the other nine particulate PAHs were strong, and gave a PAH profile that was similar in all air samples: r = 0.83 (three to six ring PAHs); r = 0.81 (three ring PAHs); r = 0.78 (four to six ring PAHs). Dermal exposure was probably very high in all workers, because the daily output of urinary 1-HP exceeded the daily uptake of inhaled pyrene by < or = 50-fold. Urinary 1-HP concentrations were very high, even on Monday mornings, when they were at their lowest (4-22 mumol/mol creatinine). 1-HP seldom showed any net increase over a workshift (except on Monday) due to its high concentrations (16 to 120 mumol/mol creatinine) in the morning samples. 1-HP was always lower at the end of the shift (19 to 85 mumol/mol creatinine) than in the evening (27 to 122), and the mean (SD) change over the working week (47 (18)) was greater than the change over Monday (35 (32)). The timing of 1-HP sampling is therefore very important. CONCLUSIONS--Urinary 1-HP proved to be a good biomarker of exposure to three to six ring PAHs but not to airborne naphthalene. Hence, biomonitoring based on 1-HP has to be completed with exposure assessment for

  15. Non-inferiority of creatinine excretion rate to urinary L-FABP and NGAL as predictors of early renal allograft function

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated accuracy of urinary liver type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) for prediction of early allograft function and compared it to neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), diuresis and urinary creatinine excretion rate (UCr). Methods Urine samples from 71 consecutive patients were taken 4, 10, 24 and 48 h after transplantation. We classified recipients into two groups: immediate graft function (IGF), with more than 70% reduction of serum Cr at 7th day post-transplant, and delayed graft function (DGF)/slow graft function (SGF) group (DGF - the need for hemodialysis procedure in the first week, SGF - less than 70% reduction of serum Cr in the first week). Results Thirty-one recipients had IGF and 40 had DGF/SGF. L-FABP was only useful 48 h post-transplant with ROC AUC of 0.85 (95% C.I. 0.74-0.92); NGAL 24 h post-transplant had ROC AUC of 0.82 (0.7-0.91). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for prediction of DGF/SGF with L-FABP > 9.5 mg/mmol Cr and NGAL > 33.1 μg/mmol Cr were: 86, 80, 83 and 83% (L-FABP), and 68, 93, 91, and 73% (NGAL). The difference in urine output between the groups was largest 4 h post-transplant (p = 0.001), later on the difference diminished. There were no significant differences in ROC AUC between L-FABP at 48 h, NGAL at 24 h, urine output at 4 h and UCr excretion rate at 10 h post-transplant. UCr < 0.56 mmol/h 10 h post-transplant predicted DGF/SGF with 94% sensitivity, 84% specificity, 89% PPV and 91% NPV, ROC AUC was 0.9. Classification tree with urine output 4 h and UCr 10 h post-transplant accurately predicted 89% of outcomes. When L-FABP or NGAL were added, the prediction was accurate in 92 or 90%, respectively. Conclusions L-FABP is comparable to NGAL for prediction of first week allograft function, however UCr and diuresis were non-inferior. PMID:25027586

  16. Changes in urinary amino acids excretion in relationship with muscle activity markers over a professional cycling stage race: in search of fatigue markers.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, Roberto; Barassi, Alessandra; Perego, Silvia; Sansoni, Veronica; Rossi, Alessandra; Damele, Clara Anna Linda; Melzi D'Eril, Gianlodovico; Banfi, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between metabolic effort, muscular damage/activity indices, and urinary amino acids profile over the course of a strenuous prolonged endurance activity, as a cycling stage race is, in order to identify possible fatigue markers. Nine professional cyclists belonging to a single team, competing in the Giro d'Italia cycling stage race, were anthropometrically characterized and sampled for blood and urine the day before the race started, and on days 12 and 23 of the race. Diet was kept the same over the race, and power output and energy expenditure were recorded. Sera were assayed for muscle markers (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities, and blood urea nitrogen), and creatinine, all corrected for plasma volume changes. Urines were profiled for amino acid concentrations, normalized on creatinine excretion. Renal function, in terms of glomerular filtration rate, was monitored by MDRD equation corrected on body surface area. Creatine kinase activity and blood urea were increased during the race as did serum creatinine while kidney function remained stable. Among the amino acids, taurine, glycine, cysteine, leucine, carnosine, 1-methyl histidine, and 3-methyl histidine showed a net decreased, while homocysteine was increased. Taurine and the dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) were significantly correlated with the muscle activity markers and the indices of effort. In conclusion, the metabolic profile is modified strikingly due to the effort. Urinary taurine and carnosine seem useful tools to evaluate the muscle damage and possibly the fatigue status on a long-term basis.

  17. A whole-grain-rich diet reduces urinary excretion of markers of protein catabolism and gut microbiota metabolism in healthy men after one week.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair B; Pere-Trépat, Emma; Montoliu, Ivan; Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Collino, Sebastiano; Moco, Sofia; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Cléroux, Marilyn; Guy, Philippe A; Breton, Isabelle; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Thorimbert, Anita; Tavazzi, Isabelle; Tornier, Lionel; Bebuis, Aude; Bruce, Stephen J; Beaumont, Maurice; Fay, Laurent-Bernard; Kochhar, Sunil

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently find that diets rich in whole-grain (WG) cereals lead to decreased risk of disease compared with refined grain (RG)-based diets. Aside from a greater amount of fiber and micronutrients, possible mechanisms for why WGs may be beneficial for health remain speculative. In an exploratory, randomized, researcher-blinded, crossover trial, we measured metabolic profile differences between healthy participants eating a diet based on WGs compared with a diet based on RGs. Seventeen healthy adult participants (11 female, 6 male) consumed a controlled diet based on either WG-rich or RG-rich foods for 2 wk, followed by the other diet after a 5-wk washout period. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. The metabolic profiles of plasma, urine, and fecal water were measured using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (plasma only). After 1 wk of intervention, the WG diet led to decreases in urinary excretion of metabolites related to protein catabolism (urea, methylguanadine), lipid (carnitine and acylcarnitines) and gut microbial (4-hydroxyphenylacetate, trimethylacetate, dimethylacetate) metabolism in men compared with the same time point during the RG intervention. There were no differences between the interventions after 2 wk. Urinary urea, carnitine, and acylcarnitine were lower at wk 1 of the WG intervention relative to the RG intervention in all participants. Fecal water short-chain fatty acids acetate and butyrate were relatively greater after the WG diet compared to the RG diet. Although based on a small population and for a short time period, these observations suggest that a WG diet may affect protein metabolism.

  18. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-10-01

    Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis.The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04).UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE.

  19. Change in urinary cortisol excretion mediates the effect of angry/hostile mood on 9 month diastolic blood pressure in HIV+ adults.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Roger C; Antoni, Michael; Carrico, Adam; Duran, Ron; Hurwitz, Barry E; Ironson, Gail; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Klimas, Nancy; Kumar, Mahendra; Schneiderman, Neil

    2017-02-02

    Cardiovascular disease is a growing concern in HIV disease management and nearly 1 out of 3 persons living with the virus is hypertensive. Biobehavioral factors such as anger, hostility, and HPA axis reactivity are emperically linked to blood pressure regulation. Whether HPA axis or mood disturbance increases risk for hypertension remains unclear in HIV disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether 9-month change in angry/hostile mood predicts alterations in systolic (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and whether this change is mediated by 24-h urinary cortisol (CORT) output. Sixty-one HIV positive adults, aged 41.1 ± 8.6 years, assigned to the control condition of a stress management intervention provided blood samples, 24-h urine specimens, blood pressure in-office, and self-reported mood at baseline and a 9-month follow-up. CORT was tested as a mediator in two separate models controlling for baseline BP, CD4 count, HIV-1 viral load, protease inhibitor use, body mass index, smoking status, and family history of cardiometabolic disease. Increase in angry/hostile mood was associated with greater SBP (β = 0.33, CI 0.09, 0.56, p = 0.01) and DBP (β = 0.39, CI 0.16, 0.62, p < 0.001) at follow-up. CORT partially mediated the effect of angry/hostile mood on DBP (β = 0.28, CI 0.03, 0.54, p = 0.03). Change in CORT was not related to SBP (β = 0.12, CI -0.20, 0.44, p = 0.46). The final mediation model accounted for 41.2% of the variance in 9-month DBP. Angry or hostile mood may contribute to increased risk for hypertension in persons treated for HIV via disturbance of the HPA-axis.

  20. An Updated Look at the Pro K Experiment: Urinary Acid Excretion Can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and diet can play a major role in this effort (1). Previous ground-based studies provide evidence that dietary composition can influence bone resorption during bed rest (2). In this study we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crew members were asked to consume, for 4 days at a time, prescribed menus with either a low (0.3-0.6 g/mEq) or high (1.0-1.3 g/mEq) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K). Menus were developed for each crewmember, and were designed to meet both crew preferences and study constraints. Intakes of energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium were held relatively constant between the two diets. The order of the menus was randomized, and crews completed each set (low and high) once before and twice during space flight, for a total of 6 controlled diet sessions. One inflight session and three postflight sessions (R+30, R+180, R+365) monitored typical dietary intake. As of this writing, data are available from 14 crew members. Two subject's samples are awaiting return from ISS via Space-X, and the final subject has one more collection session planned in November 2014. On the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions, 24-h urine samples were collected, along with a fasting blood sample on the morning of the 5th day. Preliminary analyses will show the relationships between diet and flight on markers of bone metabolism. The results from this study, which represent healthy individuals in a unique environment, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. These data will be important as nutritional requirements and food systems are developed for future exploration-class missions. This study was funded by the Human Health Countermeasures Element of NASA Human Research Program.

  1. Urinary excretion of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 cytokines during relapse and remission of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Amal A; Al Rushood, Maysoun; Al-Attiyah, Rajaa J

    2017-01-01

    Background/aim The role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the immunopathogenesis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome had been widely postulated. Reports on the release of cytokines, during idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) activation, were conflicting in defining a specific interleukin pattern during relapse and remission of the disease. The aim of this study was to explore the role of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the pathophysiology of INS during relapse and remission. Patients and methods A total of 37 INS patients were included. Their demographic and biochemical data were reviewed. Levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were measured in the urine of patients during relapse and remission of the disease. Urine samples from 30 age- and sex-matched controls were checked for the same 3 cytokines. Results Mean age of patients at study was 6.4 ± 3.2 years (range: 14 months–12 years). Male:female ratio was 24:13. Mean serum creatinine was 47 ± 13 μmol/L, and mean serum albumin was 21 ± 7 g/L. Mean urinary IL-1β, IL6 and IL8 levels, corrected to urinary creatinine, in patients during relapse were 132.94 ± 654.97, 217.82 ± 1124.31 and 150.227 ± 523.97 pg/μmol compared to 9.11 ± 40.75, 0.146 ± 0.652, and 6.455 ± 24.53 pg/μmol in controls, respectively (P = 0.02, 0.03 and 0.014, respectively). No significant difference was reported in the mean level of the 3 cytokines compared to controls during remission (P = 0.94, 0.092 and 0.076). Conclusion Our results support the role of T-cell activation and the subsequent release of IL-1β, IL6 and IL8 in the pathogenesis of relapses in INS. The use of steroid-sparing cytokine blockers in managing relapses of INS remains a tempting challenge. PMID:28176955

  2. Urinary excretion of cadmium among Torres Strait Islanders (Australia) at risk of elevated dietary exposure through traditional foods.

    PubMed

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa; Imray, Paula; Satarug, Soisungwan; Moore, Michael R; O'dea, Kerin

    2007-07-01

    This study explored urinary cadmium levels among Torres Strait Islanders in response to concerns about potential health impact of high levels of cadmium in some traditional seafood (dugong and turtle liver and kidney). Cadmium levels were measured by inductively coupled mass spectrometry in de-identified urine samples collected during general screening programs in 1996 in two communities with varying dugong and turtle catch statistics. Statistical analysis was performed to identify links between cadmium levels and demographic and background health information. Geometric mean cadmium level among the sample group was 0.83 mug/g creatinine with 12% containing over 2 microg/g creatinine. Cadmium level was most strongly associated with age (46% of variation), followed by sex (females >males, 7%) and current smoking status (smokers >non-smokers, 4.7%). Adjusting model conditions suggested further positive associations between cadmium level and diabetes (p=0.05) and residence in the predicted higher exposure community (p=0.07). Positive correlations between cadmium and body fat in bivariate analysis were eliminated by control for age and sex. This study found only suggestive differences in cadmium levels between two communities with predicted variation in exposure from traditional foods. However, the data indicate that factors linked with higher cadmium accumulation overlap with those of renal disease risk (i.e. older, females, smokers, diabetes) and suggest that levels may be sufficient to contribute to renal pathology. More direct assessment of exposure and health risks of cadmium to Torres Strait Islanders is needed given the disproportionate level of diet-related disease and the cultural importance of dugong and turtle. This study highlights the need to consider social and cultural variation in exposure and to define "safe" cadmium levels during diabetes given its rising global prevalence.

  3. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  4. Renal function, aldosterone, and vasopressin excretion following repeated long-distance running.

    PubMed

    Wade, C E; Dressendorfer, R H; O'Brien, J C; Claybaugh, J R

    1981-04-01

    Renal and endocrine responses were studied in 10 male runners during a 20-day 500-km race. Overnight urine and prerun blood samples were taken prior to running on days 1, 2, 5, 8, 14, 17, and 20. Day 13 followed 70 h of rest. Urine flow rate, osmotic clearance, tubular free water reabsorption, urinary vasopressin excretion rate, and body weight were not significantly changed. Creatinine clearance was constant except for an elevation on day 5. Plasma osmolality was elevated on days 2, 14, and 17. Plasma sodium was increased (P less than 0.05) on days 2 and 13 but reduced on day 20. The percentage of filtered sodium excreted was significantly reduced on all nights following running and elevated on recovery day 13. Urinary aldosterone excretion rate was significantly elevated 162, 117, and 97% on days 5, 8, and 20 and returned to control levels on day 13 after 70 h of rest. These data suggest that in response to repeated long-distance running normal fluid balance is regained within 12 h. However, it is necessary to conserve sodium for at least 24 h after exercise as evidenced by the decrease in the percent filtered sodium excreted and continued elevation of aldosterone excretion.

  5. Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06 ± 1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake.

  6. Effects of dietary supplementation of rumen-protected folic acid on rumen fermentation, degradability and excretion of urinary purine derivatives in growing steers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Liu, Qiang; Guo, Gang; Huo, WenJie; Ma, Le; Zhang, YanLi; Pei, CaiXia; Zhang, ShuanLin; Wang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary addition of rumen-protected folic acid (RPFA) on ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, enzyme activity and the relative quantity of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in growing beef steers. Eight rumen-cannulated Jinnan beef steers averaging 2.5 years of age and 419 ± 1.9 kg body weight were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four treatments comprised supplementation levels of 0 (Control), 70, 140 and 210 mg RPFA/kg dietary dry matter (DM). On DM basis, the ration consisted of 50% corn silage, 47% concentrate and 3% soybean oil. The DM intake (averaged 8.5 kg/d) was restricted to 95% of ad libitum intake. The intake of DM, crude protein (CP) and net energy for growth was not affected by treatments. In contrast, increasing RPFA supplementation increased average daily gain and the concentration of total volatile fatty acid and reduced ruminal pH linearly. Furthermore, increasing RPFA supplementation enhanced the acetate to propionate ratio and reduced the ruminal ammonia N content linearly. The ruminal effective degradability of neutral detergent fibre from corn silage and CP from concentrate improved linearly and was highest for the highest supplementation levels. The activities of cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase and α-amylase linearly increased, but carboxymethyl-cellulase and protease were not affected by the addition of RPFA. The relative quantities of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes increased linearly. With increasing RPFA supplementation levels, the excretion of urinary purine derivatives was also increased linearly. The present results indicated that the supplementation of RPFA improved ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, activities of microbial enzymes and the relative quantity of the ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. According to the conditions of this

  7. [Urinary elimination of oxytocin and vasopressin measured by radioimmunoassay in different phases of the menstrual cycle in women].

    PubMed

    Geelen, G; Allevard, A M; Jarsaillon, E; Zébidi, A; Augoyard, G; Baratin, D; Gharib, C

    1980-01-01

    Urinary arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) excretion were measured by radioimmunoassay and studied in 3 normally cycling women. No difference for AVP and OT excretion was found between the different phases of the menstrual cycle. But in one subject with a typical pre-menstrual syndrom (weight gain of 1.5 kg), a significant statistical difference was found in AVP excretion (p less than 0.05) between the pre-ovulatory (25.3 +/- 3.08 ng/24 h) and the post-ovulatory (39.45 +/- 5.59 ng/24 h) phase. The well known stimulatory effect of estrogen as judged from plasma studies on neurohypophyseal hormones was thus difficult to demonstrate in urine. These results could be explained by the fact that the kidney destroys both AVP and OT, but OT at a higher rate than AVP.

  8. Estimation of benchmark dose as the threshold levels of urinary cadmium, based on excretion of total protein, {beta} {sub 2}-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase in cadmium nonpolluted regions in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Etsuko . E-mail: ekoba@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Suwazono, Yasushi; Uetani, Mirei; Inaba, Takeya; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nogawa, Koji

    2006-07-15

    Previously, we investigated the association between urinary cadmium (Cd) concentration and indicators of renal dysfunction, including total protein, {beta} {sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta} {sub 2}-MG), and N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). In 2778 inhabitants {>=}50 years of age (1114 men, 1664 women) in three different Cd nonpolluted areas in Japan, we showed that a dose-response relationship existed between renal effects and Cd exposure in the general environment without any known Cd pollution. However, we could not estimate the threshold levels of urinary Cd at that time. In the present study, we estimated the threshold levels of urinary Cd as the benchmark dose low (BMDL) using the benchmark dose (BMD) approach. Urinary Cd excretion was divided into 10 categories, and an abnormality rate was calculated for each. Cut-off values for urinary substances were defined as corresponding to the 84% and 95% upper limit values of the target population who have not smoked. Then we calculated the BMD and BMDL using a log-logistic model. The values of BMD and BMDL for all urinary substances could be calculated. The BMDL for the 84% cut-off value of {beta} {sub 2}-MG, setting an abnormal value at 5%, was 2.4 {mu}g/g creatinine (cr) in men and 3.3 {mu}g/g cr in women. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the threshold level of urinary Cd could be estimated in people living in the general environment without any known Cd-pollution in Japan, and the value was inferred to be almost the same as that in Belgium, Sweden, and China.

  9. Evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coke production and a graphite electrode manufacturing plant: assessment of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene as a biological indicator of exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Buchet, J P; Gennart, J P; Mercado-Calderon, F; Delavignette, J P; Cupers, L; Lauwerys, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Characterisation of the airborne concentration of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at various workplaces in a graphite electrode and a coke production plant. Validation of the urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (hydroxypyrene) as a biological marker of exposure to PAH. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of workers exposed to PAHs (106 in the graphite electrode producing plant and 16 in the coke works). METHODS--Personal air sampling during at least six hours per workshift using a glass fibre filter and a Chromosorb 102 solid sorbent tube and analysis of PAHs by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrofluorometric detection (SFD). Collection of spot urine samples before and after the shift and analysis of 1-hydroxypyrene by HPLC and SFD. RESULTS--The workers most exposed to PAHs were those occupied at the topside area of the coke oven plant and those working in the blending and impregnation areas of the graphite electrode producing plant (mean airborne concentration of total PAHs: 199 and 223 micrograms/m3 respectively). Except for naphthalene and perylene, the relative proportion of the different PAHs did not differ between the plants. Pyrene concentration in air was highly correlated with the total airborne PAH concentration (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001) and the correlation coefficients between hydroxypyrene concentration in postshift urine samples and pyrene or total PAHs in air were 0.67 (p < 0.0001) and 0.72 (p < 0.0001) respectively. Excretion of hydroxypyrene doubled when the exposure to pyrene in air increased 10-fold. The half life for the urinary excretion of hydroxypyrene was around 18 hours (95% confidence interval 16.1-19.8). Smoking habits only explained 2.3% of the variance in hydroxypyrene excretion compared with 45% for the pyrene concentration in air. CONCLUSION--The determination of the urinary excretion of hydroxypyrene in postshift urine samples can be used as a suitable biomarker to assess individual exposure to

  10. 5-HIAA excretion is not associated with bone metabolism in carcinoid syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, S C; de Herder, W W; Kwekkeboom, D J; Zillikens, M C; Feelders, R A; van Schaik, R H N; van Driel, M; van Leeuwen, J P T M

    2012-06-01

    In patients with a carcinoid syndrome and neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive tract (carcinoids), elevated circulating serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels can be demonstrated. It can be hypothesized that bone metabolism will be affected in these patients, since serotonin receptors are expressed on bone cells and serotonin effects on bone have been demonstrated. However, to date, no data are available on bone metabolism parameters in patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive tract (carcinoids). In the current retrospective study we have measured serum bone formation markers P1CP (pro-collagen type I C-terminal), and osteocalcin, and the bone resorption marker NTx (collagen breakdown product N-terminal), in a group of 61 carcinoid patients with increased circulating serotonin levels as demonstrated by increased excretion of the serotonin breakdown product, 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5-HIAA), in the urine (>50 μmol/24 h, so-called "hyper-secretors") and a control group of 23 carcinoid patients, without increased 5-HIAA excretion (so-called non-secretors). The 24-h urinary excretion of 5-HIAA reflects the 24-h production of serotonin. Measurements of markers of bone metabolism were performed in serum samples obtained before the start of medical treatment. The hypersecretor group had on average a 10-fold higher urinary 5-HIAA excretion than the control (non-secretor) group. No significant differences in bone metabolism parameters could be demonstrated between hyper-secretors and controls (non-secretors). Correlation and regression analyses could not demonstrate significant age- and sex-adjusted correlations between urinary 5-HIAA excretion and any of the markers for bone turnover. A limitation is that the exposure time to elevated levels of serotonin is unknown, which might have been too short to induce effects on bone metabolism. Treatment of human pre-osteoblasts SV-HFO with serotonin didn't change alkaline phosphatase activity throughout

  11. The effects of concentrate added to pineapple (Ananas comosus Linn. Mer.) waste silage in differing ratios to form complete diets, on digestion, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and blood metabolites in growing, male, Thai swamp buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Jetana, T; Suthikrai, W; Usawang, S; Vongpipatana, C; Sophon, S; Liang, J B

    2009-04-01

    Four, male, growing Thai swamp buffaloes (197 +/- 5.3 kg and all 1 year old) were used to evaluate the effects of concentrate added to pineapple waste silage in differing ratios, to form a complete diet, studying in vivo digestion, the rate of passage, microbial protein synthesis and blood metabolites. Animals were fed ad libitum with 4 diets, using four combinations of pineapple waste silage (P) and concentrate (C), in the proportions (on a dry matter basis) of 0.8:0.2 (P80:C20), 0.6:0.4 (P60:C40), 0.4:0.6 (P40:C60) and 0.2:0.8 (P20:C80). The results showed that the intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), the N-balance, urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion, the ratios of allantoin to creatinine (CR), PD to CR, the plasma urea-N (PUN) and insulin increased in the animals, but the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), the coefficient of whole tract, apparent digestibility of NDF, the transit time (TT) and the mean retention time (TMRT) decreased, when the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased. This study indicated that the proportion of P40:C60 in the diet produced the best efficiency of urinary PD excretion (mmol) per digestible OM intake (kg DOMI).

  12. Specific increases in urinary excretion of anti-DNA antibodies in lupus mice induced by lysozyme administration: further evidence for DNA-anti-DNA immune complexes in the pathogenesis of nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, T; Nagase, M; Hishida, A; Honda, N

    1993-01-01

    We previously reported that lysozyme electrostatically inhibits the fibronectin-mediated DNA binding to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and reduces in situ DNA-anti-DNA complex formation in the GBM in NZB/W F1 mice [1]. In this study, we further noticed significant increases in urinary excretion of anti-DNA antibodies and immune complexes (IC) in lysozyme-treated NZB/W F1 mice. Their clearance ratios of IgG anti-DNA antibody to whole IgG were markedly high compared with those of saline-treated animals. A large number of IgG and C3 positive granules were observed in the tubular cells of NZB/W F1 mice treated with lysozyme. On the contrary, nil or only small amounts of anti-DNA antibodies were detected in the urine of NZB/W F1 mice without lysozyme administration despite a large amount of proteinuria, suggesting entrapment of the antibodies in lupus glomeruli. Lysozyme neither inhibited the binding of anti-DNA antibodies to DNA or heparan sulphate nor did it displace anti-DNA antibodies and IC from the kidney homogenates of lupus mice. It thus appears that the inhibition of DNA binding to the GBM due to lysozyme reduced the entrapment of anti-DNA antibodies in the GBM, resulting in urinary excretion of the antibodies. PMID:8419071

  13. Biliary excretion of cadmium in rat. III. Effects of chelating agents and change in intracellular thiol content on billiary transport and tissue distribution of cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Cherian, M.G.

    1980-03-01

    The effects of changes in sulfur-containing intracellular ligands on biliary excretion of cadmium were studied in rats. Injection of zinc or copper salts 24 h before intravenous injection of /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ (1 mg/kg Cd) decreased biliary excretion of Cd. Pretreatment with cysteine (25 mg/kg) had a similar effect. Depletion of intracellular thiol by injection of diethylmaleate had little effect. The effect of chelating agents on the pharmacokinetics of Cd depended on time of administration of the agents after exposure to Cd. When chelating agents were administered 1/2 h after Cd injection (before the synthesis of metallothionein), the thiol-containing agents (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol (BAL), DL-penicillamine, N-acetylpenicillamine, and dithioerythritol increased the biliary excretion of Cd, while the carboxyl-containing ones (EDTA and nitrilotriacetate) increased the urinary excretion of Cd. BAL was the most effective chelating agent, but there was also an increase in the renal concentration of Cd. However, when these chelating agents were administered 24 h after Cd injection (after the synthesis of metallothionein), only BAL increased the biliary excretion of Cd. Renal and hepatic Cd concentrations decreased concurrently after BAL treatment.

  14. Urinary cytokines for assessing inflammation in HIV-associated wasting.

    PubMed

    Rivera, S; Sattler, F R; Boyd, H; Auffenberg, T; Nakao, S; Moldawer, L L

    2001-03-07

    The relationship between cytokines and HIV-related weight loss has not been well established. Unlike most cytokines that are secreted in a paracrine manner, IL-6, sTNFR-II, and IL-1ra are readily detected in the systemic circulation and serve as markers of the inflammatory response. Twenty-four-hour urine concentrations of these proteins are believed to provide an integrative assessment of their systemic levels over the preceding hours. We sought to determine whether spot measurements of IL-6, sTNFR-II, and IL-1ra could be related to subsequent 24 h concentrations and prior weight loss. Eighteen subjects with severe wasting (average BMI=18+/-3 kg/m2with 19+/-13 kg of weight loss) and six HIV-negative healthy subjects were tested. Compared to values in controls, 24-h urinary concentrations of the three proteins adjusted for creatinine excreted were elevated in 44%, 89%, and 72% of patients, respectively. Twenty-four-hour concentrations were highly correlated with the spot concentrations (r=0.80, 0.87, 0.84, respectively, P<0.001). IL-1ra concentrations (24 h and spot) were correlated with weight loss in the previous 6 months, lifetime rate of weight loss and the 6 month rate of weight loss (spot: r=0.66, 0.73, 0.68, respectively, P< or =0.001). These data suggest that spot urinary collections can be used to estimate 24 h excretion rates. This strategy may be useful in assessing the inflammatory response in HIV-associated wasting.

  15. Biological Monitoring of Human Exposure to Neonicotinoids Using Urine Samples, and Neonicotinoid Excretion Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Kouji H.; Tanaka, Keiko; Sakamoto, Hiroko; Imanaka, Mie; Niisoe, Tamon; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Inoue, Sumiko; Kusakawa, Koichi; Oshima, Masayo; Watanabe, Kiyohiko; Yasojima, Makoto; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background Neonicotinoids, which are novel pesticides, have entered into usage around the world because they are selectively toxic to arthropods and relatively non-toxic to vertebrates. It has been suggested that several neonicotinoids cause neurodevelopmental toxicity in mammals. The aim was to establish the relationship between oral intake and urinary excretion of neonicotinoids by humans to facilitate biological monitoring, and to estimate dietary neonicotinoid intakes by Japanese adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and imidacloprid) microdoses were orally ingested by nine healthy adults, and 24 h pooled urine samples were collected for 4 consecutive days after dosing. The excretion kinetics were modeled using one- and two-compartment models, then validated in a non-deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid microdose study involving 12 healthy adults. Increased urinary concentrations of labeled neonicotinoids were observed after dosing. Clothianidin was recovered unchanged within 3 days, and most dinotefuran was recovered unchanged within 1 day. Around 10% of the imidacloprid dose was excreted unchanged. Most of the acetamiprid was metabolized to desmethyl-acetamiprid. Spot urine samples from 373 Japanese adults were analyzed for neonicotinoids, and daily intakes were estimated. The estimated average daily intake of these neonicotinoids was 0.53–3.66 μg/day. The highest intake of any of the neonicotinoids in the study population was 64.5 μg/day for dinotefuran, and this was <1% of the acceptable daily intake. PMID:26731104

  16. Analysis of the urinary excretion of ifosfamide and its N-dechloroethylated metabolites in children using 31P-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Misiura, Konrad; Zubowska, Małgorzata; Zielińska, Elzbieta

    2003-01-01

    Amounts of ifosfamide (CAS 3778-73-2) and its N-dechloroethylated metabolites excreted in the urine were measured using 31P-NMR spectroscopy in 26 cancer children treated with this drug. Strong inter-patient variation in levels of these compounds were found. These differences were independent from patients age, body surface area, and sex, the dose of the drug, suggesting genetic base of observed variations in ifosfamide metabolism.

  17. Relationship of nutrition knowledge and self-reported dietary behaviors with urinary excretion of sodium and potassium: comparison between dietitians and nondietitians.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Minami; Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of better nutrition knowledge and dietary behavior on healthier dietary intake is still controversial. We hypothesized that nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior are associated with sodium and potassium intake in adult women. A cross-sectional study was conducted at welfare facilities located in 20 areas of Japan. Ninety-nine female dietitians and 117 nondietitians aged 20 to 69 years participated. Sodium and potassium intake were assessed with two 24-hour urine collections and 4-day semiweighed diet records. Nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior were accessed with 3 questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to compare sodium and potassium excretion and selected nutrition and food intake between dietitians and nondietitians. After adjustment for age and smoking habit, sodium and potassium excretion did not significantly differ between the 2 groups (3857 vs 3959 mg/d, P = .57, and 2016 vs 1886 mg/d, P = .10, respectively). Sodium/potassium ratio was significantly lower in the dietitians (P = .044). The dietitians used food labels for sodium contents more often than the nondietitians and consumed more fruits and vegetables (P = .048 and P < .0001, respectively) and less sugar and confectionaries and fat and oils (P = .016 and P = .010, respectively). In conclusion, the higher level of nutritional knowledge and better dietary behavior were not associated with either sodium or potassium excretion but were moderately associated with sodium/potassium ratio.

  18. Effect of diet orange soda on urinary lithogenicity.

    PubMed

    Sumorok, Nicola T; Asplin, John R; Eisner, Brian H; Stoller, Marshall L; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-06-01

    Studies have shown that certain beverages decrease urinary lithogenicity by increasing urine citrate excretion. Diet Sunkist Orange soda had the highest concentration of citrate and total alkali content among 12 diet sodas previously assayed. We studied the effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda consumption on urinary chemistry. Nine healthy men and women ages 26-54 years completed the study. During the control period, subjects drank 36 oz of water for 3 days in addition to their own, self-selected diet and recorded a food diary. During the study period, the subjects drank three 12-oz cans of Diet Sunkist Orange soda a day instead of water, and replicated their diets from the control period. In each period, the subjects performed 24-h urine collections on days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, including urinary citrate levels and pH. Diet Sunkist Orange soda increased urinary citrate excretion by 60 mg/day, which was not statistically significant (95% CI -75 to 195, P value 0.34). There was no significant change in pH from the control period to the study period (pH: 6.29-6.21; 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.25, P = 0.30). Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not significantly different between the control and study periods. Despite the relatively high citrate and total alkali content of Diet Sunkist Orange soda, the volume consumed in this study (36 oz per day) did not provide sufficient potential base to significantly alter urine composition in healthy subjects with normocitraturia. The effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda on urinary chemistry in patients with hypocitraturia and nephrolithiasis is not likely to have a clinically significant effect to prevent calcium or uric acid stones.

  19. Serum immunoreactive relaxin in women during a 24-h period.

    PubMed

    Seki, K; Kato, K; Tabei, T

    1987-03-01

    Serum relaxin concentrations were measured every 30 min during a 24-h period in nonpregnant and pregnant women. Relaxin was undetectable in all serum samples obtained from 3 nonpregnant women. Relaxin was detectable in all serum samples obtained from 2 pregnant women. However, neither episodic secretion of relaxin nor a 24-h rhythm in relaxin secretion was discernible in these women.

  20. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension.

  1. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na+/K+-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:27043552

  2. Potassium citrate decreases urine calcium excretion in patients with hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Hernandez, Natalia; Shoag, Jonathan; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2016-04-01

    Two previous studies (<10 patients each) have demonstrated that alkali therapy may reduce urine calcium excretion in patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The hypothesized mechanisms are (1) a decrease in bone turnover due to systemic alkalinization by the medications; (2) binding of calcium by citrate in the gastrointestinal tract; (3) direct effects on TRPV5 activity in the distal tubule. We performed a retrospective review of patients on potassium citrate therapy to evaluate the effects of this medication on urinary calcium excretion. A retrospective review was performed of a metabolic stone database at a tertiary care academic hospital. Patients were identified with a history of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and hypocitraturia who were on potassium citrate therapy for a minimum of 3 months. 24-h urine composition was assessed prior to the initiation of potassium citrate therapy and after 3 months of therapy. Patients received 30-60 mEq potassium citrate by mouth daily. Inclusion criterion was a change in urine potassium of 20 mEq/day or greater, which suggests compliance with potassium citrate therapy. Paired t test was used to compare therapeutic effect. Twenty-two patients were evaluated. Mean age was 58.8 years (SD 14.0), mean BMI was 29.6 kg/m(2) (SD 5.9), and gender prevalence was 36.4% female:63.6% male. Mean pre-treatment 24-h urine values were as follows: citrate 280.0 mg/day, potassium 58.7 mEq/day, calcium 216.0 mg/day, pH 5.87. Potassium citrate therapy was associated with statistically significant changes in each of these parameters-citrate increased to 548.4 mg/day (p < 0.0001), potassium increased to 94.1 mEq/day (p < 0.0001), calcium decreased to 156.5 mg/day (p = 0.04), pH increased to 6.47 (p = 0.001). Urine sodium excretion was not different pre- and post-therapy (175 mEq/day pre-therapy versus 201 mEq/day post-therapy, p = NS). Urinary calcium excretion decreased by a mean of 60 mg/day on potassium citrate therapy-a nearly 30

  3. 24-h hydration status: parameters, epidemiology and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Manz, F; Wentz, A

    2003-12-01

    Hydration of individuals and groups is characterised by comparing actual urine osmolality (Uosm) with maximum Uosm. Data of actual, maximum and minimum Uosm in infants, children and adults and its major influencing factors are reviewed. There are remarkable ontogenetic, individual and cultural differences in Uosm. In the foetus and the breast-fed infant Uosm is much lower than plasma osmolality, whereas in children and adults it is usually much higher. Individuals and groups may show long-term differences in Uosm. In industrialised countries, the gender difference of Uosm is common. There are large intercultural differences of mean 24-h Uosm ranging from 860 mosm/kg in Germany, 649 mosm/kg in USA to 392 mosm/kg in Poland. A new physiologically based concept called 'free-water reserve' quantifies differences in 24-h euhydration. In 189 boys of the DONALD Study aged 4.0-6.9 y, median urine volume was 497 ml/24-h and median Uosm 809 mosm/kg. Considering mean-2 s.d. of actual maximum 24-h Uosm of 830 mosm/kg as upper level of euhydration and physiological criterion of adequate hydration in these boys, median free-water reserve was 11 ml/24-h. Based on median total water intake of 1310 ml/24-h and the third percentile of free-water volume of -156 ml/24-h, adequate total water intake was 1466 ml/24-h or 1.01 ml/kcal. Data of Uosm in 24-h urine samples and corresponding free-water reserve values of homogeneous groups of healthy subjects from all over the world might be useful parameters in epidemiology to investigate the health effects of different levels of 24-h euhydration.

  4. Sinusoidal 50 Hz, 500 {micro}T magnetic field has no acute effect on urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, J.; Nagy, N.; Thuroczy, G.; Szabo, L.D.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of a 50 Hz, vertical magnetic field on the excretion of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) of male and female Wistar rats was studied in a self-controlled experiment. Twenty rats were kept in metabolic cages under 9:15 h light:dark conditions. The urine of the animals was collected twice per day for 5 consecutive days. The concentration of aMT6s in the rat urine was measured by {sup 125}I radioimmunoassay. The rats were exposed to 5 and 500 {micro}T flux density for 24 h. The excretion of urinary aMT6s did not show significant changes during or after magnetic field exposure.

  5. Urinary nickel excretion in populations living in the proximity of two russian nickel refineries: a Norwegian-Russian population-based study.

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Sivertsen, T; Tchachtchine, V; Lund, E; Bykov, V; Thomassen, Y; Norseth, T

    1998-01-01

    The Russian nickel refineries located in the cities of Nikel and Zapolyarny close to the Norwegian border are responsible for extensive sulfur dioxide and nickel pollution, as well as severe ecological damage in both countries. The aim of our study was to investigate human nickel exposure in the populations living on both sides of the Norwegian-Russian border. The design was a cross-sectional population-based study of adults aged 18-69 years residing in Sor-Varanger municipality, Norway, and Nikel and Zapolyarny, Russia, during 1994 and 1995. Individual exposure to nickel was assessed by measurements of nickel in urine using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. For controls, urine was collected from adults in the Russian cities of Apatity and Umba (Kola Peninsula) and the Norwegian city of Tromso, all of which are locations without nearby point sources of nickel. Altogether 2,233 urine specimens were analysed for nickel. People living in Nikel had the highest concentrations (median 3.4 microg/l), followed by Umba (median 2.7 microg/l), Zapolyarny (median 2.0 microg/l), Apatity (median 1.9 microg/l), Tromso (median 1.2 microg/l), and Sor-Varanger (median 0.6 microg/l). Regardless of geographical location, the Russian study groups all had a higher urinary-nickel average than those in Norway (p<0.001). With the exception of Nikel, neither the Russian nor the Norwegian urinary-nickel levels were associated with residence location near a Russian nickel refinery. We concluded that industrial nickel pollution alone could not explain the observed discrepancy between Norway and Russia; we also discuss other possible nickel exposure sources that may account for the high urinary levels found in Russia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9681979

  6. Influence of training habits on exercise-induced changes in plasma atrial and brain natriuretic peptide and urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 in healthy man.

    PubMed

    Bentzen, H; Pedersen, R S; Nyvad, O; Pedersen, E B

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of training habits on the changes in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and urine aquaporin-2 (u-AQP2) during exercise by studying trained and untrained healthy subjects. Eleven trained subjects (7 males, 4 females) and 10 untrained subjects (8 males, 2 females) performed a maximal aerobic exercise test. ANP and BNP were determined every 3 min and at maximum exercise by radioimmunoassay (RIA), and u-AQP2 was determined before and after the exercise test by RIA. The absolute increase in ANP during exercise was higher in the trained subjects (trained subjects: 5.6 pmol/L; untrained subjects: 2.4 pmol/L, p < 0.05) and was positively correlated to ANP at rest (p < 0.03). The maximum absolute increase in BNP during exercise was the same in the two groups (trained subjects: 0.5 pmol/L; untrained subjects: 0.6 pmol/L, NS) and tended to correlate positively with resting BNP in the trained subjects (p = 0.07). Exercise did not change u-AQP2 excretion in either trained subjects (rest: 372 ng/mmol creatinine; exercise: 314 ng/mmol creatinine, NS) or untrained subjects (rest: 263 ng/mmol creatinine; exercise: 338 ng/mmol creatinine, NS). The absolute increase in ANP during exercise was higher in trained subjects than in untrained subjects and was positively correlated to ANP at rest. This might reflect the normal cardiovascular adaptation to exercise. The increase in BNP during exercise was unrelated to training habits. Training habits did not affect the u-AQP2 excretion during exercise.

  7. Global, regional and national sodium intakes in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis of 24 h urinary sodium excretion and dietary surveys worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Powles, John; Fahimi, Saman; Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Ezzati, Majid; Engell, Rebecca E; Lim, Stephen S; Danaei, Goodarz; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate global, regional (21 regions) and national (187 countries) sodium intakes in adults in 1990 and 2010. Design Bayesian hierarchical modelling using all identifiable primary sources. Data sources and eligibility We searched and obtained published and unpublished data from 142 surveys of 24 h urinary sodium and 103 of dietary sodium conducted between 1980 and 2010 across 66 countries. Dietary estimates were converted to urine equivalents based on 79 pairs of dual measurements. Modelling methods Bayesian hierarchical modelling used survey data and their characteristics to estimate mean sodium intake, by sex, 5 years age group and associated uncertainty for persons aged 20+ in 187 countries in 1990 and 2010. Country-level covariates were national income/person and composition of food supplies. Main outcome measures Mean sodium intake (g/day) as estimable by 24 h urine collections, without adjustment for non-urinary losses. Results In 2010, global mean sodium intake was 3.95 g/day (95% uncertainty interval: 3.89 to 4.01). This was nearly twice the WHO recommended limit of 2 g/day and equivalent to 10.06 (9.88–10.21) g/day of salt. Intake in men was ∼10% higher than in women; differences by age were small. Intakes were highest in East Asia, Central Asia and Eastern Europe (mean >4.2 g/day) and in Central Europe and Middle East/North Africa (3.9–4.2 g/day). Regional mean intakes in North America, Western Europe and Australia/New Zealand ranged from 3.4 to 3.8 g/day. Intakes were lower (<3.3 g/day), but more uncertain, in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Between 1990 and 2010, modest, but uncertain, increases in sodium intakes were identified. Conclusions Sodium intakes exceed the recommended levels in almost all countries with small differences by age and sex. Virtually all populations would benefit from sodium reduction, supported by enhanced surveillance. PMID:24366578

  8. Environmental impact on crew of armoured vehicles: effects of 24 h combat exercise in a hot desert.

    PubMed

    Singh, A P; Majumdar, D; Bhatia, M R; Srivastava, K K; Selvamurthy, W

    1995-11-01

    A field study was undertaken to investigate the effects of combined noise, vibration and heat stress on the physiological functions of the crew of armoured vehicles during prolonged combat exercise in a desert. The sound pressure level of noise was measured with a sound level meter and accelerations by vibration analyser. The thermal load on the crew was evaluated by calculating the wet bulb globe temperature index. The physiological responses of the subjects (n = 9), included significant increases in the heart rate, 24 h water intake and urinary catecholamine concentration. A significant decrease was recorded in body mass, peak expiratory flow rate and 24 h urinary output. The high heat load on the crew resulted in a hypohydration of 3% body mass and appeared to be the dominant factor in producing the physiological strain.

  9. Enhanced vagal baroreflex response during 24 h after acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Adams, W. C.

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated carotid-cardiac baroreflex responses in eight normotensive men (25-41 yr) on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested before and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after graded supine cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, this 24-h protocol was repeated with no exercise (control). Beat-to-beat R-R intervals were measured during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses from 40 to -65 mmHg; changes of R-R intervals were plotted against carotid pressure (systolic pressure minus neck chamber pressure). The maximum slope of the response relationship increased (P less than 0.05) from preexercise to 12 h (3.7 +/- 0.4 to 7.1 +/- 0.7 ms/mmHg) and remained significantly elevated through 24 h. The range of the R-R response was also increased from 217 +/- 24 to 274 +/- 32 ms (P less than 0.05). No significant differences were observed during the control 24-h period. An acute bout of graded exercise designed to elicit exhaustion increases the sensitivity and range of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response for 24 h and enhances its capacity to buffer against hypotension by increasing heart rate. These results may represent an underlying mechanism that contributes to blood pressure stability after intense exercise.

  10. Fate of tritiated didemnin B in mice: excretion and tissue concentrations after an intraperitoneal dose.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Val R; Bruno, Sally J; Burner, John S; Choi, Byoung W; Rinehart, Kenneth L; Koritz, Gary D; Levengood, Jeffrey M

    2005-11-01

    Didemnin B has undergone trials in cancer patients, and has antiviral and immunosuppressive properties. [(3)H]didemnin B was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to mice at 320 or 1280 microg/kg. Urine and feces were collected until 168 h, at which time the mice were killed and tissues collected. Additionally, [(3)H]didemnin B was given i.p. at 320 microg/kg, and mice were killed at 1-120 h post-dosing. Radiolabel increased rapidly in blood then rapidly declined. Most radiolabel in urine, feces and tissues represented parent compound. Concentrations of [(3)H]didemnin B were greatest in the liver > gallbladder > lower digestive tract congruent with pancreas > spleen > kidney congruent with adipose tissue congruent with urinary bladder with urine. The pancreas had the longest terminal half-life of the tissues and the highest radioactivity at 7 days. Intermediate concentrations were in the duodenum congruent with jejunum > lung > iliopsoas > stomach congruent with testes congruent with skin > heart. Low concentrations were in the humerus congruent with femur congruent with quadriceps congruent with triceps > brain. Fecal excretion accounted for 45.9%-58.3% of the dose and declined after 24 h, followed by an increase, suggesting possible enterohepatic recycling or an impact of circadian rhythms. Urinary excretion accounted for 18.4%-25.2% of the dose, but was minimal after 24 h. The concentrations were highest in organs previously found to be sensitive in animals and humans. Didemnin B should be evaluated in animal models for treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  11. Effect of cytidine(5')diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) on the total urinary excretion of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) by rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Lopez, I; Coviella, G; Agut, J; Wurtman, R J

    1986-01-01

    We examined the effects of orally administered cytidine(5')-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) on the total levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in human and rat urine. Four subjects who had been on a low-choline diet (less than 1 gm/day) for 24 hours received three doses of CDP-choline (2 gm each) at 8 a.m., 10 a.m., and noon; urines were collected at two-hour intervals after each dose. Rats received water for three days; then CDP-choline (100 mg/kg) or equimolar doses of choline for five days; then water again for three more days. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected on each day of the study. The levels of MHPG in human urine increased by 45-68% when subjects were receiving CDP-choline (p less than 0.01). CDP-choline, but not choline, also elevated urinary MHPG significantly in rats (p less than 0.01). These data suggest that CDP-choline enhances norepinephrine release, and that this action may be mediated by more than just its choline content.

  12. A polymorphism in metallothionein 1A (MT1A) is associated with cadmium-related excretion of urinary beta 2‐microglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Lijian; Chang, Xiuli; Rentschler, Gerda; Tian, Liting; Zhu, Guoying; Chen, Xiao; Jin, Taiyi; Broberg, Karin

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: Cadmium (Cd) toxicity of the kidney varies between individuals despite similar exposure levels. In humans Cd is mainly bound to metallothioneins (MT), which scavenge its toxic effects. Here we analyzed whether polymorphisms in MT genes MT1A and MT2A influence Cd-related kidney damage. Methods: In a cross-sectional study N = 512 volunteers were selected from three areas in South-Eastern China, which to varying degree were Cd-polluted from a smelter (control area [median Cd in urine U-Cd = 2.67 μg/L], moderately [U-Cd = 4.23 μg/L] and highly [U-Cd = 9.13 μg/L] polluted areas). U-Cd and blood Cd (B-Cd) concentrations were measured by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. MT1A rs11076161 (G/A), MT2A rs10636 (G/C) and MT2A rs28366003 (A/G) were determined by Taqman assays; urinary N-Acetyl-beta-(D)-Glucosaminidase (UNAG) by spectrometry, and urinary β2-microglobulin (UB2M) by ELISA. Results: Higher B-Cd (natural log-transformed) with increasing number of MT1A rs11076161 A-alleles was found in the highly polluted group (p-value trend = 0.033; all p-values adjusted for age, sex, and smoking). In a linear model a significant interaction between rs11076161 genotype and B-Cd was found for UNAG (p = 0.001) and UB2M concentrations (p = 0.001). Carriers of the rs11076161 AA genotype showed steeper slopes for the associations between Cd in blood and natural log-transformed UB2M (β = 1.2, 95% CI 0.72–1.6) compared to GG carriers (β = 0.30, 95% CI 0.15–0.45). Also for UNAG (natural log-transformed) carriers of the AA genotype had steeper slopes (β = 0.55, 95% CI 0.27–0.84) compared to GG carriers (β = 0.018, 95% CI − 0.79–0.11). Conclusions: MT1A rs11076161 was associated with B-Cd concentrations and Cd-induced kidney toxicity at high exposure levels. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium is toxic to the kidney but the susceptibility differs between individuals. ► The toxic effect of cadmium is scavenged by metallothioneins. ► A common variant of

  13. Plasma pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of isoflavones after ingestion of soy products with different aglycone/glucoside ratios in South Korean women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Youngeun; Choue, Ryowon

    2013-10-01

    Asian populations are thought to receive significant health benefits from traditional diets rich in soybeans due to high isoflavone contents. However, available epidemiologic data only weakly support this hypothesis. The present study was carried out to assess the pharmacokinetics of isoflavones in South Korean women after ingestion of soy-based foods. Twenty-six healthy female volunteers (20-30 y old) consumed three different soy products (i.e., isogen, soymilk, and fermented soybeans) with different aglycone/glucoside ratios. Plasma and urine isoflavone concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after ingestion of one of the soy products. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using the WinNonlin program. The area under the curve (AUC) for plasma daidzein levels of the soymilk group (2,101 ± 352 ng · h/mL) was significantly smaller than those of the isogen (2,628 ± 573 ng · h/mL) and fermented soybean (2,593 ± 465 ng · h/mL) groups. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) of daidzein for the soymilk group (231 ± 44 ng/mL) was significantly higher than those of the isogen (160 ± 32 ng/mL) and fermented soybean (195 ± 35 ng/mL) groups. The half-lives of daidzein and genistein in the soymilk group (5.9 and 5.6 h, respectively) were significantly shorter than those in the individuals given isogen (9.6 and 8.5 h, respectively) or fermented soybean (9.5 and 8.2 h, respectively). The urinary recovery rates of daidzein and genistein were 42% and 17% for the isogen group, 46% and 23% for the fermented soybean group, and 33% and 22% for the soymilk group. In conclusion, our data indicated that soy products containing high levels of isoflavone aglycone are more effective for maintaining plasma isoflavone concentrations. Additional dose-response, durational, and interventional studies are required to evaluate the ability of soy-based foods to increase the bioavailability of isoflavones that positively affect human health.

  14. Identification of 24h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lauren A; Radulović, Željko M; Kim, Tae K; Porter, Lindsay M; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ∼19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ∼81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ∼18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (∼3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (∼6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (∼31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (∼24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted.

  15. Identification of 24 h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Lauren A.; Radulović, Željko M.; Kim, Tae K.; Porter, Lindsay M.; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24 h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24 h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24 h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24 h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ~19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ~81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ~18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (~3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (~6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (~31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (~24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24 h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted. PMID:25825233

  16. Effect of two sports drinks on urinary lithogenicity.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jeffrey W; Asplin, John R; Goldfarb, David S

    2009-02-01

    The effect of commercial oral rehydration solutions ("sports drinks") relative to water on risk of nephrolithiasis has not been studied previously. We studied the effect of two sports drinks, Performance (Shaklee Corp., Pleasanton, CA, USA) and Gatorade (Gatorade, Chicago, IL, USA) on urinary chemistry and measures of lithogenicity in non-stone formers. Performance has a pH of 4.3, and contains 21 mmol/L of sodium, 5.3 mmol/L of potassium, 0.8 mmol/L of calcium, and 19.5 mmol/L of citrate. Gatorade pH ranges from 2.9 to 3.2, and contains 20 mmol/L of sodium, 3.2 mmol/L of potassium, negligible calcium, and 13.9 mmol/L of citrate. Subjects drank 946 ml (32 oz) of tap water daily for 3 days, and recorded diet history. This was followed by a second 3-day experimental period during which subjects drank 946 ml (32 oz) of sports drink daily, duplicating diets from part 1. In each 3-day period, urine was collected for 24 h during days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, and supersaturations of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and uric acid were calculated. Nine subjects completed the study using Performance, ten used Gatorade. Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not different during the control and experimental periods. Performance increased mean citrate excretion by 170 mg/day (95% CI 57-284 mg/day; P = 0.01) and increased urine pH by 0.31 (95% CI 0.03-0.59; P = 0.03). Gatorade did not significantly change urinary citrate excretion or pH. Neither drink caused significant differences in the excretion of sodium and calcium or any supersaturation value. Ingestion of Performance, but not Gatorade, led to an increase in mean urinary citrate excretion and pH as compared to water. The increase in citrate is likely to be a clinically significant effect. pH is an important determinant of alkali load in beverages containing organic anions. Performance, with more citrate and a higher pH than Gatorade, could represent a superior alternative to water for

  17. Renal excretion of plasma soluble melanins by healthy human adults.

    PubMed

    Hegedus, Z L; Nayak, U

    1993-01-01

    The soluble melanins of blood plasma form in vivo and in vitro from dopa, catecholamines, catechol, hydroquinone, homogentisic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, p-aminophenol, p-phenylenediamine and other structurally related end(ex)ogenous compounds by oxidative polymerization. The mean quantity of natural melanins in normal plasma is 1.61 +/- 0.10 (standard deviation) mg/ml, (n = 20) and in uraemic plasma 2.72 +/- 0.38 mg/ml, (n = 16). The plasma melanins (approximately 3%), are associated with proteins (approximately 85%), mucoproteins (approximately 0.25%), lipids (approximately 0.4%), as soluble lipofuscins, and probably are associated with proteins without lipids as soluble melanoproteins. Fluorescence, UV-VIS and IR spectroscopies and the melanin isolation method show the presence of soluble melanins in the urine of healthy people. Soluble melanins can also be formed in vitro in the urine by oxidative polymerization of the precursors. In most of the urine samples we studied, melanins were present in larger amounts than the urinary proteins, indicating that the kidneys can selectively excrete the melanin components of the lipofuscins, and that the solubility of melanins does not depend upon combination with proteins. The quantities of purified melanins precipitated with 6 N HCl at 110 degrees C during 72 h from urine samples collected during 24 h periods ranged from 0.1460 g to 3.7627 g (mean 1.1303 +/- 1.1739 g, n = 8) and the plasma clearance rates ranged from 0.06 ml/min to 1.56 ml/min (mean 0.48 +/- 0.48 ml/min, n = 8). From the individual 24 h urine samples we obtained from 9 to 216 mg/dl of precipitated melanins while the individual plasma samples contained from 145 to 175 mg/dl.

  18. Tissue dosimetry, metabolism and excretion of pentavalent and trivalent monomethylated arsenic in mice after oral administration

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michael F.; Devesa, Vicenta; Adair, Blakely M.; Styblo, Miroslav; Kenyon, Elaina M.; Thomas, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) can result from their formation as metabolites of inorganic arsenic and by the use of the sodium salts of MMA(V) as herbicides. This study compared the disposition of MMA(V) and MMA(III) in adult female B6C3F1 mice. Mice were gavaged po with MMA(V), either unlabeled or labeled with 14C at two dose levels (0.4 or 40 mg As/kg). Other mice were dosed po with unlabeled MMA(III) at one dose level (0.4 mg As/kg). Mice were housed in metabolism cages for collection of excreta and sacrificed serially over 24 h for collection of tissues. MMA(V)-derived radioactivity was rapidly absorbed, distributed and excreted. By 8 h post-exposure, 80% of both doses of MMA(V) were eliminated in urine and feces. Absorption of MMA(V) was dose dependent; that is, there was less than a 100-fold difference between the two dose levels in the area under the curves for the concentration-time profiles of arsenic in blood and major organs. In addition, urinary excretion of MMA(V)-derived radioactivity in the low dose group was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than in the high dose group. Conversely, fecal excretion of MMA(V)-derived radioactivity was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the high dose group than in the low dose group. Speciation of arsenic by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry in urine and tissues of mice administered MMA(V) or MMA(III) found that methylation of MMA(V) was limited while the methylation of MMA(III) was extensive. Less than 10% of the dose excreted in urine of MMA(V)-treated mice was in the form of methylated products, whereas it was greater than 90% for MMA(III)-treated mice. In MMA(V)-treated mice, 25% or less of the tissue arsenic was in the form of dimethylarsenic, whereas in MMA(III)-treated mice, 75% or more of the tissue arsenic was in the form of dimethylarsenic. Based on urinary analysis, administered dose of MMA(V) did not affect the level of its metabolites

  19. Urinary caffeine after coffee consumption and heat dehydration.

    PubMed

    Chambaz, A; Meirim, I; Décombaz, J

    2001-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of heat-induced dehydration on urinary caffeine excretion after the consumption of a strong coffee solution. Following ingestion of coffee (caffeine 4.9+/-0.1 [SE] mg/kg, 3-4 cups), ten healthy males were intermittently exposed to heat in a sauna until they had lost 2.9 % of lean mass. On a separate occasion, they consumed the same amount of coffee but remained quiet and euhydrated (control). Urine flow was reduced 7-fold in dehydration. At these low excretion rates (< 30 ml/h), caffeine concentration was negatively correlated with flow. Peak urinary caffeine (Cmax) was 7.6 +/- 0.4 (SE) microg/ml in dehydration and 7.1 +/- 0.2 microg/ml in the control (p > 0.05). Compared with the control, dehydration delayed Cmax by 1 hour, maintained higher saliva caffeine concentration (6.1 vs 5.2 microg/ml, p < 0.05) and a lower saliva paraxanthine/caffeine ratio (p < 0.001). The 24h-recovery of caffeine in urine was reduced (1.2 vs 2.8% of dose, p < 0.001), however at least 2.6% of dose were lost in sweat. These results suggest that the rise in circulating caffeine due to delayed metabolic clearance was partly opposed by a sizeable elimination in sweat. Therefore, heat dehydration did not lead to higher concentration of caffeine in urine after coffee ingestion.

  20. Subject groups high and low in urinary selenium levels: workers exposed to heavy metals and patients with cancer and epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Hojo, Y.

    1981-04-01

    Selenium was first recognized for its toxicity; its essential nature in animals was discovered and established later. That Se is essential to human nutrition has yet to be confirmed. Recently the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was isolated from human erythrocyte and placenta. In order to discover the role Se plays in human health and disease, Thomson and Robinson emphasized a need for continuing studies of special needs of certain groups such as those exposed to heavy metals and those with certain disease and illness for example, cancer and cardiovascular disease. It is amongst these groups that Se deficiency or Se-responsive conditions may be found. Urinary Se excretion has been mainly used to assess the nutritional Se status. Recently estimation of urinary Se level in the form of its content per creatinine (abbreviated as CT) content using 24-h or random urine samples was shown to be more precise in reducing dilution and variation effects than that per urinary volume using 24-h urines (HOJO). The purpose of this study is to search the subject groups high or low in Se status by employing urinary Se content per CT content or per urine volume.

  1. Urinary D-glucaric acid and serum hepatic enzyme levels in chronic alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Tutor, J C; Alvarez-Prechous, A; Bernabeu, F; Pardiñas, M C; Paz, J M; Lareu, V

    1988-06-01

    Urinary D-glucaric acid (DGA) and the activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and other hepatic enzymes in serum were determined in 33 noncirrhotic male alcoholics who had continued to consume alcohol until at least 24 h prior to the taking of samples. DGA excretion was significantly greater in them than in a group of 30 healthy controls (p less than 0.001), exceeding the upper reference level in 38% of the alcoholic cases (as compared with 88% for GGT). In the alcoholic patients, there was highly significant correlation between urinary DGA and serum GGT (r = 0.613, p less than 0.001), suggesting that in both cases the increased levels are due to enzyme induction. None of the biochemical variables studied were significantly correlated with estimated daily alcohol consumption. Urinary DGA levels fell off rapidly with abstinence, and in 31 alcoholic patients who had consumed no alcohol for 5 days, there was no statistically significant correlation between DGA excretion and serum GGT (r = 0.158, p congruent to 0.4).

  2. The effect of sex, height and time of day on the excretion of glycosaminoglycans and the consequences.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, J H; Vaeth, M

    1982-02-01

    A diurnal rhythm in the excretion of glycosaminoglycan-derived uronic acid with an increased excretion during daytime has been found in adults. Due to this rhythm a 24-h excretion was established as the optimum measurement of glycosaminoglycan turnover in tissue. Neither the excretion of uronic acid nor the uronic acid/creatinine ratio in the morning urine could predict the 24-h excretion of glycosaminoglycans as estimated by a statistical model. This model may also be of general interest in similar clinical problems. Compared with males, females had a lower excretion of glycosaminoglycans. Part of this discrepancy reflected a sex-difference in height, which was shown to be positively correlated with the excretion. On the other hand, the uronic acid/creatinine ratio was not influenced by height or sex. Body mass, age and urine output did not influence the ratio or the excretion of uronic acid.

  3. 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion test

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium is in your diet Whether your kidneys work properly The condition being diagnosed Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor ...

  4. Optimized siRNA-PEG conjugates for extended blood circulation and reduced urine excretion in mice.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Frank; Yang, Chuanxu; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Schaffert, David H; Kjems, Jørgen; Gao, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Some of the main concerns with in vivo application of naked small interfering RNA are rapid degradation and urinary excretion resulting in a short plasma half-life. In this study we investigated how conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with variable chain length affects siRNA pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. The PEG chains were conjugated to chemically stabilized siRNA at the 5' terminal end of the passenger strand using click chemistry. The siRNA conjugate remained functionally active and showed significantly prolonged circulation in the blood stream after intravenous injection. siRNA conjugated with 20kDa PEG (PEG20k-siRNA) was most persistent, approximately 50% PEG20k-siRNA remained 1h post-injection, while the uncoupled siRNA was rapidly removed >90% at 15min. In vivo fluorescent imaging of the living animal showed increased concentration of siRNA in peripheral tissue and delayed urine excretion when coupled to PEG 20k. Biodistribution studies by northern blotting revealed equal distribution of conjugated siRNA in liver, kidney, spleen and lung without significant degradation 24 h post-injection. Our study demonstrates that PEG conjugated siRNA can be applied as a delivery system to improve siRNA bioavailability in vivo and may potentially increase the efficiency of siRNA in therapeutic applications.

  5. Adjustment of urinary concentration to urinary volume in relation to erythrocyte and plasma concentrations: an evaluation of urinary heavy metals and organic substances

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, S.; Aono, H.; Murata, K.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of urinary volume on adjusted and nonadjusted urinary excretion of 11 heavy metals and organic substances were examined in relation to plasma and erythrocyte concentrations in 19 metal workers under conditions of water restriction and loading. Blood lead concentrations in these workers ranged from 25 to 59 micrograms/dl. The results indicated that: urinary volume significantly affects not only nonadjusted urinary concentration for all substances, but also affects timed excretion and concentrations adjusted to urinary specific gravity and to urinary creatinine for most substances; the concentration adjusted to urinary volume is, on the other hand, independent of urinary volume; and urinary excretion of lead and mercury is related more closely to erythrocyte concentration than to plasma concentration. This last finding reflects complex renal excretory mechanisms for these heavy metals.

  6. Effects of chronic lithium administration on renal acid excretion in humans and rats

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, I. David; Leader, John P.; Bedford, Jennifer J.; Verlander, Jill W.; Ellis, Gaye; Kalita, Priyakshi; Vos, Frederiek; de Jong, Sylvia; Walker, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lithium therapy's most common side effects affecting the kidney are nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and chronic kidney disease. Lithium may also induce a distal renal tubular acidosis. This study investigated the effect of chronic lithium exposure on renal acid–base homeostasis, with emphasis on ammonia and citrate excretion. We compared 11 individuals on long‐term lithium therapy with six healthy individuals. Under basal conditions, lithium‐treated individuals excreted significantly more urinary ammonia than did control subjects. Following an acute acid load, urinary ammonia excretion increased approximately twofold above basal rates in both lithium‐treated and control humans. There were no significant differences between lithium‐treated and control subjects in urinary pH or urinary citrate excretion. To elucidate possible mechanisms, rats were randomized to diets containing lithium or regular diet for 6 months. Similar to humans, basal ammonia excretion was significantly higher in lithium‐treated rats; in addition, urinary citrate excretion was also significantly greater. There were no differences in urinary pH. Expression of the critical ammonia transporter, Rhesus C Glycoprotein (Rhcg), was substantially greater in lithium‐treated rats than in control rats. We conclude that chronic lithium exposure increases renal ammonia excretion through mechanisms independent of urinary pH and likely to involve increased collecting duct ammonia secretion via the ammonia transporter, Rhcg. PMID:25501430

  7. Urinary proteins in children with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Lena; Preda, Iulian; Hahn-Zoric, Mirjana; Hanson, Lars A; Jodal, Ulf; Sixt, Rune; Barregard, Lars; Hansson, Sverker

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that the urinary excretion of C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha 1-microglobulin (A1M), retinol-binding protein (RBP) and Clara cell protein (CC16) is increased in children with urinary tract infection (UTI) and relates to renal damage as measured by acute dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy. Fifty-two children <2 years of age with UTI were enrolled in the study, 44 of whom were febrile. The control group consisted of 23 patients with non-UTI infection and elevated serum CRP (s-CRP) levels. Thirty-six patients had abnormal DMSA uptake, classified as mild, moderate or severe damage (DMSA class 1, 2, 3, respectively). There was a significant association between DMSA class and the excretion of urinary RBP (u-RBP) and u-CC16. There was also a significant difference in u-CRP levels between children with UTI and control children with non-UTI infections, although u-CRP excretion was not significantly correlated to DMSA class. In conclusion, the urinary excretion of the low-molecular-weight proteins RBP and CC16 showed a strong association with uptake defects on renal DMSA scans. The urinary level of CRP seems to distinguish between children with UTI and other febrile conditions. A combination of these biomarkers may be useful in the clinical assessment of children with UTI.

  8. Enhancement of radiopharmaceutical excretion by chemical interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Brill, A.B.; Sacker, D.F.; Atkins, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    The goal was to find methods of decreasing the radiation dose after radionuclide studies, by giving a compound that will increase the rate of excretion of the radionuclide. Sprague - 1 Dawley rats were given Tc-99m pertechnetate, Ga-67 citrate or Tl-201 chloride intravenously followed at intervals of 1 to 24 hours by one of the following compounds: desferroxamine (DFO), 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol (BAL), triethylene tetraamine hexaacetic acid (TETHA), stannous tartarate, bleomycin (BLEO), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), DTPA+SnCl.2H/sub 2/O, dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), and ferric-cyanoferrate (IT)(Prussian blue, PB). All the agents except PB are chelators. Some of these agents enhance excretion through the urinary tract (DFO), while most are excreted through the bile. PB was shown to increase Cs excrection through the G.I. tract. (ACR)

  9. Effects of feeding and confinement on nitrogen metabolism and excretion in the gulf toadfish Opsanus beta

    PubMed

    Walsh; Milligan

    1995-01-01

    In order to elucidate further the cues for, and the biochemical mechanisms of, the transition to ureogenesis in the gulf toadfish Opsanus beta, experiments on the effects of feeding (i.e. nitrogen loading) were carried out. Baseline nitrogen excretion rates were first measured on solitary toadfish in large water volumes (i.e. unconfined conditions). These nitrogen excretion rates were higher, and had a higher proportion as ammonia (61 %), than previously published 'control' measurements. Feeding of unconfined toadfish elevated total nitrogen excretion approximately threefold, with little change in the proportion of urea versus ammonia. During the first 24 h of confinement of unfed toadfish, absolute levels of urea excretion remained constant while ammonia excretion rates fell to near zero, so that toadfish became 90 % ureotelic. When fed prior to confinement, urea excretion rates remained constant for the first 24 h, and the bulk of the nitrogen was excreted as ammonia (80 %); excretion of the excess dietary nitrogen took up to 48 h to complete. If pre-adapted to confinement and then fed, toadfish excreted only about 55 % of their nitrogenous waste as ammonia, and excretion of excess dietary nitrogen was completed by 24 h. Elevations of hepatic glutamine synthetase (GNS) activities accompanied confinement and were shown to be almost exclusively in the cytosolic compartment and to be correlated with a decrease in the ratio of hepatic levels of glutamate:glutamine. These GNS activity increases also appear to account in part for the decrease in the percentage of ammoniotely in toadfish under conditions of nitrogen loading after confinement. However, additional means of regulating total nitrogen excretion (e.g. changes in protein turnover rates) and the degree of ureogenesis versus ammoniogenesis (e.g. N-acetylglutamate stimulation of carbamoylphosphate synthetase) must be postulated to account fully for changes in nitrogen excretion rates and activation of ureogenesis

  10. Catecholamine excretion and circadian blood pressure profile in patients with pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, Elzbieta; Lewandowski, Jacek; Jedrusik, Piotr; Symonides, Bartosz; Wocial, Bozena; Lapinski, Mariusz; Gaciong, Zbigniew

    2006-08-01

    Circadian blood pressure (BP) rhythm is often disturbed in patients with secondary forms of hypertension. The aim of the present article was to investigate changes in circadian BP profile parameters using two-step statistical approach by Fourier analysis in relation to day and night urinary catecholamine excretion in 35 patients with pheochromocytoma (mean age 42+/-19 years). Twenty-four-hour ambulatory BP measurements (ABPM) were obtained using the SpaceLabs 90,207 monitor. Daytime and night-time urine collection was obtained in all patients to determine circadian catecholamine excretion. Fourier analysis was applied to estimate measures of BP circadian rhythm in ABPM, including the highest (Max) and lowest (Min) systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP values, norad (ampSBP, ampDBP), and early acrophase (APSBP, APDBP). The Fourier indices of circadian BP rhythm were: MaxSBP 153+/-28 mm Hg, MaxDBP 99+/-16 mm Hg, MinSBP 117+/-17 mm Hg, MinDBP 69+/-11 mm Hg, ampSBP 18+/-8 mm Hg, ampDBP 14+/-5 mm Hg, APSBP 10+/-5 (h), and APDBP 11+/-3 (h). Urine noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A), and dopamine (DA) excretion during the day (d) and night (n) were: dNA 103.5+/-89.8 microg/14 h, nNA 52+/-70.8 microg/10 h, dA 13.2+/-17.9 microg/14 h; nA 6.13+/-9.6 microg/10 h, dD 181.8+/-87.3 microg/14 h, and nD 89.3+/-59.8 microg/10 h. A positive correlation was observed between urine dNa excretion and MaxDBP (r=0.37, P<0.05), and urine nNA and urine dA excretion were correlated with APDBP (r=0.47, r=0.35, respectively, both P<0.05). Thus, in addition to the effect on mean 24-h BP values, catecholamines released by tumor may also disturb circadian BP rhythm in patients with pheochromocytoma.

  11. Pharmacokinetics, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of Omadacycline following a Single Intravenous or Oral Dose of 14C-Omadacycline in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen; Flarakos, Jimmy; Du, Yancy; Hu, Wenyu; He, Handan; Mangold, James; Tanaka, S. Ken

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of omadacycline, a first-in-class aminomethylcycline antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, anaerobic, and atypical bacteria, were evaluated in rats. Tissue distribution was investigated by quantitative whole-body autoradiography in male Long-Evans Hooded (LEH) rats. Following an intravenous (i.v.) dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight, radioactivity widely and rapidly distributed into most tissues. The highest tissue-to-blood concentration ratios (t/b) were observed in bone mineral, thyroid gland, and Harderian gland at 24 h post-i.v. dose. There was no evidence of stable accumulation in uveal tract tissue, suggesting the absence of a stable binding interaction with melanin. Following a 90 mg/kg oral dose in LEH rats, the highest t/b were observed in bone mineral, Harderian gland, liver, spleen, and salivary gland. The plasma protein binding levels were 26% in the rat and 15% to 21% in other species. Omadacycline plasma clearance was 1.2 liters/h/kg, and its half-life was 4.6 h; the steady-state volume of distribution (Vss) was 6.89 liters/kg. Major circulating components in plasma were intact omadacycline and its epimer. Consistent with observations in human, approximately 80% of the dose was excreted into the feces as unchanged omadacycline after i.v. administration. Fecal excretion was primarily the result of biliary excretion (∼40%) and direct gastrointestinal secretion (∼30%). However, urinary excretion (∼30%) was equally prominent after i.v. dosing. PMID:27821446

  12. Study on the stereoselective excretion of tetrahydropalmatine enantiomers in rats and identification of in vivo metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhanying; Wen, Jun; Zhang, Quanlong; Fan, Guorong; Chai, Yifeng; Wu, Yutian

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this work was to study the stereoselectivity in excretion of tetrahydropalmatine (THP) enantiomers by rats and identify the metabolites of racemic THP (rac-THP) in rat urine. Urine and bile samples were collected at various time intervals after a single oral dose of rac-THP. The concentrations of THP enantiomers in rat urine and bile were determined using a modification of an achiral-chiral high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method that had been previously published. The cumulative urinary excretion over 96 h of (-)-THP and (+)-THP was found to be 55.49 +/- 36.9 microg and 18.33 +/- 9.7 microg, respectively. The cumulative biliary excretion over 24 h of (-)-THP and (+)-THP was 19.19 +/- 14.6 microg and 12.53 +/- 10.4 microg, respectively. The enantiomeric (-/+) concentration ratios of THP changed from 2.80 to 5.15 in urine, and from 1.36 to 1.80 in bile. The mean cumulative amount of (-)-THP was significantly higher than that of (+)-THP both in urine and bile samples. However, the enantiomeric (-/+) concentration ratios in rat urine and bile were significantly lower than those ratios in rat plasma. These findings suggested the excretion of THP enantiomers was stereoselective rather than a reflection of chiral pharmacokinetic aspects in plasma and (-)-THP was preferentially excreted in rat urine and bile. Three O-demethylation metabolites and the parent drug rac-THP were detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in rat urine. One metabolite was obtained by preparative HPLC and identified as 10-O-demethyl-THP.

  13. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    SciTech Connect

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2011-05-15

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  14. [Effect of electroacupuncture on the urine flow, sodium excretion and potassium excretion in the conscious dog].

    PubMed

    Lin, M Z; Wei, Z Y

    1989-01-01

    Unanesthetized dogs with chronic ureteral and gastric fistulae were infused with 0.8% NaCl solution into the stomach at a constant rate for maintaining a state of saline loading. In these animals, there was a steady renal excretion of water, sodium and potassium. However, after a 20-minute unilateral electroacupuncture of the points corresponding to "Sanyinjao" and "Zhaohai" in human leg as described in Traditional Chinese Medicine caused a marked increase in urine flow and urinary sodium excretion, but had no significant effect on urinary potassium excretion. In another group of normal unanesthetized dogs (without saline loading), the effect of electroacupuncture mentioned above no longer appeared. Owing to the facts that electroacupuncture merely increased the water and sodium excretion of kidneys in saline-loading unanesthetized dogs, and had no effect in normal unanesthetized dogs, it is concluded that the effects of electroacupuncture on the urine flow and sodium excretion in saline-loading unanesthetized dogs is an action of normalization by acupuncture.

  15. Dynamics of renal electrolyte excretion in growing mice.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Katharina; Ripper, Maria; Tegtmeier, Ines; Humberg, Evelyn; Sterner, Christina; Reichold, Markus; Warth, Richard; Bandulik, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified mice represent important models for elucidating renal pathophysiology, but gene deletions frequently cause severe failure to thrive. In such cases, the analysis of the phenotype is often limited to the first weeks of life when renal excretory function undergoes dramatic physiological changes. Here, we investigated the postnatal dynamics of urinary ion excretion in mice. The profiles of urinary electrolyte excretion of mice were examined from birth until after weaning using an automated ion chromatography system. Postnatally, mice grew about 0.4 g/day, except during two phases with slower weight gain: (i) directly after birth during adaptation to extrauterine conditions (P0-P2) and (ii) during the weaning period (P15-P21), when nutrition changed from mother's milk to solid chow and water. During the first 3 days after birth, remarkable changes in urinary Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and phosphate concentrations occurred, whereas K(+) and Cl(-) concentrations hardly changed. From days 4-14 after birth, Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), and Cl(-) concentrations remained relatively stable at low levels. Urinary concentrations of creatinine, NH4(+), phosphate, and sulfate constantly increased from birth until after weaning. Profiles of salt excretion in KCNJ10(-/-) mice exemplified the relevance of age-dependent analysis of urinary excretion. In conclusion, the most critical phases for analysis of renal ion excretion during the first weeks of life are directly after birth and during the weaning period. The age dependence of urinary excretion varies for the different ions. This should be taken into consideration when the renal phenotype of mice is investigated during the first weeks of life.

  16. Urinary β-trace protein

    PubMed Central

    Donadio, Carlo; Bozzoli, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The screening for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients needs the measurement of serum markers like creatinine. Our previous results indicated that urinary excretion of β-trace protein (BTP), a low-molecular-weight protein (23–29 kDa), is increased in CKD patients from stage 2. The aim of this study was to assess the major determinants of urinary excretion of BTP and to evaluate its feasibility as noninvasive marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) impairment. We studied 355 CKD patients (198 males), aged 15 to 83 years, in stable clinical conditions, classified in the different stages of CKD on the basis of GFR (renal clearance of 99mTc-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid). At the same time, we measured serum and urinary creatinine and BTP, and urinary albumin. Urinary excretion of BTP and albumin was expressed as mg/g urinary creatinine. Fractional clearance of BTP was calculated as the ratio of BTP clearance to creatinine clearance (%). Urinary excretion of BTP is mainly determined by its serum concentration and by the level of GFR, and to a lower extent by urinary albumin excretion. In fact, urinary BTP (U-BTP) and fractional clearance of BTP progressively and significantly increased along with the reduction of GFR and the concurrent rise in serum BTP (S-BTP). The relationship of U-BTP with GFR was very similar to that of S-BTP with GFR: U-BTP mirrors S-BTP. The accuracy of U-BTP to screen patients with GFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2 was good (area under the curve 0.833), its sensitivity was 76.9%, specificity 80%, and positive predictive value 84.9%. Sensitivity of U-BTP was quite similar to that of S-BTP and serum creatinine. The major determinants of urinary excretion of BTP are S-BTP and GFR. U-BTP may be a suitable noninvasive marker to screen the general population for detection of GFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2. PMID:27930558

  17. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creati...

  18. Urinary potassium is a clinically useful test to detect a poor quality diet.

    PubMed

    Mente, Andrew; Irvine, E Jan; Honey, R John D'A; Logan, Alexander G

    2009-04-01

    Poor eating habits, a strong predictor of health outcomes, are not objectively assessed in routine clinical practice. In this study, we evaluated the use of urinary potassium (K(+)) as a means to identify people consuming a poor quality diet. Consecutive patients with kidney stones (n = 220), aged 18-50 y, from a population-based lithotripsy unit, collected a single 24-h urine sample to assess urinary K(+). They also completed a FFQ to derive the recommended foods score (RFS), an index of overall diet quality, and had their blood pressure, heart rate, weight, and height measured. Urinary K(+) was related positively with the intake of recommended food items, including vegetables, fruit, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, fish and poultry, and wine and negatively to those not recommended by current dietary guidelines, including red meat, fast food, and high-energy drinks. Urinary K(+) was also correlated with the RFS (r = 0.226; P < 0.001). Using a receiver operating characteristic curve, K(+) excretion values below the gender-specific median (men, 60 mmol/d; women, 41 mmol/d) were identified as the optimal cutoff values for a poor quality diet, indicated by the RFS. Higher urinary K(+) was inversely related to adjusted BMI (P-trend = 0.03), diastolic blood pressure (P-trend = 0.04) and heart rate (P-trend = 0.006), after controlling for potential confounders. Urinary K(+) provides a summary measure of diet quality, is significantly related to BMI, blood pressure, and heart rate, and may be useful clinically to detect poor dietary habits and monitor response to dietary interventions.

  19. Episodic hypoglycemia with psi-hydroxy fatty acid excretion.

    PubMed

    Colle, E; Mamer, O A; Montgomery, J A; Miller, J D

    1983-02-01

    We present case histories of two young children with episodes of hypoglycemia, elevation of SGOT, low insulin levels, increased urinary excretion of psi-hydroxy fatty acids (5-hydroxyhexanoic, 7-hydroxyoctanoic and 9-hydroxydecanoic), traces of the corresponding psi-ketoacids and elevations of urinary adipic, suberic, and sebacic acids. The ratio of psi-hydroxy fatty acids to 3-hydroxybutyric in the urine of these patients is higher than in patients of similar ages with similar illnesses. These acids persisted while the patients were well. Increased urinary psi-hydroxy fatty acids could be reproduced by a load of medium chain triglycerides without precipitating other clinical symptoms. Three children with hypoglycemia were found not to excrete measurable amounts of these unusual acids while ill. A medium chain triglyceride load in one of these children after recovery failed to elicit psi-hydroxy acid excretion. Small amounts of urinary 5-hydroxyhexanoic acid only were found in two patients with acute Reye's syndrome and in three of five severely ill children with starvation ketonuria. In this last group, no urinary psi-hydroxyacids could be detected after recovery. Normal children do not excrete measurable amounts (less than 1 mg/g creatinine) of these psi-hydroxyacids.

  20. Urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite contents as nutritional markers for evaluating vitamin intakes in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2008-06-01

    Little information is available to estimate water-soluble vitamin intakes from urinary vitamins and their metabolite contents as possible nutritional markers. Determination of the relationships between the oral dose and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in human subjects contributes to finding valid nutrition markers of water-soluble vitamin intakes. Six female Japanese college students were given a standard Japanese diet in the first week, the same diet with a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture as a diet with approximately onefold vitamin mixture based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese in the second week, with a threefold vitamin mixture in the third week, and a sixfold mixture in the fourth week. Water-soluble vitamins and their metabolites were measured in the 24-h urine collected each week. All urinary vitamins and their metabolite levels except vitamin B(12) increased linearly in a dose-dependent manner, and highly correlated with vitamin intake (r=0.959 for vitamin B(1), r=0.927 for vitamin B(2), r=0.965 for vitamin B(6), r=0.957 for niacin, r=0.934 for pantothenic acid, r=0.907 for folic acid, r=0.962 for biotin, and r=0.952 for vitamin C). These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite levels can be used as good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes.

  1. Determination of urinary aromatic amines in smokers and nonsmokers using a MIPs-SPE coupled with LC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingjing; Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Ge; Wang, Bing; Ding, Li; Zhang, Xiaobing; Xie, Jianping; Xie, Fuwei

    2014-05-01

    Urinary aromatic amines (AAs) could be used as biomarkers for human exposure to AAs in cigarette smoke. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of urinary AAs (i.e. 1-naphthylamine (1-NA), 2-naphthylamine (2-NA), 3-aminobiphenyl (3-ABP) and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP)) in smokers and nonsmokers. A molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge was applied to purify urine samples and no derivatization reaction was involved. Each analytes used respective stable isotope internal standards, which could well compensate matrix effect. Lower limit of detections (LODs) for four AAs were obtained and in the range of 1.5-5ngL(-1). Recovery ranged from 87.7±4.5% to 111.3±6.4% and precision were less than 9.9%. The method was applied to analyze urine samples of 40 smokers and 10 nonsmokers. The 24h urinary excretion amounts of total AAs were higher for smokers compared with nonsmokers. What's more, 1-NA, 3-ABP and 4-ABP excretion amounts showed significant differences (p<0.05) between smokers and nonsmokers.

  2. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... It may begin around the time of menopause. Urgency urinary incontinence happens when people have a sudden need ... urinary incontinence is a mix of stress and urgency urinary incontinence. You may leak urine with a laugh ...

  3. Correlation between sodium and potassium excretion in 24- and 12-h urine samples.

    PubMed

    Mill, J G; Silva, A B T da; Baldo, M P; Molina, M C B; Rodrigues, S L

    2012-09-01

    Low-sodium and high-potassium diets have been recommended as an adjunct to prevention and treatment of hypertension. Analysis of these nutrients in 24-h urine has been considered the reference method to estimate daily intake of these minerals. However, 24-h urine collection is difficult in epidemiological studies, since urine must be collected and stored in job environments. Therefore, strategies for shorter durations of urine collection at home have been proposed. We have previously reported that collecting urine during a 12-h period (overnight) is more feasible and that creatinine clearance correlated strongly with that detected in 24-h samples. In the present study, we collected urine for 24 h divided into two 12-h periods (from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm and from 7:00 pm to 7:00 am next day). A sample of 109 apparently healthy volunteers aged 30 to 74 years of both genders working in a University institution was investigated. Subjects with previous myocardial infarction, stroke, renal insufficiency, and pregnant women were not included. Significant (P < 0.001) Spearman correlation coefficients (r s) were found between the total amount of sodium and potassium excreted in the urine collected at night and in the 24-h period (r s = 0.76 and 0.74, respectively). Additionally, the 12-h sodium and potassium excretions (means ± SD, 95% confidence interval) corresponded to 47.3 ± 11.2%, 95%CI = 45.3-49.3, and 39.3 ± 4.6%, 95%CI = 37.3-41.3, respectively, of the 24-h excretion of these ions. Therefore, these findings support the assumption that 12-h urine collected at night can be used as a reliable tool to estimate 24-h intake/excretion of sodium and potassium.

  4. [Contribution to the problem of preventing recurrences of oxalate and phosphate urinary caluli: active modification of citrate excretion and Ca++-binding capacity in the urine of Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Leskovar, P; Hropot, M; Wellnhofer, E; Scherm, D; Schade, K L

    1982-03-01

    Citric acid may well be, quantitatively and in terms of complex chemistry, the most important of the organic acids capable of binding Ca++ in urine. Since the quantitative determination of citrates in urine became a routine method in many research-orientated urological laboratories thanks to the introduction of standardized enzymatic tests, reports of a reduced excretion of citrates in patients with (recurrent) (oxalate) calculi have become frequent. During our long-term study of patients with recurrent formation of calculi we also observed a clear deficit of citrates in their morning, midday and evening urine. The conspicuous incidence of calculi when there is a concurrence of hypocitraturia and alkaline urine (RTA, in animal experiments: acetazolamide) clearly suggests the lithoprotective significance of citric acid. By quantitatively testing a large number of organic compounds which are interesting both structurally and in terms of complex chemistry, it has been possible to find some substances which restrict crystallization, raise the level of citrates and bind Ca++. A few have also found to restrict the excretion of oxalate in Wistar rats.

  5. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11–24 Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N. S.; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J.; Foster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11–24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11–24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults. PMID:27294952

  6. Comparison of INTAKE24 (an Online 24-h Dietary Recall Tool) with Interviewer-Led 24-h Recall in 11-24 Year-Old.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Jennifer; Simpson, Emma; Poliakov, Ivan; Matthews, John N S; Olivier, Patrick; Adamson, Ashley J; Foster, Emma

    2016-06-09

    Online dietary assessment tools offer a convenient, low cost alternative to traditional dietary assessment methods such as weighed records and face-to-face interviewer-led 24-h recalls. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24-h recall tool developed for use with 11-24 year-old. The aim of the study was to undertake a comparison of INTAKE24 (the test method) with interviewer-led multiple pass 24-h recalls (the comparison method) in 180 people aged 11-24 years. Each participant completed both an INTAKE24 24-h recall and an interviewer-led 24-h recall on the same day on four occasions over a one-month period. The daily energy and nutrient intakes reported in INTAKE24 were compared to those reported in the interviewer-led recall. Mean intakes reported using INTAKE24 were similar to the intakes reported in the interviewer-led recall for energy and macronutrients. INTAKE24 was found to underestimate energy intake by 1% on average compared to the interviewer-led recall with the limits of agreement ranging from minus 49% to plus 93%. Mean intakes of all macronutrients and micronutrients (except non-milk extrinsic sugars) were within 4% of the interviewer-led recall. Dietary assessment that utilises technology may offer a viable alternative and be more engaging than paper based methods, particularly for children and young adults.

  7. Renal excretion in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after acute exposure to 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, J.B.; Allen, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    COHO SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS KISUTCH) EXPOSED TO AN ACUTE, SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATION OF 3-TRIFLUOROMETHLY 1-4 NITROPHENOL (TFM) EXHIBITED AN INCREASED OUTPUT OF URINE WHEN COMPARED WITH CONTROLS, BUT THE URINARY EXCRETION OF NA, K, CA, MG AND C1 WAS NOT AFFECTED. ABOUT 35 TIMES MORE CONJUGATED TFM THAN FREE TFM WAS EXCRETED DURING THE 24-HOUR STUDY PERIOD.

  8. Quantitative UPLC-MS/MS assay of urinary 2,8-dihydroxyadenine for diagnosis and management of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Thorsteinsdottir, Margret; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A; Eiriksson, Finnur F; Runolfsdottir, Hrafnhildur L; Agustsdottir, Inger M Sch; Oddsdottir, Steinunn; Sigurdsson, Baldur B; Hardarson, Hordur K; Kamble, Nilesh R; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th; Edvardsson, Vidar O; Palsson, Runolfur

    2016-11-15

    Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder that leads to excessive urinary excretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA), causing nephrolithiasis and chronic kidney disease. Treatment with allopurinol or febuxostat reduces DHA production and attenuates the renal manifestations. Assessment of DHA crystalluria by urine microscopy is used for therapeutic monitoring, but lacks sensitivity. We report a high-throughput assay based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for quantification of urinary DHA. The UPLC-MS/MS assay was optimized by a chemometric approach for absolute quantification of DHA, utilizing isotopically labeled DHA as an internal standard. Experimental screening was conducted with D-optimal design and optimization of the DHA response was performed with central composite face design and related to the peak area of DHA using partial least square regression. Acceptable precision and accuracy of the DHA concentration were obtained over a calibration range of 100 to 5000ng/mL on three different days. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision coefficients of variation were well within ±15% for quality control samples analyzed in replicates of six at three concentration levels. Absolute quantification of DHA in urine samples from patients with APRT deficiency was achieved wihtin 6.5min. Measurement of DHA in 24h urine samples from three patients with APRT deficiency, diluted 1:15 (v/v) with 10mM ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), yielded a concentration of 3021, 5860 and 10563ng/mL and 24h excretion of 816, 1327 and 1649mg, respectively. A rapid and robust UPLC-MS/MS assay for absolute quantification of DHA in urine was successfully developed. We believe this method will greatly facilitate diagnosis and management of patients with APRT deficiency.

  9. Excretion of technetium 99m hexakismethoxyisobutylisonitrile in milk.

    PubMed

    Rubow, S M; Ellmann, A; le Roux, J; Klopper, J

    1991-01-01

    The amount of radioactivity excreted in breast milk following the administration of technetium 99m hexakismethoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) to a patient referred for cold spot myocardial scintigraphy was determined. During the first 24 h after administration, only 41.2 kBq 99mTc (0.0084% of the injected dose) was excreted in 448 ml milk with the highest concentration of 0.49 kBq/ml in the first sample. The images obtained show a high concentration of 99mTc-MIBI in the lactating breasts contrary to the very small percentage excreted in the milk. Comparison with various recommendations regarding nursing after administration of radiopharmaceuticals seems to indicate that the administration of 99mTc-MIBI does not necessitate an interruption of breast-feeding.

  10. Regulation of urinary thromboxane B2 in man: influence of urinary flow rate and tubular transport

    SciTech Connect

    Zipser, R.D.; Smorlesi, C.

    1984-02-01

    Thromboxane B2 (TxB) is excreted in human urine, but the mechanism of renal excretion and the quantitative relationship of urinary TxB to the active parent compound, thromboxane A2, of renal or extrarenal origin is not established. To determine the effects of vasoactive hormones, uricosuric agents and urinary flow rate on TxB excretion, urinary TxB was measured by radioimmunoassay and mass spectrometry, and renal metabolism of blood TxB was determined by radiochromatography of urine after i.v. (3H)-TxB infusions. Basal TxB was 6.7 +/- 1.1 ng/h during an oral water load, and TxB fell with s.g. antidiuretic hormone (to 3.4 +/- 0.4 ng/h, P less than 0.01) and with fluid restriction (to 2.6 +/- 0.5 ng/hr, P . 0.001) in parallel with urinary volume. Urinary excretion of unmetabolized (3H)-TxB also fell (by 56%) with fluid restriction, implicating altered metabolism rather than synthesis as the mechanism of the urinary flow effect. Angiotensin II infusions slightly reduced both TxB and urine volume, consistent with a flow effect. In contrast, probenecid did not alter urine volume, but increased urinary uric acid (by 244%), TxB (from 5.6 +/- 0.9 to 11.1 +/- 2.9 ng/h) and urinary excretion of blood (3H)-TxB (by 243%) by similar amounts (all P less than 0.05), suggesting that TxB is actively reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, similarly to uric acid. Thus, urinary excretion of TxB of renal and extrarenal origin is regulated by proximal and distal tubule factors.

  11. The 24 h blood pressure-R-R interval relation in ambulatory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Recordati, Giorgio; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2008-05-30

    The present study was aimed at investigating whether the blood pressure-R-R interval relation obtained by ABPM may give useful information about autonomic control in the 24 h period. To this purpose ABPM was performed in 60 healthy young subjects (30 females and 30 males, mean age 21.8+/-1.0 years) and the collected variables were copied to a software program to convert heart rate into R-R interval values, for statistical analysis and graphic representation. The following data were calculated: 1) day and night means+/-SD; 2) difference and percent difference in mean night less mean day R-R interval (Delta y), diastolic and systolic blood pressures (Delta x) and their Delta y/Delta x ratios; 3) intercept (a_24 h), slope (b_24 h) and r coefficient (r_24 h) of the linear regressions of 24 h R-R interval over diastolic and systolic blood pressure values. In all subjects night, with respect to day, was characterized by R-R interval lengthening and blood pressure lowering. Despite this common pattern, day and night means and SDs, night and day differences, Delta y/Delta x ratios, a_24 h and b_24 h were different from individual to individual, but they were characteristic and reproducible in 20 out of the 21 subjects in which ABPM was repeated twice. Subjects could thus be classified according to their Delta y/Delta x ratios and slope (b_24 h). The 24 h blood pressure-R-R interval relation as calculated from ABPM yields individually characteristic indices of circadian sympatho-vagal reciprocity. This novel approach may be helpful in characterizing the 24 h autonomic control of several groups of patients.

  12. Quantitative analysis of urinary glycine conjugates by high performance liquid chromatography: excretion of hippuric acid and methylhippuric acids in the urine of subjects exposed to vapours of toluene and xylenes.

    PubMed

    Ogata, M; Taguchi, T

    1986-01-01

    A new method for the direct determination of hippuric acid (HA) and o-, m- and p-methylhippuric acids (MHAs) in the urine, metabolites of toluene and o-, m- and p-xylenes by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is described. A stainless-steel column packed with silica gel having dinitrophenyl residue and a mixed solution of methanol/water/acetic acid (80/20/0.2) containing tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (0.2% w/v) as mobile phase was used. Concentrations of HA and MHAs were estimated from their peak height at a wave length of 225 nm. Urine can be analyzed directly without solvent extraction or pretreatment to obtain complete separation of HA and o-, m- and p-MHAs. Urine samples from male workers exposed to toluene or xylenes were analyzed for HA or MHAs. The urinary levels of HA and MHAs increased by exposure to toluene and xylenes in proportion to the environmental concentrations of the solvents, although there is a considerable variation in metabolite concentrations. The slope of regression line between toluene and HA and that between m-xylene and m-MHA were similar. The urinary concentrations of HA and MHAs corresponding to 100 ppm (TLV) of toluene was 2.35 g/g creatinine and that of m-MHA corresponding to 100 ppm (TLV) of m-xylene was 2.05 g/g creatinine. The warning levels of the urinary metabolite concentrations of a group of workers and that of an individual worker corresponding to TLV of organic solvent concentration is discussed.

  13. Lorry drivers' work stress evaluated by catecholamines excreted in urine.

    PubMed Central

    van der Beek, A J; Meijman, T F; Frings-Dresen, M H; Kuiper, J I; Kuiper, S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. METHODS--The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline of 32 lorry drivers, who also had loading and unloading activities to perform, was studied for one working day and one rest day. Each driver was asked to provide six urine samples on both days. RESULTS--For all samples, except the first (overnight) sample, the excretion rates of both catecholamines on the working day were higher than those on the rest day. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were carried out to find out which factors in the drivers' working situation were related to the excretion rate of the working day. The excretion rate of adrenaline on the rest day, age, and psychosomatic complaints were positively related to the excretion rate on the working day (all P < 0.05). Body mass index and physical workload during loading and unloading were positively related to noradrenaline excretion rate (both P < 0.01). Psychosocial job strain did not significantly contribute to the proportion of variance explained in the excretion rates of both catecholamines. CONCLUSIONS--The excretion rates of adrenaline and, especially, noradrenaline on the working day were higher than those found in earlier studies among professional drivers and insufficient recovery took place after the work was ended. The only association between excretion rate on the working day and work stressors was found for noradrenaline and physical workload. The drivers' sympathoadrenal medullary reactivity to everyday work demands shows the characteristics of sustained activation. PMID:7670621

  14. In vivo absorption, metabolism, and urinary excretion of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes in experimental animals. Relevance to the development of cardiovascular diseases by the dietary ingestion of thermally stressed polyunsaturate-rich culinary oils.

    PubMed Central

    Grootveld, M; Atherton, M D; Sheerin, A N; Hawkes, J; Blake, D R; Richens, T E; Silwood, C J; Lynch, E; Claxson, A W

    1998-01-01

    Thermal stressing of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)- rich culinary oils according to routine frying or cooking practices generates high levels of cytotoxic aldehydic products (predominantly trans-2-alkenals, trans,trans-alka-2,4-dienals, cis,trans-alka-2, 4-dienals, and n-alkanals), species arising from the fragmentation of conjugated hydroperoxydiene precursors. In this investigation we demonstrate that typical trans-2-alkenal compounds known to be produced from the thermally induced autoxidation of PUFAs are readily absorbed from the gut into the systemic circulation in vivo, metabolized (primarily via the addition of glutathione across their electrophilic carbon-carbon double bonds), and excreted in the urine as C-3 mercapturate conjugates in rats. Since such aldehydic products are damaging to human health, the results obtained from our investigations indicate that the dietary ingestion of thermally, autoxidatively stressed PUFA-rich culinary oils promotes the induction, development, and progression of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:9502761

  15. At-sea trial of 24-h-based submarine watchstanding schedules with high and low correlated color temperature light sources.

    PubMed

    Young, Colin R; Jones, Geoffrey E; Figueiro, Mariana G; Soutière, Shawn E; Keller, Matthew W; Richardson, Annely M; Lehmann, Benjamin J; Rea, Mark S

    2015-04-01

    United States Navy submariners have historically lived with circadian disruption while at sea due to 18-h-based watchschedules. Previous research demonstrated that circadian entrainment improved with 24-h-based watchschedules. Twenty-nine male crew members participated in the study, which took place on an actual submarine patrol. The crew were exposed, first, to experimental high correlated color temperature (CCT = 13,500 K) fluorescent light sources and then to standard-issue fluorescent light sources (CCT = 4100 K). A variety of outcome measures were employed to determine if higher levels of circadian-effective light during on-watch times would further promote behavioral alignment to 24-h-based watchschedules. The high CCT light source produced significantly higher circadian light exposures than the low CCT light source, which was associated with significantly greater 24-h behavioral alignment with work schedules using phasor analysis, greater levels of sleep efficiency measured with wrist actigraphy, lower levels of subjective sleepiness measured with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, and higher nighttime melatonin concentrations measured by morning urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin/creatinine ratios. Unlike these diverse outcome measures, performance scores were significantly worse under the high CCT light source than under the low CCT light source, due to practice effects. As hypothesized, with the exception of the performance scores, all of the data converge to suggest that high CCT light sources, combined with 24-h watchschedules, promote better behavioral alignment with work schedules and greater sleep quality on submarines. Since the order and the type of light sources were confounded in this field study, the results should only be considered as consistent with our theoretical understanding of how regular, 24-h light-dark exposures combined with high circadian light exposures can promote greater behavioral alignment with work schedules and with sleep.

  16. Pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid excretion in urine: diagnostic and prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Kvist, E; Sjølin, K E

    1990-01-01

    The sex- and age-related urinary excretion of pseudouridine/creatinine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid/creatinine was studied in 77 healthy subjects (24 children and 53 adults, 27 of whom were women). The highest values were found in the youngest children. We compared the excretion ratios of pseudouridine/creatinine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid/creatinine in women and men and found no significant differences between them. The excretion patterns may be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with urinary tract tumours and in predicting patients at risk of recurrences.

  17. [Clinical study of 38 cases of pheochromocytoma --correlation between the instability of intraoperative blood pressure and 24-hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid].

    PubMed

    Onuki, Tatsuaki; Yamagishi, Takuya; Teranishi, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Koutaro; Kondo, Keiichi; Nakaigawa, Noboru; Saito, Kazuo; Noguchi, Kazumi; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2007-07-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of chromaffin tissues most commonly arising from the adrenal medulla. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 38 patients with pheochromocytoma who underwent surgical treatment between 1977 and 2004 at our Yokohama City University Medical Center and Yokohama City University Hospital. Twenty two patients (57.9%) were females and 16 (42.1%) were males. The most frequent symptoms were headache (58%). One patient had bilateral adrenal tumors and pathological examination revealed malignant pheochromocytoma. Six patients had an extra-adrenal tumor and in 2 patients the tumor occurred in the urinary bladder. Twelve patients (31.6%) had sustained hypertension, 21 patients (55.3%) had paroxysmal hypertension and 5 patients (13.1%) remained normotensive. The 24-h urinary total metanephrines and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) were the most sensitive biochemical tests for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. The sensitivity of urinary total metanephrines was 92.0% for all the patients and was 92.3% for the patients without paroxysmal hypertension. Fifteen patients had intraoperative hypertensive reactions in the surgical manipulation or hypotension after tumor resection. This group had more urinary excretion of VMA before surgery, compared with that with stable intraoperative blood pressure (p < 0.005).

  18. Controlled exercise effects on chromium excretion of trained and untrained runners consuming a constant diet

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.A.; Bryden, N.A.; Polansky, M.M.; Deuster, P.A.

    1986-03-05

    To determine if degree of training effects urinary Cr losses, Cr excretion of 8 adult trained and 5 untrained runners was determined on rest days and following exercise at 90% of maximal oxygen uptake on a treadmill to exhaustion with 30 second exercise and 30 second rest periods. Subjects were fed a constant daily diet containing 9 ..mu..g of Cr per 1000 calories to minimize changes due to diet. Maximal oxygen consumption of the trained runners was in the good or above range based upon their age and that of the untrained runners was average or below. While consuming the control diet, basal urinary Cr excretion of subjects who exercise regularly was significantly lower than that of the sedentary control subjects, 0.09 +/- 0.01 and 0.21 +/- 0.03 ..mu..g/day (mean +/- SEM), respectively. Daily urinary Cr excretion of trained subjects was significantly higher on the day of a single exercise bout at 90% of maximal oxygen consumption compared to nonexercise days, 0.12 +/- 0.02 and 0.09 +/- 0.01 ..mu..g/day, respectively. Urinary Cr excretion of 5 untrained subjects was not altered following controlled exercise. These data demonstrate that basal urinary Cr excretion and excretion in response to exercise are related to maximal oxygen consumption and therefore degree of fitness.

  19. Maxi-K channels contribute to urinary potassium excretion in the ROMK-deficient mouse model of Type II Bartter's syndrome and in adaptation to a high-K diet.

    PubMed

    Bailey, M A; Cantone, A; Yan, Q; MacGregor, G G; Leng, Q; Amorim, J B O; Wang, T; Hebert, S C; Giebisch, G; Malnic, G

    2006-07-01

    Type II Bartter's syndrome is a hereditary hypokalemic renal salt-wasting disorder caused by mutations in the ROMK channel (Kir1.1; Kcnj1), mediating potassium recycling in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL) and potassium secretion in the distal tubule and cortical collecting duct (CCT). Newborns with Type II Bartter are transiently hyperkalemic, consistent with loss of ROMK channel function in potassium secretion in distal convoluted tubule and CCT. Yet, these infants rapidly develop persistent hypokalemia owing to increased renal potassium excretion mediated by unknown mechanisms. Here, we used free-flow micropuncture and stationary microperfusion of the late distal tubule to explore the mechanism of renal potassium wasting in the Romk-deficient, Type II Bartter's mouse. We show that potassium absorption in the loop of Henle is reduced in Romk-deficient mice and can account for a significant fraction of renal potassium loss. In addition, we show that iberiotoxin (IBTX)-sensitive, flow-stimulated maxi-K channels account for sustained potassium secretion in the late distal tubule, despite loss of ROMK function. IBTX-sensitive potassium secretion is also increased in high-potassium-adapted wild-type mice. Thus, renal potassium wasting in Type II Bartter is due to both reduced reabsorption in the TAL and K secretion by max-K channels in the late distal tubule.

  20. Urinary iron loss in the nephrotic syndrome--an unusual cause of iron deficiency with a note on urinary copper losses.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, E. A.; Sampson, B.; Muller, B. R.; Curtis, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Two patients with long-standing nephrotic syndrome are described in whom urinary iron losses may have contributed towards an iron deficiency state. Seven other nephrotic patients were also studied. Increased urinary iron excretion was found in six out of nine patients and increased urinary copper excretion in all eight patients in whom it was measured. Trace metal losses in the urine in nephrotics may be important clinically. PMID:6709543

  1. Automated measurement of urinary creatinine by multichannel kinetic spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Kirk, Andrea B; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2009-01-15

    Urinary creatinine analysis is required for clinical diagnosis, especially for evaluation of renal function. Creatinine adjustment is also widely used to estimate 24-h excretion from spot samples. Few convenient validated approaches are available for in-house creatinine measurement for small- to medium-scale studies. Here we apply the Jáffe reaction to creatinine determination with zone fluidic multichannel kinetic spectrophotometry. Diluted urine sample and reagent, alkaline picric acid, were mixed by a computer-programmed dispenser and rapidly delivered to a four-channel detection cell. The absorbance change was monitored by a flow-through light-emitting diode-photodiode-based detector. Validation results against high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV)/mass spectrometry (MS) are presented. Responses for 10-fold diluted samples were linear within clinically relevant ranges (0-250 mg/L after dilution). The system can analyze 70 samples per hour with a limit of detection of 0.76 mg/L. The relative standard deviation was 1.29% at 100 mg/L creatinine (n=225). Correlation with the HPLC (UV quantitation/MS confirmation) system was excellent (linear, r2=0.9906). The developed system allows rapid, simple, cost-effective, and robust creatinine analysis and is suitable for the analysis of large numbers of urine samples.

  2. Probiotics for prevention of urinary stones

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Urinary supersaturation is one key determinant of calcium oxalate (CaOx) urinary stone formation, and urinary excretions of oxalate and citrate are two key determinants. Each is influenced by gastrointestinal processes. Methods Open label and randomized placebo studies have examined the effect of oral probiotic preparations on urinary supersaturation and oxalate excretion. Cross sectional studies in humans have studied the association of Oxalobacter formigenes colonization status and urinary oxalate excretion and prevalence of urinary stones. The intestinal microbiome of representative animals adapted to a high oxalate diet has been defined. Results The fecal content of O. formigenes, the best studied oxalate-degrader, varies depending on stone status. However, trials with probiotics designed to degrade oxalate including those containing O. formigenes, Lactobacillus, and/or Bifidobacterium spp., have been disappointing. Multiple intestinal segments of animals on a high oxalate diet contains diverse communities of microorganisms that can function together to degrade and detoxify a large oxalate load. Conclusions Although the intestinal microbiome seems likely to play a role to modify gastrointestinal absorption of lithogenic substances and hence urinary stone risk, whether we can develop tools to manipulate it and decrease this kidney stone risk remains to be determined. PMID:28217694

  3. Urinary Fluoride Concentration in Children with Disabilities Following Long-Term Fluoride Tablet Ingestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Jung-Ren; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Hsiao, Szu-Yu; Huang, Shun-Te; Chen, Hong-Sen

    2011-01-01

    Urine is the most commonly utilized biomarker for fluoride excretion in public health and epidemiological studies. Approximately 30-50% of fluoride is excreted from urine in children. Urinary fluoride excretion reflects the total fluoride intake from multiple sources. After administering fluoride tablets to children with disabilities, urinary…

  4. Systemic lanthanum is excreted in the bile of rats.

    PubMed

    Damment, Stephen J P; Pennick, Michael

    2007-06-15

    Lanthanum carbonate is a non-calcium-based oral phosphate binder for the control of hyperphosphataemia in patients with chronic kidney disease Stage 5. As part of its pre-clinical safety evaluation, studies were conducted in rats to determine the extent of absorption and routes of excretion. Following oral gavage of a single 1500 mg/kg dose, the peak plasma lanthanum concentration was 1.04+/-0.31 ng/mL, 8 h post-dose. Lanthanum was almost completely bound to plasma proteins (>99.7%). Within 24h of administration of a single oral dose, 97.8+/-2.84% of the lanthanum was recovered in the faeces of rats. Comparing plasma exposure after oral and intravenous administration of lanthanum yielded an absolute oral bioavailability of 0.0007%. Following intravenous administration of lanthanum chloride (0.3 mg/kg), 74.1+/-5.82% of the dose (96.9+/-0.50% of recovered lanthanum) was excreted in faeces in 42 days, and in bile-duct cannulated rats, 10.0+/-2.46% of the dose (85.6+/-2.97% of recovered lanthanum) was excreted in bile in 5 days. Renal excretion was negligible, with <2% of the intravenous dose recovered in urine. These studies demonstrate that lanthanum undergoes extremely low intestinal absorption and that absorbed drug is predominantly excreted in the bile.

  5. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... urinary incontinence. Initial pilot studies have shown that acupuncture can provide some short-term benefit, but more ... Urology. 2013;190:113. Wang Y, et al. Acupuncture for stress urinary incontinence in adults. Cochrane Database ...

  6. [Effect of the protein-free calf-blood-extract (Solcoseryl) on the excretion of estrogens in chronic placental insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Herre, H D; Kyank, H; Adomssent, S; Wilken, H P

    1976-01-01

    In a double blind study the action of Solcoseryl was tested in 31 patients during late pregnancy with chronic placental insufficiency. Under treatment with Solcoseryl a significant increase in urinary estrogen excretion occurred in relation to the placebo-group.

  7. Glucocorticoids increase salt appetite by promoting water and sodium excretion.

    PubMed

    Thunhorst, Robert L; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2007-09-01

    Glucocorticoids [e.g., corticosterone and dexamethasone (Dex)], when administered systemically, greatly increase water drinking elicited by angiotensin and sodium ingestion in response to mineralocorticoids [e.g., aldosterone and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)], possibly by acting in the brain. In addition, glucocorticoids exert powerful renal actions that could influence water and sodium ingestion by promoting their excretion. To test this, we determined water and sodium intakes, excretions, and balances during injections of Dex and DOCA and their coadministration (DOCA+Dex) at doses commonly employed to stimulate ingestion of water and sodium. In animals having only water to drink, Dex treatment greatly increased water and sodium excretion without affecting water intake, thereby producing negative water and sodium balances. Similar results were observed when Dex was administered together with DOCA. In animals having water and saline solution (0.3 M NaCl) to drink, Dex treatment increased water and sodium excretion, had minimal effects on water and sodium intakes, and was associated with negative water and sodium balances. DOCA treatment progressively increased sodium ingestion, and both water and sodium intakes exceeded their urinary excretion, resulting in positive water and sodium balances. The combination of DOCA+Dex stimulated rapid, large increases in sodium ingestion and positive sodium balances. However, water excretion outpaced total fluid intake, resulting in large, negative water balances. Plasma volume increased during DOCA treatment and did not change during treatment with Dex or DOCA+Dex. We conclude that increased urinary excretion, especially of water, during glucocorticoid treatment may explain the increased ingestion of water and sodium that occurs during coadministration with mineralocorticoids.

  8. Virus excretion in smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, J. K.; Mitra, A. C.; Mukherjee, M. K.; De, S. K.

    1973-01-01

    Throat swabs of 34 of 328 family contacts of 52 smallpox cases, examined 4-8 days after the onset of the disease in the family, were positive for variola virus. The log titre of virus per swab ranged from 2 to 3.95. A higher proportion of unvaccinated than of vaccinated contacts excreted the virus. Only 4 of the virus-positive contacts developed clinical smallpox; this occurred 5-7 days after their swabs were examined. Excretion of virus in the throats of these contacts, a few of whom were in the incubation period of the disease, suggests the possibility that they could have spread the infection. This possibility, if kept in mind, may help in tracing the source of infection or in determining the incubation period in a few instances when difficulty is experienced. PMID:4359679

  9. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A.; Wright, Janine L.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  10. Effect of salt reduction on iodine status assessed by 24 hour urinary iodine excretion in children and their families in northern China: a substudy of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    He, Feng J; Ma, Yuan; Feng, Xiangxian; Zhang, Wanqi; Lin, Laixiang; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of salt reduction on iodine status and to determine whether iodine consumption was still adequate after salt reduction in a population where universal salt iodisation is mandatory. Design A substudy of a cluster randomised controlled trial, with schools randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. Setting 28 primary schools in Changzhi, northern China. Participants 279 children in grade 5 of primary school (mean age: 10.1); 553 adults (age: 43.8). Intervention Children were educated about the harmful effects of salt and how to reduce salt intake using the schools' usual health education lessons. Children then delivered the message to their families. The duration was 1 school term (≈3.5 months). Main outcome measure Difference between the intervention and control groups in the change of iodine intake as measured by repeat 24 hour urinary iodine from baseline to the end of the trial. Results At baseline, the mean salt intake was 7.0±2.5 g/day in children and 11.7±4.4 g/day in adults and the median iodine intake was 165.1 μg/day (IQR: 122.6–216.7) and 280.7 μg/day (IQR: 205.1–380.9) in children and adults, respectively. At the end of the study, salt and iodine decreased in the intervention compared with control group. The mean effect on salt for intervention versus control was −1.9 g/day (95% CI −2.6 to −1.3) in children and −2.9 g/day (95% CI −3.7 to −2.2) in adults. The mean effect on iodine was −19.3% (95% CI −29.4% to −7.7%) in children and −11.4% (95% CI −20.3% to −1.5%) in adults. Conclusions With ≈25% reduction in salt intake, there was a significant reduction in iodine consumption in northern China where salt is iodised. Despite this, iodine intake was still adequate, and well above the estimated average requirement. Our findings indicate that reducing salt to the WHO's target—30% reduction by 2025—will not compromise iodine status. Trial registration

  11. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in Victoria, Australia, using 24-hour urine collections. Secondary aims were to identify the dietary sources of sodium and potassium, examine the association between these electrolytes and cardiovascular risk factors, and assess children’s taste preferences and saltiness perception of manufactured foods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of schoolchildren attending primary schools in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed one 24-hour urine collection, which was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Completeness of collections was assessed using collection time, total volume, and urinary creatinine. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed to assess dietary intake. Other data collected included blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumference. Children were also presented with high and low sodium variants of food products and asked to discriminate salt level and choose their preferred variant. Parents provided demographic information and information on use of discretionary salt. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sodium and potassium intakes. Linear and logistic regression models with clustered robust standard errors will be used to assess the association between electrolyte intake and health outcomes (blood pressure and body mass index/BMI z-score and waist circumference) and to assess differences in taste preference and discrimination between high and low sodium foods, and correlations between

  12. Renal excretion profiles of psilocin following oral administration of psilocybin: a controlled study in man.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Felix; Bourquin, Daniel; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2002-09-05

    In a clinical study eight volunteers received psilocybin (PY) in psychoactive oral doses of 212+/-25 microg/kg body weight. To investigate the elimination kinetics of psilocin (PI), the first metabolite of PY, urine was collected for 24 h and PI concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with column switching and electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Sample workup included protection of the unstable PI with ascorbic acid, freeze-drying, and extraction with methanol. Peak PI concentrations up to 870 microg/l were measured in urine samples from the 2-4 h collection interval. The PI excretion rate in this period was 55.5+/-33.8 microg/h. The limit of quantitation (10 microg/L) was usually reached 24 h after drug administration. Within 24 h, 3.4+/-0.9% of the applied dose of PY was excreted as free PI. Addition of beta-glucuronidase to urine samples and incubation for 5 h at 40 degrees C led to twofold higher PI concentrations, although 18+/-7% of the amount of unconjugated PI was decomposed during incubation. We conclude that in humans PI is partially excreted as PI-O-glucuronide and that enzymatic hydrolysis extends the time of detectability for PI in urine samples.

  13. The true stone composition and abnormality of urinary metabolic lithogenic factors of rats fed diets containing melamine.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xiaoming; Gu, Xiaojian; Xu, Yan; Sun, Xizhao; Shen, Luming

    2014-06-01

    To better understand the toxicity of melamine to humans, the stone composition and urinary metabolic lithogenic factors of rats fed diets containing melamine including the infant's melamine-induced stone composition were studied. Sixty 4-week-old male rats divided into three groups were, respectively, fed diets containing no melamine (control), 0.1% melamine, and 1% melamine for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, the collected stones and 24-h urines from rats were, respectively, measured with compositions and metabolic lithogenic parameters. The stone from an infant who ingested melamine-adulterated formula was also included in compositional analysis. Across three groups, the stone was only detected in 1% melamine group, with composition of almost melamine different from the affected infant's stone composed of melamine and uric acid with a ratio of 1:2. Compared with control group, urine calcium and phosphate excretions were significantly increased in 1% melamine group. Urine uric acid excretion was significantly increased but citrate excretion was significantly decreased in 0.1% and 1% melamine groups. Urine oxalate excretion and pH were indicated without any significant difference. In addition based on urine physicochemical characters, melamine-uric acid stone seems difficult to be formed in the rats due to their characters of urine high-pH and low-uric acid. These results demonstrated that (1) the stone composition of rats fed melamine was not and could not be as that of infants fed melamine-adulterated formula, two species had a different mechanism of melamine-induced stone formation; (2) the exposure of melamine could result in abnormalities of urine metabolic lithogenic factors to rats, perhaps as well as human beings.

  14. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2013-09-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl) intake separately, and their interaction, on MUN and UUN, on the relationship between UUN and MUN, on renal recycling of urea, and on urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract. Twelve second-parity cows (body weight of 645±37 kg, 146±29 d in milk, and a milk production of 34.0±3.28 kg/d), of which 8 were previously fitted with a rumen cannula, were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein. The experiment had a split-plot arrangement with dietary crude protein (CP) content as the main plot factor [116 and 154 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)] and dietary NaCl content as the subplot factor (3.1 and 13.5 g of Na/kg of DM). Cows were fed at 95% of the average ad libitum feed intake of cows receiving the low protein diets. Average MUN and UUN were, respectively, 3.90 mg of N/dL and 45 g of N/d higher for the high protein diets compared with the low protein diets. Compared with the low NaCl diets, MUN was, on average, 1.74 mg of N/dL lower for the high NaCl diets, whereas UUN was unaffected. We found no interaction between dietary content of protein and NaCl on performance characteristics or on MUN, UUN, urine production, and renal clearance characteristics. The creatinine clearance rate was not affected by dietary content of protein and NaCl. Urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract, expressed as a fraction of plasma urea entry rate, was negatively related to dietary protein, whereas it was not affected by dietary NaCl content. We found no interaction between dietary protein and NaCl content on plasma urea entry rate and gastrointestinal urea entry rate or their ratio. The relationship between MUN and UUN was significantly affected by the class variable

  15. Iodine Excretion in 24-hour Urine Collection and Its Dietary Determinants in Healthy Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Uechi, Ken; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Since seaweed is a common component of the Japanese diet, iodine intake in Japanese is expected to be high. However, urinary iodine excretion, measured using 24-hour urine samples, and its dietary determinants are not known. Methods Apparently healthy adults aged 20 to 69 years living in 20 areas throughout Japan were recruited in February and March, 2013. Urinary iodine excretion was evaluated using 24-hour urine collected from 713 subjects (362 men and 351 women), and the difference among age groups was assessed. The association between dietary intake of food groups and urinary iodine excretion was assessed among 358 subjects who completed a semi-weighed 4-day diet record (DR) and urine collection. The correlations between iodine intake and iodine excretion were also evaluated, and correlation coefficients were calculated for iodine intake in the DR of the overlapping day or the DR 1 day before and after urine collection. Results Median iodine excretion in 24-hour urine was 365 µg, and excretion was significantly higher in older subjects. Iodine intake estimated by the DRs was significantly correlated with urinary iodine excretion when DRs and urine collection were obtained on the same day (r = 0.37). After adjustment for confounding factors, iodine excretion was significantly associated with intakes of kelp and soup stock from kelp and fish. Conclusions Although multiple measurements for urinary iodine are required to confirm our results, this study showed the current iodine status of healthy Japanese adults. The results suggest that kelp and fish are the main contributors to Japanese iodine status measured by 24-hour urine. PMID:27374137

  16. Preclinical evaluation of novel urinary biomarkers of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Prozialeck, Walter C. Edwards, Joshua R.; Vaidya, Vishal S.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2009-08-01

    As a result of the widespread use of Cd in industry and its extensive dissemination in the environment, there has been considerable interest in the identification of early biomarkers of Cd-induced kidney injury. Kim-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is not detectable in normal kidney, but is up-regulated and shed into the urine following ischemic or nephrotoxic injury. Recent studies utilizing a sub-chronic model of Cd exposure in the rat have shown that Kim-1 is an early urinary marker of Cd-induced kidney injury. Kim-1 was detected in the urine 4-5 weeks before the onset of proteinuria and 1-3 weeks before the appearance of urinary metallothionein and Clara cell protein 16, which are standard markers of Cd nephrotoxicity. In the present study, we have compared the time course for the appearance of Kim-1 in the urine with the time course for the appearance of alpha glutathione-S-transferase ({alpha}-GST), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucose amidase (NAG) and Cd, each of which have been used or proposed as urinary markers of Cd nephrotoxicity. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given daily subcutaneous injections of 0.6 mg (5.36 {mu}moles)/kg Cd, 5 days per week for up to 12 weeks. One day each week, 24 h urine samples were collected and analyzed for protein, creatinine and the various markers. The results showed that significant levels of Kim-1 appeared in the urine as early as 6 weeks into the treatment protocol and then continued to rise for the remainder of the 12 week treatment period. By contrast, significant levels of {alpha}-GST and NAG did not appear in the urine until 8 and 12 weeks, respectively, while proteinuria was not evident until 10 weeks. The urinary excretion of Cd was below the level of detection until week 4 and then showed a slow, linear increase over the next 6 weeks before increasing markedly between weeks 10 and 12. These results provide additional evidence that Kim-1 is a sensitive biomarker of the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule

  17. Altered amino acid excretion in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Evans, Craig; Dunstan, R Hugh; Rothkirch, Tony; Roberts, Tim K; Reichelt, Karl L; Cosford, Robyn; Deed, Gary; Ellis, Libby B; Sparkes, Diane L

    2008-02-01

    Autism is a complex and life-long behavioural disorder of unknown aetiology. Recent reports have indicated the involvement of digestive tract dysfunction and possible complications from inadequate nutrition. In this study, 34 autistic children (12 untreated and 22 receiving therapeutic treatments related to digestive function and nutritional uptake) and 29 control subjects (all 5-15 years of age) were investigated to determine whether there were any anomalies in the urinary excretion of amino acids, glucose, sucrose, arabinose and tartaric acid using GC/FID and GC/MS analysis techniques. Significantly lower relative urinary levels of essential amino acids were revealed for both the untreated (mean +/- SEM, 32.53 +/- 3.09%) and treated (31.98 +/- 2.87%) autistic children compared with the controls (37.87 +/- 1.50%). There were no significant differences in measured excretions of sugars or tartaric acid. It was concluded that the untreated autistic children had evidence of altered metabolic homeostasis.

  18. COMPARISON OF THE URINARY METABOLITES OF RATS, MICE, AND HUMANS AFTER ORAL ARSENIC EXPOSURE FOCUSING ON THIOARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary metabolites of arsenic are useful as biomarkers of exposure because ingested arsenic is excreted primarily in urine1. Complete urinary arsenic speciation can provide insight into possible metabolic pathways as well as potential exposure sources. The pattern of excreted me...

  19. Comparison of urinary monitoring, faecal monitoring and erythrocyte analysis of stable isotope labels to determine magnesium absorption in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Torsten; Walczyk, Thomas; Davidsson, Lena; Pritzkow, Wolfgang; Klingbeil, Patrick; Vogl, Jochen; Hurrell, Richard F

    2004-01-01

    We have evaluated urinary monitoring and erythrocyte analysis to determine Mg absorption in human subjects as alternatives to the conventional technique of faecal monitoring by stable-isotope techniques. Ten healthy adults received 2.2 mmol (25)Mg in water, together with wheat bread, followed 15 min later by intravenous injection of 0.6 mmol (26)Mg (day 1). Brilliant blue and Yb (given on day 0 and day 1 respectively) served as qualitative and quantitative faecal markers. Urine was collected for 6 d after test meal intake. Complete collections of faeces were made until excretion of the second brilliant blue marker (given on day 7). Mg isotope ratios were determined by thermal ionisation-MS in urine and faeces and by inductively coupled plasma-MS in erythrocytes. Absorption was determined based on: (1) 6 d urine pools; (2) 24 h urine pools (collected 22-46 h after test meal intake); (3) erythrocytes from a blood sample drawn on day 14; (4) complete 6 d faecal pools; (5) faecal pools based on the first three consecutive stools after excretion of the first brilliant blue marker. Differences in mean Mg absorption (42 44 %) were statistically insignificant between techniques, except when based on 6 d urine pools for which the value was significantly lower (33 (sd 7) %, P=0.0003, ANOVA). The results indicate that Mg absorption can be determined from 24 h urine pools or erythrocytes obtained 14 d after test meal intake, an alternative method to the more time-consuming and labour-intense faecal monitoring. The choice of technique depends on practical and financial considerations.

  20. Renal sodium excretion in sons of hypertensive parents.

    PubMed

    Turner, S T; Reilly, S L

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether renal excretion of sodium is impaired and whether tubular reabsorption of sodium is increased in normotensive white men with a familial predisposition to develop essential hypertension. We compared 11 normotensive sons of two hypertensive parents (SOHT) with 11 normotensive sons of two normotensive parents (SONT); renal sodium handling was assessed after 1 week of low-sodium diet (10 mmol/d) and after 1 week of high-sodium diet (200 mmol/d). The SOHT were on average 5.5 years older than the SONT (46.9 +/- 5.2 [SD] vs 41.4 +/- 4.1, P = .012). On the sixth day of each diet, mean urinary sodium excretion did not differ between the two groups (12.9 +/- 6.3 vs 12.7 +/- 6.7 mmol/d on low-sodium diet, P = .930; 197 +/- 25 vs 200 +/- 27 mmol/d on high-sodium diet, P = .817). On the seventh day of each diet, baseline means for filtered load of sodium, absolute excretion of sodium, fractional excretion of sodium (an index of total tubular sodium reabsorption), and fractional excretion of lithium (an inverse index of proximal tubular sodium reabsorption) also did not differ between the groups. To assess renal sodium handling under non-steady-state conditions, we infused 2 L normal saline intravenously over a 2-hour period. The means for absolute excretion of sodium, fractional excretion of sodium, and fractional excretion of lithium increased from baseline, but the increases did not differ in magnitude between the groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Microalbumin excretion in patients with positive exercise electrocardiogram tests.

    PubMed

    Horton, R C; Gosling, P; Reeves, C N; Payne, M; Nagle, R E

    1994-10-01

    Thirty-three subjects underwent exercise electrocardiogram testing, 20 had a history of myocardial infarction and 13 were age-matched volunteers. Exercise electrocardiograms were positive in 15 subjects, negative in 12 and anomalous in six. Urinary microalbumin excretion was measured at rest, 30 and 60 min after exercise. Urinary microalbumin excretion was expressed as the albumin-creatinine ratio in mg.mmol-1. In the positive exercise electrocardiogram group median albumin-creatinine ratio increased from 1.0 mg.mmol-1 (95% CI 0.94-1.49) at rest to 2.0 mg.mmol-1 (95% CI 1.51-3.94) 30 min after exercise, whilst in the negative electrocardiogram group median resting and 30 min post exercise albumin-creatinine ratio values of 0.85 (95% CI 0.53-1.32) and 1.80 (95% CI 0.63-2.32) mg.mmol-1 respectively were not significantly different. These results suggest that exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia is associated with increased urinary microalbumin excretion.

  2. Effects of microgravity on urinary osteopontin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyer, J. R.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Liu, H.; Whitson, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Increased risk of renal stone formation during space flight has been linked primarily to increased calcium excretion from bone demineralization induced by space flight. Other factors contributing to increased risk include increased urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation, while urinary citrate, magnesium and volume are all decreased. The aim of this study was to increase the predictive value of stone risk profiles for crew members during space flight by evaluating the excretion of urinary protein inhibitors of calcium crystallization so that more comprehensive stone risk profiles could relate mineral saturation to the concentrations of inhibitor proteins. Levels of urinary osteopontin (uropontin) are reported in a series of 14 astronauts studied before, during, and after space flights. During space flight, a compensatory increase in uropontin excretion was not observed. However, the uropontin excretion of a majority of astronauts was increased during the period after space flight and was maximal at 2 wk after landing. The downward shift in the molecular size of uropontin observed in samples obtained during space flight was shown to result from storage at ambient temperature during flight, rather than an effect of microgravity on uropontin synthesis.

  3. NQRS Data for C24H20BRb (Subst. No. 1578)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BRb (Subst. No. 1578)

  4. NQRS Data for C24H24BN (Subst. No. 1583)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H24BN (Subst. No. 1583)

  5. NQRS Data for C24H20BCs (Subst. No. 1575)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BCs (Subst. No. 1575)

  6. NQRS Data for C24H20BK (Subst. No. 1576)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BK (Subst. No. 1576)

  7. Probable maximum precipitation for 24 h duration over southeast Asian monsoon region—Selangor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desa M, M. N.; Noriah, A. B.; Rakhecha, P. R.

    The probable maximum precipitation (PMP) for stations in Malaysia using Hershfield formula is routinely estimated as mean plus 15 standard deviations processed from yearly maximum rainfall values. The value of 15 as frequency factor is too high for a humid region such as Malaysia. In this paper, yearly maximum 1-day rainfall data of about 30-60 years for 33 stations in the region of Selangor, Malaysia, were analysed in an attempt to estimate PMP for 1-day duration based on an appropriate frequency factor for the first time. Based on the actual rainfall data of the stations, the highest value of this frequency factor was found to be 8.7. The frequency factor of 8.7 was subsequently used to estimate 24-h PMP values for the 33 stations. Using these PMP estimates, a generalised map was prepared showing the spatial distribution of 24-h PMP. It was found that 24-h PMP over Selangor, Malaysia, varied from 375 to 500 mm and the average ratio of the 24-h PMP to the highest observed 1-day rainfall was found to be about 2.0. The PMP map is considered as important to determine reliable and consistent PMP estimate for any location in Selangor, Malaysia, for designing costly and large hydraulic structures.

  8. Urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in workers occupationally exposed to metals such as chromium, nickel, and iron.

    PubMed

    Tomokuni, K; Ichiba, M; Hirai, Y

    1993-01-01

    To examine the relationships between the urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and beta-aminoisobutyric acid (AIBA) as a metabolite of thymine, and exposure to chromium, nickel, and iron, we determined these parameters in 58 workers engaged in the cutting and grinding of stainless steel or iron-steel plates. A significant increase in urinary NAG activity or urinary AIBA excretion was found in some of these workers. However, we could not find a significant positive correlation between the urinary excretion of NAG or AIBA and the urinary concentration of chromium, nickel, or iron as an indicator of internal dose.

  9. Dietary and Urinary Sulfur can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and diet can play a major role in this effort. Previous ground-based studies provide evidence that dietary composition can influence bone resorption during bed rest. In this study we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crew members were asked to consume, for 4 days at a time, prescribed menus with either a low (0.3-0.6 g/mEq) or high (1.0-1.3 g/mEq) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K). Menus were developed for each crewmember, and were designed to meet both crew preferences and study constraints. Intakes of energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium were held relatively constant between the two diets. The order of the menus was randomized, and crews completed each set (low and high) once before and twice during space flight, for a total of 6 controlled diet sessions. One inflight session and three postflight sessions (R+30, R+180, R+365) monitored typical dietary intake. As of this writing, data are available from 14 crew members. The final three subjects' inflight samples are awaiting return from the International Space Station via Space-X. On the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions, 24-h urine samples were colle