Science.gov

Sample records for 24-hour fine particulate

  1. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... the 2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' 74 FR 58688... Federal Regulations DC District of Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR... EPA finalized designations for the 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS (74 FR 58688, November 13, 2009), the...

  2. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  3. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2001-10-01

    This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham study site during the July-September, 2000 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S sulfate monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. The report also presents some initial notes on our operating experience with the 8400S sulfate analyzer. As described in the previous quarterly report, some persistent daily trends are seen in the particulate data, superimposed on a seasonal trend toward higher concentrations in warmer months. The sulfate mass fraction shows a markedly different time of day pattern from the balance of the particle mass, confirming the independent origin of this major mass fraction. The time variability of the major mass-bearing size fractions, and of the light-scattering potential, do not allow for a clean separation of independent size fractions. However, when the particle number averages are examined, the stronger time of day dependence of the smaller size fractions becomes more apparent, consistent with periods of higher formation of sub-100nm particles in early morning and in afternoon-evening periods.

  4. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  5. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-01-26

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  6. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-11-08

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  7. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

  8. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  9. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new national monitoring network for the measurement of fine particular matter (PM2.5) is currently under development. A primary goal of this network is to collect monitoring data in residential communities for the evaluation of compliance with particulate air quality standards...

  10. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  11. EVALUATION OF AN ANNUAL SIMULATION OF OZONE AND FINE PARTICULATE MATTER OVER THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES - WHICH TEMPORAL FEATURES ARE CAPTURED?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Motivated by growing concerns about the detrimental effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on human health, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently promulgated a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for PM2.5. The PM2.5 standard includes a 24-hour li...

  12. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  13. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  14. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Delbert J; Cui, Wenxuan; Hull, Jeffery; Farber, Robert J

    2006-12-01

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr day-night samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was +/- 0.6 microg/m3 organic material, +/- 0.3 microg/m3 ammonium sulfate, and +/- 0.07 microg/m3 ammonium nitrate. Data were also available on fine particulate crustal material, fine and coarse particulate mass from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments sampling system, and relative humidity (RH), light absorption, particle scattering, and light extinction measurements from Project MOHAVE. An extinction budget was obtained using mass scattering coefficients estimated from particle size distribution data. Literature data were used to estimate the change in the mass scattering coefficients for the measured species as a function of RH and for the absorption of light by elemental carbon. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. During periods of highest light extinction, contributions from fine particulate organic material, sulfate, and light-absorbing carbon dominated the extinction of light by particles. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides

  15. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Delbert J; Cui, Wenxuan; Hull, Jeffery; Farber, Robert J

    2006-12-01

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr day-night samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was +/- 0.6 microg/m3 organic material, +/- 0.3 microg/m3 ammonium sulfate, and +/- 0.07 microg/m3 ammonium nitrate. Data were also available on fine particulate crustal material, fine and coarse particulate mass from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments sampling system, and relative humidity (RH), light absorption, particle scattering, and light extinction measurements from Project MOHAVE. An extinction budget was obtained using mass scattering coefficients estimated from particle size distribution data. Literature data were used to estimate the change in the mass scattering coefficients for the measured species as a function of RH and for the absorption of light by elemental carbon. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. During periods of highest light extinction, contributions from fine particulate organic material, sulfate, and light-absorbing carbon dominated the extinction of light by particles. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides

  16. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Delbert J. Eatough; Wenxuan Cui; Jeffery Hull; Robert J. Farber

    2006-12-15

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr daynight samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was {+-} 0.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} organic material, {+-} 0.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium sulfate, and {+-} 0.07 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium nitrate. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. 49 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Pulmonary function changes in children associated with fine particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.Q.; Larson, T.V.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V.; Dumler, K.; Checkoway, H.; Wang, S.Z.; Lin, D.; Pierson, W.E. )

    1993-10-01

    During winter months many neighborhoods in the Seattle metropolitan area are heavily affected by particulate matter from residential wood burning. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fine particulate matter and pulmonary function in young children. The subjects were 326 elementary school children, including 24 asthmatics, who lived in an area with high particulate concentrations predominantly from residential wood burning. FEV1 and FVC were measured before, during and after the 1988-1989 and 1989-1990 winter heating seasons. Fine particulate matter was assessed using a light-scattering instrument. Analysis of the relationship between light scattering and lung function indicated that an increase in particulate air pollution was associated with a decline in asthmatic children's pulmonary function. FEV1 and FVC in the asthmatic children dropped an average of 34 and 37 ml respectively for each 10(-4) m-1 increase in sigma sp. This sigma sp increase corresponds to an increase in PM2.5 of 20 micrograms/m3. It is concluded that fine particulate matter from wood burning is significantly associated with acute respiratory irritation in young asthmatic children.

  18. PREDICTION OF FINE PARTICULATE LEVELS AT UNMONITORED LOCATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In November and December of 1999, air concentrations of ultrafine, fine, and coarse particulate matter were measured at two intensive sites in El Paso, Texas. The intensive sites included collocated measurements of NO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air from both...

  19. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  20. Mechanisms governing fine particulate emissions from coal flames

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, W.D.; Chen, S.L.; Kramlich, J.C.; Newton, G.H.; Ruth, L.A. ); Samuelsen, G.S. )

    1988-04-01

    Efforts in this period focused on refining the plans for engineering analysis and fundamental experiments based on the results of a literature review, and modifying the Malvern laser diffraction particle sizer to operate at particle sizes down to 0.5 microns. The engineering analysis plan is to concentrate on development of new models and adaptation of existing models for fine particulate formation by three categories of mechanisms: particle breakup/ash coalescence; direct passage, fragmentation, or agglomeration of extraneous mineral matter; and bubble formation/breakup. The plan for fundamental experiments is to develop a fast, online, optical particle sizing technique which will span the 0.5 to 10 micron size range of interest; to perform global experiments to identify the important parameters affecting fine particle formation; and to perform mechanistic experiments to test specific hypotheses about the mechanisms which control fine particle formation in coal combustion.

  1. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  2. 77 FR 12526 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base...

  3. 77 FR 50446 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee; Knoxville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the 1997 annual fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 )...

  4. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  5. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  6. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  7. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  8. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  9. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Lei; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Zuo, Li

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM) in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress (OS), immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden. PMID:26557095

  10. Effects of Crayfish on Quality of Fine Particulate Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montemarano, J. J.; Kershner, M. W.; Leff, L. G.

    2005-05-01

    The origin and ontogeny of detritus often determines its bioavailability. Crayfish shred and consume detrital organic matter, influencing fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) availability, composition and quality. Given consumption of FPOM by many invertebrates, crayfish can indirectly affect these organisms by altering FPOM bioavailability through organic matter fragmentation, biofilm disturbance, and defecation. These effects may or may not vary among coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) from different leaf species. To assess crayfish effects on FPOM quality, crayfish were fed stream-conditioned maple or oak leaves in hanging 1-mm mesh-bottom baskets in aquaria. After 12 h, crayfish and remaining leaves were removed. FPOM fragments that fell through the mesh were vacuum filtered and analyzed for percent organic matter, C:N ratio, and bacterial abundance. The same analyses were conducted on crayfish feces collected using finger cots encasing crayfish abdomens. C:N ratios did not differ between feces and maple leaf CPOM, but were lower in FPOM produced through fragmentation and disturbance (P = 0.023). Overall, crayfish alter the ontogeny of detritus, which may, in turn, affect stream FPOM dynamics.

  11. 75 FR 45075 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Matter and Ozone'' (Transport Rule) which is published elsewhere in today's issue of the Federal Register... 2006 fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and the...

  12. Calculating the Scattering Properties of Fine Particulates on Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, G.; Glotch, T. D.; Arnold, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Infrared radiation is used to remotely determine the mineralogical composition of planetary surfaces. However, determining the compositions of fine particulates has been a problematic task. This is due to an increased difficulty in determining the scattering properties for multiple scattering of light that occurs when regolith particles have diameters on the order of the wavelength of incident light. Radiative transfer models have been used to calculate the emissivity of closely-packed, fine particles with some success, but these models are not accurate enough. In particular, Mie theory has been used to obtain the necessary parameters for radiative transfer models in hope of capturing the diffraction effects. Although these methods have been adjusted to account for closely-packed particles, the physics of radiative transfer and Mie theory only holds for truly well-separated particles. Considering this, our study takes a different approach, Multiple Sphere T-Matrix (MSTM) method, to capture the multiple scattering process. For a cluster composed of many particles, MSTM solves Maxwell's equations at every light and particle interface. Then, the cluster-averaged scattering properties of a single volume are input into equations of emissivity in Hapke [1996]. We generated a cluster of closely-packed spheres of forsterite composition with different diameters. Emissivities were calculated using MSTM/Hapke approach, then its quality was compared to that of Mie method. Furthermore, emissivity measurements were taken in a laboratory. Emission spectra derived from MSTM method resembled those from laboratory measurements closer than Mie method. This is an indication that MSTM method is capturing the multiple scattering process that increasingly becomes complex for particles with diameters on the order of the wavelength of incident radiation. MSTM method was shown to be more effective than Mie method, but not perfect; our next steps are to explore the effects of particle

  13. Compositional Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter in Fairbanks, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nattinger, K.; Simpson, W. R.; Huff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fairbanks, AK experiences extreme pollution episodes that result in winter violations of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards. This poses a significant health risk for the inhabitants of the area. These high levels result from trapping of pollution in a very shallow boundary layer due to local meteorology, but the role of primary (direct emission) of particulate matter versus secondary production (in the atmosphere) of particulate matter is not understood. Analysis of the PM2.5 composition is being conducted to provide insight into sources, trends, and chemistry. Methods are developed to convert carbon data from IMPROVE (post-2009 analysis method) to NIOSH (pre-2009 method) utilizing blank subtraction, sampler bias adjustment, and inter-method correlations from co-located samples. By converting all carbon measurements to a consistent basis, long-term trends can be analyzed. The approach shows excellent mass closure between PM2.5 mass reconstructed from constituents and gravimetric-analyzed mass. This approach could be utilized in other US locations where the carbon analysis methods also changed. Results include organic and inorganic fractional mass percentages, analyzed over an eight-year period for two testing sites in Fairbanks and two in the nearby city of North Pole. We focus on the wintertime (Nov—Feb) period when most air quality violations occur and find that the particles consist primarily of organic carbon, with smaller percentages of sulfate, elemental carbon, ammonium, and nitrate. The Fairbanks area PM2.5 organic carbon / elemental carbon partitioning matches the source profile of wood smoke. North Pole and Fairbanks PM2.5 have significant compositional differences, with North Pole having a larger percentage of organic matter. Mass loadings in SO42-, NO3-, and total PM2.5 mass correlate with temperature. Multi-year temporal trends show little if any change with a strong effect from temperature. Insights from this

  14. ON LINE MEASUREMENT OF PRIMARY FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Dale R. Tree

    1999-09-01

    The measurement of fine particulate in pulverized coal flames has several applications of importance. These include but are not limited to: (1) The detection of fine particulate in the effluent for pollution control; (2) The detection of soot and fuel burnout in real time within a boiler; and (3) The quantification of soot within coal flame for improved understanding of pulverized coal flame heat transfer and soot modeling. A method has been investigated using two-color extinction along a line of sight within the flame which provides a continuous real-time measurement of the soot concentration. The method uses two inexpensive HeNe lasers and simple light detectors. The results of testing the method on a pilot scale 0.2 MW pulverized coal reactor demonstrate the method is working well in a qualitative sense and an error analysis performed on the uncertainty of the assumed values demonstrates the method to be accurate to within {+-} 30%. Additional experiments designed to quantify the measurement more accurately are ongoing. Measurements at the end of the reactor just prior to the exit showed soot could not be detected until the overall equivalence ratio became greater than 1.0. The detection limit for the method was estimated to be 1 x 10{sup -8} soot volume fraction. Peak soot concentration was found to approach a level of 0.88 x 10{sup -6} at the sootiest condition. The method was used to obtain an axial profile of soot concentration aligned with the down-fired pulverized coal flame for three different flame swirls of 0, 0.5 and 1.5 and an overall equivalence ratio of 1.2. The axial measurements showed the soot concentration to increase initially and level off to a constant maximum value. At 0.5 swirl the soot volume fraction increased more rapidly near the burner and both the 0.5 and 1.5 swirl cases showed that soot had reached a maximum by 0.9 m, but the 0 swirl soot concentration was still increasing. Previous measurements of species and velocity in the reactor

  15. The 24 Hours before Hospitalization: Factors Related to Suicide Attempting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, John A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Psychiatric inpatients (N=59) were interviewd concerning psychological and environmental events that occurred in the 24 hours prior to their hospitalization. Suicide attempters were more likely to have used alcohol or marijuana and less likely to have contacted a health care professional than suicide ideators, even when past history of suicide…

  16. Chemical Composition of Fine Particulate Matter and Life Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Dominici, Francesca; Wang, Yun; Correia, Andrew W.; Ezzati, Majid; Pope, C. Arden; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a previous study, we provided evidence that a decline in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution during the period between 2000 and 2007 was associated with increased life expectancy in 545 counties in the United States. In this article, we investigated which chemical constituents of PM2.5 were the main drivers of the observed association. Methods We estimated associations between temporal changes in seven major components of PM2.5 (ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, elemental carbon matter, organic carbon matter, sodium, and silicon) and temporal changes in life expectancy in 95 counties between 2002 and 2007. We included US counties that had adequate chemical components of PM2.5 mass data across all seasons. We fitted single pollutant and multiple pollutant linear models, controlling for available socioeconomic, demographic, and smoking variables and stratifying by urban and nonurban counties. Results In multiple pollutant models, we found that: (1) a reduction in sulfate was associated with an increase in life expectancy; and (2) reductions in ammonium and sodium ion were associated with increases in life expectancy in nonurban counties only. Conclusions Our findings suggest that recent reductions in long-term exposure to sulfate, ammonium, and sodium ion between 2002 and 2007 are associated with improved public health. PMID:25906366

  17. Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p < 0.05). Additionally, positive correlations were also detected between endotoxin concentrations and natural sources of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and F-, while negative correlations were observed between endotoxin concentrations and anthropogenic sources of P, Co, Zn, As, and Tl. Oxidative potential analysis revealed that endotoxin concentrations were positively correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  18. Effect of daily oral omeprazole on 24 hour intragastric acidity.

    PubMed Central

    Walt, R P; Gomes, M D; Wood, E C; Logan, L H; Pounder, R E

    1983-01-01

    Twenty four hour intragastric acidity was measured in nine patients with duodenal ulcer before and after one week of treatment with oral omeprazole 30 mg daily, a drug that inhibits gastric secretion by inhibition of parietal cell H+K+ adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase). Omeprazole virtually eliminated intragastric acidity in all patients: the median 24 hour intragastric pH rose from 1.4 to 5.3 and the mean hourly hydrogen ion activity fell from 38.50 to 1.95 mmol(mEq)/1 (p less than 0.001). This inhibition of 24 hour intragastric acidity is more profound than that previously reported with either cimetidine 1 g daily or ranitidine 300 mg daily. PMID:6407676

  19. [Gastroesophageal reflux during pregnancy: 24-hour esophageal ph monitoring].

    PubMed

    Anton, C; Anton, E; Drug, V; Stanciu, C

    2001-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) occurs in 30-50% of all pregnancies. The progressive rise in plasma progesterone has been suggested as a possible mediator of GER during pregnancy. Recent advances in technology have made it possible to detect GER through monitoring of esophageal pH for prolonged periods, including sleep. 24-hour pH monitoring is the proper method for diagnosing GER in pregnant women. If 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring is to be a useful diagnostic tool, it must reliably discriminate GER patients despite daily variations in distal esophageal acid exposure. To address this issue, we studied 62 women (30 healthy non-pregnant women without GER symptoms and 32 pregnant women with GER symptoms-heartburn, acid regurgitation) with 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Intrasubject reproducibility of three pH parameters to discriminate the presence of abnormal acid reflux was determined (DeMeester score, Kaye score, circadian one hour diagram for pH < 4). Each patient was interviewed, using a reliable questionnaire detailing individual habits, life style characteristics and symptoms, at four time points during the first, second, third trimesters of pregnancy and post-partum period. Symptoms of GER are common in pregnancy and although GER rarely endangers maternal or fetal health, it can significantly affect patient comfort and quality of life. We conclude: 1. GER is almost constantly present during pregnancy, increasing with gestational age. 2. The most important pH--parameter is DeMcester score. 3. Heartburn disappear after delivery. 4. 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring is the gold standard for measuring acid exposure and is a reproducible test for the diagnosis of GER in pregnancy.

  20. Diagnostic Air Quality Model Evaluation of Source-Specific Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004–February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate...

  1. 77 FR 12769 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Macon; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base...

  2. Comparison of gene expression profiles induced by coarse, fine, and ultrafile particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) fractions possess different physical properties and chemical compositions and may produce different adverse health effects. Studies were undertaken to determine whether or not gene expression patterns may be used to discriminate...

  3. 77 FR 28785 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Particulate Matter and Ozone'' as a direct final rule on February 21, 2012. See 77 FR 10342. The direct final... Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone.'' 77 FR 10342. The EPA intends to act on the parallel ] proposal as... February 21, 2012, at 77 FR 10342. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeremy Mark, U.S....

  4. 77 FR 31262 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year... 18, 1997 (62 FR 36852), EPA established an annual PM 2.5 NAAQS at 15.0 micrograms per cubic...

  5. FEDERAL REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS FOR MEASURING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the national ambient air quality standards specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the Code of Federal Regulations, new standards were established for particulate matter on July 18, 1997. The new particulate matter standards specify mass concentration as the...

  6. Fine particulate matter and the risk of autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Talbott, Evelyn O; Arena, Vincent C; Rager, Judith R; Clougherty, Jane E; Michanowicz, Drew R; Sharma, Ravi K; Stacy, Shaina L

    2015-07-01

    The causes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not well known. Recent investigations have suggested that air pollution, including PM2.5, may play a role in the onset of this condition. The objective of the present work was to investigate the association between prenatal and early childhood exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and risk for childhood ASD. A population-based case-control study was conducted in children born between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009 in six counties in Southwestern Pennsylvania. ASD cases were recruited from specialty autism clinics, local pediatric practices, and school-based special needs services. ASD cases were children who scored 15 or above on the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and had written documentation of an ASD diagnosis. Controls were children without ASD recruited from a random sample of births from the Pennsylvania state birth registry and frequency matched to cases on birth year, gender, and race. A total of 217 cases and 226 controls were interviewed. A land use regression (LUR) model was used to create person- and time-specific PM2.5 estimates for individual (pre-pregnancy, trimesters one through three, pregnancy, years one and two of life) and cumulative (starting from pre-pregnancy) key developmental time periods. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between estimated exposure to PM2.5 during key developmental time periods and risk of ASD, adjusting for mother's age, education, race, and smoking. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were elevated for specific pregnancy and postnatal intervals (pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, and year one), and postnatal year two was significant, (AOR=1.45, 95% CI=1.01-2.08). We also examined the effect of cumulative pregnancy periods; noting that starting with pre-pregnancy through pregnancy, the adjusted odds ratios are in the 1.46-1.51 range and significant for pre-pregnancy through year 2 (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.01-2.26). Our data indicate that both

  7. Laparoscopic Colon Resections With Discharge Less Than 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Maedeh; Alam, Shaan E.; Kar, Pran M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A short hospital stay is one of the main advantages of laparoscopic surgery. Previous studies have shown that after a multimodal fast-track process, the hospital length of stay can be shortened to between 2 and 5 days. The objective of this review is to show that the hospital length of stay can, in some cases, be reduced to <24 hours. Methods: This study retrospectively reviews a surgeon's experience with laparoscopic surgery over a 12-month period. Seven patients were discharged home within 24 hours after minimally invasive laparoscopic surgical treatment, following a modified fast-track protocol that was adopted for perioperative care. Results: Of the 7 patients, 4 received laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for malignant disease and 3 underwent sigmoid colectomies for recurrent diverticulitis. The mean hospital stay was 21 hours, 47 minutes; the mean volume of intraoperative fluid (lactated Ringer) was 1850 mL; the mean surgical blood loss was only 74.3 mL; the mean duration of surgery was 118 minutes; and the patients were ambulated and fed a liquid diet after recovery from anesthesia. The reviewed patients had functional gastrointestinal tracts and were agreeable to the timing of discharge. On the follow-up visit, they showed no adverse consequences such as bleeding, infection, or anastomotic leak. Conclusion: Laparoscopic colon surgery that incorporated multimodal perioperative care allowed patients to be discharged within the first 24 hours. Careful postoperative outpatient follow-up is important in monitoring complications such as anastomotic leak, which may not present until postoperative day 5. PMID:23925012

  8. Electron microscope comparisons of fine and ultra-fine carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous, airborne particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murr, L. E.; Bang, J. J.

    Particulate matter (PM) from a number of specific sources has been collected on carbon/formvar-coated 100-mesh nickel or copper grids for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using a thermal precipitator. These sources included diesel truck exhaust, graphitic PM from brake-shop environments, jet engine exhaust streams, and a wide range of general airborne PM for comparison. Individual PM TEM images were compared with corresponding selected-area electron diffraction patterns and energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectra. Diesel PM was characterized by aggregate branching of carbonaceous spherules while graphitic PM consisted of layered carbon, crystalline carbon nanotubes and fullerene-related nanocrystals, and prominent mixtures of inorganic microcrystals. Essentially, all airborne PM collected was characterized by variations of cluster or aggregate morphologies and non-carbonaceous PM was mostly micro- or nanocrystalline. Mixtures of carbonaceous and nanocrystalline PM were also observed. Although tedious, individual PM analysis and comparison appears to be a necessary strategy to elucidate the apparent toxic effects increasingly identified with ultra-fine and nanoparticulates in the air.

  9. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenhui; Tang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office) and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office) of the study area. Correspondingly, PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um) concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles. PMID:26402691

  10. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenhui; Tang, Tao

    2015-09-22

    Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office) and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office) of the study area. Correspondingly, PM₁ (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um) concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  11. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work–social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns. PMID:23957268

  12. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation.

    PubMed

    Taber, Michael J; Hartley, Geoffrey L; McGarr, Gregory W; Zaharieva, Dessi; Basset, Fabien A; Hynes, Zach; Haman, Francois; Pinet, Bernard M; DuCharme, Michel B; Cheung, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (T c) and cognitive test battery (CTB) performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature). Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold) were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease T c after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5-1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance. PMID:27478839

  13. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Geoffrey L.; Zaharieva, Dessi; Basset, Fabien A.; Hynes, Zach

    2016-01-01

    Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (Tc) and cognitive test battery (CTB) performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature). Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold) were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease Tc after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5–1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance. PMID:27478839

  14. [Necessity of a 24-hour system of blood transfusion testing].

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    The preventive effects of a 24-hour system of blood transfusion testing on mistyping of transfused blood was examined. Blood transfusion tests have been performed by blood transfusion technologists during working hours and by physicians at other times. In March 2000, we introduced a system in which technologists perform blood transfusion tests after working hours. Technologists of the Blood Transfusion Unit and Central Clinical Laboratory perform the test jointly, and column agglutination technology was introduced as the test method. A computer system setup exclusively for the testing was also introduced to perform computer cross-matching. Since transfusion error is likely to occur during emergency blood transfusion, a manual was established to prioritize safety. After introduction of the system, mistyping that may have been caused by inaccurate blood test results markedly decreased, confirming the usefulness of this system for prevention of mistyping. In addition, transfusion errors also decreased in wards and the improved system increased the safety of the entire medical care system. The frequency of mistyping was about 1% when physicians performed blood typing, showing the importance of clinical technologists for blood transfusion tests. PMID:12652691

  15. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work-social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns.

  16. Comparison of Population Iodine Estimates from 24-Hour Urine and Timed-Spot Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Cogswell, Mary E.; Swanson, Christine A.; Sullivan, Kevin M.; Chen, Te-Ching; Carriquiry, Alicia L.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Wang, Chia-Yih

    2014-01-01

    Background: Median urine iodine concentration (UIC; μg/L) in spot urine samples is recommended for monitoring population iodine status. Other common measures are iodine:creatinine ratio (I/Cr; μg/g) and estimated 24-hour urine iodine excretion (UIE; I/Cr×predicted 24-hour Cr; μg/day). Despite different units, these measures are often used interchangeably, and it is unclear how they compare with the reference standard 24-hour UIE. Methods: Volunteers aged 18–39 years collected all their urine samples for 24 hours (n=400). Voids from morning, afternoon, evening, overnight, and a composite 24-hour sample were analyzed for iodine. We calculated median observed 24-hour UIE and 24-hour UIC, and spot UIC, I/Cr, and two measures of estimated UIE calculated using predicted 24-hour Cr from published estimates by Kesteloot and Joosens (varies by age and sex) and published equations by Mage et al. (varies by age, sex, race, and anthropometric measures). We examined mean differences and relative difference across iodine excretion levels using Bland–Altman plots. Results: Median 24-hour UIE was 173.6 μg/day and 24-hour UIC was 144.8 μg/L. From timed-spot urine samples, estimates were: UIC 147.3–156.2 μg/L; I/Cr 103.6–114.3 μg/g, estimated 24-hour UIE (Kesteloot and Joosens) 145.7–163.3 μg/day; and estimated 24-hour UIE (Mage) 176.5–187.7 μg/day. Iodine measures did not vary consistently by timing of spot urine collection. Compared with observed 24-hour UIE, on average, estimated (Mage) 24-hour UIE was not significantly different, while estimated 24-hour UIE (Kesteloot and Joosens) was significantly different for some ethnicity/sex groups. Compared with 24-hour UIC, on average, spot UIC did not differ. Conclusions: Estimates of UIC, I/Cr, and estimated 24-hour UIE (I/Cr×predicted 24-hour Cr) from spot urine samples should not be used interchangeably. Estimated 24-hour UIE, where predicted 24-hour Cr varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and

  17. Fine particulate matter pollution linked to respiratory illness in infants and increased hospital costs.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Perry; Roy, Angkana; Wong, Kendrew; Trasande, Leonardo

    2011-05-01

    There has been little research to date on the linkages between air pollution and infectious respiratory illness in children, and the resulting health care costs. In this study we used data on air pollutants and national hospitalizations to study the relationship between fine particulate air pollution and health care charges and costs for the treatment of bronchiolitis, an acute viral infection of the lungs. We found that as the average exposure to fine particulate matter over the lifetime of an infant increased, so did costs for the child's health care. If the United States were to reduce levels of fine particulate matter to 7 percent below the current annual standard, the nation could save $15 million annually in reduced health care costs from hospitalizations of children with bronchiolitis living in urban areas. These findings reinforce the need for ongoing efforts to reduce levels of air pollutants. They should trigger additional investigation to determine if the current standards for fine-particulate matter are sufficiently protective of children's health.

  18. Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fine Particulate Matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Rául G. E.; Leiva Guzmán, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002–2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m3) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m3) for fine particulate matter. PMID:24587753

  19. WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER CAUSES RESPIRATORY TRACT HYPERRESPONSIVENESS IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter Causes Respiratory Tract Hyperresponsiveness in Mice

    Stephen H. Gavett1, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Jerry W. Highfill1, Allen D. Ledbetter1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Jack R. Harkema3, James G. Wagner3, and Daniel L. Costa1.<...

  20. DAILY SIMULATION OF OZONE AND FINE PARTICULATES OVER NEW YORK STATE: FINDINGS AND CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates the potential utility of the application of a photochemical modeling system in providing simultaneous forecasts of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) over New York State. To this end, daily simulations from the Community M...

  1. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FOR USE IN TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical Analysis of World Trade Center Fine Particulate Matter for Use in Toxicological Assessment
    John K. McGee1, Lung Chi Chen2, Mitchell D. Cohen2, Glen R. Chee2, Colette M. Prophete2, Najwa Haykal-Coates1, Shirley J. Wasson3, Teri L. Conner4, Daniel L. Costa1, and Steph...

  2. SEASONAL EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON HUMAN PRIMARY AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SEASONAL EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON HUMAN PRIMARY AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Exposure of humans to PM results in increased mortality and morbidity. Recent toxicology studies have shown a number of pathophysiological pulmonary and car...

  3. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER SOURCE ATTRIBUTION FOR SOUTHEAST TEXAS USING 14C/13C RATIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radiocarbon analyses of fine particulate matter samples collected during the summer of 2000 in southeast Texas indicate that a substantial fraction of the aerosol carbon at an urban/suburban site (27% to 73%) and at a rural, forested site (44% to 77%) was modern carbon. Data fr...

  4. RESPIRATORY TOXICOLOGCAL EFFECTS OF WORLD TRADE CENTER FINE PARTICULATE MATTER IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory


    ABSTRACT BODY:
    The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) caused the release of high levels of airborne pollutants which were reported to cause adverse respiratory responses in rescue workers and nearby residents. We examined whether WTC-derived fine particulate mat...

  5. 77 FR 10350 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... new unit set-asides in Arkansas and Texas (see 76 FR 63860, October 14, 2011). We are issuing a direct... on the Revisions Rule proposal, to amend the August 8, 2011, final regulation (76 FR 48208) by... Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed...

  6. Preparation and results of a 24-hour orbital flight.

    PubMed

    Titov, G S

    1963-01-01

    The space age presents man with unprecedented opportunities for discovery and for cooperative endeavors to benefit all mankind. My flight of August 6-7, 1961 was conducted for the purpose of determining whether man can stay and work effectively and whether all systems of the spaceship can operate successfully during a period of 24 hours in space. The flight of Vostok II represents an experimental step in a logical sequence which included the first earth orbiting flight of USSR citizen Yuri A. Gagarin. Preparation for the flight included the study of theoretical and applied subjects, testing in various kinds of apparatus which provide acceleration, heat and isolation experience, brief airborne weightless flights and parachute landings, in addition to extensive training in a real spacecraft having simulators for normal and emergency contingencies of space flight. The actual flight was therefore carried out with a sense of confidence and familiarity and with continuous close radio contact with ground centers from whom my fellow cosmonauts served as spokesmen. Sequential boosters totaling 600 000 kg thrust placed the 4731 kg spaceship into a perfect orbit varying in altitude from 178-246 km in a plane 64 degrees 58' inclined to the equator. The spaceship made 17 orbits around the earth landing 25 hours, 18 minutes after take-off. The cabin had full atmospheric pressure and a comfortable habitability which could be extended for 10 days. I was able to maneuver the spaceship and perform many other control functions, make observations and take pictures of the earth and its cloud cover, eat meals and sleep all with good efficiency. I experienced mild symptoms suggestive of seasickness which were aggravated by head turning, ameliorated by sleep and entirely relieved by resumption of g-loading during descent. Altogether analyses of the physical and structural performance of the spaceship and the continuously monitored physiological responses of the pilot indicate that all

  7. Flexibility of working hours in the 24-hour society.

    PubMed

    Costa, G

    2006-01-01

    The 24-hour Society undergoes an ineluctable process towards a social organisation where time constraints are no more restricting human life. The borders between working and social times are no more fixed and rigidly determined, and the value of working time changes according to the different economic and social effects you may consider. Shift and night work, irregular and flexible working hours, together with new technologies, are the milestone of this epochal passage. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual, the companies, and the society? What is the cost/benefit ratio in terms of health and social well-being? Coping properly with this process means avoiding a passive acceptance of it with consequent maladjustments at both individual and social level, but adopting effective preventive and compensative strategies aimed at building up a more sustainable society. Flexible working times now appear to be one of the best ways to cope with the demands of the modern life, but there are different points of view about labour and temporal 'flexibility" between employers and employees. For the former it means a prompt adaptation to market demands and technological innovations; for the latter it is a way to improve working and social life, by decreasing work constraints and increasing control and autonomy. Although it can be easily speculated that individual-based 'flexibility" should improve health and well-being, and especially satisfaction, whereas company-based flexibility" might interfere negatively, the effective consequences on health and well-being have still to be analysed properly. PMID:17017360

  8. Monitoring, sampling and analysis of fine particulates -- Results and experiences from DOE's Federal Energy Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    White, C.M.; Anderson, R.; Martello, D.; Rohar, P.; George, E.; Irdi, G.; Veloski, G.; Tamilia, J.; Lynn, R.; Waldner, K.; Hickey, R.; Feeley, T.; Casuccio, G.S.; Schlaegle, S.F.; Doerr, A.

    1999-07-01

    The overall goal of the DOE fine particulate program is to ensure that the best science and technology is available for any regulatory decision-making related to the health and environmental impacts of ambient fine particulate matter and regional haze. Interest primarily lies in the particulate fraction having aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 microns and less (PM2.5). Particulates of this size are the focus of the newly established National Ambient Air Quality Standards. As such, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) is establishing a fine particulate sampling station at the Center's Pittsburgh site located in South Park Township, PA. This sampling station is one of a group of stations scattered throughout Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio that constitute the Upper Ohio River Valley Project. The station is equipped with a full complement of fine particulate and gaseous monitors including the following: (1) R and P Sequential FRM sampler, (2) Grimm PM2.5 continuous sampler, (3) TSI Dustrak PM2.5 continuous sampler, (4) R and P TEOM equipped with an AccuSampler, (5) Andersen speciation sampler, (6) MetOne speciation sampler, (7) EcoChem continuous PAH monitor, (8) Total peroxide monitor that employs the Greg Kok method, (9) Burkard 7 day pollen and mold spore sampler, (10) Continuous gas monitors for O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, CO, H{sub 2}S, NO{sub y}, NO{sub x}, and (11) Meteorological instruments. The presentation will describe the initial results for the summer 1999 season from the above instruments. The chemical analysis of the aqueous extracts of the FRM filters will be discussed, including the anions present as determined by ion chromatography, and the metals present.

  9. Sources of fine urban particulate matter in Detroit, MI.

    PubMed

    Gildemeister, Amy E; Hopke, Philip K; Kim, Eugene

    2007-10-01

    Data from the speciation trends network (STN) was used to evaluate the amount and temporal patterns of particulate matter originating from local industrial sources and long-range transport at two sites in Detroit, MI: Allen Park, MI, southwest of both Detroit and the areas of heavy industrial activity; Dearborn, MI, located on the south side of Detroit near the most heavily industrialized region. Using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and comparing source contributions at Allen Park to those in Dearborn, contributions made by local industrial sources (power plants, coke refineries, iron smelting, waste incineration), local area sources (automobile and diesel truck) and long range sources of PM(2.5) can be distinguished in greater Detroit. Overall, the mean mass concentration measured at Dearborn was 19% higher than that measured at Allen Park. The mass at Allen Park was apportioned as: secondary sulfate 31%, secondary nitrate 28%, soil 8%, mixed aged sea and road salts 4%, gasoline 15%, diesel 4%, and biomass burning 3%. At Dearborn the mass was apportioned as: secondary sulfate 25%, secondary nitrate 20%, soil 12%, mixed aged sea and road salts 4%, gasoline 20%, diesel 8%, iron and steel, 5%, and mixed industrial 7%. The impact of the iron and steel, soil, and mixed aged sea and road salt was much higher at the Dearborn site than at the Allen Park site, suggesting that close proximity to a local industrial complex has a direct negative impact on local air quality.

  10. [Coal fineness effect on primary particulate matter features during pulverized coal combustion].

    PubMed

    Lü, Jian-yi; Li, Ding-kai

    2007-09-01

    Three kinds of coal differed from fineness were burned in a laboratory-scale drop tube furnace for combustion test, and an 8-stage Andersen particle impactor was employed for sampling the primary particulate matter (PM), in order to study coal fineness effect on primary PM features during pulverized coal combustion. It has been shown that the finer the coal was, the finer the PM produced. PM, emission amount augmented with coal fineness decreased, and the amount of PM10 increased from 13 mg/g to 21 mg/g respectively generated by coarse coal and fine coal. The amount of PM2.5 increased from 2 mg/g to 8 mg/g at the same condition. Constituents and content in bulk ash varied little after three different fineness coal combustion, while the appearance of grading PM differed visibly. The value of R(EE) increased while the coal fineness deceased. The volatility of trace elements which were investigated was Pb > Cr > Zn > Cu > Ni in turn. The concentration of poisonous trace elements was higher which generated from fine coal combustion. The volatilization capacity was influenced little by coal fineness, but the volatilization extent was influenced differently by coal fineness. Fine coal combustion affects worse environment than coarse coal does. PMID:17990536

  11. 24 hour blood pressure monitoring in healthy and hypertensive children.

    PubMed Central

    Reusz, G S; Hóbor, M; Tulassay, T; Sallay, P; Miltényi, M

    1994-01-01

    24 Hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed to provide data on the normal daily blood pressure of healthy schoolchildren and on patients with hypertension. The subjects studied were 123 healthy schoolchildren with a mean (SD) age of 12.5 (1.6) years (range 9.5-14.5 years), 24 children with borderline or mild hypertension, 17 with renal hypertension and normal renal function, 10 with chronic renal failure, and six with a renal allograft. In eight children with definite renal disease a second measurement was performed after treatment modification. The monitor used for ABPM was validated with a mercury column manometer. The mean (SD) of the signed differences of the blood pressure measured by the two methods was -0.19 (1.75) mmHg for the systolic and -0.21 (2.11) mmHg for the diastolic blood pressure (n = 60). Normal values for daytime and night time blood pressure were determined for those aged 10-14 years. The mean (SD) blood pressure of the 123 children was 109 (7)/66 (8) mmHg (systolic/diastolic) for the daytime and 96 (8)/52 (7) mmHg at night time. Of the 24 children with borderline or mild hypertension 14 had a raised blood pressure on ABPM. The circadian rhythm was disturbed in three children of this group. Even children with normal daytime blood pressure had significantly higher systolic blood pressure in the night when compared with the controls. The incidence of disturbed circadian rhythm was higher in the groups with renal hypertension (4/17 in the subgroup with normal renal function, 5/16 in the group with renal failure and/or transplantation). All children undergoing a second ABPM measurement had a lower average blood pressure after treatment adjustment. ABPM measurements were reproducible and accurate. The method provided new data on the physiological circadian variation of blood pressure in healthy children. It proved to be a helpful tool in the diagnosis of hypertension, particularly in the detection of cases of disturbance of the

  12. Dispersion and Deposition of Fine Particulates, Heavy Metals and Nitrogen in Urban Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlow, T. H.; Tong, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Cities are characterized by networks of heavily trafficked roads, abrupt environmental gradients and local sources of airborne pollutants. Because urban dwellers are inevitably in close proximity to near ground pollution, there has been recent interest in using trees and green roofs to reduce human exposure yet there have been few empirical studies documenting the effect of vegetation and spatial heterogeneity on pollution concentration, human exposure and food safety. In this paper we describe the results of 2 studies in the New York metropolitan area. The first describes the effect of roadside trees on the concentration of fine particulates downwind of a major highway. The second examines vertical attenuation of fine particulates between street level and a rooftop vegetable farm and the deposition of nitrogen and heavy metals to vegetables and soil on the roof.

  13. 77 FR 1894 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Rome; Fine Particulate Matter 2002...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ...EPA is proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the State of Georgia on October 27, 2009. The emissions inventory is part of the Rome, Georgia PM2.5 attainment demonstration that was submitted for the 1997 annual PM2.5 National Ambient Air......

  14. Anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control for selective and effective particulate matter filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Su; Wang, Yang; Tan, Yingling; Zhu, Jianfeng; Liu, Kai; Zhu, Jia

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is widely considered as one of the most pressing environmental health issues. Particularly, atmospheric particulate matters (PM), a complex mixture of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere, are a harmful form of air pollution due to its ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams, causing permanent damages such as DNA mutations and premature death. Therefore, porous materials which can effectively filter out particulate matters are highly desirable. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control fabricated through a scalable process can serve as effective and selective filtering materials for different types of particulate matters (such as PM2.5, PM10). Combining selective and dramatic filtering effect, fine pore size control and a scalable process, this type of anodic aluminum oxide templates can potentially serve as a novel selective filter for different kinds of particulate matters, and a promising and complementary solution to tackle this serious environmental issue.

  15. 78 FR 23524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... under the Clean Air Act. This submission contains the 24-hour fine particle National Ambient Air...

  16. Epidemiology of fine particulate air pollution and human health: biologic mechanisms and who's at risk?

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C A

    2000-01-01

    This article briefly summarizes the epidemiology of the health effects of fine particulate air pollution, provides an early, somewhat speculative, discussion of the contribution of epidemiology to evaluating biologic mechanisms, and evaluates who's at risk or is susceptible to adverse health effects. Based on preliminary epidemiologic evidence, it is speculated that a systemic response to fine particle-induced pulmonary inflammation, including cytokine release and altered cardiac autonomic function, may be part of the pathophysiologic mechanisms or pathways linking particulate pollution with cardiopulmonary disease. The elderly, infants, and persons with chronic cardiopulmonary disease, influenza, or asthma are most susceptible to mortality and serious morbidity effects from short-term acutely elevated exposures. Others are susceptible to less serious health effects such as transient increases in respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, or other physiologic changes. Chronic exposure studies suggest relatively broad susceptibility to cumulative effects of long-term repeated exposure to fine particulate pollution, resulting in substantive estimates of population average loss of life expectancy in highly polluted environments. Additional knowledge is needed about the specific pollutants or mix of pollutants responsible for the adverse health effects and the biologic mechanisms involved. PMID:10931790

  17. 75 FR 4063 - Adequacy Status of the Cleveland/Akron, Ohio Submitted Annual Fine Particulate Matter Attainment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... determining the adequacy of submitted SIP budgets in our July 1, 2004 preamble starting at 69 FR 40038, and we... X ) as a precursor to fine particulate matter in the Cleveland/Akron, Ohio area are adequate for...

  18. 75 FR 4064 - Adequacy Status of the Steubenville, OH and the Canton, OH Submitted Annual Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... in our July 1, 2004, preamble starting at 69 FR 40038, and we used the information in these resources... oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) as a precursor to fine particulate matter in Steubenville, Ohio...

  19. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associations between Particulate Chemical Constituents and Mortality in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jung, Kweon

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked fine particles [≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] and health. Most studies focused on the total mass of the particles, although the chemical composition of the particles varies substantially. Which chemical components of fine particles that are the most harmful is not well understood, and research on the chemical composition of PM2.5 and the components that are the most harmful is particularly limited in Asia. Objectives: We characterized PM2.5 chemical composition and estimated the effects of cause-specific mortality of PM2.5 mass and constituents in Seoul, Korea. We compared the chemical composition of particles to those of the eastern and western United States. Methods: We examined temporal variability of PM2.5 mass and its composition using hourly data. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model, adjusting for time, day of week, temperature, and relative humidity to investigate the association between risk of mortality and PM2.5 mass and its constituents in Seoul, Korea, for August 2008 through October 2009. Results: PM2.5 and chemical components exhibited temporal patterns by time of day and season. The chemical characteristics of Seoul’s PM2.5 were more similar to PM2.5 found in the western United States than in the eastern United States. Seoul’s PM2.5 had lower sulfate (SO4) contributions and higher nitrate (NO3) contributions than that of the eastern United States, although overall PM2.5 levels in Seoul were higher than in the United States. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in magnesium (Mg) (0.05 μg/m3) was associated with a 1.4% increase (95% confidence interval: 0.2%, 2.6%) in total mortality on the following day. Several components that were among the largest contributors to PM2.5 total mass—NO3, SO4, and ammonium (NH4)—were moderately associated with same-day cardiovascular mortality at the p < 0.10 level. Other components with smaller mass contributions [Mg and

  20. Tracking Petroleum Refinery Emission Events Using Lanthanum and Lanthanides as Elemental Markers for Fine Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, P.; Chellam, S.; Fraser, M. P.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation reports the development and application of an analytical method to quantify the rare earth elements (REEs) in atmospheric particulate matter and emissions of catalyst material from the petroleum refining industry. Inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry following high temperature/high pressure microwave digestion has been used to study the REE composition of several fresh and spent catalysts used in fluidized-bed catalytic cracking (FCC) units in petroleum refineries as well as in ambient atmospheric fine particulate matter collected in Houston, TX. The results show that the routine emissions from local FCC units in Houston contribute a constant and low amount to ambient PM2.5 of ~0.1 micrograms per cubic meter. However, a significant (33 - 106 fold) increase in the contributions of FCC emissions to PM2.5 is quantified during an upset emission event compared with background levels associated with routine operation. The impact of emissions from the local refinery that reported the emission event was tracked to a site approximately 50 km downwind from the source, illustrating the potential exposure of humans over a large geographical area through the long-range transport of atmospheric fine particles as well as the power of elemental signatures to understand the sources of fine particles.

  1. A Mid-Infrared Emission and Reflectance Library of Meteorites and Fine Particulate Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterloo, M. M.; Hamilton, V. E.

    2011-12-01

    We have acquired middle infrared (MIR) emission and reflectance spectra of fine particulate minerals and solid and fine particulate meteorite samples under ambient conditions. This dataset is intended to help expand our ability to interpret the MIR spectra of asteroids, possible extinct comets, and other rocky bodies, which contain a record of processes that are key to understanding the formation of our solar system 4.6 G.y. ago. Non-destructive MIR spectra of all samples in this study were collected in the spectroscopy laboratory at Southwest Research Institute [Hamilton and Lucey, 2005, LPSC XXXVI]. We measured the MIR spectra of fine particulate meteorite samples with the objective of providing the planetary community a dataset that can be used for qualitative comparison to asteroid spectra. The current library [Salisbury et al., 1991, Icarus] that is used for comparison to asteroid emissivity spectra represents particle size fractions of < 75 μm. However, several studies have demonstrated that this may be too large a size fraction to be analogous to low inertia asteroid regoliths [e.g., Barucci et al. 2002, Icarus; Emery et al. 2006, Icarus]. Therefore, our MIR spectral library includes a series of meteorite powders having smaller size fractions that may be more analogous to the regoliths of large, low inertia asteroids and will be beneficial for qualitative comparisons. The Smithsonian Institute's analyzed Meteorite Powered Collections (USNM 7073) provided particulate meteorite samples. At this time we have focused on chondritic and a few achondrite samples with particle size fractions < 25 μm. The samples chosen represent many of the samples that were originally measured by Salisbury et al. [1991, Icarus], providing continuity with the existing larger particle size spectral dataset. Furthermore, this work is the first to obtain spectral data of meteorites at wavelengths greater than 13.5 μm, which contain diagnostic features in silicates, carbonates, and

  2. Evaluation of coarse and fine particulate sources using a portable aerosol monitor in a desert community.

    PubMed

    Phalen, Robert N; Coleman, Ted

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a portable aerosol monitor as a preliminary screening tool to identify local sources of coarse (PM(10-2.5)) and fine (PM(2.5)) particulate matter within the Coachella Valley, a low-elevation desert community. The portable aerosol monitor proved to be useful in identifying particle sources unique to the region, namely, sand dunes with sparse ground cover (vegetation), a river wash, and diesel truck and freight train traffic. The general limitations relate to discrepancies in the fraction of PM(10-2.5) when compared to regional air quality data and a lack of accurate mass-based data.

  3. Combined effects of fine particulate matter and lipopolysaccharide on apoptotic responses in NR8383 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qi; Ru, Qin; Chen, Lin; Yue, Kai; Tian, Xiang; Ma, Baomiao; Liu, Lu; Wu, Rihui; Xu, Congyue; Pi, Mingshan; Li, Chaoying

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) are the predominant lung cells responsible for both ingestion and clearance of inhaled particulate matter (PM). The aims of this study were (1) to examine effects of fine PM on rat NR8383 cell line apoptosis, and (2) to determine whether NR8383 cell functions are further affected when exposed to fine PM in the presence of inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Standard Reference Material 2786 (SRM 2786) for fine PM was used to measure the following parameters: cytotoxicity, apoptotic rate, Bax/Bcl-2 expression, nitric oxide (NO) production, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in NR8383 cells. Data showed that SRM 2786 alone induced damage and apoptosis in NR8383 cells in a concentration-dependent manner as demonstrated by significant decrease in expression of Bcl-2 and increase in expression of Bax, suggesting fine PM might trigger apoptosis involving a mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. In addition, there was elevated production of free radicals, such as NO and ROS, suggesting oxidative stress plays a role in the observed apoptotic responses. Further, LPS pretreatment enhanced apoptosis of NR8383 cells induced by SRM 2786. Consequently, data indicate that SRM 2786 triggered cell apoptosis in NR8383 cells, probably by mechanisms involving oxidative stress, as evidenced by elevated NO and ROS levels, while the degree of apoptosis was further aggravated by inflammation.

  4. Global Chemical Composition of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter for Exposure Assessment

    DOE PAGES

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; et al

    2014-10-24

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004–2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrationsmore » were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m3), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m3), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m3). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m3 over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m3) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m3). In conclusion, these estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5.« less

  5. The use of a receptor model for fine particulate in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, E.; Garcia, I.; Ruiz, M.E.

    1997-12-31

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) faces severe pollution problems typical of large urban areas all over the world. The city is in an elevated basin (2,240 m) at a subtropical latitude (19.5N), with a high mountain chain at the West and South. This basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to the frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The study of atmospheric pollution and its control have been carried out using physico-chemical dispersion models, and the type known as receptor models often finds favor. The main objective of this paper is to present the results of a chemical mass balance receptor model applied to two different data sets of particulate matter. The twelve-hour samples were collected during day and night periods in the winter of 1989, previous to the introduction of catalytic converters in automobiles, and the other after 1991, since the catalytic converters are compulsory in all the new model vehicles. Samples of particulate matter were collected using a denuder and a Hi-Vol systems for the fine fraction (aerosols with diameter less than 2.5 {micro}m) and total suspended particles respectively. The results show that the major source contributions to the inhalable particulate matter for the first period are: automobiles (44%); secondary aerosols (19%); dust (10%).

  6. Global Chemical Composition of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter for Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004–2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m3), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m3), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m3). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m3 over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m3) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m3). These estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5. PMID:25343705

  7. Analysis of semi-volatile materials (SVM) in fine particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Christian Mark; Chou, Charles C.-K.

    2014-10-01

    The mass fraction of semi-volatile materials (SVM) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated at a subtropical urban aerosol observatory (TARO, 25.0 °N, 121.5 °E) in Taipei, Taiwan during August 2013. In particular, an integrated Denuder-FDMS-TEOM system was employed to study the effectiveness of the coupling of FDMS and TEOM instruments. The charcoal and MgO denuders used in this study performed a removal efficiency of 89 and 95% for positive interferences in OC and nitrate measurements, respectively, and did not induce a significant particle loss during the field campaign, suggesting that denuders should be considered as a standard device in PM2.5 instrumentation. Analysis on the mass concentration and speciation data found that, as a result of SVM loss, FRM-based measurement underestimated PM2.5 by 21% in our case. Coupling FDMS to TEOM significantly improved the bias in PM2.5 mass concentration from -25% to -14%. The negative bias in FDMS-TEOM was attributed to the failure of FDMS in recovering the mass of lost SVOMs in PM2.5. The results of this study highlight the significance of SVM in a subtropical urban environment, give a warning of underestimated health risk relevant to PM2.5 exposure, and necessitate further development of instrument and/or technique to provide accurate ambient levels of fine particulate matters.

  8. Ensemble-based source apportionment of fine particulate matter and emergency department visits for pediatric asthma.

    PubMed

    Gass, Katherine; Balachandran, Sivaraman; Chang, Howard H; Russell, Armistead G; Strickland, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies utilizing source apportionment (SA) of fine particulate matter have shown that particles from certain sources might be more detrimental to health than others; however, it is difficult to quantify the uncertainty associated with a given SA approach. In the present study, we examined associations between source contributions of fine particulate matter and emergency department visits for pediatric asthma in Atlanta, Georgia (2002-2010) using a novel ensemble-based SA technique. Six daily source contributions from 4 SA approaches were combined into an ensemble source contribution. To better account for exposure uncertainty, 10 source profiles were sampled from their posterior distributions, resulting in 10 time series with daily SA concentrations. For each of these time series, Poisson generalized linear models with varying lag structures were used to estimate the health associations for the 6 sources. The rate ratios for the source-specific health associations from the 10 imputed source contribution time series were combined, resulting in health associations with inflated confidence intervals to better account for exposure uncertainty. Adverse associations with pediatric asthma were observed for 8-day exposure to particles generated from diesel-fueled vehicles (rate ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.10) and gasoline-fueled vehicles (rate ratio = 1.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.17). PMID:25776011

  9. Ensemble-Based Source Apportionment of Fine Particulate Matter and Emergency Department Visits for Pediatric Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Katherine; Balachandran, Sivaraman; Chang, Howard H.; Russell, Armistead G.; Strickland, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies utilizing source apportionment (SA) of fine particulate matter have shown that particles from certain sources might be more detrimental to health than others; however, it is difficult to quantify the uncertainty associated with a given SA approach. In the present study, we examined associations between source contributions of fine particulate matter and emergency department visits for pediatric asthma in Atlanta, Georgia (2002–2010) using a novel ensemble-based SA technique. Six daily source contributions from 4 SA approaches were combined into an ensemble source contribution. To better account for exposure uncertainty, 10 source profiles were sampled from their posterior distributions, resulting in 10 time series with daily SA concentrations. For each of these time series, Poisson generalized linear models with varying lag structures were used to estimate the health associations for the 6 sources. The rate ratios for the source-specific health associations from the 10 imputed source contribution time series were combined, resulting in health associations with inflated confidence intervals to better account for exposure uncertainty. Adverse associations with pediatric asthma were observed for 8-day exposure to particles generated from diesel-fueled vehicles (rate ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.10) and gasoline-fueled vehicles (rate ratio = 1.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.17). PMID:25776011

  10. Identification of haze-creating sources from fine particulate matter in Dhaka aerosol using carbon fractions.

    PubMed

    Begum, Bilkis A; Hopke, Philip K

    2013-09-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were simultaneously collected on Teflon and quartz filters between February 2010 and February 2011 at an urban monitoring site (CAMS2) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The samples were collected using AirMetrics MiniVol samplers. The samples on Teflon filters were analyzed for their elemental composition by PIXE and PESA. Particulate carbon on quartz filters was analyzed using the IMPROVE thermal optical reflectance (TOR) method that divides carbon into four organic carbons (OC), pyrolized organic carbon (OP), and three elemental carbon (EC) fractions. The data were analyzed by positive matrix factorization using the PMF2 program. Initially, only total OC and total EC were included in the analysis and five sources, including road dust, sea salt and Zn, soil dust, motor vehicles, and brick kilns, were obtained. In the second analysis, the eight carbon fractions (OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, OP, EC1, EC2, EC3) were included in order to ascertain whether additional source information could be extracted from the data. In this case, it is possible to identify more sources than with only total OC and EC. The motor vehicle source was separated into gasoline and diesel emissions and a fugitive Pb source was identified. Brick kilns contribute 7.9 microg/m3 and 6.0 microg/m3 of OC and EC, respectively, to the fine particulate matter based on the two results. From the estimated mass extinction coefficients and the apportioned source contributions, soil dust, brick kiln, diesel, gasoline, and the Pb sources were found to contribute most strongly to visibility degradation, particularly in the winter. PMID:24151680

  11. Estimation of 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure Peak Timing and Variation Using a Contact Lens Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, John H. K.; Mansouri, Kaweh; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare estimates of 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) peak timing and variation obtained using a contact lens sensor (CLS) and using a pneumatonometer. Methods Laboratory data collected from 30 healthy volunteers (ages, 20-66 years) in a randomized, controlled clinical trial were analyzed. Participants were housed for 24 hours in a sleep laboratory. One randomly selected right or left eye was fitted with a CLS that monitored circumferential curvature in the corneoscleral region related to the change of IOP. Electronic output signals of 30 seconds were averaged and recorded every 5 minutes. In the contralateral eye, habitual IOP measurements were taken using a pneumatonometer once every two hours. Simulated 24-hour rhythms in both eyes were determined by cosinor fitting. Simulated peak timings (acrophases) and simulated data variations (amplitudes) were compared between the paired eyes. Results Bilateral change patterns of average 24-hour data for the group were in parallel. The simulated peak timing in the CLS fitted eye occurred at 4:44 AM ± 210 min (mean ± SD) and the IOP peak timing in the contralateral eye at 4:11 AM ± 120 min (P=0.256, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). There was no significant correlation between the simulated data variations in the paired eyes (P=0.820, linear regression). Conclusions The 24-hour CLS data showed a simulated peak timing close to the 24-hour IOP peak timing obtained using the pneumatonometer. However, the simulated variations of 24-hour data in the paired eyes were not correlated. Estimated 24-hour IOP rhythms using the two devices should not be considered interchangeable. PMID:26076472

  12. Chemical speciation and source apportionment of fine particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, 2013.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Ana M; Barraza, Francisco; Jorquera, Héctor; Schauer, James J

    2015-04-15

    Santiago is one of the largest cities in South America and has experienced high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in fall and winter months for decades. To better understand the sources of fall and wintertime pollution in Santiago, PM2.5 samples were collected for 24 h every weekday from March to October 2013 for chemical analysis. Samples were analyzed for mass, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water soluble nitrogen (WSTN), secondary inorganic ions, and particle-phase organic tracers for source apportionment. Selected samples were analyzed as monthly composites for organic tracers. PM2.5 concentrations were considerably higher in the coldest months (June-July), averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 62±15 μg/m(3) in these two months. Average fine particle mass concentration during the study period was 40±20 μg/m(3). Organic matter during the peak winter months was the major component of fine particles comprising around 70% of the particle mass. Source contributions to OC were calculated using organic molecular markers and a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. The four combustion sources identified were wood smoke, diesel engine emission, gasoline vehicles, and natural gas. Wood smoke was the predominant source of OC, accounting for 58±42% of OC in fall and winter. Wood smoke and nitrate were the major contributors to PM2.5. In fall and winter, wood smoke accounted for 9.8±7.1 μg/m(3) (21±15%) and nitrate accounted for 9.1±4.8 μg/m(3) (20±10%) of fine PM. The sum of secondary inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) represented about 30% of PM2.5 mass. Secondary organic aerosols contributed only in warm months, accounting for about 30% of fine PM during this time. PMID:25617780

  13. Chemical speciation and source apportionment of fine particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, 2013.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Ana M; Barraza, Francisco; Jorquera, Héctor; Schauer, James J

    2015-04-15

    Santiago is one of the largest cities in South America and has experienced high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in fall and winter months for decades. To better understand the sources of fall and wintertime pollution in Santiago, PM2.5 samples were collected for 24 h every weekday from March to October 2013 for chemical analysis. Samples were analyzed for mass, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water soluble nitrogen (WSTN), secondary inorganic ions, and particle-phase organic tracers for source apportionment. Selected samples were analyzed as monthly composites for organic tracers. PM2.5 concentrations were considerably higher in the coldest months (June-July), averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 62±15 μg/m(3) in these two months. Average fine particle mass concentration during the study period was 40±20 μg/m(3). Organic matter during the peak winter months was the major component of fine particles comprising around 70% of the particle mass. Source contributions to OC were calculated using organic molecular markers and a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. The four combustion sources identified were wood smoke, diesel engine emission, gasoline vehicles, and natural gas. Wood smoke was the predominant source of OC, accounting for 58±42% of OC in fall and winter. Wood smoke and nitrate were the major contributors to PM2.5. In fall and winter, wood smoke accounted for 9.8±7.1 μg/m(3) (21±15%) and nitrate accounted for 9.1±4.8 μg/m(3) (20±10%) of fine PM. The sum of secondary inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) represented about 30% of PM2.5 mass. Secondary organic aerosols contributed only in warm months, accounting for about 30% of fine PM during this time.

  14. 24-Hour ICH Score Is a Better Predictor of Outcome than Admission ICH Score

    PubMed Central

    Aysenne, Aimee M.; Albright, Karen C.; Mathias, Tiffany; Chang, Tiffany R.; Boehme, Amelia K.; Beasley, T. Mark; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    Background The ICH score is a validated tool for predicting 30-day morbidity and mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Aims and/or Hypothesis The aim of this study is to determine if the ICH score calculated 24 hours after admission is a better predictor of mortality than the ICH score calculated on admission. Methods Patients presenting to our center with ICH from 7/08-12/10 were retrospectively identified from our prospective stroke registry. ICH scores were calculated based on initial Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and emergent head computed tomography (CT) on initial presentation and were recalculated after 24 hours. Results A total of 91 patients out of 121 had complete data for admission and 24-hour ICH score. The ICH score changed in 38% from baseline to 24 hours. After adjusting for age, NIHSS on admission, and glucose, ICH score at 24 hours was a significant, independent predictor of mortality (OR = 2.71, 95% CI 1–19–6.20, and P = 0.018), but ICH score on admission was not (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 0.88-5.24, and P = 0.095). Conclusion Early determination of the ICH score may incorrectly estimate the severity and expected outcome after ICH. Calculations of the ICH score 24 hours after admission will better predict early outcomes.

  15. Dissociated 24-hour patterns of somatotropin and prolactin in fatal familial insomnia.

    PubMed

    Portaluppi, F; Cortelli, P; Avoni, P; Vergnani, L; Maltoni, P; Pavani, A; Sforza, E; Manfredini, R; Montagna, P; Roiter, I

    1995-06-01

    To assess the changes in the 24-hour profiles of serum somatotropin and prolactin levels during total disruption of the sleep/wake cycle sustained over several months, we studied 2 subjects affected by fatal familial insomnia, a rare disease characterized by selective thalamic degeneration that causes chronic sleep loss. Under standardized conditions and polysomnographic control, the patients underwent repeated 24-hour study sessions covering the entire clinical course of the disease. Hormones were assayed at 30-min intervals. Four healthy volunteers were used as controls. A sleep/wake cycle was always absent in fatal familial insomnia. Serum somatotropin and prolactin concentrations never exceeded the normal range of variation. The nocturnal elevation of somatotropin disappeared simultaneously with sleep loss, whereas a significant 24-hour component of variations in serum prolactin levels was present for months after total disruption of the sleep/wake cycle, with normally placed nocturnal acrophases. Complete obliteration of the 24-hour component was achieved for prolactin only in the advanced stages, through a progressive decrease in 24-hour amplitude of variation. Selective and progressive degeneration of the mediodorsal and anterior ventral nuclei of the thalamus causes an early obliteration of the 24-hour rhythm of somatotropin and a later disappearance of circadian prolactin rhythmicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Impact of fine particulate fluctuation and other variables on Beijing's air quality index.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Lu, Shaowei; Li, Shaoning; Wang, Bing

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed fluctuation in Beijing's air quality over 328 days, based on air quality grades and air quality data from 35 atmospheric monitoring stations. Our results show the air over Beijing is subject to pollution 152 days of the year, or 46.34%. Among all pollutants, fine particulates, solid or liquid, 2.5 μm or less in size (PM2.5), appeared most frequently as the primary pollutant: 249 days, or 76% of the sample year (328 days). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and coarse particulates (PM10) cause the least pollution, appearing only 7 and 3 days, or 2 and 1% of the sample year, respectively. In Beijing, fine particulates like PM2.5 vary seasonally: 154.54 ± 18.60 in winter > 145.22 ± 18.61 in spring > 140.16 ± 20.76 in autumn > 122.37 ± 13.42 in summer. Air quality is best in August and worst in December, while various districts in Beijing experience different air quality. To be specific, from south to north and from west to east, air quality tends to improve. Meteorological elements have a constraining effect on air pollutants, which means there is a linear correlation between the air quality index and humidity, rainfall, wind speed, and temperature. Under a typical pollution scenario, the higher the air quality index (AQI) value, the lower the wind speed and the greater the relative humidity; the lower the AQI value, the higher the wind speed and lower the relative humidity. Analysis of influencing factors reveals that the air pollution is mainly particulate matter produced by burning coal, vehicle emissions, volatile oils and gas, fast development of food services, emissions from the surrounding region, and natural dust clouds formed in arid areas to the northwest. Topography affects the distribution of meteorological conditions, in turn varying air quality over the region from one location to another. Human activities also exercise impact on urban air quality with dual functions.

  17. Impact of fine particulate fluctuation and other variables on Beijing's air quality index.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Lu, Shaowei; Li, Shaoning; Wang, Bing

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed fluctuation in Beijing's air quality over 328 days, based on air quality grades and air quality data from 35 atmospheric monitoring stations. Our results show the air over Beijing is subject to pollution 152 days of the year, or 46.34%. Among all pollutants, fine particulates, solid or liquid, 2.5 μm or less in size (PM2.5), appeared most frequently as the primary pollutant: 249 days, or 76% of the sample year (328 days). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and coarse particulates (PM10) cause the least pollution, appearing only 7 and 3 days, or 2 and 1% of the sample year, respectively. In Beijing, fine particulates like PM2.5 vary seasonally: 154.54 ± 18.60 in winter > 145.22 ± 18.61 in spring > 140.16 ± 20.76 in autumn > 122.37 ± 13.42 in summer. Air quality is best in August and worst in December, while various districts in Beijing experience different air quality. To be specific, from south to north and from west to east, air quality tends to improve. Meteorological elements have a constraining effect on air pollutants, which means there is a linear correlation between the air quality index and humidity, rainfall, wind speed, and temperature. Under a typical pollution scenario, the higher the air quality index (AQI) value, the lower the wind speed and the greater the relative humidity; the lower the AQI value, the higher the wind speed and lower the relative humidity. Analysis of influencing factors reveals that the air pollution is mainly particulate matter produced by burning coal, vehicle emissions, volatile oils and gas, fast development of food services, emissions from the surrounding region, and natural dust clouds formed in arid areas to the northwest. Topography affects the distribution of meteorological conditions, in turn varying air quality over the region from one location to another. Human activities also exercise impact on urban air quality with dual functions. PMID:25563832

  18. Determination of fine particulate semi-volatile organic material at three eastern U.S. sampling sites.

    PubMed

    Warner, K S; Eatough, D J; Stockburger, L

    2001-09-01

    Correct assessment of fine particulate carbonaceous material as a function of particle size is, in part, dependent on the determination of semi-volatile compounds, which can be lost from particles during sampling. This study gives results obtained for the collection of fine particulate carbonaceous material at three eastern U.S. sampling sites [Philadelphia, PA; Shenandoah National Park, VA; and Research Triangle Park (RTP), NC] using diffusion denuder technology. The diffusion denuder samplers allow for the determination of fine particulate organic material with no artifacts, due to the loss of semi-volatile organic particulate compounds, or collection of gas-phase organic compounds by the quartz filter during sampling. The results show that an average of 41, 43, and 59% of fine particulate organic material was lost as volatilized semi-volatile organic material during collection of particles on a filter at Philadelphia, RTP, and Shenandoah, respectively. The particle size distribution of carbonaceous material retained by a filter and lost from a filter during sampling was obtained for the samples collected at Philadelphia and Shenandoah. The carbonaceous material retained by the particles during sampling was found predominantly in particles smaller than 0.4 microm in aerodynamic diameter. In contrast, the semi-volatile organic material lost from the particles during sampling had a mass median diameter of approximately 0.5 microm.

  19. Review of recent advances in detection of organic markers in fine particulate matter and their use for source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Lee, Milton L; Eatough, Delbert J

    2010-01-01

    Fine particulate matter is believed to be more toxic than coarse particles and to exacerbate health problems such as respiratory and cardiopulmonary diseases. Specific organic compounds within atmospheric fine particulate material can be used to differentiate specific inputs from various emissions and thus is helpful in identifying the major urban air pollution sources that contribute to these health problems. Particular marker compounds that carry signature information about different emission sources (i.e., gasoline or diesel motor vehicles, wood smoke, meat cooking, vegetative detritus, and cigarette smoke) are reviewed. Aerosol organic types (e.g., from mass spectrometry data, which can also help in elucidation of carbonaceous material sources) are also discussed. Apportionment of the primary source contributions and atmospheric processes contributing to fine particulate matter and fine particulate organic material concentrations are outlined. This review provides an overview of the latest developments in chemical characterization approaches for identification and quantification of compounds in complex organic mixtures associated with fine atmospheric particles and their use in chemical mass balance (CMB) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) source apportionment models.

  20. Review of recent advances in detection of organic markers in fine particulate matter and their use for source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Lee, Milton L; Eatough, Delbert J

    2010-01-01

    Fine particulate matter is believed to be more toxic than coarse particles and to exacerbate health problems such as respiratory and cardiopulmonary diseases. Specific organic compounds within atmospheric fine particulate material can be used to differentiate specific inputs from various emissions and thus is helpful in identifying the major urban air pollution sources that contribute to these health problems. Particular marker compounds that carry signature information about different emission sources (i.e., gasoline or diesel motor vehicles, wood smoke, meat cooking, vegetative detritus, and cigarette smoke) are reviewed. Aerosol organic types (e.g., from mass spectrometry data, which can also help in elucidation of carbonaceous material sources) are also discussed. Apportionment of the primary source contributions and atmospheric processes contributing to fine particulate matter and fine particulate organic material concentrations are outlined. This review provides an overview of the latest developments in chemical characterization approaches for identification and quantification of compounds in complex organic mixtures associated with fine atmospheric particles and their use in chemical mass balance (CMB) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) source apportionment models. PMID:20102032

  1. 24-hour central blood pressure and intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes in untreated subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bednarek, Agnieszka; Jankowski, Piotr; Olszanecka, Agnieszka; Windak, Adam; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recently, 24-hour monitoring of central systolic blood pressure (SBP) has become available. However, the relation between end-organ damage and the 24-hour central SBP profile and variability has not so far been analyzed. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relation between 24-hour central SBP, 24-hour central SBP profile as well as central SBP short-term variability and parameters of cardiac and vascular intermediate phenotypes. Methods: The study group consisted of 50 patients with newly diagnosed, untreated hypertension (age 40.4 ± 11.5 years, 35 men) and 50 normotensive subjects (age 38.3 ± 12.0 years, 35 men). Applanation tonometry of the radial artery and the “n-point forward moving average” method were used to determine 24-hour central SBP. Each study participant underwent echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography. Results: 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime central SBP was related to left ventricle end-diastole diameter (p < 0.05), left ventricular mass index (p < 0.001), relative wall thickness (p < 0.05), E/E’ ratio (p < 0.01), and left atrium volume (p < 0.01). The nocturnal central SBP fall was not related to any of the mentioned parameters, whereas parameters of short-term variability were related to IMT in hypertensives only (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The present study showed that 24-hour central SBP is related to intermediate cardiac phenotypes as assessed by echocardiography whereas short-term central SBP variability is mainly related to vascular phenotype as determined by IMT. PMID:25628959

  2. Effects of wind direction on coarse and fine particulate matter concentrations in southeast Kansas.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Sergio A; Lane, Dennis D; Marotz, Glen A; Carter, Ray E; Hohl, Carrie M; Baldauf, Richard W

    2006-11-01

    Field data for coarse particulate matter ([PM] PM10) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected at selected sites in Southeast Kansas from March 1999 to October 2000, using portable MiniVol particulate samplers. The purpose was to assess the influence on air quality of four industrial facilities that burn hazardous waste in the area located in the communities of Chanute, Independence, Fredonia, and Coffeyville. Both spatial and temporal variation were observed in the data. Variation because of sampling site was found to be statistically significant for PM10 but not for PM2.5. PM10 concentrations were typically slightly higher at sites located within the four study communities than at background sites. Sampling sites were located north and south of the four targeted sources to provide upwind and downwind monitoring pairs. No statistically significant differences were found between upwind and downwind samples for either PM10 or PM2.5, indicating that the targeted sources did not contribute significantly to PM concentrations. Wind direction can frequently contribute to temporal variation in air pollutant concentrations and was investigated in this study. Sampling days were divided into four classifications: predominantly south winds, predominantly north winds, calm/variable winds, and winds from other directions. The effect of wind direction was found to be statistically significant for both PM10 and PM2.5. For both size ranges, PM concentrations were typically highest on days with predominantly south winds; days with calm/variable winds generally produced higher concentrations than did those with predominantly north winds or those with winds from "other" directions. The significant effect of wind direction suggests that regional sources may exert a large influence on PM concentrations in the area.

  3. Global Chemical Composition of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter for Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Bittman, Shabtai; Macdonald, Douglas J.

    2014-10-24

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004–2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m3), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m3), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m3). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m3 over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m3) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m3). In conclusion, these estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5.

  4. Fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide exposure concentrations in urban street transport microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.; Colvile, R. N.

    Personal exposure studies are crucial alongside microenvironment and ambient studies in order to get a better understanding of the health risks posed by fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide in the urban transport microenvironment and for making informed decisions to manage and reduce the health risks. Studies specifically assessing the PM 2.5, ultrafine particle count and carbon monoxide personal exposure concentrations of adults in an urban transport microenvironment have steadily increased in number over the last decade. However, no recent collective summary is available, particularly one which also considers ultrafine particles; therefore, we present a review of the personal exposure concentration studies for the above named pollutants on different modes of surface transportation (walking, cycling, bus, car and taxi) in the urban transport microenvironment. Comparisons between personal exposure measurements and concentrations recorded at fixed monitoring sites are considered in addition to the factors influencing personal exposure in the transport microenvironment. In general, the exposure studies examined revealed pedestrians and cyclists to experience lower fine particulate matter and CO exposure concentrations in comparison to those inside vehicles—the vehicle shell provided no protection to the passengers. Proximity to the pollutant sources had a significant impact on exposure concentration levels experienced, consequently individuals should be encouraged to use back street routes. Fixed monitoring stations were found to be relatively poor predictors of CO and PM 2.5 exposure concentration levels experienced by individuals in the urban transport microenvironment. Although the mode of transport, traffic and meteorology parameters were commonly identified as significant factors influencing exposure concentrations to the different pollutants under examination, a large amount of the exposure concentration variation in the exposure studies remained

  5. Fine particulate matter estimated by mathematical model and hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children

    PubMed Central

    César, Ana Cristina Gobbo; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa; Mantovani, Katia Cristina Cota; Vieira, Luciana Cristina Pompeo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the association between exposure to fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microns (PM2.5) and hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children. Methods: An ecological study of time series was performed, with daily indicators of hospitalization for pneumonia and asthma in children up to 10 years of age, living in Taubaté (SP) and estimated concentrations of PM2.5, between August 2011 and July 2012. A generalized additive model of Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk, with lag zero up to five days after exposure; the single pollutant model was adjusted by the apparent temperature, as defined from the temperature and relative air humidity, seasonality and weekday. Results: The values of the relative risks for hospitalization for pneumonia and asthma were significant for lag 0 (RR=1.051, 95%CI; 1.016 to 1.088); lag 2 (RR=1.066, 95%CI: 1.023 to 1.113); lag 3 (RR=1.053, 95%CI: 1.015 to 1.092); lag 4 (RR=1.043, 95%CI: 1.004 to 1.088) and lag 5 (RR=1.061, 95%CI: 1.018 to 1.106). The increase of 5mcg/m3 in PM2.5 contributes to increase the relative risk for hospitalization from 20.3 to 38.4 percentage points; however, the reduction of 5µg/m3 in PM2.5 concentration results in 38 fewer hospital admissions. Conclusions: Exposure to PM2.5 was associated with hospitalizations for pneumonia and asthma in children younger than 10 years of age, showing the role of fine particulate matter in child health and providing subsidies for the implementation of preventive measures to decrease these outcomes. PMID:26522821

  6. Geographic differences in inter-individual variability of human exposure to fine particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ye; Frey, H. Christopher

    2011-10-01

    Human exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with short and long term adverse health effects. The amount of ambient PM2.5 that infiltrates indoor locations such as residences depends on air exchange rate (ACH), penetration factor, and deposition rate. ACH varies by climate zone and thus by geographic location. Geographic variability in the ratio of exposure to ambient concentration is estimated based on comparison of three modeling domains in different climate zones: (1) New York City; (2) Harris County in Texas, and (3) a six-county domain along the I-40 corridor in North Carolina. Inter-individual variability in exposure to PM2.5 was estimated using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) model. ACH is distinguishably the most sensitive input for both ambient and non-ambient exposure to PM2.5. High ACH leads to high ambient exposure indoors but lower non-ambient exposure, and vice versa. For summer, the average ratio of exposure to ambient concentration varies by 13 percent among the selected domains, mainly because of differences in housing stock, climate zone, and seasonal ACH. High daily average exposures for some individuals are mainly caused by non-ambient exposure to smoking or cooking. The implications of these results for interpretation of epidemiological studies are discussed.

  7. Associations of Source-Specific Fine Particulate Matter With Emergency Department Visits in California.

    PubMed

    Ostro, Bart; Malig, Brian; Hasheminassab, Sina; Berger, Kimberly; Chang, Emily; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2016-09-15

    While many studies have investigated the health effects associated with acute exposure to fine particulate matter (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5)), very few have considered the risks of specific sources of PM2.5 We used city-specific source apportionment in 8 major metropolitan areas in California from 2005-2009 to examine the associations of source-specific PM2.5 exposures from vehicular emissions, biomass burning, soil, and secondary nitrate and sulfate sources with emergency department visits (EDVs) for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, including 7 subclasses. Using a case-crossover analysis, we observed associations of vehicular emissions with all cardiovascular EDVs (excess risk = 1.6%, 95% confidence interval: 0.9, 2.4 for an interquartile-range increment of 2.8 µg/m(3)) and with several subclasses of disease. In addition, vehicular emissions, biomass burning, and soil sources were associated with all respiratory EDVs and with EDVs for asthma. The soil source, which includes resuspended road dust, generated the highest risk estimate for asthma (excess risk = 4.5%, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 8.0). Overall, our results provide additional evidence of the public health consequences of exposure to specific sources of PM2.5 and indicate that some sources of PM2.5 may pose higher risks than the overall PM2.5 mass. PMID:27605585

  8. Insights about serum sodium behavior after 24 hours of continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Thiago Gomes; Martins, Cassia Pimenta Barufi; Mendes, Pedro Vitale; Besen, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro; Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Park, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratorial factors associated with serum sodium variation during continuous renal replacement therapy and to assess whether the perfect admixture formula could predict 24-hour sodium variation. Methods Thirty-six continuous renal replacement therapy sessions of 33 patients, in which the affluent prescription was unchanged during the first 24 hours, were retrieved from a prospective collected database and then analyzed. A mixed linear model was performed to investigate the factors associated with large serum sodium variations (≥ 8mEq/L), and a Bland-Altman plot was generated to assess the agreement between the predicted and observed variations. Results In continuous renal replacement therapy 24-hour sessions, SAPS 3 (p = 0.022) and baseline hypernatremia (p = 0.023) were statistically significant predictors of serum sodium variations ≥ 8mEq/L in univariate analysis, but only hypernatremia demonstrated an independent association (β = 0.429, p < 0.001). The perfect admixture formula for sodium prediction at 24 hours demonstrated poor agreement with the observed values. Conclusions Hypernatremia at the time of continuous renal replacement therapy initiation is an important factor associated with clinically significant serum sodium variation. The use of 4% citrate or acid citrate dextrose - formula A 2.2% as anticoagulants was not associated with higher serum sodium variations. A mathematical prediction for the serum sodium concentration after 24 hours was not feasible. PMID:27410407

  9. Assessment of Population Exposure to Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Urban Areas of Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Kandasamy, Palanivelu; Rajadurai, Geetha; Subash Kumar, Divya; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Ponnusamy, Malini

    2015-01-01

    Research outcomes from the epidemiological studies have found that the course (PM10) and the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are mainly responsible for various respiratory health effects for humans. The population-weighted exposure assessment is used as a vital decision-making tool to analyze the vulnerable areas where the population is exposed to critical concentrations of pollutants. Systemic sampling was carried out at strategic locations of Chennai to estimate the various concentration levels of particulate pollution during November 2013–January 2014. The concentration of the pollutants was classified based on the World Health Organization interim target (IT) guidelines. Using geospatial information systems the pollution and the high-resolution population data were interpolated to study the extent of the pollutants at the urban scale. The results show that approximately 28% of the population resides in vulnerable locations where the coarse particulate matter exceeds the prescribed standards. Alarmingly, the results of the analysis of fine particulates show that about 94% of the inhabitants live in critical areas where the concentration of the fine particulates exceeds the IT guidelines. Results based on human exposure analysis show the vulnerability is more towards the zones which are surrounded by prominent sources of pollution. PMID:26258167

  10. Obesity Is A Modifier of Autonomic Cardiac Responses to Fine Metal Particulates

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Stone, Peter H.; Christiani, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests that obesity may impart greater susceptibility to adverse effects of air pollution. Particulate matter, especially PM2.5 (particulate matter with aero-dynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm), is associated with increased cardiac events and reduction of heart rate variability (HRV). Objectives Our goal was to investigate whether particle-mediated autonomic modulation is aggravated in obese individuals. Methods We examined PM2.5-mediated acute effects on HRV and heart rate (HR) using 10 24-hr and 13 48-hr ambulatory electrocardiogram recordings collected from 18 boilermakers (39.5 ± 9.1 years of age) exposed to high levels of metal particulates. Average HR and 5-min HRV [SDNN: standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (NN); rMSSD: square-root of mean squared-differences of successive NN intervals; HF: high-frequency power 0.15–0.4 Hz] and personal PM2.5 exposures were continuously monitored. Subjects with body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 were classified as obese. Mixed-effect models were used for statistical analyses. Results Half (50%) of the study subjects were obese. After adjustment for confounders, each 1-mg/m3 increase in 4-hr moving average PM2.5 was associated with HR increase of 5.9 bpm [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.2 to 7.7] and with 5-min HRV reduction by 6.5% (95% CI, 1.9 to 11.3%) for SDNN, 1.7% (95% CI, –4.9 to 8.4%) for rMSSD, and 8.8% (95% CI, –3.8 to 21.3%) for HF. Obese individuals had greater PM2.5-mediated HRV reductions (2- to 3-fold differences) than nonobese individuals, and had more PM2.5-mediated HR increases (9-bpm vs. 4-bpm increase in HR for each 1-mg/m3 increase in PM2.5; p < 0.001). Conclusions Our study revealed greater autonomic cardiac responses to metal particulates in obese workers, supporting the hypothesis that obesity may impart greater susceptibility to acute cardiovascular effects of fine particles. PMID:17637913

  11. 76 FR 60492 - Adequacy Status of the Ohio Portion of the Huntington/Ashland Submitted Annual Fine Particulate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ..., starting at 69 FR 40038, and we used the information in these resources in making our adequacy... AGENCY Adequacy Status of the Ohio Portion of the Huntington/Ashland Submitted Annual Fine Particulate... Ohio portion of the Huntington/Ashland WV-KY-OH area. Ohio submitted the insignificance findings...

  12. Zebrafish Locomotor Responses Demonstrate Irritant Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Sources and a Role for TRPA1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a complex mixture of chemicals, the composition of which is determined by contributing sources, and has been linked to cardiopulmonary dysfunction. These effects stem in part from the irritating properties of PM constituents, which ...

  13. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS RECOVERY BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  14. Source apportionment with uncertainty estimates of fine particulate matter in Ostrava, Czech Republic using Positive Matrix Factorization

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 14-week investigation during a warm and cold seasons was conducted to improve understanding of air pollution sources that might be impacting air quality in Ostrava, the Czech Republic. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected in consecutive 12-h day and night incr...

  15. Exploration of the Rapid Effects of Personal Fine Particulate Matter Exposure on Hemodynamics and Vascular Function during the Same Day

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Levels of fine particulate matter [≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] are associated with alterations in arterial hemodynamics and vascular function. However, the characteristics of the same-day exposure–response relationships remain unclear. Object...

  16. NONLINEARITIES IN THE SULFATE SECONDARY FINE PARTICULATE RESPONSE TO NOX EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS AS MODELED BY THE REGIONAL ACID DEPOSITION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attention is increasingly being devoted to the health effects of fine particulates. In regions that have a large production of sulfate, sulfuric acid and nitric acid compete for the available ammonia to form aerosols. In addition, the available nitric acid is the result of ur...

  17. DAILY VARIATION IN ORGANIC COMPOSITION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated as a part of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS). A high volume (113 liters/minute) sampler was used at the Allen Park community air monitoring station to collect PM2.5 for analysis by ga...

  18. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2010-05-01

    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  19. Microtensile bond strength of resin-resin interfaces after 24-hour and 2-month soaking.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Curry; Boberick, Kenneth G; Winkler, Sheldon

    2007-01-01

    Evaluate the bond strengths of denture base-repair materials to minimize recurrent failure rate. Use microtensile bond strength (muTBS) testing to evaluate the interfacial bonding strength of 6 commercial denture repair materials after 24-hour and 12-month soaking. Blocks of poly(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) and Triad were fabricated, fractured, and repaired. Twenty bars (1 x 1 x 30 mm) per group were sectioned from each block parallel to the long axis and approximately 90 degrees to the resin-resin repair interface and stored before muTBS testing in a servo-hydraulic tensile-testing machine. Intact PMMA and Triad bars that had been soaked for 24 hours and 12 months were tested for reference. The 24-hour repair strengths for PMMA ranged from 52% to 84% of original strength. Soaking for 12 months resulted in a 20% decrease in strength for the PMMA control. The 12-month repair strengths for PMMA ranged from 43% to 74% of the 12-month soaked material strength. Triad repair tested 35% of original strength after soaking for 24 hours. Permabond (cyanoacrylate) to PMMA tested 47% of original strength after 24 hours of soaking and 26% of the 12-month soaked material strength. Permabond to Triad tested 30% of original strength after 24 hours of soaking. Permabond and Triad showed a 100% adhesive mode of failure. All other materials tested exhibited either an adhesive mode of failure at the denture base-repair-material interface or a complex cohesive failure within the repair-material interface. The muTBS approach can be used to analyze the resin-resin interface of repaired acrylics. The relatively small standard deviations make the muTBS approach attractive. In this study, muTBS was used to evaluate the repair strength of 6 denture repair materials enabling clinicians to make clinical judgments regarding the strongest repair bond available. PMID:17987865

  20. Agreement between 24-hour salt ingestion and sodium excretion in a controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Lerchl, Kathrin; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Rauh, Manfred; Goller, Ulrike; Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F; Beck, Luis; Agureev, Alexander; Larina, Irina; Baranov, Victor; Morukov, Boris; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Vassilieva, Galina; Wabel, Peter; Vienken, Jörg; Kirsch, Karl; Johannes, Bernd; Krannich, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Accurately collected 24-hour urine collections are presumed to be valid for estimating salt intake in individuals. We performed 2 independent ultralong-term salt balance studies lasting 105 (4 men) and 205 (6 men) days in 10 men simulating a flight to Mars. We controlled dietary intake of all constituents for months at salt intakes of 12, 9, and 6 g/d and collected all urine. The subjects' daily menus consisted of 27 279 individual servings, of which 83.0% were completely consumed, 16.5% completely rejected, and 0.5% incompletely consumed. Urinary recovery of dietary salt was 92% of recorded intake, indicating long-term steady-state sodium balance in both studies. Even at fixed salt intake, 24-hour urine collection for sodium excretion (UNaV) showed infradian rhythmicity. We defined a ±25 mmol deviation from the average difference between recorded sodium intake and UNaV as the prediction interval to accurately classify a 3-g difference in salt intake. Because of the biological variability in UNaV, only every other daily urine sample correctly classified a 3-g difference in salt intake (49%). By increasing the observations to 3 consecutive 24-hour collections and sodium intakes, classification accuracy improved to 75%. Collecting seven 24-hour urines and sodium intake samples improved classification accuracy to 92%. We conclude that single 24-hour urine collections at intakes ranging from 6 to 12 g salt per day were not suitable to detect a 3-g difference in individual salt intake. Repeated measurements of 24-hour UNaV improve precision. This knowledge could be relevant to patient care and the conduct of intervention trials.

  1. Ultra High Efficiency ESP for Fine Particulate and Air Toxics Control

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasachar, Srivats; Pease, Benjamin R.; Porle, Kjell; Mauritzson, Christer; Haythornthwaite, Sheila

    1997-07-01

    Nearly ninety percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Cost effective retrofittable ESP technologies are the only means to accomplish Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants. Particles in the size range of 0.1 to 5 {micro}m typically escape ESPs. Metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, molybdenum and antimony, concentrate on these particles. This is the main driver for improved fine particulate control. Vapor phase emissions of mercury, selenium and arsenic are also of major concern. Current dry ESPs, which operate at temperatures greater than 280 F, provide little control for vapor phase toxics. The need for inherent improvement to ESPs has to be considered keeping in perspective the current trend towards the use of low sulfur coals. Switching to low sulfur coals is the dominant approach for SO{sub 2} emission reduction in the utility industry. Low sulfur coals generate high resistivity ash, which can cause an undesirable phenomenon called ''back corona.'' Higher particulate emissions occur if there is back corona in the ESP. Results of the pilot-scale testing identified the ''low temperature ESP'' concept to have the biggest impact for the two low sulfur coals investigated. Lowering the flue gas temperature to 220 F provided the maximum impact in terms of decreased emissions. Intermediate operating temperatures (reduction from 340 to 270 F) also gave significant ESP performance improvement. A significant reduction in particulate emissions was also noted when the flue gas humidity was increased (temperature held constant) from the baseline condition for these moderately high resistivity ash coals. Independent control of flue gas humidity and temperature was an important and a notable element in this project. Mercury emissions were also measured as a function of flue gas temperature. Mercury emissions decreased as the flue

  2. Fine Particulate Matter Constituents and Cardiopulmonary Mortality in a Heavily Polluted Chinese City

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongmei; Xu, Qun; Chen, Bingheng

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5; particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) has been linked to adverse human health effects, the chemical constituents that cause harm are unknown. To our knowledge, the health effects of PM2.5 constituents have not been reported for a developing country. Objectives: We examined the short-term association between PM2.5 constituents and daily mortality in Xi’an, a heavily polluted Chinese city. Methods: We obtained daily mortality data and daily concentrations of PM2.5, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and 10 water-soluble ions for 1 January 2004 through 31 December 2008. We also measured concentrations of fifteen elements 1 January 2006 through 31 December 2008. We analyzed the data using over-dispersed generalized linear Poisson models. Results: During the study period, the mean daily average concentration of PM2.5 in Xi’an was 182.2 µg/m3. Major contributors to PM2.5 mass included OC, EC, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. After adjustment for PM2.5 mass, we found significant positive associations of total, cardiovascular, or respiratory mortality with OC, EC, ammonium, nitrate, chlorine ion, chlorine, and nickel for at least 1 lag day. Nitrate demonstrated stronger associations with total and cardiovascular mortality than PM2.5 mass. For a 1-day lag, interquartile range increases in PM2.5 mass and nitrate (114.9 and 15.4 µg/m3, respectively) were associated with 1.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8%, 2.8%] and 3.8% (95% CI: 1.7%, 5.9%) increases in total mortality. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PM2.5 constituents from the combustion of fossil fuel may have an appreciable influence on the health effects attributable to PM2.5 in Xi’an. PMID:22389181

  3. Autonomic Effects of Controlled Fine Particulate Exposure in Young Healthy Adults: Effect Modification by Ozone

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Asghar A.; Ilic, Ljubomir M.; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Urch, Bruce; Silverman, Frances; Gold, Diane R.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Human controlled-exposure studies have assessed the impact of ambient fine particulate matter on cardiac autonomic function measured by heart rate variability (HRV), but whether these effects are modified by concomitant ozone exposure remains unknown. Objective In this study we assessed the impact of O3 and particulate matter exposure on HRV in humans. Methods In a crossover design, 50 subjects (19–48 years of age) were randomized to 2-hr controlled exposures to filtered air (FA), concentrated ambient particles (CAPs), O3, or combined CAPs and ozone (CAPs + O3). The primary end point was change in HRV between the start and end of exposure. Secondary analyses included blood pressure (BP) responses, and effect modification by asthmatic status. Results Achieved mean CAPs and O3 exposure concentrations were 121.6 ± 48.0 μg/m3 and 113.9 ± 6.6 ppb, respectively. In a categorical analysis, exposure had no consistent effect on HRV indices. However, the dose–response relationship between CAPs mass concentration and HRV indices seemed to vary depending on the presence of O3. This heterogeneity was statistically significant for the low-frequency component of HRV (p = 0.02) and approached significance for the high-frequency component and time-domain measures of HRV. Exposure to CAPs + O3 increased diastolic BP by 2.0 mmHg (SE, 1.2; p = 0.02). No other statistically significant changes in BP were observed. Asthmatic status did not modify these effects. Conclusion The potentiation by O3 of CAPs effects on diastolic BP and possibly HRV is of small magnitude in young adults. Further studies are needed to assess potential effects in more vulnerable populations. PMID:19672410

  4. Chemical characteristics of fine particulate matters measured during severe winter haze events in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Batmunkh, Tsatsral; Kim, Young J; Jung, Jin Sang; Park, Kihong; Tumendemberel, Bulgan

    2013-06-01

    In order to investigate the chemical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol measured during a severe winter haze event, 12-hr PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm) samples were collected at an urban site in Ulaanbaatar Mongolia, from January 9 to February 17, 2008. On average, 12-hr PM2.5 mass concentration was 105.1 +/- 34.9 microg/m3. Low PM2.5 mass concentrations were measured when low pressure developed over central Mongolia. The 12-hr average organic mass by carbon (OMC) varied from 6.4 to 132.3 microg/m3, with a mean of 54.9 +/- 25.4 microg/m3, whereas elemental carbon (EC) concentration ranged from 0.1 to 3.6 microgC/m3, with a mean of 1.5 +/- 0.8 microgC/m3. Ammonium sulfate was found to be the most abundant water-soluble ionic component in Ulaanbaatar during the sampling period, with an average concentration of 11.3 +/- 5.0 microg/m3. In order to characterize the effect of air mass pathway on fine particulate matter characteristics, 5-day back-trajectory analysis was conducted, using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. The haze level was classified into three categories, based on the 5-day air mass back trajectories, as Stagnant (ST), Continental (CT), and Low Pressure (LP) cases. PM2.5 mass concentration during the Stagnant condition was approximately 2.5 times higher than that during the Low Pressure condition, mainly due to increased pollutant concentration of OMC and secondary ammonium sulfate.

  5. Characterization, sources and redox activity of fine and coarse particulate matter in Milan, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Nancy; Ruprecht, Ario; Invernizzi, Giovanni; De Marco, Cinzia; Miller-Schulze, Justin; Heo, Jong Bae; Shafer, Martin M.; Shelton, Brandon R.; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2012-03-01

    The correlation between health effects and exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been of primary concern to public health organizations. An emerging hypothesis is that many of the biological effects derive from the ability of PM to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) within affected cells. Milan, one of the largest and most polluted urban areas in Europe, is afflicted with high particle levels. To characterize its ambient PM, fine and coarse PM (PM2.5 and PM2.5-10, respectively) samples were collected on a weekly basis for a year-long period. Samples were analyzed for their chemical properties and ROS-activity. A molecular marker chemical mass balance (MM-CMB) model was also applied to apportion primary and secondary sources to fine organic carbon (OC) and PM. Findings revealed that PM2.5 is a major contributor to ambient particle levels in Milan, averaging 34.5 ± 19.4 μg m-3 throughout the year. Specifically, secondary inorganic ions and organic matter were the most dominant fine PM species contributing to 36 ± 7.1% and 34 ± 6.3% of its mass on a yearly-based average, respectively. Highest PM2.5 concentrations occurred during December-February and were mainly attributed to poor atmospheric dispersion. On the other hand, PM2.5-10 exhibited an annual average of 6.79 ± 1.67 μg m-3, with crustal elements prevailing. Source apportionment results showed that wood-smoke and secondary organic aerosol sources contribute to 4.6 ± 2.6% and 9.8 ± 11% of fine OC on a yearly-based average, respectively. The remaining OC is likely associated with petroleum-derived material that is not adequately represented by existing source profiles used in this study. Lastly, ROS-activity measurements indicated that PM2.5-induced redox activity expressed per m3 of air volume is greatest during January (837 μg Zymosan equivalents m-3) and February (920 μg Zymosan equivalents m-3). Conversely, intrinsic (per PM mass) ROS-activity peaked in July (22,587 μg Zymosan equivalents mg

  6. Investigation of roadside fine particulate matter concentration surrounding major arterials in five Southern Californian cities.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hansheng; Bartolome, Christian; Gutierrez, Eric; Princevac, Marko; Edwards, Rufus; Boarnet, Marlon G; Houston, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    The built environment surrounding arterials affects the dispersion of vehicular emissions in urban areas, modifying the potential risks to public health. In order to study the influence of urban morphometry on flow and dispersion of vehicular fine particulate matter emissions, in the summer of 2008 field measurements were performed in major arterials located in five Southern Californian cities with different building geometries. In each city, local mean wind, turbulence, virtual temperature, roadside DustTrak Fine Particles (DTFP) concentration, and traffic flow data were collected in 2-hr measurement periods during morning and evening rush hours and lighter midday traffic, over a period of 3 days. The calculated Monin-Obukhov length, L, suggests that near-neutral and slightly unstable conditions were present at both street and roof levels. The nondimensional forms of turbulent wind and temperature fluctuations show,that the data at street level within the urban canopy can be represented using the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Generalized additive models were applied to analyze the impact of meteorological and traffic-related variables on fine particle concentrations at street level Compared to other variables, urban-scale background concentrations were the most important variables in all five models. The results confirmed that turbulent mixing in urban areas dominated the variation of roadside particle concentrations regardless of urban geometry. The distance from the local sites to the nearby monitoring stations affected model performance when urban-scale concentrations were used to predict middle-scale concentrations by generalized additive models (GAMs). A radius ofinfluence for background concentrations was 6-10 km. There were also relationships between concentration and other variables affecting the local components of the concentrations, such as wind direction, sensible heat flux, and vertical wind fluctuation, although the influences were much weaker

  7. The CCRUSH study: Characterization of coarse and fine particulate matter in northeastern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Nicholas Steven

    Particulate matter in the troposphere adversely impacts human health when inhaled and alters climate through cloud formation processes and by absorbing/scattering light. Particles smaller than 2.5 mum in diameter (fine particulate matter; PM2.5), are typically emitted from combustion-related sources and can form and grow through secondary processing in the atmosphere. Coarse particles (PM10-2.5), ranging 2.5 to 10 mum, are typically generated through abrasive processes, such as erosion of road surfaces, entrained via resuspension, and settle quickly out of the atmosphere due to their large size. After deciding against regulating PM10-2.5 in 2006 citing, among other reasons, mixed results from epidemiological studies of the pollutant and lack of knowledge on health impacts in rural areas, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) funded a series of studies that investigated the ambient composition, toxicology, and epidemiology of PM10-2.5. One such study, The Colorado Coarse Rural-Urban Sources and Health (CCRUSH) study, aimed to characterize the composition, sources, and health effects of PM10-2.5 in semi-arid northeastern Colorado and consisted of two field campaigns and an epidemiological study. Summarized here are the results from the two field campaigns, the first of which included over three years of continuous PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentration monitoring at multiple sites in urban-Denver and rural-Greeley, Colorado. This data set was used to characterize the spatiotemporal variability of PM10-2.5 and PM2.5. During the second year of continuous monitoring, PM 10-2.5 and PM2.5 filter samples were collected for compositional analyses that included: elemental composition, bulk elemental and organic carbon concentrations, water-soluble organic carbon concentrations, UV-vis absorbance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and endotoxin content. Elemental composition was used to understand enrichment of trace elements in atmospheric particles and to

  8. Trends in the elemental composition of fine particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Sax, Sonja N; Koutrakis, Petros; Rudolph, Pablo A Ruiz; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Gramsch, Ernesto; Oyola, Pedro

    2007-07-01

    Santiago, Chile, is one of the most polluted cities in South America. As a response, over the past 15 yr, numerous pollution reduction programs have been implemented by the environmental authority, Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente. This paper assesses the effectiveness of these interventions by examining the trends of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and its associated elements. Daily fine particle filter samples were collected in Santiago at a downtown location from April 1998 through March 2003. Additionally, meteorological variables were measured continuously. Annual average concentrations of PM(2.5) decreased only marginally, from 41.8 microg/m3 for the 1998-1999 period to 35.4 microg/m3 for the 2002-2003 period. PM(2.5) concentrations exceeded the annual U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard of 15 microg/m3. Also, approximately 20% of the daily samples exceeded the old standard of 65 microg/m3, whereas approximately half of the samples exceeded the new standard of 35 microg/m3 (effective in 2006). Mean PM(2.5) levels measured during the cold season (April through September) were three times higher than those measured in the warm season (October through March). Particulate mass and elemental concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for year, month, weekday, wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity. The results showed significant decreases for Pb, Br, and S concentrations and minor but still significant decreases for Ni, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe. The larger decreases were associated with specific remediation policies implemented, including the removal of lead from gasoline, the reduction of sulfur levels in diesel fuel, and the introduction of natural gas. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs, especially the ones related to transport, have been effective in reducing various important components of PM(2.5). However, particle mass and other associated element levels remain high, and it is thus

  9. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter and Mortality among Survivors of Myocardial Infarction: Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Burnett, Richard T.; Copes, Ray; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Brook, Robert D.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Jerrett, Michael; Martin, Randall V.; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Kopp, Alexander; Tu, Jack V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Survivors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are at increased risk of dying within several hours to days following exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollution. Little is known, however, about the influence of long-term (months to years) air pollution exposure on survival after AMI. Objective: We conducted a population-based cohort study to determine the impact of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) on post-AMI survival. Methods: We assembled a cohort of 8,873 AMI patients who were admitted to 1 of 86 hospital corporations across Ontario, Canada in 1999–2001. Mortality follow-up for this cohort extended through 2011. Cumulative time-weighted exposures to PM2.5 were derived from satellite observations based on participants’ annual residences during follow-up. We used standard and multilevel spatial random-effects Cox proportional hazards models and adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Between 1999 and 2011, we identified 4,016 nonaccidental deaths, of which 2,147 were from any cardiovascular disease, 1,650 from ischemic heart disease, and 675 from AMI. For each 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR10) of nonaccidental mortality was 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.45]. The association with PM2.5 was robust to sensitivity analyses and appeared stronger for cardiovascular-related mortality: ischemic heart (HR10 = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.83) and AMI (HR10 = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.40). We estimated that 12.4% of nonaccidental deaths (or 497 deaths) could have been averted if the lowest measured concentration in an urban area (4 μg/m3) had been achieved at all locations over the course of the study. Conclusions: Long-term air pollution exposure adversely affects the survival of AMI patients. Citation: Chen H, Burnett RT, Copes R, Kwong JC, Villeneuve PJ, Goldberg MS, Brook RD, van Donkelaar A, Jerrett M, Martin RV, Brook JR, Kopp A, Tu JV. 2016. Ambient fine

  10. Mood-Dependent Cognitive Change in a Man with Bipolar Disorder Who Cycles Every 24 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Dominic; Mansell, Warren

    2008-01-01

    A case study of a bipolar patient whose mood changes every 24 hours is described to illustrate the changes in cognitive processing and content during different phases of bipolar disorder. The participant completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks on 4 separate occasions: twice when depressed and twice when manic. Depression tended to be…

  11. Leg skinfold thicknesses and race performance in male 24-hour ultra-marathoners.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    The association of skinfold thicknesses with race performance has been investigated in runners competing over distances of ≤50 km. This study investigated a potential relation between skinfold thicknesses and race performance in male ultra-marathoners completing >50 km in 24 hours. Variables of anthropometry, training, and previous performance were related to race performance in 63 male ultra-marathoners aged 46.9 (standard deviation [SD] 10.3) years, standing 1.78 (SD 0.07) m in height, and weighing 73.3 (SD 7.6) kg. The runners clocked 146.1 (SD 43.1) km during the 24 hours. In the bivariate analysis, several variables were associated with race performance: body mass (r = -0.25); skinfold thickness at axilla (r = -0.37), subscapula (r = -0.28), abdomen (r = -0.31), and suprailiaca (r = -0.30); the sum of skinfold thicknesses (r = -0.32); percentage body fat (r = -0.32); weekly kilometers run (r = 0.31); personal best time in a marathon (r = -0.58); personal best time in a 100-km ultra-run (r = -0.31); and personal best performance in a 24-hour run (r = 0.46). In the multivariate analysis, no anthropometric or training variable was related to race performance. In conclusion, in contrast to runners up to distances of 50 km, skinfold thicknesses of the lower limbs were not related to race performance in 24-hour ultra-marathoners.

  12. The Three-Continent, 24-Hour Help Desk: An Academic First?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Describes Follow the Sun, a computer help-desk service that takes advantage of time differences around the world to permit four universities (University of Colorado Boulder, Australia's Macquarie and Newcastle universities, and the London School of Economics) to share services and provide 24-hour support to users. (EV)

  13. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  14. Oropharyngeal 24-Hour pH Monitoring in Children With Airway-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Mesallam, Tamer A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diagnosis and clinical presentation of pediatric laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is still controversial. The aims of this work were to study the possibility of performing 24-hour oropharyngeal pH monitoring for children in the outpatient clinic setup and to explore the results of this test in correlation to airway-related problems. Methods In this descriptive qualitative study, 26 children suffering from airway-related problems were included. Oropharyngeal 24-hour pH monitoring was performed for all subjects in the outpatient clinic setting. The distribution of airway diagnoses among the study group was studied versus the results of the pH monitoring. Results There were 16 males and 10 females participated in the study with a mean age of 6.88 (SD, ±5.77) years. Thirty-five percent of the patients were under the age of 3 years (range, 11 months to 3 years). Eight-five percent of the patients tolerated the pH probe insertion and completed 24-hour of pH recording. Laryngomalacia and subglottic stenosis (SGS) were more frequently reported in the positive LPR patients (77%). Conclusion Oropharyngeal 24-hour pH monitoring can be conducted for children in the outpatient setup even in young age children below 3 years old. Among the positive LPR group, SGS and laryngomalacia were the most commonly reported airway findings. PMID:27090271

  15. Fine Particulate Pollution and Source Apportionment in the Urban Centers for Africa, Asia and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, S. K.; Johnson, T. M.; Procee, P.

    2004-12-01

    Fossil fuel combustion for domestic cooking and heating, power generation, industrial processes, and motor vehicles are the primary sources of air pollution in the developing country cities. Over the past twenty years, major advances have been made in understanding the social and economic consequences of air pollution. In both industrialized and developing countries, it has been shown that air pollution from energy combustion has detrimental impacts on human health and the environment. Lack of information on the sectoral contributions to air pollution - especially fine particulates, is one of the typical constraints for an effective integrated urban air quality management program. Without such information, it is difficult, if not impossible, for decision makers to provide policy advice and make informed investment decisions related to air quality improvements in developing countries. This also raises the need for low-cost ways of determining the principal sources of fine PM for a proper planning and decision making. The project objective is to develop and verify a methodology to assess and monitor the sources of PM, using a combination of ground-based monitoring and source apportionment techniques. This presentation will focus on four general tasks: (1) Review of the science and current activities in the combined use of monitoring data and modeling for better understanding of PM pollution. (2) Review of recent advances in atmospheric source apportionment techniques (e.g., principal component analysis, organic markers, source-receptor modeling techniques). (3) Develop a general methodology to use integrated top-down and bottom-up datasets. (4) Review of a series of current case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America and the methodologies applied to assess the air pollution and its sources.

  16. Measurement error corrected sodium and potassium intake estimation using 24-hour urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Van Horn, Linda; Tinker, Lesley F; Neuhouser, Marian L; Carbone, Laura; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Thomas, Fridtjof; Prentice, Ross L

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological studies of the association of sodium and potassium intake with cardiovascular disease risk have almost exclusively relied on self-reported dietary data. Here, 24-hour urinary excretion assessments are used to correct the dietary self-report data for measurement error under the assumption that 24-hour urine recovery provides a biomarker that differs from usual intake according to a classical measurement model. Under this assumption, dietary self-reports underestimate sodium by 0% to 15%, overestimate potassium by 8% to 15%, and underestimate sodium/potassium ratio by ≈20% using food frequency questionnaires, 4-day food records, or three 24-hour dietary recalls in Women's Health Initiative studies. Calibration equations are developed by linear regression of log-transformed 24-hour urine assessments on corresponding log-transformed self-report assessments and several study subject characteristics. For each self-report method, the calibration equations turned out to depend on race and age and strongly on body mass index. After adjustment for temporal variation, calibration equations using food records or recalls explained 45% to 50% of the variation in (log-transformed) 24-hour urine assessments for sodium, 60% to 70% of the variation for potassium, and 55% to 60% of the variation for sodium/potassium ratio. These equations may be suitable for use in epidemiological disease association studies among postmenopausal women. The corresponding signals from food frequency questionnaire data were weak, but calibration equations for the ratios of sodium and potassium/total energy explained ≈35%, 50%, and 45% of log-biomarker variation for sodium, potassium, and their ratio, respectively, after the adjustment for temporal biomarker variation and may be suitable for cautious use in epidemiological studies. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000611.

  17. A comparison of the deformation behavior of ultra fine grained copper produced by particulate processing and bulk deformation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, S.M.L.; Iyer, R.S.; Provenzano, V.; Kurihara, L.

    1999-07-01

    Mechanical properties of ultra fine grained copper prepared by particulate processing and bulk deformation processing were studied. Specimens were prepared by (i) consolidation of nanocrystalline particles produced by solution phase synthesis (SPS) and POLYOL processes and (ii) severe plastic deformation (SPD) by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE). The mechanical properties were determined by micro hardness measurements, compression testing, and three-point bend testing. Whereas the particulate processed copper exhibited high hardness values, the specimens failed without exhibiting any plastic deformation in 3-point bend tests.

  18. Spatial-temporal association between fine particulate matter and daily mortality

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jungsoon; Fuentes, Montserrat; Reich, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a mixture of pollutants that has been linked to serious health problems, including premature mortality. Since the chemical composition of PM2.5 varies across space and time, the association between PM2.5 and mortality could also change with space and season. In this work we develop and implement a statistical multi-stage Bayesian framework that provides a very broad, flexible approach to studying the spatiotemporal associations between mortality and population exposure to daily PM2.5 mass, while accounting for different sources of uncertainty. In stage 1, we map ambient PM2.5 air concentrations using all available monitoring data (IMPROVE and FRM) and an air quality model (CMAQ) at different spatial and temporal scales. In stage 2, we examine the spatial temporal relationships between the health end-points and the exposures to PM2.5 by introducing a spatial-temporal generalized Poisson regression model. We adjust for time-varying confounders, such as seasonal trends. A common seasonal trends model is to use a fixed number of basis functions to account for these confounders, but the results can be sensitive to the number of basis functions. In this study, the number of the basis functions is treated as an unknown parameter in our Bayesian model and we use a space-time stochastic search variable selection approach. We apply our methods to a data set in North Carolina for the year 2001. PMID:19652691

  19. Diagnostic air quality model evaluation of source-specific primary and secondary fine particulate carbon.

    PubMed

    Napelenok, Sergey L; Simon, Heather; Bhave, Prakash V; Pye, Havala O T; Pouliot, George A; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Schauer, James J

    2014-01-01

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004-February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate the results of a numerical air quality model. Previous analyses of these measurements demonstrated excellent mass closure for the variety of contributing sources. In this study, a carbon-apportionment version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was used to track primary organic and elemental carbon emissions from 15 independent sources such as mobile sources and biomass burning in addition to four precursor-specific classes of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) originating from isoprene, terpenes, aromatics, and sesquiterpenes. Conversion of the source-resolved model output into organic tracer concentrations yielded a total of 2416 data pairs for comparison with observations. While emission source contributions to the total model bias varied by season and measurement location, the largest absolute bias of -0.55 μgC/m(3) was attributed to insufficient isoprene SOA in the summertime CMAQ simulation. Biomass combustion was responsible for the second largest summertime model bias (-0.46 μgC/m(3) on average). Several instances of compensating errors were also evident; model underpredictions in some sectors were masked by overpredictions in others.

  20. Diagnostic air quality model evaluation of source-specific primary and secondary fine particulate carbon.

    PubMed

    Napelenok, Sergey L; Simon, Heather; Bhave, Prakash V; Pye, Havala O T; Pouliot, George A; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Schauer, James J

    2014-01-01

    Ambient measurements of 78 source-specific tracers of primary and secondary carbonaceous fine particulate matter collected at four midwestern United States locations over a full year (March 2004-February 2005) provided an unprecedented opportunity to diagnostically evaluate the results of a numerical air quality model. Previous analyses of these measurements demonstrated excellent mass closure for the variety of contributing sources. In this study, a carbon-apportionment version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was used to track primary organic and elemental carbon emissions from 15 independent sources such as mobile sources and biomass burning in addition to four precursor-specific classes of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) originating from isoprene, terpenes, aromatics, and sesquiterpenes. Conversion of the source-resolved model output into organic tracer concentrations yielded a total of 2416 data pairs for comparison with observations. While emission source contributions to the total model bias varied by season and measurement location, the largest absolute bias of -0.55 μgC/m(3) was attributed to insufficient isoprene SOA in the summertime CMAQ simulation. Biomass combustion was responsible for the second largest summertime model bias (-0.46 μgC/m(3) on average). Several instances of compensating errors were also evident; model underpredictions in some sectors were masked by overpredictions in others. PMID:24245475

  1. World Trade Center fine particulate matter--chemistry and toxic respiratory effects: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Stephen H

    2003-06-01

    The 11 September 2001 terrorist attack on New York City's World Trade Center (WTC) caused an unprecedented environmental emergency. The collapse of the towers sent a tremendous cloud of crushed building materials and other pollutants into the air of lower Manhattan. In response to the calamity, federal, state, and city environmental authorities and research institutes devoted enormous resources to evaluate the impact of WTC-derived air pollution on public health. Unfortunately, on the day of the disaster, no air-sampling monitors were operating close to the WTC site to characterize and quantify pollutants in the dust cloud. However, analysis of fallen dust samples collected 5 and 6 days after the attack showed that 1-4% by weight consisted of particles small enough to be respirable (Lioy et al. 2002). These particles included fine particulate matter, or PM(subscript)2.5(/subscript) [PM < 2.5 micro m mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD)], which can be inhaled deep into the lung and is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory health effects. Because of the extremely high concentrations of dust immediately after the collapse of the towers, even a relatively small proportion of PM(subscript)2.5(/subscript) in the dust clouds could have contributed to breathing problems in rescue workers and others who were not wearing protective masks.

  2. MicroRNA-1228(*) inhibit apoptosis in A549 cells exposed to fine particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaobo; Ding, Zhen; Zhang, Chengcheng; Zhang, Xin; Meng, Qingtao; Wu, Shenshen; Wang, Shizhi; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu; Chen, Rui

    2016-05-01

    Studies have reported associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and respiratory disorders; however, the underlying mechanism is not completely clear owing to the complex components of PM2.5. microRNAs (miRNAs) demonstrate tremendous regulation to target genes, which are sensitive to exogenous stimulation, and facilitate the integrative understood of biological responses. Here, significantly modulated miRNA were profiled by miRNA microarray, coupled with bioinformatic analysis; the potential biological function of modulated miRNA were predicted and subsequently validated by cell-based assays. Downregulation of miR-1228-5p (miR-1228(*)) expression in human A549 cells were associated with PM2.5-induced cellular apoptosis through a mitochondria-dependent pathway. Further, overexpression of miR-1228(*) rescued the cellular damages induced by PM2.5. Thus, our results demonstrate that PM2.5-induced A549 apoptosis is initiated by mitochondrial dysfunction and miR-1228(*) could protect A549 cells against apoptosis. The involved pathways and target genes might be used for future mechanistic studies.

  3. Temporal Patterns in Fine Particulate Matter Time Series in Beijing: A Calendar View.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Jie; Li, Weifeng

    2016-01-01

    Extremely high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration has become synonymous to Beijing, the capital of China, posing critical challenges to its sustainable development and leading to major public health concerns. In order to formulate mitigation measures and policies, knowledge on PM2.5 variation patterns should be obtained. While previous studies are limited either because of availability of data, or because of problematic a priori assumptions that PM2.5 concentration follows subjective seasonal, monthly, or weekly patterns, our study aims to reveal the data on a daily basis through visualization rather than imposing subjective periodic patterns upon the data. To achieve this, we conduct two time-series cluster analyses on full-year PM2.5 data in Beijing in 2014, and provide an innovative calendar visualization of PM2.5 measurements throughout the year. Insights from the analysis on temporal variation of PM2.5 concentration show that there are three diurnal patterns and no weekly patterns; seasonal patterns exist but they do not follow a strict temporal division. These findings advance current understanding on temporal patterns in PM2.5 data and offer a different perspective which can help with policy formulation on PM2.5 mitigation. PMID:27561629

  4. Temporal Patterns in Fine Particulate Matter Time Series in Beijing: A Calendar View

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Jie; Li, Weifeng

    2016-01-01

    Extremely high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration has become synonymous to Beijing, the capital of China, posing critical challenges to its sustainable development and leading to major public health concerns. In order to formulate mitigation measures and policies, knowledge on PM2.5 variation patterns should be obtained. While previous studies are limited either because of availability of data, or because of problematic a priori assumptions that PM2.5 concentration follows subjective seasonal, monthly, or weekly patterns, our study aims to reveal the data on a daily basis through visualization rather than imposing subjective periodic patterns upon the data. To achieve this, we conduct two time-series cluster analyses on full-year PM2.5 data in Beijing in 2014, and provide an innovative calendar visualization of PM2.5 measurements throughout the year. Insights from the analysis on temporal variation of PM2.5 concentration show that there are three diurnal patterns and no weekly patterns; seasonal patterns exist but they do not follow a strict temporal division. These findings advance current understanding on temporal patterns in PM2.5 data and offer a different perspective which can help with policy formulation on PM2.5 mitigation. PMID:27561629

  5. Fossil and nonfossil carbon in fine particulate matter: A study of five European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasius, Marianne; La Cour, Agnete; Lohse, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Fossil carbon in particulate matter comes from anthropogenic use and combustion of fossil fuels, while nonfossil carbon may originate from both biogenic (e.g., pollen, plant debris, fungal spores, and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA)) and anthropogenic sources (e.g., cooking and residential wood combustion). We investigated the relative contributions of fossil and nonfossil sources to fine carbonaceous aerosols in five European cities by radiocarbon analysis of aerosol samples collected at four types of sites in 2002-2004. The average fraction of nonfossil carbon was 43 ± 11%, with the lowest fraction, 36 ± 7%, at urban curbside sites and the highest fraction, 54 ± 11%, at rural background sites, farthest away from the impact of man-made emissions. Generally, fossil carbon concentrations at urban curbside sites are elevated in comparison to background sites, which is expected because of their proximity to vehicular emissions. Contrary to what might be expected, the concentration of nonfossil carbon is also higher at curbside than at background sites. This may be attributable to differences between site categories in levels of primary biological aerosols, brake and tire wear in resuspended road dust, biofuels, emissions from cooking and residential wood combustion, or processes such as anthropogenic enhancement of biogenic SOA and increased partitioning of semivolatile compounds into the aerosol phase at urban sites. The exact causes should be investigated by future detailed source analyses.

  6. Fifteen-Year Global Time Series of Satellite-Derived Fine Particulate Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Boys, B. L.; Martin, R. V.; van Donkelaar, A.; MacDonell, R. J.; Hsu, N. C.; Cooper, M. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S. W.

    2014-10-07

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a leading environmental risk factor for premature mortality. We use aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from two satellite instruments, MISR and SeaWiFS, to produce a unified 15-year global time series (1998-2012) of ground-level PM2.5 concentration at a resolution of 1 degrees x 1 degrees. The GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM) is used to relate each individual AOD retrieval to ground-level PM2.5. Four broad areas showing significant, spatially coherent, annual trends are examined in detail: the Eastern U.S. (-0.39 +/- 0.10 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)), the Arabian Peninsula (0.81 +/- 0.21 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)), South Asia (0.93 +/- 0.22 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)) and East Asia (0.79 +/- 0.27 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)). Over the period of dense in situ observation (1999-2012), the linear tendency for the Eastern U.S. (-0.37 +/- 0.13 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)) agrees well with that from in situ measurements (-0.38 +/- 0.06 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)). A GEOS-Chem simulation reveals that secondary inorganic aerosols largely explain the observed PM2.5 trend over the Eastern U.S., South Asia, and East Asia, while mineral dust largely explains the observed trend over the Arabian Peninsula.

  7. Seasonal composition of remote and urban fine particulate matter in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, J. L.; Schichtel, B. A.; Pitchford, M.; Malm, W. C.; Frank, N. H.

    2012-03-01

    Speciated aerosol composition data from the rural Interagency Monitoring for Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network and the Environmental Protection Agency's urban/suburban Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) were combined to evaluate and contrast the PM2.5 composition and its seasonal patterns at urban and rural locations throughout the United States. We examined the 2005-2008 monthly and annual mean mass concentrations of PM2.5 ammonium sulfate (AS), ammonium nitrate (AN), particulate organic matter (POM), light-absorbing carbon (LAC), mineral soil, and sea salt from 168 rural and 176 urban sites. Urban and rural AS concentrations and seasonality were similar, and both were substantially higher in the eastern United States. Urban POM and LAC concentrations were higher than rural concentrations and were associated with very different seasonality depending on location. The highest urban and rural POM and LAC concentrations occurred in the southeastern and northwestern United States. Wintertime peaks in AN were common for both urban and rural sites, but urban concentrations were several times higher, and both were highest in California and the Midwest. Fine soil concentrations were highest in the Southwest, and similar regional patterns and seasonality in urban and rural concentrations suggested impacts from long-range transport. Contributions from sea salt to the PM2.5 budget were non-negligible only at coastal sites. This analysis revealed spatial and seasonal variability in urban and rural aerosol concentrations on a continental scale and provided insights into their sources, processes, and lifetimes.

  8. Temporal Patterns in Fine Particulate Matter Time Series in Beijing: A Calendar View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Jie; Li, Weifeng

    2016-08-01

    Extremely high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration has become synonymous to Beijing, the capital of China, posing critical challenges to its sustainable development and leading to major public health concerns. In order to formulate mitigation measures and policies, knowledge on PM2.5 variation patterns should be obtained. While previous studies are limited either because of availability of data, or because of problematic a priori assumptions that PM2.5 concentration follows subjective seasonal, monthly, or weekly patterns, our study aims to reveal the data on a daily basis through visualization rather than imposing subjective periodic patterns upon the data. To achieve this, we conduct two time-series cluster analyses on full-year PM2.5 data in Beijing in 2014, and provide an innovative calendar visualization of PM2.5 measurements throughout the year. Insights from the analysis on temporal variation of PM2.5 concentration show that there are three diurnal patterns and no weekly patterns; seasonal patterns exist but they do not follow a strict temporal division. These findings advance current understanding on temporal patterns in PM2.5 data and offer a different perspective which can help with policy formulation on PM2.5 mitigation.

  9. Gas chromatographic analysis of organic marker compounds in fine particulate matter using solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Lee, Milton L; Eatough, Delbert J

    2007-01-01

    A gas chromatographic method that uses solid-phase microextraction for analysis of organic marker compounds in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is reported. The target marker compounds were selected for specificity toward emission from wood smoke, diesel or gasoline combustion, or meat cooking. Temperature-programmed volatilization analysis was used to characterize the thermal stabilities and volatile properties of the compounds of interest. The compounds were thermally evaporated from a quartz filter, sorbed to a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber, and thermally desorbed at 280 degrees C in a gas chromatograph injection port connected via a DB 1701 capillary separating column. Various experimental parameters (fiber type, time, and temperature of sorption) were optimized. It was found that high extraction yield could be achieved using a polyacrylate fiber for polar substances, such as levoglucosan, and a 7-microm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated fiber for nonpolar compounds, such as hopanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbon. A compromise was made by selecting a carboxen/PDMS fiber, which can simultaneously extract all of the analytes of interest with moderate-to-high efficiency at 180 degrees C within a 30-min accumulation period. The optimized method was applied to the determination of levoglucosan in pine wood combustion emissions. The simplicity, rapidity, and selectivity of sample collection with a polymer-coated SPME coupled to capillary gas chromatography (GC) made this method potentially useful for atmospheric chemistry studies.

  10. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Induces Apoptosis of Endothelial Progenitor Cells Through Reactive Oxygen Species Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuqi; Xie, Xiaoyun; Jia, Fengpeng; He, Jianfeng; Li, Zhihong; Fu, Minghuan; Hao, Hong; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jason Z.; Cowan, Peter J.; Zhu, Hua; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a critical role in angiogenesis and vascular repair. Some environmental insults, like fine particulate matter (PM) exposure, significantly impair cardiovascular functions. However, the mechanisms for PM-induced adverse effects on cardiovascular system remain largely unknown. The present research was to study the detrimental effects of PM on EPCs and explore the potential mechanisms. Methods PM was intranasal-distilled into male C57BL/6 mice for one month. Flow cytometry was used to measure the number of EPCs, apoptosis level of circulating EPCs and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Serum TNF-α and IL-1β were measured using ELISA. To determine the role of PM-induced ROS in EPC apoptosis, PM was co-administrated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in wild type mice or used in a triple transgenic mouse line (TG) with overexpression of antioxidant enzyme network (AON) composed of superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, SOD3, and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx-1) with decreased in vivo ROS production. Results PM treatment significantly decreased circulating EPC population, promoted apoptosis of EPCs in association with increased ROS production and serum TNF-α and IL-1β levels, which could be effectively reversed by either NAC treatment or overexpression of AON. Conclusion PM exposure significantly decreased circulating EPCs population due to increased apoptosis via ROS formation in mice. PMID:25591776

  11. Temporal Patterns in Fine Particulate Matter Time Series in Beijing: A Calendar View.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Jie; Li, Weifeng

    2016-01-01

    Extremely high fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration has become synonymous to Beijing, the capital of China, posing critical challenges to its sustainable development and leading to major public health concerns. In order to formulate mitigation measures and policies, knowledge on PM2.5 variation patterns should be obtained. While previous studies are limited either because of availability of data, or because of problematic a priori assumptions that PM2.5 concentration follows subjective seasonal, monthly, or weekly patterns, our study aims to reveal the data on a daily basis through visualization rather than imposing subjective periodic patterns upon the data. To achieve this, we conduct two time-series cluster analyses on full-year PM2.5 data in Beijing in 2014, and provide an innovative calendar visualization of PM2.5 measurements throughout the year. Insights from the analysis on temporal variation of PM2.5 concentration show that there are three diurnal patterns and no weekly patterns; seasonal patterns exist but they do not follow a strict temporal division. These findings advance current understanding on temporal patterns in PM2.5 data and offer a different perspective which can help with policy formulation on PM2.5 mitigation.

  12. Spatial variable selection methods for investigating acute health effects of fine particulate matter components.

    PubMed

    Boehm Vock, Laura F; Reich, Brian J; Fuentes, Montserrat; Dominici, Francesca

    2015-03-01

    Multi-site time series studies have reported evidence of an association between short term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, but the effect size varies across the United States. Variability in the effect may partially be due to differing community level exposure and health characteristics, but also due to the chemical composition of PM which is known to vary greatly by location and time. The objective of this article is to identify particularly harmful components of this chemical mixture. Because of the large number of highly-correlated components, we must incorporate some regularization into a statistical model. We assume that, at each spatial location, the regression coefficients come from a mixture model with the flavor of stochastic search variable selection, but utilize a copula to share information about variable inclusion and effect magnitude across locations. The model differs from current spatial variable selection techniques by accommodating both local and global variable selection. The model is used to study the association between fine PM (PM <2.5μm) components, measured at 115 counties nationally over the period 2000-2008, and cardiovascular emergency room admissions among Medicare patients.

  13. Associations Between Fine Particulate Matter Components and Daily Mortality in Nagoya, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Kayo; Yamagami, Makiko; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Hisatsune, Kunihiro; Nitta, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Seasonal variation and regional heterogeneity have been observed in the estimated effect of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass on mortality. Differences in the chemical compositions of PM2.5 may cause this variation. We investigated the association of the daily concentration of PM2.5 components with mortality in Nagoya, Japan. Methods We combined daily mortality counts for all residents aged 65 years and older with concentration data for PM2.5 mass and components in Nagoya from April 2003 to December 2007. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to examine the association of daily mortality with PM2.5 mass and each component (chloride, nitrate, sulfate, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, ammonium, elemental carbon [EC], and organic carbon [OC]). Results We found a stronger association between mortality and PM2.5 mass in transitional seasons. In analysis for each PM2.5 component, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, potassium, EC, and OC were significantly associated with mortality in a single-pollutant model. In a multi-pollutant model, an interquartile range increase in the concentration of sulfate was marginally associated with an increase in all-cause mortality of 2.1% (95% confidence interval, −0.1 to 4.4). Conclusions These findings suggest that some specific PM components have a more hazardous effect than others and contribute to seasonal variation in the health effects of PM2.5. PMID:26686882

  14. Seasonal changes of 24-hour intraocular pressure rhythm in healthy Shanghai population

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jingyi; Xiao, Ming; Xu, Huan; Fang, Shaobin; Chen, Xu; Kong, Xiangmei; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythms in winter and summer in the healthy population of Shanghai, China. This is a cross-sectional study in which 24-hour IOP measurements were taken for all eligible healthy volunteers in winter and summer, respectively, and the temperature, hours of sunlight (sunlight time), and circulatory parameters, including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, were also recorded. The 24-hour IOP curves and IOP parameters (mean, peak, trough, and fluctuation of IOP together with the diurnal-to-nocturnal IOP change) in winter and summer were obtained and compared. The magnitude of IOP changes from summer to winter was also calculated. A total of 29 participants (58 eyes), 14 (48.28%) male and 15 (51.72%) female, aged 43.66 ± 12.20 (19–61) years, were considered eligible for this study. Generally, IOP decreased progressively before noon, increased notably in the nocturnal period, and peaked at 12:00 am in winter and at 2:00 am in summer. The pattern of 24-hour IOP in winter and summer was significantly different (P = 0.002). The average IOPs from 4:00 pm to 8:00 am, except for 6:00 am, were significantly higher in winter (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were shown after adjusting for temperature and/or sunlight time. From summer to winter, the extent of IOP increase was mostly around 0 to 3 mm Hg, and the IOPs increased more significantly in the nocturnal period than in the diurnal period (P = 0.05). The 24-hour IOP rhythms were different in winter and summer, with higher IOP level in winter. Temperature and sunlight time, which are independent of heart rate and blood pressure, affected the 24-hour IOP rhythms in healthy people in Shanghai, China. Further investigations are expected for the rhythm of some endogenous substance secretion and the inner mechanism of regulation of IOP. PMID:27495076

  15. Controlling fine particulate and acid mist emissions from a residual oil fired utility boiler with an EDV{trademark} system

    SciTech Connect

    Olen, K.R.; Vincent, H.B.; Jones, G.

    1995-06-01

    Florida Power & Light Company (FPL), in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Belco Technologies Corporation, evaluated the performance of an EDV system to remove fine particulate and acid mist from untreated flue gas from a residual oil-fired utility boiler. The cosponsored project was carried out using a full-scale EDV module in a slip stream from one of the 400 MW wall-fired boilers at FPL`s Sanford Plant. Particulate, acid gas and chemical analytical data are presented, and used to illustrate the effects of operating variables on EDV performance. EDV system efficiencies of 90% were achieved, which resulted in controlled particulate and SO{sub 3} emissions of less than 10 mg/Nm{sup 3} (0.0065 lbs/10{sup 6}Btu) and 1 ppmv, respectively.

  16. Chemical analysis of World Trade Center fine particulate matter for use in toxicologic assessment.

    PubMed Central

    McGee, John K; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Chee, Glen R; Prophete, Colette M; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Wasson, Shirley J; Conner, Teri L; Costa, Daniel L; Gavett, Stephen H

    2003-01-01

    The catastrophic destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 caused the release of high levels of airborne pollutants into the local environment. To assess the toxicity of fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5)], which may adversely affect the health of workers and residents in the area, we collected fallen dust samples on 12 and 13 September 2001 from sites within a half-mile of Ground Zero. Samples of WTC dust were sieved, aerosolized, and size-separated, and the PM2.5 fraction was isolated on filters. Here we report the chemical and physical properties of PM2.5 derived from these samples and compare them with PM2.5 fractions of three reference materials that range in toxicity from relatively inert to acutely toxic (Mt. St. Helens PM; Washington, DC, ambient air PM; and residual oil fly ash). X-ray diffraction of very coarse sieved WTC PM (< 53 microm) identified calcium sulfate (gypsum) and calcium carbonate (calcite) as major components. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that calcium-sulfur and calcium-carbon particles were also present in the WTC PM2.5 fraction. Analysis of WTC PM2.5 using X-ray fluorescence, neutron activation analysis, and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry showed high levels of calcium (range, 22-33%) and sulfur (37-43% as sulfate) and much lower levels of transition metals and other elements. Aqueous extracts of WTC PM2.5 were basic (pH range, 8.9-10.0) and had no evidence of significant bacterial contamination. Levels of carbon were relatively low, suggesting that combustion-derived particles did not form a significant fraction of these samples recovered in the immediate aftermath of the destruction of the towers. Because gypsum and calcite are known to cause irritation of the mucus membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract, inhalation of high doses of WTC PM2.5 could potentially cause toxic respiratory effects. PMID:12782501

  17. Emissions of Fine Particulate Matter From Motor Vehicles: A Tunnel study in Houston, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, P.; Chellam, S.; Fraser, M. P.

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this research is to identify individual organic compounds and trace metals emitted as PM2.5 from motor vehicles that can serve as tracers in order to quantify the relative contributions of diesel and gasoline engines to PM2.5 emissions in the Houston, TX area. We report results from a systematic analysis of PM2.5 emitted from vehicles in a highway tunnel in Houston, TX, viz. Washburn tunnel. PM2.5 emissions were speciated in terms of individual organic compounds including 14 n-alkanes, 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 9 petroleum biomarkers using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry as well as 16 metals using Inductively Coupled-Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). PM2.5 samples were digested using a technique developed by us that eliminates direct handling of hydrofluoric acid. HF was first generated in situ at high temperature and pressure in closed Teflon liners by heating a mixture of NaF, HNO3, and sample and then complexing any remaining HF using H3BO3. We have recently reported that this method is capable of completely extracting trace elements from airborne particulate matter prior to analysis using ICP-MS. Potential tracers were first identified using an exploratory multivariate dimensionality reduction technique called Principal Component Analysis (PCA). PCA results were also physically interpreted by calculating emission indices. Among the possible marker compounds identified by PCA for use in separating diesel and gasoline fine particulate matter, emission indices of 5 n-alkanes, (n-heneicosane, n-docosane, n-tricosane, n-tetracosane, and n-pentacosane), and 2 PAHs, (fluoranthene and pyrene) were strongly and positively correlated with the amount of carbon emanating from diesel vehicles. This suggests that these compounds can be used as molecular markers for diesel engine emissions. PCA of trace metal concentrations showed that Zn, Cu, and Ba can be attributed to direct vehicle emissions. However, emission index

  18. World Trade Center fine particulate matter causes respiratory tract hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gavett, Stephen H; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Highfill, Jerry W; Ledbetter, Allen D; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Harkema, Jack R; Wagner, James G; Costa, Daniel L

    2003-01-01

    Pollutants originating from the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City on 11 September 2001 have been reported to cause adverse respiratory responses in rescue workers and nearby residents. We examined whether WTC-derived fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5)] has detrimental respiratory effects in mice to contribute to the risk assessment of WTC-derived pollutants. Samples of WTC PM2.5 were derived from settled dust collected at several locations around Ground Zero on 12 and 13 September 2001. Aspirated samples of WTC PM2.5 induced mild to moderate degrees of pulmonary inflammation 1 day after exposure but only at a relatively high dose (100 microg). This response was not as great as that caused by 100 microg PM2.5 derived from residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or Washington, DC, ambient air PM [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649a]. However, this same dose of WTC PM2.5 caused airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine aerosol comparable to that from SRM 1649a and to a greater degree than that from ROFA. Mice exposed to lower doses by aspiration or inhalation exposure did not develop significant inflammation or hyperresponsiveness. These results show that exposure to high levels of WTC PM2.5 can promote mechanisms of airflow obstruction in mice. Airborne concentrations of WTC PM2.5 that would cause comparable doses in people are high (approximately 425 microg/m3 for 8 hr) but conceivable in the aftermath of the collapse of the towers when rescue and salvage efforts were in effect. We conclude that a high-level exposure to WTC PM2.5 could cause pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in people. The effects of chronic exposures to lower levels of WTC PM2.5, the persistence of any respiratory effects, and the effects of coarser WTC PM are unknown and were not examined in these studies. Degree of exposure and respiratory

  19. SOURCE SIGNATURES OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PETROLEUM REFINING AND FUEL USE

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman; Frank E. Huggins; Naresh Shah; Artur Braun; Yuanzhi Chen; J. David Robertson; Joseph Kyger; Adel F. Sarofim; Ronald J. Pugmire; Henk L.C. Meuzelaar; JoAnn Lighty

    2003-07-31

    The molecular structure and microstructure of a suite of fine particulate matter (PM) samples produced by the combustion of residual fuel oil and diesel fuel were investigated by an array of analytical techniques. Some of the more important results are summarized below. Diesel PM (DPM): A small diesel engine test facility was used to generate a suite of diesel PM samples from different fuels under engine load and idle conditions. C XANES, {sup 13}C NMR, XRD, and TGA were in accord that the samples produced under engine load conditions contained more graphitic material than those produced under idle conditions, which contained a larger amount of unburned diesel fuel and lubricating oil. The difference was enhanced by the addition of 5% of oxygenated compounds to the reference fuel. Scanning transmission x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM) was able to distinguish particulate regions rich in C=C bonds from regions rich in C-H bonds with a resolution of {approx}50 nm. The former are representative of more graphitic regions and the latter of regions rich in unburned fuel and oil. The dominant microstructure observed by SEM and TEM consisted of complex chain-like structures of PM globules {approx}20-100 nm in mean diameter, with a high fractal dimension. High resolution TEM revealed that the graphitic part of the diesel soot consisted of onion-like structures made up of graphene layers. Typically 3-10 graphene layers make up the ''onion rings'', with the layer spacing decreasing as the number of layers increases. ROFA PM: Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) PM has been analyzed by a new approach that combines XAFS spectroscopy with selective leaching procedures. ROFA PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5+} produced in combustion facilities at the U.S. EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRML) were analyzed by XAFS before and after leaching with water, acid (1N HCl), and pentane. Both water and acid leaching removed most of the metal sulfates, which were the dominant phase present

  20. [Identification of paroxysmal, transient arrhythmias: Intermittent registration more efficient than the 24-hour Holter monitoring].

    PubMed

    Hendrikx, Tijn; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Sandström, Herbert; Persson, Mats; Hörnsten, Rolf

    2015-01-06

    Many patients suffer from palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. These patients are often referred for Holter ECG (24 hour), although the sensitivity for detecting arrhythmias is low. A new method, short intermittent regular and symptomatic ECG registrations at home, might be a convenient and more sensitive alternative also suitable for primary health care. In this case report we present a patient who had contacted health care several times during a seven year period for paroxysmal palpitations. Routine examination with 24 hour Holter ECG and event recorder did not result in a diagnosis. Using intermittent handheld ECG registration at home, a paroxysmal supraventricular arrhythmia was diagnosed. Further investigation revealed that the patient had a concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome.

  1. Pulmonary function in mechanically-ventilated patients during 24-hour use of a hygroscopic condensor humidifier.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, N R; Anderson, H R; Silver, R M; Schuler, F R; Coleman, R E

    1983-11-01

    Hygroscopic condensor humidifiers (HCH) are reportedly capable of humidifying even the driest of ventilator source gases with at least 30 mg H2O/liter of ventilation. To assess the adequacy of the HCH during mechanical ventilation, we studied 26 patients over a 72-hour period (alternating 24-hour periods of humidification by a conventional cascade and the HCH). In these patients, we found no significant difference in static lung compliance, airway resistance, PaO2, and PaCO2 on either system. Additionally, estimates of sputum volume (over a four-hour collection period) and clearance of aerosolized 99mTc labelled DTPA (in five of these patients) also showed no significant differences between the two systems. We conclude that the HCH is capable of supplying necessary heat and moisture to most mechanically-ventilated patients for at least a period of 24 hours.

  2. Demonstration that thiazole-orange-positive platelets in the dog are less than 24 hours old.

    PubMed

    Dale, G L; Friese, P; Hynes, L A; Burstein, S A

    1995-04-01

    Approximately 6% of dog platelets are positive for staining with thiazole orange, a dye frequently used to stain ribonucleic acid. In this report, thiazole-orange positivity is shown to mark platelets that are less than 24 hours old. Dog platelets were derivatized in vivo with N-hydroxysuccinimido biotin such that greater than 95% of all platelets were biotinylated. Newly synthesized, nonbiotinylated platelets were then monitored by flow cytometry for their ability to bind thiazole orange. After biotinylation, the percentage of biotin-negative, thiazole-orange-positive platelets increased gradually from 0.72% at 30 minutes to 5.44% at 24 hours. These data indicate that thiazole-orange staining does label newly synthesized platelets.

  3. [Contraceptive effect of spermicide on cervical mucus in vivo after 24 hours (authors transl)].

    PubMed

    Batallan, L; Brissi, J; Commerot, J

    1980-10-01

    Efficacy of Alpagelle, a vaginal contraceptive jelly containing benzalkonium chlorohydrate, was tested on 34 women who had been using it for some. The testing was conducted using fresh human spermatozoa, and measuring the penetration into the cervical mucus 24 hours after instillation of 2 ml. of Alpagelle. Maximum penetration of spermatozoa before immobilization and death was 2/10 mm., while it is 2mm. a minute under normal conditions. Alpagelle has no contraindications, and only 1 application every 24 hours will provide contraceptive protection; such method could be ideal for women presenting temporary or permanent contraindications to the IUD, or to the pill, or to those who wish to opt for a method free of side effects. PMID:12262152

  4. Circadian Polymorphisms in Night Owls, in Bipolars, and in Non-24-Hour Sleep Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Klimecki, Walter T.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Rex, Katharine M.; Murray, Sarah S.; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J.; Loving, Richard T.; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F.; Poceta, J. Steven; Jamil, Shazia M.; Kline, Lawrence E.; Kelsoe, John R.

    2014-01-01

    People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression. PMID:25395965

  5. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deitrick, Ronald W.; Hillman, Angela R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK: 19172 ± 4542 kJ versus NoBK: 15312 ± 4513 kJ; p < 0.001) and evening (BK: 12265 ± 4278 kJ versus NoBK: 10833 ± 4065; p = 0.039) energy intake and RQ (BK: 0.90 ± 0.03 versus NoBK: 0.86 ± 0.03; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise (5.2 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L; p = 0.025). Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management. PMID:27738523

  6. Assessing variability of the 24-hour pad weight test in men with post-prostatectomy incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Rena D.; Cohn, Joshua A.; Fedunok, Pauline A.; Chung, Doreen E.; Bales, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Decision-making regarding surgery for post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI) is challenging. The 24-hour pad weight test is commonly used to objectively quantify PPI. However, pad weight may vary based upon activity level. We aimed to quantify variability in pad weights based upon patient-reported activity. Materials and Methods: 25 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were prospectively enrolled. All patients demonstrated clinical stress urinary incontinence without clinical urgency urinary incontinence. On three consecutive alternating days, patients submitted 24-hour pad weights along with a short survey documenting activity level and number of pads used. Results: Pad weights collected across the three days were well correlated to the individual (ICC 0.85 (95% CI 0.74–0.93), p<0.001). The mean difference between the minimum pad weight leakage and maximum leakage per patient was 133.4g (95% CI 80.4–186.5). The mean increase in 24-hour leakage for a one-point increase in self-reported activity level was 118.0g (95% CI 74.3–161.7, p<0.001). Pad weights also varied significantly when self-reported activity levels did not differ (mean difference 51.2g (95% CI 30.3–72.1), p<0.001). Conclusions: 24-hour pad weight leakage may vary significantly on different days of collection. This variation is more pronounced with changes in activity level. Taking into account patient activity level may enhance the predictive value of pad weight testing. PMID:27256187

  7. Circadian polymorphisms in night owls, in bipolars, and in non-24-hour sleep cycles.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F; Klimecki, Walter T; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Rex, Katharine M; Murray, Sarah S; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J; Loving, Richard T; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F; Poceta, J Steven; Jamil, Shazia M; Kline, Lawrence E; Kelsoe, John R

    2014-10-01

    People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression. PMID:25395965

  8. Impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) drop within 24 hours after cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joshua Kuang-Chao; Chuang, Ann Yi-Chiun; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Li, Lieber Po-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Previous animal study revealed that post-implantation electrical detection levels significantly declined within days. The impact of cochlear implant (CI) insertion on human auditory pathway in terms of impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) variation within hours after surgery remains unclear, since at this time frequency mapping can only commence weeks after implantation due to factors associated with wound conditions. The study presented our experiences with regards to initial switch-on within 24 hours, and thus the findings about the milieus inside cochlea within the first few hours after cochlear implantation in terms of impedance/ECAP fluctuations. The charts of fifty-four subjects with profound hearing impairment were studied. A minimal invasive approach was used for cochlear implantation, characterized by a small skin incision (≈ 2.5 cm) and soft techniques for cochleostomy. Impedance/ECAP was measured intro-operatively and within 24 hours post-operatively. Initial mapping within 24 hours post-operatively was performed in all patients without major complications. Impedance/ECAP became significantly lower measured within 24 hours post-operatively as compared with intra-operatively (p<0.001). There were no differences between pre-operative and post-operative threshold for air-conduction hearing. A significant drop of impedance/ECAP in one day after cochlear implantation was revealed for the first time in human beings. Mechanisms could be related to the restoration of neuronal sensitivity to the electrical stimulation, and/or the interaction between the matrix enveloping the electrodes and the electrical stimulation of the initial switch-on. Less wound pain/swelling and soft techniques both contributed to the success of immediate initial mapping, which implied a stable micro-environment inside the cochlea despite electrodes insertion. Our research invites further studies to correlate initial impedance/ECAP changes with long

  9. Impedance and Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential (ECAP) Drop within 24 Hours after Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joshua Kuang-Chao; Chuang, Ann Yi-Chiun; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Li, Lieber Po-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Previous animal study revealed that post-implantation electrical detection levels significantly declined within days. The impact of cochlear implant (CI) insertion on human auditory pathway in terms of impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) variation within hours after surgery remains unclear, since at this time frequency mapping can only commence weeks after implantation due to factors associated with wound conditions. The study presented our experiences with regards to initial switch-on within 24 hours, and thus the findings about the milieus inside cochlea within the first few hours after cochlear implantation in terms of impedance/ECAP fluctuations. The charts of fifty-four subjects with profound hearing impairment were studied. A minimal invasive approach was used for cochlear implantation, characterized by a small skin incision (≈2.5 cm) and soft techniques for cochleostomy. Impedance/ECAP was measured intro-operatively and within 24 hours post-operatively. Initial mapping within 24 hours post-operatively was performed in all patients without major complications. Impedance/ECAP became significantly lower measured within 24 hours post-operatively as compared with intra-operatively (p<0.001). There were no differences between pre-operative and post-operative threshold for air-conduction hearing. A significant drop of impedance/ECAP in one day after cochlear implantation was revealed for the first time in human beings. Mechanisms could be related to the restoration of neuronal sensitivity to the electrical stimulation, and/or the interaction between the matrix enveloping the electrodes and the electrical stimulation of the initial switch-on. Less wound pain/swelling and soft techniques both contributed to the success of immediate initial mapping, which implied a stable micro-environment inside the cochlea despite electrodes insertion. Our research invites further studies to correlate initial impedance/ECAP changes with long

  10. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  11. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders.

  12. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  13. Continuous 24-hour intraocular pressure monitoring for glaucoma--time for a paradigm change.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, K; Weinreb, R

    2012-01-01

    Glaucoma is the main cause of irreversible blindness and intraocular pressure (IOP) is its only modifiable risk factor. The importance of robust lowering of IOP for prevention of glaucoma onset and progression is well established. Although IOP is a dynamic parameter with individual circadian rhythms, current management usually relies on single IOP measurements during regular clinic hours performed a few times a year. Recent technological advances have provided clinicians with tools for continuous IOP monitoring during a 24 hour period in an ambulatory setting. There are two approaches being investigated. The first is permanent IOP monitoring through an implantable sensor and the other is temporary monitoring through a contact lens sensor. In this article, we discuss the shortcomings of the current gold standard for tonometry (Goldmann Applanation Tonometry) and the current experience with the first commercially available continuous 24 hour IOP monitoring technology (SENSIMED Triggerfish®); a telemetric contact lens sensor produced by a Swiss start-up company (Sensimed AG, Lausanne, Switzerland). Recent studies suggest that 24 hour continuous monitoring of IOP can be integrated into clinical practice and have the potential to contribute to the reduction of glaucoma-related vision loss.

  14. Exposure of highway maintenance workers to fine particulate matter and noise.

    PubMed

    Meier, Reto; Cascio, Wayne E; Danuser, Brigitta; Riediker, Michael

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we assessed the mixed exposure of highway maintenance workers to airborne particles, noise, and gaseous co-pollutants. The aim was to provide a better understanding of the workers' exposure to facilitate the evaluation of short-term effects on cardiovascular health endpoints. To quantify the workers' exposure, we monitored 18 subjects during 50 non-consecutive work shifts. Exposure assessment was based on personal and work site measurements and included fine particulate matter (PM2.5), particle number concentration (PNC), noise (Leq), and the gaseous co-pollutants: carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. Mean work shift PM2.5 concentrations (gravimetric measurements) ranged from 20.3 to 321 μg m(-3) (mean 62 μg m(-3)) and PNC were between 1.6×10(4) and 4.1×10(5) particles cm(-3) (8.9×10(4) particles cm(-3)). Noise levels were generally high with Leq over work shifts from 73.3 to 96.0 dB(A); the averaged Leq over all work shifts was 87.2 dB(A). The highest exposure to fine and ultrafine particles was measured during grass mowing and lumbering when motorized brush cutters and chain saws were used. Highest noise levels, caused by pneumatic hammers, were measured during paving and guardrail repair. We found moderate Spearman correlations between PNC and PM2.5 (r = 0.56); PNC, PM2.5, and CO (r = 0.60 and r = 0.50) as well as PNC and noise (r = 0.50). Variability and correlation of parameters were influenced by work activities that included equipment causing combined air pollutant and noise emissions (e.g. brush cutters and chain saws). We conclude that highway maintenance workers are frequently exposed to elevated airborne particle and noise levels compared with the average population. This elevated exposure is a consequence of the permanent proximity to highway traffic with additional peak exposures caused by emissions of the work-related equipment. PMID:23720452

  15. Charge-Spot Model for Electrostatic Forces in Simulation of Fine Particulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.; Johnson, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    . Adhesive image-charge forces acting on charged particles touching conducting surfaces can be up to 50 times stronger if the charge is located in discrete spots on the particle surface instead of being distributed uniformly over the surface of the particle, as is assumed by most other models. Besides being useful in modeling particulates in space and distant objects, this modeling technique is useful for electrophotography (used in copiers) and in simulating the effects of static charge in the pulmonary delivery of fine dry powders.

  16. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Preterm Birth in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah; Bobb, Jennifer F.; Ito, Kazuhiko; Savitz, David A.; Elston, Beth; Shmool, Jessie L.C.; Dominici, Francesca; Ross, Zev; Clougherty, Jane E.; Matte, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested associations between air pollution and various birth outcomes, but the evidence for preterm birth is mixed. Objective: We aimed to assess the relationship between air pollution and preterm birth using 2008–2010 New York City (NYC) birth certificates linked to hospital records. Methods: We analyzed 258,294 singleton births with 22–42 completed weeks gestation to nonsmoking mothers. Exposures to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during the first, second, and cumulative third trimesters within 300 m of maternal address were estimated using data from the NYC Community Air Survey and regulatory monitors. We estimated the odds ratio (OR) of spontaneous preterm (gestation < 37 weeks) births for the first- and second-trimester exposures in a logistic mixed model, and the third-trimester cumulative exposures in a discrete time survival model, adjusting for maternal characteristics and delivery hospital. Spatial and temporal components of estimated exposures were also separately analyzed. Results: PM2.5 was not significantly associated with spontaneous preterm birth. NO2 in the second trimester was negatively associated with spontaneous preterm birth in the adjusted model (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.97 per 20 ppb). Neither pollutant was significantly associated with spontaneous preterm birth based on adjusted models of temporal exposures, whereas the spatial exposures showed significantly reduced odds ratios (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.96 per 10 μg/m3 PM2.5 and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.98 per 20 ppb NO2). Without adjustment for hospital, these negative associations were stronger. Conclusion: Neither PM2.5 nor NO2 was positively associated with spontaneous preterm delivery in NYC. Delivery hospital was an important spatial confounder. Citation: Johnson S, Bobb JF, Ito K, Savitz DA, Elston B, Shmool JL, Dominici F, Ross Z, Clougherty JE, Matte T. 2016. Ambient fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and

  17. Characterizing and predicting coarse and fine particulates in classrooms located close to an urban roadway.

    PubMed

    Chithra, V S; Nagendra, S M Shiva

    2014-08-01

    The PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 10, < 2.5, and < 1 microm, respectively) concentrations were monitored over a 90-day period in a naturally ventilated school building located at roadside in Chennai City. The 24-hr average PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 concentrations at indoor and outdoor environments were found to be 136 +/- 60, 36 +/- 15, and 20 +/- 12 and 76 +/- 42, 33 +/- 16, and 23 +/- 14 microg/m3, respectively. The size distribution of PM in the classroom indicated that coarse mode was dominant during working hours (08:00 a.m. to 04:00 p.m.), whereas fine mode was dominant during nonworking hours (04:00 p.m. to 08:00 a.m.). The increase in coarser particles coincided with occupant activities in the classrooms and finer particles were correlated with outdoor traffic. Analysis of indoor PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 concentrations monitored at another school, which is located at urban reserved forest area (background site) indicated 3-4 times lower PM10 concentration than the school located at roadside. Also, the indoor PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations were 1.3-1.5 times lower at background site. Further, a mass balance indoor air quality (IAQ) model was modified to predict the indoor PM concentration in the classroom. Results indicated good agreement between the predicted and measured indoor PM2.5 (R2 = 0.72-0.81) and PM1 (R2 = 0.81-0.87) concentrations. But, the measured and predicted PM10 concentrations showed poor correlation (R2 = 0.17-0.23), which may be because the IAQ model could not take into account the sudden increase in PM10 concentration (resuspension of large size particles) due to human activities. Implications: The present study discusses characteristics of the indoor coarse and fine PM concentrations of a naturally ventilated school building located close to an urban roadway and at a background site in Chennai City, India. The study results will be useful to engineers and policymakers to prepare strategies for improving the

  18. Concentration dynamics of coarse and fine particulate matter at and around signalised traffic intersections.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Goel, Anju

    2016-09-14

    The understanding of rapidly evolving concentrations of particulate matter (PMC) at signalised traffic intersections (TIs) is limited, but it is important for accurate exposure assessment. We performed "mobile" and "fixed-site" monitoring of size-resolved PMCs in the 0.25-34 μm range at TIs. On-road mobile measurements were made inside a car under five different ventilation settings on a 6 km long round route, passing through 10 different TIs. Fixed-site measurements were conducted at two types (3- and 4-way) of TIs. The aims were to assess the effects of different ventilation settings on in-vehicle PMCs and their comparison during delay conditions at the TIs with those experienced by pedestrians while crossing these TIs. We also estimated the zone of influence (ZoI) for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 under different driving conditions and fitted the probability distribution functions to fixed-site data to understand the concentration and exposure dynamics of coarse and fine particles around the studied (3- and 4-way) TIs. The fine particles (PM2.5) showed a strong positive exponential correlation with the air exchange rates under different ventilation settings compared with coarse particles (PM2.5-10) showing an opposite trend. This suggested that the ventilation system of the car was relatively more efficient in removing coarse particles from the incoming outside air. On-road median PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 during delays at the TIs were ∼40%, 16% and 17% higher, respectively, compared with free-flow conditions on the rest of the route. About 7% of the average commuting time spent during delay conditions over all the runs at the TIs corresponded to 10, 7 and 8% of the total respiratory deposition dose (RDD) for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. The maximum length of the ZoI for PM2.5 and PM1 was highest at the 4-way TI and the maximum length of the ZoI for PM10 was highest at the 3-way TI. The on-road average RDD rate of PM10 inside the cabin when windows were fully open was

  19. Exposure of highway maintenance workers to fine particulate matter and noise.

    PubMed

    Meier, Reto; Cascio, Wayne E; Danuser, Brigitta; Riediker, Michael

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we assessed the mixed exposure of highway maintenance workers to airborne particles, noise, and gaseous co-pollutants. The aim was to provide a better understanding of the workers' exposure to facilitate the evaluation of short-term effects on cardiovascular health endpoints. To quantify the workers' exposure, we monitored 18 subjects during 50 non-consecutive work shifts. Exposure assessment was based on personal and work site measurements and included fine particulate matter (PM2.5), particle number concentration (PNC), noise (Leq), and the gaseous co-pollutants: carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. Mean work shift PM2.5 concentrations (gravimetric measurements) ranged from 20.3 to 321 μg m(-3) (mean 62 μg m(-3)) and PNC were between 1.6×10(4) and 4.1×10(5) particles cm(-3) (8.9×10(4) particles cm(-3)). Noise levels were generally high with Leq over work shifts from 73.3 to 96.0 dB(A); the averaged Leq over all work shifts was 87.2 dB(A). The highest exposure to fine and ultrafine particles was measured during grass mowing and lumbering when motorized brush cutters and chain saws were used. Highest noise levels, caused by pneumatic hammers, were measured during paving and guardrail repair. We found moderate Spearman correlations between PNC and PM2.5 (r = 0.56); PNC, PM2.5, and CO (r = 0.60 and r = 0.50) as well as PNC and noise (r = 0.50). Variability and correlation of parameters were influenced by work activities that included equipment causing combined air pollutant and noise emissions (e.g. brush cutters and chain saws). We conclude that highway maintenance workers are frequently exposed to elevated airborne particle and noise levels compared with the average population. This elevated exposure is a consequence of the permanent proximity to highway traffic with additional peak exposures caused by emissions of the work-related equipment.

  20. Concentration dynamics of coarse and fine particulate matter at and around signalised traffic intersections.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Goel, Anju

    2016-09-14

    The understanding of rapidly evolving concentrations of particulate matter (PMC) at signalised traffic intersections (TIs) is limited, but it is important for accurate exposure assessment. We performed "mobile" and "fixed-site" monitoring of size-resolved PMCs in the 0.25-34 μm range at TIs. On-road mobile measurements were made inside a car under five different ventilation settings on a 6 km long round route, passing through 10 different TIs. Fixed-site measurements were conducted at two types (3- and 4-way) of TIs. The aims were to assess the effects of different ventilation settings on in-vehicle PMCs and their comparison during delay conditions at the TIs with those experienced by pedestrians while crossing these TIs. We also estimated the zone of influence (ZoI) for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 under different driving conditions and fitted the probability distribution functions to fixed-site data to understand the concentration and exposure dynamics of coarse and fine particles around the studied (3- and 4-way) TIs. The fine particles (PM2.5) showed a strong positive exponential correlation with the air exchange rates under different ventilation settings compared with coarse particles (PM2.5-10) showing an opposite trend. This suggested that the ventilation system of the car was relatively more efficient in removing coarse particles from the incoming outside air. On-road median PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 during delays at the TIs were ∼40%, 16% and 17% higher, respectively, compared with free-flow conditions on the rest of the route. About 7% of the average commuting time spent during delay conditions over all the runs at the TIs corresponded to 10, 7 and 8% of the total respiratory deposition dose (RDD) for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. The maximum length of the ZoI for PM2.5 and PM1 was highest at the 4-way TI and the maximum length of the ZoI for PM10 was highest at the 3-way TI. The on-road average RDD rate of PM10 inside the cabin when windows were fully open was

  1. A Source Apportionment of U.S. Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, George D.; Ito, Kazuhiko; Lall, Ramona

    2011-01-01

    Using daily fine particulate matter (PM2.5) composition data from the 2000–2005 U.S. EPA Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) for over 200 sites, we applied multivariate methods to identify and quantify the major fine particulate matter (PM2.5) source components in the U.S. Novel aspects of this work were: (1) the application of factor analysis (FA) to multi-city daily data, drawing upon both spatial and temporal variations of chemical species; and, (2) the exclusion of secondary components (sulfates, nitrates and organic carbon) from the source identification FA to more clearly discern and apportion the PM2.5 mass to primary emission source categories. For the quantification of source-related mass, we considered two approaches based upon the FA results: 1) using single key tracers for sources identified by FA in a mass regression; and, 2) applying Absolute Principal Component Analysis (APCA). In each case, we followed a two-stage mass regression approach, in which secondary components were first apportioned among the identified sources, and then mass was apportioned to the sources and to other secondary mass not explained by the individual sources. The major U.S. PM2.5 source categories identified via FA (and their key elements) were: Metals Industry (Pb, Zn); Crustal/Soil Particles (Ca, Si); Motor Vehicle Traffic (EC, NO2); Steel Industry (Fe, Mn); Coal Combustion (As, Se); Oil Combustion (V, Ni); Salt Particles (Na, Cl) and Biomass Burning (K). Nationwide spatial plots of the source-related PM2.5 impacts were confirmatory of the factor interpretations: ubiquitous sources, such as Traffic and Soil, were found to be spread across the nation, more unique sources (such as Steel and Metals Processing) being highest in select industrialized cities, Biomass Burning was highest in the U.S. Northwest, while Residual Oil combustion was highest in cities in the Northeastern U.S. and in cities with major seaports. The sum of these source contributions and the secondary PM2

  2. A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Elementary School Absences and Fine Particulate Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Hales, Nicholas M; Barton, Caleb C; Ransom, Michael R; Allen, Ryan T; Pope, C Arden

    2016-03-01

    Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) has been associated with many adverse health outcomes including school absences. Specifically, a previous study in the Utah Valley area, conducted during a time with relatively high air pollution exposure, found significant positive correlations between school absences and air pollution. We examined the hypothesis that ambient PM2.5 exposures are associated with elementary school absences using a quasi-natural experiment to help control for observed and unobserved structural factors that influence school absences. The Alpine, Provo, and Salt Lake City school districts are located in valleys subject to daily mean PM2.5 concentrations almost twice as high as those in the Park City School District. We used seminonparametric generalized additive Poisson regression models to evaluate associations between absences and daily PM2.5 levels in the 3 districts that were exposed to the most pollution while using Park City absences as a quasi-control. The study covered 3 school years (2011/12-2013/14). School absences were most strongly associated with observed structural factors such as seasonal trends across school years, day-of-week effects, holiday effects, weather, etc. However, after controlling for these structural factors directly and using a control district, a 10 μg/m increase in PM2.5 was associated with an approximately 1.7% increase in daily elementary school absences. Exposure to ambient air pollution can contribute to elementary school absences, although this effect is difficult to disentangle from various other factors.

  3. Effect of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) on Rat Placenta Pathology and Perinatal Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Ledan; Wang, Fang; Li, Changzhong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) has been reported to cause adverse effects on human health. Evidence has shown the association between PM2.5 exposure and adverse perinatal outcomes, and the most common method is epidemiological investigation. We wished to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on placenta and prenatal outcomes and its related mechanisms in a rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Pregnant rats were exposed to a low PM2.5 dose (15 mg/kg) with intratracheal instillation at pregnant day 10 and day 18, while the controls received an equivalent volume normal saline. All rats received cesarean section 24 h after the last intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed with anesthesia. Blood routine tests (BRT) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected for analyzing inflammation and blood coagulation. Placenta tissue sections underwent pathologic examination, and the levels of homogenate glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) were determined for oxidative stress estimation. RESULTS Increased absorbed blastocysts, and lower maternal weight gain and fetal weight were found in the PM2.5 exposure group compared to controls (p<0.05). Exposure to PM2.5 caused a significant increase of blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), platelets, and IL-6 levels (P<0.01). There were no differences in GSH-Px and MDA of placenta homogenate between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Placenta pathological examination demonstrated thrombus and chorioamnionitis in the PM2.5 exposure group. CONCLUSIONS PM2.5 exposure can result in placental pathological changes and adverse perinatal outcomes. The placental inflammation and hypercoagulability with vascular thrombosis may play important roles in placental impairment, but oxidative stress appears to be less important. PMID:27629830

  4. Impacts of Intercontinental Transport of Anthropogenic Fine Particulate Matter on Human Mortality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; West, J. Jason; Hongbin, Yu; Chin, Mian; Schulz, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Bey, Isabelle; Bian, Huisheng; Diehl, Thomas; Fiore, Arlene; Hess, Peter; Marmer, Elina; Montanaro, Veronica; Park, Rokjin; Shindell, Drew; Takemura, Toshihiko; Dentener, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Fine particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5) is associated with premature mortality and can travel long distances, impacting air quality and health on intercontinental scales. We estimate the mortality impacts of 20 % anthropogenic primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emission reductions in each of four major industrial regions (North America, Europe, East Asia, and South Asia) using an ensemble of global chemical transport model simulations coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution and epidemiologically-derived concentration-response functions. We estimate that while 93-97 % of avoided deaths from reducing emissions in all four regions occur within the source region, 3-7 % (11,500; 95 % confidence interval, 8,800-14,200) occur outside the source region from concentrations transported between continents. Approximately 17 and 13 % of global deaths avoided by reducing North America and Europe emissions occur extraregionally, owing to large downwind populations, compared with 4 and 2 % for South and East Asia. The coarse resolution global models used here may underestimate intraregional health benefits occurring on local scales, affecting these relative contributions of extraregional versus intraregional health benefits. Compared with a previous study of 20 % ozone precursor emission reductions, we find that despite greater transport efficiency for ozone, absolute mortality impacts of intercontinental PM2.5 transport are comparable or greater for neighboring source-receptor pairs, due to the stronger effect of PM2.5 on mortality. However, uncertainties in modeling and concentration-response relationships are large for both estimates.

  5. Relationship Between Birth Weight and Exposure to Airborne Fine Particulate Potassium and Titanium During Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.; Belanger, Kathleen; Ebisu, Keita; Gent, Janneane F.; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne particles are linked to numerous health impacts, including adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most studies of particles examined total mass, although the chemical structure of particles varies widely. We investigated whether mother’s exposure to potassium (K) and titanium (Ti) components of airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during pregnancy was associated with birth weight or risk of low birth weight (<2500 gm) for term infants. The study population was 76,788 infants born in four counties in Connecticut and Massachusetts, US, for August 2000-February 2004. Both K and Ti were associated with birth weight. An interquartile range (IQR) increase K was associated with an 8.75% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24–16.8%) increase in risk of low birth weight. An IQR increase in Ti was associated with a 12.1% (95% CI: 3.55–21.4%) increase in risk of low birth weight, with an estimate of 6.41% (95% CI: −5.80–20.2%) for males and 16.4% (95% CI: 5.13–28.9%) for females. Results were robust to sensitivity analysis of first births only, but not adjustment by co-pollutants. Disentangling the effects of various chemical components is challenging because of the covariance among some components due to similar sources. Central effect estimates for infants of African-American mothers were higher than those of white mothers, although the confidence intervals overlapped. Our results indicate that exposure to airborne potassium and titanium during pregnancy is associated with lower birth weight. Associations may relate to chemical components of sources producing K and Ti. PMID:22705336

  6. Relationship between birth weight and exposure to airborne fine particulate potassium and titanium during gestation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle L; Belanger, Kathleen; Ebisu, Keita; Gent, Janneane F; Leaderer, Brian P

    2012-08-01

    Airborne particles are linked to numerous health impacts, including adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most studies of particles examined total mass, although the chemical structure of particles varies widely. We investigated whether mother's exposure to potassium (K) and titanium (Ti) components of airborne fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) during pregnancy was associated with birth weight or risk of low birth weight (<2500 g) for term infants. The study population was 76,788 infants born in four counties in Connecticut and Massachusetts, US, for August 2000-February 2004. Both K and Ti were associated with birth weight. An interquartile range (IQR) increase K was associated with an 8.75% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-16.8%) increase in risk of low birth weight. An IQR increase in Ti was associated with a 12.1% (95% CI: 3.55-21.4%) increase in risk of low birth weight, with an estimate of 6.41% (95% CI: -5.80-20.2%) for males and 16.4% (95% CI: 5.13-28.9%) for females. Results were robust to sensitivity analysis of first births only, but not adjustment by co-pollutants. Disentangling the effects of various chemical components is challenging because of the covariance among some components due to similar sources. Central effect estimates for infants of African-American mothers were higher than those of white mothers, although the confidence intervals overlapped. Our results indicate that exposure to airborne potassium and titanium during pregnancy is associated with lower birth weight. Associations may relate to chemical components of sources producing K and Ti.

  7. Effects of Independence Day fireworks on atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Dian J.; Birnbaum, Abigail N.

    2015-08-01

    Previous case studies have documented increases in air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), during and following fireworks displays associated with various holidays and celebrations around the world. But no study to date has explored fireworks effects on air quality over large regions using systematic observations over multiple years to estimate typical regional PM increases. This study uses observations of fine PM (with particle diameters < 2.5 μm, PM2.5) from 315 air quality monitoring sites across the United States to estimate the effects of Independence Day fireworks on hourly and 24-hr average concentrations. Hourly PM2.5 concentrations during the evening of July 4 and morning of July 5 are higher than on the two preceding and following days in July, considered as control days. On national average, the increases are largest (21 μg/m3) at 9-10 pm on July 4 and drop to zero by noon on July 5. Average concentrations for the 24-hr period beginning 8 pm on July 4 are 5 μg/m3 (42%) greater than on control days, on national average. The magnitude and timing of the Independence Day increases vary from site to site and from year to year, as would be expected given variations in factors such as PM2.5 emissions from fireworks, local meteorological conditions, and distances between fireworks displays and monitoring sites. At one site adjacent to fireworks, hourly PM2.5 levels climb to ∼500 μg/m3, and 24-hr average concentrations increase by 48 μg/m3 (370%). These results have implications for potential improvements in air quality models and their predictions, which currently do not account for this emissions source.

  8. Optimal estimation for global ground-level fine particulate matter concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Drury, Easan; Remer, Lorraine A.; Levy, Robert C.; Wang, Jun

    2013-06-01

    We develop an optimal estimation (OE) algorithm based on top-of-atmosphere reflectances observed by the MODIS satellite instrument to retrieve near-surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The GEOS-Chem chemical transport model is used to provide prior information for the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrieval and to relate total column AOD to PM2.5. We adjust the shape of the GEOS-Chem relative vertical extinction profiles by comparison with lidar retrievals from the CALIOP satellite instrument. Surface reflectance relationships used in the OE algorithm are indexed by land type. Error quantities needed for this OE algorithm are inferred by comparison with AOD observations taken by a worldwide network of sun photometers (AERONET) and extended globally based upon aerosol speciation and cross correlation for simulated values, and upon land type for observational values. Significant agreement in PM2.5 is found over North America for 2005 (slope = 0.89; r = 0.82; 1-σ error = 1 µg/m3 + 27%), with improved coverage and correlation relative to previous work for the same region and time period, although certain subregions, such as the San Joaquin Valley of California are better represented by previous estimates. Independently derived error estimates of the OE PM2.5 values at in situ locations over North America (of ±(2.5 µg/m3 + 31%) and Europe of ±(3.5 µg/m3 + 30%) are corroborated by comparison with in situ observations, although globally (error estimates of ±(3.0 µg/m3 + 35%), may be underestimated. Global population-weighted PM2.5 at 50% relative humidity is estimated as 27.8 µg/m3 at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution.

  9. Fine particulate matter and visibility in the Lake Tahoe Basin: chemical characterization, trends, and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Green, Mark C; Chen, L W Antony; DuBois, David W; Molenar, John V

    2012-08-01

    Speciated PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameterFine mass at SOLA is 2.5 times that at BLIS, mainly due to enhanced organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC). SOLA experiences a winter peak in PM25 mainly due to OC and EC from residential wood combustion, whereas BLIS experiences a summer peak in PM2.5 mainly due to OC and ECfrom wildfires. Carbonaceous aerosol dominates visibility impairment, causing about 1/2 the reconstructed aerosol light extinction at BLIS and 70% at SOLA. Trend analysis (1990-2009) showed statistically significant decreases in aerosol extinction at BLIS on 20% best and 60% middle visibility days and statistically insignificant upward trends on 20% worst days. SOLA (1990-2003) showed statistically significant decreases in aerosol extinction for all day categories, driven by decreasing OC and EC. From the regional haze rule baseline period of 2000-2004 until 2005-2009, BLIS saw 20% best days improving and 20% worst days getting worse due to increased wildfire effects. Receptor modeling was performed using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and chemical mass balance (CMB). It confirmed that (1) biomass burning dominanted PM25 sources at both sites with increasing importance over time; (2) low combustion efficiency burning accounts for most of the biomass burning contribution; (3) road dust and traffic contributions were much higher at SOLA than at BLIS; and (4) industrial combustion and salting were minor sources.

  10. Ozone, Fine Particulate Matter, and Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease Mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yongping; Balluz, Lina; Strosnider, Heather; Wen, Xiao Jun; Li, Chaoyang; Qualters, Judith R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Short-term effects of air pollution exposure on respiratory disease mortality are well established. However, few studies have examined the effects of long-term exposure, and among those that have, results are inconsistent. Objectives To evaluate long-term association between ambient ozone, fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less), and chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) mortality in the contiguous United States. Methods We fit Bayesian hierarchical spatial Poisson models, adjusting for five county-level covariates (percentage of adults aged ≥65 years, poverty, lifetime smoking, obesity, and temperature), with random effects at state and county levels to account for spatial heterogeneity and spatial dependence. Measurements and Main Results We derived county-level average daily concentration levels for ambient ozone and PM2.5 for 2001–2008 from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s down-scaled estimates and obtained 2007–2008 CLRD deaths from the National Center for Health Statistics. Exposure to ambient ozone was associated with an increased rate of CLRD deaths, with a rate ratio of 1.05 (95% credible interval, 1.01–1.09) per 5-ppb increase in ozone; the association between ambient PM2.5 and CLRD mortality was positive but statistically insignificant (rate ratio, 1.07; 95% credible interval, 0.99–1.14). Conclusions This study links air pollution exposure data with CLRD mortality for all 3,109 contiguous U.S. counties. Ambient ozone may be associated with an increased rate of death from CLRD in the contiguous United States. Although we adjusted for selected county-level covariates and unobserved influences through Bayesian hierarchical spatial modeling, the possibility of ecologic bias remains. PMID:26017067

  11. A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Elementary School Absences and Fine Particulate Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Hales, Nicholas M; Barton, Caleb C; Ransom, Michael R; Allen, Ryan T; Pope, C Arden

    2016-03-01

    Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) has been associated with many adverse health outcomes including school absences. Specifically, a previous study in the Utah Valley area, conducted during a time with relatively high air pollution exposure, found significant positive correlations between school absences and air pollution. We examined the hypothesis that ambient PM2.5 exposures are associated with elementary school absences using a quasi-natural experiment to help control for observed and unobserved structural factors that influence school absences. The Alpine, Provo, and Salt Lake City school districts are located in valleys subject to daily mean PM2.5 concentrations almost twice as high as those in the Park City School District. We used seminonparametric generalized additive Poisson regression models to evaluate associations between absences and daily PM2.5 levels in the 3 districts that were exposed to the most pollution while using Park City absences as a quasi-control. The study covered 3 school years (2011/12-2013/14). School absences were most strongly associated with observed structural factors such as seasonal trends across school years, day-of-week effects, holiday effects, weather, etc. However, after controlling for these structural factors directly and using a control district, a 10 μg/m increase in PM2.5 was associated with an approximately 1.7% increase in daily elementary school absences. Exposure to ambient air pollution can contribute to elementary school absences, although this effect is difficult to disentangle from various other factors. PMID:26945391

  12. A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Elementary School Absences and Fine Particulate Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Nicholas M.; Barton, Caleb C.; Ransom, Michael R.; Allen, Ryan T.; Pope, C. Arden

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) has been associated with many adverse health outcomes including school absences. Specifically, a previous study in the Utah Valley area, conducted during a time with relatively high air pollution exposure, found significant positive correlations between school absences and air pollution. We examined the hypothesis that ambient PM2.5 exposures are associated with elementary school absences using a quasi-natural experiment to help control for observed and unobserved structural factors that influence school absences. The Alpine, Provo, and Salt Lake City school districts are located in valleys subject to daily mean PM2.5 concentrations almost twice as high as those in the Park City School District. We used seminonparametric generalized additive Poisson regression models to evaluate associations between absences and daily PM2.5 levels in the 3 districts that were exposed to the most pollution while using Park City absences as a quasi-control. The study covered 3 school years (2011/12-2013/14). School absences were most strongly associated with observed structural factors such as seasonal trends across school years, day-of-week effects, holiday effects, weather, etc. However, after controlling for these structural factors directly and using a control district, a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with an approximately 1.7% increase in daily elementary school absences. Exposure to ambient air pollution can contribute to elementary school absences, although this effect is difficult to disentangle from various other factors. PMID:26945391

  13. Time-Series Analysis of Mortality Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Components in Detroit and Seattle

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiang; Ito, Kazuhiko; Lall, Ramona; Lippmann, Morton; Thurston, George

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent toxicological and epidemiological studies have shown associations between particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, but which PM components are most influential is less well known. Objectives In this study, we used time-series analyses to determine the associations between daily fine PM [PM ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] concentrations and daily mortality in two U.S. cities—Seattle, Washington, and Detroit, Michigan. Methods We obtained daily PM2.5 filters for the years of 2002–2004 and analyzed trace elements using X-ray fluorescence and black carbon using light reflectance as a surrogate measure of elemental carbon. We used Poisson regression and distributed lag models to estimate excess deaths for all causes and for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases adjusting for time-varying covariates. We computed the excess risks for interquartile range increases of each pollutant at lags of 0 through 3 days for both warm and cold seasons. Results The cardiovascular and respiratory mortality series exhibited different source and seasonal patterns in each city. The PM2.5 components and gaseous pollutants associated with mortality in Detroit were most associated with warm season secondary aerosols and traffic markers. In Seattle, the component species most closely associated with mortality included those for cold season traffic and other combustion sources, such as residual oil and wood burning. Conclusions The effects of PM2.5 on daily mortality vary with source, season, and locale, consistent with the hypothesis that PM composition has an appreciable influence on the health effects attributable to PM. PMID:21193387

  14. Fine particulate air pollution, nitrogen dioxide, and systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease in Calgary, Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Bernatsky, Sasha; Smargiassi, Audrey; Johnson, Markey; Kaplan, Gilaad G.; Barnabe, Cheryl; Svenson, Larry; Brand, Allan; Bertazzon, Stefania; Hudson, Marie; Clarke, Ann E; Fortin, Paul; Edworthy, Steven; Bélisle, Patrick; Joseph, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between fine particulate (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution and systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs). Methods Associations between ambient air pollution (PM2.5 and NO2) and SARDs were assessed using land-use regression models for Calgary, Alberta and administrative health data (1993-2007). SARD case definitions were based on ≥2 physician claims, or ≥1 rheumatology billing code; or ≥1 hospitalization code (for systemic lupus, Sjogren's Syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, or undifferentiated connective tissue disease). Bayesian hierarchical latent class regression models estimated the probability that each resident was a SARD case, based on these case definitions. The sum of individual level probabilities provided the estimated number of cases in each area. The latent class model included terms for age, sex, and an interaction term between age and sex. Bayesian logistic regression models were used to generate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for NO2 and PM2.5. pollutant models, adjusting for neighborhood income, age, sex, and an interaction between age and sex. We also examined models stratified for First-Nations (FN) and non-FN subgroups. Results Residents that were female and/or aged > 45 had a greater probability of being a SARD case, with the highest OR estimates for older females. Independently, the odds of being a SARDs case increased with PM2.5 levels, but the results were inconclusive for NO2. The results stratified by FN and Non-FN groups were not distinctly different. Conclusion In this urban Canadian sample, adjusting for demographics, exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an increased risk of SARDs. The results for NO2 were inconclusive. PMID:25988990

  15. Airborne Fine Particulate Matter Induces Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Human Nasal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhicong; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Ruxin; Xu, Jian; Dong, Weiyang; Zhuang, Guoshun; Deng, Congrui

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or smaller than 2.5 μm is abbreviated as PM2.5, which is one of the main components in air pollution. Exposure to PM2.5 is associated with increased risk of many human diseases, including chronic and allergic rhinitis, but the underlying molecular mechanism for its toxicity has not been fully elucidated. We have hypothesized that PM2.5 may cause oxidative stress and enhance inflammatory responses in nasal epithelial cells. Accordingly, we used human RPMI 2650 cells, derived from squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal septum, as a model of nasal epithelial cells, and exposed them to PM2.5 that was collected at Fudan University (31.3°N, 121.5°E) in Shanghai, China. PM2.5 exposure decreased the viability of RPMI 2650 cells, suggesting that PM2.5 may impair the barrier function of nasal epithelial cells. Moreover, PM2.5 increased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). Importantly, PM2.5 also decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Pretreatment with N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (an anti-oxidant) reduced the degree of the PM2.5-induced oxidative stress in RPMI 2650 cells. In addition, PM2.5 increased the production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-13 and eotaxin (C-C motif chemokine ligand 11), each of which initiates and/or augments local inflammation. These results suggest that PM2.5 may induce oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in human nasal epithelial cells, thereby leading to nasal inflammatory diseases. The present study provides insights into cellular injury induced by PM2.5. PMID:27246665

  16. Airborne Fine Particulate Matter Induces Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Human Nasal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhicong; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Ruxin; Xu, Jian; Dong, Weiyang; Zhuang, Guoshun; Deng, Congrui

    2016-01-01

    Airborne fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or smaller than 2.5 μm is abbreviated as PM2.5, which is one of the main components in air pollution. Exposure to PM2.5 is associated with increased risk of many human diseases, including chronic and allergic rhinitis, but the underlying molecular mechanism for its toxicity has not been fully elucidated. We have hypothesized that PM2.5 may cause oxidative stress and enhance inflammatory responses in nasal epithelial cells. Accordingly, we used human RPMI 2650 cells, derived from squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal septum, as a model of nasal epithelial cells, and exposed them to PM2.5 that was collected at Fudan University (31.3°N, 121.5°E) in Shanghai, China. PM2.5 exposure decreased the viability of RPMI 2650 cells, suggesting that PM2.5 may impair the barrier function of nasal epithelial cells. Moreover, PM2.5 increased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). Importantly, PM2.5 also decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Pretreatment with N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (an anti-oxidant) reduced the degree of the PM2.5-induced oxidative stress in RPMI 2650 cells. In addition, PM2.5 increased the production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-13 and eotaxin (C-C motif chemokine ligand 11), each of which initiates and/or augments local inflammation. These results suggest that PM2.5 may induce oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in human nasal epithelial cells, thereby leading to nasal inflammatory diseases. The present study provides insights into cellular injury induced by PM2.5.

  17. Ambient fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, David A.; Elston, Beth; Bobb, Jennifer F.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Dominici, Francesca; Ito, Kazuhiko; Johnson, Sarah; McAlexander, Tara; Ross, Zev; Shmool, Jessie L.C.; Matte, Thomas D.; Wellenius, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Previous studies suggested a possible association between fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, but effect sizes have been small and methodologic weaknesses preclude firm conclusions. METHODS We linked birth certificates in New York City in 2008-2010 to hospital discharge diagnoses and estimated air pollution exposure based on maternal address. The New York City Community Air Survey provided refined estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 at the maternal residence. We estimated the association between exposures to PM2.5 and NO2 in the first and second trimester and risk of gestational hypertension, mild preeclampsia, and severe preeclampsia among 268,601 births. RESULTS In unadjusted analyses, we found evidence of a positive association between both pollutants and gestational hypertension. However, after adjustment for individual covariates, socioeconomic deprivation, and delivery hospital, we did not find evidence of an association between PM2.5 or NO2 in the first or second trimester and any of the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Our data did not provide clear evidence of an effect of ambient air pollution on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Results need to be interpreted with caution considering the quality of the available exposure and health outcome measures and the uncertain impact of adjusting for hospital. Relative to previous studies, which have tended to identify positive associations with PM2.5 and NO2, our large study size, refined air pollution exposure estimates, hospital-based disease ascertainment, and little risk of confounding by socioeconomic deprivation, does not provide evidence for an association. PMID:26237745

  18. Origin-Oriented Elemental Profile of Fine Ambient Particulate Matter in Central European Suburban Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Majewski, Grzegorz; Błaszczak, Barbara; Klejnowski, Krzysztof; Rogula-Kopiec, Patrycja

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour samples of fine ambient particulate matter (PM2.5; particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 µm) were collected in a suburban (quasi-rural) area in Racibórz (Poland) between 1 January 2011 and 26 December 2012. The samples were analyzed for the contents of 28 elements. Sources of PM2.5 were identified and the contribution of each source to the PM2.5 concentration was assessed using an enrichment factor (EF) analysis, a principal component analysis (PCA), and multi-linear regression analysis (MLRA). In the cold season (January–March and October–December 2011–2012), the mean ambient concentration of PM2.5 in Racibórz was 48.7 ± 39.4 µg·m−3, which was much higher than at other suburban or rural sites in Europe. Additionally the ambient concentrations of some toxic PM2.5-bound elements were also high, i.e., the mean ambient concentrations of PM2.5-bound As, Cd, and Pb were 11.3 ± 11.5, 5.2 ± 2.5, and 34.0 ± 34.2 ng·m−3, respectively. In the warm season (April–September 2011–2012), the PM2.5 and PM2.5-bound element concentrations in Racibórz were comparable to the concentrations noted at other suburban (or rural) sites in Europe. Our findings suggest that elemental composition and concentrations of PM2.5 in Racibórz are mainly influenced by anthropogenic emissions, i.e., the energy production based on coal and biomass combustion, traffic, and industry. PMID:27428988

  19. Trends in speciated fine particulate matter and visibility across monitoring networks in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Patricia F; Adlhoch, Joseph P

    2005-11-01

    Trends in fine particulate matter <2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5) and visibility in the Southeastern United States were evaluated for sites in the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments, Speciated Trends Network, and Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization Study networks. These analyses are part of the technical assessment by Visibility Improvement-State and Tribal Association of the Southeast (VISTAS), the regional planning organization for the southeastern states, in support of State Implementation Plans for the regional haze rule. At all of the VISTAS IMPROVE sites, ammonium sulfate and organic carbon (OC) are the largest and second largest contributors, respectively, to light extinction on both the 20% haziest and 20% clearest days. Ammonium nitrate, elemental carbon (EC), soils, and coarse particles make comparatively small contributions to PM2.5 mass and light extinction on most days at the Class I areas. At Southern Appalachian sites, the 20% haziest days occur primarily in the late spring to fall, whereas at coastal sites, the 20% haziest days can occur through out the year. Levels of ammonium sulfate in Class I areas are similar to those in nearby urban areas and are generally higher at the interior sites than the coastal sites. Concentrations of OC, ammonium nitrate, and, sometimes, EC, tend to be higher in the urban areas than in nearby Class I areas, although differences in measurement methods complicate comparisons between networks. Results support regional controls of sulfur dioxide for both regional haze and PM2.5 implementation and suggest that controls of local sources of OC, EC, or nitrogen oxides might also be considered for urban areas that are not attaining the annual National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM2.5.

  20. Effect of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) on Rat Placenta Pathology and Perinatal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Ledan; Wang, Fang; Li, Changzhong

    2016-01-01

    Background Fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) has been reported to cause adverse effects on human health. Evidence has shown the association between PM2.5 exposure and adverse perinatal outcomes, and the most common method is epidemiological investigation. We wished to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on placenta and prenatal outcomes and its related mechanisms in a rat model. Material/Methods Pregnant rats were exposed to a low PM2.5 dose (15 mg/kg) with intratracheal instillation at pregnant day 10 and day 18, while the controls received an equivalent volume normal saline. All rats received cesarean section 24 h after the last intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed with anesthesia. Blood routine tests (BRT) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected for analyzing inflammation and blood coagulation. Placenta tissue sections underwent pathologic examination, and the levels of homogenate glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) were determined for oxidative stress estimation. Results Increased absorbed blastocysts, and lower maternal weight gain and fetal weight were found in the PM2.5 exposure group compared to controls (p<0.05). Exposure to PM2.5 caused a significant increase of blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), platelets, and IL-6 levels (P<0.01). There were no differences in GSH-Px and MDA of placenta homogenate between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Placenta pathological examination demonstrated thrombus and chorioamnionitis in the PM2.5 exposure group. Conclusions PM2.5 exposure can result in placental pathological changes and adverse perinatal outcomes. The placental inflammation and hypercoagulability with vascular thrombosis may play important roles in placental impairment, but oxidative stress appears to be less important. PMID:27629830

  1. High levels of airborne ultrafine and fine particulate matter in indoor ice arenas.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth W

    2003-03-01

    The high prevalence of airway dysfunction among ice arena athletes may be related to rink air exposure; in particular, high concentrations of ultrafine and fine particulate matter (0.02-1.0 micro m diameter, PM(1)) from ice resurfacing machines may enhance airway inflammation and hyperreactivity. The purpose of this study was to identify levels of PM(1) emitted from ice resurfacing machines used in indoor ice arenas, and to compare [PM(1)] pre- and post-resurfacing to each other and to outdoor [PM(1)]. Multiple one Hz measurements were recorded on 28 different days as 15-s mean of PM(1).cm(-3) for 2 min at 1-1.5 m "above ice" in 10 rinks pre- and post-resurfacing, with measured airborne PM(1) outside each rink to be used individual rink references. Rink PM(1).cm(-3) was approximately 30 times greater than PM(1).cm(-3) outside the respective rinks (p <.05). Rink values were 104.2 +/- 59.3 x 10(3) PM(1).cm(-3) during prime usage, compared to outdoor values of 3.8 +/- 2.5 x 10(3) PM(1).cm(-3). Ice resurfacing increased PM(1).cm(-3) 4-fold (p <.05). No difference in PM(1) emissions between gasoline and propane powered resurfacing machines was identified. The rate of PM(1) dissipation after resurfacing was highly variable between rinks and probably dependent upon rink ventilation and resurfacing machine engine efficiency. Gas-powered edging increased PM(1).cm(-3) 18-fold and 158-fold versus pre-edging rink and outdoor values, respectively. We conclude that the primary source of airborne indoor rink PM(1) is internal combustion ice-resurfacing machines and that this poor air quality may be causal to the unique and high prevalence of airway dysfunction in ice arena athletes.

  2. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286–4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the

  3. Validation of triple pass 24-hour dietary recall in Ugandan children by simultaneous weighed food assessment

    PubMed Central

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Amorut, Denis; Nakuya, Margaret; Arimi, Margaret; Frost, Gary; Maitland, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition remains highly prevalent in African children, highlighting the need for accurately assessing dietary intake. In order to do so, the assessment method must be validated in the target population. A triple pass 24 hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation has been described but not previously validated in African children. This study aimed to establish the relative validity of 24-hour dietary recalls of daily food consumption in healthy African children living in Mbale and Soroti, eastern Uganda compared to simultaneous weighed food records. Methods Quantitative assessment of daily food consumption by weighed food records followed by two independent assessments using triple pass 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. In conjunction with household measures and standard food sizes, volumes of liquid, dry rice, or play dough were used to aid portion size estimation. Inter-assessor agreement, and agreement with weighed food records was conducted primarily by Bland-Altman analysis and secondly by intraclass correlation coefficients and quartile cross-classification. Results 19 healthy children aged 6 months to 12 years were included in the study. Bland-Altman analysis showed 24-hour recall only marginally under-estimated energy (mean difference of 149kJ or 2.8%; limits of agreement -1618 to 1321kJ), protein (2.9g or 9.4%; -12.6 to 6.7g), and iron (0.43mg or 8.3%; -3.1 to 2.3mg). Quartile cross-classification was correct in 79% of cases for energy intake, and 89% for both protein and iron. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the separate dietary recalls for energy was 0.801 (95% CI, 0.429-0.933), indicating acceptable inter-observer agreement. Conclusions Dietary assessment using 24-hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation resulted in similar and acceptable estimates of dietary intake compared with weighed food records and thus is considered a valid method for daily dietary intake assessment of

  4. Static stretching can impair explosive performance for at least 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Monoem; Dridi, Amir; Chtara, Moktar; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Behm, David; Chamari, Karim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static vs. dynamic stretching (DS) on explosive performances and repeated sprint ability (RSA) after a 24-hour delay. Sixteen young male soccer players performed 15 minutes of static stretching (SS), DS, or a no-stretch control condition (CC) 24 hours before performing explosive performances and RSA tests. This was a within-subject repeated measures study with SS, DS, and CC being counterbalanced. Stretching protocols included 2 sets of 7 minutes 30 seconds (2 repetitions of 30 seconds with a 15-second passive recovery) for 5 muscle groups (quadriceps, hamstring, calves, adductors, and hip flexors). Twenty-four hours later (without any kind of stretching in warm-up), the players were tested for the 30-m sprint test (with 10- and 20-m lap times), 5 jump test (5JT), and RSA test. Significant differences were observed between CC, SS, and DS with 5JT (F = 9.99, p < 0.00, effect size [ES] = 0.40), 10-m sprint time (F = 46.52, p < 0.00, ES = 0.76), 20-m sprint time (F = 18.44, p < 0.000, ES = 0.55), and 30-m sprint time (F = 34.25, p < 0.000, ES = 0.70). The significantly better performance (p < 0.05) was observed after DS as compared with that after CC and SS in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. In contrast, significantly worse performance (p < 0.05) was observed after SS as compared with that after CC in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. With RSA, no significant difference was observed between different stretching protocols in the total time (F = 1.55, p > 0.05), average time (F = 1.53, p > 0.05), and fastest time (F = 2.30, p > 0.05), except for the decline index (F = 3.54, p < 0.04, ES = 0.19). Therefore, the SS of the lower limbs and hip muscles had a negative effect on explosive performances up to 24 hours poststretching with no major effects on the RSA. Conversely, the DS of the same muscle groups are highly recommended 24 hours before performing sprint and long-jump performances. In

  5. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 2.4, Air toxic fine particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, G.E.; Heidt, M.K.; Miller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Emission from coal-fired boilers is an issue because of the current concern over atmospheric air toxics, which contain high concentrations of trace elements. The best method of minimizing the emission of these air toxic trace elements to the atmosphere is to install high-efficiency fine-particle control devices. After collection, the dust must be removed from the filter bags or electrostatic precipitator (ESP) plates and transferred to the hopper without significant redispersion. Since it is more difficult to collect fine particles, the extent to which the dust is redispersed into its original particle-size distribution will have a major impact on the overall fine-particle collection efficiency of the filter or ESP and, subsequently, the collection efficiency of air toxic metals. The goal of Task 2.4 was to evaluate redispersion of dust in particulate control devices so that the appropriate methods to minimize redispersion can be implemented. The primary objective was to determine the extent that fly ash is redispersed as individual particles upon cleaning of the filters or ESP plates. The current research was to determine if the level of redispersion of fly ash correlates with measurable cohesive dust properties. This will contribute to the long-term project goal of developing models to the point where they can be used to help design particulate control devices for the lowest level of fine-particle emissions at a reasonable cost.

  6. Enhanced formation of fine particulate nitrate at a rural site on the North China Plain in summer: The important roles of ammonia and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Liang; Chen, Jianmin; Yang, Lingxiao; Wang, Xinfeng; Xu, Caihong; Sui, Xiao; Yao, Lan; Zhu, Yanhong; Zhang, Junmei; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-01-01

    Severe PM2.5 pollution was observed frequently on the North China Plain, and nitrate contributed a large fraction of the elevated PM2.5 concentrations. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the formation pathways of these fine particulate nitrate and the key factors that affect these pathways, field measurements of fine particulate nitrate and related air pollutants were made at a rural site on the North China Plain in the summer of 2013. Extremely high concentrations of fine particulate nitrate were frequently observed at night and in the early morning. The maximum hourly concentration of fine particulate nitrate reached 87.2 μg m-3. This concentration accounted for 29.9% of the PM2.5. The very high NH3 concentration in the early morning significantly accelerated the formation of fine particulate nitrate, as indicated by the concurrent appearance of NH3 and NO3- concentration peaks and a rising neutralization ratio (the equivalent ratio of NH4+ to the sum of SO42- and NO3-). On a number of other episode days, strong photochemical activity during daytime led to high concentrations of O3 at night. The fast secondary formation of fine particulate nitrate was mainly attributed to the hydrolysis of N2O5, which was produced from O3 and NO2. Considering the important roles of NH3 and O3 in fine particulate nitrate formation, we suggest the control of NH3 emissions and photochemical pollution to address the high levels of fine particulate nitrate and the severe PM2.5 pollution on the North China Plain.

  7. Mechanisms governing fine particulate emissions from coal flames. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January 1, 1988--March 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, W.D.; Chen, S.L.; Kramlich, J.C.; Newton, G.H.; Ruth, L.A.; Samuelsen, G.S.

    1988-04-01

    Efforts in this period focused on refining the plans for engineering analysis and fundamental experiments based on the results of a literature review, and modifying the Malvern laser diffraction particle sizer to operate at particle sizes down to 0.5 microns. The engineering analysis plan is to concentrate on development of new models and adaptation of existing models for fine particulate formation by three categories of mechanisms: particle breakup/ash coalescence; direct passage, fragmentation, or agglomeration of extraneous mineral matter; and bubble formation/breakup. The plan for fundamental experiments is to develop a fast, online, optical particle sizing technique which will span the 0.5 to 10 micron size range of interest; to perform global experiments to identify the important parameters affecting fine particle formation; and to perform mechanistic experiments to test specific hypotheses about the mechanisms which control fine particle formation in coal combustion.

  8. Mercury, trace elements and organic constituents in atmospheric fine particulate matter, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA: A combined approach to sampling and analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, A.; Engle, M.A.; Orem, W.H.; Bunnell, J.E.; Lerch, H.E.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Olson, M.L.; McCord, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Compliance with U.S. air quality regulatory standards for atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is based on meeting average 24 hour (35 ?? m-3) and yearly (15 ??g m-3) mass-per-unit-volume limits, regardless of PM2.5 composition. Whereas this presents a workable regulatory framework, information on particle composition is needed to assess the fate and transport of PM2.5 and determine potential environmental/human health impacts. To address these important non-regulatory issues an integrated approach is generally used that includes (1) field sampling of atmospheric particulate matter on filter media, using a size-limiting cyclone, or with no particle-size limitation; and (2) chemical extraction of exposed filters and analysis of separate particulate-bound fractions for total mercury, trace elements and organic constituents, utilising different USGS laboratories optimised for quantitative analysis of these substances. This combination of sampling and analysis allowed for a more detailed interpretation of PM2.5 sources and potential effects, compared to measurements of PM2.5 abundance alone. Results obtained using this combined approach are presented for a 2006 air sampling campaign in Shenandoah National Park (Virginia, USA) to assess sources of atmospheric contaminants and their potential impact on air quality in the Park. PM2.5 was collected at two sampling sites (Big Meadows and Pinnacles) separated by 13.6 km. At both sites, element concentrations in PM2.5 were low, consistent with remote or rural locations. However, element/Zr crustal abundance enrichment factors greater than 10, indicating anthropogenic input, were found for Hg, Se, S, Sb, Cd, Pb, Mo, Zn and Cu, listed in decreasing order of enrichment. Principal component analysis showed that four element associations accounted for 84% of the PM 2.5 trace element variation; these associations are interpreted to represent: (1) crustal sources (Al, REE); (2) coal combustion (Se, Sb), (3) metal production

  9. Carcinogenicity of airborne fine particulate benzo(a)pyrene: an appraisal of the evidence and the need for control.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, F

    1981-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene(BaP) originating from fossil fuel and other organic combustion processes is largely adsorbed on fine particulate and hence is a widespread atmospheric pollutant. Available emissions and air quality data are based on the total weight of particulate matter without reference to size and give little information on trends and concentrations of fine particulate BaP. Greater reliance on coal, synfuels and diesel fuel for energy production and transportation will significantly increase ambient levels of BaP. Because of the particulate size, BaP is substantially deposited in the lower lung and readily eluted into surrounding tissue. After elution in the lung, BaP is metabolically activated to its electrophilic, carcinogenic from by a complex enzyme system whose activity is increased by prior exposure to air pollutants, cigarette smoke and certain drugs. The resultant diol epoxide metabolite has been shown to bind covalently with the DNA of the lung. In experimental animals, BaP is a potent initiating carcinogen whose action is enhanced by sulfur dioxide, promoting agents and carrier fine particles. The effect of small, divided doses of BaP has been shown to be greater than that of a single high dose; no threshold has been established. Epidemiological studies show that mixtures containing BaP (such as urban air, industrial emissions and cigarette smoke) are carcinogenic and may interact synergistically. Occupational studies indicate that the action of BaP-containing mixtures is enhanced in the presence of SO2. However, quantitative risk assessment for BaP is precluded by problems in extrapolating to the general population from small-scale animal studies; uncertainties in findings of epidemiology; and imprecise exposure data. Existing stationary and mobile controls preferentially remove coarse particulate matter and are inefficient collectors of the particulate BaP. In the current absence of health and environmental standards for BaP, there is little incentive

  10. Ambient Fine Particulate (PM2.5) Air Pollution Attributable to Household Cooking Fuel in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafe, Z.; Mehta, S.; Smith, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    Using the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model, hosted by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), we estimate the proportion of fine particulate ambient air pollution (PM2.5) attributable to household fuel use for cooking in Asia. This analysis considers primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions in two years: 1990 and 2005. Only emissions from household cooking fuels-not heating or lighting-are considered. Due to data availability, this analysis focuses solely on Asian countries, notably India and China which are home to about half of the households using solid fuel use worldwide. Forest and grassland fires, dust, and other "natural" particle sources were omitted from this analysis. The impact of emission sources on secondary particles from aerosol precursors was not determined. In China, the proportion of total primary anthropogenic PM2.5 attributable to household cooking decreased from 44% to 31% between 1990 and 2005. In India, the percent of primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions attributable to household cooking decreased from 55% to 49% between 1990 and 2005. Total mass change in primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions was much more variable by state in India, between 1990 and 2005, than by province in China (where there was a general downward trend in the total mass emitted). Similarly, growth in industrial emissions was much more variable at the sub-national level, between 1990 and 2005, in India than in China. Energy production played a more prominent role in the growth of primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions in India than it did in China. Forward-looking GAINS scenarios show that the contribution of household cooking to total primary anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions is much greater than that from on-road transport in India and China between 1990 and 2030. On-road cars, trucks, and other transport vehicles are, however, the cause of important pollutants other than PM2.5 (as are as cooking stoves that do

  11. Assessment of Population and Microenvironmental Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Wan

    A positive relationship exists between fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) exposure and adverse health effects. PM2.5 concentration-response functions used in the quantitative risk assessment were based on findings from human epidemiological studies that relied on areawide ambient concentrations as surrogate for actual ambient exposure, which cannot capture the spatial and temporal variability in human exposures. The goal of the study is to assess inter-individual, geographic and seasonal variability in population exposures to inform the interpretation of available epidemiological studies, and to improve the understanding of how exposure-related factors in important exposure microenvironments contribute to the variability in individual PM2.5 exposure. Typically, the largest percentage of time in which an individual is exposed to PM2.5 of ambient origin occurs in indoor residence, and the highest ambient PM2.5 concentrations occur in transportation microenvironments because of the proximity to on-road traffic emissions. Therefore, indoor residence and traffic-related transportation microenvironments were selected for further assessment in the study. Population distributions of individual daily PM2.5 exposures were estimated for the selected regions and seasons using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM). For the indoor residence, the current practice by assuming the entire residence to be one large single zone for calculating the indoor residential PM 2.5 concentration was evaluated by applying an indoor air quality model, RISK, to compare indoor PM2.5 concentrations between single-zone and multi-zone scenarios. For the transportation microenvironments, one field data collection focused on in-vehicle microenvironment and was conducted to quantify the variability in the in-vehicle PM2.5 concentration with respect to the outside vehicle concentration for a wide range of conditions that affect intra-vehicle variability

  12. Control of fine particulate emissions from coal-fired utility boilers: Spin filter collection device (rotary cyclone)

    SciTech Connect

    He, Bo X.

    1990-01-01

    A bench-scale test program has been performed to evaluate the concept of placing a porous cylindrical surface (such as a metal screen) at the core of a container and spinning the surface with an external motor for fine particulate/gas separation. The rotating surface enhances the centrifugal effects in the annular region and provides a smooth transition between the flow in the annular and core regions and acts like an enhanced cyclone. It is therefore called a rotary cyclone.'' The porous surface is self-cleaning and offers good steady-state pressure drop characteristics. Objectives of this project are: (1) to carry out theoretical and experimental investigations using the rotary cyclone concept to capture particulates in the 0.5 to 10 micron size range; and (2) to evaluate its economic feasibility based on an engineering scale-up and comparison with conventional fabric filter and electrostatic precipitator systems. It was demonstrated that the efficiency in separating fine particulates is governed by two major characteristics, i.e., the magnitude of the centrifugal force and the approach velocity or the gas-to-surface area ratio. Results from the bench-scale tests have shown a collection efficiency of well over 99% for a typical fly ash. A preliminary conceptual design for a 40 MW installation was developed based on the experimental work. 4 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Influence of Overweight on 24-Hour Urine Chemistry Studies and Recurrent Urolithiasis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Dong; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Myung, Soon Chul; Moon, Young Tae; Kim, Kyung Do

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the influence of overweight on 24-hour urine chemistry studies and recurrent urolithiasis (UL) in children. Materials and Methods A retrospective cohort study was designed to assess children who presented with UL at a pediatric institution between 1985 and 2010. We calculated body mass index percentile (BMIp) adjusted for gender and age according to the 2007 Korean Children and Adolescents Growth Chart and stratified the children into 3 BMI categories: lower body weight (LBW, BMIp≤10), normal BW (NBW, 1024-hour urine chemistry studies did not differ significantly between the three groups. Mean urine citrate levels were lower (0.273±0.218 mg/mg/d vs. 0.429±0.299 mg/mg/d, p<0.05) and the incidence of hypocitraturia was higher (81.5% vs. 45.7%, p<0.05)) in the recurrent stone former group. In the univariate analysis, hypocitraturia and acidic urinary pH were risk factors, but in the multivariate analysis, only hypocitraturia was a risk factor for stone recurrence (hazard ratio, 3.647; 95% confidence interval, 1.047 to 12.703). In the Kaplan-Meier curve, the hypocitraturia group showed higher recurrence than did the normocitraturia group (p<0.05). Conclusions Unlike in adults, in children, overweight adjusted for gender and age was not associated with 24-hour urine chemistry studies and was not a risk factor for recurrent UL. Hypocitraturia was the only risk factor for UL in children. PMID:22536471

  14. [Electrocardiographic recording of long duration (Holter) of 24 hours during idiopathic cardiomyopathy of the peripartum].

    PubMed

    Diao, M; Diop, I B; Kane, A; Camara, S; Kane, Ad; Sarr, M; Ba, S A; Diouf, S M

    2004-01-01

    The idiopathic myocardiopathy of the peripartum (IMPP) is a frequent disease in the Soudano-Sahelian zone of Africa whose evolution is loaded with many complications hemodynamic, thrombo-embolic and rhythmic. The prevalence and the meaning of the rhythm disorders are unknown. The aims of this prospective study are to measure and to describe the prevalence of the anomalies observed in Holter ECG of 24 hours. It's about a description cross-sectional study realized at the Cardiology Department (CHU Dakar) and 19 patients with IMPP were included, from October 2000 to July 2002. A recording ECG of 24 hours (Holter) was realized on all the patients. The average age was 29.4+/-6.9 years with a low socio-economic level (100%). The diagnosis of IMPP done before childbirth in 4 cases (21%) and the post partum on 15 patients (78.9%). The dyspnea was constant, the chest pain in 12 cases (63.1%) and palpitations in 8 cases (42%). The average rate of hemoglobin was of 10.85+/-2.05 g/dL. The standard electrocardiogram recorded a sinusal tachycardia (68.4%), a cavitary hypertrophy (78.8%), and disorders of the repolarization (47.3%). The cardiac echo-Doppler noted a cavitary dilatation (84.2%), a constant alteration of the left ventricular systolic function with a fraction of average ejection of 29.7+/-10.3%. The anatomy of the valves was normal. The recording Holter ECG of 24 hours recorded a sinusal tachycardia in 17 cases (89.4%), ventricular extrasystoles on 7 patients (36.8%), 4 cases of ventricular tachycardia non-sustained and double ventricular extrasystole on 1 patient, auricular extrasystoles in 4 cases (21%) and 1 case of auriculo-ventricular block of the first degree. The study of heart rate variability founded a mean value of 106 ms.

  15. Development of an artificial placenta IV: 24 hour venovenous extracorporeal life support in premature lambs.

    PubMed

    Gray, Brian W; El-Sabbagh, Ahmed; Rojas-Pena, Alvaro; Kim, Anne C; Gadepali, Samir; Koch, Kely L; Capizzani, Tony R; Bartlet, Robert H; Mychaliska, George B

    2012-01-01

    An extracorporeal artificial placenta would change the paradigm of treating extremely premature infants. We hypothesized that a venovenous extracorporeal life support (VV-ECLS) artificial placenta would maintain fetal circulation, hemodynamic stability, and adequate gas exchange for 24 hours. A near-term neonatal lamb model (130 days; term = 145 days) was used (n = 9). The right jugular vein was cannulated for VV-ECLS outflow, and an umbilical vein was used for inflow. The circuit included a peristaltic roller pump and a 0.5 m(2) hollow fiber oxygenator. Lambs were maintained on VV-ECLS in an "amniotic bath" for up to 24 hours. Five of nine fetuses survived for 24 hours. In the survivors, average mean arterial pressure was 69 ± 10 mm Hg for the first 4 hours and 36 ± 8 mm Hg for the remaining 20 hours. The mean fetal heart rate was 202 ± 30. Mean VV-ECLS flow was 94 ± 20 ml/kg/min. Using a gas mixture of 50% O(2)/3% CO(2) and sweep flow of 1-2 L/min, the mean pH was 7.27 ± 0.09, with Po(2) of 35 ± 12 mm Hg and Pco(2) of 48 ± 12 mm Hg. Necropsy revealed a patent ductus arteriosus in all cases, and there was no gross or microscopic intracranial hemorrhage. Complications in failed attempts included technically difficult cannulation and multisystem organ failure. Future studies will enhance stability and address the factors necessary for long-term support.

  16. Treating allergic conjunctivitis: A once-daily medication that provides 24-hour symptom relief

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Jack; Donnenfeld, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is a common ocular inflammatory manifestation of allergen exposure in sensitized individuals. Signs and symptoms of AC can decrease quality of life, interfere with productivity, and lead to considerable economic burden. Consistent suppression of conjunctival inflammation is necessary for managing AC, but currently available medications require frequent administration and exhibit limited duration of action. Methods: In this review, we summarized AC pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment options as well as their limitations. Findings from the literature were discussed in the context of the unmet need for a once-daily medication with sustained 24-hour effectiveness. Results: Topical pharmacologic treatments are the most common approach for managing extant AC; however, most available medications require multiple daily instillations. Dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizing agents are currently considered first-line therapeutics for AC because they provide acute relief of signs and symptoms and block persistent inflammation to promote regression of AC. Recent studies of a newly-developed, higher-concentration formulation of a dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizer have demonstrated that this formulation provides a 24-hour duration of action with once-daily dosing. Conclusions: Dual-acting AC medications exhibit a high degree of overall effectiveness and are well tolerated for chronic use. A newly available once-daily medication that manages signs and symptoms of AC for a full 24 hours may be considered a treatment of choice for patients experiencing seasonal or perennial AC. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01743027 and NCT01479374 PMID:27466061

  17. Evaluation of Intradermal and Subcutaneous Infusion Set Performance Under 24-Hour Basal and Bolus Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McVey, Elaine; Keith, Steven; Herr, Joshua K.; Sutter, Diane; Pettis, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study sought to assess the function and delivery reliability of intradermal (ID) infusion sets used with commercial insulin pumps. Method: Healthy subjects (n = 43) were randomized to either ID or subcutaneous (SC) arms, and received basal/bolus placebo delivery for 24 hours. Subjects received 4 of 8 infusion set combinations (ID: microneedle design A or B, with 2 pump brands [Animas or MiniMed]; SC: Teflon Quickset or steel Rapid-D, Animas pump only, with or without overtaping) and were evaluated for pump occlusion alarms, fluid leakage, pain, and tissue tolerability. A novel algorithm was developed to determine flow consistency based on fluid pressure, and the duration and occurrence rate for periods of unalarmed but interrupted flow (“silent occlusions’”) were compared. Results: ID delivery was successfully maintained over the 24-hour infusion period. The number of silent occlusions was lower for ID microneedle cannula design B than A (P < .01) and lower for Rapid-D SC device compared to Quick-set (P = .03). There was no significant difference in the number of occlusion alarms between the ID and SC devices with the Animas pump. However, the pumps tested with ID devices had significantly different alarm rates (MiniMed 29.5%, Animas 0%, P < .001). Leakage and tissue tolerability were comparable across devices. Conclusion: The ID infusion set reliably delivered diluent for an extended 24-hour period in healthy subjects and was well tolerated. Silent occlusion flow interruptions could be detected in both ID and SC infusion sets using a proprietary algorithm. This algorithm is a promising method for quantitatively evaluating infusion set flow performance. PMID:26319228

  18. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  19. Intermittent short ECG recording is more effective than 24-hour Holter ECG in detection of arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patients report symptoms of palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. These patients are often referred for 24-hour Holter ECG, although the sensitivity for detecting relevant arrhythmias is comparatively low. Intermittent short ECG recording over a longer time period might be a convenient and more sensitive alternative. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of 24-hour Holter ECG with intermittent short ECG recording over four weeks to detect relevant arrhythmias in patients with palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. Methods Design: prospective, observational, cross-sectional study. Setting: Clinical Physiology, University Hospital. Patients: 108 consecutive patients referred for ambiguous palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. Interventions: All individuals underwent a 24-hour Holter ECG and additionally registered 30-second handheld ECG (Zenicor EKG® thumb) recordings at home, twice daily and when having cardiac symptoms, during 28 days. Main outcome measures: Significant arrhythmias: atrial fibrillation (AF), paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), atrioventricular (AV) block II–III, sinus arrest (SA), wide complex tachycardia (WCT). Results 95 patients, 42 men and 53 women with a mean age of 54.1 years, completed registrations. Analysis of Holter registrations showed atrial fibrillation (AF) in two patients and atrioventricular (AV) block II in one patient (= 3.2% relevant arrhythmias [95% CI 1.1–8.9]). Intermittent handheld ECG detected nine patients with AF, three with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) and one with AV-block-II (= 13.7% relevant arrhythmias [95% CI 8.2–22.0]). There was a significant difference between the two methods in favour of intermittent ECG with regard to the ability to detect relevant arrhythmias (P = 0.0094). With Holter ECG, no symptoms were registered during any of the detected arrhythmias. With intermittent ECG, symptoms were registered during half of the arrhythmia

  20. Nutritional behavior of cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race: a field study report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information about behavior of energy intake in ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race is scarce. The nutritional strategy during such an event is an important factor which athletes should plan carefully before the race. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the nutritional intake of ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race with the current nutritional guidelines for endurance events. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship among the nutritional and performance variables. Methods Using a observational design, nutritional intake of eight males (mean ± SD: 36.7 ± 4.7 years; 71.6 ± 4.9 kg; 174.6 ± 7.3 cm; BMI 23.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2) participating in a 24-hour team relay cycling race was assessed. All food and fluid intake by athletes were weighed and recorded. Additionally, distance and speed performed by each rider were also recorded. Furthermore, before to the race, all subjects carried out an incremental exercise test to determine two heart rate-VO2 regression equations which were used to estimate the energy expenditure. Results The mean ingestion of macronutrients during the event was 943 ± 245 g (13.1 ± 4.0 g/kg) of carbohydrates, 174 ± 146 g (2.4 ± 1.9 g/kg) of proteins and 107 ± 56 g (1.5 ± 0.7 g/kg) of lipids, respectively. This amount of nutrients reported an average nutrient intake of 22.8 ± 8.9 MJ which were significantly lower compared with energy expenditure 42.9 ± 6.8 MJ (P = 0.012). Average fluid consumption corresponded to 10497 ± 2654 mL. Mean caffeine ingestion was 142 ± 76 mg. Additionally, there was no relationship between the main nutritional variables (i.e. energy intake, carbohydrates, proteins, fluids and caffeine ingestion) and the main performance variables (i.e. distance and speed). Conclusions A 24-hour hours cycling competition in a team relay format elicited high energy demands which were not compensated by energy intake of the athletes despite that dietary

  1. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B.; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W.; Gilhooly, Cheryl H.; Kelly, Michael J.; Parsons, lkSusan K.; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE ×100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:25883059

  2. Mass size distributions and size resolved chemical composition of fine particulate matter at the Pittsburgh supersite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabada, Juan C.; Rees, Sarah; Takahama, Satoshi; Khlystov, Andrey; Pandis, Spyros N.; Davidson, Cliff I.; Robinson, Allen L.

    Size-resolved aerosol mass and chemical composition were measured during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study. Daily samples were collected for 12 months from July 2001 to June 2002. Micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDIs) were used to collect aerosol samples of fine particulate matter smaller than 10 μm. Measurements of PM 0.056, PM 0.10, PM 0.18, PM 0.32, PM 0.56, PM 1.0, PM 1.8 and PM 2.5 with the MOUDI are available for the full study period. Seasonal variations in the concentrations are observed for all size cuts. Higher concentrations are observed during the summer and lower during the winter. Comparison between the PM 2.5 measurements by the MOUDI and other integrated PM samplers reveals good agreement. Good correlation is observed for PM 10 between the MOUDI and an integrated sampler but the MOUDI underestimates PM 10 by 20%. Bouncing of particles from higher stages of the MOUDI (>PM 2.5) is not a major problem because of the low concentrations of coarse particles in the area. The main cause of coarse particle losses appears to be losses to the wall of the MOUDI. Samples were collected on aluminum foils for analysis of carbonaceous material and on Teflon filters for analysis of particle mass and inorganic anions and cations. Daily samples were analyzed during the summer (July 2001) and the winter intensives (January 2002). During the summer around 50% of the organic material is lost from the aluminum foils as compared to a filter-based sampler. These losses are due to volatilization and bounce-off from the MOUDI stages. High nitrate losses from the MOUDI are also observed during the summer (above 70%). Good agreement between the gravimetrically determined mass and the sum of the masses of the individual compounds is obtained, if the lost mass from organics and the aerosol water content are included for the summer. For the winter no significant losses of material are detected and there exists reasonable agreement between the gravimetrical mass and the

  3. Impact of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Exposure During Wildfires on Cardiovascular Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Haikerwal, Anjali; Akram, Muhammad; Del Monaco, Anthony; Smith, Karen; Sim, Malcolm R; Meyer, Mick; Tonkin, Andrew M; Abramson, Michael J; Dennekamp, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies investigating the role of fine particulate matter (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm) in triggering acute coronary events, including out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and ischemic heart disease (IHD), during wildfires have been inconclusive. Methods and Results We examined the associations of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, IHD, acute myocardial infarction, and angina (hospital admissions and emergency department attendance) with PM2.5 concentrations during the 2006–2007 wildfires in Victoria, Australia, using a time-stratified case-crossover study design. Health data were obtained from comprehensive health-based administrative registries for the study period (December 2006 to January 2007). Modeled and validated air exposure data from wildfire smoke emissions (daily average PM2.5, temperature, relative humidity) were also estimated for this period. There were 457 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, 2106 emergency department visits, and 3274 hospital admissions for IHD. After adjusting for temperature and relative humidity, an increase in interquartile range of 9.04 μg/m3 in PM2.5 over 2 days moving average (lag 0-1) was associated with a 6.98% (95% CI 1.03% to 13.29%) increase in risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, with strong association shown by men (9.05%,95%CI 1.63% to 17.02%) and by older adults (aged ≥65 years) (7.25%, 95% CI 0.24% to 14.75%). Increase in risk was (2.07%, 95% CI 0.09% to 4.09%) for IHD-related emergency department attendance and (1.86%, 95% CI: 0.35% to 3.4%) for IHD-related hospital admissions at lag 2 days, with strong associations shown by women (3.21%, 95% CI 0.81% to 5.67%) and by older adults (2.41%, 95% CI 0.82% to 5.67%). Conclusion PM2.5 exposure was associated with increased risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and IHD during the 2006–2007 wildfires in Victoria. This evidence indicates that PM2.5 may act as a triggering factor for acute coronary events during wildfire episodes

  4. The Effect of Fine and Coarse Particulate Air Pollution on Mortality: A National Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Background Although many studies have examined the effects of air pollution on mortality, data limitations have resulted in fewer studies of both particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5; fine particles) and of coarse particles (particles with an aerodynamic diameter > 2.5 and < 10 μm; PM coarse). We conducted a national, multicity time-series study of the acute effect of PM2.5 and PM coarse on the increased risk of death for all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and respiratory mortality for the years 1999–2005. Method We applied a city- and season-specific Poisson regression in 112 U.S. cities to examine the association of mean (day of death and previous day) PM2.5 and PM coarse with daily deaths. We combined the city-specific estimates using a random effects approach, in total, by season and by region. Results We found a 0.98% increase [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75–1.22] in total mortality, a 0.85% increase (95% CI, 0.46–1.24) in CVD, a 1.18% increase (95% CI, 0.48–1.89) in MI, a 1.78% increase (95% CI, 0.96–2.62) in stroke, and a 1.68% increase (95% CI, 1.04–2.33) in respiratory deaths for a 10-μg/m3 increase in 2-day averaged PM2.5. The effects were higher in spring. For PM coarse, we found significant but smaller increases for all causes analyzed. Conclusions We conclude that our analysis showed an increased risk of mortality for all and specific causes associated with PM2.5, and the risks are higher than what was previously observed for PM10. In addition, coarse particles are also associated with more deaths. PMID:19590680

  5. Source Signatures of Fine Particulate Matter from Petroleum Refining and Fuel Use

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman; Frank E. Huggins; Naresh Shah; Robert Huggins

    1999-12-31

    Combustion experiments were carried out on four different residual fuel oils in a 732 kW boiler. Particulate matter (PM) emission samples were separated aerodynamically by a cyclone into fractions that were nominally less than and greater than 2.5 microns in diameter. However, examination of several of the samples by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) revealed that part of the <2.5 micron fraction (PM{sub 2.5}) in fact consists of carbonaceous cenospheres and vesicular particles that range up to 10 microns in diameter. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy data were obtained at the S, V, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn, and As Kedges, and at the Pb L-edge. Deconvolution of the x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) region of the S spectra established that the dominant molecular forms of S present were sulfate (26-84% of total S) and thiophene (13-39% of total S). Sulfate was greater in the PM{sub 2.5} samples than in the >2.5 micron samples (PM{sub 2.5+}). Inorganic sulfides and elemental sulfur were present in lower percentages. The Ni XANES spectra from all of the samples agree fairly well with that of NiSO4, while most of the V spectra closely resemble that of vanadyl sulfate (VO{center_dot}SO{sub 4}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O). The other metals investigated (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) were also present predominantly as sulfates. Arsenic is present as an arsenate (As{sup +5}). X-ray diffraction patterns of the PM{sub 2.5} fraction exhibit sharp lines due to sulfate compounds (Zn, V, Ni, Ca, etc.) superimposed on broad peaks due to amorphous carbons. All of the samples contain a significant organic component, with the LOI ranging from 64 to 87 % for the PM{sub 2.5} fraction and from 88 to 97% for the PM{sub 2.5+} fraction. {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicates that the carbon is predominantly condensed in graphitic structures. Aliphatic structure was detected in only one of seven samples examined.

  6. Indoor air sampling for fine particulate matter and black carbon in industrial communities in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    Tunno, Brett J; Naumoff Shields, Kyra; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Holguin, Fernando; Lioy, Paul; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    Impacts of industrial emissions on outdoor air pollution in nearby communities are well-documented. Fewer studies, however, have explored impacts on indoor air quality in these communities. Because persons in northern climates spend a majority of their time indoors, understanding indoor exposures, and the role of outdoor air pollution in shaping such exposures, is a priority issue. Braddock and Clairton, Pennsylvania, industrial communities near Pittsburgh, are home to an active steel mill and coke works, respectively, and the population experiences elevated rates of childhood asthma. Twenty-one homes were selected for 1-week indoor sampling for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) during summer 2011 and winter 2012. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine contributions from both outdoor concentrations and indoor sources. In the models, an outdoor infiltration component explained 10 to 39% of variability in indoor air pollution for PM2.5, and 33 to 42% for BC. For both PM2.5 models and the summer BC model, smoking was a stronger predictor than outdoor pollution, as greater pollutant concentration increases were identified. For winter BC, the model was explained by outdoor pollution and an open windows modifier. In both seasons, indoor concentrations for both PM2.5 and BC were consistently higher than residence-specific outdoor concentration estimates. Mean indoor PM2.5 was higher, on average, during summer (25.8±22.7 μg/m3) than winter (18.9±13.2 μg/m3). Contrary to the study's hypothesis, outdoor concentrations accounted for only little to moderate variability (10 to 42%) in indoor concentrations; a much greater proportion of PM2.5 was explained by cigarette smoking. Outdoor infiltration was a stronger predictor for BC compared to PM2.5, especially in winter. Our results suggest that, even in industrial communities of high outdoor pollution concentrations, indoor activities--particularly cigarette smoking--may play a larger

  7. Indoor air sampling for fine particulate matter and black carbon in industrial communities in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    Tunno, Brett J; Naumoff Shields, Kyra; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Holguin, Fernando; Lioy, Paul; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    Impacts of industrial emissions on outdoor air pollution in nearby communities are well-documented. Fewer studies, however, have explored impacts on indoor air quality in these communities. Because persons in northern climates spend a majority of their time indoors, understanding indoor exposures, and the role of outdoor air pollution in shaping such exposures, is a priority issue. Braddock and Clairton, Pennsylvania, industrial communities near Pittsburgh, are home to an active steel mill and coke works, respectively, and the population experiences elevated rates of childhood asthma. Twenty-one homes were selected for 1-week indoor sampling for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) during summer 2011 and winter 2012. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine contributions from both outdoor concentrations and indoor sources. In the models, an outdoor infiltration component explained 10 to 39% of variability in indoor air pollution for PM2.5, and 33 to 42% for BC. For both PM2.5 models and the summer BC model, smoking was a stronger predictor than outdoor pollution, as greater pollutant concentration increases were identified. For winter BC, the model was explained by outdoor pollution and an open windows modifier. In both seasons, indoor concentrations for both PM2.5 and BC were consistently higher than residence-specific outdoor concentration estimates. Mean indoor PM2.5 was higher, on average, during summer (25.8±22.7 μg/m3) than winter (18.9±13.2 μg/m3). Contrary to the study's hypothesis, outdoor concentrations accounted for only little to moderate variability (10 to 42%) in indoor concentrations; a much greater proportion of PM2.5 was explained by cigarette smoking. Outdoor infiltration was a stronger predictor for BC compared to PM2.5, especially in winter. Our results suggest that, even in industrial communities of high outdoor pollution concentrations, indoor activities--particularly cigarette smoking--may play a larger

  8. Use of passive and active ground and satellite remote sensing to monitor fine particulate pollutants on regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, Lina; Wu, Yonghua; Gross, Barry M.; Moshary, Fred

    2012-06-01

    This paper explores the performance of current remote sensing methods for estimation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, diameter < 2.5μm) in the New York City area (40.821°N, 73.949°W) during 2010. We analyze the relationship between surface PM2.5 mass concentration and column aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500-nm by using the synergy measurements of surface in-situ, AERONET-sunphotometer, lidar and NOAA-GOES satellite. The regression slopes and correlation coefficients between PM2.5 and AOD show the good performance in summer and indicate dramatic monthly variation which are associated with the seasonal differences of PBL-heights, fine-mode contribution to the total AOD and aerosol volume-to-extinction ratio. Additionally, the relationship of PM2.5 and fine-mode AOD shows higher correlations than the PM2.5 and total AOD (R2 total = 0.5011, R2 fine = 0.6132, R2 coarse = -0.0235). Also, when considering the lidar-derived PBL-heights in the different months and removing aloft layer and cloudy cases, the PM2.5 estimations using AOD show improvements during the cold months; furthermore, the correction on aerosol volume-to-extinction ratio results in better estimations of fine particulate matter concentrations and therefore confirms the importance of including these parameters into air quality models. Moreover, the AOD data from NOAA-Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) are initially evaluated by comparing with AERONET-AOD, and further illustrate the good correlation with PM2.5 concentration.

  9. INVERTING CASCADE IMPACTOR DATA FOR SIZE-RESOLVED CHARACTERIZATION OF FINE PARTICULATE SOURCE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cascade impactors are particularly useful in determining the mass size distributions of particulate and individual chemical species. The impactor raw data must be inverted to reconstruct a continuous particle size distribution. An inversion method using a lognormal function for p...

  10. Cardiovascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Fine and Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Older Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the incidence of adverse cardiovascular effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). Advanced age is among the factors identified as conferring susceptibility to PM inhalation. In order to characteri...

  11. Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on ST Segment Height: A Longitudinal Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods: We investigate the acute effects and the time cours...

  12. Regional Neurodegeneration and Gliosis Are Amplified by Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Repeated at 24-Hour Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Amanda Nicholle; Saatman, Kathryn Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Most traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) that occur every year are classified as ‘mild’. Individuals involved in high-risk activities may sustain multiple mild TBIs. We evaluated the acute physiological and histopathological consequences of mild TBI in a mouse model, comparing sham injury, single impact, or 5 impacts at a 24- or 48-hour inter-injury interval. A single closed skull impact resulted in bilateral gliosis in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex that was proportional to impact depth. Midline impact, at a depth just above the threshold to induce transient unconsciousness, produced occasional axonal injury and degenerating neurons accompanied by astrogliosis in the entorhinal cortex and cerebellum. Mild TBI repeated every 24 hours resulted in bilateral hemorrhagic lesions in the entorhinal cortex along with significantly increased neurodegeneration and microglial activation despite diminished durations of apnea and unconsciousness with subsequent impacts. Astrogliosis and diffusely distributed axonal injury were also observed bilaterally in the cerebellum and the brainstem. When the interval between mild TBIs was increased to 48 hours, the pathological consequences were comparable to a single TBI. Together, these data suggest that in mice the brain remains at increased risk for damage for 24 hours after mild TBI despite reduced acute physiological responses to subsequent mild impacts. PMID:25232942

  13. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. PMID:27525110

  14. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m(2), had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab(®) device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens(®) algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for "24-hour", "awake", and "asleep" periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects.

  15. A Compute Perspective: Delivering Decision Support Products in 24 Hours from the Airborne Snow Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, P.; Mattmann, C. A.; Painter, T. H.; Seidel, F. C.; Trangsrud, A.; Hart, A. F.; Goodale, C. E.; Boardman, J. W.; Heneghan, C.; Verma, R.; Khudikyan, S.; Boustani, M.; Zimdars, P. A.; Horn, J.; Neely, S.

    2013-12-01

    The JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) must process 100s of GB of raw data to 100s of Terabytes of derived data in 24 hour Near Real Time (NRT) latency in a geographically distributed mobile compute and data-intensive processing setting. ASO provides meaningful information to water resource managers in the Western US letting them know how much water to maintain; or release, and what the prospectus of the current snow season is in the Sierra Nevadas. Providing decision support products processed from airborne data in a 24 hour timeframe is an emergent field and required the team to develop a novel solution as this process is typically done over months. We've constructed a system that combines Apache OODT; with Apache Tika; with the Interactive Data Analysis (IDL)/ENVI programming environment to rapidly and unobtrusively generate, distribute and archive ASO data as soon as the plane lands near Mammoth Lakes, CA. Our system is flexible, underwent several redeployments and reconfigurations, and delivered this critical information to stakeholders during the recent "Snow On" campaign March 2013 - June 2013. This talk will take you through a day in the life of the compute team from data acquisition, delivery, processing, and dissemination. Within this context, we will discuss the architecture of ASO; the open source software we used; the data we stored; and how it was delivered to its users. Moreover we will discuss the logistics, system engineering, and staffing that went into the developing, deployment, and operation of the mobile compute system.

  16. Coagulation abnormalities in diabetic coma before and 24 hours after treatment.

    PubMed

    McLaren, E H; Cullen, D R; Brown, M J

    1979-12-01

    A coagulation screen consisting of measurement of the prothrombin time, thrombin time, kaolin caphalin clotting time, platelet count, plasma fibrinogen level, fibrin degradation products and ethanol gelation test was performed on 24 patients with impairment of consciousness due to acute diabetic metabolic decompensation at the start of treatment and 24 hours later. 22 out of 24 patients showed at least one coagulation abnormality on admission of which the commonest were a prolonged prothrombin time, shortened kaolin cephalin clotting.time and raised plasma fibrinogen level. After 24 hours of treatment these values were more normal but 20 out of 22 patients still displayed some abnormality. 15 patients had two or more coagulation abnormalities on admission including 3 patients with haematological abnormalities suggestive of disseminated intravascular coagulation. This group was older and had higher blood ureas than those with fewer abnormalities, but plasma glucose, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate levels were similar in both groups of patients. All 5 patients with hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma and all 3 patients who died without recovering consciousness had two or more coagulation abnormalities on admission.

  17. Deviation of innate circadian period from 24 hours reduces longevity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Libert, Sergiy; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Pointer, Kelli; Pletcher, Scott D.; Guarente, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Summary The variation of individual lifespans, even in highly inbred cohorts of animals and under strictly controlled environmental conditions, is substantial and not well understood. This variation in part could be due to epigenetic variation, which later affects the animal’s physiology and ultimately longevity. Identification of the physiological properties that impact health and lifespan is crucial for longevity research and the development of anti-aging therapies. Here we measured individual circadian and metabolic characteristics in a cohort of inbred F1 hybrid mice and correlated these parameters to their lifespans. We found that mice with innate circadian periods close to 24 hours (revealed during 30 days of housing in total darkness) enjoyed nearly 20% longer lifespans than their littermates, which had shorter or longer innate circadian periods. These findings show that maintenance of a 24 hour intrinsic circadian period is a positive predictor of longevity. Our data suggest that circadian period may be used to predict individual longevity and that processes that control innate circadian period affect aging. PMID:22702406

  18. Sleep in healthy elderly subjects: a 24-hour ambulatory polysomnographic study.

    PubMed

    Gigli, G L; Placidi, F; Diomedi, M; Maschio, M; Silvestri, G; Scalise, A; Marciani, M G

    1996-04-01

    It is still debated whether the deterioration of the sleep pattern, frequently reported by elderly subjects, is due only to aging per se. Other factors associated with aging or modifications of biological rhythms could also be involved. Elderly subjects frequently complain of daytime sleepiness, but it is not clear whether this actually represents a return to a polyphasic structure of sleep, or only a consequence of a disturbed night sleep. Ten healthy, independent and active elderly subjects (age > 72 years) were elevated by means of 24-hour ambulatory polysomnography. Findings of nocturnal sleep were compared with sleep of the same group in the 24-hour period and with sleep of young healthy controls. We observed a fragmentation of nocturnal sleep, but a fairly good representation of stages and a preservation of cyclicity. Except for three cases, with early or late times of sleep onset and wake-up, sleep disruption did not seem to be related to modification of circadian rhythms. Only three subjects presented undesired daytime naps, whereas the others either did not show daytime sleep at all, or were used to having their siesta after lunch since their young adulthood. In normal aging, daytime sleep does not constitute a social problem. Ambulatory polysomnography is a valid alternative to laboratory recordings in the identification of daytime sleep. PMID:8734563

  19. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sarah C; Gauthier, Angela C; Liu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. PMID:27525110

  20. PHYSICIAN-PHARMACIST CO-MANAGEMENT AND 24-HOUR BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ziqian; Ernst, Michael E.; Ardery, Gail; Xu, Yinghui; Carter, Barry L.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: to compare indices of 24-hour BP following a physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention and to describe the associated changes in antihypertensive medications. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective, cluster-randomized clinical trial conducted in 6 family medicine clinics randomized to co-managed (n=3 clinics, 176 subjects) or control (n=3 clinics, 198 subjects) groups. Mean ambulatory systolic BP was significantly lower in the co-managed versus the control group: daytime SBP 122.8 mm Hg versus 134.4 mm Hg (p<0.001); nighttime SBP 114.8 mm Hg versus 123.7 mm Hg (p<0.001); and 24-hour SBP 120.4 mm Hg versus 131.8 mm Hg (p<0.001), respectively. Significantly more drug changes were made in the co-managed than in the control group (2.7 versus 1.1 changes/subject, p<0.001), and there was greater diuretic use in co-managed subjects (79.6% versus 62.6%, p<0.001). Ambulatory BPs were significantly lower for the subjects who had a diuretic added during the first month compared with those who never had a diuretic added (p<0.01). Physician-pharmacist co-management significantly improved ambulatory BP compared with a control group. Anti-hypertensive drug therapy was intensified much more for subjects in the co-managed group. PMID:23614849

  1. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m(2), had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab(®) device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens(®) algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for "24-hour", "awake", and "asleep" periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects. PMID:24812515

  2. Association between Sleep Duration and 24-Hour Urine Free Cortisol in the MrOS Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Madhu N.; Blackwell, Terri; Redline, Susan; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Neylan, Thomas C.; Stone, Katie L.

    2013-01-01

    Context Short sleep duration is associated with adverse health outcomes, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. It has been postulated that short sleep duration may elevate cortisol levels, but studies have had conflicting results. It is unclear whether these differing findings may be due to methodological issues, such as assessment of sleep duration. Specifically, objective versus subjective methods of measuring habitual sleep duration may account for the conflicting results found in epidemiological studies. Objective Our goal was to determine whether habitual sleep duration, measured objectively (by actigraphy) and subjectively (by self-report), was associated with 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), a measure of integrated cortisol secretion. Our secondary goal was to determine whether slow wave sleep (SWS, determined by polysomnography) was associated with 24-hour UFC. Design/Setting Cross sectional study of community dwelling older men. Patients/Participants 325 men (mean age = 76.6 years, SD = 5.5) from the Portland site of the MrOS Sleep Study, who underwent 24-hour urine collection, polysomnography, actigraphy and sleep questionnaire. Primary Outcome 24-hour UFC. Results In this study of community dwelling older men, self-reported sleep duration was inversely related to 24-hour UFC levels. Participants reporting <5 hours of habitual sleep had an adjusted mean 24-hour UFC of 29.8 ug, compared to 28.0 ug in participants reporting >5 to <8 hours of sleep 25.5 ug in those reporting >8 hours of habitual sleep. However, sleep duration determined by actigraphy was not associated with 24-hour UFC in either univariable or multivariable regression models. SWS was not associated with 24-hour UFC. Conclusion Objectively measured (i.e., actigraphic) sleep duration is not associated with 24-hour UFC in these community dwelling older men. This finding, together with prior studies, suggests that elevated levels of integrated cortisol secretion is not the

  3. Characterization of Extractable Organic Fine Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere of Houston and Source Apportionment Calculations Using Organic Molecular Markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M. P.; Yue, Z. W.; Buzco, B.

    2002-12-01

    Samples of atmospheric PM2.5 were collected in Houston, TX every second day during the summer of 2000 as part of the EPA sponsored Houston Fine Particle Matter Supersite program. Sampling occurred at three sites, including one industrial location (HRM-3), one suburban location (Aldine) and one coastal location (La Porte). Twenty samples collected over a 24 hour period have been analyzed to quantify the concentration of 95 individual organic compounds, including: n-alkanes (C20 to C36), aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanoic acids (C5 to C34), n-alkenoic acids (C18:1 and C18:2), carboxylic diacids (C3 to C10), petroleum biomarkers and others. As a whole, the extractable compounds were dominated by acids, especially by octadecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid. The measured concentration of n-alkanes exhibited a peak at C29, with carbon preference index (CPI) values in the range of 0.97 to 2.0. Using organic molecular markers, including seven alkanes, four petroleum biomarkers, seven PAH, one alkanoic acid, one alkenoic acid, levoglucosan, and three chemical components (Al, Si and Elemental Carbon), Chemical Mass Balancing (CMB) calculations have been performed on the ambient speciation data. These calculations are used to determine the contribution of seven different primary emission sources including: diesel powered vehicles, gasoline vehicles, wood combustion, fuel oil combustion, road dusts, meat cooking and vegetation waxes. The contribution of diesel powered vehicles and gasoline powered vehicles are the most important primary sources at all three sampling locations, with road dusts important at the industrial location. Meat cooking emissions were significant at all three locations. Wood combustion is an important contribution during a four-day period when uncontrolled wildfires in eastern Texas and Louisiana brought biomass combustion aerosols into the sampling region.

  4. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  5. Turbulent diffusion on the solar photosphere through 24-hour continuous observations of magnetic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannattasio, F.; Berrilli, F.; Del Moro, D.; Bellot Rubio, L.; Orozco Suarez, D.; Gosic, M.

    2012-12-01

    Solar atmosphere is a unique laboratory for the study of turbulent flows under extreme conditions (e.g. very high Reynolds numbers). The turbulent nature of the flow may be approached by determining how magnetic flux elements are transported on the solar surface, and measuring the spatio-temporal scales on which these small magnetic structures are organized. The process involved is diffusion. Several works explored this topic, both by simulations and observations, and the results are often contradictory, ranging from fully-developed turbulent scenarios to normal-diffusive motions. We analyze 24-hour continuous Hinode SOT observations of a supergranular region (for the first time these long scales are explored), studying the evolution of the mutual distance between magnetic element pairs and its scaling laws, in order to investigate the diffusion process. We find a super-diffusive behavior, with a gamma index depending on the spatial scale selected.

  6. After 24-hour scrub, another tower rollback for the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    As tower rollback begins, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for the second launch attempt at 4:04 p.m. EST. The original launch was scrubbed on Feb. 6 for 24 hours. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  7. Chest physiotherapy in preterm infants with RDS in the first 24 hours of life.

    PubMed

    Raval, D; Yeh, T F; Mora, A; Cuevas, D; Pyati, S; Pildes, R S

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate if chest physiotherapy is beneficial to premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) during the first 24 hours of life, 20 infants were randomly assigned to two groups; 10 infants in Group I received routine chest physiotherapy and suction, and 10 infants in Group II received suction only. The birth weight, gestational age, postnatal age, Apgar scores, blood gases, acid-base status, and ventilatory requirements prior to study were comparable between the two groups. There were no significant differences between the groups in the amount of endotracheal secretions removed, the PO2/FIO2 ratio, blood gases, and pH during the study. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), Grade I and II intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and mortality was comparable. However, five of 10 Group I and zero of 10 Group II infants developed Grade III or IV IVH (P less than 0.05).

  8. Seasonal variation of black carbon in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) at the tropical coastal city of Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Sandeep, P; Saradhi, I V; Pandit, G G

    2013-11-01

    Black Carbon (BC) is a pollutant species primarily emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels. BC levels, associated with fine particulate matter (PM2.5), were monitored from January 2009 to December 2010 at an urban industrial area in Mumbai to study the seasonal and temporal variations and its contribution to fine particulate matter. Air particulate samples were collected in two size fractions, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and coarse particulate matter (PM2.5-10), using a Gent air sampler. During the study period, arithmetic means of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were found to be 30.4 and 68.2 μg/m(3), respectively. The average value of BC in fine particulate matter was 4.0 μg/m(3), with a range of 1.0-9.4 μg/m(3). Studies carried out using Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model indicated the contribution of BC from the northern and central part of India during days of high BC levels.

  9. [Development of direct and indirect ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure monitoring].

    PubMed

    Krönig, B

    1991-01-01

    The direct ambulatory 24-hour blood-pressure monitoring has been applied in two ways. With the so called "Oxford-system", blood pressure is recorded via a cannula in the brachial artery which is connected to a perfusion unit that is worn around the neck, on the front of the chest, with a tape recorder carried in a pouch on the patient's belt. Using the micro-catheter blood-pressure telemetry recording is done in the same way, but transmission of the data to a stationary-receiving unit is managed by telemetry. The usage of the latter method is limited by the weight and complexity of the patient-sited equipment. Compared to the Oxford-system there is the advantage of continuously observing the patients blood-pressure "on-line" during the recording. The invasive character of both methods limits the application to special, scientific investigations. In recent years the indirect recording machines for 24-hour blood-pressure monitoring has been developed further. They are now accurate, easy to apply and simple to work out. Beside the auscultatory way of recording, with or without ECG-gating, the oscillometry recording machines have been improved. There should be automatically-operated intervals with recordings in day-time every 15-20 minutes and during the night every 30 minutes. The recorded data should be analysed by computer, calculating mean values with standard deviations in day-time and night-time separately. Further more, there should be a listing of reading-errors and probably corrected measurements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index derived from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang; Dolan, Eamon; Gao, Ping-Jin; Guo, Hui-Feng; Nawrot, Tim; Stanton, Alice V; Zhu, Ding-Liang; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2006-03-01

    We hypothesized that 1 minus the slope of diastolic on systolic pressure during 24-hour ambulatory monitoring (ambulatory arterial stiffness index [AASI]) might reflect arterial stiffness. We compared AASI with established measures of arterial stiffness and studied its distribution in Chinese and European populations. We used 90207 SpaceLabs monitors and the SphygmoCor device to measure AASI, central and peripheral pulse pressures, the central (CAIx) and peripheral (PAIx) systolic augmentation indexes, and aortic pulse wave velocity. In 166 volunteers, the correlation coefficient between AASI and pulse wave velocity was 0.51 (P<0.0001). In 348 randomly recruited Chinese subjects, AASI correlated (P<0.0001) with CAIx (r=0.48), PAIx (r=0.50), and central pulse pressure (r=0.50). AASI increased with age and mean arterial pressure but decreased with body height. Both before and after adjustment for arterial wave reflections by considering height and heart rate as covariates, AASI correlated more (P<0.0001) closely with CAIx and PAIx than 24-hour pulse pressure. Among normotensive subjects, the 95th percentile of AASI was 0.55 in Chinese and 0.57 in 1617 Europeans enrolled in the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring. The upper boundary of the 95% prediction interval of AASI in relation to age ranged from 0.53 at 20 years to 0.72 at 80 years. In conclusion, AASI is a new index of arterial stiffness that can be easily measured under ambulatory conditions. Pending additional validation in outcome studies, normal values of AASI are probably <0.50 and 0.70 in young and older subjects, respectively. PMID:16432048

  11. A 24-Hour Study of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary Axes in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nambron, Rajasree; Costelloe, Seán J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hill, Nathan R.; Frost, Chris; Watt, Hilary C.; Hindmarsh, Peter; Björkqvist, Maria; Warner, Thomas T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Huntington’s disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Patients exhibit other symptoms including sleep and mood disturbances, muscle atrophy and weight loss which may be linked to hypothalamic pathology and dysfunction of hypothalamo-pituitary axes. Methods We studied neuroendocrine profiles of corticotropic, somatotropic and gonadotropic hypothalamo-pituitary axes hormones over a 24-hour period in controlled environment in 15 healthy controls, 14 premanifest and 13 stage II/III Huntington’s disease subjects. We also quantified fasting levels of vasopressin, oestradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free total thyroxine, prolactin, adrenaline and noradrenaline. Somatotropic axis hormones, growth hormone releasing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like factor binding protein-3 were quantified at 06:00 (fasting), 15:00 and 23:00. A battery of clinical tests, including neurological rating and function scales were performed. Results 24-hour concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone did not differ significantly between the Huntington’s disease group and controls. Daytime growth hormone secretion was similar in control and Huntington’s disease subjects. Stage II/III Huntington’s disease subjects had lower concentration of post-sleep growth hormone pulse and higher insulin-like growth factor-1:growth hormone ratio which did not reach significance. In Huntington’s disease subjects, baseline levels of hypothalamo-pituitary axis hormones measured did not significantly differ from those of healthy controls. Conclusions The relatively small subject group means that the study may not detect subtle perturbations in hormone concentrations. A targeted study of the somatotropic axis in larger cohorts may be warranted. However, the lack

  12. Low correlation between visit-to-visit variability and 24-hour variability of blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi; Diaz, Keith M.; Newman, Jonathan; Sloan, Richard P.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of clinic systolic blood pressure (SBP) has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Given the need for obtaining blood pressure (BP) at multiple visits to calculate VVV, substituting BP variability from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) may be a practical alternative. We assessed the correlation between VVV of BP and BP variability from ABPM using data from 146 untreated, mostly normotensive participants (mean age 47.9 years) in a substudy of the ongoing Masked Hypertension Study. VVV of SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was estimated by the standard deviation (SDvvv) and average real variability (ARVvvv) from 6 study visits over a median of 216 days. ABPM data were used to calculate the day-night SD (SDdn) and the ARV of SBP and DBP over 24 hours (ARV24). For SBP, the mean SDvvv and SDdn were 6.3 (SD=2.5) and 8.8 (SD=1.8) mmHg, respectively, and mean ARVvvv and ARV24 were 7.2 (SD=3.2) and 8.4 (SD=2.1) mmHg, respectively. The Spearman correlation coefficient between SDvvv and SDdn of SBP was rs=0.25 and between ARVvvv and ARV24 was rs=0.17. Participants in the highest quartile of SDdn of SBP were 1.66 (95% CI: 0.93 – 2.75) times more likely to be in the highest quartile of SDvvv of SBP. The observed-to-expected ratio between the highest quartiles of ARVvvv and ARV24 of SBP was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.41 – 1.69). The correlations for SDvvv and SDdn and ARVvvv and ARV24 of DBP were minimal. These data suggest VVV and 24-hour variability are weakly correlated and not interchangeable. PMID:23784506

  13. A semi-empirical, receptor-oriented Lagrangian model for simulating fine particulate carbon at rural sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schichtel, B. A.; Rodriguez, M. A.; Barna, M. G.; Gebhart, K. A.; Pitchford, M. L.; Malm, W. C.

    2012-12-01

    Total fine particulate carbon (TC) is an important contributor to fine particulate matter and is measured in routine national monitoring programs. TC contributes to adverse health effects, regional haze, and climate effects. To resolve these adverse effects, there is a need for tools capable of routine and climatological assessments and exploration of the sources contributing to the measured TC. To address this need, a receptor-oriented, Lagrangian particle dispersion model was developed to simulate TC in rural areas, using readily available meteorological and emission inputs. This model was based on the CAPITA (Center for Air Pollution Impact and Trend Analysis) Monte Carlo model (CMC) and simulated the contributions from eight source categories, including biomass burning and secondary organic carbon (SOC) from vegetation. TC removal and formation mechanisms are simulated using a simplified parameterization of atmospheric processes based on pseudo-first-order rate equations. The rate coefficients are empirical functions of meteorological parameters derived from measured, modeled, and literature data. These functions were optimized such that the simulated TC concentrations reproduce the average spatial and seasonal patterns in measured 2008 U.S. TC concentrations, as well as measured SOC fractions at two eastern U.S. sites. The optimized model was used to simulate 2006-2008 rural TC that was evaluated against measured TC. In addition, the model output was compared to TC from a 2006 Eulerian Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) simulation. It is shown that the CMC model has similar performance metrics as the CMAQ model.

  14. An Integrated Risk Function for Estimating the Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C. Arden; Ezzati, Majid; Olives, Casey; Lim, Stephen S.; Mehta, Sumi; Shin, Hwashin H.; Singh, Gitanjali; Hubbell, Bryan; Brauer, Michael; Anderson, H. Ross; Smith, Kirk R.; Balmes, John R.; Bruce, Nigel G.; Kan, Haidong; Laden, Francine; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Turner, Michelle C.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Cohen, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Background: Estimating the burden of disease attributable to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ambient air requires knowledge of both the shape and magnitude of the relative risk (RR) function. However, adequate direct evidence to identify the shape of the mortality RR functions at the high ambient concentrations observed in many places in the world is lacking. Objective: We developed RR functions over the entire global exposure range for causes of mortality in adults: ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer (LC). We also developed RR functions for the incidence of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) that can be used to estimate mortality and lost-years of healthy life in children < 5 years of age. Methods: We fit an integrated exposure–response (IER) model by integrating available RR information from studies of ambient air pollution (AAP), second hand tobacco smoke, household solid cooking fuel, and active smoking (AS). AS exposures were converted to estimated annual PM2.5 exposure equivalents using inhaled doses of particle mass. We derived population attributable fractions (PAFs) for every country based on estimated worldwide ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Results: The IER model was a superior predictor of RR compared with seven other forms previously used in burden assessments. The percent PAF attributable to AAP exposure varied among countries from 2 to 41 for IHD, 1 to 43 for stroke, < 1 to 21 for COPD, < 1 to 25 for LC, and < 1 to 38 for ALRI. Conclusions: We developed a fine particulate mass–based RR model that covered the global range of exposure by integrating RR information from different combustion types that generate emissions of particulate matter. The model can be updated as new RR information becomes available. Citation: Burnett RT, Pope CA III, Ezzati M, Olives C, Lim SS, Mehta S, Shin HH, Singh G, Hubbell B, Brauer M, Anderson HR

  15. Chemical characteristics and source apportionment of fine particulate organic carbon in Hong Kong during high particulate matter episodes in winter 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun-Chun; Yu, Jian Zhen; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Schauer, James J.; Yuan, Zibing; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Louie, Peter K. K.

    2013-02-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at six general stations and one roadside station in Hong Kong in two periods of high particulate matter (PM) in 2003 (27 October-4 November and 30 November-13 December). The highest PM2.5 reached 216 μg m- 3 during the first high PM period and 113 μg m- 3 during the second high PM period. Analysis of synoptic weather conditions identified individual sampling days under dominant influence of one of three types of air masses, that is, local, regional and long-range transported (LRT) air masses. Roadside samples were discussed separately due to heavy influences from vehicular emissions. This research examines source apportionment of fine organic carbon (OC) and contribution of secondary organic aerosol on high PM days under different synoptic conditions. Six primary OC (POC) sources (vehicle exhaust, biomass burning, cooking, cigarette smoke, vegetative detritus, and coal combustion) were identified on the basis of characteristic organic tracers. Individual POC source contributions were estimated using chemical mass balance model. In the roadside and the local samples, OC was dominated by the primary sources, accounting for more than 74% of OC. In the samples influenced by regional and LRT air masses, secondary OC (SOC), which was approximated to be the difference between the total measured OC and the apportioned POC, contributed more than 54% of fine OC. SOC was highly correlated with water-soluble organic carbon and sulfate, consistent with its secondary nature.

  16. 77 FR 45956 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION....5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision... III. Final Action IV. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews I. Background On July 18, 1997 (62...

  17. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years. It has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance its particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with...

  18. Characteristics of Fine Particulate Carbonaceous Aerosol at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Central Asia is a relatively understudied region of the world in terms of characterizing ambient particulate matter (PM) and quantifying source impacts of PM at receptor locations, although it is speculated to have an important role as a source region for long-range transport of ...

  19. Species of fine particulate matter and the risk of preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB), but the roles of PM species have been less studied. We estimated risk of birth in 4 preterm categories (risks reported as PTBs per 106 pregnancies; PTB categories = gestational age of 20-27; 28-31; 32-...

  20. Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours Maps and Data of Model-Based Small Area Estimates - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours is defined as a person 18 years of age or older who must have reported smoking at least 100 cigarettes in his/her life, and now does not smoke at all but it has been less than 365 days since completely stopped smoking cigarettes, or now smoke everyday or some days but reported that have made attempt of quitting for more than 24 hours in the past 12 months.

  1. Association of fine particulate matter from different sources with daily mortality in six U.S. cities.

    PubMed Central

    Laden, F; Neas, L M; Dockery, D W; Schwartz, J

    2000-01-01

    Previously we reported that fine particle mass (particulate matter [less than and equal to] 2.5 microm; PM(2.5)), which is primarily from combustion sources, but not coarse particle mass, which is primarily from crustal sources, was associated with daily mortality in six eastern U.S. cities (1). In this study, we used the elemental composition of size-fractionated particles to identify several distinct source-related fractions of fine particles and examined the association of these fractions with daily mortality in each of the six cities. Using specific rotation factor analysis for each city, we identified a silicon factor classified as soil and crustal material, a lead factor classified as motor vehicle exhaust, a selenium factor representing coal combustion, and up to two additional factors. We extracted daily counts of deaths from National Center for Health Statistics records and estimated city-specific associations of mortality with each source factor by Poisson regression, adjusting for time trends, weather, and the other source factors. Combined effect estimates were calculated as the inverse variance weighted mean of the city-specific estimates. In the combined analysis, a 10 microg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) from mobile sources accounted for a 3.4% increase in daily mortality [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7-5.2%], and the equivalent increase in fine particles from coal combustion sources accounted for a 1.1% increase [CI, 0.3-2.0%). PM(2.5) crustal particles were not associated with daily mortality. These results indicate that combustion particles in the fine fraction from mobile and coal combustion sources, but not fine crustal particles, are associated with increased mortality. PMID:11049813

  2. Surface and bulk characterization of particulates in fine-coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt is made to delineate the effects of composition, chemistry and oxidation of heterogeneous coal particulates, of different ranks and origins, on their wettability and floatability. The wetting characteristics of particulate coal samples are assessed using a relatively new film flotation technique, since it characterizes the distribution of lyophobic/lyophilic sites of an assembly of coal particles as encountered in a practical processing environment. The film flotation tests yield a wetting tension distribution diagram and an average critical wetting tension ({gamma}c), which can be used as a measure of hydrophobicity. The technique has been validated by determining the {gamma}c value (26-28 mN/m) for a homogeneous paraffin wax surface using wax-coated coal and other mineral particulates. The {gamma}c values for some of the high-ash and oxidized coals samples are estimated by combining the distribution curves of a number of as received and oxidized coal samples into a single curve by a normalization procedure, since they did not yield a complete distribution curve due to their hydrophilic nature. The film flotation results are compared with micro-scale flotation results obtained with Hallimond tube and vacuum flotation test methods. The Hallimond tube experiments using methanol solutions exhibit a frothing effect at low alcohol concentration and an entrainment effect at high concentrations. Vacuum flotation experiments using salt solutions correlate well with the film flotation results. The floatability of coals decreases with increasing {gamma}c values indicating the ability of film flotation to relate to coal floatability. In conclusion, film flotation appears to be a sensitive technique to delineate the surface wettability and floatability of heterogeneous coal particulates.

  3. Thermoelectric properties of hot-pressed fine particulate powder SiGe alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaty, John S.; Rolfe, Jonathan; Vandersande, Jan

    1991-01-01

    A novel material system and its fabrication technique have been defined and applied to the production of SiGe thermoelectric material through the hot pressing of 50-100 A ultrafine particulates into 80/20 SiGe. Relative to conventionally processed SiGe, a reduction of thermal conductivity of up to 40 percent is achieved in conjunction with an enhancement of material figure-of-merit of the order of 10-15 percent.

  4. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    PubMed

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  5. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited - A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light-dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus ("master clock") of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli ("zeitgebers"), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5-0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy might have

  6. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  7. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited – A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P.; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light–dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (“master clock”) of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli (“zeitgebers”), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5–0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy

  8. Development of two fine particulate matter standard reference materials (<4 μm and <10 μm) for the determination of organic and inorganic constituents.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Cleveland, Danielle; Heckert, N Alan; Kucklick, John R; Leigh, Stefan D; Long, Stephen E; Lynch, Jennifer M; Murphy, Karen E; Olfaz, Rabia; Pintar, Adam L; Porter, Barbara J; Rabb, Savelas A; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A; Zeisler, Rolf

    2016-06-01

    Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 2786 Fine Particulate Matter (<4 μm) and SRM 2787 Fine Particulate Matter (<10 μm) have been developed in support of the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter (PM). These materials have been characterized for the mass fractions of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs, brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) congeners, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) isomers, sugars, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners, and inorganic constituents, as well as particle-size characteristics. These materials are the first Certified Reference Materials available to support measurements of both organic and inorganic constituents in fine PM. In addition, values for PAHs are available for RM 8785 Air Particulate Matter on Filter Media. As such, these SRMs will be useful as quality control samples for ensuring compatibility of results among PM monitoring studies and will fill a void to assess the accuracy of analytical methods used in these studies. Graphical Abstract Removal of PM from filter for the preparation of SRM 2786 Fine Particulate Matter.

  9. Development of two fine particulate matter standard reference materials (<4 μm and <10 μm) for the determination of organic and inorganic constituents.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Cleveland, Danielle; Heckert, N Alan; Kucklick, John R; Leigh, Stefan D; Long, Stephen E; Lynch, Jennifer M; Murphy, Karen E; Olfaz, Rabia; Pintar, Adam L; Porter, Barbara J; Rabb, Savelas A; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A; Zeisler, Rolf

    2016-06-01

    Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 2786 Fine Particulate Matter (<4 μm) and SRM 2787 Fine Particulate Matter (<10 μm) have been developed in support of the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter (PM). These materials have been characterized for the mass fractions of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs, brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) congeners, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) isomers, sugars, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners, and inorganic constituents, as well as particle-size characteristics. These materials are the first Certified Reference Materials available to support measurements of both organic and inorganic constituents in fine PM. In addition, values for PAHs are available for RM 8785 Air Particulate Matter on Filter Media. As such, these SRMs will be useful as quality control samples for ensuring compatibility of results among PM monitoring studies and will fill a void to assess the accuracy of analytical methods used in these studies. Graphical Abstract Removal of PM from filter for the preparation of SRM 2786 Fine Particulate Matter. PMID:27074778

  10. Chemical Composition and Emission Sources of the Fine Particulate Matters in a Southeast Asian Mega City (Dhaka, Bangladesh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution has significant impact on human health, climate change, agriculture, visibility reduction, and also on the atmospheric chemistry. There are many studies already reported about the direct relation of the human mortality and morbidity with the increase of the atmospheric particulate matters. Especially, fine particulate matters can easily enter into the human respiratory system and causes many diseases. Particulate matters have the properties to absorb the solar radiation and impact on the climate. Dhaka, Bangladesh is a densely populated mega-city in the world. About 16 million inhabitants are living within an area of 360 square kilometers. Air quality situation has been degrading due to unplanned growth, increasing vehicles, severe traffic jams, brick kilns, industries, construction, and also transboundary air pollution. A rapidly growing number of vehicles has worsen the air quality in spite of major policy interventions, e.g., ban of two-stroke and three-wheeled vehicles, phase out of 20 years old vehicles, conversion to compressed natural gas (CNGs), etc. Introduction of CNGs to reduce air pollution was not the solution for fine particles at all, as evidence shows that CNGs and diesel engines are the major sources of fine particles. High concentration of the air pollutants in Dhaka city such as PM, carbonaceous species (black and organic carbon), CO, etc. has already been reported. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition (e.g., BC, OC, SO42-, NO3-, trace elements, etc.), aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and emission sources of our recent measurements at the highly polluted south East Asian Mega city (Dhaka) Bangladesh will be presented in the conference. PM2.5 samples were collected on filters with Digital PM2.5 sampler (Switzerland) and Air photon, USA. BC was measured from filters (with thermal and optical method) and also real time with an Aethalometer AE42 (Magee Scitific., USA). Water soluble ions were determined from filters with ion chromatogram. AOD

  11. What and how much do we eat? 24-hour dietary recall method.

    PubMed

    Salvador Castell, Gemma; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes

    2015-02-26

    Diet, along with lifestyle factors, is an important determinant of the health status of an individual and of a community. Dietary assessment at the population level provides us with key information on the frequency and distribution of possible inadequate diets and/or nutritional status. It is also useful as input into the elaboration of food and nutrition policies aiming to improve dietary habits and the health status of a community. This article reviews the characteristics, advantages and limitations of the 24-hour dietary recall method (24hDR), which is one of the most widely used tools in nutrition epidemiology to identify food, energy and nutrient intake in national nutrition surveys, cross-sectional studies, clinical trials and cohort studies as well as in the evaluation of individual dietary intake and Total Diet assessment. To reduce the key factors associated with bias, the importance of previously trained interviewers is highlighted, as well as the role of support materials and the contribution of novel technologies.

  12. Severe community-acquired pneumonia: timely management measures in the first 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Phua, Jason; Dean, Nathan C; Guo, Qi; Kuan, Win Sen; Lim, Hui Fang; Lim, Tow Keang

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) range from 17 to 48 % in published studies.In this review, we searched PubMed for relevant papers published between 1981 and June 2016 and relevant files. We explored how early and aggressive management measures, implemented within 24 hours of recognition of severe CAP and carried out both in the emergency department and in the ICU, decrease mortality in severe CAP.These measures begin with the use of severity assessment tools and the application of care bundles via clinical decision support tools. The bundles include early guideline-concordant antibiotics including macrolides, early haemodynamic support (lactate measurement, intravenous fluids, and vasopressors), and early respiratory support (high-flow nasal cannulae, lung-protective ventilation, prone positioning, and neuromuscular blockade for acute respiratory distress syndrome).While the proposed interventions appear straightforward, multiple barriers to their implementation exist. To successfully decrease mortality for severe CAP, early and close collaboration between emergency medicine and respiratory and critical care medicine teams is required. We propose a workflow incorporating these interventions. PMID:27567896

  13. Sudden cardiac arrest risk stratification based on 24-hour Holter ECG statistics.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Keisuke; Shiobara, Masahito; Nakamura, Saya; Yamashiro, Koichiro; Yana, Kazuo; Ono, Takuya

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using indices obtained from a long term Holter ECG record for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) risk stratification. The ndices tested were the QT-RR interval co-variability and the alternans ratio percentile (ARP(θ)) which is defined as the θ(th) percentile of alternans ratios over a 24 hour period. The QT-RR interval co-variabilities are evaluated by the serial correlation coefficient between QT and RR trend sequences (QTRC). Previously reported Kalman filter technique and a simple smoothing spline method for the trend estimation are compared. Parameter θ in the alternans ratio percentile index was optimized to achieve the best classification accuracy. These indices were estimated from 26 cardiovascular outpatients for Holter ECG record. Patients were classified into high and low risk groups according to their clinical diagnosis, and the obtained indices were compared with those of 25 control subjects. A risk stratification using the two indices QTRC and ARP(θ) yielded an average sensitivity of 0.812 and a specificity of 0.925. The sensitivities and specificities of all three categories exceeded 0.8 except for the sensitivity to detect the high-risk patient group. Other short-term ECG parameters may need to be incorporated in order to improve the sensitivity.

  14. 24 Hours in the Life of HIV-1 in a T Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Pejman; Desfarges, Sébastien; Bartha, István; Joos, Beda; Zangger, Nadine; Muñoz, Miguel; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Telenti, Amalio; Ciuffi, Angela

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 infects CD4+ T cells and completes its replication cycle in approximately 24 hours. We employed repeated measurements in a standardized cell system and rigorous mathematical modeling to characterize the emergence of the viral replication intermediates and their impact on the cellular transcriptional response with high temporal resolution. We observed 7,991 (73%) of the 10,958 expressed genes to be modulated in concordance with key steps of viral replication. Fifty-two percent of the overall variability in the host transcriptome was explained by linear regression on the viral life cycle. This profound perturbation of cellular physiology was investigated in the light of several regulatory mechanisms, including transcription factors, miRNAs, host-pathogen interaction, and proviral integration. Key features were validated in primary CD4+ T cells, and with viral constructs using alternative entry strategies. We propose a model of early massive cellular shutdown and progressive upregulation of the cellular machinery to complete the viral life cycle. PMID:23382686

  15. Age and individual sleep characteristics affect cognitive performance in anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift.

    PubMed

    Tadinac, Meri; Sekulić, Ante; Hromatko, Ivana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Ivancić, Romina

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown that both shift work and sleep deprivation have an adverse influence on various aspects of human cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to explore changes in cognitive functioning and subjective sleepiness of anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift. Twenty-six anesthesiology residents completed a set of psychological instruments at the beginning and at the end of the shift, as well as a questionnaire regarding information about the shift, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and Circadian Type Questionnaire. There was a significant decline in cognitive performance measured by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test after the shift. The effect was stronger in older participants and in those with high scores on rigidity of sleep scale and low scores on the ability to overcome sleepiness scale. There were no differences in the digits forward test (a measure of concentration), while digits backward test (a measure of working memory) even showed an improved performance after the shift. Although participants reported being significantly sleepier after the shift, the subjective sleepiness did not correlate with any of the objective measures of cognitive performance. In conclusion, the performance in short tasks involving concentration and working memory was not impaired, while performance in long-term and monotone tasks declined after sleep deprivation, and the magnitude of this decline depended on the specific individual characteristics of sleep and on age Surprisingly, age seemed to have an important impact on cognitive functions after shift work even in the relatively age-homogeneous population of young anesthesiology residents.

  16. High energy deficit in an ultraendurance athlete in a 24-hour ultracycling race

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ferran A.; Iglesias, Xavier; Benítez, Adolfo; Marina, Míchel; Padullés, Josep M.; Torrado, Priscila; Vázquez, Jairo; Knechtle, Beat

    2012-01-01

    This case study examined the nutritional behavior and energy balance in an official finisher of a 24-hour ultracycling race. The food and beverages consumed by the cyclist were continuously weighed and recorded to estimate intake of energy, macronutrients, sodium, and caffeine. In addition, during the race, heart rate was continuously monitored. Energy expenditure was assessed using a heart rate–oxygen uptake regression equation obtained previously from a laboratory test. The athlete (39 years, 175.6 cm, 84.2 kg, maximum oxygen uptake, 64 mL/kg/min) cycled during 22 h 22 min, in which he completed 557.3 km with 8760 m of altitude at an average speed of 25.1 km/h. The average heart rate was 131 beats/min. Carbohydrates were the main macronutrient intake (1102 g, 13.1 g/kg); however, intake was below current recommendations. The consumption of protein and fat was 86 g and 91 g, respectively. He ingested 20.7 L (862 mL/h) of fluids, with sport drinks the main fluid used for hydration. Sodium concentration in relation to total fluid intake was 34.0 mmol/L. Caffeine consumption over the race was 231 mg (2.7 mg/kg). During the race, he expended 15,533 kcal. Total energy intake was 5571 kcal, with 4058 (73%) and 1513 (27%) kcal derived from solids and fluids, respectively. The energy balance resulted in an energy deficit of 9915 kcal. PMID:22481841

  17. Obtaining liver tridimensional scaffold through the decellularization of rabbit whole liver in 24 hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Schliamser; Ayelen, Rinaldi; Romina, Comin; Alba Nelly, Borchert; Adrian, Nari Gustavo; Alicia, Salvatierra Nancy; Mariana Paula, Cid

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, we development a new protocol for liver decellularization in which the hole decellularization was reached over 24 h. Introduction: the availability of transplantable livers is not sufficient to fulfill the current demand for grafts, with the search for therapeutic alternatives having generated different lines of research, one of which is the use of decellularized three-dimensional biological matrices and subsequent cell seeding to obtain a functional organ. Objective: to produce a decellularization protocol from rabbit liver to generate a three-dimensional matrixin which the time period involved didn't pass 24 h. Methods: The decellularization is obtained through the use of water and SDS (0,1-0,3 %), after freezing at -80 degrees, is the best alternative of different physical and/or chemical mechanisms to break down organ cells and leave only the extracellular matriz. After 24 h of retrograde perfusion, a decellularized translucent matrix was generated. To evaluate if the decellularization protocol was successful, with the extracellular matrix being preserved, we carried out histological (light microscopy) and biochemical (DNA quantification) studies. Results: the decellularization process was verified by macroscopic observation of the organ using microscopic observation corroborated the macroscopic results, with the hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining showing no cells or nuclear material. In addition, the DNA quantification was less than 10% in the decellularized liver compared to control. Finally,the time taken to develop the decellularization protocol was less than 24 hours.

  18. Electrodes for 24 hours pH monitoring--a comparative study.

    PubMed Central

    McLauchlan, G; Rawlings, J M; Lucas, M L; McCloy, R F; Crean, G P; McColl, K E

    1987-01-01

    Three pH electrodes in clinical use were examined--(1) antimony electrode with remote reference electrode (Synectics 0011), (2) glass electrode with remote reference electrode (Microelectrodes Inc. MI 506) and (3) combined glass electrode with integral reference electrode (Radiometer GK2801C). In vitro studies showed that both glass electrodes were similar and superior to the antimony electrode with respect to response time, drift, and sensitivity. The effect of the siting of the reference electrode on the recorded pH was examined in five human volunteers. The pH reading using a remote skin reference electrode was higher by a mean of 0.3 pH units (range 0.0-0.6) in the stomach, lower by 0.65 pH units (0.5-0.8) in the duodenum and lower by 0.3 pH units (0.0-0.6) in the oesophagus than that simultaneously obtained with an intraluminal reference electrode. Buccal reference electrodes gave similar readings to skin. Combined reference and glass pH electrodes are recommended for 24-hour ambulatory pH monitoring. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3666560

  19. Depressive Symptoms and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans: The SABPA Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Lespérance, François; Harvey, Brian H.; Malan, Nico T.; Malan, Leoné

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances in circadian rhythm might play a central role in the neurobiology of depression. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and 24-hour ambulatory BP in a sample of 405 (197 black and 208 Caucasian) urbanized African teachers aged 25 to 60 yrs (mean 44.6 ± 9.6 yrs). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-administered 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). After adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, participants with severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15) had higher odds of hypertension defined from ambulatory BP and/or use of antihypertensive medication (odds ratio = 2.19, 95% CI, 1.00–4.90) in comparison to participants with no symptoms. Compared to Caucasians with no depressive symptoms, those with severe symptoms had blunted nocturnal systolic BP drop of 4.7 mmHg (95% CI, −0.5 to 10.0, P = 0.07). In summary, depressive symptoms were associated with the circadian BP profile in black and Caucasian Africans. PMID:22028954

  20. Neonatal family care for 24 hours per day: effects on maternal confidence and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Wataker, Heidi; Meberg, Alf; Nestaas, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    In family care (FC) program for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), parents are encouraged to reside together with their infant for 24 hours a day to actively be involved in the care. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of FC on maternal confidence and breast-feeding. Maternal confidence and rate of breast-feeding were assessed in 31 mothers offered FC that included special family rooms in the NICU, and in 30 mothers from a comparable NICU providing traditional care without such facilities. One week prior to hospital discharge, mothers in the FC group felt better informed regarding nursing issues and had more confidence in interpretation of the infants regarding feeding issues and in caregiving without staff attendance (P < .05). They also reported a higher level of empowerment (P < .05). Three months after discharge, the mothers in the FC group had a higher self-reported skill level for interpretation of the infant's signals and knowledge about breast-feeding (P < .05). Despite similar rate of breast-feeding at discharge, more infants in the FC group were breastfed 3 months after discharge (P < .05). An FC program in the NICU promoted better maternal confidence during the hospital stay and 3 months after discharge compared with traditional care.

  1. Importance of all movement behaviors in a 24 hour period for overall health.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Carson, Valerie; Gray, Casey E; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-12-01

    Physical inactivity and childhood obesity are well-recognized public health concerns that are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes. Historically, the benefits of physical activity (e.g., moderate-to-vigorous physical activity-MVPA) to overall health have dominated discussions and emerging evidence indicates that a broader, more integrated approach is needed to better understand and address current public health crises. Existing guidelines for children and youth around the world only focus on MVPA, and recently sedentary behavior, despite an accumulating body of evidence showing that light-intensity physical activity (LPA) such as walking can provide important health benefits. Furthermore, there is accumulating support for the importance of adequate sleep and that these behaviors moderate the health impact of each other. Ignoring the other components of the movement continuum (i.e., sleep, sedentary time, LPA) while focusing efforts exclusively on MVPA (accounting for <5% of the time in a 24 h period) limits the potential to optimize the health benefits of movement behaviors. In order to address this limitation, experts in Canada are currently developing the world's first Integrated 24 Hour Movement Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth to help advance an integrated healthy active living agenda that has the potential to significantly improve the overall health and well-being of children and youth. PMID:25485978

  2. 76 FR 6056 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Protection Agency FR Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NTTAA National Technology... (74 FR 58688), EPA deferred designations for three areas to evaluate further the reason for their high... November 13, 2009 notice (74 FR 58688), we also announced that our review of 2006-2008 monitoring data...

  3. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER--INSTITUTIONAL OIL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA seeks to understand the correlation between ambient fine PM and adverse human health effects, and there are no reliable emission factors to use for estimating PM2.5 or NH3. The most common source of directly emitted PM2.5 is incomplete combustion of fossil or biomass fuels. M...

  4. Fine Particulate Matter, Residential Proximity to Major Roads, and Markers of Small Vessel Disease in a Memory Study Population

    PubMed Central

    Wilker, Elissa H.; Martinez-Ramirez, Sergi; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Koutrakis, Petros; Mittleman, Murray A.; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with impaired cognitive function and vascular disease in older adults, but little is known about these associations among people with concerns about memory loss. Objective To examine associations between exposures to fine particulate matter and residential proximity to major roads and markers of small vessel disease. Methods From 2004—2010, 236 participants in the Massachusetts Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center Longitudinal Cohort participated in neuroimaging studies. Residential proximity to major roads and estimated 2003 residential annual average of fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) were linked to measures of brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and cerebral microbleeds. Associations were modeled using linear and logistic regression and adjusted for clinical and lifestyle factors. Results In this population (median age [interquartile range]=74[12], 57% female) living in a region with median 2003 PM2.5 annual average below the current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard, there were no associations between living closer to a major roadway or for a 2 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 and smaller BPF, greater WMH volume, or a higher odds of microbleeds. However, a 2 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 was associated with −0.19 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): −0.37, −0.005) lower natural log-transformed WMH volume. Other associations had wide confidence intervals. Conclusions In this population, where median 2003 estimated PM2.5 levels were below the current EPA standard, we observed no pattern of association between residential proximity to major roads or 2003 average PM2.5 and greater burden of small vessel disease or neurodegeneration. PMID:27372639

  5. Fine particulate matter source apportionment for the chemical speciation trends network site at Birmingham, Alabama, using positive matrix factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, K.; Jayanty, R.K.; Flanagan, J.B.

    2008-01-15

    The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model version 1.1 was used with data from the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) Chemical Speciation Trends Network (STN) to estimate source contributions to ambient PM2.5 in a highly industrialized urban setting in the southeastern United States. Model results consistently resolved 10 factors that are interpreted as two secondary, five industrial, one motor vehicle, one road dust, and one biomass burning sources. It was found that most PMF factors did not cleanly represent single source types and instead are 'contaminated' by other sources. Secondary particulate matter formed by atmospheric processes, such as sulfate and secondary OC, contribute the majority of ambient PM2.5 and exhibit strong seasonality 37 {+-} 10% winter vs. 55 {+-} 16% summer average. Motor vehicle emissions constitute the biggest primary PM2.5 mass contribution. In summary, this study demonstrates the utility of the EC tracer method to effectively blank-correct the OC concentrations in the STN dataset. In addition, examination of the effect of input uncertainty estimates on model results indicates that the estimated uncertainties currently being provided with the STN data may be somewhat lower than the levels needed for optimum modeling results. An appendix , available to members on the website www.awma lists stationary sources of PM2.5 within 10 km of the NHBM site and PM2.5 emissions greater than 1 ton per year. 71 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Characterization of chemical components and bioreactivity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during incense burning.

    PubMed

    Lui, K H; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Cao, Jun-Ji; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Lee, S C; Hu, Di; Ho, K F

    2016-06-01

    The chemical and bioreactivity properties of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emitted during controlled burning of different brands of incense were characterized. Incenses marketed as being environmentally friendly emitted lower mass of PM2.5 particulates than did traditional incenses. However, the environmentally friendly incenses produced higher total concentrations of non-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs). Human alveolar epithelial A549 cells were exposed to the collected PM2.5, followed by determining oxidative stress and inflammation. There was moderate to strong positive correlation (R > 0.60, p < 0.05) between selected PAHs and OPAHs against oxidative-inflammatory responses. Strong positive correlation was observed between interleukin 6 (IL-6) and summation of total Group B2 PAHs/OPAHs (∑7PAHs/ΣOPAHs). The experimental data indicate that emissions from the environmentally friendly incenses contained higher concentrations of several PAH and OPAH compounds than did traditional incense. Moreover, these PAHs and OPAHs were strongly correlated with inflammatory responses. The findings suggest a need to revise existing regulation of such products.

  7. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Term Birth Weight in New York, New York

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, David A.; Bobb, Jennifer F.; Carr, Jessie L.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Dominici, Francesca; Elston, Beth; Ito, Kazuhiko; Ross, Zev; Yee, Michelle; Matte, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    Building on a unique exposure assessment project in New York, New York, we examined the relationship of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and nitrogen dioxide with birth weight, restricting the population to term births to nonsmokers, along with other restrictions, to isolate the potential impact of air pollution on growth. We included 252,967 births in 2008–2010 identified in vital records, and we assigned exposure at the residential location by using validated models that accounted for spatial and temporal factors. Estimates of association were adjusted for individual and contextual sociodemographic characteristics and season, using linear mixed models to quantify the predicted change in birth weight in grams related to increasing pollution levels. Adjusted estimates for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm indicated that for each 10-µg/m3 increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 18.4, 10.5, 29.7, and 48.4 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. Adjusted estimates for nitrogen dioxide indicated that for each 10-ppb increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 14.2, 15.9, 18.0, and 18.0 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. These results strongly support the association of urban air pollution exposure with reduced fetal growth. PMID:24218031

  8. Ambient fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and term birth weight in New York, New York.

    PubMed

    Savitz, David A; Bobb, Jennifer F; Carr, Jessie L; Clougherty, Jane E; Dominici, Francesca; Elston, Beth; Ito, Kazuhiko; Ross, Zev; Yee, Michelle; Matte, Thomas D

    2014-02-15

    Building on a unique exposure assessment project in New York, New York, we examined the relationship of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and nitrogen dioxide with birth weight, restricting the population to term births to nonsmokers, along with other restrictions, to isolate the potential impact of air pollution on growth. We included 252,967 births in 2008-2010 identified in vital records, and we assigned exposure at the residential location by using validated models that accounted for spatial and temporal factors. Estimates of association were adjusted for individual and contextual sociodemographic characteristics and season, using linear mixed models to quantify the predicted change in birth weight in grams related to increasing pollution levels. Adjusted estimates for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm indicated that for each 10-µg/m(3) increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 18.4, 10.5, 29.7, and 48.4 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. Adjusted estimates for nitrogen dioxide indicated that for each 10-ppb increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 14.2, 15.9, 18.0, and 18.0 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. These results strongly support the association of urban air pollution exposure with reduced fetal growth. PMID:24218031

  9. Ambient fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and term birth weight in New York, New York.

    PubMed

    Savitz, David A; Bobb, Jennifer F; Carr, Jessie L; Clougherty, Jane E; Dominici, Francesca; Elston, Beth; Ito, Kazuhiko; Ross, Zev; Yee, Michelle; Matte, Thomas D

    2014-02-15

    Building on a unique exposure assessment project in New York, New York, we examined the relationship of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and nitrogen dioxide with birth weight, restricting the population to term births to nonsmokers, along with other restrictions, to isolate the potential impact of air pollution on growth. We included 252,967 births in 2008-2010 identified in vital records, and we assigned exposure at the residential location by using validated models that accounted for spatial and temporal factors. Estimates of association were adjusted for individual and contextual sociodemographic characteristics and season, using linear mixed models to quantify the predicted change in birth weight in grams related to increasing pollution levels. Adjusted estimates for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm indicated that for each 10-µg/m(3) increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 18.4, 10.5, 29.7, and 48.4 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. Adjusted estimates for nitrogen dioxide indicated that for each 10-ppb increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 14.2, 15.9, 18.0, and 18.0 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. These results strongly support the association of urban air pollution exposure with reduced fetal growth.

  10. Chemical compositions of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Chinese cooking.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2007-01-01

    Food cooking can be a significant source of atmospheric particulate organic matter. In this study, the chemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) in PM2.5 emitted from four different Chinese cooking styles were examined by gas chromotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified species are consistent in the emissions from different Chinese cooking styles and the quantified compounds account for 5-10% of total POM in PM2.5. The dominant homologue is fatty acids, constituting 73-85% of the quantified compounds. The pattern of n-alkanes and the presence of beta-sitosterol and levoglucosan indicate that vegetables are consumed during Chinese cooking operations. Furthermore, the emissions of different compounds are impacted significantly by the cooking ingredients. The candidates of organic tracers used to describe and distinguish emissions from Chinese cooking in Guangzhou are tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, oleic acid, levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, nonanal, and lactones. During the sampling period, the relative contribution of Chinese cooking to the mass concentration of atmospheric hexadecanoic acid should be less than 1.3% in Guangzhou.

  11. Nuclear reactors using fine-particulate fuel for primary power in space

    SciTech Connect

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Usher, J.L.; Horn, F.L.

    1982-01-01

    Large future power requirements in space, include power beaming to earth, airplanes, and solar-powered satellites in eclipse; industrial processing; and space colonies. The Rotating Bed Nuclear Reactor (RBR) and Fixed Bed Reactor (FBR) are multi-megawatt power systems which are light, compact and suited to operation in space. Both are cavity reactors, with an annular fuel region (e.g., a bed of 500 ..mu.. HTGR fuel particulates made of UC with ceramic coating) surrounded by a reflector that moderates fast neutrons from the /sup 235/U fuel. A porous metal drum holds the fuel. In the RBR, rotation of the drum allows the particulate fuel bed to fluidize as cooling gas passes through. In the FBR, an inner porous carbon drum holds the packed fuel bed, which is not fluidized. The RBR and FBR have many important features for space nuclear power: very high power density (up to thousands of MW(th)/m/sup 3/ of fuel); very small size and weight, excellent thermal shock and fatigue resistance; short start/stop times (sec); high gas outlet temperatures (to 3000/sup 0/K), good neutron economy, low critical mass; and simple/reliable construction.

  12. A 24-HOUR AMBULATORY ECG MONITORING IN ASSESSMENT OF QT INTERVAL DURATION AND DISPERSION IN ROWERS WITH PHYSIOLOGICAL MYOCARDIAL HYPERTROPHY

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Z.F.; Bilalova, R.R.; Tsibulkin, N.A.; Almetova, R.R.; Mudarisova, R.R.; Ahmetov, I.I.

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial hypertrophy (MH) due to cardiac pathology is characterized by an increase in QT interval duration and dispersion, while the findings for exercise-induced myocardial hypertrophy are contradictory. The majority of published research findings have not explored this relationship, but there have only been a few conducted studies using 24-hour ECG monitoring. The aim of the study was to determine the QT interval duration and dispersion in short-term and 24-hour ECG in endurance athletes with myocardial hypertrophy and without it. Methods: A total of 26 well-trained rowers underwent a resting 12-lead ECG, 24-hour ECG monitoring and echocardiography. Results: Athletes with MH (n = 7) at rest did not show any increase in QTc interval duration and dispersion, or mean and maximal QTc duration in Holter monitoring compared to athletes without MH (n = 19). Left ventricular mass was not significantly correlated with any QTc characteristics. Furthermore, athletes with MH had significantly longer mean QT (P = 0.01) and maximal QT (P = 0.018) intervals in Holter monitoring and higher 24-hour heart rate variability indexes due to stronger vagal effects. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that athlete's heart syndrome with myocardial hypertrophy as a benign phenomenon does not lead to an increase in QT interval duration, or increases in maximal and mean duration in a 24-hour ECG. An increase in QT interval duration in athletes may have an autonomic nature. PMID:24744494

  13. Comparison of sulfur measurements from a regional fine particle network with concurrent acid modes network results

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.L.; Stockburger, L.; Barnes, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Fine Particle Network (FPN), a system of fine particle (less than 2.5 micrometers) samplers, was operated at 41 sites selected from the Enviromental Protection Agency Acid MODES program during the two year period in 1988-90. The 24-hour sample results included fine particle mass and the most predominant chemical element concentrations determined by wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis. Statistical summaries of the fine mass and sulfur concentrations by site and season were prepared. The availability of simultaneous particulate sulfate measurements from independent collection and analytical procedures provided an opportunity to examine their agreement and provide a more reliable data base for evaluation of regional particulate models and estimation of contribution to urban aerosol concentration.

  14. Metabolic and renal changes in two athletes during a world 24 hour relay record performance.

    PubMed Central

    Irving, R A; Noakes, T D; van Zyl Smit, R

    1989-01-01

    Metabolic parameters and renal function were studied in two subjects before, during and after they established a world two-man 24 hour relay record. During the race, the athletes expended an estimated 37.747 and 42.880 kJ running at 54 and 61 per cent of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max). Rectal temperatures reached maxima of 38.6 and 39.2 degrees C respectively during the race. Serum free fatty acid levels peaked at 2108 and 1875 mumol ml-1 after 24 hours; blood glucose levels varied from 4.3-6.5 and 4.9-8.5 mmol.l-1 respectively. Plasma insulin levels fell from 42.9 and 22.7 microU.ml-1 to 11.5 microU.ml-1. Plasma urea, creatinine, beta 2-microglobulin and C-reactive protein concentrations were elevated at the end of the race (to 9.0 and 8.0 mmol.l-1, 119 and 102 mumol.l-1, 3.508 and 3203 micrograms.l-1 and 2.7 and 3.9 mg per cent respectively). Plasma osmolality was altered from 293 and 304 to 302 and 280 mosmol.Kg-1 during the race but increased to 312 and 318 mosmol.Kg-1 the following day probably due to intercompartmental fluid shifts. Plasma creatinine concentration was increased by 38 and 26 per cent due to reduced urinary excretion. Urine flow rate increased 40 and 123 per cent respectively during the race, but creatinine clearance decreased by 38 and 40 per cent. Urine osmolality decreased by 38 and 65 per cent and osmolal clearance decreased by 15 and 16 per cent respectively. Urine sodium excretion was greatly reduced (85 and 90 per cent) on the post-race days (by 88 and 92 per cent on day 2). Both urine total protein and beta2-microglobulin excretion increased during the race (by 89 and 35 per cent and by 334 and 136 per cent respectively), but owing to the increased beta2-microglobulin production renal clearance was unaltered. The changes in renal function were temporary and some aspects of renal tubular function were enhanced during the post-race days. We conclude that, although C-reactive protein concentrations increased sooner and were higher

  15. Comparison of 24-hour Holter Monitoring with 14-day Novel Adhesive Patch Electrocardiographic Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Paddy M.; Komatireddy, Ravi; Haaser, Sharon; Topol, Sarah; Sheard, Judith; Encinas, Jackie; Fought, Angela J.; Topol, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiac arrhythmias are remarkably common and routinely go undiagnosed because they are often transient and asymptomatic. Effective diagnosis and treatment can substantially reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac arrhythmias. The Zio Patch (iRhythm Technologies, Inc, San Francisco, Calif) is a novel, single-lead electrocardiographic (ECG), lightweight, Food and Drug Administration–cleared, continuously recording ambulatory adhesive patch monitor suitable for detecting cardiac arrhythmias in patients referred for ambulatory ECG monitoring. METHODS A total of 146 patients referred for evaluation of cardiac arrhythmia underwent simultaneous ambulatory ECG recording with a conventional 24-hour Holter monitor and a 14-day adhesive patch monitor. The primary outcome of the study was to compare the detection arrhythmia events over total wear time for both devices. Arrhythmia events were defined as detection of any 1 of 6 arrhythmias, including supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation/flutter, pause greater than 3 seconds, atrioventricular block, ventricular tachycardia, or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. McNemar’s tests were used to compare the matched pairs of data from the Holter and the adhesive patch monitor. RESULTS Over the total wear time of both devices, the adhesive patch monitor detected 96 arrhythmia events compared with 61 arrhythmia events by the Holter monitor (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS Over the total wear time of both devices, the adhesive patch monitor detected more events than the Holter monitor. Prolonged duration monitoring for detection of arrhythmia events using single-lead, less-obtrusive, adhesive-patch monitoring platforms could replace conventional Holter monitoring in patients referred for ambulatory ECG monitoring. PMID:24384108

  16. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and 24-Hour Blood Pressure Pattern Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, William B.; Kutner, Michael; Ouslander, Joseph G.; Bliwise, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Background To examine the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and 24-hour blood pressure (BP) pattern among community-dwelling older adults. Methods A convenience sample of 70 community-dwelling older adults, recruited from senior housing, community centers, and learning centers, were admitted to General Clinical Research Center, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Ga. Information regarding demographic and clinical history was obtained using questionnaires. Twenty-four–hour BP monitoring in supine position was performed using Spacelabs model 20207. Breathing during sleep was monitored with the use of a modified sleep recording system (Embletta, PDS), which monitors nasal and oral airflow, chest and abdominal movements, and pulse oximetry. Night time–daytime (night-day) BP ratio (average night-time BP divided by daytime BP) was calculated both for systolic and diastolic BPs. Results Sixty-nine participants, mean age 74.9 ± 6.4 years (41 [57%] women), completed the study. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 13 ± 13 per hour of sleep, and 20 participants (29%) had AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep, indicating moderate to severe SDB. Moderate to severe SDB (AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep) was significantly associated with nocturnal hypertension, whereas there was no statistically significant difference in wake-time BP between those with and without moderate to severe SDB. Stepwise multiple regressions showed that AHI independently predicted increased night-day systolic and night-day diastolic BP ratio, even after controlling for nocturia frequency. Conclusions The results indicate increased BP load associated with increased AHI in this group of older adults. This increased BP load may contribute to increased hypertension-related morbidity and disease burden. PMID:19196901

  17. Methodology for adding glycemic index and glycemic load values to 24-hour dietary recall database

    PubMed Central

    Olendzki, Barbara C.; Ma, Yunsheng; Culver, Annie L.; Ockene, Ira S.; Griffith, Jennifer A.; Hafner, Andrea R.; Hebert, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives We describe a method of adding the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values to the nutrient database of the 24-hour dietary recall interview (24HR), a widely used dietary assessment. We also calculated daily GI and GL values from the 24HR. Methods Subjects were 641 healthy adults from central Massachusetts who completed 9067 24HRs. The 24HR-derived food data were matched to the International Table of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Values. The GI values for specific foods not in the table were estimated against similar foods according to physical and chemical factors that determine GI. Mixed foods were disaggregated into individual ingredients. Results Of 1261 carbohydrate-containing foods in the database, GI values of 602 foods were obtained from a direct match (47.7%), accounting for 22.36% of dietary carbohydrate. GI values from 656 foods (52.1%) were estimated, contributing to 77.64% of dietary carbohydrate. The GI values from three unknown foods (0.2%) could not be assigned. The average daily GI was 84 (SD 5.1, white bread as referent) and the average GL was 196 (SD 63). Conclusion Using this methodology for adding GI and GL values to nutrient databases, it is possible to assess associations between GI and/or GL and body weight and chronic disease outcomes (diabetes, cancer, heart disease). This method can be used in clinical and survey research settings where 24HRs are a practical means for assessing diet. The implications for using this methodology compel a broader evaluation of diet with disease outcomes. PMID:17029903

  18. Usability of a smartphone food picture app for assisting 24-hour dietary recall: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Benjamin T.; Bilgiç, Pelin; Orr, Barron J.; Suzuki, Asuka; Kim, Angela Sarah; Merchant, Nirav C.; Roe, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The Recaller app was developed to help individuals record their food intakes. This pilot study evaluated the usability of this new food picture application (app), which operates on a smartphone with an embedded camera and Internet capability. SUBJECTS/METHODS Adults aged 19 to 28 years (23 males and 22 females) were assigned to use the Recaller app on six designated, nonconsecutive days in order to capture an image of each meal and snack before and after eating. The images were automatically time-stamped and uploaded by the app to the Recaller website. A trained nutritionist administered a 24-hour dietary recall interview 1 day after food images were taken. Participants' opinions of the Recaller app and its usability were determined by a follow-up survey. As an evaluation indicator of usability, the number of images taken was analyzed and multivariate Poisson regression used to model the factors determining the number of images sent. RESULTS A total of 3,315 food images were uploaded throughout the study period. The median number of images taken per day was nine for males and 13 for females. The survey showed that the Recaller app was easy to use, and 50% of the participants would consider using the app daily. Predictors of a higher number of images were as follows: greater interval (hours) between the first and last food images sent, weekend, and female. CONCLUSIONS The results of this pilot study provide valuable information for understanding the usability of the Recaller smartphone food picture app as well as other similarly designed apps. This study provides a model for assisting nutrition educators in their collection of food intake information by using tools available on smartphones. This innovative approach has the potential to improve recall of foods eaten and monitoring of dietary intake in nutritional studies. PMID:25861429

  19. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Charles E. Kolb Dr. Douglas R. Worsnop Dr. Manjula R. Canagaratna Dr. Scott C. Herndon Dr. John T. Jayne Dr. W. Berk Knighton Dr. Timothy B. Onasch Dr. Ezra C. Wood Dr. Miguel Zavala

    2008-03-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants designed to understand the atmospheric chemistry and aerosol particle microphysics impacting air quality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its urban plume. The overall effort, titled MCMA- 2006, focused on: 1) the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles and 2) the measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine particular matter (PM) production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA). MCAM-2006 pursued it goals through three main activities: 1) performance and publication of detailed analyses of extensive MCMA trace gas and fine PM measurements made by the collaborating groups and others during earlier MCMA field campaigns in 2002 and 2003; 2) deployment and utilization of extensive real-time trace gas and fine PM instrumentation at urban and downwind MCMA sites in support of the MAX-Mex/MILAGRO field measurements in March, 2006; and, 3) analyses of the 2006 MCMA data sets leading to further publications that are based on new data as well as insights from analysis and publication of the 2002/2003 field data. Thirteen archival publications were coauthored with other MCMA-2003 participants. Documented findings included a significantly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles, a greatly enhanced understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds, a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources, a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distributions and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models, and evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for ozone and nitrogen

  20. Respiratory disease and particulate air pollution in Santiago Chile: contribution of erosion particles from fine sediments.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Chevesich, Pablo A; Alvarado, Sergio; Neary, Daniel G; Valdes, Rodrigo; Valdes, Juan; Aguirre, Juan José; Mena, Marcelo; Pizarro, Roberto; Jofré, Paola; Vera, Mauricio; Olivares, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    Air pollution in Santiago is a serious problem every winter, causing thousands of cases of breathing problems within the population. With more than 6 million people and almost two million vehicles, this large city receives rainfall only during winters. Depending on the frequency of storms, statistics show that every time it rains, air quality improves for a couple of days, followed by extreme levels of air pollution. Current regulations focus mostly on PM10 and PM2.5, due to its strong influence on respiratory diseases. Though more than 50% of the ambient PM10s in Santiago is represented by soil particles, most of the efforts have been focused on the remaining 50%, i.e. particulate material originating from fossil and wood fuel combustion, among others. This document emphasizes the need for the creation of erosion/sediment control regulations in Chile, to decrease respiratory diseases on Chilean polluted cities.

  1. Respiratory disease and particulate air pollution in Santiago Chile: contribution of erosion particles from fine sediments.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Chevesich, Pablo A; Alvarado, Sergio; Neary, Daniel G; Valdes, Rodrigo; Valdes, Juan; Aguirre, Juan José; Mena, Marcelo; Pizarro, Roberto; Jofré, Paola; Vera, Mauricio; Olivares, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    Air pollution in Santiago is a serious problem every winter, causing thousands of cases of breathing problems within the population. With more than 6 million people and almost two million vehicles, this large city receives rainfall only during winters. Depending on the frequency of storms, statistics show that every time it rains, air quality improves for a couple of days, followed by extreme levels of air pollution. Current regulations focus mostly on PM10 and PM2.5, due to its strong influence on respiratory diseases. Though more than 50% of the ambient PM10s in Santiago is represented by soil particles, most of the efforts have been focused on the remaining 50%, i.e. particulate material originating from fossil and wood fuel combustion, among others. This document emphasizes the need for the creation of erosion/sediment control regulations in Chile, to decrease respiratory diseases on Chilean polluted cities. PMID:24485904

  2. Emissions of organic compounds and trace metals in fine particulate matter from motor vehicles: a tunnel study in Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Chellam, Shankararaman; Kulkarni, Pranav; Fraser, Matthew P

    2005-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM) samples collected in a highway tunnel in Houston, TX, were analyzed to quantify the concentrations of 14 n-alkanes, 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and nine petroleum biomarkers, as well as 21 metals, with the ultimate aim of identifying appropriate tracers for diesel engines. First, an exploratory multivariate dimensionality reduction technique called principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to identify all potential candidates for tracers. Next, emission indices were calculated to interpret PCA results physically. Emission indices of n-heneicosane, n-docosane, n-tricosane, n-tetracosane, n-pentacosane, fluoranthene, and pyrene were correlated highly and increased strongly with percentage carbon present in the tunnel emanating from diesel vehicles. This suggests that these organic compounds are useful molecular markers to separate emissions from diesel and gasoline engines. Additionally, the results are the first quantification of the metal composition of PM with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) emissions from mobile sources in Houston. PCA of trace metal concentrations followed by emission index calculations revealed that barium in fine airborne particles can be linked quantitatively to diesel engine emissions, demonstrating its role as an elemental tracer for heavy-duty trucks.

  3. The Impact of Using Different Methods to Assess Completeness of 24-Hour Urine Collection on Estimating Dietary Sodium.

    PubMed

    Wielgosz, Andreas; Robinson, Christopher; Mao, Yang; Jiang, Ying; Campbell, Norm R C; Muthuri, Stella; Morrison, Howard

    2016-06-01

    The standard for population-based surveillance of dietary sodium intake is 24-hour urine testing; however, this may be affected by incomplete urine collection. The impact of different indirect methods of assessing completeness of collection on estimated sodium ingestion has not been established. The authors enlisted 507 participants from an existing community study in 2009 to collect 24-hour urine samples. Several methods of assessing completeness of urine collection were tested. Mean sodium intake varied between 3648 mg/24 h and 7210 mg/24 h depending on the method used. Excluding urine samples collected for longer or shorter than 24 hours increased the estimated urine sodium excretion, even when corrections for the variation in timed collections were applied. Until an accurate method of indirectly assessing completeness of urine collection is identified, the gold standard of administering para-aminobenzoic acid is recommended. Efforts to ensure participants collect complete urine samples are also warranted.

  4. Fine Particulate Matter Constituents Associated with Cardiovascular Hospitalizations and Mortality in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kazuhiko; Mathes, Robert; Ross, Zev; Nádas, Arthur; Thurston, George; Matte, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent time-series studies have indicated that both cardiovascular disease (CVD)mortality and hospitalizations are associated with particulate matter (PM). However, seasonal patterns of PM associations with these outcomes are not consistent, and PM components responsible for these associations have not been determined. We investigated this issue in New York City (NYC), where PM originates from regional and local combustion sources. Objective In this study, we examined the role of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and its key chemical components on both CVD hospitalizations and on mortality in NYC. Methods We analyzed daily deaths and emergency hospitalizations for CVDs among persons ≥ 40 years of age for associations with PM2.5, its chemical components, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide for the years 2000–2006 using a Poisson time-series model adjusting for temporal and seasonal trends, temperature effects, and day of the week. We estimated excess risks per interquartile-range increases at lags 0 through 3 days for warm (April through September) and cold (October through March) seasons. Results The CVD mortality series exhibit strong seasonal trends, whereas the CVD hospitalization series show a strong day-of-week pattern. These outcome series were not correlated with each other but were individually associated with a number of PM2.5 chemical components from regional and local sources, each with different seasonal patterns and lags. Coal-combustion–related components (e.g., selenium) were associated with CVD mortality in summer and CVD hospitalizations in winter, whereas elemental carbon and NO2 showed associations with these outcomes in both seasons. Conclusion Local combustion sources, including traffic and residual oil burning, may play a year-round role in the associations between air pollution and CVD outcomes, but transported aerosols may explain the seasonal variation in associations

  5. Differences in Blood Pressure and Vascular Responses Associated with Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposures Measured at the Personal Versus Community Level

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Higher ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels can be associated with increased blood pressure and vascular dysfunction. Objectives To determine the differential effects on blood pressure and vascular function of daily changes in community ambient-...

  6. Soluble Ions with ICP-MS are Superior to Total Elements with XRF in Assessing Component-specific Cardiovascular Effects of Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: We previously reported that total fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was associated with flow-mediated dilation (FMD), interleukin-6 (lL-6) and tumor-necrosisfactor-alpha (TNFa) in 22 individuals with type 2 diabetes. Objectives: We now compare two laboratory methods of ...

  7. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: STATIONARY SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION TESTING OF A SMELT TANK AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  8. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS HOGGED FUEL BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  9. DISCUSSION AND EVALUATION OF THE VOLATILITY TEST FOR EQUIVALENCY OF OTHER METHODS TO THE FEDERAL REFERENCE METHOD FOR FINE PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 1997, EPA promulgated a new National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). This new standard was based on collection of an integrated mass sample on a filter. Field studies have demonstrated that the collection of semivolatile compoun...

  10. Engineering system for simultaneous inhalation exposures of rodents to fine and ultrafine concentrated ambient particulate matter from a common air source

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) smaller than 2.5 11m (PM2.5) has been associated with adverse health effects in both humans and animals. Specific properties of either fine (0.1-2.5 11m), or ultrafine « 0.1 11m) PM responsible for exposure related he...

  11. The short-term association of selected components of fine particulate matter and mortality in the Denver Aerosol Sources and Health (DASH) study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Associations of short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with daily mortality may be due to specific PM2.5 chemical components. Objectives: Daily concentrations of PM2.5 chemical species were measured over five consecutive years in Denver, CO to investigate whethe...

  12. EVALUATION OF THE CMB AND PMF MODELS USING ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN FINE PARTICULATE MATTER COLLECTED DURING THE PITTSBURGH AIR QUALITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research investigated different strategies for source apportionment of airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected as part of the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study. Two source receptor models were used, the EPA Chemical Mass Balance 8.2 (CMB) and EPA Positive Matrix Facto...

  13. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. Results: The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. Conclusion: The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses

  14. Sex differences in 24-hour ultra-marathon performance - A retrospective data analysis from 1977 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Laura; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the changes in running performance and the sex differences between women and men in 24-hour ultra-marathons held worldwide from 1977 to 2012. METHOD: Changes in running speed and ages of the fastest 24-hour ultra-marathoners were determined using single- and multi-level regression analyses. RESULTS: From 1977 to 2012, the sex differences in 24-hour ultra-marathon performance were 4.6±0.5% for all women and men, 13.3% for the annual fastest finishers, 12.9±0.8% for the top 10 and 12.2±0.4% for the top 100 finishers. Over time, the sex differences decreased for the annual fastest finishers to 17%, for the annual 10 fastest finishers to 11.3±2.2% and for the annual 100 fastest finishers to 14.2±1.8%. For the annual fastest men, the age of peak running speed increased from 23 years (1977) to 53 years (2012). For the annual 10 and 100 fastest men, the ages of peak running speed were unchanged at 40.9±2.5 and 44.4±1.1 years, respectively. For women, the ages of the annual fastest, the annual 10 fastest and the annual 100 fastest remained unchanged at 43.0±6.1, 43.2±2.6 and 43.8±0.8 years, respectively. CONCLUSION: The gap between the annual top, annual top 10 and annual top 100 female and male 24-hour ultra-marathoners decreased over the last 35 years; however, it seems unlikely that women will outrun men in 24-hour ultra-marathons in the near future. The fastest 24-hour ultra-marathoners worldwide achieved their peak performance at the age of master athletes (>35 years). PMID:24473558

  15. Lung antioxidant and cytokine responses to coarse and fine particulate matter from the great California wildfires of 2008.

    PubMed

    Wegesser, Teresa C; Franzi, Lisa M; Mitloehner, Frank M; Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantza; Last, Jerold A

    2010-06-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated that wildfire-derived coarse or fine particulate matter (PM) intratracheally instilled into lungs of mice induce a strong inflammatory response. In the current study, the authors demonstrate that wildfire PM simultaneously cause major increases in oxidative stress in the mouse lungs as measured by decreased antioxidant content of the lung lavage supernatant fluid 6 and 24 h after PM administration. Concentrations of neutrophil chemokines/cytokines and of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were elevated in the lung lavage fluid obtained 6 and 24 h after PM instillation, consistent with the strong neutrophilic inflammatory response observed in the lungs 24 h after PM administration, suggesting a relationship between the proinflammatory activity of the PM and the measured level of antioxidant capacity in the lung lavage fluid. Chemical analysis shows relatively low levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compared to published results from typical urban PM. Coarse PM fraction is more active (proinflammatory activity and oxidative stress) on an equal-dose basis than the fine PM despite its lower content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. There does not seem to be any correlation between the content of any specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (or of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content) in the PM fraction and its toxicity. However, the concentrations of the oxidation products of phenanthrene and anthracene, phenanthraquinone and anthraquinone, were several-fold higher in the coarse PM than the fine fraction, suggesting a significant role for atmospheric photochemistry in the formation of secondary pollutants in the wildfire PM and the possibility that such secondary pollutants could be significant sources of toxicity in the wildfire PM.

  16. Size and composition distribution of fine particulate matter emitted from wood burning, meat charbroiling, and cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeman, M.J.; Schauer, J.J.; Cass, G.R.

    1999-10-15

    A dilution source sampling system is augmented to measure the size-distributed chemical composition of fine particle emissions from air pollution sources. Measurements are made using a laser optical particle counter (OPC), a differential mobility analyzer/condensation nucleus counter (DMA/CNC) combination, and a pair of microorifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDIs). The sources tested with this system include wood smoke (pine, oak, eucalyptus), meat charbroiling, and cigarettes. The particle mass distributions from all wood smoke sources have a single mode that peaks at approximately 0.1--0.2 {micro}m particle diameter. The smoke from meat charbroiling shows a major peak in the particle mass distribution at 0.1--0.2 {micro}m particle diameter, with some material present at larger particle sizes. Particle mass distributions from cigarettes peak between 0.3 and 0.4 {micro}m particle diameter. Chemical composition analysis reveals that particles emitted from the sources tested here are largely composed of organic compounds. Noticeable concentrations of elemental carbon are found in the particles emitted from wood burning. The size distributions of the trace species emissions from these sources also are presented, including data for Na, K, Ti, Fe, Br, Ru, Cl, Al, Zn, Ba, Sr, V, Mn, Sb, La, Ce, as well as sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ion when present in statistically significant amounts. These data are intended for use with air quality models that seek to predict the size distribution of the chemical composition of atmospheric fine particles.

  17. The fine and coarse particulate matter at four major Mediterranean cities: local and regional sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2013-11-01

    Particulate air pollution is associated with adverse health effects to the population exposed. The aim of this paper is the identification of local and regional sources, affecting PM10 and PM2.5 levels in four large cities of southern Europe, namely: Lisbon, Madrid, Marseille, and Rome. Air pollution data from seven sampling sites of the European Union network were used. These stations were selected due to their ability of monitoring PM2.5 concentrations and providing reliable series of data. Each station's background was also taken into account. Pearson correlation coefficients and primal component analysis components were extracted separately for cold and warm periods in order to define the relationships among particle matters (PMs) and gaseous pollutants (CO, NO2, SO2, and O3) and evaluate the contributions of local sources. Possible seasonal variations of PM2.5/PM10 ratio daily values were also used as markers of PM sources, influencing particulate size distribution. Particle emissions were primarily attributed to traffic and secondarily to natural sources. Minimum daily values of PM2.5/PM10 ratio were observed during warm periods, particularly at suburban stations with rural background, due to dust resuspension and also due to the increase of biogenic coarse PM (pollen, dust, etc.). Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model trajectory model was used in order to compute the 4-day backward trajectories of the air masses that affected the four cities which are under study during days with recorded PM10 exceedances, within a 5-year period (2003-2007), at 300, 750, and 1,500 m above ground level (AGL). The trajectories were then divided to clusters with a K-means analysis. In all four cities, the influence of slow-moving air masses was associated with a large fraction of PM10 exceedances and with high average and maximum daily mean PM10 concentrations, principally at the 300 m AGL analysis. As far the issue of the increased PM10 concentrations

  18. Seasonal trends in the composition and ROS activity of fine particulate matter in Baghdad, Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, Samera Hussein; Shafer, Martin Merrill; Kadhim, Ahmed K. H.; Al-Omran, Sabah M.; Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Baghdad suffers from severe atmospheric particulate matter (PM) pollution and has limited infrastructure to monitor and control PM-pollution. To help better understand the nature of particulate matter in Baghdad, daily PM2.5 samples were collected every 6th day from September, 2012 to September, 2013. The samples were analyzed for chemical composition and cellular oxidative stress activity using a macrophage-based assay. The annual average PM2.5 concentration was 50 ± 19 μg m-3, and was comprised of approximately 28% crustal materials, 26% organic carbon (OC), 17% sulfate, 12% elemental carbon (EC), and 8.0% ammonium ion. No clear seasonal trend was observed for the total PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 OC, but EC exhibited higher concentrations in the warmer months, likely due to the extensive use of electric generators operated by diesel and gasoline for cooling. April showed the lowest levels of both EC and OC compared with other months due to both sand and rainstorm events which led to increased deposition and dispersion of local emissions. Concentrations of nitrate ion were low in all seasons due to the high temperatures and low humidity, but slightly higher levels were observed in the cooler months of winter. The oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS)) activity (59 ± 35 μg Zymosan equivalents m-3) of the PM was relatively lower than in other studied areas. Association between the water soluble PM constituents and the oxidative activity was investigated using a multi-linear regression model which showed no strong relationships between ROS activity and the water soluble components of PM2.5, but a moderate correlation of water soluble organic carbon from biomass burning (WSOC-BB) was observed (R2 = 0.52). Biomass burning PM has been shown to be an important contributor to ROS activity in other published studies, but additional work is needed to better understand the sources leading to the ROS activity in Baghdad.

  19. Circadian (about 24-hour) variation in malondialdehyde content and catalase activity of mouse erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sani, Mamane; Sebai, Hichem; Ghanem-Boughanmi, Néziha; Boughattas, Naceur A; Ben-Attia, Mossadok

    2015-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation is a part of normal metabolism that may cause biological molecule damage leading to the formation of several specific metabolites that include aldehydes of variable chains, such as malondialdehyde (MDA). These biological effects are controlled in vivo by a wide spectrum of enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense mechanisms among which catalase (CAT) is considered as an important regulator of oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between the temporal patterns of the formation of MDA and the activity of CAT in the erythrocytes of mice. Twenty-four-hour studies were performed on male Swiss albino mice, 12 weeks old, synchronized to a 12:12 light: dark cycle for 3 weeks. Different and comparable groups of animals (n = 10) were sacrificed at an interval of 4 hours (1, 5, 9, 13, 17, and 21 hours after light onset (HALO)). The levels of erythrocyte MDA concentration and CAT activity both significantly (analysis of variance: F = 6.4, P < 0.002) varied according to the time of sampling under non-stressed conditions. The characteristics of the waveform describing the temporal patterns differed between the two studied variables, e.g. MDA content showing one peak (≅21 HALO) and CAT activity showing three peaks (≅9, 17, and 21 HALO). Cosinor analysis revealed a significant (adjusted Cosinor: P ≤ 0.018) circadian (τ ≅ 24 hours) rhythm in MDA level and no statistically significant rhythmicity in CAT activity. The differences and the absence of correlation between the curve patterns of erythrocyte MDA content and CAT activity under physiological conditions are hypothesized to explain that variation in lipid peroxidation may depend on several factors. Moreover, the identification of peak/trough levels of MDA accumulation in erythrocytes may reflect the degree of oxidative stress in these blood cells. In addition, the observed significant time-of-day effect suggests that, in both clinical and scientific

  20. Characterisation of sleep in intensive care using 24-hour polysomnography: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many intensive care patients experience sleep disruption potentially related to noise, light and treatment interventions. The purpose of this study was to characterise, in terms of quantity and quality, the sleep of intensive care patients, taking into account the impact of environmental factors. Methods This observational study was conducted in the adult ICU of a tertiary referral hospital in Australia, enrolling 57 patients. Polysomnography (PSG) was performed over a 24-hour period to assess the quantity (total sleep time: hh:mm) and quality (percentage per stage, duration of sleep episode) of patients' sleep while in ICU. Rechtschaffen and Kales criteria were used to categorise sleep. Interrater checks were performed. Sound pressure and illuminance levels and care events were simultaneously recorded. Patients reported on their sleep quality in ICU using the Richards Campbell Sleep Questionnaire and the Sleep in Intensive Care Questionnaire. Data were summarised using frequencies and proportions or measures of central tendency and dispersion as appropriate and Cohen's Kappa statistic was used for interrater reliability of the sleep data analysis. Results Patients' median total sleep time was 05:00 (IQR: 02:52 to 07:14). The majority of sleep was stage 1 and 2 (medians: 19 and 73%) with scant slow wave and REM sleep. The median duration of sleep without waking was 00:03. Sound levels were high (mean Leq 53.95 dB(A) during the day and 50.20 dB(A) at night) and illuminance levels were appropriate at night (median <2 lux) but low during the day (median: 74.20 lux). There was a median 1.7 care events/h. Patients' mean self-reported sleep quality was poor. Interrater reliability of sleep staging was highest for slow wave sleep and lowest for stage 1 sleep. Conclusions The quantity and quality of sleep in intensive care patients are poor and may be related to noise, critical illness itself and treatment events that disturb sleep. The study highlights the

  1. Analysis of 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kun-Tai; Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Weng, Wen-Chin; Lee, Pei-Lin; Hsu, Wei-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, we aimed to verify associations between ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a hospital-based population. This was a cross-sectional observational study on children aged 4 to 16 years with OSA-related symptoms from a tertiary referral medical center. All children received overnight polysomnography and 24-hour recording of ABP. Severity of the disease was classified as primary snoring (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI <1), mild OSA (AHI 1–5), and moderate-to-severe OSA (AHI >5). For 195 children enrolled in this study (mean age, 7.8 ± 3.4 years; 69% boy), ABP increased as severity of OSA increased. During daytime, children with moderate-to-severe OSA had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (BP) (117.0 ± 12.7 vs 110.5 ± 9.3 mmHg), mean arterial pressure (MAP) (85.6 ± 8.1 vs 81.6 ± 6.8 mmHg), and diastolic BP load (12.0 ± 9.6 vs 8.4 ± 10.9 mmHg) compared with children with primary snoring. During nighttime, children with moderate-to-severe OSA had significantly higher systolic BP (108.6 ± 15.0 vs 100.0 ± 9.4 mmHg), MAP (75.9 ± 9.6 vs 71.1 ± 7.0 mmHg), systolic BP load (44.0 ± 32.6 vs 26.8 ± 24.5 mmHg), systolic BP index (0.5 ± 13.1 vs −6.8 ± 8.5 mmHg), and higher prevalence of systolic hypertension (47.6% vs 14.7 %) compared with children with primary snoring. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed an independent association between AHI and nighttime systolic BP and MAP after adjusting for adiposity variables. This large hospital-based study showed that children with moderate-to-severe OSA had a higher ABP compared with children who were primary snorers. As elevated BP in childhood predicts future cardiovascular risks, children with severe OSA should be treated properly to prevent further adverse cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:26448004

  2. A novel methodology for determining low-cost fine particulate matter street sweeping routes.

    PubMed

    Blazquez, Carola A; Beghelli, Alejandra; Meneses, Veronica P

    2012-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of low-cost PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm) street sweeping route. In order to do so, only a subset of the streets of the urban area to be swept is selected for sweeping, based on their PM10 emission factor values. Subsequently, a low-cost route that visits each street in the set is computed. Unlike related problems of waste collection where streets must be visited once (Chinese or Rural Postman Problem, respectively), in this case, the sweeping vehicle route must visit each selected street exactly as many times as its number of street sides, since the vehicle can sweep only one street side at a time. Additionally, the route must comply with traffic flow and turn constraints. A novel transformation of the original arc routing problem into a node routing problem is proposed in this paper. This is accomplished by building a graph that represents the area to sweep in such a way that the problem can be solved by applying any known solution to the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). As a way of illustration, the proposed method was applied to the northeast area of the Municipality of Santiago (Chile). Results show that the proposed methodology achieved up to 37% savings in kilometers traveled by the sweeping vehicle when compared to the solution obtained by solving the TSP problem with Geographic Information Systems (GIS)--aware tools.

  3. A novel methodology for determining low-cost fine particulate matter street sweeping routes.

    PubMed

    Blazquez, Carola A; Beghelli, Alejandra; Meneses, Veronica P

    2012-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of low-cost PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm) street sweeping route. In order to do so, only a subset of the streets of the urban area to be swept is selected for sweeping, based on their PM10 emission factor values. Subsequently, a low-cost route that visits each street in the set is computed. Unlike related problems of waste collection where streets must be visited once (Chinese or Rural Postman Problem, respectively), in this case, the sweeping vehicle route must visit each selected street exactly as many times as its number of street sides, since the vehicle can sweep only one street side at a time. Additionally, the route must comply with traffic flow and turn constraints. A novel transformation of the original arc routing problem into a node routing problem is proposed in this paper. This is accomplished by building a graph that represents the area to sweep in such a way that the problem can be solved by applying any known solution to the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). As a way of illustration, the proposed method was applied to the northeast area of the Municipality of Santiago (Chile). Results show that the proposed methodology achieved up to 37% savings in kilometers traveled by the sweeping vehicle when compared to the solution obtained by solving the TSP problem with Geographic Information Systems (GIS)--aware tools. PMID:22442940

  4. Spatiotemporal prediction of fine particulate matter during the 2008 northern California wildfires using machine learning.

    PubMed

    Reid, Colleen E; Jerrett, Michael; Petersen, Maya L; Pfister, Gabriele G; Morefield, Philip E; Tager, Ira B; Raffuse, Sean M; Balmes, John R

    2015-03-17

    Estimating population exposure to particulate matter during wildfires can be difficult because of insufficient monitoring data to capture the spatiotemporal variability of smoke plumes. Chemical transport models (CTMs) and satellite retrievals provide spatiotemporal data that may be useful in predicting PM2.5 during wildfires. We estimated PM2.5 concentrations during the 2008 northern California wildfires using 10-fold cross-validation (CV) to select an optimal prediction model from a set of 11 statistical algorithms and 29 predictor variables. The variables included CTM output, three measures of satellite aerosol optical depth, distance to the nearest fires, meteorological data, and land use, traffic, spatial location, and temporal characteristics. The generalized boosting model (GBM) with 29 predictor variables had the lowest CV root mean squared error and a CV-R2 of 0.803. The most important predictor variable was the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Aerosol/Smoke Product (GASP) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), followed by the CTM output and distance to the nearest fire cluster. Parsimonious models with various combinations of fewer variables also predicted PM2.5 well. Using machine learning algorithms to combine spatiotemporal data from satellites and CTMs can reliably predict PM2.5 concentrations during a major wildfire event. PMID:25648639

  5. Modeling Of In-Vehicle Human Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Frey, H. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A method for estimating in-vehicle PM2.5 exposure as part of a scenario-based population simulation model is developed and assessed. In existing models, such as the Stochastic Exposure and Dose Simulation model for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM), in-vehicle exposure is estimated using linear regression based on area-wide ambient PM2.5 concentration. An alternative modeling approach is explored based on estimation of near-road PM2.5 concentration and an in-vehicle mass balance. Near-road PM2.5 concentration is estimated using a dispersion model and fixed site monitor (FSM) data. In-vehicle concentration is estimated based on air exchange rate and filter efficiency. In-vehicle concentration varies with road type, traffic flow, windspeed, stability class, and ventilation. Average in-vehicle exposure is estimated to contribute 10 to 20 percent of average daily exposure. The contribution of in-vehicle exposure to total daily exposure can be higher for some individuals. Recommendations are made for updating exposure models and implementation of the alternative approach. PMID:23101000

  6. Characterization and seasonal variations of levoglucosan in fine particulate matter in Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Cao, Jun-Ji; Chow, Judith C; Shen, Zhen-xing; Ho, Kin-Fai; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Liu, Sui-Xin; Han, Yong-Ming; Watson, John G; Wang, Ge-Hui; Huang, Ru-Jin

    2014-11-01

    PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microm) samples (n = 58) collected every sixth day in Xi'an, China, from 5 July 2008 to 27 June 2009 are analyzed for levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-beta-D-glucopyranose) to evaluate the impacts of biomass combustion on ambient concentrations. Twenty-four-hour levoglucosan concentrations displayed clear summer minima and winter maxima that ranged from 46 to 1889 ng m(-3), with an average of 428 +/- 399 ng m(-3). Besides agricultural burning, biomass/biofuel combustion for household heating with straws and branches appears to be of regional importance during the heating season in northwestern China. Good correlations (0.70 < R < 0.91) were found between levoglucosan relative to water- soluble K+, Cl-, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and glyoxal. The highest levoglucosan/OC ratio of2.3% wasfound in winter, followed by autumn (1.5%). Biomass burning contributed to 5.1-43.8% of OC (with an average of 17.6 +/- 8.4%). PMID:25509553

  7. Characterization of combustion-derived individual fine particulates by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Yu, D.X.; Yao, H.; Xu, M.H.; Wang, Q.Y.; Ninomiya, Y.

    2009-11-15

    Particulate matter (PM) emission from the combustion of solid fuels potentially poses a severe threat to the environment. In this article, a novel approach was developed to examine the properties of individual particles in PM. With this method, PM emitted from combustion was first size-segregated. Subsequently, each size was characterized by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) for both bulk property and single particle analysis. Combustion of bituminous coal, dried sewage sludge (DSS) and their mixture were conducted at 1200 {sup o}C in a laboratory-scale drop tube furnace. Three individual sizes smaller than 2.5 {mu}m were investigated. The results indicate that a prior size-segregation can greatly minimize the particle size contrast and phase contrast on the backscattered images during CCSEM analysis. Consequently, high accuracy can be achieved for quantifying the sub-micron particles and their inherent volatile metals. Regarding the PM properties as attained, concentrations of volatile metals including Na, K, and Zn have a negative relationship with particle size; they are enriched in the smallest particles around 0.11 {mu}m as studied here. Strong interactions can occur during the cofiring of coal and DSS, leading to the distinct properties of PM emitted from cofiring. The method developed here and results attained from it are helpful for management of the risks relating to PM emission during coal-fired boilers.

  8. Spatiotemporal prediction of fine particulate matter during the 2008 northern California wildfires using machine learning.

    PubMed

    Reid, Colleen E; Jerrett, Michael; Petersen, Maya L; Pfister, Gabriele G; Morefield, Philip E; Tager, Ira B; Raffuse, Sean M; Balmes, John R

    2015-03-17

    Estimating population exposure to particulate matter during wildfires can be difficult because of insufficient monitoring data to capture the spatiotemporal variability of smoke plumes. Chemical transport models (CTMs) and satellite retrievals provide spatiotemporal data that may be useful in predicting PM2.5 during wildfires. We estimated PM2.5 concentrations during the 2008 northern California wildfires using 10-fold cross-validation (CV) to select an optimal prediction model from a set of 11 statistical algorithms and 29 predictor variables. The variables included CTM output, three measures of satellite aerosol optical depth, distance to the nearest fires, meteorological data, and land use, traffic, spatial location, and temporal characteristics. The generalized boosting model (GBM) with 29 predictor variables had the lowest CV root mean squared error and a CV-R2 of 0.803. The most important predictor variable was the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Aerosol/Smoke Product (GASP) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), followed by the CTM output and distance to the nearest fire cluster. Parsimonious models with various combinations of fewer variables also predicted PM2.5 well. Using machine learning algorithms to combine spatiotemporal data from satellites and CTMs can reliably predict PM2.5 concentrations during a major wildfire event.

  9. Artificial neural network models for prediction of daily fine particulate matter concentrations in Algiers.

    PubMed

    Chellali, M R; Abderrahim, H; Hamou, A; Nebatti, A; Janovec, J

    2016-07-01

    Neural network (NN) models were evaluated for the prediction of suspended particulates with aerodynamic diameter less than 10-μm (PM10) concentrations. The model evaluation work considered the sequential hourly concentration time series of PM10, which were measured at El Hamma station in Algiers. Artificial neural network models were developed using a combination of meteorological and time-scale as input variables. The results were rather satisfactory, with values of the coefficient of correlation (R (2)) for independent test sets ranging between 0.60 and 0.85 and values of the index of agreement (IA) between 0.87 and 0.96. In addition, the root mean square error (RMSE), the mean absolute error (MAE), the normalized mean squared error (NMSE), the absolute relative percentage error (ARPE), the fractional bias (FB), and the fractional variance (FS) were calculated to assess the performance of the model. It was seen that the overall performance of model 3 was better than models 1 and 2.

  10. Artificial neural network models for prediction of daily fine particulate matter concentrations in Algiers.

    PubMed

    Chellali, M R; Abderrahim, H; Hamou, A; Nebatti, A; Janovec, J

    2016-07-01

    Neural network (NN) models were evaluated for the prediction of suspended particulates with aerodynamic diameter less than 10-μm (PM10) concentrations. The model evaluation work considered the sequential hourly concentration time series of PM10, which were measured at El Hamma station in Algiers. Artificial neural network models were developed using a combination of meteorological and time-scale as input variables. The results were rather satisfactory, with values of the coefficient of correlation (R (2)) for independent test sets ranging between 0.60 and 0.85 and values of the index of agreement (IA) between 0.87 and 0.96. In addition, the root mean square error (RMSE), the mean absolute error (MAE), the normalized mean squared error (NMSE), the absolute relative percentage error (ARPE), the fractional bias (FB), and the fractional variance (FS) were calculated to assess the performance of the model. It was seen that the overall performance of model 3 was better than models 1 and 2. PMID:27040548

  11. Assessing the spatial and temporal variability of fine particulate matter components in Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Moise, Tamar; Shpund, Jacob; Liu, Yang; Pachon, Jorge E.; Qasrawi, Radwan; Abdeen, Ziad; Brenner, Shmuel; Nassar, Khaled; Saleh, Rami; Schauer, James J.

    2010-07-01

    This manuscript presents results from an extensive, multi-country comparative monitoring study of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and its primary chemical components in Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian cities. This study represented the first time that researchers from these countries have worked together to examine spatial and temporal relationships for PM 2.5 and its major components among the study sites. The findings indicated that total PM 2.5 mass was relatively homogenous among many of the 11 sites as shown from strong between-site correlations. Mean annual concentrations ranged from 19.9 to 34.9 μg m -3 in Haifa and Amman, respectively, and exceeded accepted international air quality standards for annual PM 2.5 mass. Similarity of total mass was largely driven by SO 42- and crustal PM 2.5 components. Despite the close proximity of the seven, well correlated sites with respect to PM 2.5, there were pronounced differences among the cities for EC and, to a lesser degree, OC. EC, in particular, exhibited spatiotemporal trends that were indicative of strong local source contributions. Interestingly, there were moderate to strong EC correlations ( r > 0.65) among the large metropolitan cities, West Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Amman. For these relatively large cities, (i.e., West Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Amman), EC sources from the fleet of buses and cars typical for many urban areas predominate and likely drive spatiotemporal EC distributions. As new airshed management strategies and public health interventions are implemented throughout the Middle East, our findings support regulatory strategies that target integrated regional and local control strategies to reduce PM 2.5 mass and specific components suspected to drive adverse health effects of particulate matter exposure.

  12. Effects of dietary interventions on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones.

    PubMed

    Kıraç, Mustafa; Küpeli, Bora; Irkilata, Lokman; Gülbahar, Ozlem; Aksakal, Nur; Karaoğlan, Ustünol; Bozkırlı, Ibrahim

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary factors on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones. A total of 108 of idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones were included in the study. A 24-hour urinalysis was performed and metabolic abnormalities were measured for all of the patients. All of the patients were given specialized diets for their 24-hour urine abnormalities. At the end of first month, the same parameters were examined in another 24-hour urinalysis. Hyperoxaluria, hypernatruria, and hypercalciuria were found in 84 (77%), 43 (39.8%), and 38 (35.5%) of the patients, respectively. The differences between the oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate parameters before and after the dietary intervention were significant (p < 0.05). The calcium parameters were not significantly different before and after the intervention. We found that oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate-but not calcium-abnormalities in patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones can be corrected by diet. The metabolic profiles of idiopathic calcium oxalate stone patients should be evaluated and the appropriate dietary interventions should be implemented to decrease stone recurrence.

  13. Self-Renewal and Differentiation Capacity of Urine-Derived Stem Cells after Urine Preservation for 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yingai; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Leng, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobo; Liu, Hong; Atala, Anthony; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite successful approaches to preserve organs, tissues, and isolated cells, the maintenance of stem cell viability and function in body fluids during storage for cell distribution and transportation remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize urine-derived stem cells (USCs) after optimal preservation of urine specimens for up to 24 hours. A total of 415 urine specimens were collected from 12 healthy men (age range 20–54 years old). About 6×104 cells shed off from the urinary tract system in 24 hours. At least 100 USC clones were obtained from the stored urine specimens after 24 hours and maintained similar biological features to fresh USCs. The stored USCs had a “rice grain” shape in primary culture, and expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, high telomerase activity, and normal karyotypes. Importantly, the preserved cells retained bipotent differentiation capacity. Differentiated USCs expressed myogenic specific proteins and contractile function when exposed to myogenic differentiation medium, and they expressed urothelial cell-specific markers and barrier function when exposed to urothelial differentiation medium. These data demonstrated that up to 75% of fresh USCs can be safely persevered in urine for 24 hours and that these cells stored in urine retain their original stem cell properties, indicating that preserved USCs could be available for potential use in cell-based therapy or clinical diagnosis. PMID:23349776

  14. Fine particulate matter results in hemodynamic changes in subjects with blunted nocturnal blood pressure dipping.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szu-Ying; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Lin, Yu-Lun; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Su, Ta-Chen

    2014-05-01

    Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 μm (PM2.5) is associated with blood pressure and hemodynamic changes. Blunted nocturnal blood pressure dipping is a major risk factor for cardiovascular events; limited information is available on whether PM2.5 exposure-related hemodynamic changes vary with day-night blood pressure circadian rhythms. In this study, we enrolled 161 subjects and monitored the changes in ambulatory blood pressure and hemodynamics for 24h. The day-night blood pressure and cardiovascular metrics were calculated according to the sleep-wake cycles logged in the subject׳s diary. The effects of PM2.5 exposure on blood pressure and hemodynamic changes were analyzed using generalized linear mixed-effect model. After adjusting for potential confounders, a 10-μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with 1.0 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2-1.8 mmHg] narrowing in the pulse pressure, 3.1% (95% CI: 1.4-4.8%) decrease in the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure rise, and 3.6% (95% CI: 1.6-5.7%) increase in systemic vascular resistance among 79 subjects with nocturnal blood pressure dip of <10%. In contrast, PM2.5 was not associated with any changes in cardiovascular metrics among 82 subjects with nocturnal blood pressure dip of ≥10%. Our findings demonstrate that short-term exposure to PM2.5 contributes to pulse pressure narrowing along with cardiac and vasomotor dysfunctions in subjects with nocturnal blood pressure dip of <10%.

  15. Association Between Fine Particulate Matter and Diabetes Prevalence in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, John F.; Bachireddy, Chethan; Shyamprasad, Sangameswaran; Goldfine, Allison B.; Brownstein, John S.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies have drawn attention to the adverse effects of ambient air pollutants such as particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) on human health. We evaluated the association between PM2.5 exposure and diabetes prevalence in the U.S. and explored factors that may influence this relationship. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The relationship between PM2.5 levels and diagnosed diabetes prevalence in the U.S. was assessed by multivariate regression models at the county level using data obtained from both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for years 2004 and 2005. Covariates including obesity rates, population density, ethnicity, income, education, and health insurance were collected from the U.S. Census Bureau and the CDC. RESULTS Diabetes prevalence increases with increasing PM2.5 concentrations, with a 1% increase in diabetes prevalence seen with a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 exposure (2004: β = 0.77 [95% CI 0.39–1.25], P < 0.001; 2005: β = 0.81 [0.48–1.07], P < 0.001). This finding was confirmed for each study year in both univariate and multivariate models. The relationship remained consistent and significant when different estimates of PM2.5 exposure were used. Even for counties within guidelines for EPA PM2.5 exposure limits, those with the highest exposure showed a >20% increase in diabetes prevalence compared with that for those with the lowest levels of PM2.5, an association that persisted after controlling for diabetes risk factors. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest PM2.5 may contribute to increased diabetes prevalence in the adult U.S. population. These findings add to the growing evidence that air pollution is a risk factor for diabetes. PMID:20628090

  16. Fine particulate matter components and emergency department visits among a privately insured population in Greater Houston.

    PubMed

    Liu, Suyang; Ganduglia, Cecilia M; Li, Xiao; Delclos, George L; Franzini, Luisa; Zhang, Kai

    2016-10-01

    Although adverse health effects of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5μm) mass have been extensively studied, it remains unclear regarding which PM2.5 components are most harmful. No studies have reported the associations between PM2.5 components and adverse health effects among a privately insured population. In our study, we estimated the short-term associations between exposure to PM2.5 components and emergency department (ED) visits for all-cause and cause-specific diseases in Greater Houston, Texas, during 2008-2013 using ED visit data extracted from a private insurance company (Blue Cross Blue Shield Texas [BCBSTX]). A total of 526,453 ED visits were included in our assessment, with an average of 236 (±63) visits per day. We selected 20 PM2.5 components from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Chemical Speciation Network site located in Houston, and then applied Poisson regression models to assess the previously mentioned associations. Interquartile range increases in bromine (0.003μg/m(3)), potassium (0.048μg/m(3)), sodium ion (0.306μg/m(3)), and sulfate (1.648μg/m(3)) were statistically significantly associated with the increased risks in total ED of 0.71% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06, 1.37%), 0.71% (95% CI: 0.21, 1.22%), 1.28% (95% CI: 0.34, 2.24%), and 1.22% (95% CI: 0.23, 2.23%), respectively. Seasonal analysis suggested strongest associations occurred during the warm season. Our findings suggest that a privately insured population, presumably healthier than the general population, may be still at risk of adverse health effects due to exposure to ambient PM2.5 components. PMID:27235902

  17. Major ionic compositions of fine particulate matter in an animal feeding operation facility and its vicinity.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian-feng; Wang-Li, Lingjuan; Liu, Zifei; Jayanty, R K M; Shah, Sanjay B; Bloomfield, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Animal feeding operations (AFOs) produce particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. Investigation of the chemical composition of PM2.5 inside and in the local vicinity of AFOs can help to understand the impact of the AFO emissions on ambient secondary PM formation. This study was conducted on a commercial egg production farm in North Carolina. Samples of PM2.5 were collected from five stations, with one located in an egg production house and the otherfour located in the vicinity ofthe farm alongfour wind directions. The major ions of NH4+, Na+, K+, SO4(2-), Cl-, and NO3- were analyzed using ion chromatography (IC). In the house, the mostly abundant ions were SO4(2-), Cl-, and K+. At ambient stations, SO4(2-), and NH4+ were the two most abundant ions. In the house, NH4+, SO4(2-), and NO3- accounted for only 10% of the PM2.5 mass; at ambient locations, NH4+, SO4(2-), and NO3- accounted for 36-41% of the PM2.5 mass. In the house, NH4+ had small seasonal variations indicating that gas- phase NH3. was not the only major force driving its gas-particle partitioning. At the ambient stations, NH4+ had the highest concentrations in summer In the house, K+, Na+, and Cl- were highly correlated with each other In ambient locations, SO4(2-) and NH4+ had a strong correlation, whereas in the house, SO4(2-) and NH4+ had a very weak correlation. Ambient temperature and solar radiation were positively correlated with NH4+ and SO4(2-). This study suggests that secondary PM formation inside the animal house was not an important source of PM2.5. In the vicinity, NH3 emissions had greater impact on PM2.5 formation. PMID:25509549

  18. Limitations of Remotely Sensed Aerosol as a Spatial Proxy for Fine Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Paciorek, Christopher J.; Liu, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent research highlights the promise of remotely sensed aerosol optical depth (AOD) as a proxy for ground-level particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Particular interest lies in estimating spatial heterogeneity using AOD, with important application to estimating pollution exposure for public health purposes. Given the correlations reported between AOD and PM2.5, it is tempting to interpret the spatial patterns in AOD as reflecting patterns in PM2.5. Objectives We evaluated the degree to which AOD can help predict long-term average PM2.5 concentrations for use in chronic health studies. Methods We calculated correlations of AOD and PM2.5 at various temporal aggregations in the eastern United States in 2004 and used statistical models to assess the relationship between AOD and PM2.5 and the potential for improving predictions of PM2.5 in a subregion, the mid-Atlantic. Results We found only limited spatial associations of AOD from three satellite retrievals with daily and yearly PM2.5. The statistical modeling shows that monthly average AOD poorly reflects spatial patterns in PM2.5 because of systematic, spatially correlated discrepancies between AOD and PM2.5. Furthermore, when we included AOD as a predictor of monthly PM2.5 in a statistical prediction model, AOD provided little additional information in a model that already accounts for land use, emission sources, meteorology, and regional variability. Conclusions These results suggest caution in using spatial variation in currently available AOD to stand in for spatial variation in ground-level PM2.5 in epidemiologic analyses and indicate that when PM2.5 monitoring is available, careful statistical modeling outperforms the use of AOD. PMID:19590681

  19. Concentrations and source insights for trace elements in fine and coarse particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Nicholas; Eav, Jenny; Xie, Mingjie; Hannigan, Michael P.; Miller, Shelly L.; Navidi, William; Peel, Jennifer L.; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Milford, Jana B.

    2014-06-01

    The Colorado Coarse Rural-Urban Sources and Health (CCRUSH) study is a multi-year study focused on characterizing the mass, composition and sources of coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) in Denver and Greeley, CO. Between the two cities, Denver is expected to have greater influence of industry and motor vehicles as sources of PM10-2.5. Greeley is a smaller city with greater expected influence of agricultural activity. As part of the CCRUSH study, we collected integrated 24-h samples of PM from four sites in Denver and Greeley at six day intervals from February 2010 to March 2011. Dichotomous samplers with Teflon filters were used to obtain samples for gravimetric and elemental analysis. Magnetic Sector Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (SF-ICP-MS) was used to analyze digests of monthly composited filter samples for 49 elements. Thirty-nine elements were retained for statistical analysis after excluding those with low signal-to-noise ratios. The elements Sb, Cd, Zn, Mo, As, B, Cu, Pb, and W had crustal enrichment factors greater than 10 in the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 size ranges in both Denver and Greeley. Using positive matrix factorization (PMF) with bootstrap uncertainty estimation, we identified five factors influencing the element concentrations: a crustal factor contributing to both PM2.5 and PM10-2.5; a sodium-dominated PM10-2.5 factor likely associated with road salt; a vehicle abrasion factor contributing in both size ranges; a regional sulfur factor contributing mainly to PM2.5 and likely associated with coal combustion; and a local catalyst factor identified with high Ce and La enrichment in PM2.5 at one of the sites in Denver.

  20. Fine Particulate Matter Predictions Using High Resolution Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra A.; Koutrakis, Petros; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Nordio, Francesco; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Jujie; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    To date, spatial-temporal patterns of particulate matter (PM) within urban areas have primarily been examined using models. On the other hand, satellites extend spatial coverage but their spatial resolution is too coarse. In order to address this issue, here we report on spatial variability in PM levels derived from high 1 km resolution AOD product of Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm developed for MODIS satellite. We apply day-specific calibrations of AOD data to predict PM(sub 2.5) concentrations within the New England area of the United States. To improve the accuracy of our model, land use and meteorological variables were incorporated. We used inverse probability weighting (IPW) to account for nonrandom missingness of AOD and nested regions within days to capture spatial variation. With this approach we can control for the inherent day-to-day variability in the AOD-PM(sub 2.5) relationship, which depends on time-varying parameters such as particle optical properties, vertical and diurnal concentration profiles and ground surface reflectance among others. Out-of-sample "ten-fold" cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of model predictions. Our results show that the model-predicted PM(sub 2.5) mass concentrations are highly correlated with the actual observations, with out-of- sample R(sub 2) of 0.89. Furthermore, our study shows that the model captures the pollution levels along highways and many urban locations thereby extending our ability to investigate the spatial patterns of urban air quality, such as examining exposures in areas with high traffic. Our results also show high accuracy within the cities of Boston and New Haven thereby indicating that MAIAC data can be used to examine intra-urban exposure contrasts in PM(sub 2.5) levels.

  1. Fine particulate matter predictions using high resolution Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra A.; Koutrakis, Petros; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Nordio, Francesco; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-06-01

    To date, spatial-temporal patterns of particulate matter (PM) within urban areas have primarily been examined using models. On the other hand, satellites extend spatial coverage but their spatial resolution is too coarse. In order to address this issue, here we report on spatial variability in PM levels derived from high 1 km resolution AOD product of Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm developed for MODIS satellite. We apply day-specific calibrations of AOD data to predict PM2.5 concentrations within the New England area of the United States. To improve the accuracy of our model, land use and meteorological variables were incorporated. We used inverse probability weighting (IPW) to account for nonrandom missingness of AOD and nested regions within days to capture spatial variation. With this approach we can control for the inherent day-to-day variability in the AOD-PM2.5 relationship, which depends on time-varying parameters such as particle optical properties, vertical and diurnal concentration profiles and ground surface reflectance among others. Out-of-sample “ten-fold” cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of model predictions. Our results show that the model-predicted PM2.5 mass concentrations are highly correlated with the actual observations, with out-of-sample R2 of 0.89. Furthermore, our study shows that the model captures the pollution levels along highways and many urban locations thereby extending our ability to investigate the spatial patterns of urban air quality, such as examining exposures in areas with high traffic. Our results also show high accuracy within the cities of Boston and New Haven thereby indicating that MAIAC data can be used to examine intra-urban exposure contrasts in PM2.5 levels.

  2. The molecular distribution of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Western-style fast food cooking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    The emissions from food cooking could be a significant contributor to atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) and its chemical composition would vary with different cooking styles. In this study, the chemical composition of POM emitted from Western-style fast food cooking was investigated. A total of six PM 2.5 samples was collected from a commercial restaurant and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is found that the total amount of quantified compounds of per mg POM in Western-style fast food cooking is much higher than that in Chinese cooking. The predominant homologue is fatty acids, accounting for 78% of total quantified POM, with the predominant one being palmitic acid. Dicarboxylic acids display the second highest concentration in the quantified homologues with hexanedioic acid being predominant, followed by nonanedioic acid. Cmax of n-alkanes occurs at C25, but they still appear relative higher concentrations at C29 and C31. In addition, both levoglucosan and cholesterol are quantified. The relationship of concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (C16 and C18) with a double bond at C9 position and C9 acids indicates the reduction of the unsaturated fatty acids in the emissions could form the C9 acids. Moreover, the nonlinear fit indicates that other C9 species or other compounds are also produced, except for the C9 acids. The potential candidates of tracers for the emissions from Western-fast food cooking could be: tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, nonanal, lactones, levoglucosan, hexanedioic acid and nonanedioic acid.

  3. Sources of Fine Particulate Matter and Risk of Preterm Birth in Connecticut, 2000–2006: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.; Lee, Hyung Joo; Koutrakis, Petros; Belanger, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have examined fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) and preterm birth, but there is a dearth of longitudinal studies on this topic and a paucity of studies that have investigated specific sources of this exposure. Objectives: Our aim was to assess whether anthropogenic sources are associated with risk of preterm birth, comparing successive pregnancies to the same woman. Methods: Birth certificates were used to select women who had vaginal singleton live births at least twice in Connecticut during 2000–2006 (n = 23,123 women, n = 48,208 births). We procured 4,085 daily samples of PM2.5 on Teflon filters from the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection for six cities in Connecticut. Filters were analyzed for chemical composition, and Positive Matrix Factorization was used to determine contributions of PM2.5 sources. Risk estimates were calculated with conditional logistic regression, matching pregnancies to the same women. Results: Odds ratios of preterm birth per interquartile range increase in whole pregnancy exposure to dust, motor vehicle emissions, oil combustion, and regional sulfur PM2.5 sources were 1.01 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.09), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.10), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.12), and 1.09 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.22), respectively. Conclusion: This was the first study of PM2.5 sources and preterm birth, and the first matched analysis, that better addresses individual-level confounding potentially inherent in all past studies. There was insufficient evidence to suggest that sources were statistically significantly associated with preterm birth. However, elevated central estimates and previously observed associations with mass concentration motivate the need for further research. Future studies would benefit from high source exposure settings and longitudinal study designs, such as that adopted in this study. Citation: Pereira G, Bell ML, Lee HJ, Koutrakis P, Belanger K. 2014. Sources of fine particulate matter and risk

  4. Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter: Association with Nonaccidental and Cardiovascular Mortality in the Agricultural Health Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Paul J.; Burnett, Richard T.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Jones, Rena R.; DellaValle, Curt T.; Sandler, Dale P.; Ward, Mary H.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nonaccidental mortality in rural populations. Objective: We examined the relationship between PM2.5 and nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in the U.S. Agricultural Health Study cohort. Methods: The cohort (n = 83,378) included farmers, their spouses, and commercial pesticide applicators residing primarily in Iowa and North Carolina. Deaths occurring between enrollment (1993–1997) and 30 December 2009 were identified by record linkage. Six-year average (2001–2006) remote-sensing derived estimates of PM2.5 were assigned to participants’ residences at enrollment, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) in relation to a 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 adjusted for individual-level covariates. Results: In total, 5,931 nonaccidental and 1,967 cardiovascular deaths occurred over a median follow-up time of 13.9 years. PM2.5 was not associated with nonaccidental mortality in the cohort as a whole (HR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.20), but consistent inverse relationships were observed among women. Positive associations were observed between ambient PM2.5 and cardiovascular mortality among men, and these associations were strongest among men who did not move from their enrollment address (HR = 1.63; 95% 0.94, 2.84). In particular, cardiovascular mortality risk in men was significantly increased when analyses were limited to nonmoving participants with the most precise exposure geocoding (HR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.04, 3.36). Conclusions: Rural PM2.5 may be associated with cardiovascular mortality in men; however, similar associations were not observed among women. Further evaluation is required to explore these sex differences. Citation: Weichenthal S, Villeneuve PJ, Burnett RT, van Donkelaar A, Martin RV, Jones RR, DellaValle CT, Sandler DP, Ward MH, Hoppin JA. 2014. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter

  5. Use of Satellite Observations for Long-Term Exposure Assessment of Global Concentrations of Fine Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Randall V.; Brauer, Michael; Boys, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than a decade of satellite observations offers global information about the trend and magnitude of human exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Objective: In this study, we developed improved global exposure estimates of ambient PM2.5 mass and trend using PM2.5 concentrations inferred from multiple satellite instruments. Methods: We combined three satellite-derived PM2.5 sources to produce global PM2.5 estimates at about 10 km × 10 km from 1998 through 2012. For each source, we related total column retrievals of aerosol optical depth to near-ground PM2.5 using the GEOS–Chem chemical transport model to represent local aerosol optical properties and vertical profiles. We collected 210 global ground-based PM2.5 observations from the literature to evaluate our satellite-based estimates with values measured in areas other than North America and Europe. Results: We estimated that global population-weighted ambient PM2.5 concentrations increased 0.55 μg/m3/year (95% CI: 0.43, 0.67) (2.1%/year; 95% CI: 1.6, 2.6) from 1998 through 2012. Increasing PM2.5 in some developing regions drove this global change, despite decreasing PM2.5 in some developed regions. The estimated proportion of the population of East Asia living above the World Health Organization (WHO) Interim Target-1 of 35 μg/m3 increased from 51% in 1998–2000 to 70% in 2010–2012. In contrast, the North American proportion above the WHO Air Quality Guideline of 10 μg/m3 fell from 62% in 1998–2000 to 19% in 2010–2012. We found significant agreement between satellite-derived estimates and ground-based measurements outside North America and Europe (r = 0.81; n = 210; slope = 0.68). The low bias in satellite-derived estimates suggests that true global concentrations could be even greater. Conclusions: Satellite observations provide insight into global long-term changes in ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Satellite-derived estimates and ground-based PM2.5 observations from this study

  6. Estimation of Daily Sodium and Potassium Excretion Using Spot Urine and 24-Hour Urine Samples in a Black Population (Benin).

    PubMed

    Mizéhoun-Adissoda, Carmelle; Houehanou, Corine; Chianéa, Thierry; Dalmay, François; Bigot, André; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Bovet, Pascal; Houinato, Dismand; Desport, Jean-Claude

    2016-07-01

    The 24-hour urine collection method is considered the gold standard for the estimation of ingested potassium and sodium. Because of the impracticalities of collecting all urine over a 24-hour period, spot urine is often used for epidemiological investigations. This study aims to assess the agreement between spot urine and 24-hour urine measurements to determine sodium and potassium intake. A total of 402 participants aged 25 to 64 years were randomly selected in South Benin. Spot urine was taken during the second urination of the day. Twenty-four-hour urine was also collected. Samples (2-mL) were taken and then stored at -20°C. The analysis was carried out using potentiometric dosage. The agreement between spot urine and 24-hour urine measurements was established using Bland-Altman plots. A total of 354 results were analyzed. Daily sodium chloride and potassium chloride urinary excretion means were 10.2±4.9 g/24 h and 2.9±1.4 g/24 h, respectively. Estimated daily sodium chloride and potassium chloride means from the spot urine were 10.7±7.0 g/24 h and 3.9±2.1 g/24 h, respectively. Concordance coefficients were 0.61 at d=-0.5 g, (d±2SD=-11 g and 10.1 g) for sodium chloride and 0.61 at d=-1 g, (d±2SD=-3.8 g and 1.8 g) for potassium chloride. Spot urine method is acceptable for estimating 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion to assess sodium and potassium intake in a black population. However, the confidence interval for the mean difference, which is too large, makes the sodium chloride results inadmissible at a clinical level.

  7. Value of 24-hour Delayed Film of Barium Enema for Evaluation of Colon Transit Function in Young Children with Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ha Yeong; Son, Jae Sung; Park, Hye Won; Kwak, Byung Ok; Kim, Hyeong Su; Bae, Sun Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims A colon transit time test using radio-opaque markers (CTTRM) is considered the gold standard for evaluating colon transit function. A 24-hour delayed film of barium enema (BE) has been used as a supplementary method in structural evaluations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a 24-hour delayed BE film for assessing colon transit function in young children with constipation. Methods In total, 93 children with constipation who performed both single-contrast BE and CTTRM were enrolled in this study. Of these, the data from 70 children were analyzed (males 33, females 37; mean age [range], 5.63 ± 2.94 [2–14] years). The basic principle of the study is “velocity = distance/time”. Time values were identified in both studies, and the colon length and distance of barium movement were measured on the 24-hour delayed BE film. Thus, colon transit velocity values could be calculated using both methods. The correlation between colon transit velocity using a 24-hour delayed BE film versus CTTRM was analyzed statistically. Results Median value (interquartile range) of colon transit velocity using CTTRM was 1.57 (1.07–2.89) cm/hr, and that using BE of that was 1.58 (0.94–2.07) cm/hr. The Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.438 (P < 0.001) for the overall group. The correlation was strongest in children younger than 4 years (r = 0.537, P = 0.032). Conclusions Although the correlation between BE and CTTRM was not very strong, the 24-hour delayed BE film could provide broad information about colon transit function in young children, especially those under 4 years who usually cannot undergo CTTRM. PMID:26979249

  8. Microleakage of Two Self-Adhesive Cements in the Enamel and Dentin After 24 Hours and Two Months

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Kalantar Motamedi, Mojdeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Microleakage is a main cause of restorative treatment failure. In this study, we compared occlusal and cervical microleakage of two self-adhesive cements after 24 hours and two months. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, class II inlay cavities were prepared on 60 sound human third molars. Composite inlays were fabricated with Z100 composite resin. The teeth were randomly assigned to six groups. RelyX-Arc (control), RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem were used for the first three groups and specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The same cements were used for the remaining three groups, but the specimens were stored for 2 months. The teeth were subjected to 500 thermal cycles (5°C and 55°C) and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then sectioned mesiodistally and dye penetration was evaluated in a class II cavity with occlusal and cervical margins using X20 magnification stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: After 24 hours, cements had significant differences only in cervical margin microleakage (P=0.0001) and microleakage of RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was significantly more than that of RelyX-Arc (both P=0.0001). Cervical microleakage in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was greater than occlusal (P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively). Microleakage was not significantly different between the occlusal and cervical margins after 2 months. Conclusion: Cervical microleakage was greater than occlusal in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem after 24h. The greatest microleakage was reported for the cervical margin of RelyX-Unicem after 24 hours. PMID:25584053

  9. Changes in platelet morphology and function during 24 hours of storage.

    PubMed

    Braune, S; Walter, M; Schulze, F; Lendlein, A; Jung, F

    2014-01-01

    aggregates could be visualized microscopically. After four hours, first debris and very small aggregates occurred. After 24 hours, platelet aggregates and also debris progressively increased. In accordance to this, the CASY system revealed an increase of platelet aggregates (up to 90 μm diameter) with increasing storage time. The percentage of CD62P positive platelets and PF4 increased significantly with storage time in resting PRP. When soluble ADP was added to stored PRP samples, the number of activatable platelets decreased significantly over storage time. The present study reveals the importance of a consequent standardization in the preparation of WB and PRP. Platelet morphology and function, particularly platelet reactivity to adherent or soluble agonists in their surrounding milieu, changed rapidly outside the vascular system. This knowledge is of crucial interest, particularly in the field of biomaterial development for cardiovascular applications, and may help to define common standards in the in vitro hemocompatibility testing of biomaterials.

  10. Source-specific fine particulate air pollution and systemic inflammation in ischaemic heart disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Siponen, Taina; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Aurela, Minna; Dufva, Hilkka; Hillamo, Risto; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Huttunen, Kati; Pekkanen, Juha; Pennanen, Arto; Salonen, Iiris; Tiittanen, Pekka; Salonen, Raimo O; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare short-term effects of fine particles (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) from different sources on the blood levels of markers of systemic inflammation. Methods We followed a panel of 52 ischaemic heart disease patients from 15 November 2005 to 21 April 2006 with clinic visits in every second week in the city of Kotka, Finland, and determined nine inflammatory markers from blood samples. In addition, we monitored outdoor air pollution at a fixed site during the study period and conducted a source apportionment of PM2.5 using the Environmental Protection Agency's model EPA PMF 3.0. We then analysed associations between levels of source-specific PM2.5 and markers of systemic inflammation using linear mixed models. Results We identified five source categories: regional and long-range transport (LRT), traffic, biomass combustion, sea salt, and pulp industry. We found most evidence for the relation of air pollution and inflammation in LRT, traffic and biomass combustion; the most relevant inflammation markers were C-reactive protein, interleukin-12 and myeloperoxidase. Sea salt was not positively associated with any of the inflammatory markers. Conclusions Results suggest that PM2.5 from several sources, such as biomass combustion and traffic, are promoters of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25479755

  11. Fine-scale estimation of carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter concentrations in proximity to a road intersection by using wavelet neural network with genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Lu, Feng; He, Hong-di; Lu, Qing-Chang; Wang, Dongsheng; Peng, Zhong-Ren

    2015-03-01

    At road intersections, vehicles frequently stop with idling engines during the red-light period and speed up rapidly in the green-light period, which generates higher velocity fluctuation and thus higher emission rates. Additionally, the frequent changes of wind direction further add the highly variable dispersion of pollutants at the street scale. It is, therefore, very difficult to estimate the distribution of pollutant concentrations using conventional deterministic causal models. For this reason, a hybrid model combining wavelet neural network and genetic algorithm (GA-WNN) is proposed for predicting 5-min series of carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in proximity to an intersection. The proposed model is examined based on the measured data under two situations. As the measured pollutant concentrations are found to be dependent on the distance to the intersection, the model is evaluated in three locations respectively, i.e. 110 m, 330 m and 500 m. Due to the different variation of pollutant concentrations on varied time, the model is also evaluated in peak and off-peak traffic time periods separately. Additionally, the proposed model, together with the back-propagation neural network (BPNN), is examined with the measured data in these situations. The proposed model is found to perform better in predictability and precision for both CO and PM2.5 than BPNN does, implying that the hybrid model can be an effective tool to improve the accuracy of estimating pollutants' distribution pattern at intersections. The outputs of these findings demonstrate the potential of the proposed model to be applicable to forecast the distribution pattern of air pollution in real-time in proximity to road intersection.

  12. Ultrafine and fine particulate matter inhalation decreases exercise performance in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth W; Caviston, Renee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 0.02-2 microm) inhalation on exercise performance in healthy subjects. Inhalation of internal combustion-derived PM is associated with adverse effects to the pulmonary and muscle microcirculation. No data are available concerning air pollution and exercise performance. Fifteen healthy college-aged males performed 4 maximal effort 6-min cycle ergometer trials while breathing low or high PM1 to achieve maximal work accumulation (kJ). Low PM1 inhalation trials 1 and 2 were separated by 3 days; then after a 7 day washout, trials 3 and 4 (separated by 3 days) were done while breathing high PM1 generated from a gasoline engine; CO was kept below 10 ppm. Lung function was done after trial 1 to verify nonasthmatic status. Lung function was normal before and after low PM1 exercise. PM1 number counts were not different between high PM1 trials (336,730 +/- 149,206 and 396,200 +/- 82,564 for trial 3 and 4, respectively) and were different from low PM1 trial number counts (2,260 +/- 500) (P < 0.0001). Mean heart rate was not different between trials (189 +/- 6.0, 188 +/- 7.6, 188 +/- 7.6, 187 +/- 7.4, for low and high PM1 trials; respectively). Work accumulated was not different between low PM1 trials (96.1 +/- 9.38 versus 96.6 +/- 10.83 kJ) and the first high PM1 trial (trial 3, 96.8 +/- 10.65 kJ). Work accumulated in the second high PM1 trial 4, 91.3 +/- 10.04 kJ) was less than in low PM1 trials 1 and 2, and high PM1 trial 3 (P = 0.004, P = 0.003, P = 0.0008; respectively). Acute inhalation of high (PM1) typical of many urban environments could impair exercise performance. PMID:18296948

  13. Fuel-based fine particulate and black carbon emission factors from a railyard area in Atlanta.

    PubMed

    Galvis, Boris; Bergin, Mike; Russell, Armistead

    2013-06-01

    Railyards have the potential to influence localfine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm; PM2.5) concentrations through emissions from diesel locomotives and supporting activities. This is of concern in urban regions where railyards are in proximity to residential areas. Northwest of Atlanta, Georgia, Inman and Tilford railyards are located beside residential neighborhoods, industries, and schools. The PM2.5 concentrations near the railyards is the highest measured amongst the state-run monitoring sites (Georgia Environmental Protection Division, 2012; http://www.georgiaair.org/amp/report.php). The authors estimated fuel-based black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 emission factors for these railyards in order to help determine the impact of railyard activities on PM2.5 concentrations, and for assessing the potential benefits of replacing current locomotive engines with cleaner technologies. High-time-resolution measurements of BC, PM2.5, CO2, and wind speed and direction were made at two locations, north and south of the railyards. Emissions factors (i.e., the mass of BC or PM2.5 per gallon of fuel burned) were estimated by using the downwind/upwind difference in concentrations, wavelet analysis, and an event-based approach. By the authors' estimates, diesel-electric engines used in the railyards have average emission factors of 2.8 +/- 0.2 g of BC and 6.0 +/- 0.5 g of PM2.5 per gallon of diesel fuel burned. A broader mix of railyard supporting activities appear to lead to average emission factors of 0.7 +/- 0.03 g of BC and 1.5 +/- 0.1 g of PM2.5 per gallon of diesel fuel burned. Railyard emissions appear to lead to average enhancements of approximately 1.7 +/- 0.1 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and approximately 0.8 +/- 0.01 microg/m3 of BC in neighboring areas on an annual average basis. Uncertainty not quantified in these results could arise mainly from variability in downwind/upwind differences, differences in emissions of the diverse zones within the

  14. Composition and secondary formation of fine particulate matter in the Salt Lake Valley: winter 2009.

    PubMed

    Kuprov, Roman; Eatough, Delbert J; Cruickshank, Tyler; Olson, Neal; Cropper, Paul M; Hansen, Jaron C

    2014-08-01

    Under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), put in place as a result of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, three regions in the state of Utah are in violation of the NAAQS for PM10 and PM2.5 (Salt Lake County, Ogden City, and Utah County). These regions are susceptible to strong inversions that can persist for days to weeks. This meteorology, coupled with the metropolitan nature of these regions, contributes to its violation of the NAAQS for PM during the winter. During January-February 2009, 1-hr averaged concentrations of PM10-2.5, PM2.5, NO(x), NO2, NO, O3, CO, and NH3 were measured. Particulate-phase nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate and gas-phase HONO, HNO3, and SO2 were also measured on a 1-hr average basis. The results indicate that ammonium nitrate averages 40% of the total PM2.5 mass in the absence of inversions and up to 69% during strong inversions. Also, the formation of ammonium nitrate is nitric acid limited. Overall, the lower boundary layer in the Salt Lake Valley appears to be oxidant and volatile organic carbon (VOC) limited with respect to ozone formation. The most effective way to reduce ammonium nitrate secondary particle formation during the inversions period is to reduce NO(x) emissions. However, a decrease in NO(x) will increase ozone concentrations. A better definition of the complete ozone isopleths would better inform this decision. Implications: Monitoring of air pollution constituents in Salt Lake City, UT, during periods in which PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the NAAQS, reveals that secondary aerosol formation for this region is NO(x) limited. Therefore, NO(x) emissions should be targeted in order to reduce secondary particle formation and PM2.5. Data also indicate that the highest concentrations of sulfur dioxide are associated with winds from the north-northwest, the location of several small refineries.

  15. Ultrafine and fine particulate matter inhalation decreases exercise performance in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth W; Caviston, Renee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 0.02-2 microm) inhalation on exercise performance in healthy subjects. Inhalation of internal combustion-derived PM is associated with adverse effects to the pulmonary and muscle microcirculation. No data are available concerning air pollution and exercise performance. Fifteen healthy college-aged males performed 4 maximal effort 6-min cycle ergometer trials while breathing low or high PM1 to achieve maximal work accumulation (kJ). Low PM1 inhalation trials 1 and 2 were separated by 3 days; then after a 7 day washout, trials 3 and 4 (separated by 3 days) were done while breathing high PM1 generated from a gasoline engine; CO was kept below 10 ppm. Lung function was done after trial 1 to verify nonasthmatic status. Lung function was normal before and after low PM1 exercise. PM1 number counts were not different between high PM1 trials (336,730 +/- 149,206 and 396,200 +/- 82,564 for trial 3 and 4, respectively) and were different from low PM1 trial number counts (2,260 +/- 500) (P < 0.0001). Mean heart rate was not different between trials (189 +/- 6.0, 188 +/- 7.6, 188 +/- 7.6, 187 +/- 7.4, for low and high PM1 trials; respectively). Work accumulated was not different between low PM1 trials (96.1 +/- 9.38 versus 96.6 +/- 10.83 kJ) and the first high PM1 trial (trial 3, 96.8 +/- 10.65 kJ). Work accumulated in the second high PM1 trial 4, 91.3 +/- 10.04 kJ) was less than in low PM1 trials 1 and 2, and high PM1 trial 3 (P = 0.004, P = 0.003, P = 0.0008; respectively). Acute inhalation of high (PM1) typical of many urban environments could impair exercise performance.

  16. Composition and secondary formation of fine particulate matter in the Salt Lake Valley: winter 2009.

    PubMed

    Kuprov, Roman; Eatough, Delbert J; Cruickshank, Tyler; Olson, Neal; Cropper, Paul M; Hansen, Jaron C

    2014-08-01

    Under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), put in place as a result of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, three regions in the state of Utah are in violation of the NAAQS for PM10 and PM2.5 (Salt Lake County, Ogden City, and Utah County). These regions are susceptible to strong inversions that can persist for days to weeks. This meteorology, coupled with the metropolitan nature of these regions, contributes to its violation of the NAAQS for PM during the winter. During January-February 2009, 1-hr averaged concentrations of PM10-2.5, PM2.5, NO(x), NO2, NO, O3, CO, and NH3 were measured. Particulate-phase nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate and gas-phase HONO, HNO3, and SO2 were also measured on a 1-hr average basis. The results indicate that ammonium nitrate averages 40% of the total PM2.5 mass in the absence of inversions and up to 69% during strong inversions. Also, the formation of ammonium nitrate is nitric acid limited. Overall, the lower boundary layer in the Salt Lake Valley appears to be oxidant and volatile organic carbon (VOC) limited with respect to ozone formation. The most effective way to reduce ammonium nitrate secondary particle formation during the inversions period is to reduce NO(x) emissions. However, a decrease in NO(x) will increase ozone concentrations. A better definition of the complete ozone isopleths would better inform this decision. Implications: Monitoring of air pollution constituents in Salt Lake City, UT, during periods in which PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the NAAQS, reveals that secondary aerosol formation for this region is NO(x) limited. Therefore, NO(x) emissions should be targeted in order to reduce secondary particle formation and PM2.5. Data also indicate that the highest concentrations of sulfur dioxide are associated with winds from the north-northwest, the location of several small refineries. PMID:25185397

  17. The effects on bronchial epithelial mucociliary cultures of coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter from an underground railway station.

    PubMed

    Loxham, Matthew; Morgan-Walsh, Rebecca J; Cooper, Matthew J; Blume, Cornelia; Swindle, Emily J; Dennison, Patrick W; Howarth, Peter H; Cassee, Flemming R; Teagle, Damon A H; Palmer, Martin R; Davies, Donna E

    2015-05-01

    We have previously shown that underground railway particulate matter (PM) is rich in iron and other transition metals across coarse (PM10-2.5), fine (PM2.5), and quasi-ultrafine (PM0.18) fractions and is able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, there is little knowledge of whether the metal-rich nature of such particles exerts toxic effects in mucus-covered airway epithelial cell cultures or whether there is an increased risk posed by the ultrafine fraction. Monolayer and mucociliary air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) were exposed to size-fractionated underground railway PM (1.1-11.1 µg/cm(2)) and release of lactate dehydrogenase and IL-8 was assayed. ROS generation was measured, and the mechanism of generation studied using desferrioxamine (DFX) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was determined by RT-qPCR. Particle uptake was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Underground PM increased IL-8 release from PBECs, but this was diminished in mucus-secreting ALI cultures. Fine and ultrafine PM generated a greater level of ROS than coarse PM. ROS generation by ultrafine PM was ameliorated by DFX and NAC, suggesting an iron-dependent mechanism. Despite the presence of mucus, ALI cultures displayed increased HO-1 expression. Intracellular PM was observed within vesicles, mitochondria, and free in the cytosol. The results indicate that, although the mucous layer appears to confer some protection against underground PM, ALI PBECs nonetheless detect PM and mount an antioxidant response. The combination of increased ROS-generating ability of the metal-rich ultrafine fraction and ability of PM to penetrate the mucous layer merits further research. PMID:25673499

  18. The Effects on Bronchial Epithelial Mucociliary Cultures of Coarse, Fine, and Ultrafine Particulate Matter From an Underground Railway Station

    PubMed Central

    Loxham, Matthew; Morgan-Walsh, Rebecca J.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Blume, Cornelia; Swindle, Emily J.; Dennison, Patrick W.; Howarth, Peter H.; Cassee, Flemming R.; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Palmer, Martin R.; Davies, Donna E.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that underground railway particulate matter (PM) is rich in iron and other transition metals across coarse (PM10–2.5), fine (PM2.5), and quasi-ultrafine (PM0.18) fractions and is able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, there is little knowledge of whether the metal-rich nature of such particles exerts toxic effects in mucus-covered airway epithelial cell cultures or whether there is an increased risk posed by the ultrafine fraction. Monolayer and mucociliary air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) were exposed to size-fractionated underground railway PM (1.1–11.1 µg/cm2) and release of lactate dehydrogenase and IL-8 was assayed. ROS generation was measured, and the mechanism of generation studied using desferrioxamine (DFX) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was determined by RT-qPCR. Particle uptake was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Underground PM increased IL-8 release from PBECs, but this was diminished in mucus-secreting ALI cultures. Fine and ultrafine PM generated a greater level of ROS than coarse PM. ROS generation by ultrafine PM was ameliorated by DFX and NAC, suggesting an iron-dependent mechanism. Despite the presence of mucus, ALI cultures displayed increased HO-1 expression. Intracellular PM was observed within vesicles, mitochondria, and free in the cytosol. The results indicate that, although the mucous layer appears to confer some protection against underground PM, ALI PBECs nonetheless detect PM and mount an antioxidant response. The combination of increased ROS-generating ability of the metal-rich ultrafine fraction and ability of PM to penetrate the mucous layer merits further research. PMID:25673499

  19. The effects on bronchial epithelial mucociliary cultures of coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter from an underground railway station.

    PubMed

    Loxham, Matthew; Morgan-Walsh, Rebecca J; Cooper, Matthew J; Blume, Cornelia; Swindle, Emily J; Dennison, Patrick W; Howarth, Peter H; Cassee, Flemming R; Teagle, Damon A H; Palmer, Martin R; Davies, Donna E

    2015-05-01

    We have previously shown that underground railway particulate matter (PM) is rich in iron and other transition metals across coarse (PM10-2.5), fine (PM2.5), and quasi-ultrafine (PM0.18) fractions and is able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, there is little knowledge of whether the metal-rich nature of such particles exerts toxic effects in mucus-covered airway epithelial cell cultures or whether there is an increased risk posed by the ultrafine fraction. Monolayer and mucociliary air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) were exposed to size-fractionated underground railway PM (1.1-11.1 µg/cm(2)) and release of lactate dehydrogenase and IL-8 was assayed. ROS generation was measured, and the mechanism of generation studied using desferrioxamine (DFX) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was determined by RT-qPCR. Particle uptake was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Underground PM increased IL-8 release from PBECs, but this was diminished in mucus-secreting ALI cultures. Fine and ultrafine PM generated a greater level of ROS than coarse PM. ROS generation by ultrafine PM was ameliorated by DFX and NAC, suggesting an iron-dependent mechanism. Despite the presence of mucus, ALI cultures displayed increased HO-1 expression. Intracellular PM was observed within vesicles, mitochondria, and free in the cytosol. The results indicate that, although the mucous layer appears to confer some protection against underground PM, ALI PBECs nonetheless detect PM and mount an antioxidant response. The combination of increased ROS-generating ability of the metal-rich ultrafine fraction and ability of PM to penetrate the mucous layer merits further research.

  20. Water-soluble ions measured in fine particulate matter next to cement works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, N.; Yubero, E.; Nicolás, J. F.; Crespo, J.; Pastor, C.; Carratalá, A.; Santacatalina, M.

    2011-04-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected for one year in a suburban area close to an industrial complex formed by two cement factories and some quarries in southeastern Spain. Samples were analyzed by ion chromatography to determine the concentrations of major inorganic ions: Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, Na +, NH 4+, K +, Mg 2+ and Ca 2+. The average PM2.5 concentration (17.6 μg m -3) was within the interval reported for other Mediterranean suburban environments. Concentration peaks were registered during both winter and summer, concurrently with maxima levels of nitrate and sulfate, due to stagnation conditions and African dust episodes, respectively. Sulfate was found to be a main contributor to PM2.5 aerosol mass (4.2 μg m -3, 24%), followed by nitrate and ammonium (1.5 μg m -3, 9% each one). Correlation analyses demonstrated that fine sulfate was present as (NH 4) 2SO 4, CaSO 4 and Na 2SO 4 since ammonium concentrations were not high enough to neutralize both anions. The mean concentration of calcium (1.0 μg m -3), an element commonly found in the coarse fraction, was higher than those found in other locations of the Mediterranean basin. Additionally, the lowest levels were registered during summer, in contrast with previous findings. This was attributed to resuspension and transport of mineral dust from the neighboring quarries and cement plants during fall and winter, which was supported by the results of the CPF analysis. Atmospheric levels of potassium and chloride (0.28 and 0.51 μg m -3 annual average, respectively) also seemed to be affected by cement works, as suggested by correlation and CPF analyses. In the case of Cl -, a marked seasonality was observed, with mean winter concentrations considerably higher than summer ones, indicating a clear prevalence of anthropogenic sources over sea spray emissions.

  1. Sources and Processes Affecting Fine Particulate Matter Pollution over North China: An Adjoint Analysis of the Beijing APEC Period.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Shao, Jingyuan; Lu, Xiao; Zhao, Yuanhong; Hu, Yongyun; Henze, Daven K; Liao, Hong; Gong, Sunling; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-08-16

    The stringent emission controls during the APEC 2014 (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit; November 5-11, 2014) offer a unique opportunity to quantify factors affecting fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China. Here we apply a four-dimensional variational data assimilation system using the adjoint model of GEOS-Chem to address this issue. Hourly surface measurements of PM2.5 and SO2 for October 15-November 14, 2014 are assimilated into the model to optimize daily aerosol primary and precursor emissions over North China. Measured PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing average 50.3 μg m(-3) during APEC, 43% lower than the mean concentration (88.2 μg m(-3)) for the whole period including APEC. Model results attribute about half of the reduction to meteorology due to active cold surge occurrences during APEC. Assimilation of surface measurements largely reduces the model biases and estimates 6%-30% lower aerosol emissions in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region during APEC than in late October. We further demonstrate that high PM2.5 events in Beijing during this period can be occasionally contributed by natural mineral dust, but more events show large sensitivities to inorganic aerosol sources, particularly emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) reflecting strong formation of aerosol nitrate in the fall season. PMID:27434821

  2. The public health benefits of reducing fine particulate matter through conversion to cleaner heating fuels in New York City.

    PubMed

    Kheirbek, Iyad; Haney, Jay; Douglas, Sharon; Ito, Kazuhiko; Caputo, Steven; Matte, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, both New York State and City issued regulations to reduce emissions from burning heating oil. To assess the benefits of these programs in New York City, where the density of emissions and vulnerable populations vary greatly, we simulated the air quality benefits of scenarios reflecting no action, partial, and complete phase-out of high-sulfur heating fuels using the Community MultiScale Air Quality (CMAQ) model conducted at a high spatial resolution (1 km). We evaluated the premature mortality and morbidity benefits of the scenarios within 42 city neighborhoods and computed benefits by neighborhood poverty status. The complete phase-out scenario reduces annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by an estimated 0.71 μg/m(3) city-wide (average of 1 km estimates, 10-90th percentile: 0.1-1.6 μg/m(3)), avoiding an estimated 290 premature deaths, 180 hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, and 550 emergency department visits for asthma each year. The largest improvements were seen in areas of highest building and population density and the majority of benefits have occurred through the partial phase out of high-sulfur heating fuel already achieved. While emissions reductions were greatest in low-poverty neighborhoods, health benefits are estimated to be greatest in high-poverty neighborhoods due to higher baseline morbidity and mortality rates.

  3. Global Estimates of Fine Particulate Matter Using a Combined Geophysical-Statistical Method with Information from Satellites, Models, and Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Brauer, Michael; Hsu, N. Christina; Kahn, Ralph A.; Levy, Robert C.; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sayer, Andrew M.; Winker, David M.

    2016-01-01

    We estimated global fine particulate matter (PM(sub 2.5)) concentrations using information from satellite-, simulation- and monitor-based sources by applying a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to global geophysically-based satellite-derived PM(sub 2.5) estimates. Aerosol optical depth from multiple satellite products (MISR, MODIS Dark Target, MODIS and SeaWiFS Deep Blue, and MODIS MAIAC) was combined with simulation (GEOS-Chem) based upon their relative uncertainties as determined using ground-based sun photometer (AERONET) observations for 1998-2014. The GWR predictors included simulated aerosol composition and land use information. The resultant PM(sub 2.5) estimates were highly consistent (R(sup 2) equals 0.81) with out-of-sample cross-validated PM(sub 2.5) concentrations from monitors. The global population-weighted annual average PM(sub 2.5) concentrations were 3-fold higher than the 10 micrograms per cubic meter WHO guideline, driven by exposures in Asian and African regions. Estimates in regions with high contributions from mineral dust were associated with higher uncertainty, resulting from both sparse ground-based monitoring, and challenging conditions for retrieval and simulation. This approach demonstrates that the addition of even sparse ground-based measurements to more globally continuous PM(sub 2.5) data sources can yield valuable improvements to PM(sub 2.5) characterization on a global scale.

  4. Association of EGF Receptor and NLRs signaling with Cardiac Inflammation and Fibrosis in Mice Exposed to Fine Particulate Matter.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuefei; Wu, Zhaoke; Wang, Na; Duan, Shuyin; Wu, Yongjun; Wang, Jing; Wu, Weidong; Feng, Feifei

    2016-09-01

    ЄAmbient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) could induce cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the mechanism remains unknown. To investigate the roles of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) in PM2.5 -induced cardiac injury, we set up a BALB/c mice model of PM2.5 -induced cardiac inflammation and fibrosis with intratracheal instillation of PM2.5 suspension (4.0 mg/kg b.w.) for 5 consecutive days (once per day). After exposure, we found that mRNA levels of CXCL1, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-18 were elevated, but interestingly, mRNA level of NLRP12 was significant decreased in heart tissue from PM2.5 -induced mice compared with those of saline-treated mice using real-time PCR. Protein levels of phospho-EGFR (Tyr1068), phospho-Akt (Thr308), NLRP3, NF-κB-p52/p100, and NF-κB-p65 in heart tissue of PM2.5 -exposed mice were all significantly increased using immunohistochemistry or Western blotting. Therefore, PM2.5 exposure could induce cardiac inflammatory injury in mice, which may be involved with EGFR/Akt signaling, NLRP3, and NLRP12.

  5. Investigation of the spatiotemporal variation and influencing factors on fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide concentrations near a road intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Lu, Qing-Chang; He, Hong-Di; Wang, Dongsheng; Gao, Ya; Peng, Zhong-Ren

    2016-05-01

    The minute-scale variations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations near a road intersection in Shanghai, China were investigated to identify the influencing factors at three traffic periods. Measurement results demonstrate a synchronous variation of pollutant concentrations at the roadside and setbacks, and the average concentration of PM2.5 at the roadside is 7% (44% for CO) higher than that of setbacks within 500 m of the intersection. The pollution level at traffic peak periods is found to be higher than that of off-peak periods, and the morning peak period is found to be the most polluted due to a large amount of diesel vehicles and unfavorable dispersion conditions. Partial least square regressions were constructed for influencing factors and setback pollutant concentrations, and results indicate that meteorological factors are the most significant, followed by setback distance from the intersection and traffic factors. CO is found to be sensitive to distance from the traffic source and vehicle type, and highly dependent on local traffic conditions, whereas PM2.5 originates more from other sources and background levels. These findings demonstrate the importance of localized factors in understanding spatiotemporal patterns of air pollution at intersections, and support decision makers in roadside pollution management and control.

  6. Adverse effects of coal combustion related fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingmei; Lin, Zhiqing; Liao, Kai; Xi, Zhuge; Wang, Dayong

    2015-04-15

    The toxic effects of coal combustion related fine particulate matter (PM2.5), collected from Datong, Shanxi province, China, on nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were investigated. Exposure to PM2.5 resulted in deficits in development, reproduction, locomotion behavior, and lifespan, and induction of intestinal autofluorescence or reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Prolonged exposure to PM2.5 led to more severe toxicity on nematodes than acute exposure. In addition, exposure to PM2.5 induced altered expression patterns of genes required for the control of oxidative stress. Reduction in mean defecation cycle length and developmental deficits in AVL and DVB neurons, which are involved in the control of defecation behavior, were also triggered by PM2.5 exposure. Thus, oxidative stress and abnormal defecation behavior may contribute greatly to the toxicity of coal combustion related PM2.5 in nematodes. The results also imply that the long-term adverse effects of coal combustion related PM2.5 on environmental organisms should be carefully considered.

  7. Global Estimates of Fine Particulate Matter using a Combined Geophysical-Statistical Method with Information from Satellites, Models, and Monitors.

    PubMed

    van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Brauer, Michael; Hsu, N Christina; Kahn, Ralph A; Levy, Robert C; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sayer, Andrew M; Winker, David M

    2016-04-01

    We estimated global fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations using information from satellite-, simulation- and monitor-based sources by applying a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to global geophysically based satellite-derived PM2.5 estimates. Aerosol optical depth from multiple satellite products (MISR, MODIS Dark Target, MODIS and SeaWiFS Deep Blue, and MODIS MAIAC) was combined with simulation (GEOS-Chem) based upon their relative uncertainties as determined using ground-based sun photometer (AERONET) observations for 1998-2014. The GWR predictors included simulated aerosol composition and land use information. The resultant PM2.5 estimates were highly consistent (R(2) = 0.81) with out-of-sample cross-validated PM2.5 concentrations from monitors. The global population-weighted annual average PM2.5 concentrations were 3-fold higher than the 10 μg/m(3) WHO guideline, driven by exposures in Asian and African regions. Estimates in regions with high contributions from mineral dust were associated with higher uncertainty, resulting from both sparse ground-based monitoring, and challenging conditions for retrieval and simulation. This approach demonstrates that the addition of even sparse ground-based measurements to more globally continuous PM2.5 data sources can yield valuable improvements to PM2.5 characterization on a global scale. PMID:26953851

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn C. England

    2004-10-20

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered

  9. Long-Term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Major Depressive Disorder in a Community-Based Urban Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lim, Youn-Hee; Bae, Hyun Joo; Kim, Myounghee; Jung, Kweon; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have associated short-term air pollution exposure with depression. Although an animal study showed an association between long-term exposure to particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and depression, epidemiological studies assessing the long-term association are scarce. Objective: We aimed to determine the association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: A total of 27,270 participants 15–79 years of age who maintained an address within the same districts in Seoul, Republic of Korea, throughout the entire study period (between 2002 and 2010) and without a previous MDD diagnosis were analyzed. We used three district-specific exposure indices as measures of long-term PM2.5 exposure. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential confounding factors and measured at district and individual levels were constructed. We further conducted stratified analyses according to underlying chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Results: The risk of MDD during the follow-up period (2008–2010) increased with an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 in 2007 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.78], PM2.5 between 2007 and 2010 (HR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.49), and 12-month moving average of PM2.5 until an event or censor (HR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.90). The association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and MDD was greater in participants with underlying chronic diseases than in participants without these diseases. Conclusion: Long-term PM2.5 exposure increased the risk of MDD among the general population. Individuals with underlying chronic diseases are more vulnerable to long-term PM2.5 exposure. Citation: Kim KN, Lim YH, Bae HJ, Kim M, Jung K, Hong YC. 2016. Long-term fine particulate matter exposure and major depressive disorder in a community-based urban cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:1547–1553; http://dx.doi.org/10

  10. A case-crossover analysis of fine particulate matter air pollution and out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Checkoway, H; Levy, D; Sheppard, L; Kaufman, J; Koenig, J; Siscovick, D

    2000-12-01

    Numerous recent epidemiologic studies report increases in the daily incidence of cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity related to increases in daily levels of fine particulate matter (PM)* air pollution. This study sought to evaluate the possible association between the occurrence of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and daily PM levels in the Seattle metropolitan area. The underlying hypothesis was that PM exposure may act as a cardiovascular trigger for SCA. A case-crossover study was conducted among 362 SCA cases identified by paramedics from October 1988 through June 1994. Cases were King County WA residents who were married, aged 25 to 74 years at the time of their SCA, with no prior history of clinically recognized heart disease or other life-threatening comorbid conditions. Daily averages of regional PM monitoring data for nephelometry measures of PM (reported in units of bsp, referred to as coefficient of light scattering) and PM10 (particulate matter 10 microm or smaller in aerodynamic diameter) from three monitoring sites were used as indicators of exposure. In the case-crossover analysis, PM levels during index times of cases within the five days preceding an SCA were compared with PM levels at referent days, defined as the same days of the week during the month of SCA occurrence. Lag periods for index days of 0 to 5 days were investigated. The estimated relative risk (RR) at a lag of 1 day for an interquartile range (IQR) change in nephelometry (0.51 bsp) was 0.893 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.779-1.024). Varying the lag period had only minimal change on the observed association. The estimated relative risk at a lag of 1 day for an IQR change of PM10 (19.3 microg/m3) was 0.868 (95% CI 0.744-1.012). There was no evidence of confounding by ambient daily exposures to carbon monoxide or sulfur dioxide. Analysis of effect modification by individual-level variables, including age, cigarette smoke exposure, physical activity, and other

  11. HOW RELIABLE IS 24 HOUR SERUM LITHIUM LEVEL AFTER A TEST DOSE OF LITHIUM IN PREDICTING OPTIMAL LITHIUM DOSE?

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, K.; Shaji, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY 57% of a group of 35 patients treated with Lithium Carbonate at dosages predicted by the nomogram suggested by Cooper et al (1973) failed to reach therapeutic levels of serum lithium. This finding casts serious doubts on the usefulness of the claim by Cooper et al (1973 & 1976) that 24 hour serum lithium level after a test dose of 600 mg. lithium can predict the daily lithium dose. PMID:21927360

  12. Dipstick Spot urine pH does not accurately represent 24 hour urine PH measured by an electrode

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Mohamed; Sarkissian, Carl; Jianbo, Li; Calle, Juan; Monga, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To determine whether spot urine pH measured by dipstick is an accurate representation of 24 hours urine pH measured by an electrode. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed urine pH results of patients who presented to the urology stone clinic. For each patient we recorded the most recent pH result measured by dipstick from a spot urine sample that preceded the result of a 24-hour urine pH measured by the use of a pH electrode. Patients were excluded if there was a change in medications or dietary recommendations or if the two samples were more than 4 months apart. A difference of more than 0.5 pH was considered an inaccurate result. Results A total 600 patients were retrospectively reviewed for the pH results. The mean difference in pH between spot urine value and the 24 hours collection values was 0.52±0.45 pH. Higher pH was associated with lower accuracy (p<0.001). The accuracy of spot urine samples to predict 24-hour pH values of <5.5 was 68.9%, 68.2% for 5.5 to 6.5 and 35% for >6.5. Samples taken more than 75 days apart had only 49% the accuracy of more recent samples (p<0.002). The overall accuracy is lower than 80% (p<0.001). Influence of diurnal variation was not significant (p=0.588). Conclusions Spot urine pH by dipstick is not an accurate method for evaluation of the patients with urolithiasis. Patients with alkaline urine are more prone to error with reliance on spot urine pH. PMID:27286119

  13. Increased energy density of the home-delivered lunch meal improves 24-hour nutrient intakes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Silver, Heidi J; Dietrich, Mary S; Castellanos, Victoria H

    2008-12-01

    As food intake declines with aging, older adults develop energy and nutrient inadequacies. It is important to design practical approaches to combat insufficient dietary intakes to decrease risk for acute and chronic diseases, illness, and injury. Manipulating the energy density of meals has improved energy intakes in institutional settings, but the effects on community-residing older adults who are at nutrition risk have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether enhancing the energy density of food items regularly served in a home-delivered meals program would increase lunch and 24-hour energy and nutrient intakes. In a randomized crossover counterbalanced design, 45 older adult Older American Act Nutrition Program participants received a regular and enhanced version of a lunch meal on alternate weeks. The types of foods, portion sizes (gram weight), and appearance of the lunch meal was held constant. Consumption of the enhanced meal increased average lunch energy intakes by 86% (P<0.001) and 24-hour energy intakes by 453 kcal (from 1,423.1+/-62.2 to 1,876.2+/-78.3 kcal, P<0.001). The 24-hour intakes of several key macronutrients and micronutrients also improved. These data suggest that altering the energy density of regularly served menu items is an effective strategy to improve dietary intakes of free-living older adults.

  14. Assessment of 24-hours Aldosterone Administration on Protein Abundances in Fluorescence-Sorted Mouse Distal Renal Tubules by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas B; Pisitkun, Trairak; Hoffert, Jason D; Jensen, Uffe B; Fenton, Robert A; Praetorius, Helle A; Knepper, Mark A; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Aldosterone exerts multiple long-term effects in the distal renal tubules. The aim of this study was to establish a method for identifying proteins in these tubules that change in abundance by only 24-hours aldosterone administration. Methods Mice endogenously expressing green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in the connecting tubule and cortical collecting ducts were treated with a subcutaneous injection of 2.0 mg/kg aldosterone or vehicle (n=5), and sacrificed 24 hours later. Suspensions of single cells were obtained enzymatically, and eGFP positive cells were isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Samples of 100 μg proteins were digested with trypsin and labeled with 8-plex iTRAQ reagents and processed for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results FACS yielded 1.4 million cells per mouse. The LC-MS/MS spectra were matched to peptides by the SEQUEST search algorithm, which identified 3002 peptides corresponding to 506 unique proteins of which 20 significantly changed abundance 24-hours after aldosterone injection. Conclusion We find the method suitable and useful for studying hormonal effects on protein abundance in distal tubular segments. PMID:23428628

  15. Fine (PM2.5), coarse (PM2.5-10), and metallic elements of suspended particulates for incense burning at Tzu Yun Yen temple in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Chu, Chia-Chium; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Pi-Cheng Fu, Peter; Chang, Shyh-Chyi; Yang, I-Lin

    2003-06-01

    Ambient suspended particulate concentrations were measured at Tzu Yun Yen temple (120 degrees, 34('), 10(") E; 24 degrees, 16('), 12(") N) in this study. This is representative of incense burning and semi-open sampling sites. The Universal-sampler collected fine and coarse particle material was used to measure suspended particulate concentrations, and sampling periods were from 16/08/2001 to 2/1/2002 at Tzu Yun Yen temple. In addition, metallic element concentrations, compositions of PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) for incense burning at Tzu Yun Yen temple were also analyzed in this study. The PM(2.5)/PM(10) ratios ranged between 31% and 87% and averaged 70+/-11% during incense the burning period, respectively. The median metallic element concentration order for these elements is Fe>Zn>Cr>Cd>Pb>Mn>Ni>Cu in fine particles (PM(2.5)) at the Tzu Yun Yen temple sampling site. The median metallic element concentration order for these elements is Fe>Zn>Cr>Pb>Cd>Ni>Mn>Cu in coarse particle (PM(2.5-10)) at the Tzu Yun Yen temple sampling site. Fine particulates (PM(2.5)) are the main portion of PM(10) at Tzu Yun Yen temple in this study. From the point of view of PM(10), these data reflect that the elements Fe, Zn, and Cr were the major elements distributed at Tzu Yun Yen temple in this study.

  16. [Speciation analysis of lead and its isotopes in fine particulate matters in Beijing by ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jing-Hua; Liu, Jing-Xiu; Yan, Lai-Lai; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2009-02-01

    Fine particulate matters (PMZ2.5) collected in Beijing during a period from September 2005 to May 2006 were studied. Sequential extraction procedures were applied to divide the total lead into three fractions, i.e. water soluble, liposoluble and insoluble lead. Lead concentrations and their isotopes in each fraction were then determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Lead standard reference GBW 09133 was used to investigate the accuracy of lead concentration determination and SRM 981 was used to correct the mass discrimination and instrumental drift. The obtained results showed that the analytical precision of lead isotope ratios for SRM 981 of seven repeat measurements at lead concentration of 10 ng x mL(-1) came to about 0.34, 0.27 and 0.24 percent for the 206 Pb/204 Pb, 206Pb/207 Pb and 206Pb/208 Pb ratios, respectively. In Beijing, the mass concentrations for PM2.5 and lead of ambient air were 125.556 and 0.5415 microg x m(-3) respectively for winter 2005, and 201.6 and 0.475 microg x m(-3) respectively for spring 2006 on average, resembling those published results. It was indicated that the lead in the PM2.5 existed mainly in insoluble form, which accounted for 78.99%, while water soluble lead and liposoluble lead amount were 20.69% and 0.32%, respectively. The mean values of 206Pb/207Pb ratio for water soluble species and insoluble species were 1.152 6 +/- 0.009 3 and 1.219 3 +/- 0.009 1 respectively, with a significant difference (Student's test; p < 0.01) statically. By comparing 206Pb/207Pb ratios between biological specimen and ambient air samples, the 206Pb/207Pb ratios in water soluble fraction coincided very well with those in adult blood, therefore, water soluble lead but not insoluble lead in PM2.5 may be the potential source of adults blood lead in Beijing. More attention should be paid to the effect of soluble lead in fine particle matters on human health.

  17. Association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and hypertension subtypes in untreated Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Ting-Yan; Ding, Feng-Hua; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and ambulatory hypertension subtypes has not yet been examined in untreated Chinese patients. We measured left ventricular mass index by echocardiography (n=619), the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (n=1047), and aortic pulse wave velocity by tonometry (n=1013) in 1047 untreated subjects (mean age, 50.6 years; 48.9% women). Normotension was a 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure <130/<80 mm Hg. Hypertension subtypes were isolated diastolic hypertension and mixed systolic plus diastolic hypertension. We assessed associations of interest by multivariable-adjusted linear models. Using normotension as reference, mixed hypertension was associated with higher (P≤0.003) left ventricular mass index (+4.31 g/m(2)), urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.63 mg/mmol), and pulse wave velocity (+0.76 m/s); and isolated diastolic hypertension was associated with similar left ventricular mass index and pulse wave velocity (P≥0.39), but higher urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.24 mg/mmol; P=0.002). In younger participants (<55 years), the mutually independent effect sizes associated with 1 SD increases in 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure were +3.31/-0.36 g/m(2) (P=0.009/0.79) for left ventricular mass index, +1.15/+1.14 mg/mmol (P=0.02/0.04) for the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, and +0.54/-0.05 m/s (P<0.001/0.54) for pulse wave velocity. In older participants, these estimates were +3.58/+0.30 g/m(2) (P=0.045/0.88), +1.23/+1.05 mg/mmol (P=0.002/0.54), and +0.76/-0.49 m/s (P<0.001/<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, 24-hour systolic blood pressure and mixed hypertension are major determinants of target organ damage irrespective of age and target organ, whereas 24-hour diastolic blood pressure and isolated diastolic hypertension only relate to the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio below middle age.

  18. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in fine particulates in oil field air: possible impacts on production of natural silk.

    PubMed

    Devi, Gitumani; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Gopal

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of fine particulates (PM2.5) from the upper Assam oil fields of India indicated considerable presence of higher hydrocarbons (C22-C35) and heavy metals, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. This has raised serious concern for the sustainability of the exotic Muga (Antheraea assama) silk production, which has been a prime activity of a large number of people living in the area. The Muga worm feeds on the leaves of Machilus bombycina plant, and the impacts of air quality on its survival were further investigated by analyzing the leaves of the plant, the plantation soil, and the Muga cocoons. PM2.5 content in the air was much more during the winter due to near calm conditions and high humidity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of PM2.5 showed the presence of higher alkanes (C22-C35) that could be traced to crude oil. Cr, Ni, and Zn were found in higher concentrations in PM2.5, M. bombycina leaves, and the plantation soil indicating a common origin. The winter has been the best period for production of the silk cocoons, and the unhealthy air during this period is likely to affect the production, which is already reflected in the declining yield of Muga cocoons from the area. SEM and protein analyses of the Muga silk fiber produced in the oil field area have exhibited the deteriorating quality of the silk. This is the first report from India on hydrocarbons and associated metals in PM2.5 collected from an oil field and on their possible effects on production of silk by A. assama.

  19. The structural and functional effects of fine particulate matter from cooking oil fumes on rat umbilical cord blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Hou, Lijuan; Zhang, Jian; Yao, Cijiang; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Yachun; Cao, Jiyu

    2016-08-01

    A growing body of epidemiological evidence has supported the association between maternal exposure to airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the specific biological mechanisms implicated in the causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes are not well defined. In this study, a pregnant rat model of exposure to different doses of cooking oil fumes (COFs)-derived PM2.5 by tail intravenous injection in different pregnant stages was established. The results indicated that exposure to COFs-derived PM2.5 was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, changed the structure of umbilical cord blood vessels, decreased the diameter and lumen area, and increased wall thickness. What's more, a significant increase of maximum contraction tension was observed in the early pregnancy high-dose exposure group and pregnant low-dose exposure group compared to the control group. Based on the maximum contraction tension, acetylcholine (ACh) did not induce vasodilation but caused a dose-dependent constriction, and there were significant differences in the two groups compared to the control group. Exposure to COFs-derived PM2.5 impaired the vasomotor function of umbilical veins by affecting the expression of NO and ET-1. This is the first study that evaluated the association of risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and pregnant rats exposed to COFs-derived PM2.5 and primarily explored the potential mechanisms of umbilical cord blood vessels injury on a rat model. More detailed vitro and vivo studies are needed to further explore the mechanism in the future. PMID:27178289

  20. Predictors of concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and particle constituents inside of lower socioeconomic status urban homes.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Lisa K; Clougherty, Jane E; Laden, Francine; Levy, Jonathan I

    2007-08-01

    Air pollution exposure patterns may contribute to known spatial patterning of asthma morbidity within urban areas. While studies have evaluated the relationship between traffic and outdoor concentrations, few have considered indoor exposure patterns within low socioeconomic status (SES) urban communities. In this study, part of a prospective birth cohort study assessing asthma etiology in urban Boston, we collected indoor and outdoor 3-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 43 residences across multiple seasons from 2003 to 2005. Homes were chosen to represent low SES households, including both cohort and non-cohort residences in similar neighborhoods, and consisted almost entirely of multiunit residences. Reflectance analysis and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy were performed on the particle filters to determine elemental carbon (EC) and trace element concentrations, respectively. Additionally, information on home characteristics (e.g. type, age, stove fuel) and occupant behaviors (e.g. smoking, cooking, cleaning) were collected via a standardized questionnaire. The contributions of outdoor and indoor sources to indoor concentrations were quantified with regression analyses using mass balance principles. For NO2 and most particle constituents (except outdoor-dominated constituents like sulfur and vanadium), the addition of selected indoor source terms improved the model's predictive power. Cooking time, gas stove usage, occupant density, and humidifiers were identified as important contributors to indoor levels of various pollutants. A comparison between cohort and non-cohort participants provided another means to determine the influence of occupant activity patterns on indoor-outdoor ratios. Although the groups had similar housing characteristics and were located in similar neighborhoods, cohort members had significantly higher indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2, associated with indoor activities. We conclude that the

  1. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter, residential proximity to major roads and measures of brain structure

    PubMed Central

    Wilker, Elissa H.; Preis, Sarah R.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda; Kloog, Itai; Li, Wenyuan; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros; DeCarli, Charles; Seshadri, Sudha; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with cerebrovascular disease and cognitive impairment, but whether it is related to structural changes in the brain is not clear. We examined the associations between residential long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and markers of brain aging using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Framingham Offspring Study participants who attended the seventh examination, were at least 60 years old and free of dementia and stroke were included. We evaluated associations between exposures (fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and residential proximity to major roadways) and measures of total cerebral brain volume, hippocampal volume, white matter hyperintensity volume (log-transformed and extensive white matter hyperintensity volume for age) and covert brain infarcts. Models were adjusted for age, clinical covariates, indicators of socioeconomic position, and temporal trends. Results A 2 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with -0.32% (95%CI: -0.59, -0.05) smaller total cerebral brain volume and 1.46 (95%CI: 1.10, 1.94) higher odds of covert brain infarcts. Living further away from a major roadway was associated with 0.10 (95%CI: 0.01, 0.19) greater log-transformed white matter hyperintensity volume for an interquartile range difference in distance, but no clear pattern of association was observed for extensive white matter. Conclusions Exposure to elevated levels of PM2.5 was associated with smaller total cerebral brain volume, a marker of age-associated brain atrophy, and with higher odds of covert brain infarcts. These findings suggest that air pollution is associated with insidious effects on structural brain aging even in dementia-and stroke-free persons. PMID:25908455

  2. Spatiotemporal prediction of fine particulate matter using high-resolution satellite images in the Southeastern US 2003-2011.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mihye; Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles smaller than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) is associated with adverse health outcomes. The use of ground monitoring stations of PM2.5 to assess personal exposure, however, induces measurement error. Land-use regression provides spatially resolved predictions but land-use terms do not vary temporally. Meanwhile, the advent of satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) products have made possible to predict the spatial and temporal patterns of PM2.5 exposures. In this paper, we used AOD data with other PM2.5 variables, such as meteorological variables, land-use regression, and spatial smoothing to predict daily concentrations of PM2.5 at a 1-km(2) resolution of the Southeastern United States including the seven states of Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Florida for the years from 2003 to 2011. We divided the study area into three regions and applied separate mixed-effect models to calibrate AOD using ground PM2.5 measurements and other spatiotemporal predictors. Using 10-fold cross-validation, we obtained out of sample R(2) values of 0.77, 0.81, and 0.70 with the square root of the mean squared prediction errors of 2.89, 2.51, and 2.82 μg/m(3) for regions 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The slopes of the relationships between predicted PM2.5 and held out measurements were approximately 1 indicating no bias between the observed and modeled PM2.5 concentrations. Predictions can be used in epidemiological studies investigating the effects of both acute and chronic exposures to PM2.5. Our model results will also extend the existing studies on PM2.5 which have mostly focused on urban areas because of the paucity of monitors in rural areas.

  3. Risk of Incident Diabetes in Relation to Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Richard T.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Brook, Robert D.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Jerrett, Michael; Martin, Randall V.; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Copes, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Background: Laboratory studies suggest that fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 µm in diameter; PM2.5) can activate pathophysiological responses that may induce insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, epidemiological evidence relating PM2.5 and diabetes is sparse, particularly for incident diabetes. Objectives: We conducted a population-based cohort study to determine whether long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 is associated with incident diabetes. Methods: We assembled a cohort of 62,012 nondiabetic adults who lived in Ontario, Canada, and completed one of five population-based health surveys between 1996 and 2005. Follow-up extended until 31 December 2010. Incident diabetes diagnosed between 1996 and 2010 was ascertained using the Ontario Diabetes Database, a validated registry of persons diagnosed with diabetes (sensitivity = 86%, specificity = 97%). Six-year average concentrations of PM2.5 at the postal codes of baseline residences were derived from satellite observations. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the associations, adjusting for various individual-level risk factors and contextual covariates such as smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and neighborhood-level household income. We also conducted multiple sensitivity analyses. In addition, we examined effect modification for selected comorbidities and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: There were 6,310 incident cases of diabetes over 484,644 total person-years of follow-up. The adjusted hazard ratio for a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.21). Estimated associations were comparable among all sensitivity analyses. We did not find strong evidence of effect modification by comorbidities or sociodemographic covariates. Conclusions: This study suggests that long-term exposure to PM2.5 may contribute to the development of diabetes. PMID:23632126

  4. Chemical speciation of Fe and Ni in residual oil fly ash fine particulate matter using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pattanaik, Sidhartha; Huggins, Frank E; Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked residual oil fly ash fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (ROFA PM(2.5)) to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. Bioavailable transition metals within PM have been cited as one of the components that induce such illnesses. By combining synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy with leaching experiment, we studied the effect of residual oil compositions and combustion conditions on the speciation of Fe and Ni in ROFA PM(2.5) and the implication of these species for human health and environment. PM(2.5) samples were obtained from two types of combustors, a fire tube boiler (FTB) and a refractory line combustor (RLC). The study reveals that only Fe(2)(SO(4))(3)·nH(2)O is present in RLC PM(2.5) while Fe(2)(SO(4))(3)·nH(2)O predominates in FTB PM(2.5) with inclusion of varying amounts of nickel ferrite. The finding that RLC PM(2.5) is more bioavailable and hence more toxic than FTB PM(2.5) is significant. The reduction of toxicity of FTB PM(2.5) is due to the immobilization of a portion of Fe and Ni in the formation of an insoluble NiFe(2)O(4). This may explain the variation of toxicity from exposure to different ROFA PM(2.5). Additionally, the speciation data are sought for developing emission inventories for source apportionment study and understanding the mechanism of PM formation.

  5. Exploring the uncertainty associated with satellite-based estimates of premature mortality due to exposure to fine particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Bonne; Heald, Colette L.

    2016-03-01

    The negative impacts of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure on human health are a primary motivator for air quality research. However, estimates of the air pollution health burden vary considerably and strongly depend on the data sets and methodology. Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) have been widely used to overcome limited coverage from surface monitoring and to assess the global population exposure to PM2.5 and the associated premature mortality. Here we quantify the uncertainty in determining the burden of disease using this approach, discuss different methods and data sets, and explain sources of discrepancies among values in the literature. For this purpose we primarily use the MODIS satellite observations in concert with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. We contrast results in the United States and China for the years 2004-2011. Using the Burnett et al. (2014) integrated exposure response function, we estimate that in the United States, exposure to PM2.5 accounts for approximately 2 % of total deaths compared to 14 % in China (using satellite-based exposure), which falls within the range of previous estimates. The difference in estimated mortality burden based solely on a global model vs. that derived from satellite is approximately 14 % for the US and 2 % for China on a nationwide basis, although regionally the differences can be much greater. This difference is overshadowed by the uncertainty in the methodology for deriving PM2.5 burden from satellite observations, which we quantify to be on the order of 20 % due to uncertainties in the AOD-to-surface-PM2.5 relationship, 10 % due to the satellite observational uncertainty, and 30 % or greater uncertainty associated with the application of concentration response functions to estimated exposure.

  6. Toxicologic and epidemiologic clues from the characterization of the 1952 London smog fine particulate matter in archival autopsy lung tissues.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Andrew; Abraham, Jerrold L; Judson, Bret; Berry, Colin L

    2003-07-01

    Exposure to atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM), even at low ambient concentrations, has clearly been linked to increases in mortality and morbidity. A 10- micro g m(-3) increase in PM10 (PM < 10 micro m) has been found to produce a 0.5% increase in daily mortality. The mechanism of action is a source of debate, although recent attention has focused on the cardiac effects of PM exposures. Likewise, several possible etiologic agents have been implicated, including ultrafine PM (PM

  7. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in fine particulates in oil field air: possible impacts on production of natural silk.

    PubMed

    Devi, Gitumani; Devi, Arundhuti; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Gopal

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of fine particulates (PM2.5) from the upper Assam oil fields of India indicated considerable presence of higher hydrocarbons (C22-C35) and heavy metals, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. This has raised serious concern for the sustainability of the exotic Muga (Antheraea assama) silk production, which has been a prime activity of a large number of people living in the area. The Muga worm feeds on the leaves of Machilus bombycina plant, and the impacts of air quality on its survival were further investigated by analyzing the leaves of the plant, the plantation soil, and the Muga cocoons. PM2.5 content in the air was much more during the winter due to near calm conditions and high humidity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of PM2.5 showed the presence of higher alkanes (C22-C35) that could be traced to crude oil. Cr, Ni, and Zn were found in higher concentrations in PM2.5, M. bombycina leaves, and the plantation soil indicating a common origin. The winter has been the best period for production of the silk cocoons, and the unhealthy air during this period is likely to affect the production, which is already reflected in the declining yield of Muga cocoons from the area. SEM and protein analyses of the Muga silk fiber produced in the oil field area have exhibited the deteriorating quality of the silk. This is the first report from India on hydrocarbons and associated metals in PM2.5 collected from an oil field and on their possible effects on production of silk by A. assama. PMID:26490906

  8. Composition and sources of fine particulate matter across urban and rural sites in the Midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Shuvashish; Stone, Elizabeth A

    2014-05-01

    The composition and sources of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were investigated in rural and urban locations in Iowa, located in the agricultural and industrial Midwestern United States, from April 2009 to December 2012. Major chemical contributors to PM2.5 mass were sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and organic carbon. Non-parametric statistical analyses demonstrated that the two rural sites had significantly enhanced levels of crustal materials (Si, Al) driven by agricultural activities and unpaved roads. Meanwhile, the three urban areas had enhanced levels of secondary aerosols (nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium) and combustion products (elemental carbon). The Davenport site had significantly higher levels of PM2.5 and trace metals (Fe, Pb, Zn), demonstrating the important local impact of industrial point sources on air quality. Sources of PM2.5 were evaluated by using the multi-variant positive matrix factorization (PMF) source apportionment model. For each individual site, seven to nine factors were identified: secondary sulfate (accounting for 29-30% of PM2.5), secondary nitrate (17-24%), biomass burning (9-21%), gasoline combustion (6-16%), diesel combustion (3-9%), dust (6-11%), industry (0.4-5%) and winter salt (2-6%). Source contributions demonstrated a clear urban enhancement in PM2.5 from gasoline engines (by a factor of 1.14) and diesel engines (by a factor of 2.3), which is significant due to the well-documented negative health impacts of vehicular emissions. This study presents the first source apportionment results from the state of Iowa and is broadly applicable to understanding the differences in anthropogenic and natural sources in the urban-rural continuum of particle air pollution.

  9. The relationship between physicochemical characterization and the potential toxicity of fine particulates (PM 2.5) in Shanghai atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senlin, Lu; Zhenkun, Yao; Xiaohui, Chen; Minghong, Wu; Guoying, Sheng; Jiamo, Fu; Paul, Daly

    Fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) was collected at urban and suburban sites in Shanghai from April 2005 to March 2006. Average mass concentrations of PM 2.5 ranged from 43.5 to 149 μg m -3 in the urban area and 21.7 to 159 μg m -3 in suburban area. The mass levels of PM 2.5 sampled at urban and suburban sites showed seasonal variation with much higher values in winter and spring, lower values in summer, and the lowest in autumn. The results of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) showed that Shanghai PM 2.5 was consisted of soot aggregates, coal fly ashes, minerals, bio-particles and unidentified particles. Inductively coupled plasma atomic mission spectrum (ICP-AES) results showed total elements in Shanghai PM 2.5 increased gradually from summer to winter and remained at a relatively high level in spring. There was a significant difference in the mass of elements in PM 2.5 collected in urban and in suburban atmosphere. Enrichment factor (EF) analysis results demonstrated that K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Ba and Sr originated from natural sources, while As, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Mn, Ni and Se were emitted from anthropogenic sources. The plasmid DNA assay showed that potential toxicity of Shanghai PM 2.5 collected at urban and suburban sampling sites, and in different seasons, varied greatly. Toxicity of the Shanghai urban winter PM 2.5 sample was much stronger compared to any of the other samples. Heavy metals in Shanghai PM 2.5, including Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, and Ni, might have synergic-effects on plasmid DNA damage.

  10. Analysis and apportionment of organic carbon and fine particulate matter sources at multiple sites in the midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Buzcu-Guven, Birnur; Brown, Steven G; Frankel, Anna; Hafner, Hilary R; Roberts, Paul T

    2007-05-01

    Speciated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) data collected as part of the Speciation Trends Network at four sites in the Midwest (Detroit, MI; Cincinnati, OH; Indianapolis, IN; and Northbrook, IL) and as part of the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments program at the rural Bondville, IL, site were analyzed to understand sources contributing to organic carbon (OC) and PM2.5 mass. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to available data collected from January 2002 through March 2005, and seven to nine factors were identified at each site. Common factors at all of the sites included mobile (gasoline)/secondary organic aerosols with high OC, diesel with a high elemental carbon/OC ratio (only at the urban sites), secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, soil, and biomass burning. Identified industrial factors included copper smelting (Northbrook, Indianapolis, and Bondville), steel/manufacturing with iron (Northbrook), industrial zinc (Northbrook, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, and Detroit), metal plating with chromium and nickel (Detroit, Indianapolis, and Bondville), mixed industrial with copper and iron (Cincinnati), and limestone with calcium and iron (Bondville). PMF results, on average, accounted for 96% of the measured PM2.5 mass at each site; residuals were consistently within tolerance (+/-3), and goodness-of-fit (Q) was acceptable. Potential source contribution function analysis helped identify regional and local impacts of the identified source types. Secondary sulfate and soil factors showed regional characteristics at each site, whereas industrial sources typically appeared to be locally influenced. These regional factors contributed approximately one third of the total PM2.5 mass, on average, whereas local mobile and industrial sources contributed to the remaining mass. Mobile sources were a major contributor (55-76% at the urban sites) to OC mass, generally with at least twice as much mass from nondiesel sources as from diesel. Regional

  11. Composition and sources of fine particulate matter across urban and rural sites in the Midwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Shuvashish; Stone, Elizabeth. A.

    2014-01-01

    The composition and sources of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were investigated in rural and urban locations in Iowa, located in the agricultural and industrial Midwestern United States from April 2009 to December 2012. Major chemical contributors to PM2.5 mass were sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and organic carbon. Non-parametric statistical analyses demonstrated that the two rural sites had significantly enhanced levels of crustal materials (Si, Al) driven by agricultural activities and unpaved roads. Meanwhile, the three urban areas had enhanced levels of secondary aerosol (nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium) and combustion (organic and elemental carbon). The heavily industrialized Davenport site had significantly higher levels of PM2.5 and trace metals (Fe, Pb, Zn), demonstrating the important local impact of industrial point sources on air quality. Sources of PM2.5 were evaluated by the multi-variant positive matrix factorization (PMF) source apportionment model. For each individual site, seven to nine factors were identified: secondary sulfate (accounting for 29–30% of PM2.5), secondary nitrate (17–24%), biomass burning (9–21%), gasoline combustion (6–16), diesel combustion (3–9%), dust (6–11%), industry (0.4–5%) and winter salt (2–6%). Source contributions demonstrated a clear urban enhancement in PM2.5 from gasoline engines (by a factor of 1.14) and diesel engines (by a factor of 2.3), which is significant due to the well-documented negative health impacts of vehicular emissions. This study presents the first source apportionment results from the state of Iowa and is broadly applicable to understanding the differences in anthropogenic and natural sources in the urban-rural continuum of particle air pollution. PMID:24736797

  12. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Fine Particulate Matter Mass and Chemical Composition: The Middle East Consortium for Aerosol Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdeen, Ziad; Heo, Jongbae; Wu, Bo; Shpund, Jacob; Vanger, Arye; Sharf, Geula; Moise, Tamar; Brenner, Shmuel; Nassar, Khaled; Saleh, Rami; Al-Mahasneh, Qusai M.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Schauer, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected from January to December 2007 to investigate the sources and chemical speciation in Palestine, Jordan, and Israel. The 24-h PM2.5 samples were collected on 6-day intervals at eleven urban and rural sites simultaneously. Major chemical components including metals, ions, and organic and elemental carbon were analyzed. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 across the 11 sites varied from 20.6 to 40.3 μg/m3, with an average of 28.7 μg/m3. Seasonal variation of PM2.5 concentrations was substantial, with higher average concentrations (37.3 μg/m3) in the summer (April–June) months compared to winter (October–December) months (26.0 μg/m3) due mainly to high contributions of sulfate and crustal components. PM2.5 concentrations in the spring were greatly impacted by regional dust storms. Carbonaceous mass was the most abundant component, contributing 40% to the total PM2.5 mass averaged across the eleven sites. Crustal components averaged 19.1% of the PM2.5 mass and sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate accounted for 16.2%, 6.4%, and 3.7%, respectively, of the total PM2.5 mass. The results of this study demonstrate the need to better protect the health and welfare of the residents on both sides of the Jordan River in the Middle East. PMID:25045751

  13. The structural and functional effects of fine particulate matter from cooking oil fumes on rat umbilical cord blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Hou, Lijuan; Zhang, Jian; Yao, Cijiang; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Yachun; Cao, Jiyu

    2016-08-01

    A growing body of epidemiological evidence has supported the association between maternal exposure to airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the specific biological mechanisms implicated in the causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes are not well defined. In this study, a pregnant rat model of exposure to different doses of cooking oil fumes (COFs)-derived PM2.5 by tail intravenous injection in different pregnant stages was established. The results indicated that exposure to COFs-derived PM2.5 was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, changed the structure of umbilical cord blood vessels, decreased the diameter and lumen area, and increased wall thickness. What's more, a significant increase of maximum contraction tension was observed in the early pregnancy high-dose exposure group and pregnant low-dose exposure group compared to the control group. Based on the maximum contraction tension, acetylcholine (ACh) did not induce vasodilation but caused a dose-dependent constriction, and there were significant differences in the two groups compared to the control group. Exposure to COFs-derived PM2.5 impaired the vasomotor function of umbilical veins by affecting the expression of NO and ET-1. This is the first study that evaluated the association of risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and pregnant rats exposed to COFs-derived PM2.5 and primarily explored the potential mechanisms of umbilical cord blood vessels injury on a rat model. More detailed vitro and vivo studies are needed to further explore the mechanism in the future.

  14. microRNA-802/Rnd3 pathway imposes on carcinogenesis and metastasis of fine particulate matter exposure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaobo; lv, Yang; Gao, Na; Sun, Hao; Lu, Runze; Yang, Hongbao; Zhang, Chengcheng; Meng, Qingtao; Wu, Shenshen; Li, Ai-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have linked ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to increased lung cancer mortality and morbidity. However, the underlying mechanism causing the adverse effects of PM2.5 is less clear. In the present study, post-transcriptional profiling was used to explore biological pathways involved in PM2.5-induced pulmonary disorders. The carcinogenesis and metastasis of PM2.5 exposure were evaluated by long-term PM2.5 exposure tests. We observed dysregulation of actin in A549 cells line and dysplasia in the lungs of mice exposed to PM2.5. Both PM2.5-exposed cells and animals showed increased Rnd3 expression levels. Moreover, miR-802 mimics rescued actin disorganization in vitro and alveolitis in vivo. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 promoted carcinogenesis and metastasis of pulmonary cells. Decreased miR-802 expression levels in the serum samples of PM2.5-treated mice and individuals from moderately polluted cities were observed. Increased Rnd3 expression levels in lung cancers tissues have been identified by a genome database TCGA, and have been linked to less overall survival probabilities of lung cancer patients. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of actin cytoskeleton and down-regulation of miR-802 expression might be the underlying mechanism involved in the adverse effects of PM2.5 exposure. In addition, long-term exposure to PM2.5 demonstrated strong associations with malignant pulmonary disorders. PMID:27144337

  15. Predictors of concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and particle constituents inside of lower socioeconomic status urban homes.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Lisa K; Clougherty, Jane E; Laden, Francine; Levy, Jonathan I

    2007-08-01

    Air pollution exposure patterns may contribute to known spatial patterning of asthma morbidity within urban areas. While studies have evaluated the relationship between traffic and outdoor concentrations, few have considered indoor exposure patterns within low socioeconomic status (SES) urban communities. In this study, part of a prospective birth cohort study assessing asthma etiology in urban Boston, we collected indoor and outdoor 3-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 43 residences across multiple seasons from 2003 to 2005. Homes were chosen to represent low SES households, including both cohort and non-cohort residences in similar neighborhoods, and consisted almost entirely of multiunit residences. Reflectance analysis and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy were performed on the particle filters to determine elemental carbon (EC) and trace element concentrations, respectively. Additionally, information on home characteristics (e.g. type, age, stove fuel) and occupant behaviors (e.g. smoking, cooking, cleaning) were collected via a standardized questionnaire. The contributions of outdoor and indoor sources to indoor concentrations were quantified with regression analyses using mass balance principles. For NO2 and most particle constituents (except outdoor-dominated constituents like sulfur and vanadium), the addition of selected indoor source terms improved the model's predictive power. Cooking time, gas stove usage, occupant density, and humidifiers were identified as important contributors to indoor levels of various pollutants. A comparison between cohort and non-cohort participants provided another means to determine the influence of occupant activity patterns on indoor-outdoor ratios. Although the groups had similar housing characteristics and were located in similar neighborhoods, cohort members had significantly higher indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2, associated with indoor activities. We conclude that the

  16. Association of short-term exposure to fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide with acute cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Fu; Shen, Fu-Hui; Li, Ya-Ru; Tsao, Tsung-Ming; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Chen, Chu-Chih; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Hsu, Sandy Huey-Jen; Chao, Hsing; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chou, Charles C K; Wang, Ya-Nan; Ho, Chi-Chang; Su, Ta-Chen

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated whether exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is associated with cardiovascular effects by examining a panel of 89 healthy subjects in Taipei, Taiwan. The subjects received two health examinations approximately 8months apart in 2013. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a physiological indicator of arterial stiffness, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a biomarker of vascular inflammations, were measured during each examination. Two exposure assessment methods were used for estimating the subjects' exposure to PM2.5 and NO2. The first method involved constructing daily land use regression (LUR) models according to measurements collected at ambient air quality monitoring stations. The second method required combining the LUR estimates with indoor monitoring data at the workplace of the subjects. Linear mixed models were used to examine the association between the exposure estimates and health outcomes. The results showed that a 10-μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 concentration at a 1-day lag was associated with 2.1% (95% confidence interval: 0.7%-3.6%) and 2.4% (0.8%-4.0%) increases in baPWV based on the two exposure assessment methods, whereas no significant association was observed for NO2. The significant effects of PM2.5 remained in the two-pollutant models. By contrast, NO2, but not PM2.5, was significantly associated with increased hsCRP levels (16.0%-37.3% in single-pollutant models and 26.4%-44.6% in two-pollutant models, per 10-ppb increase in NO2). In conclusion, arterial stiffness might be more sensitive to short-term PM2.5 exposure than is inflammation. PMID:27344119

  17. Analysis and apportionment of organic carbon and fine particulate matter sources at multiple sites in the midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Buzcu-Guven, Birnur; Brown, Steven G; Frankel, Anna; Hafner, Hilary R; Roberts, Paul T

    2007-05-01

    Speciated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) data collected as part of the Speciation Trends Network at four sites in the Midwest (Detroit, MI; Cincinnati, OH; Indianapolis, IN; and Northbrook, IL) and as part of the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments program at the rural Bondville, IL, site were analyzed to understand sources contributing to organic carbon (OC) and PM2.5 mass. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to available data collected from January 2002 through March 2005, and seven to nine factors were identified at each site. Common factors at all of the sites included mobile (gasoline)/secondary organic aerosols with high OC, diesel with a high elemental carbon/OC ratio (only at the urban sites), secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, soil, and biomass burning. Identified industrial factors included copper smelting (Northbrook, Indianapolis, and Bondville), steel/manufacturing with iron (Northbrook), industrial zinc (Northbrook, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, and Detroit), metal plating with chromium and nickel (Detroit, Indianapolis, and Bondville), mixed industrial with copper and iron (Cincinnati), and limestone with calcium and iron (Bondville). PMF results, on average, accounted for 96% of the measured PM2.5 mass at each site; residuals were consistently within tolerance (+/-3), and goodness-of-fit (Q) was acceptable. Potential source contribution function analysis helped identify regional and local impacts of the identified source types. Secondary sulfate and soil factors showed regional characteristics at each site, whereas industrial sources typically appeared to be locally influenced. These regional factors contributed approximately one third of the total PM2.5 mass, on average, whereas local mobile and industrial sources contributed to the remaining mass. Mobile sources were a major contributor (55-76% at the urban sites) to OC mass, generally with at least twice as much mass from nondiesel sources as from diesel. Regional

  18. Toxicologic and epidemiologic clues from the characterization of the 1952 London smog fine particulate matter in archival autopsy lung tissues.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Andrew; Abraham, Jerrold L; Judson, Bret; Berry, Colin L

    2003-07-01

    Exposure to atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM), even at low ambient concentrations, has clearly been linked to increases in mortality and morbidity. A 10- micro g m(-3) increase in PM10 (PM < 10 micro m) has been found to produce a 0.5% increase in daily mortality. The mechanism of action is a source of debate, although recent attention has focused on the cardiac effects of PM exposures. Likewise, several possible etiologic agents have been implicated, including ultrafine PM (PM

  19. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Suppresses In Vivo Proliferation of Bone Marrow Stem Cells through Reactive Oxygen Species Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuqi; Jia, Fengpeng; He, Jianfeng; Xie, Xiaoyun; Li, Zhihong; Fu, Minghuan; Hao, Hong; Liu, Ying; Liu, Dylan Z.; Cowan, Peter J.; Zhu, Hua; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Aims Some environmental insults, such as fine particulate matter (PM) exposure, significantly impair the function of stem cells. However, it is unknown if PM exposure could affect the population of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). The present study was to investigate the effects of PM on BMSCs population and related mechanism(s). Main Metheods PM was intranasally distilled into male C57BL/6 mice for one month. Flow cytometry with antibodies for BMSCs, Annexin V and BrdU ware used to determine the number of BMSCs and the levels of their apoptosis and proliferation in vivo. Phosphorylated Akt (P-Akt) level was determined in the BM cells with western blotting. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was quantified using flow cytometry analysis. To determine the role of PM-induced ROS in BMSCs population, proliferation, and apotosis, experiments were repeated using N-acetylcysteine (NAC)-treated wild type mice or a triple transgenic mouse line with overexpression of antioxidant network (AON) composed of superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, SOD3, and glutathione peroxidase-1 with decreased in vivo ROS production. Key Findings PM treatment significantly reduced BMSCs population in association with increased ROS formation, decreased P-Akt level, and inhibition of proliferation of BMSCs without induction of apoptosis. NAC treatment or AON overexpression with reduced ROS formation effectively prevented PM-induced reduction of BMSCs population and proliferation with partial recovery of P-Akt level. Significance PM exposure significantly decreased the population of BMSCs due to diminished proliferation via ROS-mediated mechanism (could be partially via inhibition of Akt signaling). PMID:26058063

  20. Global Estimates of Average Ground-Level Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations from Satellite-Based Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Brauer, M.; Kahn, R.; Levy, R.; Verduzco, C.; Villeneuve, P.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to airborne particles can cause acute or chronic respiratory disease and can exacerbate heart disease, some cancers, and other conditions in susceptible populations. Ground stations that monitor fine particulate matter in the air (smaller than 2.5 microns, called PM2.5) are positioned primarily to observe severe pollution events in areas of high population density; coverage is very limited, even in developed countries, and is not well designed to capture long-term, lower-level exposure that is increasingly linked to chronic health effects. In many parts of the developing world, air quality observation is absent entirely. Instruments aboard NASA Earth Observing System satellites, such as the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), monitor aerosols from space, providing once daily and about once-weekly coverage, respectively. However, these data are only rarely used for health applications, in part because the can retrieve the amount of aerosols only summed over the entire atmospheric column, rather than focusing just on the near-surface component, in the airspace humans actually breathe. In addition, air quality monitoring often includes detailed analysis of particle chemical composition, impossible from space. In this paper, near-surface aerosol concentrations are derived globally from the total-column aerosol amounts retrieved by MODIS and MISR. Here a computer aerosol simulation is used to determine how much of the satellite-retrieved total column aerosol amount is near the surface. The five-year average (2001-2006) global near-surface aerosol concentration shows that World Health Organization Air Quality standards are exceeded over parts of central and eastern Asia for nearly half the year.

  1. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on

  2. Meal-induced 24-hour profile of circulating glycated insulin in type 2 diabetic subjects measured by a novel radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John R; McKillop, Aine M; Mooney, Mark H; Flatt, Peter R; Bell, Patrick M; O'harte, Finbarr P M

    2003-05-01

    Increasing evidence supports a role for glycated insulin in the insulin-resistant state of type 2 diabetes. We measured 24-hour profiles of plasma glycated insulin, using a novel radioimmunoassay (RIA), to evaluate the effects of meal stimulation and intermittent fasting on circulating concentrations of plasma glycated insulin in type 2 diabetes. Patients (n = 6; hemoglobin A(1c) [HbA(1c)], 7.2% +/- 0.6%; fasting plasma glucose, 7.4 +/- 0.7 mmol/L; body mass index [BMI], 35.7 +/- 3.5 kg/m(2); age, 56.3 +/- 4.4 years) were admitted for 24 hours and received a standardized meal regimen. Half-hourly venous samples were taken for plasma glycated insulin, glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations between 8 am and midnight and 2-hourly overnight. The mean plasma glycated insulin concentration over 24 hours was 27.8 +/- 1.2 pmol/L with a mean ratio of insulin:glycated insulin of 11:1. Circulating glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glycated insulin followed a basal and meal-related pattern with most prominent increments following breakfast, lunch, and evening meal, respectively. The mean concentrations of glycated insulin during the morning, afternoon, evening, and night-time periods were 24.4 +/- 2.5, 28.7 +/- 2.3, 31.1 +/- 2.1, and 26.2 +/- 1.5 pmol/L, respectively, giving significantly higher molar ratios of insulin:glycated insulin of 18.0:1, 14.2:1, and 12.7:1 compared with 7.0:1 at night (P <.01 to P <.001). These data demonstrate that glycated insulin circulates at relatively high concentrations in type 2 diabetes with a diurnal pattern of basal and meal-stimulated release. A higher proportion of glycated insulin circulates at night suggestive of differences in metabolic clearance compared with native insulin.

  3. Effects of Fibrinogen Concentrate on Thrombin Generation, Thromboelastometry Parameters, and Laboratory Coagulation Testing in a 24-Hour Porcine Trauma Model

    PubMed Central

    Zentai, Christian; Solomon, Cristina; van der Meijden, Paola E. J.; Spronk, Henri M. H.; Schnabel, Jonas; Rossaint, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In a 24-hour porcine model of liver injury, we showed that fibrinogen supplementation does not downregulate endogenous fibrinogen synthesis. Here we report data from the same study showing the impact of fibrinogen on coagulation variables. Materials and Methods: Coagulopathy was induced in 20 German land race pigs by hemodilution and blunt liver injury. Animals randomly received fibrinogen concentrate (100 mg/kg) or saline. Coagulation parameters were assessed and thromboelastometry (ROTEM) was performed. Results: Fibrinogen concentrate significantly reduced the prolongations of EXTEM clotting time, EXTEM clot formation time, and prothrombin time induced by hemodilution and liver injury. A decrease in clot strength was also ameliorated. Endogenous thrombin potential was significantly higher in the fibrinogen group than in the control group, 20 minutes (353 ± 24 vs 289 ± 22 nmol/L·min; P < .05) and 100 minutes (315 ± 40 vs 263 ± 38 nmol/L·min; P < .05) after the start of infusion. However, no significant between-group differences were seen in other thrombin generation parameters or in d-dimer or thrombin–antithrombin levels. Fibrinogen–platelet binding was reduced following liver injury, with no significant differences between groups. No significant between-group differences were observed in any parameter at ∼12 and ∼24 hours. Conclusion: This study suggests that, in trauma, fibrinogen supplementation may shorten some measurements of the speed of coagulation initiation and produce a short-lived increase in endogenous thrombin potential, potentially through increased clotting substrate availability. Approximately 12 and 24 hours after starting fibrinogen concentrate/saline infusion, all parameters measured in this study were comparable in the 2 study groups. PMID:25948634

  4. The Relationship Between 24-Hour Symptoms and COPD Exacerbations and Healthcare Resource Use: Results from an Observational Study (ASSESS).

    PubMed

    Miravitlles, Marc; Worth, Heinrich; Soler-Cataluña, Juan José; Price, David; De Benedetto, Fernando; Roche, Nicolas; Godtfredsen, Nina S; van der Molen, Thys; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Padullés, Laura; Ribera, Anna

    2016-10-01

    This observational study assessed the relationship between nighttime, early-morning and daytime chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms and exacerbations and healthcare resource use. COPD symptoms were assessed at baseline in patients with stable COPD using a standardised questionnaire during routine clinical visits. Information was recorded on exacerbations and healthcare resource use during the year before baseline and during a 6-month follow-up period. The main objective of the analysis was to determine the predictive nature of current symptoms for future exacerbations and healthcare resource use. 727 patients were eligible (65.8% male, mean age: 67.2 years, % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 52.8%); 698 patients (96.0%) provided information after 6 months. Symptoms in any part of the day were associated with a prior history of exacerbations (all p < 0.05) and nighttime and early-morning symptoms were associated with the frequency of primary care visits in the year before baseline (both p < 0.01). During follow-up, patients with baseline symptoms during any part of the 24-hour day had more exacerbations than patients with no symptoms in each period (all p < 0.05); there was also an association between 24-hour symptoms and the frequency of primary care visits (all p ≤ 0.01). Although there was a significant association between early-morning and daytime symptoms and exacerbations during follow-up (both p < 0.01), significance was not maintained when adjusted for potential confounders. Prior exacerbations were most strongly associated with future risk of exacerbation. The results suggest 24-hour COPD symptoms do not independently predict future exacerbation risk.

  5. Developing a Method to Test the Validity of 24 Hour Time Use Diaries Using Wearable Cameras: A Feasibility Pilot

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Paul; Thomas, Emma; Doherty, Aiden; Harms, Teresa; Burke, Órlaith; Gershuny, Jonathan; Foster, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Self-report time use diaries collect a continuous sequenced record of daily activities but the validity of the data they produce is uncertain. This study tests the feasibility of using wearable cameras to generate, through image prompted interview, reconstructed 'near-objective' data to assess their validity. 16 volunteers completed the Harmonised European Time Use Survey (HETUS) diary and used an Autographer wearable camera (recording images at approximately 15 second intervals) for the waking hours of the same 24-hour period. Participants then completed an interview in which visual images were used as prompts to reconstruct a record of activities for comparison with the diary record. 14 participants complied with the full collection protocol. We compared time use and number of discrete activities from the diary and camera records (using 10 classifications of activity). In terms of aggregate totals of daily time use we found no significant difference between the diary and camera data. In terms of number of discrete activities, participants reported a mean of 19.2 activities per day in the diaries, while image prompted interviews revealed 41.1 activities per day. The visualisations of the individual activity sequences reveal some potentially important differences between the two record types, which will be explored at the next project stage. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using wearable cameras to reconstruct time use through image prompted interview in order to test the concurrent validity of 24-hour activity time-use budgets. In future we need a suitably powered study to assess the validity and reliability of 24-hour time use diaries. PMID:26633807

  6. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 version, for youth aged 9 to 11 Years: A validation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites using a quasiexperimental design. In one s...

  7. Aldosterone-to-Renin Ratio Is Associated With Reduced 24-Hour Heart Rate Variability and QTc Prolongation in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grübler, Martin R.; Kienreich, Katharina; Gaksch, Martin; Verheyen, Nicolas; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó.; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; März, Winfried; Schmid, Johannes; Oberreither, Eva-Maria; Wetzel, Julia; Catena, Cristiana; Sechi, Leonardo A.; Pieske, Burkert; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pilz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aldosterone is considered to exert direct effects on the myocardium and the sympathetic nervous system. Both QT time and heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) are considered to be markers of arrhythmic risk and autonomous dysregulation. In this study, we investigated the associations between aldosterone, QT time, and HRV in patients with arterial hypertension. We recruited 477 hypertensive patients (age: 60.2 ± 10.2 years; 52.3% females) with a mean systolic/diastolic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) value of 128 ± 12.8/77.1 ± 9.2 mmHg and with a median of 2 (IQR: 1–3) antihypertensive agents. Patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Department of Internal Medicine of the Medical University of Graz, Austria. Blood samples, 24-hour HRV derived from 24-hour blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and ECG's were obtained. Plasma aldosterone and plasma renin concentrations were measured by means of a radioimmunoassay. Twenty-four-hour urine specimens were collected in parallel with ABPM. Mean QTc was 423.3 ± 42.0 milliseconds for males and 434.7 ± 38.3 milliseconds for females. Mean 24H-HR and 24H-HRV was 71.9 ± 9.8 and 10.0 ± 3.6 bpm, respectively. In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, ABPM, and current medication, aldosterone to active renin ratio (AARR) was significantly associated with the QTc interval, a marker for cardiac repolarization abnormalities (mean = 426 ± 42.4 milliseconds; β-coefficient = 0.121; P = 0.03) as well as with the 24-hour heart rate variability a surrogate for autonomic dysfunction (median = 9.67 [IQR = 7.38–12.22 bpm]; β-coefficient = −0.133; P = 0.01). In hypertensive patients, AARR is significantly related to QTc prolongation as well as HRV. Further studies investigating the effects of mineralocorticoid receptor blocker and aldosterone synthase inhibitors on QTc and HRV are warranted

  8. A Plaque Disruption Index Identifies Patients with Non-STE-Type 1 Myocardial Infarction within 24 Hours of Troponin Positivity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mohaissen, Maha A.; Carere, Ronald G.; Mancini, G. B. John; Humphries, Karin H.; Whalen, Beth A.; Lee, Terry; Scheuermeyer, Frank X.; Ignaszewski, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Markers of plaque destabilization and disruption may have a role in identifying non-STE- type 1 Myocardial Infarction in patients presenting with troponin elevation. We hypothesized that a plaque disruption index (PDI) derived from multiple biomarkers and measured within 24 hours from the first detectable troponin in patients with acute non-STE- type 1 MI (NSTEMI-A) will confirm the diagnosis and identify these patients with higher specificity when compared to individual markers and coronary angiography. Methods We examined 4 biomarkers of plaque destabilization and disruption: myeloperoxidase (MPO), high-sensitivity interleukin-6, myeloid-related protein 8/14 (MRP8/14) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in 83 consecutive patients in 4 groups: stable non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), stable obstructive CAD, NSTEMI-A (enrolled within 24 hours of troponin positivity), and NSTEMI-L (Late presentation NSTEMI, enrolled beyond the 24 hour limit). The PDI was calculated and the patients’ coronary angiograms were reviewed for evidence of plaque disruption. The diagnostic performance of the PDI and angiography were compared. Results Compared to other biomarkers, MPO had the highest specificity (83%) for NSTEMI-A diagnosis (P<0.05). The PDI computed from PAPP-A, MRP8/14 and MPO was higher in NSTEMI-A patients compared to the other three groups (p<0.001) and had the highest diagnostic specificity (87%) with 79% sensitivity and 86% accuracy, which were higher compared to those obtained with MPO, but did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05 for all comparisons). The PDI had higher specificity and accuracy for NSTEMI-A diagnosis compared to coronary angiography (P<0.05). Conclusions A PDI measured within 24 hour of troponin positivity has potential to identify subjects with acute Non-ST-elevation type 1 MI. Additional evidence using other marker combinations and investigation in a sufficiently large non-selected cohort is warranted

  9. Personal exposures to fine particulate matter and black carbon in households cooking with biomass fuels in rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Van Vliet, Eleanne D.S.; Asante, Kwakupoku; Jack, Darby W.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Abokyi, Livesy; Zandoh, Charles; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine cooking practices and 24-h personal and kitchen area exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon in cooks using biomass in Ghana. Methods Researchers administered a detailed survey to 421 households. In a sub-sample of 36 households, researchers collected 24-h integrated PM2.5 samples (personal and kitchen area); in addition, the primary cook was monitored for real-time PM2.5. All filters were also analyzed for black carbon using a multi-wavelength reflectance method. Predictors of PM2.5 exposure were analyzed, including cooking behaviors, fuel, stove and kitchen type, weather, demographic factors and other smoke sources. Results The majority of households cooked outdoors (55%; 231/417), used biomass (wood or charcoal) as their primary fuel (99%; 412/413), and cooked on traditional fires (77%, 323/421). In the sub-sample of 29 households with complete, valid exposure monitoring data, the 24-h integrated concentrations of PM2.5 were substantially higher in the kitchen sample (mean 446.8 μg/m3) than in the personal air sample (mean 128.5 μg/m3). Black carbon concentrations followed the same pattern such that concentrations were higher in the kitchen sample (14.5 μg/m3) than in the personal air sample (8.8 μg/m3). Spikes in real-time personal concentrations of PM2.5 accounted for the majority of exposure; the most polluted 5%, or 72 min, of the 24-h monitoring period accounted for 75% of all exposure. Two variables that had some predictive power for personal PM2.5 exposures were primary fuel type and ethnicity, while reported kerosene lantern use was associated with increased personal and kitchen area concentrations of black carbon. Conclusion Personal concentrations of PM2.5 exhibited considerable inter-subject variability across kitchen types (enclosed, semi-enclosed, outdoor), and can be elevated even in outdoor cooking settings. Furthermore, personal concentrations of PM2.5 were not associated with kitchen type and were

  10. Exposures to fine particulate air pollution and respiratory outcomes in adults using two national datasets: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Relationships between chronic exposures to air pollution and respiratory health outcomes have yet to be clearly articulated for adults. Recent data from nationally representative surveys suggest increasing disparity by race/ethnicity regarding asthma-related morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the relationship between annual average ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and respiratory outcomes for adults using modeled air pollution and health outcome data and to examine PM2.5 sensitivity across race/ethnicity. Methods Respondents from the 2002-2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were linked to annual kriged PM2.5 data from the USEPA AirData system. Logistic regression was employed to investigate increases in ambient PM2.5 concentrations and self-reported prevalence of respiratory outcomes including asthma, sinusitis and chronic bronchitis. Models included health, behavioral, demographic and resource-related covariates. Stratified analyses were conducted by race/ethnicity. Results Of nearly 110,000 adult respondents, approximately 8,000 and 4,000 reported current asthma and recent attacks, respectively. Overall, odds ratios (OR) for current asthma (0.97 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.87-1.07)) and recent attacks (0.90 (0.78-1.03)) did not suggest an association with a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5. Stratified analyses revealed significant associations for non-Hispanic blacks [OR = 1.73 (1.17-2.56) for current asthma and OR = 1.76 (1.07-2.91) for recent attacks] but not for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. Significant associations were observed overall (1.18 (1.08-1.30)) and in non-Hispanic whites (1.31 (1.18-1.46)) for sinusitis, but not for chronic bronchitis. Conclusions Non-Hispanic blacks may be at increased sensitivity of asthma outcomes from PM2.5 exposure. Increased chronic PM2.5 exposures in adults may contribute to population sinusitis burdens. PMID:22490087

  11. Eco-toxicological bioassay of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with Photobacterium Phosphoreum T3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxin; Shi, Chanzhen; Yan, Yan; Yang, Yunfei; Zhou, Bin

    2016-11-01

    A bioluminescent bacterium, Photobacterium phosphoreum T3 (PPT3), was used as a bio-indicator for the atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to determine the eco-toxicity of PM2.5. The PM2.5 contains toxic chemicals, which reduce light output. The PM2.5 samples were collected in the period from March 2014 to January 2015 in Nanjing and analyzed for the chemical composition versus their eco-toxicity. The eco-toxicological responses of each toxicant were detected in PM2.5 samples with PPT3. The dose-response curves obtained were verified using the Weibull fitting function. According to the measured EC50 values (EC50, the concentration of a toxicant that inhibits 50% of the bioluminescence), the toxicity sequence was: B[a]P>hexa-PCB>tetra-PCB>tri-PCB>Pb(2+)>DEHP>Cu(2+)>DBP>BDE209>Zn(2+)>DMP>DEP, where B[a]P is benzo(a)pyrene, PCB is polychlorinated biphenyl, DEHP is diethylhexyl phthalate, DBP is dibutyl phthalate, BDE209 is decabromodiphenyl ether, DMP is dimethyl phthalate, and DEP is diethyl phthalate. All the PM2.5 samples analyzed proved to be weak toxic for PPT3. The toxicity of PM2.5 was assessed by the dose-addition of organic species and heavy metallic elements existing in PM2.5 with PPT3. The bioluminescence test showed that the metals and organics detected in PM2.5 promoted PM2.5 toxicity. The total detectable organics (denoted by ΣOrs) exhibited slightly higher toxicity than the total metals (denoted by ΣMs). In contrast, the sum of water-soluble ions (denoted by ΣIons) was beneficial to PPT3. The PM2.5 toxicity increased as the PM2.5 trapped more organics or metallic elements from the industrial or densely populated urban areas, where the PM2.5 had a high inhibition rate of bioluminescence for PPT3 in contrast to the residential PM2.5 samples, where the minimum inhibition rate was observed. The toxicity of PM2.5 samples varied with the mass concentrations, chemical constituents, and sampling locations. The chemicals in PM2.5, especially organic

  12. Quantifying short-term and long-term health benefits of attaining ambient fine particulate pollution standards in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Guo, Lingchuan; Xu, Yanjun; Zhang, Yonghui; Vaughn, Michael G.; Nelson, Erik J.; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Ma, Wenjun

    2016-07-01

    In 2012, Chinese Environmental Bureau modified its National Ambient Air Quality Standards to include fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Recent air pollution monitoring data shows that numerous locations have exceeded this standard, which may have resulted in avoidable adverse health effects. For example, among the 74 Chinese cities with PM2.5 monitoring data in 2013, only three cities attained the annual air quality standard (35 μg/m3). This study aimed to quantify the potential short- and long-term health benefits from achieving the Chinese ambient air quality standard and WHO's air quality objectives. A generalized additive model was used to estimate the short-term association of mortality with changes in daily PM2.5 concentrations, based on which we estimated the potential premature mortality reduction that would have been achieved during the period of 2012-2015 if the daily air quality standard had been met in Guangzhou, China; we also estimated the avoidable deaths if attaining the annual air quality standard using the relative risk obtained from a previous cohort study. During the study period, there were 160 days exceeding the national daily PM2.5 standard (75 μg/m3) in Guangzhou, and the annual average concentration (47.7 μg/m3) was higher than the air quality standard of 35 μg/m3. Significant associations between PM2.5 and mortality were observed. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with increases in daily death counts of 0.95% (95% CI: 0.56%, 1.34%) in natural mortality, 1.31% (95% CI: 0.75%, 1.87%) in cardiovascular mortality, and 1.06% (95% CI: 0.19%, 1.94%) in respiratory mortality. The health benefits of attaining the national daily air quality standard of PM2.5 (75 μg/m3) would have prevented 143 [95% confidence interval (CI): 84, 203] fewer natural deaths, including 84 (95% CI: 48, 121) fewer cardiovascular deaths and 27 (95% CI: 5, 49) fewer respiratory deaths. Had the annual PM2.5 levels been reduced to 35 μg/m3, an estimated 3875

  13. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Disease in Urban Areas in Beijing, China, in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Wang, Chao; Huang, Fangfang; Gao, Qi; Wu, Lijuan; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Jin; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Background Heavy fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution occurs frequently in China. However, epidemiological research on the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 pollution and respiratory disease morbidity is still limited. This study aimed to explore the association between PM2.5 pollution and hospital emergency room visits (ERV) for total and cause-specific respiratory diseases in urban areas in Beijing. Methods Daily counts of respiratory ERV from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2013, were obtained from ten general hospitals located in urban areas in Beijing. Concurrently, data on PM2.5 were collected from the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau, including 17 ambient air quality monitoring stations. A generalized-additive model was used to explore the respiratory effects of PM2.5, after controlling for confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were also conducted by age and gender. Results A total of 92,464 respiratory emergency visits were recorded during the study period. The mean daily PM2.5 concentration was 102.1±73.6 μg/m3. Every 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration at lag0 was associated with an increase in ERV, as follows: 0.23% for total respiratory disease (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11%-0.34%), 0.19% for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (95%CI: 0.04%-0.35%), 0.34% for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) (95%CI: 0.14%-0.53%) and 1.46% for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) (95%CI: 0.13%-2.79%). The strongest association was identified between AECOPD and PM2.5 concentration at lag0-3 (3.15%, 95%CI: 1.39%-4.91%). The estimated effects were robust after adjusting for SO2, O3, CO and NO2. Females and people 60 years of age and older demonstrated a higher risk of respiratory disease after PM2.5 exposure. Conclusion PM2.5 was significantly associated with respiratory ERV, particularly for URTI, LRTI and AECOPD in Beijing. The susceptibility to PM2.5 pollution varied by gender and age. PMID

  14. Long-Term Exposure to Constituents of Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality: Results from the California Teachers Study

    PubMed Central

    Ostro, Bart; Lipsett, Michael; Reynolds, Peggy; Goldberg, Debbie; Hertz, Andrew; Garcia, Cynthia; Henderson, Katherine D.; Bernstein, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported associations between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular mortality. However, the health impacts of long-term exposure to specific constituents of PM2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) have not been explored. Methods We used data from the California Teachers Study, a prospective cohort of active and former female public school professionals. We developed estimates of long-term exposures to PM2.5 and several of its constituents, including elemental carbon, organic carbon (OC), sulfates, nitrates, iron, potassium, silicon, and zinc. Monthly averages of exposure were created using pollution data from June 2002 through July 2007. We included participants whose residential addresses were within 8 and 30 km of a monitor collecting PM2.5 constituent data. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated for long-term exposure for mortality from all nontraumatic causes, cardiopulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and pulmonary disease. Results Approximately 45,000 women with 2,600 deaths lived within 30 km of a monitor. We observed associations of all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and IHD mortality with PM2.5 mass and each of its measured constituents, and between pulmonary mortality and several constituents. For example, for cardiopulmonary mortality, HRs for interquartile ranges of PM2.5, OC, and sulfates were 1.55 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.43–1.69], 1.80 (95% CI, 1.68–1.93), and 1.79 (95% CI, 1.58–2.03), respectively. Subsequent analyses indicated that, of the constituents analyzed, OC and sulfates had the strongest associations with all four outcomes. Conclusions Long-term exposures to PM2.5 and several of its constituents were associated with increased risks of all-cause and cardiopulmonary mortality in this cohort. Constituents derived from combustion of fossil fuel (including diesel), as well as those of crustal origin, were associated with some of the greatest risks

  15. Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Ljungman, Petter L.; Wilker, Elissa H.; Dorans, Kirsten S.; Gold, Diane R.; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros; Washko, George R.; O’Connor, George T.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Few studies have examined associations between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and lung function decline in adults. Objectives: To determine if exposure to traffic and PM2.5 is associated with longitudinal changes in lung function in a population-based cohort in the Northeastern United States, where pollution levels are relatively low. Methods: FEV1 and FVC were measured up to two times between 1995 and 2011 among 6,339 participants of the Framingham Offspring or Third Generation studies. We tested associations between residential proximity to a major roadway and PM2.5 exposure in 2001 (estimated by a land-use model using satellite measurements of aerosol optical thickness) and lung function. We examined differences in average lung function using mixed-effects models and differences in lung function decline using linear regression models. Current smokers were excluded. Models were adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, pack-years, socioeconomic status indicators, cohort, time, season, and weather. Measurements and Main Results: Living less than 100 m from a major roadway was associated with a 23.2 ml (95% confidence interval [CI], −44.4 to −1.9) lower FEV1 and a 5.0 ml/yr (95% CI, −9.0 to −0.9) faster decline in FEV1 compared with more than 400 m. Each 2 μg/m3 increase in average of PM2.5 was associated with a 13.5 ml (95% CI, −26.6 to −0.3) lower FEV1 and a 2.1 ml/yr (95% CI, −4.1 to −0.2) faster decline in FEV1. There were similar associations with FVC. Associations with FEV1/FVC ratio were weak or absent. Conclusions: Long-term exposure to traffic and PM2.5, at relatively low levels, was associated with lower FEV1 and FVC and an accelerated rate of lung function decline. PMID:25590631

  16. Associations of Fine Particulate Matter Species with Mortality in the United States: A Multicity Time-Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have examined the association between PM2.5 and mortality, but uncertainty remains about the seasonal variations in PM2.5-related effects and the relative importance of species. Objectives: We estimated the effects of PM2.5 species on mortality and how infiltration rates may modify the association. Methods: Using city–season specific Poisson regression, we estimated PM2.5 effects on approximately 4.5 million deaths for all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and respiratory diseases in 75 U.S. cities for 2000–2006. We added interaction terms between PM2.5 and monthly average species-to-PM2.5 proportions of individual species to determine the relative toxicity of each species. We combined results across cities using multivariate meta-regression, and controlled for infiltration. Results: We estimated a 1.18% (95% CI: 0.93, 1.44%) increase in all-cause mortality, a 1.03% (95% CI: 0.65, 1.41%) increase in CVD, a 1.22% (95% CI: 0.62, 1.82%) increase in MI, a 1.76% (95% CI: 1.01, 2.52%) increase in stroke, and a 1.71% (95% CI: 1.06, 2.35%) increase in respiratory deaths in association with a 10-μg/m3 increase in 2-day averaged PM2.5 concentration. The associations were largest in the spring. Silicon, calcium, and sulfur were associated with more all-cause mortality, whereas sulfur was related to more respiratory deaths. County-level smoking and alcohol were associated with larger estimated PM2.5 effects. Conclusions: Our study showed an increased risk of mortality associated with PM2.5, which varied with seasons and species. The results suggest that mass alone might not be sufficient to evaluate the health effects of particles. Citation: Dai L, Zanobetti A, Koutrakis P, Schwartz JD. 2014. Associations of fine particulate matter species with mortality in the United States: a multicity time-series analysis. Environ Health Perspect 122:837–842; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307568 PMID

  17. Fine particulate matter components and mortality in Greater Houston: Did the risk reduce from 2000 to 2011?

    PubMed

    Liu, Suyang; Zhang, Kai

    2015-12-15

    Fine particulate matter (less than 2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5) pollution poses a major environmental threat in Greater Houston due to rapid economic growth and the numerous PM2.5 sources including ports, vehicles, and the largest petrochemical industry in the United States (U.S.). Our objectives were to estimate the short-term associations between the PM2.5 components and mortality during 2000-2011, and evaluate whether these associations have changed over time. A total of 333,317 deaths were included in our assessment, with an average of 76 deaths per day. We selected 17 PM2.5 components from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Chemical Speciation Network, and then applied Poisson regression models to assess the associations between the PM2.5 components and mortality. Additionally, we repeated our analysis for two consecutive periods: 2000-2005 and 2006-2011. Interquartile range increases in ammonium (0.881μg/m(3)), nitrate (0.487μg/m(3)), sulfate (2.245μg/m(3)), and vanadium (0.004μg/m(3)) were associated with an increased risk in mortality of 0.69% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26, 1.12%), 0.38% (95% CI: 0.11, 0.66%), 0.61% (95% CI: 0.15, 1.06%), and 0.58% (95% CI: 0.12, 1.04%), respectively. Seasonal analysis suggested that the associations were strongest during the winter months. The association between PM2.5 mass and mortality decreased during 2000-2011, however, the PM2.5 components showed no notable changes in mortality risk over time. Our study indicates that the short-term associations between PM2.5 and mortality differ across the PM2.5 components and suggests that future air pollution control measures should not only focus on mass but also pollutant sources.

  18. Spatial vulnerability of fine particulate matter relative to the geographic disparities of adult's diabetes prevalence in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Alamgir, Hassanat; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2015-04-01

    Potentially larger regional effects of climate change have been revealed on the elevation of fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 µg in diameter; PM2.5) in the U.S. In addition, recent research supports a link between diabetes and PM2.5 in both laboratory and epidemiology studies. However, research investigating the potential relationship of the spatial vulnerability of diabetes to concomitant PM2.5 levels is still sparse, and the level of diabetes geographic disparities attributed to PM2.5 levels has yet to be evaluated. We conducted a Bayesian structured additive regression modeling approach to determine whether long-term exposure to PM2.5 is spatially associated with diabetes prevalence after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of county residents. This study utilizes the following data sources from 2004-2010: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the American Community Survey, and the Environmental Protection Agency. We also conducted spatial comparisons with low, median-low, median-high, and high levels of PM2.5 concentrations. When PM2.5 concentrations increased 1 µg/m3, the increase in the relative risk percentage for diabetes ranged from -5.47% (95% credible interval = -6.14, -4.77) to 2.34% (95% CI = 2.01, 2.70), where 1,323 of 3,109 counties (42.55%) displayed diabetes vulnerability with significantly positive relative risk percentages. These vulnerable counties are more likely located in the Southeast, Central, and South Regions of the U.S. A similar spatial vulnerability pattern for concentrations of low PM2.5 levels was also present in these same three regions. A clear cluster of vulnerable counties at median-high PM2.5 level was found in Michigan. This study identifies the spatial vulnerability of diabetes prevalence associated with PM2.5, and thereby provides the evidence needed to prompt and establish enhanced surveillance that can monitor diabetes vulnerability in areas with low PM2.5 pollution.

  19. Time series analysis of fine particulate matter and asthma reliever dispensations in populations affected by forest fires

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have evaluated the association between forest fire smoke and acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases, but few have examined effects on pharmaceutical dispensations. We examine the associations between daily fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and pharmaceutical dispensations for salbutamol in forest fire-affected and non-fire-affected populations in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods We estimated PM2.5 exposure for populations in administrative health areas using measurements from central monitors. Remote sensing data on fires were used to classify the populations as fire-affected or non-fire-affected, and to identify extreme fire days. Daily counts of salbutamol dispensations between 2003 and 2010 were extracted from the BC PharmaNet database. We estimated rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each population during all fire seasons and on extreme fire days, adjusted for temperature, humidity, and temporal trends. Overall effects for fire-affected and non-fire-affected populations were estimated via meta-regression. Results Fire season PM2.5 was positively associated with salbutamol dispensations in all fire-affected populations, with a meta-regression RR (95% CI) of 1.06 (1.04-1.07) for a 10 ug/m3 increase. Fire season PM2.5 was not significantly associated with salbutamol dispensations in non-fire-affected populations, with a meta-regression RR of 1.00 (0.98-1.01). On extreme fire days PM2.5 was positively associated with salbutamol dispensations in both population types, with a global meta-regression RR of 1.07 (1.04 - 1.09). Conclusions Salbutamol dispensations were clearly associated with fire-related PM2.5. Significant associations were observed in smaller populations (range: 8,000 to 170,000 persons, median: 26,000) than those reported previously, suggesting that salbutamol dispensations may be a valuable outcome for public health surveillance during fire events. PMID:23356966

  20. Source identification and trends in concentrations of gaseous and fine particulate principal species in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Choong-Min; Kang, Byung-Wook; Lee, Hak Sung

    2006-07-01

    Ambient measurements were made using two sets of annular denuder system during the four seasons (April 2001 to February 2002) and were then compared with the results during the period of 1996-1997 to estimate the trends and seasonal variations in concentrations of gaseous and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) principal species. Annual averages of gaseous HNO3 and NH3 increased by 11% and 6%, respectively, compared with those of the previous study, whereas HONO and SO2 decreased by 11% and 136%, respectively. The PM2.5 concentration decreased by -17%, 35% for SO4(2-), and 29% for NH4+, whereas NO3- increased by 21%. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were 12.8 and 5.98 microg/m(-3), accounting for -26 and 12% of PM2.5 concentration, respectively. The species studied accounted for 84% of PM2.5 concentration, ranging from 76% in winter to 97% in summer. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis was used to identify possible source areas affecting air pollution levels at a receptor site in Seoul. High possible source areas in concentrations of PM2.5, NO3-, SO4(2-), NH4+, and K+ were coastal cities of Liaoning province (possibly emissions from oil-fired boilers on ocean liners and fishing vessels and industrial emissions), inland areas of Heibei/Shandong provinces (the highest density areas of agricultural production and population) in China, and typical port cities (Mokpo, Yeosu, and Busan) of South Korea. In the PSCF map for OC, high possible source areas were also coastal cities of Liaoning province and inland areas of Heibei/Shandong provinces in China. In contrast, high possible source areas of EC were highlighted in the south of the Yellow Sea, indicating possible emissions from oil-fired boilers on large ships between South Korea and Southeast Asia. In summary, the PSCF results may suggest that air pollution levels in Seoul are affected considerably by long-range transport from external areas, such as the coastal zone in China and other

  1. Global Estimates of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations from Satellite-Based Aerosol Optical Depth: Development and Application

    PubMed Central

    van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Brauer, Michael; Kahn, Ralph; Levy, Robert; Verduzco, Carolyn; Villeneuve, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic and health impact studies of fine particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) are limited by the lack of monitoring data, especially in developing countries. Satellite observations offer valuable global information about PM2.5 concentrations. Objective In this study, we developed a technique for estimating surface PM2.5 concentrations from satellite observations. Methods We mapped global ground-level PM2.5 concentrations using total column aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and MISR (Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite instruments and coincident aerosol vertical profiles from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Results We determined that global estimates of long-term average (1 January 2001 to 31 December 2006) PM2.5 concentrations at approximately 10 km × 10 km resolution indicate a global population-weighted geometric mean PM2.5 concentration of 20 μg/m3. The World Health Organization Air Quality PM2.5 Interim Target-1 (35 μg/m3 annual average) is exceeded over central and eastern Asia for 38% and for 50% of the population, respectively. Annual mean PM2.5 concentrations exceed 80 μg/m3 over eastern China. Our evaluation of the satellite-derived estimate with ground-based in situ measurements indicates significant spatial agreement with North American measurements (r = 0.77; slope = 1.07; n = 1057) and with noncoincident measurements elsewhere (r = 0.83; slope = 0.86; n = 244). The 1 SD of uncertainty in the satellite-derived PM2.5 is 25%, which is inferred from the AOD retrieval and from aerosol vertical profile errors and sampling. The global population-weighted mean uncertainty is 6.7 μg/m3. Conclusions Satellite-derived total-column AOD, when combined with a chemical transport model, provides estimates of global long-term average PM2.5 concentrations. PMID:20519161

  2. Characterizing the Indoor-Outdoor Relationship of Fine Particulate Matter in Non-Heating Season for Urban Residences in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihui; Pu, Zhongnan; Li, Mu; Sundell, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a major public health concern in Chinese urban areas. However, PM2.5 exposure primarily occurs indoors. Given such, we conducted this study to characterize the indoor-outdoor relationship of PM2.5 mass concentrations for urban residences in Beijing. Methods In this study, 24-h real-time indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently collected for 41 urban residences in the non-heating season. The diurnal variation of pollutant concentrations was characterized. Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the correlation between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations. Regression analysis with ordinary least square was employed to characterize the influences of a variety of factors on PM2.5 mass concentration. Results Hourly ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations were 3–280 μg/m3 with a median of 58 μg/m3, and hourly indoor counterpart were 4–193 μg/m3 with a median of 34 μg/m3. The median indoor/ambient ratio of PM2.5 mass concentration was 0.62. The diurnal variation of residential indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations tracked with each other well. Strong correlation was found between indoor and ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations on the community basis (coefficients: r≥0.90, p<0.0001), and the ambient data explained ≥84% variance of the indoor data. Regression analysis suggested that the variables, such as traffic conditions, indoor smoking activities, indoor cleaning activities, indoor plants and number of occupants, had significant influences on the indoor PM2.5 mass concentrations. Conclusions PM2.5 of ambient origin made dominant contribution to residential indoor PM2.5 exposure in the non-heating season under the high ambient fine particle pollution condition. Nonetheless, the large inter-residence variability of infiltration factor of ambient PM2.5 raised the concern of exposure misclassification when using ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations as

  3. The impact of kidney transplantation on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Min; Ahn, Seung Won; Bae, Myoung Nam; Choi, Bum Soon; Park, Cheol Whee; Kim, Yong-Soo; Yang, Chul Woo; Chung, Byung Ha

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we prospectively investigated the impact of kidney transplantation (KT) on the status of hypertension, including circadian rhythm in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and office BP measurement in 48 patients before and 1 year after KT. According to the nocturnal reduction in systolic BP (ΔSBP), the patients were divided into dippers, non-dippers, and reverse dippers. After KT, the mean BP value in office BP and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring did not change, but the proportion of patients taking anti-hypertensive drugs and the pill number significantly decreased. In contrast, the mean ΔSBP significantly decreased, and the proportion of non-dippers and reverse dippers did not decrease. Decrease in ΔSBP after KT was associated with inferior allograft function during follow-up. Our study suggests that KT improved the overall BP level, but it did not affect abnormal circadian rhythm in ESRD patients. PMID:26051924

  4. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Augments Perceptual Sensitivity and 24-Hour Retention in a Complex Threat Detection Task

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Brian; Coffman, Brian A.; Clark, Vincent P.; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improved performance of a complex visual perceptual learning task (Clark et al. 2012). However, it is not known whether tDCS can enhance perceptual sensitivity independently of non-specific, arousal-linked changes in response bias, nor whether any such sensitivity benefit can be retained over time. We examined the influence of stimulation of the right inferior frontal cortex using tDCS on perceptual learning and retention in 37 healthy participants, using signal detection theory to distinguish effects on perceptual sensitivity (d′) from response bias (ß). Anodal stimulation with 2 mA increased d′, compared to a 0.1 mA sham stimulation control, with no effect on ß. On completion of training, participants in the active stimulation group had more than double the perceptual sensitivity of the control group. Furthermore, the performance enhancement was maintained for 24 hours. The results show that tDCS augments both skill acquisition and retention in a complex detection task and that the benefits are rooted in an improvement in sensitivity (d′), rather than changes in response bias (ß). Stimulation-driven acceleration of learning and its retention over 24 hours may result from increased activation of prefrontal cortical regions that provide top-down attentional control signals to object recognition areas. PMID:22511978

  5. Enhanced carotid-cardiac baroreflex response and elimination of orthostatic hypotension 24 hours after acute exercise in paraplegics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelke, K. A.; Shea, J. D.; Doerr, D. F.; Convertino, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that an acute bout of maximal exercise can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension consequent to prolonged wheelchair confinement, we evaluated heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure responses during 15 minutes of 70 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) in 10 paraplegic subjects 24 hours after arm crank exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, and during a control (no exercise) conditions. Additionally, the carotid baroreceptor stimulus-cardiac response relationship was determined by measurement of R-R interval during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses. One week separated the treatment conditions. The maximum slope of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response was increased (p = 0.049) by exercise (6.2 +/- 1.7 msec/mmHg) compared to control (3.3 +/- 0.6). During control HUT, HR increased from 61 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 7 bpm (p = 0.001) while SBP decreased from 118 +/- 5 to 106 +/- 9 mmHg (p = 0.025). During HUT 24 hours after exercise, HR increased from 60 +/- 2 to 90 +/- 4 bpm (p = 0.001), but the reduction in SBP was essentially eliminated (116 +/- 5 to 113 +/- 5 mmHg).

  6. Transcranial direct current stimulation augments perceptual sensitivity and 24-hour retention in a complex threat detection task.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Brian; Coffman, Brian A; Clark, Vincent P; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improved performance of a complex visual perceptual learning task (Clark et al. 2012). However, it is not known whether tDCS can enhance perceptual sensitivity independently of non-specific, arousal-linked changes in response bias, nor whether any such sensitivity benefit can be retained over time. We examined the influence of stimulation of the right inferior frontal cortex using tDCS on perceptual learning and retention in 37 healthy participants, using signal detection theory to distinguish effects on perceptual sensitivity (d') from response bias (ß). Anodal stimulation with 2 mA increased d', compared to a 0.1 mA sham stimulation control, with no effect on ß. On completion of training, participants in the active stimulation group had more than double the perceptual sensitivity of the control group. Furthermore, the performance enhancement was maintained for 24 hours. The results show that tDCS augments both skill acquisition and retention in a complex detection task and that the benefits are rooted in an improvement in sensitivity (d'), rather than changes in response bias (ß). Stimulation-driven acceleration of learning and its retention over 24 hours may result from increased activation of prefrontal cortical regions that provide top-down attentional control signals to object recognition areas.

  7. Comparison of Interviewer-Administered and Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recalls in 3 Diverse Integrated Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Frances E; Dixit-Joshi, Sujata; Potischman, Nancy; Dodd, Kevin W; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Kushi, Lawrence H; Alexander, Gwen L; Coleman, Laura A; Zimmerman, Thea P; Sundaram, Maria E; Clancy, Heather A; Groesbeck, Michelle; Douglass, Deirdre; George, Stephanie M; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Subar, Amy F

    2015-06-15

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls provide high-quality intake data but have been prohibitively expensive for large epidemiologic studies. This study's goal was to assess whether the web-based Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24) performs similarly enough to the standard interviewer-administered, Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) 24-hour dietary recall to be considered a viable alternative. In 2010-2011, 1,081 adults from 3 integrated health systems in Detroit, Michigan; Marshfield, Wisconsin; and Kaiser-Permanente Northern California participated in a field trial. A quota design ensured a diverse sample by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Each participant was asked to complete 2 recalls and was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 protocols differing by type of recall and administration order. For energy, the mean intakes were 2,425 versus 2,374 kcal for men and 1,876 versus 1,906 kcal for women by AMPM and ASA24, respectively. Of 20 nutrients/food groups analyzed and controlling for false discovery rate, 87% were judged equivalent at the 20% bound. ASA24 was preferred over AMPM by 70% of the respondents. Attrition was lower in the ASA24/AMPM study group than in the AMPM/ASA24 group, and it was lower in the ASA24/ASA24 group than in the AMPM/AMPM group. ASA24 offers the potential to collect high-quality dietary intake information at low cost with less attrition.

  8. Predictors of poor blood pressure control assessed by 24 hour monitoring in patients with type B acute aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Delsart, Pascal; Midulla, Marco; Sobocinski, Jonathan; Achere, Charles; Haulon, Stephan; Claisse, Gonzague; Mounier-Vehier, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The chronic management of post-acute aortic dissection (AD) of the descending aorta (Type B) is based on optimal control of blood pressure (BP), with a target BP < 135/80 mmHg. The aim of our study was to determine and verify effective blood pressure control with an objective measurement method and to identify predicting factors. Methods We collected data from 26 patients hospitalized in the acute phase of a Type B AD between 2006 and 2009. Two groups were defined according to 24 hour BP monitoring results at follow-up. Group 1 consisted of patients with a controlled BP (<130/80 mmHg), and Group 2 consisted of patients with an uncontrolled BP. Results Thirty four percent of patients showed an uncontrolled BP at checkup. Vascular history before AD (P = 0.06), high baseline BP trend (P = 0.01 for systolic and P = 0.08 for diastolic), and greater diameter of the descending aorta (P = 0.02) were associated with poor BP control. Conclusion Prognosis after AD is associated with BP control. Therefore, 24 hour BP monitoring can be made. PMID:22272072

  9. CORRELATION OF FINE AND ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER WITH METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA POLLUTANTS IN EL PASO, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the harmful health effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) are not well understood, various researchers are investigating ambient PM in order to assess its hazardous components. Current hypotheses acknowledge that PM related morbidity and mortality may be a result ...

  10. Fine Ambient Air Particulate Matter Exposure Induces Molecular Alterations Indicative of Cardiovascular Disease Progression in Atherosclerotic Susceptible Mice -- B

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Epidemiology studies have reported associations between increased mortality and morbidity with exposure to particulate air pollution, particularly within individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Clinical and toxicological studies have provided evide...

  11. PREFACE: SPECIAL ISSUE OF AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ON FINDINGS FROM THE FINE PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This collection of papers, which is the first coordinated publication of results from the Phase II Supersites Program, reflects the objectives of the program - to characterize particulate matter, to provide information, such as source-receptor relationships, that support health...

  12. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... a blockage of blood vessels, or other causes Multiple myeloma Healthy people may have higher than normal urine ... Distal Hemolytic anemia Macroglobulinemia of Waldenstrom Microalbuminuria test Multiple myeloma Nephrotic syndrome Proximal Wilson disease Update Date 11/ ...

  13. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a day, such as: Creatinine Sodium Potassium Nitrogen Protein This test may also be done if ... disease Potassium urine test Sodium urine test Urea nitrogen urine test Urination - excessive amount Urine output - decreased ...

  14. Chemical compositions responsible for inflammation and tissue damage in the mouse lung by coarse and fine particulate samples from contrasting air pollution in Europe.

    PubMed

    Happo, Mikko S; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Halinen, Arja I; Jalava, Pasi I; Pennanen, Arto S; Sillanpaa, Markus; Hillamo, Risto; Salonen, Raimo O

    2008-11-01

    Inflammation is regarded as an important mechanism in mortality and morbidity associated with exposures of cardiorespiratory patients to urban air particulate matter. We investigated the association of the chemical composition and sources of urban air fine (PM(2.5-0.2)) and coarse (PM(10-2.5)) particulate samples with the inflammatory activity in the mouse lung. The particulate samples were collected during selected seasons in six European cities using a high-volume cascade impactor. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose (10 mg/kg) of the particulate samples. At 4, 12, and 24 h after the exposure, the lungs were lavaged and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation and tissue damage: cell number, total protein, and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, interleukin [IL]-6, and KC). Dicarboxylic acids and transition metals, especially Ni and V, in PM(2.5-0.2) correlated positively and some secondary inorganic ions (NO3(-), NH4(+)) negatively with the inflammatory activity. Total organic matter and SO4(2-) had no consistent correlations. In addition, the soil-derived constituents (Ca2+, Al, Fe, Si) showed positive correlations with the PM(2.5-0.2)-induced inflammatory activity, but their role in PM(10-2.5) remained obscure, possibly due to largely undefined biogenic material. Markers of poor biomass and coal combustion, i.e., monosaccharide anhydrides and As, were associated with elevated PAH contents in PM(2.5-0.2) and a consistent immunosuppressive effect. Overall, our results support epidemiological findings that the local sources of incomplete combustion and resuspended road dust are important in urban air particulate pollution-related health effects.

  15. Determinants of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) for waiting passengers at bus stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Daniel Baldwin; Ray, Paul David; Stinson, Anne E.; Park, JiYoung

    2010-12-01

    This research evaluates commuter exposure to particulate matter during pre-journey commute segments for passengers waiting at bus stops by investigating 840 min of simultaneous exposure levels, both inside and outside seven bus shelters in Buffalo, New York. A multivariate regression model is used to estimate the relation between exposure to particulate matter (PM 2.5 measured in μg m -3) and three vectors of determinants: time and location, physical setting and placement, and environmental factors. Four determinants have a statistically significant effect on particulate matter: time of day, passengers' waiting location, land use near the bus shelter, and the presence of cigarette smoking at the bus shelter. Model results suggest that exposure to PM 2.5 inside a bus shelter is 2.63 μg m -3 (or 18 percent) higher than exposure outside a bus shelter, perhaps due in part to the presence of cigarette smoking. Morning exposure levels are 6.51 μg m -3 (or 52 percent) higher than afternoon levels. Placement of bus stops can affect exposure to particulate matter for those waiting inside and outside of shelters: air samples at bus shelters located in building canyons have higher particulate matter than bus shelters located near open space.

  16. [Study on the Relationship between the Inhalable Fine Particulate Matter of Xuanwei Coal Combustion and Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiapeng; Cao, Yu; Huang, Yunchao; Li, Guangjian; Ye, Lianhua; Zhao, Guangqiang; Lei, Yujie; Chen, Xiaobo; Tian, Linwei

    2015-07-01

    背景与目的 云南省宣威地区是中国乃至世界肺癌的高发区,肺癌已成为制约当地社会经济发展和影响社会民生的重要因素。煤炭是当地主要的生活燃料,燃煤是当地室内污染的主要来源。本研究探讨云南宣威不同肺癌发病率地区烟煤燃烧过程中可吸入细颗粒物(fine particulate matter, PM2.5)产出情况,以及不同地区PM2.5成分异同。探讨吸入细颗粒物与当地肺癌高发的关系。方法 收集宣威市来宾镇老林煤矿C1煤层、宝山镇虎场煤矿K7煤层、文兴镇太平煤矿M30煤层的煤矿进行燃烧试验。收集室内的空气中的PM2.5进行称重,元素分析,用电子显微镜观察其形态,对比三种PM2.5异同。对宣威地区的肺癌患者的术后标本进行电子显微镜观察。结果 室内空气中的PM2.5浓度分别为C1煤(8.244±1.460)mg/m³,K7煤(5.066±0.984)mg/m³,K7煤(5.071±1.460)mg/m³;三组空气中PM2.5浓度两两比较差异有统计学意义(Ρ=0.029)。C1煤层中滤膜上的杂质有(Silicon, Si)和氧(Oxygen, O)元素富集,三组滤膜上均发现了碳(Carbon, C),硫(Sulfur, S)的聚集,在部分的滤膜上可见游离的二氧化硅(SiO2),部分滤膜上有铝(Aluminium, Al)、钙(Calcium, Ca)元素的聚集。C1煤层与其他煤层相比所产生颗粒物形态不规则,成团块状,杂质较多。在部分的宣威来宾地区的肺癌患者术后标本中,发现纳米级细颗粒的杂质。结论 C1煤与K7和M30煤燃烧产生的PM2.5不同,PM2.5的成分可能与当地肺癌高发相关。.

  17. Ultra-Rapid dUT1 Measurements on Japan-Fennoscandian Baselines - Application to 24-hour Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuzaka, Shigeru; Kurihara, Shinobu; Sekido, Mamoru; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rudiger; Ritakari, Jouko; Wagner, Jan

    2010-01-01

    GSI, NICT, OSO, and MRO have been engaged in Ultra-rapid dUT1 experiments since 2007 aiming at the technological possibility of real-time dUT1 results using the e-VLBI technique. We have already successfully determined dUT1 in less than four minutes after the end of an experimental Intensive session in 2008, and at present we routinely get the results within 30 minutes for regular Intensives. In 2009 we applied the technique to 24-hour sessions and continuously obtained dUT1 values by processing and analyzing Tsukuba Onsala data in near real-time. It showed a detailed behavior of UT1 variations, which could be very valuable for scientific study as well as for precise prediction of UT1-UTC.

  18. Tolvaptan Prolongs Blockage of the Vasopressin Type II Receptor Over 24 Hours in Responders With Stage D Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Komuro, Issei

    2016-01-01

    The urine aquaporin-2 (U-AQP2) level relative to the plasma arginine vasopressin (P-AVP) level is a novel predictor of the responsiveness to the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) antagonist tolvaptan (TLV). However, little has been reported about the concentration-time profile of U-AQP2 after TLV treatment. We evaluated 24 patients with decompensated stage D heart failure (HF) who had received 3.75 mg/day of TLV on a de novo basis for > 7 days to treat congestion refractory to conventional diuretics. Seventeen patients were TLV-responders, whose 24-hour urine volume (UV) increased after TLV initiation; the other 7 patients were TLV-non-responders. The U-AQP2 of the TLV-responders, corrected for the urine creatinine concentration, decreased significantly at 4 hours after TLV administration without returning to the day-1 morning level on the morning of day-7. The TLV-non-responder U-AQP2 levels remained low even before the TLV treatment. On the morning of day-7, the TLV-responder U-AQP2/P-AVP ratio was comparable to that of the TLV-non-responders. Among 18 patients (11 responders and 7 non-responders), the day-7 TLV trough concentration was 64 ± 62 ng/mL and was negatively correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). TLV has antagonistic effects on the V2R over 24 hours in TLV-responders with advanced heart failure and chronic kidney disease, probably due to persistently elevated blood TLV concentration. The unresponsiveness to TLV in the TLV-non-responders is not attributable to malabsorption. PMID:26742881

  19. Metabarcoding-based fungal diversity on coarse and fine particulate organic matter in a first-order stream in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wurzbacher, Christian; Grimmett, Ivan J; Bärlocher, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Most streams receive substantial inputs of allochthonous organic material in the form of leaves and twigs (CPOM , coarse particulate organic matter). Mechanical and biological processing converts this into fine particulate organic matter (FPOM). Other sources of particles include flocculated dissolved matter and soil particles. Fungi are known to play a role in the CPOM conversion process, but the taxonomic affiliations of these fungi remain poorly studied. The present study seeks to shed light on the composition of fungal communities on FPOM and CPOM as assessed in a natural stream in Nova Scotia, Canada. Maple leaves were exposed in a stream for four weeks and their fungal community evaluated through pyrosequencing. Over the same period, four FPOM size fractions were collected by filtration and assessed. Particles had much lower ergosterol contents than leaves, suggesting major differences in the extent of fungal colonization. Pyrosequencing documented a total of 821 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTU), of which 726 were exclusive to particles and 47 to leaf samples. Most fungal phyla were represented, including yeast lineages (e.g., Taphrinaceae and Saccharomycotina), Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Cryptomycota, but several classes of Pezizomycontina (Ascomycota) dominated. Cluster dendrograms clearly separated fungal communities from leaves and from particles. Characterizing fungal communities may shed some light on the processing pathways of fine particles in streams and broadens our view of the phylogenetic composition of fungi in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:26918122

  20. Metabarcoding-based fungal diversity on coarse and fine particulate organic matter in a first-order stream in Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wurzbacher, Christian; Grimmett, Ivan J.; Bärlocher, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Most streams receive substantial inputs of allochthonous organic material in the form of leaves and twigs (CPOM , coarse particulate organic matter). Mechanical and biological processing converts this into fine particulate organic matter (FPOM). Other sources of particles include flocculated dissolved matter and soil particles. Fungi are known to play a role in the CPOM conversion process, but the taxonomic affiliations of these fungi remain poorly studied. The present study seeks to shed light on the composition of fungal communities on FPOM and CPOM as assessed in a natural stream in Nova Scotia, Canada. Maple leaves were exposed in a stream for four weeks and their fungal community evaluated through pyrosequencing. Over the same period, four FPOM size fractions were collected by filtration and assessed. Particles had much lower ergosterol contents than leaves, suggesting major differences in the extent of fungal colonization. Pyrosequencing documented a total of 821 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTU), of which 726 were exclusive to particles and 47 to leaf samples. Most fungal phyla were represented, including yeast lineages (e.g., Taphrinaceae and Saccharomycotina), Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Cryptomycota, but several classes of Pezizomycontina (Ascomycota) dominated. Cluster dendrograms clearly separated fungal communities from leaves and from particles. Characterizing fungal communities may shed some light on the processing pathways of fine particles in streams and broadens our view of the phylogenetic composition of fungi in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:26918122

  1. Prognostic Value of the 24-Hour Neurological Examination in Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke: A post hoc Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled Stroke Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Frankel, Michael; Jovin, Tudor G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early prognostication of long-term outcomes following ischemic stroke can facilitate medical decision-making. We hypothesized that the 24-hour National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) predicts 3-month clinical outcomes in anterior circulation stroke. Methods Secondary analyses of the Interventional Management of Stroke 3 (IMS3) and intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) for acute ischemic stroke [National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) IV tPA] trials were performed. In participants with documented 24-hour NIHSS and 3-month Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), the predictive power of the 24-hour NIHSS and 24-hour NIHSS improvement for 3-month outcomes [mRS 0-2 and Barthel Index (BI) ≥95] was assessed. Percentages of good outcome (mRS 0-2 or BI ≥95) at 3, 6, and 12 months and mean quality of life (EQ5D™) index at 3 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were compared. Results The majority of the study participants were included (IMS3 n = 587/656, NINDS IV tPA n = 619/624). The 24-hour NIHSS was correlated with 3-month mRS (R = 0.73) with excellent predictive power for mRS 0-2 [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.91] and BI ≥95 (AUC = 0.9) in both cohorts. A model with the 24-hour NIHSS alone correctly classified 82-84% of patients in both cohorts. The percentages of good outcomes at 3-12 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were similar in both cohorts. mRS 0-2 was achieved by 75.6-77.7% of patients with 24-hour NIHSS ≤11 but by only 1.4-3.6% with 24-hour NIHSS ≥20. The EQ5D index at 3 months varied among NIHSS 0-4 (mean 0.86 ± 0.16), 5-11 (0.77 ± 0.18), and 12-19 (0.59 ± 0.26) quartiles. Conclusions The 24-hour NIHSS strongly predicts long-term stroke outcomes and is associated with quality of life. Its easy availability, reliability, and validity support its use as an early prognostic marker and surrogate of clinical outcome in ischemic stroke. PMID:27051408

  2. Atmospheric mercury and fine particulate matter in coastal New England: implications for mercury and trace element sources in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark A.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Geboy, Nicholas J.; Krabbenhotft, David P. Krabbenhoft; Bothner, Michael H. Bothner; Tate, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Intensive sampling of ambient atmospheric fine particulate matter was conducted at Woods Hole, Massachusetts over a four-month period from 3 April to 29 July, 2008, in conjunction with year-long deployment of the USGS Mobile Mercury Lab. Results were obtained for trace elements in fine particulate matter concurrently with determination of ambient atmospheric mercury speciation and concentrations of ancillary gasses (SO2, NOx, and O3). For particulate matter, trace element enrichment factors greater than 10 relative to crustal background values were found for As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn, indicating contribution of these elements by anthropogenic sources. For other elements, enrichments are consistent with natural marine (Na, Ca, Mg, Sr) or crustal (Ba, Ce, Co, Cs, Fe, Ga, La, Rb, Sc, Th, Ti, U, Y) sources, respectively. Positive matrix factorization was used together with concentration weighted air-mass back trajectories to better define element sources and their locations. Our analysis, based on events exhibiting the 10% highest PM2.5 contributions for each source category, identifies coal-fired power stations concentrated in the U.S. Ohio Valley, metal smelting in eastern Canada, and marine and crustal sources showing surprisingly similar back trajectories, at times each sampling Atlantic coastal airsheds. This pattern is consistent with contribution of Saharan dust by a summer maximum at the latitude of Florida and northward transport up the Atlantic Coast by clockwise circulation of the summer Bermuda High. Results for mercury speciation show diurnal production of RGM by photochemical oxidation of Hg° in a marine environment, and periodic traverse of the study area by correlated RGM-SO2(NOx) plumes, indicative of coal combustion sources.

  3. Atmospheric mercury and fine particulate matter in coastal New England: Implications for mercury and trace element sources in the northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark A.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Geboy, Nicholas J.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Bothner, Michael H.; Tate, Michael T.

    2013-11-01

    Intensive sampling of ambient atmospheric fine particulate matter was conducted at Woods Hole, Massachusetts over a four-month period from 3 April to 29 July, 2008, in conjunction with year-long deployment of the USGS Mobile Mercury Lab. Results were obtained for trace elements in fine particulate matter concurrently with determination of ambient atmospheric mercury speciation and concentrations of ancillary gasses (SO2, NOx, and O3). For particulate matter, trace element enrichment factors greater than 10 relative to crustal background values were found for As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn, indicating contribution of these elements by anthropogenic sources. For other elements, enrichments are consistent with natural marine (Na, Ca, Mg, Sr) or crustal (Ba, Ce, Co, Cs, Fe, Ga, La, Rb, Sc, Th, Ti, U, Y) sources, respectively. Positive matrix factorization was used together with concentration weighted air-mass back trajectories to better define element sources and their locations. Our analysis, based on events exhibiting the 10% highest PM2.5 contributions for each source category, identifies coal-fired power stations concentrated in the U.S. Ohio Valley, metal smelting in eastern Canada, and marine and crustal sources showing surprisingly similar back trajectories, at times each sampling Atlantic coastal airsheds. This pattern is consistent with contribution of Saharan dust by a summer maximum at the latitude of Florida and northward transport up the Atlantic Coast by clockwise circulation of the summer Bermuda High. Results for mercury speciation show diurnal production of RGM by photochemical oxidation of Hg° in a marine environment, and periodic traverse of the study area by correlated RGM-SO2(NOx) plumes, indicative of coal combustion sources.

  4. Fine Particulate Matter in São Paulo During the Winter Months: Concentrations and Black Carbon Comparison Between Techniques and Equipments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, R. M.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2014-12-01

    During the winter months in São Paulo, Brazil, particulate matter and black carbon were monitored using a Dust Trak (TSI model 8533), a Black Carbon monitor (MAAP-Thermo) and a PM2.5 sampler (Partisol-Thermo). The concentrations were obtained every 5 minutes, from June to August 2014, for the first and second and every 12 hours for the third. The experiment took place in a site at the University of São Paulo which is located in the Southeast part of the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP). MASP is one of the biggest urban centers of the world, with more than 20 million inhabitants, 10 million vehicles and high values of some regulated pollutants, as particulate matter, especially in winter. Ambient fine particles associated with vehicle emissions have been linked to adverse health effects. Black carbon has a significant share of particulate mass concentrations. Previous studies showed a contribution of more than 30% for São Paulo. This year the climate was atypical in São Paulo. The summer was the driest of the last 30 years. The winter was hot and also dry. Dust trak monitor showed peaks of more than 120 μg/m3 for PM2.5. For a specific period, black carbon concentrations from the MAAP monitor were compared to black carbon measured by optical reflectance on teflon filters collected by the Partisol sampler. Monitor values were around 30% higher, but specific characteristics can influence this value. In the past, optical reflectance and thermal techniques for black carbon were compared. The reflectance technique showed higher results for the fine fraction than the thermal method. Now, reflectance is being compared to instrument measurements and results are also satisfactory.

  5. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF DIESEL-GENERATED FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-phase instrument comparison study was conducted on two different diesel engines on a dynamometer to compare commonly used particulate matter (PM) measurement techniques while sampling the same diesel exhaust aerosol and to evaluate inter- and intra-method variability. In...

  6. Source Apportionment of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter in Dearborn, Michigan, using Hourly Resolved PM Chemical Composition Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    High time-resolution aerosol sampling was conducted for one month during July–August 2007 in Dearborn, MI, a non-attainment area for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Measurements of more than 30 PM2.5 species were made using a suite o...

  7. MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) ASSOCIATED WITH FINE PARTICULATE MATTER TO ESTIMATE STATEWIDE CUMULATIVE EXPOSURES IN NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) is routinely collected at over a thousand air monitoring stations across the nation using Teflon filters. After they are weighed to measure the amount of PM in the air, the filters are stored in refrigerators and, after a year, are thrown away. ...

  8. Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2013-09-15

    The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM₂.₅) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV₂₁) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV₂₁ associated with various air pollutants and PM₂.₅ constituents. Four PM₂.₅ constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution. PMID:23747477

  9. Chemical constituents of fine particulate air pollution and pulmonary function in healthy adults: the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Hao, Yu; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Huang, Jing; Qin, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2013-09-15

    The study examined the associations of 32 chemical constituents of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM₂.₅) with pulmonary function in a panel of 21 college students. Study subjects relocated from a suburban area to an urban area with changing ambient air pollution levels and contents in Beijing, China, and provided daily morning/evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV₂₁) measurements over 6 months in three study periods. There were significant reductions in evening PEF and morning/evening FEV₂₁ associated with various air pollutants and PM₂.₅ constituents. Four PM₂.₅ constituents (copper, cadmium, arsenic and stannum) were found to be most consistently associated with the reductions in these pulmonary function measures. These findings provide clues for the respiratory effects of specific particulate chemical constituents in the context of urban air pollution.

  10. Label-free mass spectrometry proteome quantification of human embryonic kidney cells following 24 hours of sialic acid overproduction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cell surface glycoprotein sialylation is one of the most ubiquitous glycan modifications found on higher eukaryotes. The surface sialylation pattern of cells is influenced by the cellular environment but also by the Golgi sialyltransferase activity and flux of metabolites through sialic acid producing pathways. Altered cell surface sialic acid patterns have been observed in several cancers and other pathological conditions. In this experiment we examined the cellular proteomic changes that occur in human embryonic kidney cells after 24 hours of sialic acid overproduction using N-Acetylmannosamine. We utilized high resolution mass spectrometry and label free protein quantification to characterize the relative changes in protein abundance as well as multiple reaction monitoring to quantify the cellular sialic acid levels. Results Using N-Acetylmannosamine we were able to induce sialic acid production to almost 70-fold compared to non-induced control cells. Mass spectrometric analysis of cellular proteome of control and induced cells identified 1802 proteins of which 105 displayed significant changes in abundance. Functional analysis of the resulting relative changes in protein abundance revealed regulation of several cellular pathways including protein transport, metabolic and signaling pathways and remodeling of epithelial adherens junctions. We also identified several physically interacting co-regulated proteins in the set of changed proteins. Conclusions In this experiment we show that increased metabolic flux through sialic acid producing pathway affects the abundance of several protein transport, epithelial adherens junction, signaling and metabolic pathway related proteins. PMID:23915316

  11. Once- and twice-daily bevantolol for systemic hypertension using 24-hour ambulatory intraarterial blood pressure recording.

    PubMed

    Al-Khawaja, I M; Caruana, M P; Prince, H; Whittington, J; Raftery, E B

    1986-11-26

    The antihypertensive efficacy of bevantolol, a selective beta 1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, was evaluated in 17 patients with essential hypertension, using continuous ambulatory intraarterial blood pressure (BP) monitoring. The study compared a twice-daily regimen (titrated dose of 200 to 600 mg/day) with the same amount given in a single daily dose. Within-patient comparisons of mean hourly systolic and diastolic BPs and heart rate showed a highly significant effect with twice-daily therapy (p less than 0.001) for all of the 24 hours. Similar significant results were obtained with a single morning dose. There was no difference between the pattern or extent of BP reduction with the 2 regimens. The decrease in BP after bevantolol persisted during the physiologic tests (rest, tilt, isometric and dynamic exercise). Four patients developed minor side effects with the single morning dose, and only 1 patient with the twice-daily regimen. These effects included tiredness, fatigue and dizziness. Unlike pure beta-blocking agents, bevantolol controlled the early morning increase in BP, lending support to the belief that it possesses vasodilatory properties in addition to beta blockade. These results suggest that bevantolol may be useful as first-line therapy in a once-daily dosage for the treatment of essential hypertension.

  12. A comparison of regression and Bayesian change point analysis for extreme 24hours rainfall in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamruzzaman, M.; Beecham, S.; Metcalfe, A.

    2013-12-01

    We consider monthly extremes rainfall, aggregated over 24 hours, at 24 rainfall station in South Australia (SA). A self-organizing map (SOM) technique is used to draw contours of extreme for this area for each month. The possibility of change in extreme rainfall is investigated in two ways. The first is a multiple regression with time, month, station and their interaction as predictor variables. A confidence interval and for the linear and quadratic effects of time series are given. We have developed a strategy to possible improve prediction of extreme rainfall as a linear combination of original prediction. The dramatic improvement is a consequence of introducing squares and cross product of predictor variables is given in calibration, validation and re-calibration model. The similarity between fitted to the calibration and validation periods suggests that the hydrological process have been relatively stable over the period. The modeling strategy is empirical and will valid for different time period; although, in general, estimated coefficients could change substantially. The second analysis is a Bayesian change's point (BCP) analysis based on deseasonalised extreme data. A univariate BCP is applied in the data averaged over stations and compared with a multivariate BCP applied to the individual station records. The BCP is applied to investigate the possibility of sudden change rather than a smooth trend.

  13. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support. PMID:27398166

  14. Relative prognostic value of rest thallium-201 imaging, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; Nestico, P.F.; Heo, J.; Unwala, A.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-07-01

    Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.

  15. Adrenal catecholamine synthesis rate changes induced by combined thermal and immobilization stress in fed and 24 hour fasted rats.

    PubMed

    Bargiel, Z; Nowicka, H

    1989-01-01

    The combined stress of acute immobilization (IM) at high and low ambient temperature has been used to determine its influence on adrenal catecholamine (CA) content assassed histofluorimetrically in fed and 24 hour fasted rats. The general course of changes obtained after the arrangement of adrenal strips deriving from the adrenals of rats exposed to cold and IM stress (CIMS) at +10 degrees C to -25 degrees C during the different time fragments presented the adrenal CA depletion events followed sometimes by the adrenal CA content increase after the longer stress exposure or/and stronger CIMS and WIMS conditions. It was found that this depletion-stimulated increase of adrenal Ca synthesis rate had been accelerated in 24 h fasted rats compared to satiated ones exposed to the same stress conditions, especially after the CIMS exposure. Moreover the survival time duration at first lethal temperature (-5 degrees C and +45 degrees C) was significantly higher in fasted rats. The possible hypothalamic regulation of adrenal CA synthesis rate accordingly to the actual metabolism needs and beta-adrenoceptor sensitivity changes depending on satiety state have been discussed and the necessity of further investigations concerning the specificity of stress-induced metabolism changes in 24 h starved rats has been suggested.

  16. Hourly thermal load prediction for the next 24 hours by ARIMA, EWMA, LR and an artificial neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Kawashima, Minoru; Dorgan, C.E.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Predicting the thermal load for the next 24 hours is essential for optimal control of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems that use thermal cool storage. It can be useful in minimizing costs and energy in nonstorage systems. A cooperative research project between a US. university and a Japanese corporation investigated four generally used prediction methods to examine the basic models with variations and to compare the accuracy of each model. A cooling and heating seasonal data set with known next-day weather was used to evaluate the accuracy of each prediction method. The results indicate that an artificial neural network (ANN) model produces the most accurate thermal load predictions. After the initial comparisons with a computer-generated data set, the ANN model was applied to two measured building loads from another research project. These sets included typical measurement noise related to continuous field monitoring. The predictions of the next-day cooling load using the ANN prediction model were close to the actual data, even when the next-day weather was forecast. This confirms that the ANN model has sufficient accuracy and is the correct method for practical utilization in HVAC system control, thermal storage optimal co