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Sample records for 24-hour food recalls

  1. Validation of triple pass 24-hour dietary recall in Ugandan children by simultaneous weighed food assessment

    PubMed Central

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Amorut, Denis; Nakuya, Margaret; Arimi, Margaret; Frost, Gary; Maitland, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition remains highly prevalent in African children, highlighting the need for accurately assessing dietary intake. In order to do so, the assessment method must be validated in the target population. A triple pass 24 hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation has been described but not previously validated in African children. This study aimed to establish the relative validity of 24-hour dietary recalls of daily food consumption in healthy African children living in Mbale and Soroti, eastern Uganda compared to simultaneous weighed food records. Methods Quantitative assessment of daily food consumption by weighed food records followed by two independent assessments using triple pass 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. In conjunction with household measures and standard food sizes, volumes of liquid, dry rice, or play dough were used to aid portion size estimation. Inter-assessor agreement, and agreement with weighed food records was conducted primarily by Bland-Altman analysis and secondly by intraclass correlation coefficients and quartile cross-classification. Results 19 healthy children aged 6 months to 12 years were included in the study. Bland-Altman analysis showed 24-hour recall only marginally under-estimated energy (mean difference of 149kJ or 2.8%; limits of agreement -1618 to 1321kJ), protein (2.9g or 9.4%; -12.6 to 6.7g), and iron (0.43mg or 8.3%; -3.1 to 2.3mg). Quartile cross-classification was correct in 79% of cases for energy intake, and 89% for both protein and iron. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the separate dietary recalls for energy was 0.801 (95% CI, 0.429-0.933), indicating acceptable inter-observer agreement. Conclusions Dietary assessment using 24-hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation resulted in similar and acceptable estimates of dietary intake compared with weighed food records and thus is considered a valid method for daily dietary intake assessment of

  2. Usability of a smartphone food picture app for assisting 24-hour dietary recall: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Benjamin T.; Bilgiç, Pelin; Orr, Barron J.; Suzuki, Asuka; Kim, Angela Sarah; Merchant, Nirav C.; Roe, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The Recaller app was developed to help individuals record their food intakes. This pilot study evaluated the usability of this new food picture application (app), which operates on a smartphone with an embedded camera and Internet capability. SUBJECTS/METHODS Adults aged 19 to 28 years (23 males and 22 females) were assigned to use the Recaller app on six designated, nonconsecutive days in order to capture an image of each meal and snack before and after eating. The images were automatically time-stamped and uploaded by the app to the Recaller website. A trained nutritionist administered a 24-hour dietary recall interview 1 day after food images were taken. Participants' opinions of the Recaller app and its usability were determined by a follow-up survey. As an evaluation indicator of usability, the number of images taken was analyzed and multivariate Poisson regression used to model the factors determining the number of images sent. RESULTS A total of 3,315 food images were uploaded throughout the study period. The median number of images taken per day was nine for males and 13 for females. The survey showed that the Recaller app was easy to use, and 50% of the participants would consider using the app daily. Predictors of a higher number of images were as follows: greater interval (hours) between the first and last food images sent, weekend, and female. CONCLUSIONS The results of this pilot study provide valuable information for understanding the usability of the Recaller smartphone food picture app as well as other similarly designed apps. This study provides a model for assisting nutrition educators in their collection of food intake information by using tools available on smartphones. This innovative approach has the potential to improve recall of foods eaten and monitoring of dietary intake in nutritional studies. PMID:25861429

  3. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  4. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B.; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W.; Gilhooly, Cheryl H.; Kelly, Michael J.; Parsons, lkSusan K.; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE ×100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:25883059

  5. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  6. Dietary quality varies according to data collection instrument: a comparison between a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; de Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes; De Cnop, Mara Lima; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Coura, Camila Pinheiro; Brito, Alessandra Page; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the agreement between the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R), estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and multiple 24-hour recalls (24h-R). The Wilcoxon paired test, partial correlations (PC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman method were used. The total BHEI-R scores and its components ("total fruits", "whole fruits", "total vegetables", "integral cereals", "saturated fat", "sodium", and "energy intake derived from solid fat, added sugar, and alcoholic beverages") were statistically different, with the ICC and PC indicating poor concordance and correlation. The mean concordance estimated for the total BHEI-R and its components varied from 68% for "integral cereals" to 147% for "whole fruits". The suitable concordance limits were violated for most of the components of the BHEI-R. Poor concordance was observed between the BHEI-R estimated by the FFQ and by multiple 24h-R, which indicated a strong reliability of the BHEI-R on the instrument used to collect information on food consumption. PMID:26910251

  7. Comparison of the Kid's Block Food Frequency Questionnaire to the 24-hour recall in urban Native American youth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chery; Fila, Stefanie

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the appropriateness of the Kid's Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (Kid's Block FFQ) for use in a group of urban Native American youth by comparing it to a self-reported 24-hr recall. Subjects were 61 urban Native American youth, aged 9-13 years. Researchers assessed dietary intake using the two methods in random order on the same day. Analyses of diets revealed no significant difference between estimated total energy, protein, fat, and saturated fat between the two methods. Significant differences in estimations for the two tools occurred for carbohydrates and some micronutrients. Results suggest that the Kid's Block FFQ may be less appropriate than 24-hr recall in measuring the dietary intake of Native American youth. A high prevalence of obesity in this population necessitates more accurate dietary assessment tools for this population. PMID:16917884

  8. Food group diversity indicators derived from qualitative list-based questionnaire misreported some foods compared to same indicators derived from quantitative 24-hour recall in urban Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Martin-Prevel, Yves; Becquey, Elodie; Arimond, Mary

    2010-11-01

    To be useful proxies of micronutrient intake at the population level in resource-limited societies, dietary diversity indicators should be simple and easy to collect in large surveys and their accuracy needs to be assessed. The present study aimed at comparing food group diversity indicators (FGI) derived from simple qualitative list-based questionnaires (qFGI) to the same indicators derived from quantitative 24-h recalls (QFGI). Both methods were administered separately on each of 3 recall days to women in 2 districts of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data were available for a total of 526 women x recalls. This study was performed within the framework of the Women's Dietary Diversity Project, which sought to analyze the relationships between various QFGI and the mean probability of adequacy (MPA) of women's diets across 11 micronutrients. The comparison between paired qFGI and QFGI scores was made both in terms of accuracy of the reporting by the list-based questionnaire, taking the QFGI as the gold standard, and in terms of performance of indicators in predicting an MPA > 60%. Examination of paired QFGI-qFGI differences revealed that the more disaggregated the FGI, the higher were the mean differences in scores. Food groups most frequently misreported often corresponded to foods put in small quantities in sauces. Overreporting by list-based questionnaires was observed for indicators applying a 15-g minimum quantity of consumption for a group to count in the score and this may result in weaker performance in predicting the MPA. These results highlight trade-offs between accuracy and simplicity when operationalizing FGI through qualitative questionnaires.

  9. Comparison of validity of food group intake by food frequency questionnaire between pre- and post- adjustment estimates derived from 2-day 24-hour recalls in combination with the probability of consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Woo; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Kim, Jeongseon

    2012-01-01

    Validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) utilising a short-term measurement method is challenging when the reference method does not accurately reflect the usual food intake. In addition, food group intake that is not consumed on daily basis is more critical when episodically consumed foods are related and compared. To overcome these challenges, several statistical approaches have been developed to determine usual food intake distributions. The Multiple Source Method (MSM) can calculate the usual food intake by combining the frequency questions of an FFQ with the short-term food intake amount data. In this study, we applied the MSM to estimate the usual food group intake and evaluate the validity of an FFQ with a group of 333 Korean children (aged 3-6 y) who completed two 24-hour recalls (24HR) and one FFQ in 2010. After adjusting the data using the MSM procedure, the true rate of non-consumption for all food groups was less than 1% except for the beans group. The median Spearman correlation coefficients against FFQ of the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and the MSM-adjusted data were 0.20 (range: 0.11 to 0.40) and 0.35 (range: 0.14 to 0.60), respectively. The weighted kappa values against FFQ ranged from 0.08 to 0.25 for the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and from 0.10 to 0.41 for the MSM-adjusted data. For most food groups, the MSM-adjusted data showed relatively stronger correlations against FFQ than raw 2-d 24HRs data, from 0.03 (beverages) to 0.34 (mushrooms). The results of this study indicated that the application of the MSM, which was a better estimate of the usual intake, could be worth considering in FFQ validation studies among Korean children.

  10. Assessment of the accuracy of portion size reports using computer-based food photographs aids in the development of an automated self-administered 24-hour recall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study is to assess the accuracy of portion-size estimates and participant preferences using various presentations of digital images. Two observational feeding studies were conducted. In both, each participant selected and consumed foods for breakfast and lunch, buffet style, se...

  11. Methodology for adding glycemic index and glycemic load values to 24-hour dietary recall database

    PubMed Central

    Olendzki, Barbara C.; Ma, Yunsheng; Culver, Annie L.; Ockene, Ira S.; Griffith, Jennifer A.; Hafner, Andrea R.; Hebert, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives We describe a method of adding the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values to the nutrient database of the 24-hour dietary recall interview (24HR), a widely used dietary assessment. We also calculated daily GI and GL values from the 24HR. Methods Subjects were 641 healthy adults from central Massachusetts who completed 9067 24HRs. The 24HR-derived food data were matched to the International Table of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Values. The GI values for specific foods not in the table were estimated against similar foods according to physical and chemical factors that determine GI. Mixed foods were disaggregated into individual ingredients. Results Of 1261 carbohydrate-containing foods in the database, GI values of 602 foods were obtained from a direct match (47.7%), accounting for 22.36% of dietary carbohydrate. GI values from 656 foods (52.1%) were estimated, contributing to 77.64% of dietary carbohydrate. The GI values from three unknown foods (0.2%) could not be assigned. The average daily GI was 84 (SD 5.1, white bread as referent) and the average GL was 196 (SD 63). Conclusion Using this methodology for adding GI and GL values to nutrient databases, it is possible to assess associations between GI and/or GL and body weight and chronic disease outcomes (diabetes, cancer, heart disease). This method can be used in clinical and survey research settings where 24HRs are a practical means for assessing diet. The implications for using this methodology compel a broader evaluation of diet with disease outcomes. PMID:17029903

  12. What and how much do we eat? 24-hour dietary recall method.

    PubMed

    Salvador Castell, Gemma; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes

    2015-02-26

    Diet, along with lifestyle factors, is an important determinant of the health status of an individual and of a community. Dietary assessment at the population level provides us with key information on the frequency and distribution of possible inadequate diets and/or nutritional status. It is also useful as input into the elaboration of food and nutrition policies aiming to improve dietary habits and the health status of a community. This article reviews the characteristics, advantages and limitations of the 24-hour dietary recall method (24hDR), which is one of the most widely used tools in nutrition epidemiology to identify food, energy and nutrient intake in national nutrition surveys, cross-sectional studies, clinical trials and cohort studies as well as in the evaluation of individual dietary intake and Total Diet assessment. To reduce the key factors associated with bias, the importance of previously trained interviewers is highlighted, as well as the role of support materials and the contribution of novel technologies.

  13. Comparison of Interviewer-Administered and Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recalls in 3 Diverse Integrated Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Frances E; Dixit-Joshi, Sujata; Potischman, Nancy; Dodd, Kevin W; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Kushi, Lawrence H; Alexander, Gwen L; Coleman, Laura A; Zimmerman, Thea P; Sundaram, Maria E; Clancy, Heather A; Groesbeck, Michelle; Douglass, Deirdre; George, Stephanie M; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Subar, Amy F

    2015-06-15

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls provide high-quality intake data but have been prohibitively expensive for large epidemiologic studies. This study's goal was to assess whether the web-based Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24) performs similarly enough to the standard interviewer-administered, Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) 24-hour dietary recall to be considered a viable alternative. In 2010-2011, 1,081 adults from 3 integrated health systems in Detroit, Michigan; Marshfield, Wisconsin; and Kaiser-Permanente Northern California participated in a field trial. A quota design ensured a diverse sample by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Each participant was asked to complete 2 recalls and was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 protocols differing by type of recall and administration order. For energy, the mean intakes were 2,425 versus 2,374 kcal for men and 1,876 versus 1,906 kcal for women by AMPM and ASA24, respectively. Of 20 nutrients/food groups analyzed and controlling for false discovery rate, 87% were judged equivalent at the 20% bound. ASA24 was preferred over AMPM by 70% of the respondents. Attrition was lower in the ASA24/AMPM study group than in the AMPM/ASA24 group, and it was lower in the ASA24/ASA24 group than in the AMPM/AMPM group. ASA24 offers the potential to collect high-quality dietary intake information at low cost with less attrition.

  14. Validation of the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall for children (ASA24-Kids) among 9- to 11-year-old youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty-nine children in two sites participated in the study. In one site, trained staff observed and recorded types and portions of foods and drinks consumed by ...

  15. Accuracy of children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-hour dietary recalls) differs by retention interval

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Guinn, Caroline H.; Royer, Julie A.; Hardin, James W.; Mackelprang, Alyssa J.; Smith, Albert F.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objectives Validation-study data were analyzed to investigate the effect of retention interval (time between the to-be-reported meal and interview) on accuracy of children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports in 24-hour recalls, and to compare accuracy of children's school-breakfast reports for two breakfast locations (classroom; cafeteria). Subjects/Methods Each of 374 fourth-grade children was interviewed to obtain a 24-hour recall using one of six conditions from crossing two target periods (prior 24 hours; previous day) with three interview times (morning; afternoon; evening). Each condition had 62 or 64 children (half boys). A recall's target period included one school breakfast and one school lunch, for which the child had been observed. Food-item variables (observed number; reported number; omission rate; intrusion rate) and energy variables (observed; reported; report rate; correspondence rate; inflation ratio) were calculated for each child for school breakfast and school lunch separately. Results Accuracy for school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports was inversely related to retention interval. Specifically, as indicated by smaller omission rates, smaller intrusion rates, larger correspondence rates, and smaller inflation ratios, accuracy for school-breakfast reports was best for prior-24-hour recalls in the morning, and accuracy for school-lunch reports was best for prior-24-hour recalls in the afternoon. For neither school meal was a significant sex effect found for any variable. For school-breakfast reports, there was no significant school-breakfast location effect for any variable. Conclusions By shortening the retention interval, accuracy can be improved for school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports in children's 24-hour recalls. PMID:19756033

  16. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 version, for youth aged 9 to 11 Years: A validation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites using a quasiexperimental design. In one s...

  17. Influence of time of 24-hour day on depth of processing in recall memory.

    PubMed

    Maury, P; Queinnec, Y

    1992-05-01

    In this paper we report hourly variations in recall of words in a short-term memory task. Tests were carried out at 18.00, 22.00, 02.00 and 06.00 hours. The words to be memorized were preceded by a question designed to shape the type of encoding adopted by the subjects. The question concerned semantic, typographic or structural characteristics of the word. After presentation of all the words, the subjects were tested in free recall. Time of day had no effect on overall recall scores. Nevertheless, we observed a phase difference in the recall of items processed at superficial or deep levels. Items encoded by typographical attributes were more readily recalled at 02.00 than at 18.00, whereas semantically encoded words were less well recalled at night than during the day. There was also an interaction between the serial position of the items and time of day. At 22.00 and 02.00, subjects recalled words from the end of the list better. The results are discussed in terms of resource allocation models.

  18. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared to the written-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared to the written-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written-assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared to the current written record based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared to either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

  19. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): Comparison of a Mobile Phone Digital Entry App for Dietary Data Collection With 24-Hour Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Sarah; Giannelli, Valentina; Yap, Megan LH; Tang, Lie Ming; Roy, Rajshri; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Hebden, Lana; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background The electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA), a digital entry food record mobile phone app, was developed to measure energy and nutrient intake prospectively. This can be used in monitoring population intakes or intervention studies in young adults. Objective The objective was to assess the relative validity of e-DIA as a dietary assessment tool for energy and nutrient intakes using the 24-hour dietary recall as a reference method. Methods University students aged 19 to 24 years recorded their food and drink intake on the e-DIA for five days consecutively and completed 24-hour dietary recalls on three random days during this 5-day study period. Mean differences in energy, macro-, and micronutrient intakes were evaluated between the methods using paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and correlation coefficients were calculated on unadjusted, energy-adjusted, and deattenuated values. Bland-Altman plots and cross-classification into quartiles were used to assess agreement between the two methods. Results Eighty participants completed the study (38% male). No significant differences were found between the two methods for mean intakes of energy or nutrients. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.79 (mean 0.68). Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement between the methods but without obvious bias. Cross-classification into same or adjacent quartiles ranged from 75% to 93% (mean 85%). Conclusions The e-DIA shows potential as a dietary intake assessment tool at a group level with good ranking agreement for energy and all nutrients. PMID:26508282

  20. Computerized portion-size estimation compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls for measurement of fat, fruit, and vegetable intake in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Toobert, Deborah J; Strycker, Lisa A; Hampson, Sarah E; Westling, Erika; Christiansen, Steven M; Hurley, Thomas G; Hébert, James R

    2011-10-01

    Validated self-report methods of dietary assessment exist and might be improved in terms of both accuracy and cost-efficiency with computer technology. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop an initial version of an interactive CD-ROM program to estimate fruit, vegetable, and fat intake, and to compare it to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (averaged over 3 days). In 2009, overweight male and female adults (n=205) from Lane County, OR, completed computerized and paper versions of fruit, vegetable, and fat screening instruments, and multiple 24-hour dietary recalls. Summary scores from the 10-item National Cancer Institute Fruit and Vegetable Scan and the 18-item Block Fat Screener were compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake estimates (criterion measures). Measurement models were used to derive deattenuated correlations with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls of paper and CD-ROM administrations of Fruit and Vegetable Scan fruit intake, vegetable intake, and fruit and vegetable intake, and Block Fat Screener fat intake. The computerized assessment and paper surveys were related to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 to 0.73 (all P≤0.0001). The CD-ROM-derived estimate of fruit intake was more closely associated with 24-hour dietary recall (r=0.73) than the paper-derived estimate (r=0.54; P<0.05), but the other comparisons did not differ significantly. Findings from this preliminary study with overweight adults indicate the need for additional enhancements to the CD-ROM assessment and more extensive validation studies.

  1. Computerized portion-size estimation compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls for measurement of fat, fruit, and vegetable intake in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Toobert, Deborah J; Strycker, Lisa A; Hampson, Sarah E; Westling, Erika; Christiansen, Steven M; Hurley, Thomas G; Hébert, James R

    2011-10-01

    Validated self-report methods of dietary assessment exist and might be improved in terms of both accuracy and cost-efficiency with computer technology. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop an initial version of an interactive CD-ROM program to estimate fruit, vegetable, and fat intake, and to compare it to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (averaged over 3 days). In 2009, overweight male and female adults (n=205) from Lane County, OR, completed computerized and paper versions of fruit, vegetable, and fat screening instruments, and multiple 24-hour dietary recalls. Summary scores from the 10-item National Cancer Institute Fruit and Vegetable Scan and the 18-item Block Fat Screener were compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake estimates (criterion measures). Measurement models were used to derive deattenuated correlations with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls of paper and CD-ROM administrations of Fruit and Vegetable Scan fruit intake, vegetable intake, and fruit and vegetable intake, and Block Fat Screener fat intake. The computerized assessment and paper surveys were related to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 to 0.73 (all P≤0.0001). The CD-ROM-derived estimate of fruit intake was more closely associated with 24-hour dietary recall (r=0.73) than the paper-derived estimate (r=0.54; P<0.05), but the other comparisons did not differ significantly. Findings from this preliminary study with overweight adults indicate the need for additional enhancements to the CD-ROM assessment and more extensive validation studies. PMID:21963026

  2. Identifying nutrients that are under-reported by an automated 24-hour dietary recall method in overweight and obese women after weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underreporting of energy intake by 15-50% is a common problem in dietary assessment. Evidence suggests overweight/obese respondents are more likely to under-report than normal weight. This study compared Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24)-reported dietary intake to true intake in ove...

  3. The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24): A resource for researchers, clinicians, and educators from the National Cancer Institute

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) provide high-quality dietary intake data with minimal bias, making them the preferred tool for monitoring the diets of populations and, increasingly, for studying diet and disease associations. Traditional 24HDRs, however, are...

  4. Validation of the Portuguese self-administered computerised 24-hour dietary recall among second-, third- and fourth-grade children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current methods for assessing children's dietary intake, such as interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall (24-h DR), are time consuming and resource intensive. Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use with children. The present study assessed the validity of ...

  5. Fourth-Grade Children are Less Accurate in Reporting School Breakfast than School Lunch during 24-Hour Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Royer, Julie A.; Hardin, James W.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Albert F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare reporting accuracy for breakfast and lunch in two studies. Design Children were observed eating school meals and interviewed the following morning about the previous day. Study 1 – 104 children were each interviewed one to three times with ≥25 days separating any two interviews. Study 2 – 121 children were each interviewed once in forward (morning-to-evening) and once in reverse (evening-to-morning) order, separated by ≥29 days. Setting 12 schools. Participants Fourth-grade children. Main Outcome Measures For each meal: food-item variables – observed number, reported number, omission rate, intrusion rate, total inaccuracy; kilocalorie variables – observed, reported, correspondence rate, inflation ratio. Analysis General linear mixed-models. Results For each study, observed and reported numbers of items and kilocalories, and correspondence rate (reporting accuracy), were greater for lunch than breakfast; omission rate, intrusion rate, and inflation ratio (measures of reporting error) were greater for breakfast than lunch. Study 1 – for each meal over interviews, total inaccuracy decreased and correspondence rate increased. Study 2 – for each meal for boys for reverse and girls for forward order, omission rate was lower and correspondence rate was higher. Conclusions and Implications Breakfast was reported less accurately than lunch. Despite improvement over interviews (Study 1) and differences for order × sex (Study 2), reporting accuracy was low for breakfast and lunch. PMID:17493562

  6. Design of solar thermal dryers for 24-hour food drying processes (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solar drying is a ubiquitous method that has been adopted for many years as a food preservation method. Most of the published articles in the literature provide insight on the performance of solar dryers in service but little information on the dryer construction material selection process or mater...

  7. Design of solar thermal dryers for 24-hour food drying processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solar drying is a method that has been adopted for many years as a food preservation method. To this date, significant advancements have been made in this field with the adoption of a multitude of solar thermal dryer designs for single-layer and multi-layer drying of fruit and vegetables e.g. cabine...

  8. Development and Pilot Testing of 24-Hour Multiple-Pass Recall to Assess Dietary Intake of Toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-Born Mothers Living in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Mosdøl, Annhild; Aunan, Marte Bergsund; Monsen, Carina; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual tools (a picture library for food identification and portion size estimation) was developed and tested in 12 mothers from Somalia and Iraq with children aged 10–21 months. Five female field workers were recruited and trained to conduct the interviews. Evaluation data for the 24-h recall procedure were collected from both the mothers and the field workers. Nutrient intake was calculated using a Norwegian dietary calculation system. Each child’s estimated energy intake was compared with its estimated energy requirement. Both the mothers and the field workers found the method feasible and the visual tools useful. The estimated energy intake corresponded well with the estimated energy requirement for most of the children (within mean ± 2 SD, except for three). The pilot study identified the need for additional foods in the picture library and some crucial aspects in training and supervising the field workers to reduce sources of error in the data collection. PMID:24949548

  9. Estimated dietary intakes of flavonols, flavanones and flavones in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24 hour dietary recall cohort.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Fedirko, Veronika; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Ericson, Ulrica; Amiano, Pilar; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Naska, Androniki; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Cassidy, Aedin; Overvad, Kim; Peeters, Petra H M; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Quirós, J Ramón; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Johansson, Gerd; Johansson, Ingegerd; Drake, Isabel; Crowe, Francesca L; Barricarte, Aurelio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Norat, Teresa; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Touillaud, Marina; Salvini, Simonetta; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

    2011-12-01

    Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130·9 and 97·0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36·8 mg/d in men from Umeå and 37·2 mg/d in women from Malmö (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46·6 to 52·9 % depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38·5 to 47·3 % and flavones from 5·8 to 8·6 %. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.

  10. High levels of low energy reporting on 24-hour recalls and three questionnaires in an elderly low-socioeconomic status population.

    PubMed

    Tooze, Janet A; Vitolins, Mara Z; Smith, Shannon L; Arcury, Thomas A; Davis, Cralen C; Bell, Ronny A; DeVellis, Robert F; Quandt, Sara A

    2007-05-01

    Studies of low energy reporting in the elderly are limited, yet changes in energy balance and the incidence of chronic disease make this a critical time to assess energy intake in this population. The objective of this study was to assess low energy reporting on 24-h recalls (24HR), a FFQ, a picture sort FFQ (PSFFQ), and a meal pattern questionnaire (MPQ), and to relate low energy reporting status to personal characteristics and dietary characteristics, including the Healthy Eating Index. Monthly 24HR were completed over 6 mo, followed by 3 interviewer-administered questionnaires. The Goldberg equation was used to determine reporting status for the dietary assessment methods among older, rural, low socioeconomic status, white, African American, and Native American men and women. The relations of variables of interest to low energy reporting were considered one at a time and in multiple logistic regression models. The percentage of participants classified as accurate reporters varied from 40% (FFQ) to 63% (PSFFQ) among men and 60% (24HR, PSFFQ, MPQ) to 63% (FFQ) among women; high energy reporting was observed on the MPQ. Low energy reporters on the FFQ tended to be men and to be overweight or obese (P < 0.05). Underreporting seemed to be due to omitting foods from major food groups as well as from omitting discretionary energy foods. There was a high degree of low energy reporting in this population, particularly by men, even with six 24HR. PMID:17449594

  11. Measurement error corrected sodium and potassium intake estimation using 24-hour urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Van Horn, Linda; Tinker, Lesley F; Neuhouser, Marian L; Carbone, Laura; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Thomas, Fridtjof; Prentice, Ross L

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological studies of the association of sodium and potassium intake with cardiovascular disease risk have almost exclusively relied on self-reported dietary data. Here, 24-hour urinary excretion assessments are used to correct the dietary self-report data for measurement error under the assumption that 24-hour urine recovery provides a biomarker that differs from usual intake according to a classical measurement model. Under this assumption, dietary self-reports underestimate sodium by 0% to 15%, overestimate potassium by 8% to 15%, and underestimate sodium/potassium ratio by ≈20% using food frequency questionnaires, 4-day food records, or three 24-hour dietary recalls in Women's Health Initiative studies. Calibration equations are developed by linear regression of log-transformed 24-hour urine assessments on corresponding log-transformed self-report assessments and several study subject characteristics. For each self-report method, the calibration equations turned out to depend on race and age and strongly on body mass index. After adjustment for temporal variation, calibration equations using food records or recalls explained 45% to 50% of the variation in (log-transformed) 24-hour urine assessments for sodium, 60% to 70% of the variation for potassium, and 55% to 60% of the variation for sodium/potassium ratio. These equations may be suitable for use in epidemiological disease association studies among postmenopausal women. The corresponding signals from food frequency questionnaire data were weak, but calibration equations for the ratios of sodium and potassium/total energy explained ≈35%, 50%, and 45% of log-biomarker variation for sodium, potassium, and their ratio, respectively, after the adjustment for temporal biomarker variation and may be suitable for cautious use in epidemiological studies. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000611.

  12. Sleep deprivation impairs recall of social transmission of food preference in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wooden, Jessica I; Pido, Jennifer; Mathews, Hunter; Kieltyka, Ryan; Montemayor, Bertha A; Ward, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates that sleep plays an important role in learning and memory, and disruption of sleep especially seems to interfere with hippocampal memory processes. Social transmission of food preference (STFP), a natural test of paired associative learning, has been shown to be dependent on the hippocampus. While social transmission of food preference is not a novel task, it has not been used to examine the role of sleep in memory consolidation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: cage control; sleep-deprived; and device control. Demonstrator rats were given powdered food mixed with a target spice. Test rats then interacted with demonstrator rats before being given a two choice test of powered food with the target spice or a novel spice. Sleep-deprived rats were then placed in an automated device that prevented sleep for 24 hours. After sleep deprivation, animals were given a preference test again to determine memory for the target spice at both 24 hours and 72 hours. Polysomnography was used to validate the method of sleep deprivation. During immediate preference testing, rats demonstrated a clear preference for the food containing the target spice. Rats that experienced 24 hours of sleep deprivation following the initial testing indicated a significant reduction in the recall of the target spice at 24 and 72 hours. The cage control and device animals maintained their preference for food containing the target spice. Therefore, the loss of sleep interfered with memory consolidation for food preference learned via social transmission. PMID:25395874

  13. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  14. Ingested acidic food and liquids may lead to misinterpretation of 24-hour ambulatory pH tests: focus on measurement of extra-esophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Koskenvuo, Juha W; Pärkkä, Jussi P; Hartiala, Jaakko J; Kinnunen, Ilpo; Peltola, Matti; Sala, Eeva

    2007-07-01

    Normal values of extra-esophageal reflux are difficult to determine owing to variation in the location of the proximal electrode, limited information on the ingestion of acidic food, different exclusion periods for meals, and poor reproducibility of measurement of extra-esophageal reflux. We studied whether ambulatory esophageal pH testing is disturbed by acidic food ingestion. Eighteen healthy subjects were enrolled in standard dual-channel esophageal pH tests (recorder 1). Ten subjects were equipped with another pH device (recorder 2), positioned to measure extra-esophageal reflux. The subjects were exposed to controlled ingestion of different acidic food or liquid for five 1-min periods. The present study showed that acidic food ingestion for 5 min has a significant effect on the outcome of standard dual-channel ambulatory pH testing. Reflux occurs equally on proximal channels during ingestion of acidic food, whether the proximal channel position is normal or 2 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. We recommend avoiding acidic food intake during esophageal pH testing.

  15. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  16. Food Recall Attitudes and Behaviors of School Nutrition Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisamore, Amber; Roberts, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore school nutrition directors' attitudes and behaviors about food recalls. Specific objectives included: 1) Determine current food recall attitudes and the relationship between demographics and these attitudes; 2) Determine current practices of school nutrition directors related to…

  17. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  18. Recalls

    MedlinePlus

    ... XP Turbo Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles Due to Fire Hazard; Severe Burn Injuries; Includes Previously Recalled RZR ... Salewa North America Recalls Wild Country Climbing Harnesses Due to Fall Hazard (Recall ...

  19. The food similarity index: a new measure of dietary acculturation based on dietary recall data.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Quiros, Susana; Frisco, Michelle L

    2015-04-01

    This study introduces a flexible indicator of dietary acculturation that measures immigrants' eating behavior relative to U.S.-born persons. Using 24-hour dietary recall data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey pooled across multiple years from 1999/00 through 2009/10, we developed and tested the validity of the "Food Similarity Index" (FSI), which indicates the similarity of the foods consumed by individuals to the foods most commonly consumed by same-aged U.S-born persons of all racial/ethnic groups. We demonstrate its utility here for children and adults of four racial-ethnic groups. FSI was positively associated with the consumption of common American foods and negatively associated with eating Hispanic and Asian foods. In addition, FSI was associated with generational status among all racial/ethnic groups and duration of U.S. residence among Hispanics. FSI was also negatively associated with the Healthy Eating Index 2010. The FSI enables researchers to compare immigrants' dietary patterns over generations and across groups. It can be used to study how dietary acculturation shapes health risk factors and diseases. PMID:25245371

  20. 21 CFR 107.200 - Food and Drug Administration-required recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-required recall. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.200 Food and Drug Administration-required recall. When the Food and Drug Administration determines that...

  1. 21 CFR 107.200 - Food and Drug Administration-required recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-required recall. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.200 Food and Drug Administration-required recall. When the Food and Drug Administration determines that...

  2. 21 CFR 107.200 - Food and Drug Administration-required recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-required recall. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.200 Food and Drug Administration-required recall. When the Food and Drug Administration determines that...

  3. 21 CFR 107.200 - Food and Drug Administration-required recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-required recall. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.200 Food and Drug Administration-required recall. When the Food and Drug Administration determines that...

  4. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  5. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  6. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  7. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  8. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  9. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  10. Urinary {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, and retinol-binding protein levels in general populations in Japan with references to cadmium in urine, blood, and 24-hour food duplicates

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Moon, Chan-Seok; Zhang, Zuo-Wen

    1995-07-01

    Possible cadmium (Cd) exposure-associated changes in urinary levels of low-molecular-weight proteins were studied in nonsmoking and nondrinking female members of the general Japanese population (378 subjects with no known occupational heavy metal exposure) who lived at 19 study sites (all without any known environmental heavy metal pollution) in 13 prefectures throughout Japan. The external Cd dose was evaluated in terms of daily Cd intake via food (Cd-F), whereas Cd levels in blood (Cd-B) and urine (Cd-U) were taken as internal dose indicators. When the subjects were classified according to Cd-F into three groups with {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} (20.4 {mu}g/day as a geometric mean of 97 women), {open_quotes}middle{close_quotes} (35.0 {mu}g/day, 120 women) and {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} (67.0 {mu}g/day, 66 women) exposure, both Cd-B and Cd-U increased in parallel with the changes in Cd-F. However, there were no dose-dependent changes in {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin or retinol-binding protein levels in urine. {alpha}{sub 1}-Microglobulin levels appeared to increase, but the distribution of the cases above the two cutoff levels of 9.6 and 15.8 {mu}g/mg creatinine among the three Cd-F groups did not show any bias. Overall, it was concluded that there was no apparent Cd exposure-associated elevation in urinary low-molecular-weight protein levels in the study population. 41 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration food allergen recalls after implementation of the food allergen labeling and consumer protection act.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Steven M; Zhu, Jianmei

    2013-11-01

    To avoid potentially life-threatening reactions, food allergic consumers rely on information on food labels to help them avoid exposure to a food or ingredient that could trigger a reaction. To help consumers in the United States obtain the information that they need, the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 defined a major food allergen as being one of eight foods or food groups and any ingredient that contains protein from one of these foods or food groups. A food that contains an undeclared major food allergen is misbranded under the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and is subject to recall. Food allergen labeling problems are the most common cause of recalls for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated food products. To help understand why food allergen recalls continue to occur at a high rate, information on each food allergen recall that occurred in fiscal years 2007 through 2012 was obtained from the FDA recall database. This information was analyzed to identify the food, allergen, root cause, and mode of discovery for each food allergen recall. Bakery products were the most frequently recalled food type, and milk was the most frequently undeclared major food allergen. Use of the wrong package or label was the most frequent problem leading to food allergen recalls. These data are the first reported that indicate the importance of label and package controls as public health measures.

  12. 21 CFR 107.200 - Food and Drug Administration-required recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.200 Food and... adulterated or misbranded infant formula presents a risk to human health, a manufacturer shall...

  13. 21 CFR 7.45 - Food and Drug Administration-requested recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... preceded by oral communication or by a visit from an authorized representative of the local Food and Drug... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-requested recall. 7.45 Section 7.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  14. 21 CFR 7.45 - Food and Drug Administration-requested recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... preceded by oral communication or by a visit from an authorized representative of the local Food and Drug... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-requested recall. 7.45 Section 7.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  15. 21 CFR 7.45 - Food and Drug Administration-requested recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... preceded by oral communication or by a visit from an authorized representative of the local Food and Drug... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-requested recall. 7.45 Section 7.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  16. 21 CFR 7.45 - Food and Drug Administration-requested recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... preceded by oral communication or by a visit from an authorized representative of the local Food and Drug... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-requested recall. 7.45 Section 7.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  17. 21 CFR 7.45 - Food and Drug Administration-requested recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... preceded by oral communication or by a visit from an authorized representative of the local Food and Drug... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration-requested recall. 7.45 Section 7.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  18. The 24 Hours before Hospitalization: Factors Related to Suicide Attempting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, John A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Psychiatric inpatients (N=59) were interviewd concerning psychological and environmental events that occurred in the 24 hours prior to their hospitalization. Suicide attempters were more likely to have used alcohol or marijuana and less likely to have contacted a health care professional than suicide ideators, even when past history of suicide…

  19. 77 FR 45636 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer Reinspection Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the...

  20. Effect of daily oral omeprazole on 24 hour intragastric acidity.

    PubMed Central

    Walt, R P; Gomes, M D; Wood, E C; Logan, L H; Pounder, R E

    1983-01-01

    Twenty four hour intragastric acidity was measured in nine patients with duodenal ulcer before and after one week of treatment with oral omeprazole 30 mg daily, a drug that inhibits gastric secretion by inhibition of parietal cell H+K+ adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase). Omeprazole virtually eliminated intragastric acidity in all patients: the median 24 hour intragastric pH rose from 1.4 to 5.3 and the mean hourly hydrogen ion activity fell from 38.50 to 1.95 mmol(mEq)/1 (p less than 0.001). This inhibition of 24 hour intragastric acidity is more profound than that previously reported with either cimetidine 1 g daily or ranitidine 300 mg daily. PMID:6407676

  1. [Gastroesophageal reflux during pregnancy: 24-hour esophageal ph monitoring].

    PubMed

    Anton, C; Anton, E; Drug, V; Stanciu, C

    2001-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) occurs in 30-50% of all pregnancies. The progressive rise in plasma progesterone has been suggested as a possible mediator of GER during pregnancy. Recent advances in technology have made it possible to detect GER through monitoring of esophageal pH for prolonged periods, including sleep. 24-hour pH monitoring is the proper method for diagnosing GER in pregnant women. If 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring is to be a useful diagnostic tool, it must reliably discriminate GER patients despite daily variations in distal esophageal acid exposure. To address this issue, we studied 62 women (30 healthy non-pregnant women without GER symptoms and 32 pregnant women with GER symptoms-heartburn, acid regurgitation) with 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Intrasubject reproducibility of three pH parameters to discriminate the presence of abnormal acid reflux was determined (DeMeester score, Kaye score, circadian one hour diagram for pH < 4). Each patient was interviewed, using a reliable questionnaire detailing individual habits, life style characteristics and symptoms, at four time points during the first, second, third trimesters of pregnancy and post-partum period. Symptoms of GER are common in pregnancy and although GER rarely endangers maternal or fetal health, it can significantly affect patient comfort and quality of life. We conclude: 1. GER is almost constantly present during pregnancy, increasing with gestational age. 2. The most important pH--parameter is DeMcester score. 3. Heartburn disappear after delivery. 4. 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring is the gold standard for measuring acid exposure and is a reproducible test for the diagnosis of GER in pregnancy.

  2. Usage and Recall of the Food Stamp Office Resource Kit (FSORK) by Food Stamp Applicants in 4 California Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate recall and usage of the Food Stamp Office Resource Kit (FSORK), a set of nutrition education materials designed for use in food stamp offices. Design: Client intercept exit surveys, an environmental scan, and individual observations of clients in the food stamp office. Setting: Four food stamp offices in California.…

  3. Children's Categorization of Foods: Clusters for Food Search Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to identify categories of similar foods that are meaningful to children to facilitate their food search in a computer-administered self-completed 24-hour dietary recall (24hdr). One hundred forty-eight 8- to 13-year0old children sorted 62 cards with food pictures, from ...

  4. Photo-assisted recall increases estimates of energy and macronutrient intake in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Herrmann, Stephen D; Lee, Jaehoon; Sullivan, Debra K; Rondon, Mary F; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2013-12-01

    Diet assessment of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities is challenging because of their limited cognitive abilities. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and outcomes of combining photos with 24-hour dietary recalls for the assessment of energy and macronutrient intakes in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Participants used an iPad 2 tablet computer (Apple) to take photos of all food and beverages consumed before a standard, multiple-pass, 24-hour dietary recall. After the standard 24-hour diet recall, the photos were reviewed with the participant for clarification details (eg, portion size) and differences were recorded. The standard 24-hour recall and photo-assisted recall were entered separately into the Nutrition Data System for Research for computerized dietary analysis. Sixty-four eating occasions were entered from 23 participants (48% female; mean age 26.4±9.7 years). Participants captured photos for 66.5%±30.4% of all recorded eating occasions. Greater energy intake per eating occasion was reported with the photo-assisted recalls than the standard recalls (625.6±85.7 kcal vs 497.2±86.6 kcal; P=0.002) and a greater intake of grams of fat (P=0.006), protein (P=0.029), and carbohydrates (P=0.003). Photo-assisted 24-hour recalls provided a significant increase in total calories and macronutrient content compared with a standard 24-hour recall and may be a feasible method to enhance dietary assessment in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

  5. Photo-assisted recall increases estimates of energy and macronutrient intake in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lee, Jaehoon; Sullivan, Debra K.; Rondon, Mary F.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Diet assessment of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) is challenging due to their limited cognitive abilities. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and outcomes of combining photos with 24-hour dietary recalls for the assessment of energy and macronutrient intake in adults with IDD. Participants used an iPad 2 tablet computer to take photos of all food and beverages consumed before a standard, multiple-pass, 24-hour dietary recall. Following the standard 24-hour diet recall, the photos were reviewed with the participant for clarification details (e.g., portion size, etc.) and differences were recorded. The standard 24-hour recall and the photo-assisted recall were entered separately into Nutrition Data System for Research for computerized dietary analysis. Sixty-four eating occasions were entered from 23 participants (48% female; mean age 26.4 ±9.7 years). Participants captured photos for 66.5% ± 30.4% of all recorded eating occasions. Greater energy intake per eating occasion was reported with the photo-assisted recalls than the standard recalls (625.6 ± 85.7 kcals vs. 497.2 ± 86.6 kcals, p=0.002) and a greater intake of grams of fat (p=0.006) protein (p=0.029) and carbohydrates (p=0.003). Photo-assisted 24-hour recalls provided a significant increase in total calories and macronutrient content compared to a standard 24-hour recall and may be a feasible method to enhance dietary assessment in adults with IDD. PMID:24095784

  6. Photo-assisted recall increases estimates of energy and macronutrient intake in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Herrmann, Stephen D; Lee, Jaehoon; Sullivan, Debra K; Rondon, Mary F; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2013-12-01

    Diet assessment of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities is challenging because of their limited cognitive abilities. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and outcomes of combining photos with 24-hour dietary recalls for the assessment of energy and macronutrient intakes in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Participants used an iPad 2 tablet computer (Apple) to take photos of all food and beverages consumed before a standard, multiple-pass, 24-hour dietary recall. After the standard 24-hour diet recall, the photos were reviewed with the participant for clarification details (eg, portion size) and differences were recorded. The standard 24-hour recall and photo-assisted recall were entered separately into the Nutrition Data System for Research for computerized dietary analysis. Sixty-four eating occasions were entered from 23 participants (48% female; mean age 26.4±9.7 years). Participants captured photos for 66.5%±30.4% of all recorded eating occasions. Greater energy intake per eating occasion was reported with the photo-assisted recalls than the standard recalls (625.6±85.7 kcal vs 497.2±86.6 kcal; P=0.002) and a greater intake of grams of fat (P=0.006), protein (P=0.029), and carbohydrates (P=0.003). Photo-assisted 24-hour recalls provided a significant increase in total calories and macronutrient content compared with a standard 24-hour recall and may be a feasible method to enhance dietary assessment in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:24095784

  7. Laparoscopic Colon Resections With Discharge Less Than 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Maedeh; Alam, Shaan E.; Kar, Pran M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A short hospital stay is one of the main advantages of laparoscopic surgery. Previous studies have shown that after a multimodal fast-track process, the hospital length of stay can be shortened to between 2 and 5 days. The objective of this review is to show that the hospital length of stay can, in some cases, be reduced to <24 hours. Methods: This study retrospectively reviews a surgeon's experience with laparoscopic surgery over a 12-month period. Seven patients were discharged home within 24 hours after minimally invasive laparoscopic surgical treatment, following a modified fast-track protocol that was adopted for perioperative care. Results: Of the 7 patients, 4 received laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for malignant disease and 3 underwent sigmoid colectomies for recurrent diverticulitis. The mean hospital stay was 21 hours, 47 minutes; the mean volume of intraoperative fluid (lactated Ringer) was 1850 mL; the mean surgical blood loss was only 74.3 mL; the mean duration of surgery was 118 minutes; and the patients were ambulated and fed a liquid diet after recovery from anesthesia. The reviewed patients had functional gastrointestinal tracts and were agreeable to the timing of discharge. On the follow-up visit, they showed no adverse consequences such as bleeding, infection, or anastomotic leak. Conclusion: Laparoscopic colon surgery that incorporated multimodal perioperative care allowed patients to be discharged within the first 24 hours. Careful postoperative outpatient follow-up is important in monitoring complications such as anastomotic leak, which may not present until postoperative day 5. PMID:23925012

  8. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deitrick, Ronald W.; Hillman, Angela R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK: 19172 ± 4542 kJ versus NoBK: 15312 ± 4513 kJ; p < 0.001) and evening (BK: 12265 ± 4278 kJ versus NoBK: 10833 ± 4065; p = 0.039) energy intake and RQ (BK: 0.90 ± 0.03 versus NoBK: 0.86 ± 0.03; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise (5.2 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L; p = 0.025). Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management. PMID:27738523

  9. Using paradata to investigate food reporting patterns in AMPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM) Blaise instrument collects 24-hour dietary recalls for the What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Each year it is used in approximately 10,000 interviews which ask individuals to recall the foods and beverages that we...

  10. Diverse Food Items Are Similarly Categorized by 8- to 13-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Alicia; Knight Sepulveda, Karina; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Islam, Noemi; Missaghian, Mariam

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Assess how 8- to 13-year-old children categorized and labeled food items for possible use as part of a food search strategy in a computerized 24-hour dietary recall. Design: A set of 62 cards with pictures and names of food items from 18 professionally defined food groups was sorted by each child into piles of similar food items.…

  11. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work–social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns. PMID:23957268

  12. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation.

    PubMed

    Taber, Michael J; Hartley, Geoffrey L; McGarr, Gregory W; Zaharieva, Dessi; Basset, Fabien A; Hynes, Zach; Haman, Francois; Pinet, Bernard M; DuCharme, Michel B; Cheung, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (T c) and cognitive test battery (CTB) performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature). Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold) were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease T c after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5-1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance. PMID:27478839

  13. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Geoffrey L.; Zaharieva, Dessi; Basset, Fabien A.; Hynes, Zach

    2016-01-01

    Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (Tc) and cognitive test battery (CTB) performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature). Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold) were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease Tc after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5–1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance. PMID:27478839

  14. [Necessity of a 24-hour system of blood transfusion testing].

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    The preventive effects of a 24-hour system of blood transfusion testing on mistyping of transfused blood was examined. Blood transfusion tests have been performed by blood transfusion technologists during working hours and by physicians at other times. In March 2000, we introduced a system in which technologists perform blood transfusion tests after working hours. Technologists of the Blood Transfusion Unit and Central Clinical Laboratory perform the test jointly, and column agglutination technology was introduced as the test method. A computer system setup exclusively for the testing was also introduced to perform computer cross-matching. Since transfusion error is likely to occur during emergency blood transfusion, a manual was established to prioritize safety. After introduction of the system, mistyping that may have been caused by inaccurate blood test results markedly decreased, confirming the usefulness of this system for prevention of mistyping. In addition, transfusion errors also decreased in wards and the improved system increased the safety of the entire medical care system. The frequency of mistyping was about 1% when physicians performed blood typing, showing the importance of clinical technologists for blood transfusion tests. PMID:12652691

  15. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work-social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns.

  16. Comparison of Population Iodine Estimates from 24-Hour Urine and Timed-Spot Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Cogswell, Mary E.; Swanson, Christine A.; Sullivan, Kevin M.; Chen, Te-Ching; Carriquiry, Alicia L.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Wang, Chia-Yih

    2014-01-01

    Background: Median urine iodine concentration (UIC; μg/L) in spot urine samples is recommended for monitoring population iodine status. Other common measures are iodine:creatinine ratio (I/Cr; μg/g) and estimated 24-hour urine iodine excretion (UIE; I/Cr×predicted 24-hour Cr; μg/day). Despite different units, these measures are often used interchangeably, and it is unclear how they compare with the reference standard 24-hour UIE. Methods: Volunteers aged 18–39 years collected all their urine samples for 24 hours (n=400). Voids from morning, afternoon, evening, overnight, and a composite 24-hour sample were analyzed for iodine. We calculated median observed 24-hour UIE and 24-hour UIC, and spot UIC, I/Cr, and two measures of estimated UIE calculated using predicted 24-hour Cr from published estimates by Kesteloot and Joosens (varies by age and sex) and published equations by Mage et al. (varies by age, sex, race, and anthropometric measures). We examined mean differences and relative difference across iodine excretion levels using Bland–Altman plots. Results: Median 24-hour UIE was 173.6 μg/day and 24-hour UIC was 144.8 μg/L. From timed-spot urine samples, estimates were: UIC 147.3–156.2 μg/L; I/Cr 103.6–114.3 μg/g, estimated 24-hour UIE (Kesteloot and Joosens) 145.7–163.3 μg/day; and estimated 24-hour UIE (Mage) 176.5–187.7 μg/day. Iodine measures did not vary consistently by timing of spot urine collection. Compared with observed 24-hour UIE, on average, estimated (Mage) 24-hour UIE was not significantly different, while estimated 24-hour UIE (Kesteloot and Joosens) was significantly different for some ethnicity/sex groups. Compared with 24-hour UIC, on average, spot UIC did not differ. Conclusions: Estimates of UIC, I/Cr, and estimated 24-hour UIE (I/Cr×predicted 24-hour Cr) from spot urine samples should not be used interchangeably. Estimated 24-hour UIE, where predicted 24-hour Cr varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and

  17. Comparison of a Web-based versus traditional diet recall among children.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Islam, Noemi; Baranowski, Janice; Martin, Shelby; Beltran, Alicia; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Adame, Su-heyla; Watson, Kathleen B; Thompson, Debbe; Cullen, Karen W; Subar, Amy F

    2012-04-01

    Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use in adult and pediatric populations. This study tested whether 8- to 13-year-old children could complete an early version of the Automated Self Administered 24-hour diet recall (ASA24) and how this compared to an interviewer-administered 24-hour diet recall. One-hundred twenty 8- to 13-year-old children were recruited in Houston from June through August 2009 and randomly assigned to complete either the ASA24 or an interviewer-administered 24-hour diet recall, followed by the other recall mode covering the same time interval. Multivariate analysis of variance, testing for differences by age, sex, and ethnic/racial group, were applied to percentages of food matches, intrusions, and omissions between reports on the ASA24 and the interviewer-administered 24-hour diet recall. For the ASA24, qualitative findings were reported regarding ease of use. Overall matches between interviewer-administered and ASA24 self-administered 24-hour diet recall was 47.8%. Matches were significantly lower among younger (8- to 9-year-old) compared with older (10- to 13-year-old) children. Omissions on ASA24 (18.9% overall) were most common among 8-year-olds and intermediate among 9-year-olds. Eight- and 9-year-olds had substantial difficulties and often required aid in completing ASA24. Findings from this study suggest that a simpler version of an Internet-based diet recall program would be easier for children to use. PMID:22717216

  18. Sulfites--a food and drug administration review of recalls and reported adverse events.

    PubMed

    Timbo, Babgaleh; Koehler, Kathleen M; Wolyniak, Cecilia; Klontz, Karl C

    2004-08-01

    Sulfite-sensitive individuals can experience adverse reactions after consuming foods containing sulfiting agents (sulfites), and some of these reactions may be severe. In the 1980s and 1990s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) acted to reduce the likelihood that sulfite-sensitive individuals would unknowingly consume foods containing sulfites. The FDA prohibited the use of sulfites on fruits and vegetables (except potatoes) to be served or presented fresh to the public and required that the presence of detectable levels of sulfites be declared on food labels, even when these sulfites are used as a processing aid or are a component of another ingredient in the food. In the present study, data from FDA recall records and adverse event reports were used to examine the current status of problems of sensitivity to sulfites in foods. From 1996 through 1999, the FDA processed a total of 59 recalls of foods containing undeclared sulfites; these 59 recalls involved 93 different food products. Fifty (55%) of the recalled products were classified as class I, a designation indicating that a consumer reasonably could have ingested > or = 10 mg of undeclared sulfites on a single occasion, a level that could potentially cause a serious adverse reaction in a susceptible person. From 1996 through mid-1999, the FDA received a total of 34 reports of adverse reactions allegedly due to eating foods containing undeclared sulfites. The average of 10 reports per year, although derived from a passive surveillance system, was lower than the average of 111 reports per year that the FDA received from 1980 to 1987, a decrease that may have resulted in part from FDA regulatory action.

  19. Preparation and results of a 24-hour orbital flight.

    PubMed

    Titov, G S

    1963-01-01

    The space age presents man with unprecedented opportunities for discovery and for cooperative endeavors to benefit all mankind. My flight of August 6-7, 1961 was conducted for the purpose of determining whether man can stay and work effectively and whether all systems of the spaceship can operate successfully during a period of 24 hours in space. The flight of Vostok II represents an experimental step in a logical sequence which included the first earth orbiting flight of USSR citizen Yuri A. Gagarin. Preparation for the flight included the study of theoretical and applied subjects, testing in various kinds of apparatus which provide acceleration, heat and isolation experience, brief airborne weightless flights and parachute landings, in addition to extensive training in a real spacecraft having simulators for normal and emergency contingencies of space flight. The actual flight was therefore carried out with a sense of confidence and familiarity and with continuous close radio contact with ground centers from whom my fellow cosmonauts served as spokesmen. Sequential boosters totaling 600 000 kg thrust placed the 4731 kg spaceship into a perfect orbit varying in altitude from 178-246 km in a plane 64 degrees 58' inclined to the equator. The spaceship made 17 orbits around the earth landing 25 hours, 18 minutes after take-off. The cabin had full atmospheric pressure and a comfortable habitability which could be extended for 10 days. I was able to maneuver the spaceship and perform many other control functions, make observations and take pictures of the earth and its cloud cover, eat meals and sleep all with good efficiency. I experienced mild symptoms suggestive of seasickness which were aggravated by head turning, ameliorated by sleep and entirely relieved by resumption of g-loading during descent. Altogether analyses of the physical and structural performance of the spaceship and the continuously monitored physiological responses of the pilot indicate that all

  20. Flexibility of working hours in the 24-hour society.

    PubMed

    Costa, G

    2006-01-01

    The 24-hour Society undergoes an ineluctable process towards a social organisation where time constraints are no more restricting human life. The borders between working and social times are no more fixed and rigidly determined, and the value of working time changes according to the different economic and social effects you may consider. Shift and night work, irregular and flexible working hours, together with new technologies, are the milestone of this epochal passage. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual, the companies, and the society? What is the cost/benefit ratio in terms of health and social well-being? Coping properly with this process means avoiding a passive acceptance of it with consequent maladjustments at both individual and social level, but adopting effective preventive and compensative strategies aimed at building up a more sustainable society. Flexible working times now appear to be one of the best ways to cope with the demands of the modern life, but there are different points of view about labour and temporal 'flexibility" between employers and employees. For the former it means a prompt adaptation to market demands and technological innovations; for the latter it is a way to improve working and social life, by decreasing work constraints and increasing control and autonomy. Although it can be easily speculated that individual-based 'flexibility" should improve health and well-being, and especially satisfaction, whereas company-based flexibility" might interfere negatively, the effective consequences on health and well-being have still to be analysed properly. PMID:17017360

  1. Children’s Recall of Fast Food Television Advertising—Testing the Adequacy of Food Marketing Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Amy M.; Wilking, Cara; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Emond, Jennifer A.; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim In the United States, the fast food companies McDonald’s and Burger King participate in marketing self-regulation programs that aim to limit emphasis on premiums and promote emphasis of healthy food choices. We determine what children recall from fast food television advertisements aired by these companies. Methods One hundred children aged 3–7 years were shown McDonald’s and Burger King children’s (MDC & BKC) and adult (MDA & BKA) meal ads, randomly drawn from ads that aired on national US television from 2010–11. Immediately after seeing the ad, children were asked to recall what they had seen and transcripts evaluated for descriptors of food, healthy food (apples or milk), and premiums/tie-ins. Results Premiums/tie-ins were common in children’s but rarely appeared in adult ads, and all children’s ads contained images of healthy foods (apples and milk). Participants were significantly less likely to recall any food after viewing the children’s vs. the adult ad (MDC 32% [95% confidence interval 23, 41] vs. MDA 68% [59, 77]) p <0.001; BKC 46% [39, 56] vs. BKA 67% [58, 76] respectively, p = 0.002). For children’s ads alone and for both restaurants, recall frequency for all food was not significantly different from premium/tie-ins, and participants were significantly more likely to recall other food items than apples or milk. Moreover, premiums/tie-ins were recalled much more frequently than healthy food (MDC 45% [35, 55] vs. 9% [3, 15] p<0.001; BKC 54% [44, 64] vs. 2% [0, 5] respectively, p<0.001). Conclusions Children’s net impressions of television fast food advertising indicate that industry self-regulation failed to achieve a de-emphasis on toy premiums and tie-ins and did not adequately communicate healthy menu choices. The methods devised for this study could be used to monitor and better regulate advertising patterns of practice. PMID:25738653

  2. Diverse Food Items Are Similarly Categorized by 8- to 13-year-old Children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objective was to assess how 8- to 13-year-old children categorized and labeled food items, for possible use as part of a food search strategy in a computerized 24-hour dietary recall. A set of 62 cards with pictures and names of food items from 18 professionally defined food groups was sor...

  3. 24 hour blood pressure monitoring in healthy and hypertensive children.

    PubMed Central

    Reusz, G S; Hóbor, M; Tulassay, T; Sallay, P; Miltényi, M

    1994-01-01

    24 Hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed to provide data on the normal daily blood pressure of healthy schoolchildren and on patients with hypertension. The subjects studied were 123 healthy schoolchildren with a mean (SD) age of 12.5 (1.6) years (range 9.5-14.5 years), 24 children with borderline or mild hypertension, 17 with renal hypertension and normal renal function, 10 with chronic renal failure, and six with a renal allograft. In eight children with definite renal disease a second measurement was performed after treatment modification. The monitor used for ABPM was validated with a mercury column manometer. The mean (SD) of the signed differences of the blood pressure measured by the two methods was -0.19 (1.75) mmHg for the systolic and -0.21 (2.11) mmHg for the diastolic blood pressure (n = 60). Normal values for daytime and night time blood pressure were determined for those aged 10-14 years. The mean (SD) blood pressure of the 123 children was 109 (7)/66 (8) mmHg (systolic/diastolic) for the daytime and 96 (8)/52 (7) mmHg at night time. Of the 24 children with borderline or mild hypertension 14 had a raised blood pressure on ABPM. The circadian rhythm was disturbed in three children of this group. Even children with normal daytime blood pressure had significantly higher systolic blood pressure in the night when compared with the controls. The incidence of disturbed circadian rhythm was higher in the groups with renal hypertension (4/17 in the subgroup with normal renal function, 5/16 in the group with renal failure and/or transplantation). All children undergoing a second ABPM measurement had a lower average blood pressure after treatment adjustment. ABPM measurements were reproducible and accurate. The method provided new data on the physiological circadian variation of blood pressure in healthy children. It proved to be a helpful tool in the diagnosis of hypertension, particularly in the detection of cases of disturbance of the

  4. Nutritional behavior of cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race: a field study report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information about behavior of energy intake in ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race is scarce. The nutritional strategy during such an event is an important factor which athletes should plan carefully before the race. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the nutritional intake of ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race with the current nutritional guidelines for endurance events. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship among the nutritional and performance variables. Methods Using a observational design, nutritional intake of eight males (mean ± SD: 36.7 ± 4.7 years; 71.6 ± 4.9 kg; 174.6 ± 7.3 cm; BMI 23.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2) participating in a 24-hour team relay cycling race was assessed. All food and fluid intake by athletes were weighed and recorded. Additionally, distance and speed performed by each rider were also recorded. Furthermore, before to the race, all subjects carried out an incremental exercise test to determine two heart rate-VO2 regression equations which were used to estimate the energy expenditure. Results The mean ingestion of macronutrients during the event was 943 ± 245 g (13.1 ± 4.0 g/kg) of carbohydrates, 174 ± 146 g (2.4 ± 1.9 g/kg) of proteins and 107 ± 56 g (1.5 ± 0.7 g/kg) of lipids, respectively. This amount of nutrients reported an average nutrient intake of 22.8 ± 8.9 MJ which were significantly lower compared with energy expenditure 42.9 ± 6.8 MJ (P = 0.012). Average fluid consumption corresponded to 10497 ± 2654 mL. Mean caffeine ingestion was 142 ± 76 mg. Additionally, there was no relationship between the main nutritional variables (i.e. energy intake, carbohydrates, proteins, fluids and caffeine ingestion) and the main performance variables (i.e. distance and speed). Conclusions A 24-hour hours cycling competition in a team relay format elicited high energy demands which were not compensated by energy intake of the athletes despite that dietary

  5. Food reporting patterns in AMPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete and accurate 24-hour dietary recalls are essential for nutrition monitoring in the United States. The USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM) uses a 5-step multiple pass approach. The first step is an unstructured, uninterrupted listing of all foods and beverages consumed. The next 3 s...

  6. Development and Validation of a Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire among Rural- and Urban-Dwelling Adults in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehghan, Mahshid; Lopez Jaramillo, Patricio; Duenas, Ruby; Anaya, Lilliam Lima; Garcia, Ronald G.; Zhang, Xiaohe; Islam, Shofiqul; Merchant, Anwar T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) against multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (DRs) that could be used for Colombian adults. Methods: A convenience sample of 219 individuals participated in the study. The validity of the FFQ was evaluated against multiple DRs. Four dietary recalls were collected during the year, and an FFQ…

  7. Increased energy density of the home-delivered lunch meal improves 24-hour nutrient intakes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Silver, Heidi J; Dietrich, Mary S; Castellanos, Victoria H

    2008-12-01

    As food intake declines with aging, older adults develop energy and nutrient inadequacies. It is important to design practical approaches to combat insufficient dietary intakes to decrease risk for acute and chronic diseases, illness, and injury. Manipulating the energy density of meals has improved energy intakes in institutional settings, but the effects on community-residing older adults who are at nutrition risk have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether enhancing the energy density of food items regularly served in a home-delivered meals program would increase lunch and 24-hour energy and nutrient intakes. In a randomized crossover counterbalanced design, 45 older adult Older American Act Nutrition Program participants received a regular and enhanced version of a lunch meal on alternate weeks. The types of foods, portion sizes (gram weight), and appearance of the lunch meal was held constant. Consumption of the enhanced meal increased average lunch energy intakes by 86% (P<0.001) and 24-hour energy intakes by 453 kcal (from 1,423.1+/-62.2 to 1,876.2+/-78.3 kcal, P<0.001). The 24-hour intakes of several key macronutrients and micronutrients also improved. These data suggest that altering the energy density of regularly served menu items is an effective strategy to improve dietary intakes of free-living older adults.

  8. US adolescents and MyPyramid: Associations between fast-food consumption and lower likelihood of meeting recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of this study were to determine the effect of fast food consumption on adolescents’ food group intakes and likelihood of meeting recommendations outlined in USDA’s MyPyramid Food Guidance System. Two days of 24-hour recall data from 1,956 adolescents 12-19 years of age collected in What W...

  9. Global harmonization of food safety regulation from the perspective of Korea and a novel fast automatic product recall system.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Mun-Gi; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-08-01

    Efforts have been made for global harmonization of food safety regulations among countries through international organizations such as WTO and WHO/FAO. Global harmonization of food safety regulations is becoming increasingly important for Korean consumers because more than half of food and agricultural products are imported and consumed. Through recent reorganization of the Korean government, a consolidated national food safety authority-the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS)-has been established for more efficient food safety control and better communication with consumers. The Automatic Sales Blocking System (ASBS), which blocks the sales of the recalled food products at the point of sale, has been implemented at over 40,000 retail food stores around the nation using state-of-the art information and communication technology (ICT) for faster recall of adulterated food products, and the e-Food Safety Control System has been developed for more efficient monitoring of national food safety surveillance situations. The National Food Safety Information Service was also established for monitoring and collecting food safety information and incidents worldwide, and shares relevant information with all stakeholders. The new approaches adopted by the Korean Food Safety Authority are expected to enhance public trust with regard to food safety issues and expedite the recall process of adulterated products from the market.

  10. Global harmonization of food safety regulation from the perspective of Korea and a novel fast automatic product recall system.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Mun-Gi; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-08-01

    Efforts have been made for global harmonization of food safety regulations among countries through international organizations such as WTO and WHO/FAO. Global harmonization of food safety regulations is becoming increasingly important for Korean consumers because more than half of food and agricultural products are imported and consumed. Through recent reorganization of the Korean government, a consolidated national food safety authority-the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS)-has been established for more efficient food safety control and better communication with consumers. The Automatic Sales Blocking System (ASBS), which blocks the sales of the recalled food products at the point of sale, has been implemented at over 40,000 retail food stores around the nation using state-of-the art information and communication technology (ICT) for faster recall of adulterated food products, and the e-Food Safety Control System has been developed for more efficient monitoring of national food safety surveillance situations. The National Food Safety Information Service was also established for monitoring and collecting food safety information and incidents worldwide, and shares relevant information with all stakeholders. The new approaches adopted by the Korean Food Safety Authority are expected to enhance public trust with regard to food safety issues and expedite the recall process of adulterated products from the market. PMID:23794245

  11. Analysis and critical comparison of food allergen recalls from the European Union, USA, Canada, Hong Kong, Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bucchini, Luca; Guzzon, Antonella; Poms, Roland; Senyuva, Hamide

    2016-05-01

    As part of a European Union-funded project (FP7) developing 'Integrated approaches to food allergen and allergy management', a database was constructed based on publicly available information on food allergen recalls in Europe, North America, Hong Kong, Australia and New Zealand. Over 2000 entries were made into the database. The database covers a 4-year period from 2011 to 2014 and each entry is categorised into food type (two different classifications), identified allergen and cause where indicated by the authorities. Across different authorities, by far the biggest incidence of undeclared allergens occurred in the food categories of prepared dishes and snacks (range = 12-53%), and cereals and bakery products (range = 14-25% of all recalls and/or alerts). The biggest incidence of undeclared allergens, according to the information from most authorities, occurred for milk and milk products (16-31% of all products with recall or alert), followed by cereals containing gluten (9-19%), soy (5-45%), and egg and egg products (5-17%). Although 42-90% of the products with recalls/alerts were explained as being 'Not indicated on the label', this is a generic explanation of cause and does not provide much insight into the causes of the recall/alerts. However, 0-17% of products with recalls/alerts could be coded as caused by the unintended presence of an allergen as the probable result of cross-contact in production. Construction of the database of allergen recalls has provided some important lessons and recommendations to the authorities are made in this paper in terms of the harmonisation of the reporting of allergen recalls into a more standardised format. PMID:27004727

  12. Analysis and critical comparison of food allergen recalls from the European Union, USA, Canada, Hong Kong, Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bucchini, Luca; Guzzon, Antonella; Poms, Roland; Senyuva, Hamide

    2016-05-01

    As part of a European Union-funded project (FP7) developing 'Integrated approaches to food allergen and allergy management', a database was constructed based on publicly available information on food allergen recalls in Europe, North America, Hong Kong, Australia and New Zealand. Over 2000 entries were made into the database. The database covers a 4-year period from 2011 to 2014 and each entry is categorised into food type (two different classifications), identified allergen and cause where indicated by the authorities. Across different authorities, by far the biggest incidence of undeclared allergens occurred in the food categories of prepared dishes and snacks (range = 12-53%), and cereals and bakery products (range = 14-25% of all recalls and/or alerts). The biggest incidence of undeclared allergens, according to the information from most authorities, occurred for milk and milk products (16-31% of all products with recall or alert), followed by cereals containing gluten (9-19%), soy (5-45%), and egg and egg products (5-17%). Although 42-90% of the products with recalls/alerts were explained as being 'Not indicated on the label', this is a generic explanation of cause and does not provide much insight into the causes of the recall/alerts. However, 0-17% of products with recalls/alerts could be coded as caused by the unintended presence of an allergen as the probable result of cross-contact in production. Construction of the database of allergen recalls has provided some important lessons and recommendations to the authorities are made in this paper in terms of the harmonisation of the reporting of allergen recalls into a more standardised format.

  13. Nutritional significance and acceptance of solar-dried foods of rural Leyte Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Training in solar dryer construction and food preservation was provided to villagers in three barangays in rural Leyte, Philippines. A 24 hour dietary recall assessed dietary status of the women prior to the solar dried food intervention. Nutrients of greatest dietary concern were thiamine, vitamin A, riboflavin, iron and energy.

  14. High energy deficit in an ultraendurance athlete in a 24-hour ultracycling race

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ferran A.; Iglesias, Xavier; Benítez, Adolfo; Marina, Míchel; Padullés, Josep M.; Torrado, Priscila; Vázquez, Jairo; Knechtle, Beat

    2012-01-01

    This case study examined the nutritional behavior and energy balance in an official finisher of a 24-hour ultracycling race. The food and beverages consumed by the cyclist were continuously weighed and recorded to estimate intake of energy, macronutrients, sodium, and caffeine. In addition, during the race, heart rate was continuously monitored. Energy expenditure was assessed using a heart rate–oxygen uptake regression equation obtained previously from a laboratory test. The athlete (39 years, 175.6 cm, 84.2 kg, maximum oxygen uptake, 64 mL/kg/min) cycled during 22 h 22 min, in which he completed 557.3 km with 8760 m of altitude at an average speed of 25.1 km/h. The average heart rate was 131 beats/min. Carbohydrates were the main macronutrient intake (1102 g, 13.1 g/kg); however, intake was below current recommendations. The consumption of protein and fat was 86 g and 91 g, respectively. He ingested 20.7 L (862 mL/h) of fluids, with sport drinks the main fluid used for hydration. Sodium concentration in relation to total fluid intake was 34.0 mmol/L. Caffeine consumption over the race was 231 mg (2.7 mg/kg). During the race, he expended 15,533 kcal. Total energy intake was 5571 kcal, with 4058 (73%) and 1513 (27%) kcal derived from solids and fluids, respectively. The energy balance resulted in an energy deficit of 9915 kcal. PMID:22481841

  15. Estimation of 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure Peak Timing and Variation Using a Contact Lens Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, John H. K.; Mansouri, Kaweh; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare estimates of 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) peak timing and variation obtained using a contact lens sensor (CLS) and using a pneumatonometer. Methods Laboratory data collected from 30 healthy volunteers (ages, 20-66 years) in a randomized, controlled clinical trial were analyzed. Participants were housed for 24 hours in a sleep laboratory. One randomly selected right or left eye was fitted with a CLS that monitored circumferential curvature in the corneoscleral region related to the change of IOP. Electronic output signals of 30 seconds were averaged and recorded every 5 minutes. In the contralateral eye, habitual IOP measurements were taken using a pneumatonometer once every two hours. Simulated 24-hour rhythms in both eyes were determined by cosinor fitting. Simulated peak timings (acrophases) and simulated data variations (amplitudes) were compared between the paired eyes. Results Bilateral change patterns of average 24-hour data for the group were in parallel. The simulated peak timing in the CLS fitted eye occurred at 4:44 AM ± 210 min (mean ± SD) and the IOP peak timing in the contralateral eye at 4:11 AM ± 120 min (P=0.256, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). There was no significant correlation between the simulated data variations in the paired eyes (P=0.820, linear regression). Conclusions The 24-hour CLS data showed a simulated peak timing close to the 24-hour IOP peak timing obtained using the pneumatonometer. However, the simulated variations of 24-hour data in the paired eyes were not correlated. Estimated 24-hour IOP rhythms using the two devices should not be considered interchangeable. PMID:26076472

  16. 24-Hour ICH Score Is a Better Predictor of Outcome than Admission ICH Score

    PubMed Central

    Aysenne, Aimee M.; Albright, Karen C.; Mathias, Tiffany; Chang, Tiffany R.; Boehme, Amelia K.; Beasley, T. Mark; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    Background The ICH score is a validated tool for predicting 30-day morbidity and mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Aims and/or Hypothesis The aim of this study is to determine if the ICH score calculated 24 hours after admission is a better predictor of mortality than the ICH score calculated on admission. Methods Patients presenting to our center with ICH from 7/08-12/10 were retrospectively identified from our prospective stroke registry. ICH scores were calculated based on initial Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and emergent head computed tomography (CT) on initial presentation and were recalculated after 24 hours. Results A total of 91 patients out of 121 had complete data for admission and 24-hour ICH score. The ICH score changed in 38% from baseline to 24 hours. After adjusting for age, NIHSS on admission, and glucose, ICH score at 24 hours was a significant, independent predictor of mortality (OR = 2.71, 95% CI 1–19–6.20, and P = 0.018), but ICH score on admission was not (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 0.88-5.24, and P = 0.095). Conclusion Early determination of the ICH score may incorrectly estimate the severity and expected outcome after ICH. Calculations of the ICH score 24 hours after admission will better predict early outcomes.

  17. Dissociated 24-hour patterns of somatotropin and prolactin in fatal familial insomnia.

    PubMed

    Portaluppi, F; Cortelli, P; Avoni, P; Vergnani, L; Maltoni, P; Pavani, A; Sforza, E; Manfredini, R; Montagna, P; Roiter, I

    1995-06-01

    To assess the changes in the 24-hour profiles of serum somatotropin and prolactin levels during total disruption of the sleep/wake cycle sustained over several months, we studied 2 subjects affected by fatal familial insomnia, a rare disease characterized by selective thalamic degeneration that causes chronic sleep loss. Under standardized conditions and polysomnographic control, the patients underwent repeated 24-hour study sessions covering the entire clinical course of the disease. Hormones were assayed at 30-min intervals. Four healthy volunteers were used as controls. A sleep/wake cycle was always absent in fatal familial insomnia. Serum somatotropin and prolactin concentrations never exceeded the normal range of variation. The nocturnal elevation of somatotropin disappeared simultaneously with sleep loss, whereas a significant 24-hour component of variations in serum prolactin levels was present for months after total disruption of the sleep/wake cycle, with normally placed nocturnal acrophases. Complete obliteration of the 24-hour component was achieved for prolactin only in the advanced stages, through a progressive decrease in 24-hour amplitude of variation. Selective and progressive degeneration of the mediodorsal and anterior ventral nuclei of the thalamus causes an early obliteration of the 24-hour rhythm of somatotropin and a later disappearance of circadian prolactin rhythmicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Effect of fast food consumption on dietary intake and likelihood of meeting MyPyramid recommendations in adults: Results from What We Eat In America, NHANES, 2003-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fast food (FF) consumption on food and nutrient intakes and likelihood of meeting recommendations outlined in USDA’s MyPyramid Food Guidance System. Adults 19-50 years of age (n=2,160) who completed two 24-hour dietary recalls in the What We ...

  19. 24-hour central blood pressure and intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes in untreated subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bednarek, Agnieszka; Jankowski, Piotr; Olszanecka, Agnieszka; Windak, Adam; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recently, 24-hour monitoring of central systolic blood pressure (SBP) has become available. However, the relation between end-organ damage and the 24-hour central SBP profile and variability has not so far been analyzed. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relation between 24-hour central SBP, 24-hour central SBP profile as well as central SBP short-term variability and parameters of cardiac and vascular intermediate phenotypes. Methods: The study group consisted of 50 patients with newly diagnosed, untreated hypertension (age 40.4 ± 11.5 years, 35 men) and 50 normotensive subjects (age 38.3 ± 12.0 years, 35 men). Applanation tonometry of the radial artery and the “n-point forward moving average” method were used to determine 24-hour central SBP. Each study participant underwent echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography. Results: 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime central SBP was related to left ventricle end-diastole diameter (p < 0.05), left ventricular mass index (p < 0.001), relative wall thickness (p < 0.05), E/E’ ratio (p < 0.01), and left atrium volume (p < 0.01). The nocturnal central SBP fall was not related to any of the mentioned parameters, whereas parameters of short-term variability were related to IMT in hypertensives only (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The present study showed that 24-hour central SBP is related to intermediate cardiac phenotypes as assessed by echocardiography whereas short-term central SBP variability is mainly related to vascular phenotype as determined by IMT. PMID:25628959

  20. Insights about serum sodium behavior after 24 hours of continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Thiago Gomes; Martins, Cassia Pimenta Barufi; Mendes, Pedro Vitale; Besen, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro; Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Park, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratorial factors associated with serum sodium variation during continuous renal replacement therapy and to assess whether the perfect admixture formula could predict 24-hour sodium variation. Methods Thirty-six continuous renal replacement therapy sessions of 33 patients, in which the affluent prescription was unchanged during the first 24 hours, were retrieved from a prospective collected database and then analyzed. A mixed linear model was performed to investigate the factors associated with large serum sodium variations (≥ 8mEq/L), and a Bland-Altman plot was generated to assess the agreement between the predicted and observed variations. Results In continuous renal replacement therapy 24-hour sessions, SAPS 3 (p = 0.022) and baseline hypernatremia (p = 0.023) were statistically significant predictors of serum sodium variations ≥ 8mEq/L in univariate analysis, but only hypernatremia demonstrated an independent association (β = 0.429, p < 0.001). The perfect admixture formula for sodium prediction at 24 hours demonstrated poor agreement with the observed values. Conclusions Hypernatremia at the time of continuous renal replacement therapy initiation is an important factor associated with clinically significant serum sodium variation. The use of 4% citrate or acid citrate dextrose - formula A 2.2% as anticoagulants was not associated with higher serum sodium variations. A mathematical prediction for the serum sodium concentration after 24 hours was not feasible. PMID:27410407

  1. Comparison of 24-hour Holter Monitoring with 14-day Novel Adhesive Patch Electrocardiographic Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Paddy M.; Komatireddy, Ravi; Haaser, Sharon; Topol, Sarah; Sheard, Judith; Encinas, Jackie; Fought, Angela J.; Topol, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiac arrhythmias are remarkably common and routinely go undiagnosed because they are often transient and asymptomatic. Effective diagnosis and treatment can substantially reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac arrhythmias. The Zio Patch (iRhythm Technologies, Inc, San Francisco, Calif) is a novel, single-lead electrocardiographic (ECG), lightweight, Food and Drug Administration–cleared, continuously recording ambulatory adhesive patch monitor suitable for detecting cardiac arrhythmias in patients referred for ambulatory ECG monitoring. METHODS A total of 146 patients referred for evaluation of cardiac arrhythmia underwent simultaneous ambulatory ECG recording with a conventional 24-hour Holter monitor and a 14-day adhesive patch monitor. The primary outcome of the study was to compare the detection arrhythmia events over total wear time for both devices. Arrhythmia events were defined as detection of any 1 of 6 arrhythmias, including supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation/flutter, pause greater than 3 seconds, atrioventricular block, ventricular tachycardia, or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. McNemar’s tests were used to compare the matched pairs of data from the Holter and the adhesive patch monitor. RESULTS Over the total wear time of both devices, the adhesive patch monitor detected 96 arrhythmia events compared with 61 arrhythmia events by the Holter monitor (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS Over the total wear time of both devices, the adhesive patch monitor detected more events than the Holter monitor. Prolonged duration monitoring for detection of arrhythmia events using single-lead, less-obtrusive, adhesive-patch monitoring platforms could replace conventional Holter monitoring in patients referred for ambulatory ECG monitoring. PMID:24384108

  2. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in Victoria, Australia, using 24-hour urine collections. Secondary aims were to identify the dietary sources of sodium and potassium, examine the association between these electrolytes and cardiovascular risk factors, and assess children’s taste preferences and saltiness perception of manufactured foods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of schoolchildren attending primary schools in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed one 24-hour urine collection, which was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Completeness of collections was assessed using collection time, total volume, and urinary creatinine. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed to assess dietary intake. Other data collected included blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumference. Children were also presented with high and low sodium variants of food products and asked to discriminate salt level and choose their preferred variant. Parents provided demographic information and information on use of discretionary salt. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sodium and potassium intakes. Linear and logistic regression models with clustered robust standard errors will be used to assess the association between electrolyte intake and health outcomes (blood pressure and body mass index/BMI z-score and waist circumference) and to assess differences in taste preference and discrimination between high and low sodium foods, and correlations between

  3. Microtensile bond strength of resin-resin interfaces after 24-hour and 2-month soaking.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Curry; Boberick, Kenneth G; Winkler, Sheldon

    2007-01-01

    Evaluate the bond strengths of denture base-repair materials to minimize recurrent failure rate. Use microtensile bond strength (muTBS) testing to evaluate the interfacial bonding strength of 6 commercial denture repair materials after 24-hour and 12-month soaking. Blocks of poly(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) and Triad were fabricated, fractured, and repaired. Twenty bars (1 x 1 x 30 mm) per group were sectioned from each block parallel to the long axis and approximately 90 degrees to the resin-resin repair interface and stored before muTBS testing in a servo-hydraulic tensile-testing machine. Intact PMMA and Triad bars that had been soaked for 24 hours and 12 months were tested for reference. The 24-hour repair strengths for PMMA ranged from 52% to 84% of original strength. Soaking for 12 months resulted in a 20% decrease in strength for the PMMA control. The 12-month repair strengths for PMMA ranged from 43% to 74% of the 12-month soaked material strength. Triad repair tested 35% of original strength after soaking for 24 hours. Permabond (cyanoacrylate) to PMMA tested 47% of original strength after 24 hours of soaking and 26% of the 12-month soaked material strength. Permabond to Triad tested 30% of original strength after 24 hours of soaking. Permabond and Triad showed a 100% adhesive mode of failure. All other materials tested exhibited either an adhesive mode of failure at the denture base-repair-material interface or a complex cohesive failure within the repair-material interface. The muTBS approach can be used to analyze the resin-resin interface of repaired acrylics. The relatively small standard deviations make the muTBS approach attractive. In this study, muTBS was used to evaluate the repair strength of 6 denture repair materials enabling clinicians to make clinical judgments regarding the strongest repair bond available. PMID:17987865

  4. Agreement between 24-hour salt ingestion and sodium excretion in a controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Lerchl, Kathrin; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Rauh, Manfred; Goller, Ulrike; Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F; Beck, Luis; Agureev, Alexander; Larina, Irina; Baranov, Victor; Morukov, Boris; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Vassilieva, Galina; Wabel, Peter; Vienken, Jörg; Kirsch, Karl; Johannes, Bernd; Krannich, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Accurately collected 24-hour urine collections are presumed to be valid for estimating salt intake in individuals. We performed 2 independent ultralong-term salt balance studies lasting 105 (4 men) and 205 (6 men) days in 10 men simulating a flight to Mars. We controlled dietary intake of all constituents for months at salt intakes of 12, 9, and 6 g/d and collected all urine. The subjects' daily menus consisted of 27 279 individual servings, of which 83.0% were completely consumed, 16.5% completely rejected, and 0.5% incompletely consumed. Urinary recovery of dietary salt was 92% of recorded intake, indicating long-term steady-state sodium balance in both studies. Even at fixed salt intake, 24-hour urine collection for sodium excretion (UNaV) showed infradian rhythmicity. We defined a ±25 mmol deviation from the average difference between recorded sodium intake and UNaV as the prediction interval to accurately classify a 3-g difference in salt intake. Because of the biological variability in UNaV, only every other daily urine sample correctly classified a 3-g difference in salt intake (49%). By increasing the observations to 3 consecutive 24-hour collections and sodium intakes, classification accuracy improved to 75%. Collecting seven 24-hour urines and sodium intake samples improved classification accuracy to 92%. We conclude that single 24-hour urine collections at intakes ranging from 6 to 12 g salt per day were not suitable to detect a 3-g difference in individual salt intake. Repeated measurements of 24-hour UNaV improve precision. This knowledge could be relevant to patient care and the conduct of intervention trials.

  5. School Meal Programs: Changes to Federal Agencies' Procedures Could Reduce Risk of School Children Consuming Recalled Food. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-09-649

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few years, several food recalls, such as for beef and peanut products, have affected schools. It is especially important that recalls affecting schools be carried out efficiently and effectively because young children have a higher risk of complications from food-borne illnesses. GAO was asked to determine how federal agencies (1)…

  6. Mood-Dependent Cognitive Change in a Man with Bipolar Disorder Who Cycles Every 24 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Dominic; Mansell, Warren

    2008-01-01

    A case study of a bipolar patient whose mood changes every 24 hours is described to illustrate the changes in cognitive processing and content during different phases of bipolar disorder. The participant completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks on 4 separate occasions: twice when depressed and twice when manic. Depression tended to be…

  7. Leg skinfold thicknesses and race performance in male 24-hour ultra-marathoners.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    The association of skinfold thicknesses with race performance has been investigated in runners competing over distances of ≤50 km. This study investigated a potential relation between skinfold thicknesses and race performance in male ultra-marathoners completing >50 km in 24 hours. Variables of anthropometry, training, and previous performance were related to race performance in 63 male ultra-marathoners aged 46.9 (standard deviation [SD] 10.3) years, standing 1.78 (SD 0.07) m in height, and weighing 73.3 (SD 7.6) kg. The runners clocked 146.1 (SD 43.1) km during the 24 hours. In the bivariate analysis, several variables were associated with race performance: body mass (r = -0.25); skinfold thickness at axilla (r = -0.37), subscapula (r = -0.28), abdomen (r = -0.31), and suprailiaca (r = -0.30); the sum of skinfold thicknesses (r = -0.32); percentage body fat (r = -0.32); weekly kilometers run (r = 0.31); personal best time in a marathon (r = -0.58); personal best time in a 100-km ultra-run (r = -0.31); and personal best performance in a 24-hour run (r = 0.46). In the multivariate analysis, no anthropometric or training variable was related to race performance. In conclusion, in contrast to runners up to distances of 50 km, skinfold thicknesses of the lower limbs were not related to race performance in 24-hour ultra-marathoners.

  8. The Three-Continent, 24-Hour Help Desk: An Academic First?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Describes Follow the Sun, a computer help-desk service that takes advantage of time differences around the world to permit four universities (University of Colorado Boulder, Australia's Macquarie and Newcastle universities, and the London School of Economics) to share services and provide 24-hour support to users. (EV)

  9. Oropharyngeal 24-Hour pH Monitoring in Children With Airway-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Mesallam, Tamer A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diagnosis and clinical presentation of pediatric laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is still controversial. The aims of this work were to study the possibility of performing 24-hour oropharyngeal pH monitoring for children in the outpatient clinic setup and to explore the results of this test in correlation to airway-related problems. Methods In this descriptive qualitative study, 26 children suffering from airway-related problems were included. Oropharyngeal 24-hour pH monitoring was performed for all subjects in the outpatient clinic setting. The distribution of airway diagnoses among the study group was studied versus the results of the pH monitoring. Results There were 16 males and 10 females participated in the study with a mean age of 6.88 (SD, ±5.77) years. Thirty-five percent of the patients were under the age of 3 years (range, 11 months to 3 years). Eight-five percent of the patients tolerated the pH probe insertion and completed 24-hour of pH recording. Laryngomalacia and subglottic stenosis (SGS) were more frequently reported in the positive LPR patients (77%). Conclusion Oropharyngeal 24-hour pH monitoring can be conducted for children in the outpatient setup even in young age children below 3 years old. Among the positive LPR group, SGS and laryngomalacia were the most commonly reported airway findings. PMID:27090271

  10. Magazine adverts for healthy and less healthy foods: effects on recall but not hunger or food choice by pre-adolescent children.

    PubMed

    King, Lorraine; Hill, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    The marketing of foods to children has been criticised by parents and academics alike and the control of such advertising is being considered by politicians. Much of the current research focuses on TV advertising. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to printed advertisements for healthy, less healthy and non-food products on children's mood, hunger, food choice and product recall. Accordingly, 309 children (mean age 9.7 years) received booklets in a quasi-random order. Each booklet contained one of the three types of adverts, ratings of current self-perception and a food choice measure. The booklets were presented as a school-based media literacy exercise. Body weight, height and body satisfaction were assessed 1 week later. The three groups did not differ in the effect on current state or end of session food choice. However, children recalled more of the less healthy food products, even when accounting for recent exposure. Greater product recall of less healthy foods is relevant to future consumption but has a number of possible interpretations. The further exploration of non-TV food marketing is warranted at a time when marketing through these channels is increasing, not least as a result of greater TV advertising regulations. PMID:18384910

  11. Magazine adverts for healthy and less healthy foods: effects on recall but not hunger or food choice by pre-adolescent children.

    PubMed

    King, Lorraine; Hill, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    The marketing of foods to children has been criticised by parents and academics alike and the control of such advertising is being considered by politicians. Much of the current research focuses on TV advertising. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to printed advertisements for healthy, less healthy and non-food products on children's mood, hunger, food choice and product recall. Accordingly, 309 children (mean age 9.7 years) received booklets in a quasi-random order. Each booklet contained one of the three types of adverts, ratings of current self-perception and a food choice measure. The booklets were presented as a school-based media literacy exercise. Body weight, height and body satisfaction were assessed 1 week later. The three groups did not differ in the effect on current state or end of session food choice. However, children recalled more of the less healthy food products, even when accounting for recent exposure. Greater product recall of less healthy foods is relevant to future consumption but has a number of possible interpretations. The further exploration of non-TV food marketing is warranted at a time when marketing through these channels is increasing, not least as a result of greater TV advertising regulations.

  12. DASH for Health: Validation of Web-based 24-Hour Recall Questionnaire Designed for a Lifestyle Modification Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The DASH eating plan is nationally recognized and recommended by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among others, as a healthful way to reduce hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, and as being an overall healthy diet for all Americans. We created a web-based nutrition and physical activity...

  13. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Dietary Intake among WIC Families Prior to Food Package Revisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Berbaum, Michael L.; Porter, Summer J.; Blumstein, Lara; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diets of African American and Hispanic families in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) prior to the 2009 food package revisions. Methods: Mother-child dyads were recruited from 12 WIC sites in Chicago, IL. Individuals with 1 valid 24-hour recall were included in the analyses…

  14. Development of the DHQ II and C-DHQ II Nutrient & Food Group Database

    Cancer.gov

    The nutrient and food group database, created for analyzing the DHQ II, is based on a compilation of national 24-hour dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted in 2001-02, 2003-04, and 2005-06.

  15. Seasonal changes of 24-hour intraocular pressure rhythm in healthy Shanghai population

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jingyi; Xiao, Ming; Xu, Huan; Fang, Shaobin; Chen, Xu; Kong, Xiangmei; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythms in winter and summer in the healthy population of Shanghai, China. This is a cross-sectional study in which 24-hour IOP measurements were taken for all eligible healthy volunteers in winter and summer, respectively, and the temperature, hours of sunlight (sunlight time), and circulatory parameters, including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, were also recorded. The 24-hour IOP curves and IOP parameters (mean, peak, trough, and fluctuation of IOP together with the diurnal-to-nocturnal IOP change) in winter and summer were obtained and compared. The magnitude of IOP changes from summer to winter was also calculated. A total of 29 participants (58 eyes), 14 (48.28%) male and 15 (51.72%) female, aged 43.66 ± 12.20 (19–61) years, were considered eligible for this study. Generally, IOP decreased progressively before noon, increased notably in the nocturnal period, and peaked at 12:00 am in winter and at 2:00 am in summer. The pattern of 24-hour IOP in winter and summer was significantly different (P = 0.002). The average IOPs from 4:00 pm to 8:00 am, except for 6:00 am, were significantly higher in winter (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were shown after adjusting for temperature and/or sunlight time. From summer to winter, the extent of IOP increase was mostly around 0 to 3 mm Hg, and the IOPs increased more significantly in the nocturnal period than in the diurnal period (P = 0.05). The 24-hour IOP rhythms were different in winter and summer, with higher IOP level in winter. Temperature and sunlight time, which are independent of heart rate and blood pressure, affected the 24-hour IOP rhythms in healthy people in Shanghai, China. Further investigations are expected for the rhythm of some endogenous substance secretion and the inner mechanism of regulation of IOP. PMID:27495076

  16. [Identification of paroxysmal, transient arrhythmias: Intermittent registration more efficient than the 24-hour Holter monitoring].

    PubMed

    Hendrikx, Tijn; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Sandström, Herbert; Persson, Mats; Hörnsten, Rolf

    2015-01-06

    Many patients suffer from palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. These patients are often referred for Holter ECG (24 hour), although the sensitivity for detecting arrhythmias is low. A new method, short intermittent regular and symptomatic ECG registrations at home, might be a convenient and more sensitive alternative also suitable for primary health care. In this case report we present a patient who had contacted health care several times during a seven year period for paroxysmal palpitations. Routine examination with 24 hour Holter ECG and event recorder did not result in a diagnosis. Using intermittent handheld ECG registration at home, a paroxysmal supraventricular arrhythmia was diagnosed. Further investigation revealed that the patient had a concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome.

  17. Pulmonary function in mechanically-ventilated patients during 24-hour use of a hygroscopic condensor humidifier.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, N R; Anderson, H R; Silver, R M; Schuler, F R; Coleman, R E

    1983-11-01

    Hygroscopic condensor humidifiers (HCH) are reportedly capable of humidifying even the driest of ventilator source gases with at least 30 mg H2O/liter of ventilation. To assess the adequacy of the HCH during mechanical ventilation, we studied 26 patients over a 72-hour period (alternating 24-hour periods of humidification by a conventional cascade and the HCH). In these patients, we found no significant difference in static lung compliance, airway resistance, PaO2, and PaCO2 on either system. Additionally, estimates of sputum volume (over a four-hour collection period) and clearance of aerosolized 99mTc labelled DTPA (in five of these patients) also showed no significant differences between the two systems. We conclude that the HCH is capable of supplying necessary heat and moisture to most mechanically-ventilated patients for at least a period of 24 hours.

  18. Demonstration that thiazole-orange-positive platelets in the dog are less than 24 hours old.

    PubMed

    Dale, G L; Friese, P; Hynes, L A; Burstein, S A

    1995-04-01

    Approximately 6% of dog platelets are positive for staining with thiazole orange, a dye frequently used to stain ribonucleic acid. In this report, thiazole-orange positivity is shown to mark platelets that are less than 24 hours old. Dog platelets were derivatized in vivo with N-hydroxysuccinimido biotin such that greater than 95% of all platelets were biotinylated. Newly synthesized, nonbiotinylated platelets were then monitored by flow cytometry for their ability to bind thiazole orange. After biotinylation, the percentage of biotin-negative, thiazole-orange-positive platelets increased gradually from 0.72% at 30 minutes to 5.44% at 24 hours. These data indicate that thiazole-orange staining does label newly synthesized platelets.

  19. [Contraceptive effect of spermicide on cervical mucus in vivo after 24 hours (authors transl)].

    PubMed

    Batallan, L; Brissi, J; Commerot, J

    1980-10-01

    Efficacy of Alpagelle, a vaginal contraceptive jelly containing benzalkonium chlorohydrate, was tested on 34 women who had been using it for some. The testing was conducted using fresh human spermatozoa, and measuring the penetration into the cervical mucus 24 hours after instillation of 2 ml. of Alpagelle. Maximum penetration of spermatozoa before immobilization and death was 2/10 mm., while it is 2mm. a minute under normal conditions. Alpagelle has no contraindications, and only 1 application every 24 hours will provide contraceptive protection; such method could be ideal for women presenting temporary or permanent contraindications to the IUD, or to the pill, or to those who wish to opt for a method free of side effects. PMID:12262152

  20. Circadian Polymorphisms in Night Owls, in Bipolars, and in Non-24-Hour Sleep Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Klimecki, Walter T.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Rex, Katharine M.; Murray, Sarah S.; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J.; Loving, Richard T.; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F.; Poceta, J. Steven; Jamil, Shazia M.; Kline, Lawrence E.; Kelsoe, John R.

    2014-01-01

    People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression. PMID:25395965

  1. Assessing variability of the 24-hour pad weight test in men with post-prostatectomy incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Rena D.; Cohn, Joshua A.; Fedunok, Pauline A.; Chung, Doreen E.; Bales, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Decision-making regarding surgery for post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI) is challenging. The 24-hour pad weight test is commonly used to objectively quantify PPI. However, pad weight may vary based upon activity level. We aimed to quantify variability in pad weights based upon patient-reported activity. Materials and Methods: 25 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were prospectively enrolled. All patients demonstrated clinical stress urinary incontinence without clinical urgency urinary incontinence. On three consecutive alternating days, patients submitted 24-hour pad weights along with a short survey documenting activity level and number of pads used. Results: Pad weights collected across the three days were well correlated to the individual (ICC 0.85 (95% CI 0.74–0.93), p<0.001). The mean difference between the minimum pad weight leakage and maximum leakage per patient was 133.4g (95% CI 80.4–186.5). The mean increase in 24-hour leakage for a one-point increase in self-reported activity level was 118.0g (95% CI 74.3–161.7, p<0.001). Pad weights also varied significantly when self-reported activity levels did not differ (mean difference 51.2g (95% CI 30.3–72.1), p<0.001). Conclusions: 24-hour pad weight leakage may vary significantly on different days of collection. This variation is more pronounced with changes in activity level. Taking into account patient activity level may enhance the predictive value of pad weight testing. PMID:27256187

  2. Circadian polymorphisms in night owls, in bipolars, and in non-24-hour sleep cycles.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F; Klimecki, Walter T; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Rex, Katharine M; Murray, Sarah S; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J; Loving, Richard T; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F; Poceta, J Steven; Jamil, Shazia M; Kline, Lawrence E; Kelsoe, John R

    2014-10-01

    People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression. PMID:25395965

  3. Impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) drop within 24 hours after cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joshua Kuang-Chao; Chuang, Ann Yi-Chiun; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Li, Lieber Po-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Previous animal study revealed that post-implantation electrical detection levels significantly declined within days. The impact of cochlear implant (CI) insertion on human auditory pathway in terms of impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) variation within hours after surgery remains unclear, since at this time frequency mapping can only commence weeks after implantation due to factors associated with wound conditions. The study presented our experiences with regards to initial switch-on within 24 hours, and thus the findings about the milieus inside cochlea within the first few hours after cochlear implantation in terms of impedance/ECAP fluctuations. The charts of fifty-four subjects with profound hearing impairment were studied. A minimal invasive approach was used for cochlear implantation, characterized by a small skin incision (≈ 2.5 cm) and soft techniques for cochleostomy. Impedance/ECAP was measured intro-operatively and within 24 hours post-operatively. Initial mapping within 24 hours post-operatively was performed in all patients without major complications. Impedance/ECAP became significantly lower measured within 24 hours post-operatively as compared with intra-operatively (p<0.001). There were no differences between pre-operative and post-operative threshold for air-conduction hearing. A significant drop of impedance/ECAP in one day after cochlear implantation was revealed for the first time in human beings. Mechanisms could be related to the restoration of neuronal sensitivity to the electrical stimulation, and/or the interaction between the matrix enveloping the electrodes and the electrical stimulation of the initial switch-on. Less wound pain/swelling and soft techniques both contributed to the success of immediate initial mapping, which implied a stable micro-environment inside the cochlea despite electrodes insertion. Our research invites further studies to correlate initial impedance/ECAP changes with long

  4. Impedance and Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential (ECAP) Drop within 24 Hours after Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joshua Kuang-Chao; Chuang, Ann Yi-Chiun; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Li, Lieber Po-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Previous animal study revealed that post-implantation electrical detection levels significantly declined within days. The impact of cochlear implant (CI) insertion on human auditory pathway in terms of impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) variation within hours after surgery remains unclear, since at this time frequency mapping can only commence weeks after implantation due to factors associated with wound conditions. The study presented our experiences with regards to initial switch-on within 24 hours, and thus the findings about the milieus inside cochlea within the first few hours after cochlear implantation in terms of impedance/ECAP fluctuations. The charts of fifty-four subjects with profound hearing impairment were studied. A minimal invasive approach was used for cochlear implantation, characterized by a small skin incision (≈2.5 cm) and soft techniques for cochleostomy. Impedance/ECAP was measured intro-operatively and within 24 hours post-operatively. Initial mapping within 24 hours post-operatively was performed in all patients without major complications. Impedance/ECAP became significantly lower measured within 24 hours post-operatively as compared with intra-operatively (p<0.001). There were no differences between pre-operative and post-operative threshold for air-conduction hearing. A significant drop of impedance/ECAP in one day after cochlear implantation was revealed for the first time in human beings. Mechanisms could be related to the restoration of neuronal sensitivity to the electrical stimulation, and/or the interaction between the matrix enveloping the electrodes and the electrical stimulation of the initial switch-on. Less wound pain/swelling and soft techniques both contributed to the success of immediate initial mapping, which implied a stable micro-environment inside the cochlea despite electrodes insertion. Our research invites further studies to correlate initial impedance/ECAP changes with long

  5. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  6. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders.

  7. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  8. Continuous 24-hour intraocular pressure monitoring for glaucoma--time for a paradigm change.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, K; Weinreb, R

    2012-01-01

    Glaucoma is the main cause of irreversible blindness and intraocular pressure (IOP) is its only modifiable risk factor. The importance of robust lowering of IOP for prevention of glaucoma onset and progression is well established. Although IOP is a dynamic parameter with individual circadian rhythms, current management usually relies on single IOP measurements during regular clinic hours performed a few times a year. Recent technological advances have provided clinicians with tools for continuous IOP monitoring during a 24 hour period in an ambulatory setting. There are two approaches being investigated. The first is permanent IOP monitoring through an implantable sensor and the other is temporary monitoring through a contact lens sensor. In this article, we discuss the shortcomings of the current gold standard for tonometry (Goldmann Applanation Tonometry) and the current experience with the first commercially available continuous 24 hour IOP monitoring technology (SENSIMED Triggerfish®); a telemetric contact lens sensor produced by a Swiss start-up company (Sensimed AG, Lausanne, Switzerland). Recent studies suggest that 24 hour continuous monitoring of IOP can be integrated into clinical practice and have the potential to contribute to the reduction of glaucoma-related vision loss.

  9. Microstructure of the rat's intake of food, sucrose and saccharin in 24-hour tests.

    PubMed

    Smith, J C

    2000-03-01

    A detailed description of a method for collecting meal and drinking bout patterns for the rat over 24-h preference tests is presented. Both the hardware and software are described for data collection with a 6-s resolution. As an example of the value of knowing the details of ingestive patterns, data are presented describing the meal and drinking bout patterns during daylong preference tests between sucrose or saccharin vs. water. During these two-day tests at each of a wide range of concentrations, the intake of powdered Purina Chow, sucrose and saccharin were observed and quantified into meals or bouts. The analysis allowed for a comparison of sucrose and saccharin ingestion in terms of number of bouts, duration of bouts, rate of licking during bouts, the juxtaposition of eating and drinking and the day/night patterns of intake. Comparisons of drinking during bouts were made with electrophysiological and short-term taste test data. The usefulness of microstructure analysis is discussed.

  10. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286–4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the

  11. Static stretching can impair explosive performance for at least 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Monoem; Dridi, Amir; Chtara, Moktar; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Behm, David; Chamari, Karim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static vs. dynamic stretching (DS) on explosive performances and repeated sprint ability (RSA) after a 24-hour delay. Sixteen young male soccer players performed 15 minutes of static stretching (SS), DS, or a no-stretch control condition (CC) 24 hours before performing explosive performances and RSA tests. This was a within-subject repeated measures study with SS, DS, and CC being counterbalanced. Stretching protocols included 2 sets of 7 minutes 30 seconds (2 repetitions of 30 seconds with a 15-second passive recovery) for 5 muscle groups (quadriceps, hamstring, calves, adductors, and hip flexors). Twenty-four hours later (without any kind of stretching in warm-up), the players were tested for the 30-m sprint test (with 10- and 20-m lap times), 5 jump test (5JT), and RSA test. Significant differences were observed between CC, SS, and DS with 5JT (F = 9.99, p < 0.00, effect size [ES] = 0.40), 10-m sprint time (F = 46.52, p < 0.00, ES = 0.76), 20-m sprint time (F = 18.44, p < 0.000, ES = 0.55), and 30-m sprint time (F = 34.25, p < 0.000, ES = 0.70). The significantly better performance (p < 0.05) was observed after DS as compared with that after CC and SS in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. In contrast, significantly worse performance (p < 0.05) was observed after SS as compared with that after CC in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. With RSA, no significant difference was observed between different stretching protocols in the total time (F = 1.55, p > 0.05), average time (F = 1.53, p > 0.05), and fastest time (F = 2.30, p > 0.05), except for the decline index (F = 3.54, p < 0.04, ES = 0.19). Therefore, the SS of the lower limbs and hip muscles had a negative effect on explosive performances up to 24 hours poststretching with no major effects on the RSA. Conversely, the DS of the same muscle groups are highly recommended 24 hours before performing sprint and long-jump performances. In

  12. Influence of Overweight on 24-Hour Urine Chemistry Studies and Recurrent Urolithiasis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Dong; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Myung, Soon Chul; Moon, Young Tae; Kim, Kyung Do

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the influence of overweight on 24-hour urine chemistry studies and recurrent urolithiasis (UL) in children. Materials and Methods A retrospective cohort study was designed to assess children who presented with UL at a pediatric institution between 1985 and 2010. We calculated body mass index percentile (BMIp) adjusted for gender and age according to the 2007 Korean Children and Adolescents Growth Chart and stratified the children into 3 BMI categories: lower body weight (LBW, BMIp≤10), normal BW (NBW, 1024-hour urine chemistry studies did not differ significantly between the three groups. Mean urine citrate levels were lower (0.273±0.218 mg/mg/d vs. 0.429±0.299 mg/mg/d, p<0.05) and the incidence of hypocitraturia was higher (81.5% vs. 45.7%, p<0.05)) in the recurrent stone former group. In the univariate analysis, hypocitraturia and acidic urinary pH were risk factors, but in the multivariate analysis, only hypocitraturia was a risk factor for stone recurrence (hazard ratio, 3.647; 95% confidence interval, 1.047 to 12.703). In the Kaplan-Meier curve, the hypocitraturia group showed higher recurrence than did the normocitraturia group (p<0.05). Conclusions Unlike in adults, in children, overweight adjusted for gender and age was not associated with 24-hour urine chemistry studies and was not a risk factor for recurrent UL. Hypocitraturia was the only risk factor for UL in children. PMID:22536471

  13. [Electrocardiographic recording of long duration (Holter) of 24 hours during idiopathic cardiomyopathy of the peripartum].

    PubMed

    Diao, M; Diop, I B; Kane, A; Camara, S; Kane, Ad; Sarr, M; Ba, S A; Diouf, S M

    2004-01-01

    The idiopathic myocardiopathy of the peripartum (IMPP) is a frequent disease in the Soudano-Sahelian zone of Africa whose evolution is loaded with many complications hemodynamic, thrombo-embolic and rhythmic. The prevalence and the meaning of the rhythm disorders are unknown. The aims of this prospective study are to measure and to describe the prevalence of the anomalies observed in Holter ECG of 24 hours. It's about a description cross-sectional study realized at the Cardiology Department (CHU Dakar) and 19 patients with IMPP were included, from October 2000 to July 2002. A recording ECG of 24 hours (Holter) was realized on all the patients. The average age was 29.4+/-6.9 years with a low socio-economic level (100%). The diagnosis of IMPP done before childbirth in 4 cases (21%) and the post partum on 15 patients (78.9%). The dyspnea was constant, the chest pain in 12 cases (63.1%) and palpitations in 8 cases (42%). The average rate of hemoglobin was of 10.85+/-2.05 g/dL. The standard electrocardiogram recorded a sinusal tachycardia (68.4%), a cavitary hypertrophy (78.8%), and disorders of the repolarization (47.3%). The cardiac echo-Doppler noted a cavitary dilatation (84.2%), a constant alteration of the left ventricular systolic function with a fraction of average ejection of 29.7+/-10.3%. The anatomy of the valves was normal. The recording Holter ECG of 24 hours recorded a sinusal tachycardia in 17 cases (89.4%), ventricular extrasystoles on 7 patients (36.8%), 4 cases of ventricular tachycardia non-sustained and double ventricular extrasystole on 1 patient, auricular extrasystoles in 4 cases (21%) and 1 case of auriculo-ventricular block of the first degree. The study of heart rate variability founded a mean value of 106 ms.

  14. Development of an artificial placenta IV: 24 hour venovenous extracorporeal life support in premature lambs.

    PubMed

    Gray, Brian W; El-Sabbagh, Ahmed; Rojas-Pena, Alvaro; Kim, Anne C; Gadepali, Samir; Koch, Kely L; Capizzani, Tony R; Bartlet, Robert H; Mychaliska, George B

    2012-01-01

    An extracorporeal artificial placenta would change the paradigm of treating extremely premature infants. We hypothesized that a venovenous extracorporeal life support (VV-ECLS) artificial placenta would maintain fetal circulation, hemodynamic stability, and adequate gas exchange for 24 hours. A near-term neonatal lamb model (130 days; term = 145 days) was used (n = 9). The right jugular vein was cannulated for VV-ECLS outflow, and an umbilical vein was used for inflow. The circuit included a peristaltic roller pump and a 0.5 m(2) hollow fiber oxygenator. Lambs were maintained on VV-ECLS in an "amniotic bath" for up to 24 hours. Five of nine fetuses survived for 24 hours. In the survivors, average mean arterial pressure was 69 ± 10 mm Hg for the first 4 hours and 36 ± 8 mm Hg for the remaining 20 hours. The mean fetal heart rate was 202 ± 30. Mean VV-ECLS flow was 94 ± 20 ml/kg/min. Using a gas mixture of 50% O(2)/3% CO(2) and sweep flow of 1-2 L/min, the mean pH was 7.27 ± 0.09, with Po(2) of 35 ± 12 mm Hg and Pco(2) of 48 ± 12 mm Hg. Necropsy revealed a patent ductus arteriosus in all cases, and there was no gross or microscopic intracranial hemorrhage. Complications in failed attempts included technically difficult cannulation and multisystem organ failure. Future studies will enhance stability and address the factors necessary for long-term support.

  15. Treating allergic conjunctivitis: A once-daily medication that provides 24-hour symptom relief

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Jack; Donnenfeld, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is a common ocular inflammatory manifestation of allergen exposure in sensitized individuals. Signs and symptoms of AC can decrease quality of life, interfere with productivity, and lead to considerable economic burden. Consistent suppression of conjunctival inflammation is necessary for managing AC, but currently available medications require frequent administration and exhibit limited duration of action. Methods: In this review, we summarized AC pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment options as well as their limitations. Findings from the literature were discussed in the context of the unmet need for a once-daily medication with sustained 24-hour effectiveness. Results: Topical pharmacologic treatments are the most common approach for managing extant AC; however, most available medications require multiple daily instillations. Dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizing agents are currently considered first-line therapeutics for AC because they provide acute relief of signs and symptoms and block persistent inflammation to promote regression of AC. Recent studies of a newly-developed, higher-concentration formulation of a dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizer have demonstrated that this formulation provides a 24-hour duration of action with once-daily dosing. Conclusions: Dual-acting AC medications exhibit a high degree of overall effectiveness and are well tolerated for chronic use. A newly available once-daily medication that manages signs and symptoms of AC for a full 24 hours may be considered a treatment of choice for patients experiencing seasonal or perennial AC. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01743027 and NCT01479374 PMID:27466061

  16. Evaluation of Intradermal and Subcutaneous Infusion Set Performance Under 24-Hour Basal and Bolus Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McVey, Elaine; Keith, Steven; Herr, Joshua K.; Sutter, Diane; Pettis, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study sought to assess the function and delivery reliability of intradermal (ID) infusion sets used with commercial insulin pumps. Method: Healthy subjects (n = 43) were randomized to either ID or subcutaneous (SC) arms, and received basal/bolus placebo delivery for 24 hours. Subjects received 4 of 8 infusion set combinations (ID: microneedle design A or B, with 2 pump brands [Animas or MiniMed]; SC: Teflon Quickset or steel Rapid-D, Animas pump only, with or without overtaping) and were evaluated for pump occlusion alarms, fluid leakage, pain, and tissue tolerability. A novel algorithm was developed to determine flow consistency based on fluid pressure, and the duration and occurrence rate for periods of unalarmed but interrupted flow (“silent occlusions’”) were compared. Results: ID delivery was successfully maintained over the 24-hour infusion period. The number of silent occlusions was lower for ID microneedle cannula design B than A (P < .01) and lower for Rapid-D SC device compared to Quick-set (P = .03). There was no significant difference in the number of occlusion alarms between the ID and SC devices with the Animas pump. However, the pumps tested with ID devices had significantly different alarm rates (MiniMed 29.5%, Animas 0%, P < .001). Leakage and tissue tolerability were comparable across devices. Conclusion: The ID infusion set reliably delivered diluent for an extended 24-hour period in healthy subjects and was well tolerated. Silent occlusion flow interruptions could be detected in both ID and SC infusion sets using a proprietary algorithm. This algorithm is a promising method for quantitatively evaluating infusion set flow performance. PMID:26319228

  17. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... the 2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' 74 FR 58688... Federal Regulations DC District of Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR... EPA finalized designations for the 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS (74 FR 58688, November 13, 2009), the...

  18. Intermittent short ECG recording is more effective than 24-hour Holter ECG in detection of arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patients report symptoms of palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. These patients are often referred for 24-hour Holter ECG, although the sensitivity for detecting relevant arrhythmias is comparatively low. Intermittent short ECG recording over a longer time period might be a convenient and more sensitive alternative. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of 24-hour Holter ECG with intermittent short ECG recording over four weeks to detect relevant arrhythmias in patients with palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. Methods Design: prospective, observational, cross-sectional study. Setting: Clinical Physiology, University Hospital. Patients: 108 consecutive patients referred for ambiguous palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. Interventions: All individuals underwent a 24-hour Holter ECG and additionally registered 30-second handheld ECG (Zenicor EKG® thumb) recordings at home, twice daily and when having cardiac symptoms, during 28 days. Main outcome measures: Significant arrhythmias: atrial fibrillation (AF), paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), atrioventricular (AV) block II–III, sinus arrest (SA), wide complex tachycardia (WCT). Results 95 patients, 42 men and 53 women with a mean age of 54.1 years, completed registrations. Analysis of Holter registrations showed atrial fibrillation (AF) in two patients and atrioventricular (AV) block II in one patient (= 3.2% relevant arrhythmias [95% CI 1.1–8.9]). Intermittent handheld ECG detected nine patients with AF, three with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) and one with AV-block-II (= 13.7% relevant arrhythmias [95% CI 8.2–22.0]). There was a significant difference between the two methods in favour of intermittent ECG with regard to the ability to detect relevant arrhythmias (P = 0.0094). With Holter ECG, no symptoms were registered during any of the detected arrhythmias. With intermittent ECG, symptoms were registered during half of the arrhythmia

  19. Update: recall of dry dog and cat food products associated with human Salmonella Schwarzengrund infections--United States, 2008.

    PubMed

    2008-11-01

    On May 16, 2008, CDC reported on a 2006-2007 multistate outbreak of infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Schwarzengrund that was associated with dry dog food. At the time of that report, a total of 70 cases had been reported from 19 states, with the last case identified on October 1, 2007. Subsequently, an additional case was identified on December 29, 2007. Epidemiologic and environmental investigations have suggested the source of the outbreak was dry pet food produced by one manufacturer, Mars Petcare US. This report updates the previous CDC report, provides additional epidemiologic findings, and describes additional actions taken by public health agencies and the manufacturer. In 2008, eight more cases have been reported, bringing the total number of cases in the outbreak to 79. On September 12, 2008, the company announced a nationwide voluntary recall of all dry dog and cat food products produced during a 5-month period at one Pennsylvania plant. Dry pet food has a 1-year shelf life. Contaminated products identified in recalls might still be in the homes of purchasers and could cause illness. Persons who have these products should not use them to feed their pets but should discard them or return them to the store.

  20. Regional Neurodegeneration and Gliosis Are Amplified by Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Repeated at 24-Hour Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Amanda Nicholle; Saatman, Kathryn Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Most traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) that occur every year are classified as ‘mild’. Individuals involved in high-risk activities may sustain multiple mild TBIs. We evaluated the acute physiological and histopathological consequences of mild TBI in a mouse model, comparing sham injury, single impact, or 5 impacts at a 24- or 48-hour inter-injury interval. A single closed skull impact resulted in bilateral gliosis in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex that was proportional to impact depth. Midline impact, at a depth just above the threshold to induce transient unconsciousness, produced occasional axonal injury and degenerating neurons accompanied by astrogliosis in the entorhinal cortex and cerebellum. Mild TBI repeated every 24 hours resulted in bilateral hemorrhagic lesions in the entorhinal cortex along with significantly increased neurodegeneration and microglial activation despite diminished durations of apnea and unconsciousness with subsequent impacts. Astrogliosis and diffusely distributed axonal injury were also observed bilaterally in the cerebellum and the brainstem. When the interval between mild TBIs was increased to 48 hours, the pathological consequences were comparable to a single TBI. Together, these data suggest that in mice the brain remains at increased risk for damage for 24 hours after mild TBI despite reduced acute physiological responses to subsequent mild impacts. PMID:25232942

  1. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. PMID:27525110

  2. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m(2), had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab(®) device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens(®) algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for "24-hour", "awake", and "asleep" periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects.

  3. A Compute Perspective: Delivering Decision Support Products in 24 Hours from the Airborne Snow Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, P.; Mattmann, C. A.; Painter, T. H.; Seidel, F. C.; Trangsrud, A.; Hart, A. F.; Goodale, C. E.; Boardman, J. W.; Heneghan, C.; Verma, R.; Khudikyan, S.; Boustani, M.; Zimdars, P. A.; Horn, J.; Neely, S.

    2013-12-01

    The JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) must process 100s of GB of raw data to 100s of Terabytes of derived data in 24 hour Near Real Time (NRT) latency in a geographically distributed mobile compute and data-intensive processing setting. ASO provides meaningful information to water resource managers in the Western US letting them know how much water to maintain; or release, and what the prospectus of the current snow season is in the Sierra Nevadas. Providing decision support products processed from airborne data in a 24 hour timeframe is an emergent field and required the team to develop a novel solution as this process is typically done over months. We've constructed a system that combines Apache OODT; with Apache Tika; with the Interactive Data Analysis (IDL)/ENVI programming environment to rapidly and unobtrusively generate, distribute and archive ASO data as soon as the plane lands near Mammoth Lakes, CA. Our system is flexible, underwent several redeployments and reconfigurations, and delivered this critical information to stakeholders during the recent "Snow On" campaign March 2013 - June 2013. This talk will take you through a day in the life of the compute team from data acquisition, delivery, processing, and dissemination. Within this context, we will discuss the architecture of ASO; the open source software we used; the data we stored; and how it was delivered to its users. Moreover we will discuss the logistics, system engineering, and staffing that went into the developing, deployment, and operation of the mobile compute system.

  4. Coagulation abnormalities in diabetic coma before and 24 hours after treatment.

    PubMed

    McLaren, E H; Cullen, D R; Brown, M J

    1979-12-01

    A coagulation screen consisting of measurement of the prothrombin time, thrombin time, kaolin caphalin clotting time, platelet count, plasma fibrinogen level, fibrin degradation products and ethanol gelation test was performed on 24 patients with impairment of consciousness due to acute diabetic metabolic decompensation at the start of treatment and 24 hours later. 22 out of 24 patients showed at least one coagulation abnormality on admission of which the commonest were a prolonged prothrombin time, shortened kaolin cephalin clotting.time and raised plasma fibrinogen level. After 24 hours of treatment these values were more normal but 20 out of 22 patients still displayed some abnormality. 15 patients had two or more coagulation abnormalities on admission including 3 patients with haematological abnormalities suggestive of disseminated intravascular coagulation. This group was older and had higher blood ureas than those with fewer abnormalities, but plasma glucose, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate levels were similar in both groups of patients. All 5 patients with hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma and all 3 patients who died without recovering consciousness had two or more coagulation abnormalities on admission.

  5. Deviation of innate circadian period from 24 hours reduces longevity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Libert, Sergiy; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Pointer, Kelli; Pletcher, Scott D.; Guarente, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Summary The variation of individual lifespans, even in highly inbred cohorts of animals and under strictly controlled environmental conditions, is substantial and not well understood. This variation in part could be due to epigenetic variation, which later affects the animal’s physiology and ultimately longevity. Identification of the physiological properties that impact health and lifespan is crucial for longevity research and the development of anti-aging therapies. Here we measured individual circadian and metabolic characteristics in a cohort of inbred F1 hybrid mice and correlated these parameters to their lifespans. We found that mice with innate circadian periods close to 24 hours (revealed during 30 days of housing in total darkness) enjoyed nearly 20% longer lifespans than their littermates, which had shorter or longer innate circadian periods. These findings show that maintenance of a 24 hour intrinsic circadian period is a positive predictor of longevity. Our data suggest that circadian period may be used to predict individual longevity and that processes that control innate circadian period affect aging. PMID:22702406

  6. Sleep in healthy elderly subjects: a 24-hour ambulatory polysomnographic study.

    PubMed

    Gigli, G L; Placidi, F; Diomedi, M; Maschio, M; Silvestri, G; Scalise, A; Marciani, M G

    1996-04-01

    It is still debated whether the deterioration of the sleep pattern, frequently reported by elderly subjects, is due only to aging per se. Other factors associated with aging or modifications of biological rhythms could also be involved. Elderly subjects frequently complain of daytime sleepiness, but it is not clear whether this actually represents a return to a polyphasic structure of sleep, or only a consequence of a disturbed night sleep. Ten healthy, independent and active elderly subjects (age > 72 years) were elevated by means of 24-hour ambulatory polysomnography. Findings of nocturnal sleep were compared with sleep of the same group in the 24-hour period and with sleep of young healthy controls. We observed a fragmentation of nocturnal sleep, but a fairly good representation of stages and a preservation of cyclicity. Except for three cases, with early or late times of sleep onset and wake-up, sleep disruption did not seem to be related to modification of circadian rhythms. Only three subjects presented undesired daytime naps, whereas the others either did not show daytime sleep at all, or were used to having their siesta after lunch since their young adulthood. In normal aging, daytime sleep does not constitute a social problem. Ambulatory polysomnography is a valid alternative to laboratory recordings in the identification of daytime sleep. PMID:8734563

  7. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sarah C; Gauthier, Angela C; Liu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. PMID:27525110

  8. PHYSICIAN-PHARMACIST CO-MANAGEMENT AND 24-HOUR BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ziqian; Ernst, Michael E.; Ardery, Gail; Xu, Yinghui; Carter, Barry L.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: to compare indices of 24-hour BP following a physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention and to describe the associated changes in antihypertensive medications. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective, cluster-randomized clinical trial conducted in 6 family medicine clinics randomized to co-managed (n=3 clinics, 176 subjects) or control (n=3 clinics, 198 subjects) groups. Mean ambulatory systolic BP was significantly lower in the co-managed versus the control group: daytime SBP 122.8 mm Hg versus 134.4 mm Hg (p<0.001); nighttime SBP 114.8 mm Hg versus 123.7 mm Hg (p<0.001); and 24-hour SBP 120.4 mm Hg versus 131.8 mm Hg (p<0.001), respectively. Significantly more drug changes were made in the co-managed than in the control group (2.7 versus 1.1 changes/subject, p<0.001), and there was greater diuretic use in co-managed subjects (79.6% versus 62.6%, p<0.001). Ambulatory BPs were significantly lower for the subjects who had a diuretic added during the first month compared with those who never had a diuretic added (p<0.01). Physician-pharmacist co-management significantly improved ambulatory BP compared with a control group. Anti-hypertensive drug therapy was intensified much more for subjects in the co-managed group. PMID:23614849

  9. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m(2), had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab(®) device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens(®) algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for "24-hour", "awake", and "asleep" periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects. PMID:24812515

  10. 76 FR 66723 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspections, Recall, and Importer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... 1, 2011 (76 FR 45820). In that document, FDA announced the establishment of a docket to obtain..., 2011 (76 FR 45820), FDA published a notice with a 90-day comment period to request comments on the... Reinspections, Recall, and Importer Reinspection User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2012; Extension of...

  11. 76 FR 53478 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspections, Recall, and Importer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... (FDA) is correcting a notice that appeared in the Federal Register of August 1, 2011 (76 FR 45820). The..., 301-796-8811, e-mail: Amy.Waltrip@fda.hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. FDA-2011-19331... Reinspections, Recall, and Importer Reinspection User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2012; Correction AGENCY:...

  12. The National Cancer Institute diet history questionnaire: validation of pyramid food servings.

    PubMed

    Millen, Amy E; Midthune, Douglas; Thompson, Frances E; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F

    2006-02-01

    The performance of the National Cancer Institute's food frequency questionnaire, the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ), in estimating servings of 30 US Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid food groups was evaluated in the Eating at America's Table Study (1997-1998), a nationally representative sample of men and women aged 20-79 years. Participants who completed four nonconsecutive, telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls (n = 1,301) were mailed a DHQ; 965 respondents completed both the 24-hour dietary recalls and the DHQ. The US Department of Agriculture's Pyramid Servings Database was used to estimate intakes of pyramid servings for both diet assessment tools. The correlation (rho) between DHQ-reported intake and true intake and the attenuation factor (lambda) were estimated using a measurement error model with repeat 24-hour dietary recalls as the reference instrument. Correlations for energy-adjusted pyramid servings of foods ranged from 0.43 (other starchy vegetables) to 0.84 (milk) among women and from 0.42 (eggs) to 0.80 (total dairy food) among men. The mean rho and lambda after energy adjustment were 0.62 and 0.60 for women and 0.63 and 0.66 for men, respectively. This food frequency questionnaire validation study of foods measured in pyramid servings allowed for a measure of food intake consistent with national dietary guidance. PMID:16339051

  13. The National Cancer Institute diet history questionnaire: validation of pyramid food servings.

    PubMed

    Millen, Amy E; Midthune, Douglas; Thompson, Frances E; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F

    2006-02-01

    The performance of the National Cancer Institute's food frequency questionnaire, the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ), in estimating servings of 30 US Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid food groups was evaluated in the Eating at America's Table Study (1997-1998), a nationally representative sample of men and women aged 20-79 years. Participants who completed four nonconsecutive, telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls (n = 1,301) were mailed a DHQ; 965 respondents completed both the 24-hour dietary recalls and the DHQ. The US Department of Agriculture's Pyramid Servings Database was used to estimate intakes of pyramid servings for both diet assessment tools. The correlation (rho) between DHQ-reported intake and true intake and the attenuation factor (lambda) were estimated using a measurement error model with repeat 24-hour dietary recalls as the reference instrument. Correlations for energy-adjusted pyramid servings of foods ranged from 0.43 (other starchy vegetables) to 0.84 (milk) among women and from 0.42 (eggs) to 0.80 (total dairy food) among men. The mean rho and lambda after energy adjustment were 0.62 and 0.60 for women and 0.63 and 0.66 for men, respectively. This food frequency questionnaire validation study of foods measured in pyramid servings allowed for a measure of food intake consistent with national dietary guidance.

  14. Association between Sleep Duration and 24-Hour Urine Free Cortisol in the MrOS Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Madhu N.; Blackwell, Terri; Redline, Susan; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Neylan, Thomas C.; Stone, Katie L.

    2013-01-01

    Context Short sleep duration is associated with adverse health outcomes, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. It has been postulated that short sleep duration may elevate cortisol levels, but studies have had conflicting results. It is unclear whether these differing findings may be due to methodological issues, such as assessment of sleep duration. Specifically, objective versus subjective methods of measuring habitual sleep duration may account for the conflicting results found in epidemiological studies. Objective Our goal was to determine whether habitual sleep duration, measured objectively (by actigraphy) and subjectively (by self-report), was associated with 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), a measure of integrated cortisol secretion. Our secondary goal was to determine whether slow wave sleep (SWS, determined by polysomnography) was associated with 24-hour UFC. Design/Setting Cross sectional study of community dwelling older men. Patients/Participants 325 men (mean age = 76.6 years, SD = 5.5) from the Portland site of the MrOS Sleep Study, who underwent 24-hour urine collection, polysomnography, actigraphy and sleep questionnaire. Primary Outcome 24-hour UFC. Results In this study of community dwelling older men, self-reported sleep duration was inversely related to 24-hour UFC levels. Participants reporting <5 hours of habitual sleep had an adjusted mean 24-hour UFC of 29.8 ug, compared to 28.0 ug in participants reporting >5 to <8 hours of sleep 25.5 ug in those reporting >8 hours of habitual sleep. However, sleep duration determined by actigraphy was not associated with 24-hour UFC in either univariable or multivariable regression models. SWS was not associated with 24-hour UFC. Conclusion Objectively measured (i.e., actigraphic) sleep duration is not associated with 24-hour UFC in these community dwelling older men. This finding, together with prior studies, suggests that elevated levels of integrated cortisol secretion is not the

  15. Turbulent diffusion on the solar photosphere through 24-hour continuous observations of magnetic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannattasio, F.; Berrilli, F.; Del Moro, D.; Bellot Rubio, L.; Orozco Suarez, D.; Gosic, M.

    2012-12-01

    Solar atmosphere is a unique laboratory for the study of turbulent flows under extreme conditions (e.g. very high Reynolds numbers). The turbulent nature of the flow may be approached by determining how magnetic flux elements are transported on the solar surface, and measuring the spatio-temporal scales on which these small magnetic structures are organized. The process involved is diffusion. Several works explored this topic, both by simulations and observations, and the results are often contradictory, ranging from fully-developed turbulent scenarios to normal-diffusive motions. We analyze 24-hour continuous Hinode SOT observations of a supergranular region (for the first time these long scales are explored), studying the evolution of the mutual distance between magnetic element pairs and its scaling laws, in order to investigate the diffusion process. We find a super-diffusive behavior, with a gamma index depending on the spatial scale selected.

  16. After 24-hour scrub, another tower rollback for the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    As tower rollback begins, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for the second launch attempt at 4:04 p.m. EST. The original launch was scrubbed on Feb. 6 for 24 hours. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  17. Chest physiotherapy in preterm infants with RDS in the first 24 hours of life.

    PubMed

    Raval, D; Yeh, T F; Mora, A; Cuevas, D; Pyati, S; Pildes, R S

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate if chest physiotherapy is beneficial to premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) during the first 24 hours of life, 20 infants were randomly assigned to two groups; 10 infants in Group I received routine chest physiotherapy and suction, and 10 infants in Group II received suction only. The birth weight, gestational age, postnatal age, Apgar scores, blood gases, acid-base status, and ventilatory requirements prior to study were comparable between the two groups. There were no significant differences between the groups in the amount of endotracheal secretions removed, the PO2/FIO2 ratio, blood gases, and pH during the study. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), Grade I and II intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and mortality was comparable. However, five of 10 Group I and zero of 10 Group II infants developed Grade III or IV IVH (P less than 0.05).

  18. [Development of direct and indirect ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure monitoring].

    PubMed

    Krönig, B

    1991-01-01

    The direct ambulatory 24-hour blood-pressure monitoring has been applied in two ways. With the so called "Oxford-system", blood pressure is recorded via a cannula in the brachial artery which is connected to a perfusion unit that is worn around the neck, on the front of the chest, with a tape recorder carried in a pouch on the patient's belt. Using the micro-catheter blood-pressure telemetry recording is done in the same way, but transmission of the data to a stationary-receiving unit is managed by telemetry. The usage of the latter method is limited by the weight and complexity of the patient-sited equipment. Compared to the Oxford-system there is the advantage of continuously observing the patients blood-pressure "on-line" during the recording. The invasive character of both methods limits the application to special, scientific investigations. In recent years the indirect recording machines for 24-hour blood-pressure monitoring has been developed further. They are now accurate, easy to apply and simple to work out. Beside the auscultatory way of recording, with or without ECG-gating, the oscillometry recording machines have been improved. There should be automatically-operated intervals with recordings in day-time every 15-20 minutes and during the night every 30 minutes. The recorded data should be analysed by computer, calculating mean values with standard deviations in day-time and night-time separately. Further more, there should be a listing of reading-errors and probably corrected measurements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index derived from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang; Dolan, Eamon; Gao, Ping-Jin; Guo, Hui-Feng; Nawrot, Tim; Stanton, Alice V; Zhu, Ding-Liang; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2006-03-01

    We hypothesized that 1 minus the slope of diastolic on systolic pressure during 24-hour ambulatory monitoring (ambulatory arterial stiffness index [AASI]) might reflect arterial stiffness. We compared AASI with established measures of arterial stiffness and studied its distribution in Chinese and European populations. We used 90207 SpaceLabs monitors and the SphygmoCor device to measure AASI, central and peripheral pulse pressures, the central (CAIx) and peripheral (PAIx) systolic augmentation indexes, and aortic pulse wave velocity. In 166 volunteers, the correlation coefficient between AASI and pulse wave velocity was 0.51 (P<0.0001). In 348 randomly recruited Chinese subjects, AASI correlated (P<0.0001) with CAIx (r=0.48), PAIx (r=0.50), and central pulse pressure (r=0.50). AASI increased with age and mean arterial pressure but decreased with body height. Both before and after adjustment for arterial wave reflections by considering height and heart rate as covariates, AASI correlated more (P<0.0001) closely with CAIx and PAIx than 24-hour pulse pressure. Among normotensive subjects, the 95th percentile of AASI was 0.55 in Chinese and 0.57 in 1617 Europeans enrolled in the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring. The upper boundary of the 95% prediction interval of AASI in relation to age ranged from 0.53 at 20 years to 0.72 at 80 years. In conclusion, AASI is a new index of arterial stiffness that can be easily measured under ambulatory conditions. Pending additional validation in outcome studies, normal values of AASI are probably <0.50 and 0.70 in young and older subjects, respectively. PMID:16432048

  20. A 24-Hour Study of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary Axes in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nambron, Rajasree; Costelloe, Seán J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hill, Nathan R.; Frost, Chris; Watt, Hilary C.; Hindmarsh, Peter; Björkqvist, Maria; Warner, Thomas T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Huntington’s disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Patients exhibit other symptoms including sleep and mood disturbances, muscle atrophy and weight loss which may be linked to hypothalamic pathology and dysfunction of hypothalamo-pituitary axes. Methods We studied neuroendocrine profiles of corticotropic, somatotropic and gonadotropic hypothalamo-pituitary axes hormones over a 24-hour period in controlled environment in 15 healthy controls, 14 premanifest and 13 stage II/III Huntington’s disease subjects. We also quantified fasting levels of vasopressin, oestradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free total thyroxine, prolactin, adrenaline and noradrenaline. Somatotropic axis hormones, growth hormone releasing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like factor binding protein-3 were quantified at 06:00 (fasting), 15:00 and 23:00. A battery of clinical tests, including neurological rating and function scales were performed. Results 24-hour concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone did not differ significantly between the Huntington’s disease group and controls. Daytime growth hormone secretion was similar in control and Huntington’s disease subjects. Stage II/III Huntington’s disease subjects had lower concentration of post-sleep growth hormone pulse and higher insulin-like growth factor-1:growth hormone ratio which did not reach significance. In Huntington’s disease subjects, baseline levels of hypothalamo-pituitary axis hormones measured did not significantly differ from those of healthy controls. Conclusions The relatively small subject group means that the study may not detect subtle perturbations in hormone concentrations. A targeted study of the somatotropic axis in larger cohorts may be warranted. However, the lack

  1. Low correlation between visit-to-visit variability and 24-hour variability of blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi; Diaz, Keith M.; Newman, Jonathan; Sloan, Richard P.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of clinic systolic blood pressure (SBP) has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Given the need for obtaining blood pressure (BP) at multiple visits to calculate VVV, substituting BP variability from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) may be a practical alternative. We assessed the correlation between VVV of BP and BP variability from ABPM using data from 146 untreated, mostly normotensive participants (mean age 47.9 years) in a substudy of the ongoing Masked Hypertension Study. VVV of SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was estimated by the standard deviation (SDvvv) and average real variability (ARVvvv) from 6 study visits over a median of 216 days. ABPM data were used to calculate the day-night SD (SDdn) and the ARV of SBP and DBP over 24 hours (ARV24). For SBP, the mean SDvvv and SDdn were 6.3 (SD=2.5) and 8.8 (SD=1.8) mmHg, respectively, and mean ARVvvv and ARV24 were 7.2 (SD=3.2) and 8.4 (SD=2.1) mmHg, respectively. The Spearman correlation coefficient between SDvvv and SDdn of SBP was rs=0.25 and between ARVvvv and ARV24 was rs=0.17. Participants in the highest quartile of SDdn of SBP were 1.66 (95% CI: 0.93 – 2.75) times more likely to be in the highest quartile of SDvvv of SBP. The observed-to-expected ratio between the highest quartiles of ARVvvv and ARV24 of SBP was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.41 – 1.69). The correlations for SDvvv and SDdn and ARVvvv and ARV24 of DBP were minimal. These data suggest VVV and 24-hour variability are weakly correlated and not interchangeable. PMID:23784506

  2. Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours Maps and Data of Model-Based Small Area Estimates - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours is defined as a person 18 years of age or older who must have reported smoking at least 100 cigarettes in his/her life, and now does not smoke at all but it has been less than 365 days since completely stopped smoking cigarettes, or now smoke everyday or some days but reported that have made attempt of quitting for more than 24 hours in the past 12 months.

  3. Comparison of the Block Kid's Food Frequency Questionnaire with a 24 h dietary recall methodology among Hmong-American children, 9-18 years of age.

    PubMed

    Mulasi-Pokhriyal, Urvashi; Smith, Chery

    2013-01-28

    Hmong are one of the immigrant Asian subgroups with increasing rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and CVD. Despite their population growth in the USA and declining health status, no research has investigated the appropriateness of dietary assessment measures, including FFQ and 24 h dietary recalls among Hmong. The present study compared the nutrient information obtained through a 24 h dietary recall method with that collected using the Block Kid's Food Frequency Questionnaire (Block FFQ) among Hmong-American children (n 335) of 9-18 years of age. For this purpose, two 24 h dietary recalls were collected during non-consecutive days and averaged for comparison. The Block FFQ was administered on the day of the second 24 h recall and the two methodologies were also compared using t tests. Among all children, Block FFQ nutrient estimates for vitamin A, vitamin C and food group servings for vegetables and fruits were significantly higher than those assessed through the 24 h dietary recalls (P< 0.001). Nutrient estimates for protein and food group servings for grains and meat and beans were significantly higher among all participants when assessed through the 24 h dietary recalls than through the Block FFQ (P< 0.05). The results suggest that the Block FFQ does not appear to be a good measure of protein, grain, and meat and bean intake among Hmong children of 9-18 years of age, and the 24 h dietary recall offers a better account of the Hmong diet and is inclusive of ethnic food options otherwise missed in the Block FFQ. We recommend the modification of the current Block FFQ to appropriately reflect cultural food/beverage items of the population in interest.

  4. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    PubMed

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  5. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited - A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light-dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus ("master clock") of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli ("zeitgebers"), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5-0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy might have

  6. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  7. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited – A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P.; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light–dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (“master clock”) of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli (“zeitgebers”), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5–0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy

  8. Severe community-acquired pneumonia: timely management measures in the first 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Phua, Jason; Dean, Nathan C; Guo, Qi; Kuan, Win Sen; Lim, Hui Fang; Lim, Tow Keang

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) range from 17 to 48 % in published studies.In this review, we searched PubMed for relevant papers published between 1981 and June 2016 and relevant files. We explored how early and aggressive management measures, implemented within 24 hours of recognition of severe CAP and carried out both in the emergency department and in the ICU, decrease mortality in severe CAP.These measures begin with the use of severity assessment tools and the application of care bundles via clinical decision support tools. The bundles include early guideline-concordant antibiotics including macrolides, early haemodynamic support (lactate measurement, intravenous fluids, and vasopressors), and early respiratory support (high-flow nasal cannulae, lung-protective ventilation, prone positioning, and neuromuscular blockade for acute respiratory distress syndrome).While the proposed interventions appear straightforward, multiple barriers to their implementation exist. To successfully decrease mortality for severe CAP, early and close collaboration between emergency medicine and respiratory and critical care medicine teams is required. We propose a workflow incorporating these interventions. PMID:27567896

  9. Sudden cardiac arrest risk stratification based on 24-hour Holter ECG statistics.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Keisuke; Shiobara, Masahito; Nakamura, Saya; Yamashiro, Koichiro; Yana, Kazuo; Ono, Takuya

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using indices obtained from a long term Holter ECG record for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) risk stratification. The ndices tested were the QT-RR interval co-variability and the alternans ratio percentile (ARP(θ)) which is defined as the θ(th) percentile of alternans ratios over a 24 hour period. The QT-RR interval co-variabilities are evaluated by the serial correlation coefficient between QT and RR trend sequences (QTRC). Previously reported Kalman filter technique and a simple smoothing spline method for the trend estimation are compared. Parameter θ in the alternans ratio percentile index was optimized to achieve the best classification accuracy. These indices were estimated from 26 cardiovascular outpatients for Holter ECG record. Patients were classified into high and low risk groups according to their clinical diagnosis, and the obtained indices were compared with those of 25 control subjects. A risk stratification using the two indices QTRC and ARP(θ) yielded an average sensitivity of 0.812 and a specificity of 0.925. The sensitivities and specificities of all three categories exceeded 0.8 except for the sensitivity to detect the high-risk patient group. Other short-term ECG parameters may need to be incorporated in order to improve the sensitivity.

  10. 24 Hours in the Life of HIV-1 in a T Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Pejman; Desfarges, Sébastien; Bartha, István; Joos, Beda; Zangger, Nadine; Muñoz, Miguel; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Telenti, Amalio; Ciuffi, Angela

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 infects CD4+ T cells and completes its replication cycle in approximately 24 hours. We employed repeated measurements in a standardized cell system and rigorous mathematical modeling to characterize the emergence of the viral replication intermediates and their impact on the cellular transcriptional response with high temporal resolution. We observed 7,991 (73%) of the 10,958 expressed genes to be modulated in concordance with key steps of viral replication. Fifty-two percent of the overall variability in the host transcriptome was explained by linear regression on the viral life cycle. This profound perturbation of cellular physiology was investigated in the light of several regulatory mechanisms, including transcription factors, miRNAs, host-pathogen interaction, and proviral integration. Key features were validated in primary CD4+ T cells, and with viral constructs using alternative entry strategies. We propose a model of early massive cellular shutdown and progressive upregulation of the cellular machinery to complete the viral life cycle. PMID:23382686

  11. Age and individual sleep characteristics affect cognitive performance in anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift.

    PubMed

    Tadinac, Meri; Sekulić, Ante; Hromatko, Ivana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Ivancić, Romina

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown that both shift work and sleep deprivation have an adverse influence on various aspects of human cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to explore changes in cognitive functioning and subjective sleepiness of anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift. Twenty-six anesthesiology residents completed a set of psychological instruments at the beginning and at the end of the shift, as well as a questionnaire regarding information about the shift, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and Circadian Type Questionnaire. There was a significant decline in cognitive performance measured by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test after the shift. The effect was stronger in older participants and in those with high scores on rigidity of sleep scale and low scores on the ability to overcome sleepiness scale. There were no differences in the digits forward test (a measure of concentration), while digits backward test (a measure of working memory) even showed an improved performance after the shift. Although participants reported being significantly sleepier after the shift, the subjective sleepiness did not correlate with any of the objective measures of cognitive performance. In conclusion, the performance in short tasks involving concentration and working memory was not impaired, while performance in long-term and monotone tasks declined after sleep deprivation, and the magnitude of this decline depended on the specific individual characteristics of sleep and on age Surprisingly, age seemed to have an important impact on cognitive functions after shift work even in the relatively age-homogeneous population of young anesthesiology residents.

  12. Obtaining liver tridimensional scaffold through the decellularization of rabbit whole liver in 24 hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Schliamser; Ayelen, Rinaldi; Romina, Comin; Alba Nelly, Borchert; Adrian, Nari Gustavo; Alicia, Salvatierra Nancy; Mariana Paula, Cid

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, we development a new protocol for liver decellularization in which the hole decellularization was reached over 24 h. Introduction: the availability of transplantable livers is not sufficient to fulfill the current demand for grafts, with the search for therapeutic alternatives having generated different lines of research, one of which is the use of decellularized three-dimensional biological matrices and subsequent cell seeding to obtain a functional organ. Objective: to produce a decellularization protocol from rabbit liver to generate a three-dimensional matrixin which the time period involved didn't pass 24 h. Methods: The decellularization is obtained through the use of water and SDS (0,1-0,3 %), after freezing at -80 degrees, is the best alternative of different physical and/or chemical mechanisms to break down organ cells and leave only the extracellular matriz. After 24 h of retrograde perfusion, a decellularized translucent matrix was generated. To evaluate if the decellularization protocol was successful, with the extracellular matrix being preserved, we carried out histological (light microscopy) and biochemical (DNA quantification) studies. Results: the decellularization process was verified by macroscopic observation of the organ using microscopic observation corroborated the macroscopic results, with the hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining showing no cells or nuclear material. In addition, the DNA quantification was less than 10% in the decellularized liver compared to control. Finally,the time taken to develop the decellularization protocol was less than 24 hours.

  13. Electrodes for 24 hours pH monitoring--a comparative study.

    PubMed Central

    McLauchlan, G; Rawlings, J M; Lucas, M L; McCloy, R F; Crean, G P; McColl, K E

    1987-01-01

    Three pH electrodes in clinical use were examined--(1) antimony electrode with remote reference electrode (Synectics 0011), (2) glass electrode with remote reference electrode (Microelectrodes Inc. MI 506) and (3) combined glass electrode with integral reference electrode (Radiometer GK2801C). In vitro studies showed that both glass electrodes were similar and superior to the antimony electrode with respect to response time, drift, and sensitivity. The effect of the siting of the reference electrode on the recorded pH was examined in five human volunteers. The pH reading using a remote skin reference electrode was higher by a mean of 0.3 pH units (range 0.0-0.6) in the stomach, lower by 0.65 pH units (0.5-0.8) in the duodenum and lower by 0.3 pH units (0.0-0.6) in the oesophagus than that simultaneously obtained with an intraluminal reference electrode. Buccal reference electrodes gave similar readings to skin. Combined reference and glass pH electrodes are recommended for 24-hour ambulatory pH monitoring. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3666560

  14. Depressive Symptoms and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans: The SABPA Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Lespérance, François; Harvey, Brian H.; Malan, Nico T.; Malan, Leoné

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances in circadian rhythm might play a central role in the neurobiology of depression. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and 24-hour ambulatory BP in a sample of 405 (197 black and 208 Caucasian) urbanized African teachers aged 25 to 60 yrs (mean 44.6 ± 9.6 yrs). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-administered 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). After adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, participants with severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15) had higher odds of hypertension defined from ambulatory BP and/or use of antihypertensive medication (odds ratio = 2.19, 95% CI, 1.00–4.90) in comparison to participants with no symptoms. Compared to Caucasians with no depressive symptoms, those with severe symptoms had blunted nocturnal systolic BP drop of 4.7 mmHg (95% CI, −0.5 to 10.0, P = 0.07). In summary, depressive symptoms were associated with the circadian BP profile in black and Caucasian Africans. PMID:22028954

  15. Neonatal family care for 24 hours per day: effects on maternal confidence and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Wataker, Heidi; Meberg, Alf; Nestaas, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    In family care (FC) program for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), parents are encouraged to reside together with their infant for 24 hours a day to actively be involved in the care. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of FC on maternal confidence and breast-feeding. Maternal confidence and rate of breast-feeding were assessed in 31 mothers offered FC that included special family rooms in the NICU, and in 30 mothers from a comparable NICU providing traditional care without such facilities. One week prior to hospital discharge, mothers in the FC group felt better informed regarding nursing issues and had more confidence in interpretation of the infants regarding feeding issues and in caregiving without staff attendance (P < .05). They also reported a higher level of empowerment (P < .05). Three months after discharge, the mothers in the FC group had a higher self-reported skill level for interpretation of the infant's signals and knowledge about breast-feeding (P < .05). Despite similar rate of breast-feeding at discharge, more infants in the FC group were breastfed 3 months after discharge (P < .05). An FC program in the NICU promoted better maternal confidence during the hospital stay and 3 months after discharge compared with traditional care.

  16. Importance of all movement behaviors in a 24 hour period for overall health.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Carson, Valerie; Gray, Casey E; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-12-01

    Physical inactivity and childhood obesity are well-recognized public health concerns that are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes. Historically, the benefits of physical activity (e.g., moderate-to-vigorous physical activity-MVPA) to overall health have dominated discussions and emerging evidence indicates that a broader, more integrated approach is needed to better understand and address current public health crises. Existing guidelines for children and youth around the world only focus on MVPA, and recently sedentary behavior, despite an accumulating body of evidence showing that light-intensity physical activity (LPA) such as walking can provide important health benefits. Furthermore, there is accumulating support for the importance of adequate sleep and that these behaviors moderate the health impact of each other. Ignoring the other components of the movement continuum (i.e., sleep, sedentary time, LPA) while focusing efforts exclusively on MVPA (accounting for <5% of the time in a 24 h period) limits the potential to optimize the health benefits of movement behaviors. In order to address this limitation, experts in Canada are currently developing the world's first Integrated 24 Hour Movement Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth to help advance an integrated healthy active living agenda that has the potential to significantly improve the overall health and well-being of children and youth. PMID:25485978

  17. Improvements in recall and food choices using a graphical method to deliver information of select nutrients.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Nathan S; Ellison, Brenna D; Benjamin, Aaron S; Nakamura, Manabu T

    2016-01-01

    Consumers have difficulty using nutrition information. We hypothesized that graphically delivering information of select nutrients relative to a target would allow individuals to process information in time-constrained settings more effectively than numerical information. Objectives of the study were to determine the efficacy of the graphical method in (1) improving memory of nutrient information and (2) improving consumer purchasing behavior in a restaurant. Values of fiber and protein per calorie were 2-dimensionally plotted alongside a target box. First, a randomized cued recall experiment was conducted (n=63). Recall accuracy of nutrition information improved by up to 43% when shown graphically instead of numerically. Second, the impact of graphical nutrition signposting on diner choices was tested in a cafeteria. Saturated fat and sodium information was also presented using color coding. Nutrient content of meals (n=362) was compared between 3 signposting phases: graphical, nutrition facts panels (NFP), or no nutrition label. Graphical signposting improved nutrient content of purchases in the intended direction, whereas NFP had no effect compared with the baseline. Calories ordered from total meals, entrées, and sides were significantly less during graphical signposting than no-label and NFP periods. For total meal and entrées, protein per calorie purchased was significantly higher and saturated fat significantly lower during graphical signposting than the other phases. Graphical signposting remained a predictor of calories and protein per calorie purchased in regression modeling. These findings demonstrate that graphically presenting nutrition information makes that information more available for decision making and influences behavior change in a realistic setting. PMID:26773780

  18. Relative Validity of Three Food Frequency Questionnaires for Assessing Dietary Intakes of Guatemalan Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Marcinkevage, Jessica; Mayén, Ana-Lucia; Zuleta, Clara; DiGirolamo, Ann M.; Stein, Aryeh D.; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the relative validity of three food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) compared with results from 24-hour dietary recalls for measuring dietary intakes in Guatemalan schoolchildren. Design A cross-sectional study of primary caregivers (mothers or grandmothers) of 6–11 year-old children. Caregivers completed one of three constructed FFQs to measure the child’s dietary consumption in the last week: FFQ1 did not incorporate portion sizes; FFQ2 provided portion sizes; and FFQ3 incorporated pictures of median portion sizes. During the same week, each caregiver also completed three 24-hour dietary recalls. Results from the FFQ were compared with corresponding results from the 24-hour dietary recalls. Setting Santa Catarina Pinula, peri-urban Guatemala City. Subjects Caregivers (n = 145) of 6–11 year-old children: 46 completed FFQ1, 49 completed FFQ2, and 50 completed FFQ3. Results The mean values for all nutrients obtained from the 24-hour dietary recall were lower than for those obtained from the FFQs, excluding folic acid in FFQ3, cholesterol and zinc in FFQ2, and cholesterol, folic acid, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and zinc in FFQ1. Energy-adjusted Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.07 (protein) to 0.54 (cholesterol) for FFQ1 and from 0.05 to 0.74 for FFQ2 and FFQ3. Agreement by both methods (FFQ and 24-hour dietary recalls) of classifying children into the same or adjacent quartiles of energy-adjusted nutrient consumption ranged from 62.0% for cholesterol to 95.9% for vitamin B12 across all three FFQs. Conclusions Our FFQs had moderate to good relative validity in measuring energy and nutrient intakes for 6–11 year-old Guatemalan children. More evidence is needed to evaluate their reproducibility and applicability in similar populations. PMID:26465769

  19. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall communications. 7.49 Section 7.49 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.49 Recall communications. (a) General. A recalling firm is responsible for promptly notifying each...

  20. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.40 Recall policy. (a) Recall is an effective method of removing or correcting consumer products...

  1. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recall communications. 7.49 Section 7.49 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.49 Recall communications. (a) General. A recalling firm is responsible for promptly notifying each...

  2. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recall communications. 7.49 Section 7.49 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.49 Recall communications. (a) General. A recalling firm is responsible for promptly notifying each...

  3. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.40 Recall policy. (a) Recall is an effective method of removing or correcting consumer products...

  4. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recall communications. 7.49 Section 7.49 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.49 Recall communications. (a) General. A recalling firm is responsible for promptly notifying each...

  5. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.40 Recall policy. (a) Recall is an effective method of removing or correcting consumer products...

  6. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recall communications. 7.49 Section 7.49 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.49 Recall communications. (a) General. A recalling firm is responsible for promptly notifying each...

  7. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.40 Recall policy. (a) Recall is an effective method of removing or correcting consumer products...

  8. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  9. A 24-HOUR AMBULATORY ECG MONITORING IN ASSESSMENT OF QT INTERVAL DURATION AND DISPERSION IN ROWERS WITH PHYSIOLOGICAL MYOCARDIAL HYPERTROPHY

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Z.F.; Bilalova, R.R.; Tsibulkin, N.A.; Almetova, R.R.; Mudarisova, R.R.; Ahmetov, I.I.

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial hypertrophy (MH) due to cardiac pathology is characterized by an increase in QT interval duration and dispersion, while the findings for exercise-induced myocardial hypertrophy are contradictory. The majority of published research findings have not explored this relationship, but there have only been a few conducted studies using 24-hour ECG monitoring. The aim of the study was to determine the QT interval duration and dispersion in short-term and 24-hour ECG in endurance athletes with myocardial hypertrophy and without it. Methods: A total of 26 well-trained rowers underwent a resting 12-lead ECG, 24-hour ECG monitoring and echocardiography. Results: Athletes with MH (n = 7) at rest did not show any increase in QTc interval duration and dispersion, or mean and maximal QTc duration in Holter monitoring compared to athletes without MH (n = 19). Left ventricular mass was not significantly correlated with any QTc characteristics. Furthermore, athletes with MH had significantly longer mean QT (P = 0.01) and maximal QT (P = 0.018) intervals in Holter monitoring and higher 24-hour heart rate variability indexes due to stronger vagal effects. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that athlete's heart syndrome with myocardial hypertrophy as a benign phenomenon does not lead to an increase in QT interval duration, or increases in maximal and mean duration in a 24-hour ECG. An increase in QT interval duration in athletes may have an autonomic nature. PMID:24744494

  10. Metabolic and renal changes in two athletes during a world 24 hour relay record performance.

    PubMed Central

    Irving, R A; Noakes, T D; van Zyl Smit, R

    1989-01-01

    Metabolic parameters and renal function were studied in two subjects before, during and after they established a world two-man 24 hour relay record. During the race, the athletes expended an estimated 37.747 and 42.880 kJ running at 54 and 61 per cent of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max). Rectal temperatures reached maxima of 38.6 and 39.2 degrees C respectively during the race. Serum free fatty acid levels peaked at 2108 and 1875 mumol ml-1 after 24 hours; blood glucose levels varied from 4.3-6.5 and 4.9-8.5 mmol.l-1 respectively. Plasma insulin levels fell from 42.9 and 22.7 microU.ml-1 to 11.5 microU.ml-1. Plasma urea, creatinine, beta 2-microglobulin and C-reactive protein concentrations were elevated at the end of the race (to 9.0 and 8.0 mmol.l-1, 119 and 102 mumol.l-1, 3.508 and 3203 micrograms.l-1 and 2.7 and 3.9 mg per cent respectively). Plasma osmolality was altered from 293 and 304 to 302 and 280 mosmol.Kg-1 during the race but increased to 312 and 318 mosmol.Kg-1 the following day probably due to intercompartmental fluid shifts. Plasma creatinine concentration was increased by 38 and 26 per cent due to reduced urinary excretion. Urine flow rate increased 40 and 123 per cent respectively during the race, but creatinine clearance decreased by 38 and 40 per cent. Urine osmolality decreased by 38 and 65 per cent and osmolal clearance decreased by 15 and 16 per cent respectively. Urine sodium excretion was greatly reduced (85 and 90 per cent) on the post-race days (by 88 and 92 per cent on day 2). Both urine total protein and beta2-microglobulin excretion increased during the race (by 89 and 35 per cent and by 334 and 136 per cent respectively), but owing to the increased beta2-microglobulin production renal clearance was unaltered. The changes in renal function were temporary and some aspects of renal tubular function were enhanced during the post-race days. We conclude that, although C-reactive protein concentrations increased sooner and were higher

  11. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and 24-Hour Blood Pressure Pattern Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, William B.; Kutner, Michael; Ouslander, Joseph G.; Bliwise, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Background To examine the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and 24-hour blood pressure (BP) pattern among community-dwelling older adults. Methods A convenience sample of 70 community-dwelling older adults, recruited from senior housing, community centers, and learning centers, were admitted to General Clinical Research Center, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Ga. Information regarding demographic and clinical history was obtained using questionnaires. Twenty-four–hour BP monitoring in supine position was performed using Spacelabs model 20207. Breathing during sleep was monitored with the use of a modified sleep recording system (Embletta, PDS), which monitors nasal and oral airflow, chest and abdominal movements, and pulse oximetry. Night time–daytime (night-day) BP ratio (average night-time BP divided by daytime BP) was calculated both for systolic and diastolic BPs. Results Sixty-nine participants, mean age 74.9 ± 6.4 years (41 [57%] women), completed the study. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 13 ± 13 per hour of sleep, and 20 participants (29%) had AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep, indicating moderate to severe SDB. Moderate to severe SDB (AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep) was significantly associated with nocturnal hypertension, whereas there was no statistically significant difference in wake-time BP between those with and without moderate to severe SDB. Stepwise multiple regressions showed that AHI independently predicted increased night-day systolic and night-day diastolic BP ratio, even after controlling for nocturia frequency. Conclusions The results indicate increased BP load associated with increased AHI in this group of older adults. This increased BP load may contribute to increased hypertension-related morbidity and disease burden. PMID:19196901

  12. The Impact of Using Different Methods to Assess Completeness of 24-Hour Urine Collection on Estimating Dietary Sodium.

    PubMed

    Wielgosz, Andreas; Robinson, Christopher; Mao, Yang; Jiang, Ying; Campbell, Norm R C; Muthuri, Stella; Morrison, Howard

    2016-06-01

    The standard for population-based surveillance of dietary sodium intake is 24-hour urine testing; however, this may be affected by incomplete urine collection. The impact of different indirect methods of assessing completeness of collection on estimated sodium ingestion has not been established. The authors enlisted 507 participants from an existing community study in 2009 to collect 24-hour urine samples. Several methods of assessing completeness of urine collection were tested. Mean sodium intake varied between 3648 mg/24 h and 7210 mg/24 h depending on the method used. Excluding urine samples collected for longer or shorter than 24 hours increased the estimated urine sodium excretion, even when corrections for the variation in timed collections were applied. Until an accurate method of indirectly assessing completeness of urine collection is identified, the gold standard of administering para-aminobenzoic acid is recommended. Efforts to ensure participants collect complete urine samples are also warranted.

  13. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. Results: The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. Conclusion: The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses

  14. Sex differences in 24-hour ultra-marathon performance - A retrospective data analysis from 1977 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Laura; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the changes in running performance and the sex differences between women and men in 24-hour ultra-marathons held worldwide from 1977 to 2012. METHOD: Changes in running speed and ages of the fastest 24-hour ultra-marathoners were determined using single- and multi-level regression analyses. RESULTS: From 1977 to 2012, the sex differences in 24-hour ultra-marathon performance were 4.6±0.5% for all women and men, 13.3% for the annual fastest finishers, 12.9±0.8% for the top 10 and 12.2±0.4% for the top 100 finishers. Over time, the sex differences decreased for the annual fastest finishers to 17%, for the annual 10 fastest finishers to 11.3±2.2% and for the annual 100 fastest finishers to 14.2±1.8%. For the annual fastest men, the age of peak running speed increased from 23 years (1977) to 53 years (2012). For the annual 10 and 100 fastest men, the ages of peak running speed were unchanged at 40.9±2.5 and 44.4±1.1 years, respectively. For women, the ages of the annual fastest, the annual 10 fastest and the annual 100 fastest remained unchanged at 43.0±6.1, 43.2±2.6 and 43.8±0.8 years, respectively. CONCLUSION: The gap between the annual top, annual top 10 and annual top 100 female and male 24-hour ultra-marathoners decreased over the last 35 years; however, it seems unlikely that women will outrun men in 24-hour ultra-marathons in the near future. The fastest 24-hour ultra-marathoners worldwide achieved their peak performance at the age of master athletes (>35 years). PMID:24473558

  15. Circadian (about 24-hour) variation in malondialdehyde content and catalase activity of mouse erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sani, Mamane; Sebai, Hichem; Ghanem-Boughanmi, Néziha; Boughattas, Naceur A; Ben-Attia, Mossadok

    2015-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation is a part of normal metabolism that may cause biological molecule damage leading to the formation of several specific metabolites that include aldehydes of variable chains, such as malondialdehyde (MDA). These biological effects are controlled in vivo by a wide spectrum of enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense mechanisms among which catalase (CAT) is considered as an important regulator of oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between the temporal patterns of the formation of MDA and the activity of CAT in the erythrocytes of mice. Twenty-four-hour studies were performed on male Swiss albino mice, 12 weeks old, synchronized to a 12:12 light: dark cycle for 3 weeks. Different and comparable groups of animals (n = 10) were sacrificed at an interval of 4 hours (1, 5, 9, 13, 17, and 21 hours after light onset (HALO)). The levels of erythrocyte MDA concentration and CAT activity both significantly (analysis of variance: F = 6.4, P < 0.002) varied according to the time of sampling under non-stressed conditions. The characteristics of the waveform describing the temporal patterns differed between the two studied variables, e.g. MDA content showing one peak (≅21 HALO) and CAT activity showing three peaks (≅9, 17, and 21 HALO). Cosinor analysis revealed a significant (adjusted Cosinor: P ≤ 0.018) circadian (τ ≅ 24 hours) rhythm in MDA level and no statistically significant rhythmicity in CAT activity. The differences and the absence of correlation between the curve patterns of erythrocyte MDA content and CAT activity under physiological conditions are hypothesized to explain that variation in lipid peroxidation may depend on several factors. Moreover, the identification of peak/trough levels of MDA accumulation in erythrocytes may reflect the degree of oxidative stress in these blood cells. In addition, the observed significant time-of-day effect suggests that, in both clinical and scientific

  16. Characterisation of sleep in intensive care using 24-hour polysomnography: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many intensive care patients experience sleep disruption potentially related to noise, light and treatment interventions. The purpose of this study was to characterise, in terms of quantity and quality, the sleep of intensive care patients, taking into account the impact of environmental factors. Methods This observational study was conducted in the adult ICU of a tertiary referral hospital in Australia, enrolling 57 patients. Polysomnography (PSG) was performed over a 24-hour period to assess the quantity (total sleep time: hh:mm) and quality (percentage per stage, duration of sleep episode) of patients' sleep while in ICU. Rechtschaffen and Kales criteria were used to categorise sleep. Interrater checks were performed. Sound pressure and illuminance levels and care events were simultaneously recorded. Patients reported on their sleep quality in ICU using the Richards Campbell Sleep Questionnaire and the Sleep in Intensive Care Questionnaire. Data were summarised using frequencies and proportions or measures of central tendency and dispersion as appropriate and Cohen's Kappa statistic was used for interrater reliability of the sleep data analysis. Results Patients' median total sleep time was 05:00 (IQR: 02:52 to 07:14). The majority of sleep was stage 1 and 2 (medians: 19 and 73%) with scant slow wave and REM sleep. The median duration of sleep without waking was 00:03. Sound levels were high (mean Leq 53.95 dB(A) during the day and 50.20 dB(A) at night) and illuminance levels were appropriate at night (median <2 lux) but low during the day (median: 74.20 lux). There was a median 1.7 care events/h. Patients' mean self-reported sleep quality was poor. Interrater reliability of sleep staging was highest for slow wave sleep and lowest for stage 1 sleep. Conclusions The quantity and quality of sleep in intensive care patients are poor and may be related to noise, critical illness itself and treatment events that disturb sleep. The study highlights the

  17. Analysis of 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kun-Tai; Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Weng, Wen-Chin; Lee, Pei-Lin; Hsu, Wei-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, we aimed to verify associations between ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a hospital-based population. This was a cross-sectional observational study on children aged 4 to 16 years with OSA-related symptoms from a tertiary referral medical center. All children received overnight polysomnography and 24-hour recording of ABP. Severity of the disease was classified as primary snoring (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI <1), mild OSA (AHI 1–5), and moderate-to-severe OSA (AHI >5). For 195 children enrolled in this study (mean age, 7.8 ± 3.4 years; 69% boy), ABP increased as severity of OSA increased. During daytime, children with moderate-to-severe OSA had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (BP) (117.0 ± 12.7 vs 110.5 ± 9.3 mmHg), mean arterial pressure (MAP) (85.6 ± 8.1 vs 81.6 ± 6.8 mmHg), and diastolic BP load (12.0 ± 9.6 vs 8.4 ± 10.9 mmHg) compared with children with primary snoring. During nighttime, children with moderate-to-severe OSA had significantly higher systolic BP (108.6 ± 15.0 vs 100.0 ± 9.4 mmHg), MAP (75.9 ± 9.6 vs 71.1 ± 7.0 mmHg), systolic BP load (44.0 ± 32.6 vs 26.8 ± 24.5 mmHg), systolic BP index (0.5 ± 13.1 vs −6.8 ± 8.5 mmHg), and higher prevalence of systolic hypertension (47.6% vs 14.7 %) compared with children with primary snoring. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed an independent association between AHI and nighttime systolic BP and MAP after adjusting for adiposity variables. This large hospital-based study showed that children with moderate-to-severe OSA had a higher ABP compared with children who were primary snorers. As elevated BP in childhood predicts future cardiovascular risks, children with severe OSA should be treated properly to prevent further adverse cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:26448004

  18. 78 FR 46966 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... FR 45639). Utilizing the method set forth in section 736(c)(1) of the FD&C Act, FDA has calculated an... Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). These fees are... to the FD&C Act (21 U.S.C. 379j-31) to provide FDA with the authority to assess and collect fees...

  19. Effects of dietary interventions on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones.

    PubMed

    Kıraç, Mustafa; Küpeli, Bora; Irkilata, Lokman; Gülbahar, Ozlem; Aksakal, Nur; Karaoğlan, Ustünol; Bozkırlı, Ibrahim

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary factors on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones. A total of 108 of idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones were included in the study. A 24-hour urinalysis was performed and metabolic abnormalities were measured for all of the patients. All of the patients were given specialized diets for their 24-hour urine abnormalities. At the end of first month, the same parameters were examined in another 24-hour urinalysis. Hyperoxaluria, hypernatruria, and hypercalciuria were found in 84 (77%), 43 (39.8%), and 38 (35.5%) of the patients, respectively. The differences between the oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate parameters before and after the dietary intervention were significant (p < 0.05). The calcium parameters were not significantly different before and after the intervention. We found that oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate-but not calcium-abnormalities in patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones can be corrected by diet. The metabolic profiles of idiopathic calcium oxalate stone patients should be evaluated and the appropriate dietary interventions should be implemented to decrease stone recurrence.

  20. Self-Renewal and Differentiation Capacity of Urine-Derived Stem Cells after Urine Preservation for 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yingai; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Leng, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobo; Liu, Hong; Atala, Anthony; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite successful approaches to preserve organs, tissues, and isolated cells, the maintenance of stem cell viability and function in body fluids during storage for cell distribution and transportation remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize urine-derived stem cells (USCs) after optimal preservation of urine specimens for up to 24 hours. A total of 415 urine specimens were collected from 12 healthy men (age range 20–54 years old). About 6×104 cells shed off from the urinary tract system in 24 hours. At least 100 USC clones were obtained from the stored urine specimens after 24 hours and maintained similar biological features to fresh USCs. The stored USCs had a “rice grain” shape in primary culture, and expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, high telomerase activity, and normal karyotypes. Importantly, the preserved cells retained bipotent differentiation capacity. Differentiated USCs expressed myogenic specific proteins and contractile function when exposed to myogenic differentiation medium, and they expressed urothelial cell-specific markers and barrier function when exposed to urothelial differentiation medium. These data demonstrated that up to 75% of fresh USCs can be safely persevered in urine for 24 hours and that these cells stored in urine retain their original stem cell properties, indicating that preserved USCs could be available for potential use in cell-based therapy or clinical diagnosis. PMID:23349776

  1. Estimation of Daily Sodium and Potassium Excretion Using Spot Urine and 24-Hour Urine Samples in a Black Population (Benin).

    PubMed

    Mizéhoun-Adissoda, Carmelle; Houehanou, Corine; Chianéa, Thierry; Dalmay, François; Bigot, André; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Bovet, Pascal; Houinato, Dismand; Desport, Jean-Claude

    2016-07-01

    The 24-hour urine collection method is considered the gold standard for the estimation of ingested potassium and sodium. Because of the impracticalities of collecting all urine over a 24-hour period, spot urine is often used for epidemiological investigations. This study aims to assess the agreement between spot urine and 24-hour urine measurements to determine sodium and potassium intake. A total of 402 participants aged 25 to 64 years were randomly selected in South Benin. Spot urine was taken during the second urination of the day. Twenty-four-hour urine was also collected. Samples (2-mL) were taken and then stored at -20°C. The analysis was carried out using potentiometric dosage. The agreement between spot urine and 24-hour urine measurements was established using Bland-Altman plots. A total of 354 results were analyzed. Daily sodium chloride and potassium chloride urinary excretion means were 10.2±4.9 g/24 h and 2.9±1.4 g/24 h, respectively. Estimated daily sodium chloride and potassium chloride means from the spot urine were 10.7±7.0 g/24 h and 3.9±2.1 g/24 h, respectively. Concordance coefficients were 0.61 at d=-0.5 g, (d±2SD=-11 g and 10.1 g) for sodium chloride and 0.61 at d=-1 g, (d±2SD=-3.8 g and 1.8 g) for potassium chloride. Spot urine method is acceptable for estimating 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion to assess sodium and potassium intake in a black population. However, the confidence interval for the mean difference, which is too large, makes the sodium chloride results inadmissible at a clinical level.

  2. Value of 24-hour Delayed Film of Barium Enema for Evaluation of Colon Transit Function in Young Children with Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ha Yeong; Son, Jae Sung; Park, Hye Won; Kwak, Byung Ok; Kim, Hyeong Su; Bae, Sun Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims A colon transit time test using radio-opaque markers (CTTRM) is considered the gold standard for evaluating colon transit function. A 24-hour delayed film of barium enema (BE) has been used as a supplementary method in structural evaluations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a 24-hour delayed BE film for assessing colon transit function in young children with constipation. Methods In total, 93 children with constipation who performed both single-contrast BE and CTTRM were enrolled in this study. Of these, the data from 70 children were analyzed (males 33, females 37; mean age [range], 5.63 ± 2.94 [2–14] years). The basic principle of the study is “velocity = distance/time”. Time values were identified in both studies, and the colon length and distance of barium movement were measured on the 24-hour delayed BE film. Thus, colon transit velocity values could be calculated using both methods. The correlation between colon transit velocity using a 24-hour delayed BE film versus CTTRM was analyzed statistically. Results Median value (interquartile range) of colon transit velocity using CTTRM was 1.57 (1.07–2.89) cm/hr, and that using BE of that was 1.58 (0.94–2.07) cm/hr. The Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.438 (P < 0.001) for the overall group. The correlation was strongest in children younger than 4 years (r = 0.537, P = 0.032). Conclusions Although the correlation between BE and CTTRM was not very strong, the 24-hour delayed BE film could provide broad information about colon transit function in young children, especially those under 4 years who usually cannot undergo CTTRM. PMID:26979249

  3. Microleakage of Two Self-Adhesive Cements in the Enamel and Dentin After 24 Hours and Two Months

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Kalantar Motamedi, Mojdeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Microleakage is a main cause of restorative treatment failure. In this study, we compared occlusal and cervical microleakage of two self-adhesive cements after 24 hours and two months. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, class II inlay cavities were prepared on 60 sound human third molars. Composite inlays were fabricated with Z100 composite resin. The teeth were randomly assigned to six groups. RelyX-Arc (control), RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem were used for the first three groups and specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The same cements were used for the remaining three groups, but the specimens were stored for 2 months. The teeth were subjected to 500 thermal cycles (5°C and 55°C) and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then sectioned mesiodistally and dye penetration was evaluated in a class II cavity with occlusal and cervical margins using X20 magnification stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: After 24 hours, cements had significant differences only in cervical margin microleakage (P=0.0001) and microleakage of RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was significantly more than that of RelyX-Arc (both P=0.0001). Cervical microleakage in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was greater than occlusal (P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively). Microleakage was not significantly different between the occlusal and cervical margins after 2 months. Conclusion: Cervical microleakage was greater than occlusal in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem after 24h. The greatest microleakage was reported for the cervical margin of RelyX-Unicem after 24 hours. PMID:25584053

  4. Changes in platelet morphology and function during 24 hours of storage.

    PubMed

    Braune, S; Walter, M; Schulze, F; Lendlein, A; Jung, F

    2014-01-01

    aggregates could be visualized microscopically. After four hours, first debris and very small aggregates occurred. After 24 hours, platelet aggregates and also debris progressively increased. In accordance to this, the CASY system revealed an increase of platelet aggregates (up to 90 μm diameter) with increasing storage time. The percentage of CD62P positive platelets and PF4 increased significantly with storage time in resting PRP. When soluble ADP was added to stored PRP samples, the number of activatable platelets decreased significantly over storage time. The present study reveals the importance of a consequent standardization in the preparation of WB and PRP. Platelet morphology and function, particularly platelet reactivity to adherent or soluble agonists in their surrounding milieu, changed rapidly outside the vascular system. This knowledge is of crucial interest, particularly in the field of biomaterial development for cardiovascular applications, and may help to define common standards in the in vitro hemocompatibility testing of biomaterials.

  5. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recall status reports. 7.53 Section 7.53 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.53 Recall status reports. (a) The recalling firm is requested to submit periodic recall...

  6. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recall status reports. 7.53 Section 7.53 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.53 Recall status reports. (a) The recalling firm is requested to submit periodic recall...

  7. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recall status reports. 7.53 Section 7.53 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.53 Recall status reports. (a) The recalling firm is requested to submit periodic recall...

  8. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recall status reports. 7.53 Section 7.53 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.53 Recall status reports. (a) The recalling firm is requested to submit periodic recall...

  9. Development and characterization of food-grade tracers for the global grain tracing and recall system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Armstrong, Paul R; Thomasson, J Alex; Sui, Ruixiu; Casada, Mark; Herrman, Timothy J

    2010-10-27

    Tracing grain from the farm to its final processing destination as it moves through multiple grain-handling systems, storage bins, and bulk carriers presents numerous challenges to existing record-keeping systems. This study examines the suitability of coded caplets to trace grain, in particular, to evaluate methodology to test tracers' ability to withstand the rigors of a commercial grain handling and storage systems as defined by physical properties using measurement technology commonly applied to assess grain hardness and end-use properties. Three types of tracers to dispense into bulk grains for tracing the grain back to its field of origin were developed using three food-grade substances [processed sugar, pregelatinized starch, and silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC)] as a major component in formulations. Due to a different functionality of formulations, the manufacturing process conditions varied for each tracer type, resulting in unique variations in surface roughness, weight, dimensions, and physical and spectroscopic properties before and after coating. The applied two types of coating [pregelatinized starch and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)] using an aqueous coating system containing appropriate plasticizers showed uniform coverage and clear coating. Coating appeared to act as a barrier against moisture penetration, to protect against mechanical damage of the surface of the tracers, and to improve the mechanical strength of tracers. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests showed the type of tracer, coating material, conditioning time, and a theoretical weight gain significantly influenced the morphological and physical properties of tracers. Optimization of these factors needs to be pursued to produce desirable tracers with consistent quality and performance when they flow with bulk grains throughout the grain marketing channels.

  10. Development and characterization of food-grade tracers for the global grain tracing and recall system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Armstrong, Paul R; Thomasson, J Alex; Sui, Ruixiu; Casada, Mark; Herrman, Timothy J

    2010-10-27

    Tracing grain from the farm to its final processing destination as it moves through multiple grain-handling systems, storage bins, and bulk carriers presents numerous challenges to existing record-keeping systems. This study examines the suitability of coded caplets to trace grain, in particular, to evaluate methodology to test tracers' ability to withstand the rigors of a commercial grain handling and storage systems as defined by physical properties using measurement technology commonly applied to assess grain hardness and end-use properties. Three types of tracers to dispense into bulk grains for tracing the grain back to its field of origin were developed using three food-grade substances [processed sugar, pregelatinized starch, and silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC)] as a major component in formulations. Due to a different functionality of formulations, the manufacturing process conditions varied for each tracer type, resulting in unique variations in surface roughness, weight, dimensions, and physical and spectroscopic properties before and after coating. The applied two types of coating [pregelatinized starch and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)] using an aqueous coating system containing appropriate plasticizers showed uniform coverage and clear coating. Coating appeared to act as a barrier against moisture penetration, to protect against mechanical damage of the surface of the tracers, and to improve the mechanical strength of tracers. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests showed the type of tracer, coating material, conditioning time, and a theoretical weight gain significantly influenced the morphological and physical properties of tracers. Optimization of these factors needs to be pursued to produce desirable tracers with consistent quality and performance when they flow with bulk grains throughout the grain marketing channels. PMID:20883029

  11. The use of multiple imputation method for the validation of 24-h food recalls by part-time observation of dietary intake in school.

    PubMed

    Kupek, Emil; de Assis, Maria Alice A

    2016-09-01

    External validation of food recall over 24 h in schoolchildren is often restricted to eating events in schools and is based on direct observation as the reference method. The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intake out of school, and consequently the bias in such research design based on only part-time validated food recall, using multiple imputation (MI) conditioned on the information on child age, sex, BMI, family income, parental education and the school attended. The previous-day, web-based questionnaire WebCAAFE, structured as six meals/snacks and thirty-two foods/beverage, was answered by a sample of 7-11-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren (n 602) from five public schools. Food/beverage intake recalled by children was compared with the records provided by trained observers during school meals. Sensitivity analysis was performed with artificial data emulating those recalled by children on WebCAAFE in order to evaluate the impact of both differential and non-differential bias. Estimated bias was within ±30 % interval for 84·4 % of the thirty-two foods/beverages evaluated in WebCAAFE, and half of the latter reached statistical significance (P<0·05). Rarely (<3 %) consumed dietary items were often under-reported (fish/seafood, vegetable soup, cheese bread, French fries), whereas some of those most frequently reported (meat, bread/biscuits, fruits) showed large overestimation. Compared with the analysis restricted to fully validated data, MI reduced differential bias in sensitivity analysis but the bias still remained large in most cases. MI provided a suitable statistical framework for part-time validation design of dietary intake over six daily eating events. PMID:27452779

  12. The use of multiple imputation method for the validation of 24-h food recalls by part-time observation of dietary intake in school.

    PubMed

    Kupek, Emil; de Assis, Maria Alice A

    2016-09-01

    External validation of food recall over 24 h in schoolchildren is often restricted to eating events in schools and is based on direct observation as the reference method. The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intake out of school, and consequently the bias in such research design based on only part-time validated food recall, using multiple imputation (MI) conditioned on the information on child age, sex, BMI, family income, parental education and the school attended. The previous-day, web-based questionnaire WebCAAFE, structured as six meals/snacks and thirty-two foods/beverage, was answered by a sample of 7-11-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren (n 602) from five public schools. Food/beverage intake recalled by children was compared with the records provided by trained observers during school meals. Sensitivity analysis was performed with artificial data emulating those recalled by children on WebCAAFE in order to evaluate the impact of both differential and non-differential bias. Estimated bias was within ±30 % interval for 84·4 % of the thirty-two foods/beverages evaluated in WebCAAFE, and half of the latter reached statistical significance (P<0·05). Rarely (<3 %) consumed dietary items were often under-reported (fish/seafood, vegetable soup, cheese bread, French fries), whereas some of those most frequently reported (meat, bread/biscuits, fruits) showed large overestimation. Compared with the analysis restricted to fully validated data, MI reduced differential bias in sensitivity analysis but the bias still remained large in most cases. MI provided a suitable statistical framework for part-time validation design of dietary intake over six daily eating events.

  13. HOW RELIABLE IS 24 HOUR SERUM LITHIUM LEVEL AFTER A TEST DOSE OF LITHIUM IN PREDICTING OPTIMAL LITHIUM DOSE?

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, K.; Shaji, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY 57% of a group of 35 patients treated with Lithium Carbonate at dosages predicted by the nomogram suggested by Cooper et al (1973) failed to reach therapeutic levels of serum lithium. This finding casts serious doubts on the usefulness of the claim by Cooper et al (1973 & 1976) that 24 hour serum lithium level after a test dose of 600 mg. lithium can predict the daily lithium dose. PMID:21927360

  14. Dipstick Spot urine pH does not accurately represent 24 hour urine PH measured by an electrode

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Mohamed; Sarkissian, Carl; Jianbo, Li; Calle, Juan; Monga, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To determine whether spot urine pH measured by dipstick is an accurate representation of 24 hours urine pH measured by an electrode. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed urine pH results of patients who presented to the urology stone clinic. For each patient we recorded the most recent pH result measured by dipstick from a spot urine sample that preceded the result of a 24-hour urine pH measured by the use of a pH electrode. Patients were excluded if there was a change in medications or dietary recommendations or if the two samples were more than 4 months apart. A difference of more than 0.5 pH was considered an inaccurate result. Results A total 600 patients were retrospectively reviewed for the pH results. The mean difference in pH between spot urine value and the 24 hours collection values was 0.52±0.45 pH. Higher pH was associated with lower accuracy (p<0.001). The accuracy of spot urine samples to predict 24-hour pH values of <5.5 was 68.9%, 68.2% for 5.5 to 6.5 and 35% for >6.5. Samples taken more than 75 days apart had only 49% the accuracy of more recent samples (p<0.002). The overall accuracy is lower than 80% (p<0.001). Influence of diurnal variation was not significant (p=0.588). Conclusions Spot urine pH by dipstick is not an accurate method for evaluation of the patients with urolithiasis. Patients with alkaline urine are more prone to error with reliance on spot urine pH. PMID:27286119

  15. Development of a food frequency instrument: ethnic differences in food sources.

    PubMed

    Borrud, L G; McPherson, R S; Nichaman, M Z; Pillow, P C; Newell, G R

    1989-01-01

    Dietary intake was assessed among 431 black, white, and Mexican American men and women in southeast Texas using 24-hour dietary recall interviews. These data were collected to provide information on ethnic-specific food sources of selected nutrients; this information was used to construct a food frequency questionnaire for a study of nutrient intake and cancer. Nutrient content of total fat, total vitamin A, and vitamin C was determined for all foods consumed and was aggregated across unique food codes. These aggregated food codes were then ranked according to the contribution of each food to the total population intake of each nutrient. Ethnic differences existed in food sources of nutrients that would not be identified if data from only the analysis of the combined data set were used. Generally, however, the food sources identified from analyses of the combined data set included those foods that were important nutrient sources for each of the ethnic groups as well.

  16. Assessment of 24-hours Aldosterone Administration on Protein Abundances in Fluorescence-Sorted Mouse Distal Renal Tubules by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas B; Pisitkun, Trairak; Hoffert, Jason D; Jensen, Uffe B; Fenton, Robert A; Praetorius, Helle A; Knepper, Mark A; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Aldosterone exerts multiple long-term effects in the distal renal tubules. The aim of this study was to establish a method for identifying proteins in these tubules that change in abundance by only 24-hours aldosterone administration. Methods Mice endogenously expressing green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in the connecting tubule and cortical collecting ducts were treated with a subcutaneous injection of 2.0 mg/kg aldosterone or vehicle (n=5), and sacrificed 24 hours later. Suspensions of single cells were obtained enzymatically, and eGFP positive cells were isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Samples of 100 μg proteins were digested with trypsin and labeled with 8-plex iTRAQ reagents and processed for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results FACS yielded 1.4 million cells per mouse. The LC-MS/MS spectra were matched to peptides by the SEQUEST search algorithm, which identified 3002 peptides corresponding to 506 unique proteins of which 20 significantly changed abundance 24-hours after aldosterone injection. Conclusion We find the method suitable and useful for studying hormonal effects on protein abundance in distal tubular segments. PMID:23428628

  17. Development of a Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for Use among the Yup'ik People of Western Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Simeon, Desiree; Ferguson, Gary; Sharma, Sangita

    2014-01-01

    Alaska Native populations are experiencing a nutrition transition and a resulting decrease in diet quality. The present study aimed to develop a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess the diet of the Yup'ik people of Western Alaska. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using 24-hour recalls and the information collected served as a basis for developing a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A total of 177 males and females, aged 13-88, in six western Alaska communities, completed up to three 24-hour recalls as part of the Alaska Native Dietary and Subsistence Food Assessment Project. The frequency of the foods reported in the 24-hour recalls was tabulated and used to create a draft quantitative food frequency questionnaire, which was pilot tested and finalized with input from community members. Store-bought foods high in fat and sugar were reported more frequently than traditional foods. Seven of the top 26 foods most frequently reported were traditional foods. A 150-item quantitative food frequency questionnaire was developed that included 14 breads and crackers; 3 cereals; 11 dairy products; 69 meats, poultry and fish; 13 fruit; 22 vegetables; 9 desserts and snacks; and 9 beverages. The quantitative food frequency questionnaire contains 39 traditional food items. This quantitative food frequency questionnaire can be used to assess the unique diet of the Alaska Native people of Western Alaska. This tool will allow for monitoring of dietary changes over time as well as the identification of foods and nutrients that could be promoted in a nutrition intervention program intended to reduce chronic disease. PMID:24963718

  18. Development of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for use among the Yup'ik people of Western Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Simeon, Desiree; Ferguson, Gary; Sharma, Sangita

    2014-01-01

    Alaska Native populations are experiencing a nutrition transition and a resulting decrease in diet quality. The present study aimed to develop a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess the diet of the Yup'ik people of Western Alaska. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using 24-hour recalls and the information collected served as a basis for developing a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A total of 177 males and females, aged 13-88, in six western Alaska communities, completed up to three 24-hour recalls as part of the Alaska Native Dietary and Subsistence Food Assessment Project. The frequency of the foods reported in the 24-hour recalls was tabulated and used to create a draft quantitative food frequency questionnaire, which was pilot tested and finalized with input from community members. Store-bought foods high in fat and sugar were reported more frequently than traditional foods. Seven of the top 26 foods most frequently reported were traditional foods. A 150-item quantitative food frequency questionnaire was developed that included 14 breads and crackers; 3 cereals; 11 dairy products; 69 meats, poultry and fish; 13 fruit; 22 vegetables; 9 desserts and snacks; and 9 beverages. The quantitative food frequency questionnaire contains 39 traditional food items. This quantitative food frequency questionnaire can be used to assess the unique diet of the Alaska Native people of Western Alaska. This tool will allow for monitoring of dietary changes over time as well as the identification of foods and nutrients that could be promoted in a nutrition intervention program intended to reduce chronic disease.

  19. Association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and hypertension subtypes in untreated Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Ting-Yan; Ding, Feng-Hua; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and ambulatory hypertension subtypes has not yet been examined in untreated Chinese patients. We measured left ventricular mass index by echocardiography (n=619), the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (n=1047), and aortic pulse wave velocity by tonometry (n=1013) in 1047 untreated subjects (mean age, 50.6 years; 48.9% women). Normotension was a 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure <130/<80 mm Hg. Hypertension subtypes were isolated diastolic hypertension and mixed systolic plus diastolic hypertension. We assessed associations of interest by multivariable-adjusted linear models. Using normotension as reference, mixed hypertension was associated with higher (P≤0.003) left ventricular mass index (+4.31 g/m(2)), urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.63 mg/mmol), and pulse wave velocity (+0.76 m/s); and isolated diastolic hypertension was associated with similar left ventricular mass index and pulse wave velocity (P≥0.39), but higher urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.24 mg/mmol; P=0.002). In younger participants (<55 years), the mutually independent effect sizes associated with 1 SD increases in 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure were +3.31/-0.36 g/m(2) (P=0.009/0.79) for left ventricular mass index, +1.15/+1.14 mg/mmol (P=0.02/0.04) for the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, and +0.54/-0.05 m/s (P<0.001/0.54) for pulse wave velocity. In older participants, these estimates were +3.58/+0.30 g/m(2) (P=0.045/0.88), +1.23/+1.05 mg/mmol (P=0.002/0.54), and +0.76/-0.49 m/s (P<0.001/<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, 24-hour systolic blood pressure and mixed hypertension are major determinants of target organ damage irrespective of age and target organ, whereas 24-hour diastolic blood pressure and isolated diastolic hypertension only relate to the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio below middle age.

  20. Effect of ambulatory 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring on reflux-provoking activities.

    PubMed

    Fass, R; Hell, R; Sampliner, R E; Pulliam, G; Graver, E; Hartz, V; Johnson, C; Jaffe, P

    1999-11-01

    Ambulatory 24-hr esophageal pH monitoring is considered the gold standard for diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The current approach is to encourage patients to pursue their everyday activity in order to obtain near-physiological recordings. However, the effect of the test itself on reflux-provoking activities has never been evaluated. Thus, the aim of our study was to assess daily food consumption, habits, symptoms, sleep, and perceived experience of patients undergoing pH testing as compared to an off test (normal) day. Patients reported type and time spent in each activity pursued, food ingested and length of each meal, habits, frequency and severity of GERD and other related symptoms, sleep disturbances, side effects, and overall perceived experience during pH testing and four weeks later, during a normal day. Fifty-four patients enrolled. pH testing significantly reduced time spent being active, number of meals and cups of coffee consumed, and frequency of GERD symptoms. Almost half of the patients reported having dysphagia during the test. Most patients experienced side effects and stated that the test bothered them most of the time. In conclusion, pH testing has a significant effect on decreasing reflux-provoking activities-patients tend to assume a more sedentary lifestyle. This may influence the reliability of the test as a physiologic measure of acid reflux.

  1. Development and validation of a food photography manual, as a tool for estimation of food portion size in epidemiological dietary surveys in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Bouchoucha, Mongia; Akrout, Mouna; Bellali, Hédia; Bouchoucha, Rim; Tarhouni, Fadwa; Mansour, Abderraouf Ben; Zouari, Béchir

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimation of food portion sizes has always been a challenge in dietary studies on free-living individuals. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a food photography manual to improve the accuracy of the estimated size of consumed food portions. Methods A manual was compiled from digital photos of foods commonly consumed by the Tunisian population. The food was cooked and weighed before taking digital photographs of three portion sizes. The manual was validated by comparing the method of 24-hour recall (using photos) to the reference method [food weighing (FW)]. In both the methods, the comparison focused on food intake amounts as well as nutritional issues. Validity was assessed by Bland–Altman limits of agreement. In total, 31 male and female volunteers aged 9–89 participated in the study. Results We focused on eight food categories and compared their estimated amounts (using the 24-hour recall method) to those actually consumed (using FW). Animal products and sweets were underestimated, whereas pasta, bread, vegetables, fruits, and dairy products were overestimated. However, the difference between the two methods is not statistically significant except for pasta (p<0.05) and dairy products (p<0.05). The coefficient of correlation between the two methods is highly significant, ranging from 0.876 for pasta to 0.989 for dairy products. Nutrient intake calculated for both methods showed insignificant differences except for fat (p<0.001) and dietary fiber (p<0.05). A highly significant correlation was observed between the two methods for all micronutrients. The test agreement highlights the lack of difference between the two methods. Conclusion The difference between the 24-hour recall method using digital photos and the weighing method is acceptable. Our findings indicate that the food photography manual can be a useful tool for quantifying food portion sizes in epidemiological dietary surveys. PMID:27585631

  2. ASSESSMENT OF THE FOOD PATTERNS OF IMMIGRANT ECUADORIAN POPULATION IN SOUTHERN SPAIN BASED ON A 24-H FOOD RECALL SURVEY.

    PubMed

    Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Sanchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: ecuador es un país con limitada información nutricional con la excepción de algunos estudios de carácter general realizados por FAO (Food Agriculture Organization). Objetivos: realizar una evaluación nutricional de la dieta de la población inmigrante ecuatoriana en el sur de España para determinar diferencias en los patrones alimentarios y posibles deficiencias nutricionales. Métodos: la evaluación nutricional se basa en un estudio de recordatorio de alimentos de 24 horas llevado acabo sobre la población ecuatoriana residente en Sevilla y Córdoba (España) en combinación con la aplicación de bases de datos nacionales e internacionales de composición de alimentos. Se estimaron los niveles de ingesta de nutrientes y el cumplimiento de las ingestas dietéticas de referencia (IDR) que se analizaron estadísticamente para los factores, genero, edad, profesión y ciudad. Resultados: según las IDR utilizadas, la distribución de macronutrientes y los niveles de ingesta de nutrientes fueron, en la mayoría de los casos, adecuadas. De manera destacada, se constató que los hábitos alimentarios ecuatorianos permanecieron en la población inmigrante, con el arroz como fuente principal de energía. Los niveles de ingesta fueron significativamente diferentes para diferentes nutrientes dependiendo del grupo de edad, sexo, lugar de residencia y ocupación profesional. Comparando estos datos con un estudio previo en Ecuador reveló que la población inmigrante en España presenta un mejor estado nutricional, si bien en ambas poblaciones se detectaron deficiencias en fibra, vitamina E, I y Se. En cuanto a estas deficiencias, los resultados no pueden considerarse concluyentes debido a limitaciones propias de las bases de datos (por ej. Se) y a la carencia de estudios adecuados que permitan una evaluación más precisa (por ej. estudios de larga duración para vitamina E). Conclusiones: estos resultados evidencian que la población inmigrante

  3. Effect of cimetidine on 24-hour intragastric acidity in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Pounder, R E; Williams, J G; Milton-Thompson, G J; Misiewicz, J J

    1976-01-01

    The effect of H2-receptor blockade on intragastric acidity was studied in nine normal males. The pH of their gastric contents was measured at hourly daytime and two hourly nighttime intervals for 48 hours. The subjects ate identical meals, drank identical volumes of fluid, and smoked the same number of cigarettes during the two study days. Their physical activity was unrestricted in a ward environment. Blood cimetidine and plasma gastrin were measured in serial blood samples. The nine subjects were treated in random sequence with cimetidine 0-8-1-0 g on one day and placebo capsules on the other. The drug was given in four divided doses: four subjects received it before, and five after, the three main meals. All took the fourth dose at bedtime. Replicate studies in an additional subject given placebo on both study days showed good reproducibility (r=0-80, P less than 0-01). Cimetidine therapy decreased intragastric acidity in all nine subjects. The decrease was similar in the two groups taking the drug before or after meals, mean 24 h intragastric hydrogen ion activity being lowered by 70 and 72% respectively. Nocturnal anacidity was recorded in only two of 45 samples. Administration of cimetidine before meals produced earlier and higher drug blood levels than post-prandial medication, but when it was taken after food the blood levels were highest at the time when the buffer capacity of the food was waning. Blood concentrations of cimetidine exceeded the secretory IC50 level for most of the time between doses. The results show that cimetidine 0-8-1-0 g/day in four divided doses produces a striking and consistent decrease of intragastric acidity. Although variation in the timing of the dose in relation to meals did not affect the decrease of acidity, the absorption data suggest that patients should take the drug after meals. PMID:4361

  4. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food... POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.55 Termination of a recall. (a) A recall will be terminated when the Food and...

  5. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food... POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.55 Termination of a recall. (a) A recall will be terminated when the Food and...

  6. The 24-hour respiratory quotient predicts energy intake and changes in body mass.

    PubMed

    Longo, Kenneth A; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; Giuliana, Derek J; Govek, Elizabeth K; McDonagh, Thomas; Distefano, Peter S; Geddes, Brad J

    2010-03-01

    To define the relationship between the respiratory quotient (RQ) and energy intake (EI) and to determine the impact of spontaneous locomotor activity (LMA) in the development of diet-induced obesity (DIO), we fed C57BL/6 mice a high-fat diet (HFD) for either 4 days or 17 wk and analyzed them using indirect calorimetry. Importantly, changes in body mass during calorimetry (DeltaM(b)) significantly covaried with RQ and EI; adjusting the data for DeltaM(b) permitted an analysis of the energy-balanced state. The 24-h RQ strongly predicted 24-h EI, and the slope of this relationship was diet dependent (HFD or chow) but independent of the HFD feeding period. Early-stage DIO was characterized by dark-period hyperphagia and fat storage, offset by greater light-period lipid oxidation; later stage DIO mice had a milder hyperphagia and lower substrate flexibility. Consequently, whereas 24-h RQ equaled the food quotient of the HFD in both early- and late-stage DIO, the range of RQ values was negatively correlated with, and mostly explained by, 24-h EI only in late-stage DIO. Lean and early-stage DIO mice had similar LMA values that were reduced in late-stage DIO. However, LMA significantly explained variance in total energy expenditure (EE) in only early-stage DIO mice. This indicated that the link between LMA and EE was a transient adaptive response to early DIO, whereas the later loss of LMA did not explain body weight gain in C57BL/6 DIO mice.

  7. Meal-induced 24-hour profile of circulating glycated insulin in type 2 diabetic subjects measured by a novel radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John R; McKillop, Aine M; Mooney, Mark H; Flatt, Peter R; Bell, Patrick M; O'harte, Finbarr P M

    2003-05-01

    Increasing evidence supports a role for glycated insulin in the insulin-resistant state of type 2 diabetes. We measured 24-hour profiles of plasma glycated insulin, using a novel radioimmunoassay (RIA), to evaluate the effects of meal stimulation and intermittent fasting on circulating concentrations of plasma glycated insulin in type 2 diabetes. Patients (n = 6; hemoglobin A(1c) [HbA(1c)], 7.2% +/- 0.6%; fasting plasma glucose, 7.4 +/- 0.7 mmol/L; body mass index [BMI], 35.7 +/- 3.5 kg/m(2); age, 56.3 +/- 4.4 years) were admitted for 24 hours and received a standardized meal regimen. Half-hourly venous samples were taken for plasma glycated insulin, glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations between 8 am and midnight and 2-hourly overnight. The mean plasma glycated insulin concentration over 24 hours was 27.8 +/- 1.2 pmol/L with a mean ratio of insulin:glycated insulin of 11:1. Circulating glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glycated insulin followed a basal and meal-related pattern with most prominent increments following breakfast, lunch, and evening meal, respectively. The mean concentrations of glycated insulin during the morning, afternoon, evening, and night-time periods were 24.4 +/- 2.5, 28.7 +/- 2.3, 31.1 +/- 2.1, and 26.2 +/- 1.5 pmol/L, respectively, giving significantly higher molar ratios of insulin:glycated insulin of 18.0:1, 14.2:1, and 12.7:1 compared with 7.0:1 at night (P <.01 to P <.001). These data demonstrate that glycated insulin circulates at relatively high concentrations in type 2 diabetes with a diurnal pattern of basal and meal-stimulated release. A higher proportion of glycated insulin circulates at night suggestive of differences in metabolic clearance compared with native insulin.

  8. Effects of Fibrinogen Concentrate on Thrombin Generation, Thromboelastometry Parameters, and Laboratory Coagulation Testing in a 24-Hour Porcine Trauma Model

    PubMed Central

    Zentai, Christian; Solomon, Cristina; van der Meijden, Paola E. J.; Spronk, Henri M. H.; Schnabel, Jonas; Rossaint, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In a 24-hour porcine model of liver injury, we showed that fibrinogen supplementation does not downregulate endogenous fibrinogen synthesis. Here we report data from the same study showing the impact of fibrinogen on coagulation variables. Materials and Methods: Coagulopathy was induced in 20 German land race pigs by hemodilution and blunt liver injury. Animals randomly received fibrinogen concentrate (100 mg/kg) or saline. Coagulation parameters were assessed and thromboelastometry (ROTEM) was performed. Results: Fibrinogen concentrate significantly reduced the prolongations of EXTEM clotting time, EXTEM clot formation time, and prothrombin time induced by hemodilution and liver injury. A decrease in clot strength was also ameliorated. Endogenous thrombin potential was significantly higher in the fibrinogen group than in the control group, 20 minutes (353 ± 24 vs 289 ± 22 nmol/L·min; P < .05) and 100 minutes (315 ± 40 vs 263 ± 38 nmol/L·min; P < .05) after the start of infusion. However, no significant between-group differences were seen in other thrombin generation parameters or in d-dimer or thrombin–antithrombin levels. Fibrinogen–platelet binding was reduced following liver injury, with no significant differences between groups. No significant between-group differences were observed in any parameter at ∼12 and ∼24 hours. Conclusion: This study suggests that, in trauma, fibrinogen supplementation may shorten some measurements of the speed of coagulation initiation and produce a short-lived increase in endogenous thrombin potential, potentially through increased clotting substrate availability. Approximately 12 and 24 hours after starting fibrinogen concentrate/saline infusion, all parameters measured in this study were comparable in the 2 study groups. PMID:25948634

  9. The Relationship Between 24-Hour Symptoms and COPD Exacerbations and Healthcare Resource Use: Results from an Observational Study (ASSESS).

    PubMed

    Miravitlles, Marc; Worth, Heinrich; Soler-Cataluña, Juan José; Price, David; De Benedetto, Fernando; Roche, Nicolas; Godtfredsen, Nina S; van der Molen, Thys; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Padullés, Laura; Ribera, Anna

    2016-10-01

    This observational study assessed the relationship between nighttime, early-morning and daytime chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms and exacerbations and healthcare resource use. COPD symptoms were assessed at baseline in patients with stable COPD using a standardised questionnaire during routine clinical visits. Information was recorded on exacerbations and healthcare resource use during the year before baseline and during a 6-month follow-up period. The main objective of the analysis was to determine the predictive nature of current symptoms for future exacerbations and healthcare resource use. 727 patients were eligible (65.8% male, mean age: 67.2 years, % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 52.8%); 698 patients (96.0%) provided information after 6 months. Symptoms in any part of the day were associated with a prior history of exacerbations (all p < 0.05) and nighttime and early-morning symptoms were associated with the frequency of primary care visits in the year before baseline (both p < 0.01). During follow-up, patients with baseline symptoms during any part of the 24-hour day had more exacerbations than patients with no symptoms in each period (all p < 0.05); there was also an association between 24-hour symptoms and the frequency of primary care visits (all p ≤ 0.01). Although there was a significant association between early-morning and daytime symptoms and exacerbations during follow-up (both p < 0.01), significance was not maintained when adjusted for potential confounders. Prior exacerbations were most strongly associated with future risk of exacerbation. The results suggest 24-hour COPD symptoms do not independently predict future exacerbation risk.

  10. Developing a Method to Test the Validity of 24 Hour Time Use Diaries Using Wearable Cameras: A Feasibility Pilot

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Paul; Thomas, Emma; Doherty, Aiden; Harms, Teresa; Burke, Órlaith; Gershuny, Jonathan; Foster, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Self-report time use diaries collect a continuous sequenced record of daily activities but the validity of the data they produce is uncertain. This study tests the feasibility of using wearable cameras to generate, through image prompted interview, reconstructed 'near-objective' data to assess their validity. 16 volunteers completed the Harmonised European Time Use Survey (HETUS) diary and used an Autographer wearable camera (recording images at approximately 15 second intervals) for the waking hours of the same 24-hour period. Participants then completed an interview in which visual images were used as prompts to reconstruct a record of activities for comparison with the diary record. 14 participants complied with the full collection protocol. We compared time use and number of discrete activities from the diary and camera records (using 10 classifications of activity). In terms of aggregate totals of daily time use we found no significant difference between the diary and camera data. In terms of number of discrete activities, participants reported a mean of 19.2 activities per day in the diaries, while image prompted interviews revealed 41.1 activities per day. The visualisations of the individual activity sequences reveal some potentially important differences between the two record types, which will be explored at the next project stage. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using wearable cameras to reconstruct time use through image prompted interview in order to test the concurrent validity of 24-hour activity time-use budgets. In future we need a suitably powered study to assess the validity and reliability of 24-hour time use diaries. PMID:26633807

  11. Influence of mild cold on the components of 24 hour thermogenesis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D; Livesey, G; Dauncey, M J

    1991-01-01

    1. The influence of two weeks' acclimation to either 28 degrees C (thermal neutrality) or 21 degrees C (mild cold) on 24 h heat production and motor activity has been investigated in male Wistar rats. Food intake was controlled and provided as a single meal of approximately 170 kJ per day. Mathematical modelling was used to relate metabolic rate to measured movement and time of day. 2. For animals at thermal neutrality it was clear that metabolic rate increased during periods of substantial measured movement and returned to baseline during periods of minimal activity. Total heat production could therefore be divided into two components: underlying and movement-induced thermogenesis. 3. At 21 degrees C, a more complex model was needed. During periods of substantial activity, the relation between metabolic rate and movement was similar to that at 28 degrees C and total heat production could be divided into the same two components of underlying and movement-induced thermogenesis. However, during periods of prolonged inactivity, a different model was required, which included a component of extra metabolic activity, termed supplementary thermogenesis. By fitting this model to data at 28 and 21 degrees C, it was possible to partition 24 h heat production into the three possible sources of underlying, movement-induced and supplementary thermogenesis. 4. Total 24 h heat production was approximately 25% higher for rats at 21 compared with 28 degrees C (P less than 0.01) and underlying thermogenesis was approximately 20% higher for those in the mild cold (P less than 0.01). Measured movement was significantly reduced in the mild cold (P less than 0.05) although it was energetically less efficient since there was no difference in movement-induced thermogenesis, which accounted for 18 and 15% of total heat production at 28 and 21 degrees C respectively. Supplementary thermogenesis was observed only in the mild cold and it accounted for approximately 6% of 24 h heat production

  12. Aldosterone-to-Renin Ratio Is Associated With Reduced 24-Hour Heart Rate Variability and QTc Prolongation in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grübler, Martin R.; Kienreich, Katharina; Gaksch, Martin; Verheyen, Nicolas; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó.; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; März, Winfried; Schmid, Johannes; Oberreither, Eva-Maria; Wetzel, Julia; Catena, Cristiana; Sechi, Leonardo A.; Pieske, Burkert; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pilz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aldosterone is considered to exert direct effects on the myocardium and the sympathetic nervous system. Both QT time and heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) are considered to be markers of arrhythmic risk and autonomous dysregulation. In this study, we investigated the associations between aldosterone, QT time, and HRV in patients with arterial hypertension. We recruited 477 hypertensive patients (age: 60.2 ± 10.2 years; 52.3% females) with a mean systolic/diastolic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) value of 128 ± 12.8/77.1 ± 9.2 mmHg and with a median of 2 (IQR: 1–3) antihypertensive agents. Patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Department of Internal Medicine of the Medical University of Graz, Austria. Blood samples, 24-hour HRV derived from 24-hour blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and ECG's were obtained. Plasma aldosterone and plasma renin concentrations were measured by means of a radioimmunoassay. Twenty-four-hour urine specimens were collected in parallel with ABPM. Mean QTc was 423.3 ± 42.0 milliseconds for males and 434.7 ± 38.3 milliseconds for females. Mean 24H-HR and 24H-HRV was 71.9 ± 9.8 and 10.0 ± 3.6 bpm, respectively. In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, ABPM, and current medication, aldosterone to active renin ratio (AARR) was significantly associated with the QTc interval, a marker for cardiac repolarization abnormalities (mean = 426 ± 42.4 milliseconds; β-coefficient = 0.121; P = 0.03) as well as with the 24-hour heart rate variability a surrogate for autonomic dysfunction (median = 9.67 [IQR = 7.38–12.22 bpm]; β-coefficient = −0.133; P = 0.01). In hypertensive patients, AARR is significantly related to QTc prolongation as well as HRV. Further studies investigating the effects of mineralocorticoid receptor blocker and aldosterone synthase inhibitors on QTc and HRV are warranted

  13. A Plaque Disruption Index Identifies Patients with Non-STE-Type 1 Myocardial Infarction within 24 Hours of Troponin Positivity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mohaissen, Maha A.; Carere, Ronald G.; Mancini, G. B. John; Humphries, Karin H.; Whalen, Beth A.; Lee, Terry; Scheuermeyer, Frank X.; Ignaszewski, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Markers of plaque destabilization and disruption may have a role in identifying non-STE- type 1 Myocardial Infarction in patients presenting with troponin elevation. We hypothesized that a plaque disruption index (PDI) derived from multiple biomarkers and measured within 24 hours from the first detectable troponin in patients with acute non-STE- type 1 MI (NSTEMI-A) will confirm the diagnosis and identify these patients with higher specificity when compared to individual markers and coronary angiography. Methods We examined 4 biomarkers of plaque destabilization and disruption: myeloperoxidase (MPO), high-sensitivity interleukin-6, myeloid-related protein 8/14 (MRP8/14) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in 83 consecutive patients in 4 groups: stable non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), stable obstructive CAD, NSTEMI-A (enrolled within 24 hours of troponin positivity), and NSTEMI-L (Late presentation NSTEMI, enrolled beyond the 24 hour limit). The PDI was calculated and the patients’ coronary angiograms were reviewed for evidence of plaque disruption. The diagnostic performance of the PDI and angiography were compared. Results Compared to other biomarkers, MPO had the highest specificity (83%) for NSTEMI-A diagnosis (P<0.05). The PDI computed from PAPP-A, MRP8/14 and MPO was higher in NSTEMI-A patients compared to the other three groups (p<0.001) and had the highest diagnostic specificity (87%) with 79% sensitivity and 86% accuracy, which were higher compared to those obtained with MPO, but did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05 for all comparisons). The PDI had higher specificity and accuracy for NSTEMI-A diagnosis compared to coronary angiography (P<0.05). Conclusions A PDI measured within 24 hour of troponin positivity has potential to identify subjects with acute Non-ST-elevation type 1 MI. Additional evidence using other marker combinations and investigation in a sufficiently large non-selected cohort is warranted

  14. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  15. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  16. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... will be developed by the agency for a Food and Drug Administration-requested recall and by...

  17. Measures of diet quality across calendar and holiday seasons among midlife women: A one-year longitudinal study using the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Systematic seasonal bias may confound efforts to estimate usual dietary intake and diet quality; little is known of dietary quality over the holiday season. Objectives: Test for differences in intakes of energy, percentage of energy from macronutrients, vegetables and fruits, and diet qu...

  18. Validation of the school lunch recall questionnaire to capture school lunch intake of third- to fifth-grade students.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Amy; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Fleming, Phyllis; Ammerman, Alice

    2011-03-01

    Children's dietary intake is a key variable in evaluations of school-based interventions. Current methods for assessing children's intake, such as 24-hour recalls and meal observations, are time- and resource-intensive. As part of a study to evaluate the impact of farm-to-school programs, the school lunch recall was developed from a need for a valid and efficient tool to assess school lunch intake among large samples of children. A self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaire, the school lunch recall prompts for school lunch items by asking children whether they chose a menu item, how much of it they ate, how much they liked it, and whether they would choose it again. The school lunch recall was validated during summer school in 2008 with 18 third- to fifth-grade students (8 to 11 years old) in a North Carolina elementary school. For 4 consecutive days, trained observers recorded foods and amounts students ate during school lunch. Students completed the school lunch recall immediately after lunch. Thirty-seven total observation school lunch recall sets were analyzed. Comparison of school lunch recalls against observations indicated high accuracy, with means of 6% for omission rate (items observed but unreported), 10% for intrusion rate (items unobserved but reported), and 0.63 servings for total inaccuracy (a measure that combines errors for reporting items and amounts). For amounts, accuracy was high for matches (0.06 and 0.01 servings for absolute and arithmetic differences, respectively) but lower for omissions (0.47 servings) and intrusions (0.54 servings). In this pilot study, the school lunch recall was a valid, efficient tool for assessing school lunch intake for a small sample of third- to fifth-grade students. PMID:21338742

  19. The impact of kidney transplantation on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Min; Ahn, Seung Won; Bae, Myoung Nam; Choi, Bum Soon; Park, Cheol Whee; Kim, Yong-Soo; Yang, Chul Woo; Chung, Byung Ha

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we prospectively investigated the impact of kidney transplantation (KT) on the status of hypertension, including circadian rhythm in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and office BP measurement in 48 patients before and 1 year after KT. According to the nocturnal reduction in systolic BP (ΔSBP), the patients were divided into dippers, non-dippers, and reverse dippers. After KT, the mean BP value in office BP and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring did not change, but the proportion of patients taking anti-hypertensive drugs and the pill number significantly decreased. In contrast, the mean ΔSBP significantly decreased, and the proportion of non-dippers and reverse dippers did not decrease. Decrease in ΔSBP after KT was associated with inferior allograft function during follow-up. Our study suggests that KT improved the overall BP level, but it did not affect abnormal circadian rhythm in ESRD patients. PMID:26051924

  20. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Augments Perceptual Sensitivity and 24-Hour Retention in a Complex Threat Detection Task

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Brian; Coffman, Brian A.; Clark, Vincent P.; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improved performance of a complex visual perceptual learning task (Clark et al. 2012). However, it is not known whether tDCS can enhance perceptual sensitivity independently of non-specific, arousal-linked changes in response bias, nor whether any such sensitivity benefit can be retained over time. We examined the influence of stimulation of the right inferior frontal cortex using tDCS on perceptual learning and retention in 37 healthy participants, using signal detection theory to distinguish effects on perceptual sensitivity (d′) from response bias (ß). Anodal stimulation with 2 mA increased d′, compared to a 0.1 mA sham stimulation control, with no effect on ß. On completion of training, participants in the active stimulation group had more than double the perceptual sensitivity of the control group. Furthermore, the performance enhancement was maintained for 24 hours. The results show that tDCS augments both skill acquisition and retention in a complex detection task and that the benefits are rooted in an improvement in sensitivity (d′), rather than changes in response bias (ß). Stimulation-driven acceleration of learning and its retention over 24 hours may result from increased activation of prefrontal cortical regions that provide top-down attentional control signals to object recognition areas. PMID:22511978

  1. Enhanced carotid-cardiac baroreflex response and elimination of orthostatic hypotension 24 hours after acute exercise in paraplegics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelke, K. A.; Shea, J. D.; Doerr, D. F.; Convertino, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that an acute bout of maximal exercise can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension consequent to prolonged wheelchair confinement, we evaluated heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure responses during 15 minutes of 70 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) in 10 paraplegic subjects 24 hours after arm crank exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, and during a control (no exercise) conditions. Additionally, the carotid baroreceptor stimulus-cardiac response relationship was determined by measurement of R-R interval during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses. One week separated the treatment conditions. The maximum slope of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response was increased (p = 0.049) by exercise (6.2 +/- 1.7 msec/mmHg) compared to control (3.3 +/- 0.6). During control HUT, HR increased from 61 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 7 bpm (p = 0.001) while SBP decreased from 118 +/- 5 to 106 +/- 9 mmHg (p = 0.025). During HUT 24 hours after exercise, HR increased from 60 +/- 2 to 90 +/- 4 bpm (p = 0.001), but the reduction in SBP was essentially eliminated (116 +/- 5 to 113 +/- 5 mmHg).

  2. Transcranial direct current stimulation augments perceptual sensitivity and 24-hour retention in a complex threat detection task.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Brian; Coffman, Brian A; Clark, Vincent P; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improved performance of a complex visual perceptual learning task (Clark et al. 2012). However, it is not known whether tDCS can enhance perceptual sensitivity independently of non-specific, arousal-linked changes in response bias, nor whether any such sensitivity benefit can be retained over time. We examined the influence of stimulation of the right inferior frontal cortex using tDCS on perceptual learning and retention in 37 healthy participants, using signal detection theory to distinguish effects on perceptual sensitivity (d') from response bias (ß). Anodal stimulation with 2 mA increased d', compared to a 0.1 mA sham stimulation control, with no effect on ß. On completion of training, participants in the active stimulation group had more than double the perceptual sensitivity of the control group. Furthermore, the performance enhancement was maintained for 24 hours. The results show that tDCS augments both skill acquisition and retention in a complex detection task and that the benefits are rooted in an improvement in sensitivity (d'), rather than changes in response bias (ß). Stimulation-driven acceleration of learning and its retention over 24 hours may result from increased activation of prefrontal cortical regions that provide top-down attentional control signals to object recognition areas.

  3. Predictors of poor blood pressure control assessed by 24 hour monitoring in patients with type B acute aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Delsart, Pascal; Midulla, Marco; Sobocinski, Jonathan; Achere, Charles; Haulon, Stephan; Claisse, Gonzague; Mounier-Vehier, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The chronic management of post-acute aortic dissection (AD) of the descending aorta (Type B) is based on optimal control of blood pressure (BP), with a target BP < 135/80 mmHg. The aim of our study was to determine and verify effective blood pressure control with an objective measurement method and to identify predicting factors. Methods We collected data from 26 patients hospitalized in the acute phase of a Type B AD between 2006 and 2009. Two groups were defined according to 24 hour BP monitoring results at follow-up. Group 1 consisted of patients with a controlled BP (<130/80 mmHg), and Group 2 consisted of patients with an uncontrolled BP. Results Thirty four percent of patients showed an uncontrolled BP at checkup. Vascular history before AD (P = 0.06), high baseline BP trend (P = 0.01 for systolic and P = 0.08 for diastolic), and greater diameter of the descending aorta (P = 0.02) were associated with poor BP control. Conclusion Prognosis after AD is associated with BP control. Therefore, 24 hour BP monitoring can be made. PMID:22272072

  4. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... a blockage of blood vessels, or other causes Multiple myeloma Healthy people may have higher than normal urine ... Distal Hemolytic anemia Macroglobulinemia of Waldenstrom Microalbuminuria test Multiple myeloma Nephrotic syndrome Proximal Wilson disease Update Date 11/ ...

  5. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a day, such as: Creatinine Sodium Potassium Nitrogen Protein This test may also be done if ... disease Potassium urine test Sodium urine test Urea nitrogen urine test Urination - excessive amount Urine output - decreased ...

  6. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mandatory recall order. 810.13 Section 810.13 Food... DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory recall order. (a) If the person named in a cease distribution and notification order does not request...

  7. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory recall order. 810.13 Section 810.13 Food... DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory recall order. (a) If the person named in a cease distribution and notification order does not request...

  8. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mandatory recall order. 810.13 Section 810.13 Food... DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory recall order. (a) If the person named in a cease distribution and notification order does not request...

  9. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mandatory recall order. 810.13 Section 810.13 Food... DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory recall order. (a) If the person named in a cease distribution and notification order does not request...

  10. 21 CFR 810.13 - Mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mandatory recall order. 810.13 Section 810.13 Food... DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.13 Mandatory recall order. (a) If the person named in a cease distribution and notification order does not request...

  11. Ultra-Rapid dUT1 Measurements on Japan-Fennoscandian Baselines - Application to 24-hour Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuzaka, Shigeru; Kurihara, Shinobu; Sekido, Mamoru; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rudiger; Ritakari, Jouko; Wagner, Jan

    2010-01-01

    GSI, NICT, OSO, and MRO have been engaged in Ultra-rapid dUT1 experiments since 2007 aiming at the technological possibility of real-time dUT1 results using the e-VLBI technique. We have already successfully determined dUT1 in less than four minutes after the end of an experimental Intensive session in 2008, and at present we routinely get the results within 30 minutes for regular Intensives. In 2009 we applied the technique to 24-hour sessions and continuously obtained dUT1 values by processing and analyzing Tsukuba Onsala data in near real-time. It showed a detailed behavior of UT1 variations, which could be very valuable for scientific study as well as for precise prediction of UT1-UTC.

  12. Tolvaptan Prolongs Blockage of the Vasopressin Type II Receptor Over 24 Hours in Responders With Stage D Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Komuro, Issei

    2016-01-01

    The urine aquaporin-2 (U-AQP2) level relative to the plasma arginine vasopressin (P-AVP) level is a novel predictor of the responsiveness to the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) antagonist tolvaptan (TLV). However, little has been reported about the concentration-time profile of U-AQP2 after TLV treatment. We evaluated 24 patients with decompensated stage D heart failure (HF) who had received 3.75 mg/day of TLV on a de novo basis for > 7 days to treat congestion refractory to conventional diuretics. Seventeen patients were TLV-responders, whose 24-hour urine volume (UV) increased after TLV initiation; the other 7 patients were TLV-non-responders. The U-AQP2 of the TLV-responders, corrected for the urine creatinine concentration, decreased significantly at 4 hours after TLV administration without returning to the day-1 morning level on the morning of day-7. The TLV-non-responder U-AQP2 levels remained low even before the TLV treatment. On the morning of day-7, the TLV-responder U-AQP2/P-AVP ratio was comparable to that of the TLV-non-responders. Among 18 patients (11 responders and 7 non-responders), the day-7 TLV trough concentration was 64 ± 62 ng/mL and was negatively correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). TLV has antagonistic effects on the V2R over 24 hours in TLV-responders with advanced heart failure and chronic kidney disease, probably due to persistently elevated blood TLV concentration. The unresponsiveness to TLV in the TLV-non-responders is not attributable to malabsorption. PMID:26742881

  13. 21 CFR 7.40 - Recall policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall policy. 7.40 Section 7.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities §...

  14. Prognostic Value of the 24-Hour Neurological Examination in Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke: A post hoc Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled Stroke Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Frankel, Michael; Jovin, Tudor G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early prognostication of long-term outcomes following ischemic stroke can facilitate medical decision-making. We hypothesized that the 24-hour National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) predicts 3-month clinical outcomes in anterior circulation stroke. Methods Secondary analyses of the Interventional Management of Stroke 3 (IMS3) and intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) for acute ischemic stroke [National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) IV tPA] trials were performed. In participants with documented 24-hour NIHSS and 3-month Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), the predictive power of the 24-hour NIHSS and 24-hour NIHSS improvement for 3-month outcomes [mRS 0-2 and Barthel Index (BI) ≥95] was assessed. Percentages of good outcome (mRS 0-2 or BI ≥95) at 3, 6, and 12 months and mean quality of life (EQ5D™) index at 3 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were compared. Results The majority of the study participants were included (IMS3 n = 587/656, NINDS IV tPA n = 619/624). The 24-hour NIHSS was correlated with 3-month mRS (R = 0.73) with excellent predictive power for mRS 0-2 [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.91] and BI ≥95 (AUC = 0.9) in both cohorts. A model with the 24-hour NIHSS alone correctly classified 82-84% of patients in both cohorts. The percentages of good outcomes at 3-12 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were similar in both cohorts. mRS 0-2 was achieved by 75.6-77.7% of patients with 24-hour NIHSS ≤11 but by only 1.4-3.6% with 24-hour NIHSS ≥20. The EQ5D index at 3 months varied among NIHSS 0-4 (mean 0.86 ± 0.16), 5-11 (0.77 ± 0.18), and 12-19 (0.59 ± 0.26) quartiles. Conclusions The 24-hour NIHSS strongly predicts long-term stroke outcomes and is associated with quality of life. Its easy availability, reliability, and validity support its use as an early prognostic marker and surrogate of clinical outcome in ischemic stroke. PMID:27051408

  15. What a Difference a Day Makes: Change in Memory for Newly Learned Word Forms over 24 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Karla K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the role of time and retrieval experience in the consolidation of word forms. Method: Participants were 106 adults trained on 16 novel word-referent pairs, then tested immediately and 24 hr later for recognition and recall of word forms. In the interim, tests were repeated 2 hr or 12 hr after training, or not at all,…

  16. Label-free mass spectrometry proteome quantification of human embryonic kidney cells following 24 hours of sialic acid overproduction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cell surface glycoprotein sialylation is one of the most ubiquitous glycan modifications found on higher eukaryotes. The surface sialylation pattern of cells is influenced by the cellular environment but also by the Golgi sialyltransferase activity and flux of metabolites through sialic acid producing pathways. Altered cell surface sialic acid patterns have been observed in several cancers and other pathological conditions. In this experiment we examined the cellular proteomic changes that occur in human embryonic kidney cells after 24 hours of sialic acid overproduction using N-Acetylmannosamine. We utilized high resolution mass spectrometry and label free protein quantification to characterize the relative changes in protein abundance as well as multiple reaction monitoring to quantify the cellular sialic acid levels. Results Using N-Acetylmannosamine we were able to induce sialic acid production to almost 70-fold compared to non-induced control cells. Mass spectrometric analysis of cellular proteome of control and induced cells identified 1802 proteins of which 105 displayed significant changes in abundance. Functional analysis of the resulting relative changes in protein abundance revealed regulation of several cellular pathways including protein transport, metabolic and signaling pathways and remodeling of epithelial adherens junctions. We also identified several physically interacting co-regulated proteins in the set of changed proteins. Conclusions In this experiment we show that increased metabolic flux through sialic acid producing pathway affects the abundance of several protein transport, epithelial adherens junction, signaling and metabolic pathway related proteins. PMID:23915316

  17. Once- and twice-daily bevantolol for systemic hypertension using 24-hour ambulatory intraarterial blood pressure recording.

    PubMed

    Al-Khawaja, I M; Caruana, M P; Prince, H; Whittington, J; Raftery, E B

    1986-11-26

    The antihypertensive efficacy of bevantolol, a selective beta 1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, was evaluated in 17 patients with essential hypertension, using continuous ambulatory intraarterial blood pressure (BP) monitoring. The study compared a twice-daily regimen (titrated dose of 200 to 600 mg/day) with the same amount given in a single daily dose. Within-patient comparisons of mean hourly systolic and diastolic BPs and heart rate showed a highly significant effect with twice-daily therapy (p less than 0.001) for all of the 24 hours. Similar significant results were obtained with a single morning dose. There was no difference between the pattern or extent of BP reduction with the 2 regimens. The decrease in BP after bevantolol persisted during the physiologic tests (rest, tilt, isometric and dynamic exercise). Four patients developed minor side effects with the single morning dose, and only 1 patient with the twice-daily regimen. These effects included tiredness, fatigue and dizziness. Unlike pure beta-blocking agents, bevantolol controlled the early morning increase in BP, lending support to the belief that it possesses vasodilatory properties in addition to beta blockade. These results suggest that bevantolol may be useful as first-line therapy in a once-daily dosage for the treatment of essential hypertension.

  18. A comparison of regression and Bayesian change point analysis for extreme 24hours rainfall in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamruzzaman, M.; Beecham, S.; Metcalfe, A.

    2013-12-01

    We consider monthly extremes rainfall, aggregated over 24 hours, at 24 rainfall station in South Australia (SA). A self-organizing map (SOM) technique is used to draw contours of extreme for this area for each month. The possibility of change in extreme rainfall is investigated in two ways. The first is a multiple regression with time, month, station and their interaction as predictor variables. A confidence interval and for the linear and quadratic effects of time series are given. We have developed a strategy to possible improve prediction of extreme rainfall as a linear combination of original prediction. The dramatic improvement is a consequence of introducing squares and cross product of predictor variables is given in calibration, validation and re-calibration model. The similarity between fitted to the calibration and validation periods suggests that the hydrological process have been relatively stable over the period. The modeling strategy is empirical and will valid for different time period; although, in general, estimated coefficients could change substantially. The second analysis is a Bayesian change's point (BCP) analysis based on deseasonalised extreme data. A univariate BCP is applied in the data averaged over stations and compared with a multivariate BCP applied to the individual station records. The BCP is applied to investigate the possibility of sudden change rather than a smooth trend.

  19. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support. PMID:27398166

  20. Relative prognostic value of rest thallium-201 imaging, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; Nestico, P.F.; Heo, J.; Unwala, A.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-07-01

    Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.

  1. Adrenal catecholamine synthesis rate changes induced by combined thermal and immobilization stress in fed and 24 hour fasted rats.

    PubMed

    Bargiel, Z; Nowicka, H

    1989-01-01

    The combined stress of acute immobilization (IM) at high and low ambient temperature has been used to determine its influence on adrenal catecholamine (CA) content assassed histofluorimetrically in fed and 24 hour fasted rats. The general course of changes obtained after the arrangement of adrenal strips deriving from the adrenals of rats exposed to cold and IM stress (CIMS) at +10 degrees C to -25 degrees C during the different time fragments presented the adrenal CA depletion events followed sometimes by the adrenal CA content increase after the longer stress exposure or/and stronger CIMS and WIMS conditions. It was found that this depletion-stimulated increase of adrenal Ca synthesis rate had been accelerated in 24 h fasted rats compared to satiated ones exposed to the same stress conditions, especially after the CIMS exposure. Moreover the survival time duration at first lethal temperature (-5 degrees C and +45 degrees C) was significantly higher in fasted rats. The possible hypothalamic regulation of adrenal CA synthesis rate accordingly to the actual metabolism needs and beta-adrenoceptor sensitivity changes depending on satiety state have been discussed and the necessity of further investigations concerning the specificity of stress-induced metabolism changes in 24 h starved rats has been suggested.

  2. Hourly thermal load prediction for the next 24 hours by ARIMA, EWMA, LR and an artificial neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Kawashima, Minoru; Dorgan, C.E.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Predicting the thermal load for the next 24 hours is essential for optimal control of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems that use thermal cool storage. It can be useful in minimizing costs and energy in nonstorage systems. A cooperative research project between a US. university and a Japanese corporation investigated four generally used prediction methods to examine the basic models with variations and to compare the accuracy of each model. A cooling and heating seasonal data set with known next-day weather was used to evaluate the accuracy of each prediction method. The results indicate that an artificial neural network (ANN) model produces the most accurate thermal load predictions. After the initial comparisons with a computer-generated data set, the ANN model was applied to two measured building loads from another research project. These sets included typical measurement noise related to continuous field monitoring. The predictions of the next-day cooling load using the ANN prediction model were close to the actual data, even when the next-day weather was forecast. This confirms that the ANN model has sufficient accuracy and is the correct method for practical utilization in HVAC system control, thermal storage optimal control, and load/demand management.

  3. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support. PMID:27398166

  4. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support.

  5. Comparative studies on 24-hour urinary excretion in Japanese and Chinese adults and children--need for nutritional education.

    PubMed

    Mori, Mari; Xu, Jin-Wen; Mori, Hideki; Ling, Cheng Feng; Wei, Guo Hong; Yamori, Yukio

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of nutritional education on the risk of developing lifestyle-related diseases, we measured taurine and isoflavone content in 24-hour urine samples (24-U) of 3rd grade Chinese children (CC) and of age-matched Japanese children (JC), as well as adult Chinese and Japanese (CA, JA) according to the WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison) Study protocol. There was a significantly higher prevalence of obesity and "thin" individuals in CC compared with JC. While K intake was not significantly different in the children, the sodium to potassium ratio (Na/ K) and the intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) were significantly higher in CC than in JC. Taurine excretion (24-U) was significantly higher in CC than in JC, but isoflavone excretion was significantly lower in CC than in JC. Taurine excretion was significantly lower in CA than in JA, while isoflavone excretion was almost the same in CA and JA. After nutritional education CC consumed more isoflavones than the control group that had been subjected to only environmental education. JC exhibited significantly higher 24-U taurine and isoflavone excretion after taking the nutritional class.

  6. What a Difference a Day Makes: Change in Memory for Newly Learned Word Forms Over 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Karla K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study explored the role of time and retrieval experience in the consolidation of word forms. Method Participants were 106 adults trained on 16 novel word-referent pairs, then tested immediately and 24 hr later for recognition and recall of word forms. In the interim, tests were repeated 2 hr or 12 hr after training, or not at all, thus varying the amount and timing of retrieval experience. Results Recognition accuracy was stable and speed improved over the 24-hr period. But these manifestations of consolidation did not depend on interim retrieval experience; in fact, the 2-hr interim test interfered with improvements in speed. In contrast, the number of word forms recalled increased only with interim retrieval experiences, and the 12-hr interim test was more advantageous to recall than the 2-hr test. Conclusions After a word form is encoded, it can become stronger with time. Retrieval experience can also strengthen the trace, but, if retrieval occurs when the memory is still labile, it can be disruptive. This complex interplay between retrieval experience and time holds implications for measuring learning outcomes and for scheduling practice in classrooms and clinics. PMID:24845578

  7. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  8. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  9. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. The recalling firm may submit a recommendation for termination of the recall...

  10. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  11. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  12. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  13. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  14. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  15. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant formula recall. If after a review of the recalling firm's recall strategy or periodic reports or...

  16. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accordance with the recall strategy, and when it is reasonable to assume that the product subject to the... of hazard of the recalled product. Written notification that a recall is terminated will be issued by... firm may request termination of its recall by submitting a written request to the appropriate Food...

  17. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Carson, Valerie; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dinh, Thy; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Gray, Casey E; Gruber, Reut; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; LeBlanc, Claire; Okely, Anthony D; Olds, Timothy; Pate, Russell R; Phillips, Andrea; Poitras, Veronica J; Rodenburg, Sophie; Sampson, Margaret; Saunders, Travis J; Stone, James A; Stratton, Gareth; Weiss, Shelly K; Zehr, Lori

    2016-06-01

    Leaders from the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, content experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children and youth aged 5-17 years respect the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period). The development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and systematic reviews of evidence informing the guidelines were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Four systematic reviews (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, integrated behaviours) examining the relationships between and among movement behaviours and several health indicators were completed and interpreted by expert consensus. Complementary compositional analyses were performed using Canadian Health Measures Survey data to examine the relationships between movement behaviours and health indicators. A stakeholder survey was employed (n = 590) and 28 focus groups/stakeholder interviews (n = 104) were completed to gather feedback on draft guidelines. Following an introductory preamble, the guidelines provide evidence-informed recommendations for a healthy day (24 h), comprising a combination of sleep, sedentary behaviours, light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Proactive dissemination, promotion, implementation, and evaluation plans have been prepared in an effort to optimize uptake and activation of the new guidelines. Future research should consider the integrated relationships among movement behaviours, and similar integrated guidelines for other age groups should be developed. PMID:27306437

  18. Risk Stratification by 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in 5322 Subjects From 11 Populations

    PubMed Central

    Boggia, José; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Hansen, Tine W.; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Schwedt, Emma; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Filipovský, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; Wang, Jiguang; Ibsen, Hans; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    No previous study addressed whether in the general population estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR [Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula]) adds to the prediction of cardiovascular outcome over and beyond ambulatory blood pressure. We recorded health outcomes in 5322 subjects (median age, 51.8 years; 43.1% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations, who had baseline measurements of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP24) and eGFR. We computed hazard ratios using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Median follow-up was 9.3 years. In fully adjusted models, which included both ABP24 and eGFR, ABP24 predicted (P≤0.008) both total (513 deaths) and cardiovascular (206) mortality; eGFR only predicted cardiovascular mortality (P=0.012). Furthermore, ABP24 predicted (P≤0.0056) fatal combined with nonfatal events as a result of all cardiovascular causes (555 events), cardiac disease (335 events), or stroke (218 events), whereas eGFR only predicted the composite cardiovascular end point and stroke (P≤0.035). The interaction terms between ABP24 and eGFR were all nonsignificant (P≥0.082). For cardiovascular mortality, the composite cardiovascular end point, and stroke, ABP24 added 0.35%, 1.17%, and 1.00% to the risk already explained by cohort, sex, age, body mass index, smoking and drinking, previous cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive drug treatment. Adding eGFR explained an additional 0.13%, 0.09%, and 0.14%, respectively. Sensitivity analyses stratified for ethnicity, sex, and the presence of hypertension or chronic kidney disease (eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2) were confirmatory. In conclusion, in the general population, eGFR predicts fewer end points than ABP24. Relative to ABP24, eGFR is as an additive, not a multiplicative, risk factor and refines risk stratification 2- to 14-fold less. PMID:23172928

  19. Establishing normal plasma and 24-hour urinary biochemistry ranges in C3H, BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice following acclimatization in metabolic cages.

    PubMed

    Stechman, Michael J; Ahmad, Bushra N; Loh, Nellie Y; Reed, Anita A C; Stewart, Michelle; Wells, Sara; Hough, Tertius; Bentley, Liz; Cox, Roger D; Brown, Steve D M; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2010-07-01

    Physiological studies of mice are facilitated by normal plasma and 24-hour urinary reference ranges, but variability of these parameters may increase due to stress that is induced by housing in metabolic cages. We assessed daily weight, food and water intake, urine volume and final day measurements of the following: plasma sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, cholesterol and glucose; and urinary sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, glucose and protein in 24- to 30-week-old C3H/HeH, BALB/cAnNCrl and C57BL/6J mice. Between 15 and 20 mice of each sex from all three strains were individually housed in metabolic cages with ad libitum feeding for up to seven days. Acclimatization was evaluated using general linear modelling for repeated measures and comparison of biochemical data was by unpaired t-test and analysis of variance (SPSS version 12.0.1). Following an initial 5-10% fall in body weight, daily dietary intake, urinary output and weight in all three strains reached stable values after 3-4 days of confinement. Significant differences in plasma glucose, cholesterol, urea, chloride, calcium and albumin, and urinary glucose, sodium, phosphate, calcium and protein were observed between strains and genders. Thus, these results provide normal reference values for plasma and urinary biochemistry in three strains housed in metabolic cages and demonstrate that 3-4 days are required to reach equilibrium in metabolic cage studies. These variations due to strain and gender have significant implications for selecting the appropriate strain upon which to breed genetically-altered models of metabolic and renal disease.

  20. Prevalence of Masked Hypertension: a Population-Based Survey in a Large City by Using 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Woong; Choi, Eun-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Nah, Deuk-Young; Shin, Sung-Joon; Gu, Namyi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We estimated the prevalence of hypertension and hypertension subtypes in a large semi-urban city in Korea, using 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a randomly selected sample population. Subjects and Methods A random sample (aged 20-65 years) from a city with an adult population of approximately 600000 was selected by using a list-assisted random digit dialing method. The 24-hour ABPM and conventional blood pressure measurement (CBPM) of these individuals were obtained. Results Among the 496 participants, valid 24-hour ABPM and CBPM were obtained from 462 (93%) individuals. The estimated prevalence of hypertension in Goyang was 17.54% by CBPM and 32.70% by 24-hour ABPM (p<0.01). In the age stratified analysis, both CBPM and 24-hour ABPM showed increased prevalence of hypertension with age. The estimated prevalence of masked hypertension was 16.22% and that of white-coat hypertension was 1.08%. Men had a higher prevalence of masked hypertension than women (20.79% vs. 11.86%, p=0.0295). The estimated prevalence of masked hypertension was 17.5%, 20.58%, 24.34%, and 13.29% in the age categories of 30s, 40s, 50s, and 60s, respectively. The estimated prevalence of masked uncontrolled hypertension was 26.79% in patients with hypertension who were taking antihypertensive medications. Conclusion The estimated prevalence of hypertension by 24-hour ABPM was higher than that by CBPM, revealing high prevalence of masked hypertension. The high prevalence of masked hypertension supports the adoption of ABPM in the national population survey and clinical practice to improve public health and reduce health care costs. PMID:27721860

  1. Jack Healy Remembers - Anecdotal Evidence for the Origin of the Approximate 24-hour Urine Sampling Protocol Used for Worker Bioassay Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2008-10-01

    The origin of the approximate 24-hour urine sampling protocol used at Hanford for routine bioassay is attributed to an informal study done in the mid-1940s. While the actual data were never published and have been lost, anecdotal recollections by staff involved in the initial bioassay program design and administration suggest that the sampling protocol had a solid scientific basis. Numerous alternate methods for normalizing partial day samples to represent a total 24-hour collection have since been proposed and used, but no one method is obviously preferred.

  2. Comparison of gastric body and antral pH: a 24 hour ambulatory study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    McLauchlan, G; Fullarton, G M; Crean, G P; McColl, K E

    1989-05-01

    Simultaneous ambulatory records of gastric antral and body pH were made over 24 hours in nine healthy volunteers by means of endoscopically positioned and anchored glass electrodes. Intragastric pH was temporarily raised after the endoscopy with the median pH value 30 minutes after the procedure being 3.9 (range 1.5-7.0) for the antrum and 4.1 (range 1.5-7.0) for the body. Daytime pH (median pH value between 12 00 h and 23 00 h) was lower in the antrum (median = 1.9, range 1.6-2.6) than in the body (median = 2.7, range 1.8-4.5) (p less than 0.05) and this was because of the rise in pH on eating being less marked in the antrum than in the body. The median peak pH recorded during the evening meal was only 4.1 (range 2.4-6.2) in the antrum compared with 6.3 (range 4.4-6.7) in the body (p less than 0.01). Preprandial pH (median value over the hour prior to the evening meal) was similar in the antrum (median = 1.9, range 1.2-2.5) and body (median = 1.9, range 1.3-2.8). Night-time pH (median pH value between 23 00 h and 05 00 h) in six subjects remained low and was similar in the antrum (median = 1.4, range 1.2-1.7) and body (median = 1.3, range 1.1-1.7). In two subjects, however, there were episodes of raised night-time pH which were more marked in the antrum than in the body. Antral biopsies showed gastritis in four of the nine normal volunteers, which in three was associated with the presence of campylobacter-like organisms. This study shows the significant regional variations in day and night-time intragastric pH.

  3. Perfusion-CT - Can We Predict Acute Pancreatitis Outcome within the First 24 Hours from the Onset of Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Pieńkowska, Joanna; Gwoździewicz, Katarzyna; Skrobisz-Balandowska, Katarzyna; Marek, Iwona; Kostro, Justyna; Szurowska, Edyta; Studniarek, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is still a significant clinical problem which is associated with a highly mortality. The aim of this study was the evaluation of prognostic value of CT regional perfusion measurement performed on the first day of onset of symptoms of AP, in assessing the risk of developing severe form of acute pancreatitis. Material and Methods 79 patients with clinical symptoms and biochemical criteria indicative of acute pancreatitis (acute upper abdominal pain, elevated levels of serum amylase and lipase) underwent perfusion CT within 24 hours after onset of symptoms. The follow-up examinations were performed after 4–6 days to detect progression of the disease. Perfusion parameters were compared in 41 people who developed severe form of AP (pancreatic and/or peripancreatic tissue necrosis) with parameters in 38 consecutive patients in whom course of AP was mild. Blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time and permeability surface area product were calculated in the three anatomic pancreatic subdivisions (head, body and tail). At the same time the patient's clinical status was assessed by APACHE II score and laboratory parameters such as CRP, serum lipase and amylase, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP and bilirubin were compared. Results Statistical differences in the perfusion parameters between the group of patients with mild and severe AP were shown. Blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time were significantly lower and permeability surface area product was significantly higher in patients who develop severe acute pancreatitis and presence of pancreatic and/or peripancreatic necrosis due to pancreatic ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of evaluated on admission severity of pancreatitis assessed using APACHE II score and laboratory tests. Conclusions CT perfusion is a very useful indicator for prediction and selection patients in early stages of acute pancreatitis who are at risk of

  4. [Assessment of the food list and serving size of a Food Frequency Questionnaire in an adult population].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Luciana Yuki; Cardoso, Marly Augusto

    2002-01-01

    This study examined both the food list and portion size values from a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) among participants in a case-control study in São Paulo, Brazil. Two hundred adult respondents to a case-control study were randomly selected (101 men and 99 women; age range: 35-69 years). FFQ food items were examined on the basis of their contribution to total population nutrient intake estimated by 24-hour dietary recall (1-DR). We examined the frequency distribution of equivalent-gram weights of each selected food from the 1-DR and identified the portion sizes as small, medium, and large in the distribution (percentiles 25, 50, and 75, respectively). The FFQ provided close estimation of total fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, total fiber, vitamin B6, and folic acid compared to the 1-DR (paired t-test; p < 0.05). The FFQ food list covered the study population's main dietary nutrient sources.

  5. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50... ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.50 Public notification of recall. The Food and Drug Administration will promptly...

  6. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50... ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.50 Public notification of recall. The Food and Drug Administration will promptly...

  7. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50... ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.50 Public notification of recall. The Food and Drug Administration will promptly...

  8. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and... Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.46 Firm-initiated recall. (a) A firm may decide of its own volition and under any circumstances...

  9. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50... ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.50 Public notification of recall. The Food and Drug Administration will promptly...

  10. Heart rate variability parameters of myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs with and without heart failure obtained using 24-hour Holter electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M S; Muzzi, R A L; Araújo, R B; Muzzi, L A L; Ferreira, D F; Nogueira, R; Silva, E F

    2012-06-16

    Time-domain heart rate variability (HRV) parameters and the correlation between echocardiography and Holter examinations in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) were determined. Holter examination was also performed at different time frames: an entire 24-hour period, a four-hour period during sleep, and a four-hour period while awake. Ten healthy (control group) and 28 MMVD dogs, 15 with and 13 without heart failure, were evaluated. The SDANN (sd of the mean normal RR intervals for all five-minute segments during 24-hour Holter) and pNN(50) (percentage of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals that are >50 ms computed over 24-hour Holter) variables were significantly lower in the dogs with MMVD heart failure. The differences in HRV between the groups were only detected during the 24-hour evaluation period (P<0.05). There were high correlations (canonical analysis) between Holter and echocardiography examinations when considering pNN(50), SDANN, and LA/AO (left atrial to aortic root ratio) (r=0.92; P<0.05), indicating that both are important in evaluating MMVD dogs. SDANN and pNN(50) are measures of parasympathetic control of the heart, and thus, it is possible to infer that the MMVD dogs exhibit parasympathetic withdrawal during the development of heart failure.

  11. Ambulatory 24 hour intraoesophageal pH and pressure recordings v provocation tests in the diagnosis of chest pain of oesophageal origin.

    PubMed Central

    Ghillebert, G; Janssens, J; Vantrappen, G; Nevens, F; Piessens, J

    1990-01-01

    Fifty patients with non-cardiac chest pain underwent 24 hour intraoesophageal pH and pressure recording and provocation tests to determine the relative value of both techniques in establishing the oesophageal origin of the chest pain. Twenty six patients (52%) had at least one positive provocation test: the acid perfusion test was positive related in 18 patients (36%), the edrophonium test in 16 patients (32%), the vasopressin test in five patients (10%), and the balloon distension test (performed in only 20 patients) in one (5%). The 24 hour pH and pressure recording correlated spontaneous chest pain attacks with abnormal motility or gastro-oesophageal reflux in 19 patients (38%). Fourteen of these patients also had at least one positive provocation test. Therefore, 24 hour pH and pressure recordings are only slightly better than a set of provocation tests in identifying the oesophagus as the cause of chest pain (10% diagnostic gain). In the case of oesophageal chest pain, however, 24 hour recording appeared to be the only way to identify the nature of the underlying oesophageal abnormality that caused the spontaneous pain attacks--for example, gastro-oesophageal reflux, motility disorders, or irritability of the oesophagus. PMID:2370009

  12. Bath water contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria in 24-hour home baths, hot springs, and public bathhouses of Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bath water samples were collected from 116 hot springs, 197 public bathhouses, and 38 24-hour home baths in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, during the period of April 2009 to November 2011, for determining the presence and extent of contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Cultures positive for Legionella were observed in 123 of the 3,314 bath water samples examined. The distribution and abundance of Legionella and/or combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria were investigated to clarify the contamination levels. The abundance of Legionella was demonstrated to correlate considerably with the levels of combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Legionella spp. were obtained from 61% of the water samples from 24-hour home baths, but only from 3% of the samples from public bathhouses and hot springs. This is despite the fact that a few outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Nagano Prefecture as well as other regions of Japan have been traced to bath water contamination. The comparatively higher rate of contamination of the 24-hour home baths is a matter of concern. It is therefore advisable to routinely implement good maintenance of the water basins, particularly of the 24-hour home baths.

  13. The effect of low level radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in operators during 24-hour shifts.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, K; Israel, M; Mihaylov, S

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long term exposure to low level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in satellite station operators during 24-hour shifts. Twelve male operators at a satellite station for TV communications and space research were studied during 24-hour shifts. Dosimetric evaluation of the exposure was carried out and showed low level exposure with specific absorption of 0.1127 J.kg-1. A control group of 12 unexposed male operators with similar job task and the same shift system were studied, too. The 11-oxycorticosteroids (11-OCS), adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed by spectrofluorimetric methods on 3-hour intervals during the 24-hour shifts. The data were analyzed by tests for interindividual analysis, Cosinor analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant increase in the 24-hour excretion of 11-OCS and disorders in its circadian rhythm, manifested by increase in the mesor, decrease in the amplitude and shift in the acrophase were found in the exposed operators. The changes in the excretion rates of the catecholamines were significant and showed greater variability of both variables. The long term effect of the exposure to low-level RF EM radiation evoked pronounced stress reaction with changes in the circadian rhythm of 11-OCS and increased variability of catecholamines secretion. The possible health hazards associated with observed alteration in the stress system need to be clarified by identification of their significance and prognostic relevance.

  14. Characterization of pulmonary protein profiles in response to zinc oxide nanoparticles in mice: a 24-hour and 28-day follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Jen-Kun; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Lai, Ching-Huang; Jones, Tim P; BéruBé, Kelly A; Hong, Gui-Bing; Ho, Kin-Fai; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are recognized to cause systemic disorders, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the time-dependent differences that occur after exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanistic differences at 24 hours and 28 days after the exposure of BALB/c mice to ZnONPs via intratracheal instillation. An isobaric tag for the relative and absolute quantitation coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the differential protein expression, biological processes, molecular functions, and pathways. A total of 18 and 14 proteins displayed significant changes in the lung tissues at 24 hours and 28 days after exposure, respectively, with the most striking changes being observed for S100-A9 protein. Metabolic processes and catalytic activity were the main biological processes and molecular functions, respectively, in the responses at the 24-hour and 28-day follow-up times. The glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway was continuously downregulated from 24 hours to 28 days, whereas detoxification pathways were activated at the 28-day time-point after exposure. A comprehensive understanding of the potential time-dependent effects of exposure to ZnONPs was provided, which highlights the metabolic mechanisms that may be important in the responses to ZnONP. PMID:26251593

  15. 24-HOUR DIFFUSIVE SAMPLING OF 1,3-BUTADIENE IN AIR ONTO CARBONPAK X SOLID ADSORBENT WITH THEMAL DESORPTION/GC/MS ANALYSIS - FEASIBILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffusive sampling of 1,3-butadiene for 24 hours onto the graphitic adsorbent Carbopack X contained in a stainless steel tube badge (6.3 mm OD, 5 mm ID, and 90 mm in length) with analysis by thermal desorption/GC/MS has been evaluated in controlled tests. A test matrix of 42 tr...

  16. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accordance with the recall strategy, and when it is reasonable to assume that the product subject to the... the appropriate Food and Drug Administration district office to the recalling firm. (b) A...

  17. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered...

  18. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered...

  19. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS Canning and Canned... recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  20. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered...

  1. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered...

  2. Does an Adolescent's Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Deborah A; Wright, Janine L; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Boushey, Carol J

    2015-05-13

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents' accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents' accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days.

  3. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A.; Wright, Janine L.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  4. Recall in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Marion; Ricks, Margaret

    1979-01-01

    Free recall, cued recall, color recall, organization in recall, and sorting of three and four year olds were assessed on nine-item lists of objects that were orthogonally varied on color and category dimensions. Subjects were 64 boys and girls. (Author/MP)

  5. Reductions in Mean 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure After 6-Week Treatment With Canagliflozin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Raymond R; Machin, Israel; Ren, Jimmy; Trujillo, Angelina; Kawaguchi, Masato; Vijapurkar, Ujjwala; Damaraju, Chandrasekharrao V; Pfeifer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the early effects of canagliflozin on blood pressure (BP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension. Patients were randomized to canagliflozin 300 mg, canagliflozin 100 mg, or placebo for 6 weeks and underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring before randomization, on day 1 of treatment, and after 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in mean 24-hour systolic BP (SBP) from baseline to week 6. Overall, 169 patients were included (mean age, 58.6 years; glycated hemoglobin, 8.1%; seated BP 138.5/82.7 mm Hg). At week 6, canagliflozin 300 mg provided greater reductions in mean 24-hour SBP than placebo (least squares mean -6.2 vs -1.2 mm Hg, respectively; P=.006). Numerical reductions in SBP were observed with canagliflozin 100 mg. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated, with side effects similar to those reported in previous studies. These results suggest that canagliflozin rapidly reduces BP in patients with T2DM and hypertension.

  6. Recalls, Market Withdrawals and Safety Alerts

    MedlinePlus

    ... works with industry and our state partners to publish press releases and other public notices about recalls ... Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 ...

  7. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... recall order status reports. 810.16 Section 810.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall...

  8. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... recall order status reports. 810.16 Section 810.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall...

  9. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... recall order status reports. 810.16 Section 810.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall...

  10. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 8075, Feb. 10, 2014. The recalling...

  11. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... recall order status reports. 810.16 Section 810.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall...

  12. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... recall order status reports. 810.16 Section 810.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall...

  13. Effect of 24 hours light on circadian rhythms of secretory enzymes and morphology of rat von Ebner's glands.

    PubMed

    Field, R B; Redman, R S; Calloway, A M; Goldberg, W J

    1999-11-01

    Von Ebner's glands of the rat are minor salivary serous glands in the posterior portion of the tongue. They secrete two digestive enzymes, lingual lipase and amylase. In this investigation, circadian rhythm in feeding was established under a normal 12 h light/12 h dark cycle, with the rats eating primarily during the dark period. At lights on, the size of the acinar cells and the area of the inclusive secretory granules, and the amount of digestive enzyme activity (lingual lipase and amylase) remaining in the gland was significantly less than in the mid-afternoon, after very little daylight food consumption. However, after 7 days of continuous light the circadian rhythm was altered: the food consumption during the normal night-time hours (5 p.m. to 8 a.m.) went from 88% of total 24 h food consumption to 45%, and during normal daylight hours (8 a.m. to 5 p.m.) from 12% to 55%. These changes were correlated with histometric findings of a near reversal of the areas of acinar cells and secretory granules of a.m. and p.m. samples under continuous light. Lingual lipase activity in the glands went from 35% under 12 h light to 61% under continuous light in the a.m. and from 65% to 39% in the p.m. Amylase activity also showed nearly a reversal in activity remaining in the gland, from 36% at 12 h light to 58% at 24 h light in the a.m. and 64% to 41% for the p.m. samples. These results indicate that the von Ebner's glands of the rat have a circadian rhythm of secretion and storage of secretory proteins that is subject to light entrainment similar to that seen in other exocrine glands such as the parotid and pancreas.

  14. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables

  15. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables

  16. Patterns of food use and nutrient intake of obese and non-obese Hualapai Indian women of Arizona.

    PubMed

    Teufel, N I; Dufour, D L

    1990-09-01

    To document patterns of food use and nutrient intake associated with obesity in Native American women, a sample of 14 obese and 14 non-obese free-living Hualapai Indian women living in northwest Arizona was studied. Patterns of food use were determined through long-term observation, dietary histories, and 24-hour dietary recalls. Dietary intake was determined through 24-hour dietary recalls over 7 consecutive days. Patterns of food acquisition, selection, and preparation were similar for obese and non-obese Hualapai women. The diets of both groups were dominated by nonalcoholic beverages, potatoes, beans, white wheat flour, and canned goods. Wild and locally cultivated foods were not eaten on a regular basis. The diets of both the obese and non-obese women were high in energy (pooled mean +/- standard deviation [SD] = 2,602 +/- 766 kcal/day) and carbohydrates (pooled mean +/- SD = 333.4 +/- 95.6 gm/day), moderate in protein (pooled mean +/- SD = 77.8 +/- 20.9 gm/day) and fat (pooled mean +/- SD = 101.1 +/- 25.4 gm/day), and low in crude fiber (pooled mean +/- SD = 4.7 +/- 2.0 gm/day). The study indicates that significantly (p less than .001) higher energy intakes of the obese women can be attributed to their greater consumption of nonalcoholic and alcoholic beverages. PMID:2398214

  17. Retrieval opportunities while multitasking improve name recall.

    PubMed

    Helder, Elizabeth; Shaughnessy, John J

    2008-11-01

    In two experiments we tested whether providing retrieval opportunities while people were multitasking would improve memory for names. College students (n=195) in Experiment 1 did addition problems and intermittently were "introduced" to 12 face-name pairs to learn. For half the names students were given three within-list retrieval opportunities. Name recall (cued with the faces) was tested either immediately or after 24 hours. Retrieval opportunities improved name recall with both immediate and delayed tests. Experiment 2 more closely resembled the multitasking required in a real-life social situation. College students (n=98) viewed a videotape and were asked to learn the names of 12 dormitory residents who were introduced during an ongoing conversation. Retrieval opportunities were provided for 8 of the 12 residents by having them appear three additional times in the video without repeating their names. Retrieval opportunities improved name recall, but the effect was much smaller than in Experiment 1. The present research demonstrates that distributed retrieval can be effective when people are multitasking including when the multitasking involves a conversation.

  18. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and...

  19. 21 CFR 7.53 - Recall status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall status reports. 7.53 Section 7.53 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities §...

  20. 21 CFR 7.55 - Termination of a recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of a recall. 7.55 Section 7.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and...

  1. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities §...

  2. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history

    PubMed Central

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall. PMID:25599028

  3. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history.

    PubMed

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall. PMID:25599028

  4. Diurnal 24-hour rhythm in ambulatory heart rate variability during the day shift in rotating shift workers.

    PubMed

    Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Kawano, Yukari; Tada, Yuki; Hida, Azumi; Midorikawa, Toru; Hasegawa, Kohe; Mitani, Takeshi; Komatsu, Taiki; Togo, Fumiharu

    2013-06-01

    Circadian variation in cardiac autonomic nervous system activity and behavior during the day shifts of shift workers has not hitherto been clarified. This study examined diurnal 24-h variation in heart rate variability (HRV), sleep-wake cycle, physical activity, and food intake during the day shift in rotating shift workers. The subjects were female nurses and caregivers working at a health care facility (14 day workers and 13 rotating shift workers). Each subject was asked to undergo 24-h electrocardiograph and step count recordings. Coarse graining spectral analysis was used for approximately 10-min segments of HRV (600 beats) to derive the total power (TOT: >0.04 Hz), integrated power in the low-frequency (LF: 0.04-0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF: >0.15 Hz) ranges, the ratio of HF power to TOT (HF nu), and the ratio of LF power to HF power (LF/HF). Double cosinor analysis was used to obtain 24-h and 12-h period variations in variables of HRV and physical activity. While no difference was found in the acrophases of either period for step counts or in the 12-h period of HRV variables between the groups, the acrophases of the 24-h period for HRV variables were delayed by 1.3 to 5.5 h in rotating shift workers, and their differences in HF power, HF nu, and LF/HF reached a significant level (p < 0.05). On the days of the experiment, retiring time, waking up time, total time in bed, sleep efficiency, and mealtimes and energy intake for each diet did not differ between the groups. These results suggest that there is a possibility of an abnormal phase angle between circadian variation in cardiac autonomic nervous system activity and the sleep-wake cycle during the day shift in shift workers.

  5. Decreased striatal dopamine release underlies increased expression of long-term synaptic potentiation at corticostriatal synapses 24 hours after 3-nitropropionic acid induced chemical hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Akopian, Garnik; Crawford, Cynthia; Beal, M. Flint; Cappelletti, Maurand; Jakowec, Michael W.; Petzinger, Giselle M.; Zheng, Ling; Gheorghe, Stacey L.; Reichel, Carmela M.; Chow, Robert; Walsh, John P

    2008-01-01

    The striatum is particularly sensitive to the irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehyrdrogenase 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP). In the present study we examined early changes in behavior and dopamine and glutamate synaptic physiology created by a single systemic injection of 3-NP in Fischer 344 rats. Hind limb dystonia was seen 2 hours after 3-NP injections and rats performed poorly on balance beam and rota-rod motor tests 24 hours later. Systemic 3-NP increased NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at corticostriatal synapses over the same time period. The 3-NP induced corticostriatal LTP was not due to increased NMDA receptor number or function, since 3-NP did not change MK-801 binding or NMDA/AMPA receptor current ratios. The LTP seen 24 hours after 3-NP was D1 receptor-dependent and reversed by exogenous addition of dopamine or a D2 receptor agonist to brain slices. High performance liquid chromatography and fast scan cyclic voltammetry revealed a decrease in dopamine content and release in rats injected 24 hours earlier with 3-NP, and much like the enhanced LTP, dopamine changes were reversed by 48 hours. Tyrosine hydroxylase expression was not changed and there was no evidence of striatal cell loss at 24–48 hours after 3-NP exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats showed similar physiological responses to systemic 3-NP, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Thus, 3-NP causes significant changes in motor behavior marked by parallel changes in striatal dopamine release and corticostriatal synaptic plasticity. PMID:18799690

  6. [The normalisation of blood sugar using a non-miniaturised artifical pancreas. Application for 24 hours in 7 insulin-dependent diabetics (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Slama, G; Klein, J C; Tardieu, M C; Tchobroutsky, G

    1977-06-25

    Seven insulin-dependent diabetic were treated for 24 to 36 hours by intravenous injections of insulin adapted to variations in blood glucose using a fairly voluminous automatic regulation device. This artificial pancreas consists of a modified Technicon blood sugar apparatus which provides continuous estimation of blood glucose using non-haemolysed whole blood by a glucose oxidase method with an inertia time of 6 minutes, a table calculator and a newly developed interpretation and command electronic unit (GlucostatR). Normalisation of blood glucose was obtained for at least 24 hours, during and between meals, during a period following an oral glucose load and throughout the night.

  7. Italian society of hypertension guidelines for conventional and automated blood pressure measurement in the office, at home and over 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Parati, Gianfranco; Omboni, Stefano; Palatini, Paolo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Bilo, Grzegorz; Valentini, Mariaconsuelo; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2008-10-01

    This article offers instructions and recommendations on how to perform blood pressure measurements in the doctor's office, in the patient's home and in ambulatory conditions over 24 hours. Great attention is paid to some of the general aspects of blood pressure measurement, including the accuracy of blood pressure measuring devices, the importance of a 'white-coat effect', and the need for patient education. This article also deals with a number of practical details, such as the importance of patient's relaxation and position, arm position and support, arm selection and cuff selection and application. Recommendations are provided on the observer's position and performance, and on the need to pay attention to specific factors affecting the blood pressure measurement in different patient populations, namely in children, elderly and obese people, pregnant women, patients with arrhythmias and patients on treatment. This article then separately focuses on the characteristics of auscultatory and automated measurements, the latter performed either in the office, at home or over 24 hours in ambulatory settings. Home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) is becoming increasingly important in the diagnosis and management of arterial hypertension. The importance of HBPM in cardiovascular prevention, related to a deeper involvement of patients in their long-term management, and the wide diffusion of this approach in populations, is not always accompanied by adequate knowledge of how to make proper use of this technique, which emphasizes the need for more precise recommendations. This article summarizes the available evidence and provides recommendations on the use of home blood pressure monitoring in clinical practice and in research. It updates the previous recommendations on the same topic issued in 2000. The main topics addressed include the methodology of HBPM, focusing on measurement conditions and procedures, ranging from patient/subject position, to arm selection, arm

  8. Commercial baby food consumption and dietary variety in a statewide sample of infants receiving benefits from the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2010-10-01

    Dietary variety and exposure to fruits and vegetables in infancy have been associated with nutritional benefits and later acceptance of these foods. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of fruit and vegetable commercial baby food consumption and its relation to dietary variety during infancy. A cross-sectional statewide telephone survey of 733 Maryland mothers and infants receiving benefits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was conducted between July 2004 and July 2005. A 24-hour dietary recall was examined to assess infant dietary variety. Among infants from birth to age 5 months, 54% had consumed complementary foods in the past 24 hours; 60% received commercial baby foods. Among infants aged 6 to 12 months, 98% had consumed complementary foods in the past 24 hours; 81% received commercial baby foods. In the latter age range, the average daily number of different types of fruits and vegetables consumed was 1.5±1.2, range 0 to 6). In a multivariate model, infants aged 6 to 12 months who received commercial baby foods consumed a greater variety of fruits and vegetables (β=.54, 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.84; P<0.001) than infants who did not, characterized by a diet that was lower in white potatoes (14% vs 22%) and higher in dark-green (6% vs 5%) and deep-yellow (35% vs 10%) vegetables. Commercial baby food is consumed by a majority of WIC infants, although many mothers introduce it before the recommended age of 6 months. Among infants aged 6 to 12 months, commercial baby food is associated with dietary variety in fruits and vegetables. By encouraging consumption of fruits and vegetables after 6 months of age, either through the provision of commercial baby foods and/or education and resources related to the preparation of fruits and vegetables for infants, WIC can increase dietary variety and appropriate introduction of complementary foods among infants.

  9. Liquid-containing Refluxes and Acid Refluxes May Be Less Frequent in the Japanese Population Than in Other Populations: Normal Values of 24-hour Esophageal Impedance and pH Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Osamu; Kohata, Yukie; Kawami, Noriyuki; Iida, Hiroshi; Kawada, Akiyo; Hosaka, Hiroko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko; Inamori, Masahiko; Kusano, Motoyasu; Hongo, Micho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Twenty-four-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring allows detection of all types of reflux episodes and is considered the best technique for identifying gastroesophageal refluxes. However, normative data for the Japanese population are lacking. This multicenter study aimed to establish the normal range of 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH data both in the distal and the proximal esophagus in Japanese subjects. Methods Forty-two healthy volunteers (25 men and 17 women) with a mean ± standard deviation age of 33.3 ± 12.4 years (range: 22–72 years) underwent a combined 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. According to the physical and pH properties, distal or proximal esophageal reflux events were categorized. Results Median 45 reflux events occurred in 24 hours, and the 95th percentile was 85 events. Unlike previous reports, liquid-containing reflux events are median 25/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 62/24 hours. Acidic reflux events were median 11/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Non-acidic gas reflux events were median 15/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Proximal reflux events accounted for 80% of the total reflux events and were mainly non-acidic gas refluxes. About 19% of liquid and mixed refluxes reached the proximal esophagus. Conclusions Unlike previous studies, liquid-containing and acidic reflux events may be less frequent in the Japanese population. Non-acidic gas reflux events may be frequent and a cause of frequent proximal reflux events. This study provides important normative data for 24-hour impedance and pH monitoring in both the distal and the proximal esophagus in the Japanese population. PMID:27247103

  10. Cued recall in depression.

    PubMed

    Watts, F N; Sharrock, R

    1987-05-01

    An experiment is reported in which a depressed and a control group were tested on free recall, cued recall and recognition memory for a prose passage. As expected from previous work the depressives tended to show less impairment on recognition than on free recall. However, contrary to what some theories would predict, cued recall performance was no better than free recall. The implications of this finding for the nature of the depressive memory deficit for neutral materials are discussed. It seems that neither the amount of verbal output required, nor the need to generate retrieval cues, are critical factors. PMID:3580652

  11. Iron and zinc content of selected foods in the diet of schoolchildren in Kumi district, east of Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Iron and zinc are essential micronutrients for humans and deficiency of the two elements is widespread in the world with the highest prevalence in less developed countries. There are few data on dietary intake of iron and zinc in Uganda, and no food composition table is available. There is hardly any widely published literature that clearly documents the quality of Ugandan children's diet. Thus information of both food intake and the concentration of these trace elements in local food ingredients are needed in order to assess daily intake. Methods The present study focused on the iron and zinc content in selected foods and intake of the micronutrients iron and zinc among schoolchildren in Kumi District, Uganda. Over a period of 4 weeks single 24-hour dietary recall interviews were carried out on a convenience sample of 178 schoolchildren (9-15 years old). Data from the dietary recalls was used when selecting foods for chemical analysis. Results Results from this study showed that the iron concentrations varied, and were high in some cereals and vegetables. The zinc concentrations in foods generally corresponded with results from other African countries (Mali and Kenya). Data from the 24-hour dietary recall showed that the daily Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) was met for iron but not for zinc. Conclusions The schoolchildren of Kumi district had a predominantly vegetable based diet. Foods of animal origin were consumed occasionally. The iron content in the selected foods was high and variable, and higher than in similar ingredients from Kenya and Mali, while the zinc concentrations were generally in accordance with reported values. The total daily zinc (mg) intake does not meet the daily RNI. The iron intake is adequate according to RNI, but due to iron contamination and reduced bioavailability, RNI may not be met in a vegetable based diet. More studies are needed to investigate possible sources of contamination. PMID:21827701

  12. Treatment of burns in the first 24 hours: simple and practical guide by answering 10 questions in a step-by-step form

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose. PMID:22583548

  13. Estimation of 24-hour thyroid uptake of I-131 sodium iodide using a 5-minute uptake of technetium-99m pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.J.; Croft, B.Y.; Brookeman, V.A.; Teates, C.D. )

    1990-02-01

    The authors have developed a method to estimate the 24-hour sodium iodide thyroid uptake based on a 5-minute Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake using the equation: Estimated Iodide Uptake = 17.72*In(Pertechnetate Uptake) + 30.40. This estimation has a correlation coefficient of 0.90. It is based on a data pool of 44 patients who underwent I-131 and Tc-99m studies within 2 weeks of each other from 1978-1988, with established diagnoses as follows: 12 euthyroid, 6 hyperthyroid with multinodular goiters, 15 hyperthyroid with diffuse goiters, 4 with subacute thyroiditis, and 7 unknown. The population consisted of 30 women and 14 men with a mean age of 52.0 +/- 17.5 years; this sample was screened for use of thyroid hormone, propylthiouracil, and radiographic contrast. The authors believe this estimation method is of value whenever a 24-hour iodide uptake is desired, and where speed and minimizing radiation dose are factors. This method is strongly recommended for thyroid uptake evaluation before I-131 therapy.

  14. Self-Perception of Swallowing-Related Problems in Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Patients Diagnosed with 24-Hour Oropharyngeal pH Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Mesallam, Tamer A.; Farahat, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Swallowing difficulty is considered one of the nonspecific symptoms that many patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux complain of. However, the relationship between laryngopharyngeal reflux and swallowing problems is not clear. The purpose of this work is to explore correlation between swallowing-related problems and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) in a group of patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal pH monitoring and to study the effect of laryngopharyngeal reflux on the patients' self-perception of swallowing problems. Methods. 44 patients complaining of reflux-related problems were included in the study. Patients underwent 24-hour oropharyngeal pH monitoring and were divided into positive and negative LPR groups based on the pH monitoring results. All patient filled out the Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) and Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) questionnaires. Comparison was made between the positive and negative LPR groups regarding the results of the DHI and RSI ratings. Also, correlation between DHI scores, RSI scores, and pH monitoring results was studied. Results. Significant difference was reported between positive and negative LPR groups regarding DHI scores, RSI scores, and overall rating of swallowing difficulty. There was significant correlation demonstrated between DHI scores, RSI scores, and 24-hour oropharyngeal pH results. Conclusion. Laryngopharyngeal reflux appears to have a significant impact on patients' self-perception of swallowing problems as measured by DHI. PMID:26966689

  15. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  16. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  17. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  18. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  19. 21 CFR 810.14 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall strategy. 810.14 Section 810.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.14...

  20. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  1. Prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients receiving CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery

    PubMed Central

    Siriphuwanun, Visith; Punjasawadwong, Yodying; Lapisatepun, Worawut; Charuluxananan, Somrat; Uerpairojkit, Ketchada

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) within 24 hours of receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery. Patients and methods A retrospective cohort study approved by the Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai University Hospital Ethical Committee. Data used were taken from records of 751 cardiac arrest patients who received their first CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery between January 1, 2003 and October 31, 2011. The reviewed data included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status classification, anesthesia information, the timing of cardiac arrest, CPR details, and outcomes at 24 hours after CPR. Univariate and polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to determine prognostic factors associated with the outcome variable. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results The outcomes at 24 hours were death (638/751, 85.0%), survival with complications (73/751, 9.7%), and survival without complications (40/751, 5.3%). The prognostic factors associated with death were: age between 13–34 years (OR =3.08, 95% CI =1.03–9.19); ASA physical status three and higher (OR =6.60, 95% CI =2.17–20.13); precardiopulmonary comorbidity (OR =3.28, 95% CI =1.09–9.90); the condition of patients who were on mechanical ventilation prior to receiving anesthesia (OR =4.11, 95% CI =1.17–14.38); surgery in the upper abdominal site (OR =14.64, 95% CI =2.83–75.82); shock prior to cardiac arrest (OR =6.24, 95% CI =2.53–15.36); nonshockable electrocardiography (EKG) rhythm (OR =5.67, 95% CI =1.93–16.62); cardiac arrest occurring in postoperative period (OR =7.35, 95% CI =2.89–18.74); and duration of CPR more than 30 minutes (OR =4.32, 95% CI =1.39–13.45). The prognostic factors associated with survival with complications were being greater

  2. Validation of soy protein estimates from a food-frequency questionnaire with repeated 24-h recalls and isoflavonoid excretion in overnight urine in a Western population with a wide range of soy intakes2

    PubMed Central

    Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fraser, Gary E; Chan, Jacqueline; Franke, Adrian; Sabaté, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence of the benefits of soy on cancer risk in Western populations is inconsistent, in part because of the low intake of soy in these groups. Objective We assessed the validity of soy protein estimates from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) in a sample of Adventist Health Study-2 participants with a wide range of soy intakes. Design We obtained dietary intake data from 100 men and women (43 blacks and 57 nonblacks). Soy protein estimates from FFQs were compared against repeated 24-h recalls and urinary excretion of daidzein, genistein, total isoflavonoids (TIFLs), and equol (measured by HPLC/photodiode array/mass spectrometry) as reference criteria. We calculated Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients (with 95% CIs) for FFQ–24-h recall, 24 h-recall–urinary excretion, and FFQ–urinary excretion pairs. Results Among soy users, mean (± SD) soy protein values were 12.12 ± 10.80 g/d from 24-h recalls and 9.43 ± 7.83 g/d from FFQs. The unattenuated correlation (95% CI) between soy protein estimates from 24-h recalls and FFQs was 0.57 (0.32, 0.75). Correlation coefficients between soy protein intake from 24-h recalls and urinary isoflavonoids were 0.72 (0.43, 0.96) for daidzein, 0.67 (0.43, 0.91) for genistein, and 0.72 (0.47, 0.98) for TIFLs. Between FFQs and urinary excretion, these were 0.50 (0.32, 0.65), 0.48 (0.29, 0.61), and 0.50 (0.32, 0.64) for daidzein, genistein, and TIFLs, respectively. Conclusions Soy protein estimates from questionnaire were significantly correlated with soy protein from 24-h recalls and urinary excretion of daidzein, genistein, and TIFLs. The Adventist Health Study-2 FFQ is a valid instrument for assessing soy protein in a population with a wide range of soy intakes. PMID:18469267

  3. 9 CFR 418.3 - Preparation and maintenance of written recall procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... recall procedures. 418.3 Section 418.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT RECALLS § 418.3 Preparation and maintenance of written recall procedures. Each official establishment must prepare and maintain written procedures for the recall of any meat, meat...

  4. [How to express results of 24-hour gastric pH measurement? Choice of a mode of expression in 27 healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Vallot, T; Elouaer-Blanc, L; Garcia del Risco, F; Mignon, M; Vatier, J; Bonfils, S

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four hour intragastric acidity was studied in 27 healthy subjects (mean age = 29 yrs) by continuous recording in standardized conditions. Data obtained were expressed according to several analytical methods as used extensively elsewhere. In our study, there was a wide discrepancy in results from one subject to another. The use of median values of pH was more appropriate than mean values to express half-hour acidity levels for 24 hours. The median value of H+ concentration is recommended as well. The median value of pH varied from 1 to 4.8 with a slight rise during the second half of the night. During the postprandial period, increase of pH values was prolonged over 2 h 30 in 50 p. 100 of subjects. Profile of pH allowed to demonstrate the distribution of pH value without excluding the extreme values. Both periodicity of pH measurement (30 or 60 min) and parameters used to quantify acidity (percentage of time or pH value at or below threshold values) did not modify results. As measured over a 24 hours period, the percentage of time (mean +/- SEM) at or below pH 1.5 and 3.5 was 54 +/- 3 p. 100 and 85 +/- 2 p. 100, respectively. Daytime and night-time profiles were similar. Mean 24 h H+ concentration (mean +/- SEM) was 47 +/- 35 mmol/l, with, once again, similarity between day and night-time values. The mean 24 h pH values underestimated true acidity with respect to median values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Demand and characteristics of a psychiatric 24-hour emergency service performed by mandatory rotation of licensed psychiatrists in Swiss primary care

    PubMed Central

    Chmiel, Corinne; Rosemann, Thomas; Senn, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate characteristics of and satisfaction with psychiatric 24-hour emergency primary care performed by mandatory rotation of licensed psychiatrists as a viable baseline for possible reorganizational measures. Methods This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study (November 2010–April 2011). The number of patient–psychiatrist encounters, modes of contact, and patient and psychiatrist characteristics were assessed. Diagnoses were coded with ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10). Results From 167 duty episodes, 74 (44%) were recorded. Of the psychiatrists (n=44), 52% were female, and mean age (standard deviation) was 49.9 (5.2) years. The median number of encounters per episode was 4 (interquartile range 0–8), mainly in the evenings. Demand for “face-to-face” (direct) patient visits was significantly more common (64.0%) than practice (1.3%) or telephone consultations (34.7%). In 83.8%, psychiatrists judged the encounter as adequate at the patient’s location. A total of 43 different diagnoses were recorded: mainly schizophrenic disorders (23.9%), suicidal behavior (15.2%), and acute stress reactions (10.3%). Psychiatrists felt burdened by services (62.5%): in 39.2%, they felt threatened; and in 6.8%, violence occurred. In 32.4%, bills were not paid for. If services were optional, 45.2% would participate. Conclusion Our findings indicate justified demand for direct mobile patient visits, suggesting that emergency care should be multifaceted, and sole provision of psychiatric care at stationed emergency facilities may not always be appropriate. Reorganization of 24-hour emergency services should carefully evaluate patient and provider’s needs before changing established structures. PMID:24707172

  6. Recollective and Nonrecollective Recall.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F

    2010-10-01

    The study of recollective and nonrecollective retrieval has become controversial, owing to several critiques of traditional recognition-based measurement (e.g., remember/know, ROC, process dissociation). We present a new methodology in which subjects merely study and recall lists, using any standard paradigm (associative, cued, free, or serial recall), the data are analyzed with a Markov model whose parameters measure recollective and nonrecollective retrieval, and the model's fit is compared to that of one-process models. The power of this approach is illustrated in some experiments that dealt with two classic questions: (a) What are the process-level differences between associative and free recall, and (b) why does taxonomic organization improve free recall but impair associative recall? Fit results showed that a dual-retrieval model is both necessary and sufficient to account for associative and free recall data, in contrast to the sufficient-but-not-necessary pattern that prevails in the recognition literature. Key substantive findings were that associative recall is more reliant on recollective retrieval and less reliant on nonrecollective retrieval than free recall, that taxonomic organization impairs recollective retrieval in both paradigms, and that taxonomic organization enhances the reconstruction component of nonrecollective retrieval in free recall. PMID:22279248

  7. Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rabinak, Christine A.; Angstadt, Mike; Sripada, Chandra S.; Abelson, James L.; Liberzon, Israel; Milad, Mohammed R.; Phan, K. Luan

    2012-01-01

    A first-line approach to treat anxiety disorders is exposure-based therapy, which relies on extinction processes such as repeatedly exposing the patient to stimuli (conditioned stimuli; CS) associated with the traumatic, fear-related memory. However, a significant number of patients fail to maintain their gains, partly attributed to the fact that this inhibitory learning and its maintenance is temporary and conditioned fear responses can return. Animal studies have shown that activation of the cannabinoid system during extinction learning enhances fear extinction and its retention. Specifically, CB1 receptor agonists, such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), can facilitate extinction recall by preventing recovery of extinguished fear in rats. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated in humans. We conducted a study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design, coupling a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and simultaneous skin conductance response (SCR) recording with an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) or placebo (PBO) 2 hours prior to extinction learning in 29 healthy adult volunteers (THC = 14; PBO = 15) and tested extinction retention 24 hours after extinction learning. Compared to subjects that received PBO, subjects that received THC showed low SCR to a previously extinguished CS when extinction memory recall was tested 24 hours after extinction learning, suggesting that THC prevented the recovery of fear. These results provide the first evidence that pharmacological enhancement of extinction learning is feasible in humans using cannabinoid system modulators, which may thus warrant further development and clinical testing. PMID:22796109

  8. Creativity and Dream Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between creative interests and dream recall frequency (DRF) by having 44 adults complete dream recall journals as well as a verbal creativity test. Results indicate that persons with both visual and verbal creative skills remember their dreams more. Visual memory may be a mediating variable between…

  9. Failure to Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical analysis shows that if the pattern of rehearsal in free-recall experiments (of necessity, the pattern observed when participants rehearse aloud) be continued without any further interruption by stimuli (as happens during recall), it terminates with the retrieval of the same 1 word over and over again. Such a terminal state is commonly…

  10. 21 CFR 810.17 - Termination of a cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... notification or mandatory recall order. 810.17 Section 810.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.17 Termination of a cease distribution and notification...

  11. 21 CFR 810.17 - Termination of a cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... notification or mandatory recall order. 810.17 Section 810.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.17 Termination of a cease distribution and notification...

  12. 21 CFR 810.17 - Termination of a cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... notification or mandatory recall order. 810.17 Section 810.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.17 Termination of a cease distribution and notification...

  13. 21 CFR 810.17 - Termination of a cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... notification or mandatory recall order. 810.17 Section 810.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.17 Termination of a cease distribution and notification...

  14. 21 CFR 810.15 - Communications concerning a cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... notification or mandatory recall order. 810.15 Section 810.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.15 Communications concerning a cease distribution and...

  15. 21 CFR 810.15 - Communications concerning a cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... notification or mandatory recall order. 810.15 Section 810.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.15 Communications concerning a cease distribution and...

  16. 21 CFR 810.15 - Communications concerning a cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... notification or mandatory recall order. 810.15 Section 810.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.15 Communications concerning a cease distribution and...

  17. Ambulatory Hypertension Subtypes and 24-Hour Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure as Distinct Outcome Predictors in 8341 Untreated People Recruited From 12 Populations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Wei, Fang-Fei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José; Asayama, Kei; Hansen, Tine W.; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Gu, Yu-Mei; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Liu, Yan-Ping; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Mena, Luis; Maestre, Gladys E.; Filipovský, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; O’Brien, Eoin; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on risk associated with 24-hour ambulatory diastolic (DBP24) versus systolic (SBP24) blood pressure are scarce. Methods and Results We recorded 24-hour blood pressure and health outcomes in 8341 untreated people (mean age, 50.8 years; 46.6% women) randomly recruited from 12 populations. We computed hazard ratios (HRs) using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Over 11.2 years (median), 927 (11.1%) participants died, 356 (4.3%) from cardiovascular causes, and 744 (8.9%) experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event. Isolated diastolic hypertension (DBP24≥80 mm Hg) did not increase the risk of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or stroke (HRs≤1.54; P≥0.18), but was associated with a higher risk of fatal combined with nonfatal cardiovascular, cardiac, or coronary events (HRs≥1.75; P≤0.0054). Isolated systolic hypertension (SBP24≥130 mm Hg) and mixed diastolic plus systolic hypertension were associated with increased risks of all aforementioned end points (P≤0.0012). Below age 50, DBP24 was the main driver of risk, reaching significance for total (HR for 1-SD increase, 2.05; P=0.0039) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 4.07; P=0.0032) and for all cardiovascular end points combined (HR, 1.74; P=0.039) with a nonsignificant contribution of SBP24 (HR≤0.92; P≥0.068); above age 50, SBP24 predicted all end points (HR≥1.19; P≤0.0002) with a nonsignificant contribution of DBP24 (0.96≤HR≤1.14; P≥0.10). The interactions of age with SBP24 and DBP24 were significant for all cardiovascular and coronary events (P≤0.043). Conclusions The risks conferred by DBP24 and SBP24 are age dependent. DBP24 and isolated diastolic hypertension drive coronary complications below age 50, whereas above age 50 SBP24 and isolated systolic and mixed hypertension are the predominant risk factors. PMID:24906822

  18. Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

    2014-03-11

    This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for

  19. Prediction of Appropriate Shocks Using 24-Hour Holter Variables and T-Wave Alternans After First Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation in Patients With Ischemic or Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Seegers, Joachim; Bergau, Leonard; Expósito, Pascal Muñoz; Bauer, Axel; Fischer, Thomas H; Lüthje, Lars; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Friede, Tim; Zabel, Markus

    2016-07-01

    In patients treated with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), prediction of both overall survival and occurrence of shocks is important if improved patient selection is desired. We prospectively studied the predictive value of biomarkers and indexes of cardiac and renal function and spectral microvolt T-wave alternans testing and 24-hour Holter variables in a population who underwent first ICD implantation. Consecutive patients in sinus rhythm with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy scheduled for primary or secondary prophylactic ICD implantation were enrolled. Exercise microvolt T-wave alternans and 24-hour Holter for number of ventricular premature contractions (VPCs), deceleration capacity, heart rate variability, and heart rate turbulence were done. Death of any cause and first appropriate ICD shock were defined as end points. Over 33 ± 15 months of follow-up, 36 of 253 patients (14%) received appropriate shocks and 39 of 253 patients (15%) died. Only 3 of 253 patients (1%) died after receiving at least 1 appropriate shock. In univariate analyses, New York Heart Association class, ejection fraction, N-terminal pro brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), renal function, ICD indication, deceleration capacity, heart rate variability, and heart rate turbulence were predictive of all-cause mortality and VPC number and deceleration capacity predicted first appropriate shock. NT-proBNP (≥1,600 pg/ml) was identified as the only independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.0, confidence interval 1.3 to 7.3, p = 0.014). In contrast, VPC number predicted appropriate shocks (hazard ratio 2.3, confidence interval 1.0 to 5.5, p = 0.047) as the only independent risk marker. In conclusion, NT-proBNP is a strong independent predictor of mortality in a typical prospective cohort of newly implanted patients with ICD, among many electrocardiographic and clinical variables studied. Number of VPCs was identified as a predictor of appropriate shocks

  20. Nighttime sleep duration, 24-hour sleep duration and risk of all-cause mortality among adults: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoli; Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2016-01-01

    A dose-response meta-analysis was conducted to summarize evidence from prospective cohort studies about the association of nighttime sleep duration and 24-hour sleep duration with risk of all-cause mortality among adults. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed databases to March 2015. A two-stage random-effects dose–response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific relative risks and 95% confidence intervals [RRs (95% CIs)]. Thirty-five articles were included. Compared with 7 hours/day, the RRs (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality were 1.07 (1.03–1.13), 1.04 (1.01–1.07), 1.01 (1.00–1.02), 1.07 (1.06–1.09), 1.21 (1.18–1.24), 1.37 (1.32–1.42) and 1.55 (1.47–1.63) for 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 and 11 hours/day of nighttime sleep, respectively (146,830 death cases among 1,526,609 participants), and the risks were 1.09 (1.04–1.14), 1.05 (1.02–1.09), 1.02 (1.00–1.03), 1.08 (1.05–1.10), 1.27 (1.20–1.36), 1.53 (1.38–1.70) and 1.84 (1.59–2.13) for 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 and 11 hours/day of 24-hour sleep, respectively (101,641 death cases among 903,727 participants). The above relationships were also found in subjects without cardiovascular diseases and cancer at baseline, and other covariates did not influence the relationships substantially. The results suggested that 7 hours/day of sleep duration should be recommended to prevent premature death among adults. PMID:26900147

  1. Recalling academic tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Franklin Gno

    This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.

  2. [Application of the method of one-day learning in a Morris water maze to analyse the effects of sleep deprivation on memory trace recall 24 hours later, after learning].

    PubMed

    Dorokhov, V B; Kozhedub, R G; Arsenyev, G N; Bukhgolts, O I; Marchenko, V G; Puchkova, A N

    2014-01-01

    The proposed model of a one-day spatial learning is of interest in research of how sleep influences the hippocamp-dependent memory consolidation. We have studied the influence of a one-day total sleep deprivation on spatial memory consolidation in hooded rats after a one-day learning in the Morris water maze according to Feldman et al. [2010] protocol. According to it rats had to find a submerged platform that was alternatively marked by a flag or completely invisible to an animal. In a previous study [Dorokhov et al., 2011] we have used another one-day learning protocol [Frick et al., 2000] and Wistar rats and have demonstrated a large interindividual variance in learning parameters and sleep deprivation effects on memory consolidation. In this study we confirm previously acquired results on negative impact of sleep deprivation on spatial memory consolidation. To demonstrate the effects of sleep deprivation on the results of one-day learning we are using for the first time an evaluation of the time spent by an animal in the area of the platform placement and corresponding areas in the other quadrants of the water maze.

  3. Control of bleeding by silk ligation and diathermy coagulation during tonsillectomy: A comparison of efficacy of the two techniques in the first 24 hours after surgery

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Khurshid; Ahmad, Rafiq; Khan, Muneeb

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the relative efficacy of silk ligation and diathermy coagulation techniques in controlling bleeding during tonsillectomy in the first 24 hours. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Department of ENT, Khalifa Gul Nawaz Teaching Hospital, Bannu and this department related consultants’ private clinics from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. The study included 180 cases. All patients included were having history of recurrent, acute tonsillitis, with more than 6–7 episodes in one year, five episodes per year for two years, or three episodes per year for three years. All the surgeries were performed by dissection method. Haemostasis during the procedure was secured by either ligation with silk 1 or using diathermy. The results were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 for windows. Results: A total of180 cases were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 5 to 40 years with the mean age of 15.56 years and a std.deviation of +/- 8.24. The male to female ratio was 1.25:1. The number of hemorrhages occurring was greater in the ‘diathermy coagulation’ group as compared to the ‘silk ligation’ group. However, the observed difference was statistically insignificant (p >.05). Conclusion: Primary haemorrhage occurring during tonsillectomy is a serious threat and control of bleeding during the procedure should therefore be meticulous. Both suture ligation and coagulation diathermy for control of bleeders during the procedure by dissection method are equally effective. PMID:26430438

  4. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Exploring the perceptions of stakeholders regarding their acceptability, barriers to uptake, and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Guy; White, Lauren; Riazi, Negin; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    Engaging stakeholders in the development of guidelines and plans for implementation is vital. The purpose of this study was to examine stakeholders' (parents, teachers, exercise professionals, paediatricians, and youth) perceptions of the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth ("Movement Guidelines"). Stakeholders (n = 104) engaged in semi-structured focus groups or interviews to discuss the perceived acceptability of the guidelines, potential barriers to implementation, and preferred methods and messengers of dissemination. A thematic analysis was conducted. Overall, there was consistent support across all stakeholder groups, with the exception of youth participants, for the Movement Guidelines. Stakeholders identified a range of barriers to the uptake of the guidelines including concerns with accurately defining key terms such as "recreational" screen time; everyday challenges such as financial and time constraints; and the possibility of the Movement Guidelines becoming just another source of stress and guilt for already busy and overwhelmed parents. Participants identified a range of recommended methods and messengers for future dissemination. School and medical settings were the most commonly recommended settings through which dissemination efforts should be delivered. Overall, participants representing a range of stakeholder groups were receptive to the new Movement Guidelines and endorsed their value. In complementing the Movement Guidelines, messaging and resources will need to be developed that address common concerns participants had regarding their dissemination and implementation. PMID:27306436

  5. A Day in the Life of Millisecond Pulsar J1713+0747: Limits on Timing Precision Over 24 Hours and Implications for Gravitational Wave Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolch, Timothy; Bailes, M.; Bassa, C.; Bhat, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Champion, D.; Chatterjee, S.; Cognard, I.; Cordes, J. M.; Crowter, K.; Demorest, P.; Finn, L. S.; Fonseca, E.; Hessels, J.; Hobbs, G.; Janssen, G.; Jones, G.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Keith, M.; Kramer, M.; Kraus, A.; Lam, M. T.; Lazarus, P.; Lazio, J.; Lee, K.; Levin, L.; Liu, K.; Lorimer, D.; Manchester, R. N.; McLaughlin, M.; Palliyaguru, N.; Perrodin, D.; Petroff, E.; Rajwade, K.; Rankin, J. M.; Ransom, S. M.; Rosenblum, J.; Roy, J.; Shannon, R.; Stappers, B.; Stinebring, D.; Stovall, K.; Teixeira, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; van Straten, W.; Verbiest, J.; Zhu, W.

    2014-01-01

    A 24-hour global observation of millisecond radio pulsar J1713+0747 was undertaken by the International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA) collaboration as an effort to better quantify sources of noise in this object, which is regularly timed for the purpose of detecting gravitational waves (GWs). Given an 8-year timing RMS of 30ns, it is regarded as one of the best precision clocks in the PTA. However, sources of timing noise visible on timescales longer than the usual 20-30min biweekly observation may nonetheless be present. Data from the campaign were taken contiguously with the Parkes, Arecibo, Green Bank, GMRT, LOFAR, Effelsberg, WSRT, Lovell, and Nancay radio telescopes. The combined pulse times-of-arrival provide an estimate of the absolute noise floor, in other words, what unaccounted sources of timing noise impede an otherwise simple sqrt(N) improvement in timing precision, where N is the number of pulses in a single observing session. We present first results of specific phenomena probed on the unusual timescale of tens of hours, in particular interstellar scattering (ISS), and discuss the degree to which ISS affects precision timing. Finally, we examine single pulse information during selected portions of the observation and determine the degree to which the pulse jitter of J1713+0747 varies throughout the course of the day-long dataset.

  6. Age-dependent changes in 24-hour rhythms of catecholamine content and turnover in hypothalamus, corpus striatum and pituitary gland of rats injected with Freund's adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Pilar; Cardinali, Daniel P; Chacon, Fernando; Castrillón, Patricia O; Reyes Toso, Carlos A; Esquifino, Ana I

    2001-01-01

    Background Little information is available on the circadian sequela of an immune challenge in the brain of aged rats. To assess them, we studied 24-hour rhythms in hypothalamic and striatal norepinephrine (NE) content, hypothalamic and striatal dopamine (DA) turnover and hypophysial NE and DA content, in young (2 months) and aged (18–20 months) rats killed at 6 different time intervals, on day 18th after Freund's adjuvant or adjuvant's vehicle administration. Results Aging decreased anterior and medial hypothalamic NE content, medial and posterior hypothalamic DA turnover, and striatal NE concentration and DA turnover. Aging also decreased NE and DA content in pituitary neurointermediate lobe and augmented DA content in the anterior pituitary lobe. Immunization by Freund's adjuvant injection caused: (i) reduction of DA turnover in anterior hypothalamus and corpus striatum; (ii) acrophase delay of medial hypothalamic DA turnover in old rats, and of striatal NE content in young rats; (iii) abolition of 24-h rhythm in NE and DA content of neurointermediate pituitary lobe, and in DA content of anterior lobe, of old rats. Conclusions The decline in catecholamine neurotransmission with aging could contribute to the decrease of gonadotropin and increase of prolactin release reported in similar groups of rats. Some circadian responses to immunization, e.g. suppression of 24-h rhythms of neurointermediate lobe NE and DA and of anterior lobe DA were seen only in aged rats. PMID:11741510

  7. Computer simulation of the effect of dDAVP with saline loading on fluid balance after 24-hour head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R. S.; Simanonok, K. E.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid loading (FL) before Shuttle reentry is a countermeasure currently in use by NASA to improve the orthostatic tolerance of astronauts during reentry and postflight. The fluid load consists of water and salt tablets equivalent to 32 oz (946 ml) of isotonic saline. However, the effectiveness of this countermeasure has been observed to decrease with the duration of spaceflight. The countermeasure's effectiveness may be improved by enhancing fluid retention using analogs of vasopressin such as lypressin (LVP) and desmopressin (dDAVP). In a computer simulation study reported previously, we attempted to assess the improvement in fluid retention obtained by the use of LVP administered before FL. The present study is concerned with the use of dDAVP. In a recent 24-hour, 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) study involving seven men, dDAVP was found to improve orthostatic tolerance as assessed by both lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and stand tests. The treatment restored Luft's cumulative stress index (cumulative product of magnitude and duration of LBNP) to nearly pre-bedrest level. The heart rate was lower and stroke volume was marginally higher at the same LBNP levels with administration of dDAVP compared to placebo. Lower heart rates were also observed with dDAVP during stand test, despite the lower level of cardiovascular stress. These improvements were seen with only a small but significant increase in plasma volume of approximately 3 percent. This paper presents a computer simulation analysis of some of the results of this HDT study.

  8. Gastroesophageal and pharyngeal reflux detection using impedance and 24-hour pH monitoring in asymptomatic subjects: defining the normal environment.

    PubMed

    Oelschlager, Brant K; Quiroga, Elina; Isch, John A; Cuenca-Abente, Federico

    2006-01-01

    Airway symptoms are often caused by aspiration of refluxed materials into the larynx. In this study we sought to define the frequency, character, and proximal extent of refluxed contents - including nonacid reflux-in normal subjects using intraluminal impedance to improve our understanding of the relationship between reflux and aspiration. Ten subjects, who had no symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease or airway disease, underwent impedance/pH monitoring with a catheter that allowed simultaneous esophageal and pharyngeal monitoring. Impedance detected 496 gastroesophageal reflux episodes in the 10 subjects during 240 hours of study. The majority, 399 (81% of the total) were acid reflux episodes (pH < 4). Ninety-seven were nonacid (pH > 4). Most reflux episodes (348 of 496) reached the mid esophagus (9 cm above lower esophageal sphincter). There were 51 reflux episodes that reached the pharynx (PR). Only 13 (25%) of PR were acidic (pH < 4), while 38 were nonacid. Twenty-six PR episodes were liquid and 25 were mixed (liquid and gas). The median number of PR episodes measured with impedance was 5 (0-10). In asymptomatic subjects, most episodes of gastroesophageal reflux are acidic and reach the midesophagus. Reflux into the PR appears to be more common than previously believed, and most of these episodes are not acidic. Thus, traditional 24-hour pH monitoring may underestimate the presence of pharyngeal reflux. The combination of impedance with pH monitoring markedly enhances our ability to accurately detect potential microaspiration.

  9. Improving the intake of nutritious food in children aged 6-23 months in Wuyi County, China – a multi-method approach

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiong; van Velthoven, Michelle H.M.M.T.; Chen, Li; Car, Josip; Rudan, Diana; Saftić, Vanja; Zhang, Yanfeng; Li, Ye; Scherpbier, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To develop affordable, appropriate, and nutritious recipes based on local food resources and dietary practices that have the potential to improve infant feeding practices. Methods We carried out a mixed methods study following the World Health Organization’s evaluation guidelines on the promotion of child feeding. We recruited caregivers with children aged 6-23 months in Wuyi County, Hebei Province, China. The study included a 24-hour dietary recall survey, local food market survey, and development of a key local food list, food combinations, and recipes. Mothers tested selected recipes at their homes for two weeks. We interviewed mothers to obtain their perceptions on the recipes. Results The 24-hour dietary recall survey included 110 mothers. Dietary diversity was poor; approximately 10% of children consumed meat and only 2% consumed vitamin A-rich vegetables. The main reason for not giving meat was the mothers’ belief that their children could not chew and digest meat. With the help of mothers, we developed six improved nutritious recipes with locally available and affordable foods. Overall, mothers liked the recipes and were willing to continue using them. Conclusions This is the first study using a systematic evidence-based method to develop infant complementary recipes that can address complementary feeding problems in China. We developed recipes based on local foods and preparation practices and identified the barriers that mothers faced toward feeding their children with nutritious food. To improve nutrition practices, it is important to both give mothers correct feeding knowledge and assist them in cooking nutritious foods for their children based on locally available products. Further research is needed to assess long-term effects of those recipes on the nutritional status of children. PMID:23630143

  10. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... violative is requested to notify immediately the appropriate Food and Drug Administration district...

  11. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY... violative is requested to notify immediately the appropriate Food and Drug Administration district...

  12. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  13. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... communication if any has issued, or a proposed communication if none has issued. (8) Proposed strategy for... the recall. (b) The Food and Drug Administration will review the information submitted, advise the firm of the assigned recall classification, recommend any appropriate changes in the firm's...

  14. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited--The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    1998-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, "high leverage" technologies--liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Ironrich volcanic glass, or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way, LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging front the engine's choked sonic throat--essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased

  15. 2001: A Space Odyssey Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2003-01-01

    The prospects for 24 hour commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, high leverage technologies: liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and lunar-derived oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass, or orange soil, discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4 percent oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an afterburner into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat, essentially scramjet propulsion in reverse. By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that big engine performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or in-line Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an expendable mode initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased payload is

  16. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2001-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon. similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale. are examined using two near term. "high leverage" technologies-liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass. or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow. has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat-essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller. more affordable. easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased

  17. Epidemiology of Urban Traffic Accident Victims Hospitalized More Than 24 Hours in a Level III Trauma Center, Kashan County, Iran, During 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Mahdian, Mehrdad; Sehat, Mojtaba; Fazel, Mohammad Reza; Moraveji, Alireza; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urban traffic accidents are an extensively significant problem in small and busy towns in Iran. This study tried to explore the epidemiological pattern of urban traffic accidents in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to assess various epidemiological factors affecting victims of trauma admitted to a main trauma center in Iran. Patients and Methods: During a retrospective study, data including age, sex, injury type and pattern, outcome, hospital stay and treatment expenditures regarding urban Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) for one year (March 2012-March 2013) were obtained from the registry of trauma research center, emergency medical services and deputy of health of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. One-way ANOVA and chi-square tests were used to analyze data using SPSS version 16.0. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 1723 victims (82.6% male, sex ratio of almost 5:1) were considered in this study. Mortality rate in trauma cases hospitalized more than 24 hours during our study was 0.8%. Young motorcyclist men with the rate of more than 103 per 10000 were the most vulnerable group. The most common injury was head injury (73.6%) followed by lower limb injury (33.2%). A significant association was found between mechanism of injury and head, lower limb, multiple injuries and high risk age group. Conclusions: Urban RTAs are one of the most important problems in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, which impose a great economic burden on health system. Motorcyclists are the most vulnerable victims and multiple trauma and head injury are seen among them extensively. PMID:26101765

  18. Evaluation of the indications and arrhythmic patterns of 24 hour Holter electrocardiography among hypertensive and diabetic patients seen at OAUTHC, Ile-Ife Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Ikwu, Amanze N; Balogun, Michael O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Mene-Afejuku, Tuoyo O; Adeyeye, Victor O; Bamikole, Olaniyi J; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Ajayi, Olufemi E; Ogunyemi, Suraj A; Oketona, Omolola A

    2014-01-01

    Background There are very limited published studies in Nigeria on the use of 24 hour Holter electrocardiogram (Holter ECG) in the arrhythmic evaluation of hypertensive and diabetic patients. Objective To evaluate indications, arrhythmic pattern of Holter ECG, and heart rate variability (HRV) among patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD) with or without heart failure and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) seen in our cardiac care unit. Methods Seventy-nine patients (32 males and 47 females) were studied consecutively over a year using Schiller type (MT-101) Holter ECG machine. Results Out of the 79 patients, 17 (21.5%) had HHD without heart failure, 33 (41.8%) had HHD with hypertensive heart failure (HHF), while 29 (36.7%) were T2DM patients. The mean (standard deviation) ages of HHD without heart failure, HHF and T2DM patients were 59.65 (±14.38), 65.15 (±14.30), and 54.66 (±8.88) respectively. The commonest indication for Holter ECG was palpitation (38%), followed by syncope (20.3%). Premature ventricular contraction was the commonest arrhythmic pattern among the 79 patients, especially among HHF patients. The HRV using standard deviation of all normal-normal intervals was significantly reduced in T2DM patients (81.03±26.33, confidence interval [CI] =71.02–91.05) compared to the HHD without heart failure (119.65±29.86, CI =104.30–135.00) and HHF (107.03±62.50, CI =84.00–129.19). There was a negative correlation between the duration of T2DM and HRV (r=−0.613). Conclusion Palpitation was the commonest Holter ECG indication and premature ventricular contractions were the commonest arrhythmic pattern among our patients. HRV was reduced in T2DM patients compared with hypertensive patients. PMID:25473303

  19. Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance is associated with Lower CD4 Count and 24-Hour Urinary Dopamine Levels in Ethnic Minority Women Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Seay, Julia S.; McIntosh, Roger; Fekete, Erin M.; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Kumar, Mahendra; Schneiderman, Neil; Antoni, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbance is associated with dopamine dysregulation, which can negatively impact immune status. Individuals living with HIV experience more sleep difficulties, and poor sleep may compound immune decrements associated with HIV infection. Little research has examined associations between sleep, dopamine, and immune status (CD4 count) in individuals with HIV. As ethnic minority women living with HIV (WLWH) are at heightened risk for HIV disease progression, we related sleep reports to both CD4 count and dopamine levels in a cohort of ethnic minority WLWH. Methods Participants were 139 low-income WLWH (ages 20–62; 78.3% African-American or Caribbean) who reported both overall sleep quality and sleep disturbance on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). CD4 count and HIV viral load were measured via morning peripheral venous blood samples, and concentrations of dopamine were measured via 24-hour urine collection. Covariates included HIV viral load, length of time since HIV diagnosis, HAART adherence, perceived stress and depression. Results After controlling for all covariates, greater sleep disturbance was associated with significantly lower CD4 count (β = −.20, p = .03) and lower levels of dopamine (β = −.25, p = .04). Poorer overall sleep quality was marginally associated with lower CD4 count (β = −.16, p = .08), and was not associated with dopamine. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that sleep disturbance is independently related with immune status and dopamine levels in WLWH. Lower levels of dopamine may indicate neuroendocrine dysregulation and may impact immune and health status. Results highlight sleep disturbance rather than overall sleep quality as potentially salient to neuroendocrine and immune status in ethnic minority WLWH. PMID:23850225

  20. Effects of Potassium Magnesium Citrate Supplementation on 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Oxidative Stress Marker in Prehypertensive and Hypertensive Subjects.

    PubMed

    Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Peri-Okonny, Poghni; Velasco, Alejandro; Arbique, Debbie; Wang, Zhongyun; Ravikumar, Priya; Adams-Huet, Beverly; Moe, Orson W; Pak, Charles Y C

    2016-09-15

    Diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, known as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, is known to reduce blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients. More recently, the DASH diet was shown to reduce oxidative stress in hypertensive and nonhypertensive humans. However, the main nutritional components responsible for these beneficial effects of the DASH diet remain unknown. Because the DASH diet is rich in potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and alkali, we performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to compare effects of potassium magnesium citrate (KMgCit), potassium chloride (KCl), and potassium citrate (KCit) to allow dissociation of the three components of K, Mg, and citrate on 24-hour ambulatory BP and urinary 8-isoprostane in hypertensive and prehypertensive subjects, using a randomized crossover design. We found that KCl supplementation for 4 weeks induced a significant reduction in nighttime SBP compared with placebo (116 ± 12 vs 121 ± 15 mm Hg, respectively, p <0.01 vs placebo), whereas KMgCit and KCit had no significant effect in the same subjects (118 ± 11 and 119 ± 13 mm Hg, respectively, p >0.1 vs placebo). In contrast, urinary 8-isoprostane was significantly reduced with KMgCit powder compared with placebo (13.5 ± 5.7 vs 21.1 ± 10.5 ng/mgCr, respectively, p <0.001), whereas KCl and KCit had no effect (21.4 ± 9.1 and 18.3 ± 8.4, respectively, p >0.1 vs placebo). In conclusion, our study demonstrated differential effects of KCl and KMgCit supplementation on BP and the oxidative stress marker in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects. Clinical significance of the antioxidative effect of KMgCit remains to be determined in future studies. PMID:27448942

  1. Evidence for Long-period (14-30 Days) and Against Short-period (12-24 Hours) Tidal Modulation of Volcanic Tremor at Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagerty, M. T.; Schwartz, S.; Revenaugh, J.

    2008-12-01

    Many studies have sought a correlation between the occurrence of earthquakes or volcanic activity and various Earth tide components, which would provide evidence for external tidal modulation of these geophysical phenomena. Several studies of short duration seismic experiments at Arenal Volcano in Costa Rica have found evidence of diurnal and semi-diurnal tidal periodicities in the seismic record. However, studies at other volcanoes, using longer time series, with improved spectral resolution, do not find tidal peaks in the seismic spectrum, but rather solar peaks (at exactly 12 and/or 24 hours), suggesting that the modulation is caused not by tidal stresses, but by weather related parameters - temperature, barometric pressure, rainfall. In contrast, recent studies of nonvolcanic tremor in the subduction zones of Japan and Cascadia do find evidence for tidal modulation of tremor activity with a period of 12.4 hours. Thus, the questions of whether or not earthquakes and volcanoes are triggered by external forces, and if so, whether these forces are related to elastic tides or to weather, are still highly relevant. We examine a continuous, 302-day long recording of ground motion at Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica, for potential solar and lunar periodicities in the volcanic seismicity. No evidence is found for significant energy in the semidiurnal (near 12 hr) or diurnal (near 24 hr) frequency bands, in contrast to previous, lower- resolution studies at Arenal. However, analysis with multi-taper method (MTM) and singular spectrum analysis (SSA) reveals significant low-frequency (f < .005 cycles/hr) energy in the tremor and explosivity series, including 14 and 30-day quasi-periodic components, relative to a red noise hypothesis. We attempt to fit the data to long-period tidal frequencies in order to verify potential tidal modulation of the long-period seismic energy at Arenal.

  2. Effect of melatonin on 24-hour rhythms of ornithine decarboxylase activity and norepinephrine and acetylcholine synthesis in submaxillary lymph nodes and spleen of young and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, D P; Brusco, L I; García Bonacho, M; Esquifìno, A I

    1998-05-01

    Young (50 days old) and old (18 months old) Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with mycobacterial Freund's adjuvant to produce an inflammatory disease of the joints and were studied the day before, and on days 6, 12 and 18 after injection. At every postinjection interval examined, old rats had significantly lower circadian amplitudes of pineal melatonin content. On day 18 of arthritis development, decreased levels of pineal melatonin were also seen in young rats. A second study, carried out 18 days after the injection of Freund's complete adjuvant and after 17 daily injections of 10 or 100 microg of melatonin in the evening, indicated that melatonin treatment restored the inflammatory response in old rats (assessed plethysmographically in hind paws) to the level found in young animals. In young rats, an inflammation-promoting effect of 100 microg melatonin could be demonstrated. As a consequence of the immune reaction, submaxillary lymph node and splenic ornithine decarboxylase activity (an index of lymph cell proliferation) augmented significantly, with acrophases of 24-hour rhythms in the afternoon for lymph nodes or in the morning for spleen. Mesor and amplitude of ornithine decarboxylase rhythm were lowest in old rats, while melatonin injection generally augmented its amplitude. Lymph node and splenic tyrosine hydroxylase activity (a presynaptic adrenergic marker) reached maximal values during early night hours while maximal values of [3H]acetylcholine synthesis (a presynaptic cholinergic marker) occurred during the afternoon in lymph nodes. Amplitude and mesor of these rhythms were lowest in old rats, an effect generally counteracted by melatonin treatment. The results suggest that inflammation is accompanied by an age-dependent, significant depression of pineal melatonin synthesis during adjuvant-induced arthritis and a decreased amplitude of the circadian rhythm of immune cell proliferation and autonomic activity in lymph nodes and spleen. These effects are

  3. The validity and reliability of maternal recall of breastfeeding practice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruowei; Scanlon, Kelley S; Serdula, Mary K

    2005-04-01

    In large epidemiologic studies, information on breastfeeding practice is often collected from maternal recall through interviews, but there is concern about the accuracy of the data, especially when mothers are asked to recall their practices from many years earlier. This review examines the validity and reliability of maternal recall of breastfeeding history using 11 studies published between 1966 and 2003 in English with a sample of 10 or more. Validity is the degree to which recall compares with a validation standard or reference, and reliability refers to the degree to which the breastfeeding practices obtained by recall are repeatable over time. The existing studies suggest that maternal recall is a valid and reliable estimate of breastfeeding initiation and duration, especially when the duration of breastfeeding is recalled after a short period (< or = 3 years). Validity and reliability of maternal recall for the age at introduction of food and fluids other than breast milk are less satisfactory. Further and more extensive studies on maternal recall of breastfeeding history and ways to improve such recall are warranted.

  4. U.S. Food Guide Pyramid food group intake by Asian Indian immigrants in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, S S; Diwan, S; Cohen, D L

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the food group intake and the dietary quality of middle-aged and older Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants (45 years or older) living in two urban metropolitan areas in the U.S. Participants (90 men, 99 females) completed a 24-hour dietary recall, which was used to determine if they met the daily food group intake guidelines of the U.S. Food Guide Pyramid. The overall quality of their reported dietary intake was determined using the Healthy Eating Index based on their nutrient and food group intake. Both men and women met the daily number of servings recommendations for the grains (men: 9.3 servings/day; women: 6.9 servings/day) and vegetables (men: 4.5 servings/day; women: 3.6 servings/day) groups, but did not meet the recommendations for fruits, dairy and meats groups. The total score on the Healthy Eating Index of the diets of these participants was 73, indicative of a dietary intake that does not meet the established U.S. dietary guidelines. These immigrants should be educated about appropriate food choices (ethnic and non-ethnic) within each of the U.S. Food Guide Pyramid food groups to improve the overall quality of their dietary intakes. PMID:15980923

  5. U.S. Food Guide Pyramid food group intake by Asian Indian immigrants in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, S S; Diwan, S; Cohen, D L

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the food group intake and the dietary quality of middle-aged and older Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants (45 years or older) living in two urban metropolitan areas in the U.S. Participants (90 men, 99 females) completed a 24-hour dietary recall, which was used to determine if they met the daily food group intake guidelines of the U.S. Food Guide Pyramid. The overall quality of their reported dietary intake was determined using the Healthy Eating Index based on their nutrient and food group intake. Both men and women met the daily number of servings recommendations for the grains (men: 9.3 servings/day; women: 6.9 servings/day) and vegetables (men: 4.5 servings/day; women: 3.6 servings/day) groups, but did not meet the recommendations for fruits, dairy and meats groups. The total score on the Healthy Eating Index of the diets of these participants was 73, indicative of a dietary intake that does not meet the established U.S. dietary guidelines. These immigrants should be educated about appropriate food choices (ethnic and non-ethnic) within each of the U.S. Food Guide Pyramid food groups to improve the overall quality of their dietary intakes.

  6. Fisheries productivity and its effects on the consumption of animal protein and food sharing of fishers' and non-fishers' families.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Mikaelle Kaline Bezerra; de Melo, Clarissy Dinyz; Lopes, Priscila Fabiana Macedo

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the consumption of animal protein and food sharing among fishers' and non-fishers' families of the northeastern Brazilian coast. The diet of these families was registered through the 24-hour-recall method during 10 consecutive days in January (good fishing season) and June (bad fishing season) 2012. Fish consumption was not different between the fishers' and non-fishers' families, but varied according to fisheries productivity to both groups. Likewise, food sharing was not different between the two groups, but food was shared more often when fisheries were productive. Local availability of fish, more than a direct dependency on fisheries, determines local patterns of animal protein consumption, but a direct dependency on fisheries exposes families to a lower-quality diet in less-productive seasons. As such, fisheries could shape and affect the livelihoods of coastal villages, including fishers' and non-fishers' families.

  7. [Neuronal mechanisms of associative food aversion conditioning reconsolidation in snail Helix lucorum].

    PubMed

    Kozyrev, S A; Nikitin, V P

    2009-06-01

    We have previously showed that reactivation of long-term memory during protin synthesis inhibitor application initiated disruption of memory recalling in snails Helix lucorum with food aversion conditioning reflex. In present work cellular mechanisms of memory reactivation were studied in snail LP11 and RP11 command neurons of defense behavior. In first trial experiments mechanisms of amnesia induction were investigated in semiintact preparations 24 hours after aversion conditioning with single type of food. It was found that application of conditioned food stimulus on snail lip during CNS perfusion with cycloheximide (protein synthesis inhibitor) initiated depression of synaptic response evoked by conditioned stimulus 2.5 hours after reminding. In second tria experiments neuronal mechanisms of amnesia development were studied. Snails were conditioned with two types of food. Cycloheximide was injected into mantle cavity and conditioned stimulus of one type of food was presented 24 hours after snail learning. Semiintact preparations were prepared 1,3, 7 and 15 days after cycloheximide injection + reminding procedure. It was found that neural responses evoked by conditioned food stimulus which was used as reminding stimulus gradually decreased during 1, 3 and 7 days. Neural responses evoked by the conditioned stimulus at 7 and 15 days were not significantly differed from control differentiated food stimulus and were significantly weaker then neural responses evoked by second conditioned food stimulus which was not used as a reminding stimulus. It was suggested that specific and protein synthesis-dependent changes in synaptic connections effectiveness in LP11 and RP11 neurons is one of the cellular mechanisms of amnesia obtained after disruption of long-term memory reconsolidation in snail.

  8. Sex and age-related differences in performance in a 24-hour ultra-cycling draft-legal event – a cross-sectional data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the sex and age-related differences in performance in a draft-legal ultra-cycling event. Methods Age-related changes in performance across years were investigated in the 24-hour draft-legal cycling event held in Schötz, Switzerland, between 2000 and 2011 using multi-level regression analyses including age, repeated participation and environmental temperatures as co-variables. Results For all finishers, the age of peak cycling performance decreased significantly (β = −0.273, p = 0.036) from 38 ± 10 to 35 ± 6 years in females but remained unchanged (β = −0.035, p = 0.906) at 41.0 ± 10.3 years in males. For the annual fastest females and males, the age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged at 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years, respectively. For all female and male finishers, males improved significantly (β = 7.010, p = 0.006) the cycling distance from 497.8 ± 219.6 km to 546.7 ± 205.0 km whereas females (β = −0.085, p = 0.987) showed an unchanged performance of 593.7 ± 132.3 km. The mean cycling distance achieved by the male winners of 960.5 ± 51.9 km was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the distance covered by the female winners with 769.7 ± 65.7 km but was not different between the sexes (p > 0.05). The sex difference in performance for the annual winners of 19.7 ± 7.8% remained unchanged across years (p > 0.05). The achieved cycling distance decreased in a curvilinear manner with advancing age. There was a significant age effect (F = 28.4, p < 0.0001) for cycling performance where the fastest cyclists were in age group 35–39 years. Conclusion In this 24-h cycling draft-legal event, performance in females remained unchanged while their age of peak cycling performance decreased and performance in males improved while their age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged. The annual fastest females and males were 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years old, respectively. The sex

  9. 76 FR 38184 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; FDA Recall...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... regulated firms to conduct recalls. Variables in the type of products, the quantity and level of... Collection; Comment Request; FDA Recall Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... reporting requirements on FDA recalls. DATES: Submit either electronic or written comments on the...

  10. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health hazard evaluation and recall classification... SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.41 Health hazard evaluation and recall classification. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health hazard evaluation and recall classification. 7.41 Section 7.41 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and Industry Responsibilities § 7.41 Health hazard evaluation and recall classification. (a)...

  12. Use of a food frequency questionnaire to assess diets of Jamaican adults: validation and correlation with biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Assessment of habitual diet is important in investigations of diet-disease relationships. Many epidemiological studies use the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to evaluate dietary intakes but few studies validate the instrument against biological markers. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of a previously validated 70-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was expanded to 120-items to assess diet - cancer relations. Methods Relative validity of the FFQ was assessed against twelve 24-hour recalls administered over 12 months in 70 subjects. The FFQ was repeated after one year (FFQ2) to assess reproducibility. The validity of the FFQ was evaluated by comparing nutrient and food group intakes from 24-hour recalls with the first and second FFQ. In addition, FFQ validity for cholesterol and folate were determined through correlation with biomarkers (serum cholesterol, serum folate and whole blood folate) in 159 control subjects participating in a case-control prostate cancer study. Results Compared to recalls the FFQ tended to overestimate energy and carbohydrate intakes but gave no differences in intake for protein and fat. Quartile agreement for energy-adjusted nutrient intakes between FFQ2 and recalls ranged from 31.8% - 77.3% for the lowest quartile and 20.8% - 81.0% in the highest quartile. Gross misclassification of nutrients was low with the exceptions of protein, vitamin E and retinol and weighted kappa values ranged from 0.33 to 0.64 for other nutrients. Validity correlations for energy-adjusted nutrients (excluding retinol) were moderate to high (0.38- 0.86). Correlation coefficients between multiple recalls and FFQ1 ranged from 0.27 (fruits) to 0.55 (red meat); the second FFQ gave somewhat higher coefficients (0.30 to 0.61). Reproducibility correlations for the nutrients ranged from 0.50 to 0.84. Calibration of the FFQ with biochemical markers showed modest correlations with serum cholesterol (0.24), serum

  13. The Abilities and Differential Difficulties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Specific Language Impairment to Use Semantic and Social Contexts to Infer and Recall Novel Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Melody R.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies assessed the ability of 12 pre-school children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; N = 7) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI; N = 5) to use semantic context and eye gaze to infer the meanings of novel nouns, and to recall those meanings after a 24-hour delay. In Experiment 1, the children heard statements containing a familiar,…

  14. MIXED FOODS ARE SIMILARLY CATEGORIZED BY 8 – 13 YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, Alicia; Sepulveda, Karina Knight; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Islam, Noemi; Missaghian, Mariam

    2008-01-01

    Food search in a computerized 24 hour recall (24hdr) for children should be easiest when the categories reflect children’s categorization of foods, in contrast to professional categories. This study assessed how 8–13 year old children categorized and labeled mixed foods (e.g. fried rice, lasagna), and how these were influenced by child characteristics. A set of 48 cards with pictures and names of mixed foods from 14 professionally defined food groups was sorted by each child into piles of similar foods. Participants (n= 146), including 8 to13 year old 130 English speaking, and 16 Spanish speaking children, attended data collection in the summer, 2006. One way ANOVA, pairwise comparisons and Robinson matrices for identification of clusters were used. Children created an average of 10.5 (± 5.5) piles with 6.0 (±4.1) cards per pile. No substantial differences in Robinson clustering were detected across subcategories for each of the demographic characteristics, body mass index, or 6-n-propylthiouracil sensitivity. For the majority of the piles, children provided “Taxonomic-Professional” (26.0%) labels, such as Vegetables, Sandwiches and Drinks, or “Specific-food item” (23.0%) labels, i.e. the name of the food. These categories may be used to facilitate mixed food search in a computerized 24hdr for children in this age group. PMID:17936412

  15. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection... poultry products that the Agency compiles in connection with a recall where there is a...

  16. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection... poultry products that the Agency compiles in connection with a recall where there is a...

  17. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection... poultry products that the Agency compiles in connection with a recall where there is a...

  18. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection... poultry products that the Agency compiles in connection with a recall where there is a...

  19. 9 CFR 390.10 - Availability of Lists of Retail Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. 390.10 Section 390.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Consignees during Meat or Poultry Product Recalls. The Administrator of the Food Safety and Inspection... poultry products that the Agency compiles in connection with a recall where there is a...

  20. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  1. Food expenditures, cariogenic dietary practices and childhood dental caries in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feldens, C A; Rodrigues, P H; Rauber, F; Chaffee, B W; Vitolo, M R

    2013-01-01

    Family expenditures on food for children may represent an important barrier to the adoption of healthy feeding practices in populations of low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cariogenic feeding practices, expenditures on food for children and dental caries. This cross-sectional study included 329 four-year-old children from São Leopoldo in southern Brazil. Cariogenic dietary practices were assessed at 4 years of age using two 24-hour recalls conducted with the children's mothers. Expenditures on food for children were estimated based on all reported food items and the respective amounts ingested. Early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries were assessed by clinical examination at 4 years of age. Cariogenic dietary habits were not associated with lower food expenditures. On the contrary, in multivariable regression analysis, the intake of chocolate (p = 0.007), soft drinks (p = 0.027) and a higher number of meals and snacks per day (p < 0.001) was associated with greater expenditures on food for children. No statistically significant differences were observed in food expenditures or in the proportion of household income spent on feeding children between caries-free children, those with early childhood caries and those with severe early childhood caries. In conclusion, keeping children free of dental caries does not necessarily increase food expenditures or the proportion of household income spent on feeding children in low-socioeconomic status populations. Some cariogenic dietary practices were associated with greater expenditures on child feeding.

  2. Cognitive antecedents of dream recall.

    PubMed

    Martinetti, R F

    1985-04-01

    222 students completed the Cognitive Processes Survey which assessed imaginal life, orientation toward imaginal life, and defensiveness. Subjects were separated according to number of weekly dreams recalled and tested for short-term memory with the Digit Span of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Analyses of variance showed that imaginal life differed significantly across low, average, and high dream recallers. Orientation toward imaginal life was significant for high dream recallers but not for low recallers. A t test for correlated Digit Span raw scores indicated significant differences between low and high dream recallers. Differences in dream recall seemed better explained by cognitive variables such as short-term memory than attitudinal factors such as defensiveness. Dream recall might be enhanced by increasing the channel capacity of short-term memory and increasing imaginal life through activities such as introspection, daydreaming, and meditation.

  3. Adaptive memory: Animacy enhances free recall but impairs cued recall.

    PubMed

    Popp, Earl Y; Serra, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of objects and lists of animals for free-recall tests, and studied sets of animal-animal pairs and object-object pairs for cued-recall tests. In Experiment 2, we compared participants' cued recall for English-English, Swahili-English, and English-Swahili word pairs involving either animal or object English words. In Experiment 3, we compared participants' cued recall for animal-animal, object-object, animal-object, and object-animal pairs. Although we were able to replicate past effects of animacy aiding free recall, animacy typically impaired cued recall in the present experiments. More importantly, given the interactions found in the present experiments, we conclude that some factor associated with animacy (e.g., attention capture or mental arousal) is responsible for the present patterns of results. This factor seems to moderate the relationship between animacy and memory, producing a memory advantage for animate stimuli in scenarios where the moderator leads to enhanced target retrievability but a memory disadvantage for animate stimuli in scenarios where the moderator leads to impaired association memory. PMID:26375781

  4. Why is it important to improve dietary assessment methods?

    Cancer.gov

    Food frequency questionnaires, which measure a person's usual intake over a defined period of time, and 24-hour recalls, in which a person records everything eaten or drunk during the previous 24 hours, are commonly used to collect dietary information.

  5. Writing superiority in cued recall.

    PubMed

    Fueller, Carina; Loescher, Jens; Indefrey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001). In other memory retrieval paradigms, by contrast, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005). In a series of four experiments using a paired associate learning paradigm we tested (a) whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b) whether a possible superior performance for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c) whether the performance in paired associate word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory recall task. We observed better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation for this effect based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for memory retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a paired associate learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written vs. spoken recall cannot be (solely) explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather

  6. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant... by the infant formula. (b) Carry out additional effectiveness checks, if the agency's audits,...

  7. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-08-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods. PMID:23890353

  8. Frequency of consumption at fast-food restaurants is associated with dietary intake in overweight and obese women recruited from financially disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Granner, Michelle; Baruth, Meghan

    2013-08-01

    Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and poorer diet quality in overweight and obese women (n = 196, 25-51 years, 87% African American) recruited from financially disadvantaged Census tracts. Dietary intake and diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) were assessed via three 24-hour dietary recalls. Linear regression models tested the association between fast-food consumption and each outcome (model 1). Model 2 added sociodemographics and physical activity. Model 3 added total caloric intake. Fast-food consumption was significantly associated with total caloric intake; total intake of meat, grains, sweetened beverages, dairy, fiber, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar; and percent of calories from total fat, saturated fat, and trans-fatty acids. Statistically significant associations remained in model 2, but most were not significant in model 3. Fast-food consumption was not associated with diet quality (Alternate Healthy Eating Index) in any model. In this at-risk sample, fast-food consumption was associated with more negative dietary practices. Significant associations generally disappeared when controlling for total caloric intake, suggesting that women who eat more fast food have higher total caloric intakes as a result of increased consumption of unhealthy rather than healthy foods.

  9. Compound cueing in free recall

    PubMed Central

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cueing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the two most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cueing in both conditional response probabilities and inter-response times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cueing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cueing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  10. Dietary Assessment in Food Environment Research

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Reedy, Jill; Butler, Eboneé N.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Subar, Amy F.; Thompson, Frances E.; McKinnon, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Context The existing evidence on food environments and diet is inconsistent, potentially due in part to heterogeneity in measures used to assess diet. The objective of this review, conducted in 2012–2013, was to examine measures of dietary intake utilized in food environment research. Evidence acquisition Included studies were published from January 2007 through June 2012 and assessed relationships between at least one food environment exposure and at least one dietary outcome. Fifty-one articles were identified using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and PsycINFO; references listed in the papers reviewed and relevant review articles; and the National Cancer Institute's Measures of the Food Environment website. The frequency of the use of dietary intake measures and assessment of specific dietary outcomes was examined, as were patterns of results among studies using different dietary measures. Evidence synthesis The majority of studies used brief instruments, such as screeners or one or two questions, to assess intake. Food frequency questionnaires were used in about a third of studies, one in ten used 24-hour recalls, and fewer than one in twenty used diaries. Little consideration of dietary measurement error was evident. Associations between the food environment and diet were more consistently in the expected direction in studies using less error-prone measures. Conclusions There is a tendency toward the use of brief dietary assessment instruments with low cost and burden rather than more detailed instruments that capture intake with less bias. Use of error-prone dietary measures may lead to spurious findings and reduced power to detect associations. PMID:24355678

  11. Age Differences in Adults' Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Marion

    1979-01-01

    Adults in their twenties and sixties were tested for free recall, cued recall, and recognition of words that they had studied in an intentional memory task or generated associations to in an incidental orienting task. Significant age-related declines in performance on intentional items were observed regardless of type of memory test. (Author)

  12. Iron deficiency is associated with food insecurity in pregnant females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Park, Clara Y; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2014-12-01

    Food-insecure pregnant females may be at greater risk of iron deficiency (ID) because nutrition needs increase and more resources are needed to secure food during pregnancy. This may result in a higher risk of infant low birth weight and possibly cognitive impairment in the neonate. The relationships of food insecurity and poverty income ratio (PIR) with iron intake and ID among pregnant females in the United States were investigated using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (n=1,045). Food security status was classified using the US Food Security Survey Module. One 24-hour dietary recall and a 30-day supplement recall were used to assess iron intake. Ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, or total body iron classified ID. Difference of supplement intake prevalence, difference in mean iron intake, and association of ID and food security status or PIR were assessed using χ(2) analysis, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, race, survey year, PIR/food security status, education, parity, trimester, smoking, C-reactive protein level, and health insurance coverage), respectively. Mean dietary iron intake was similar among groups. Mean supplemental and total iron intake were lower, whereas odds of ID, classified by ferritin status, were 2.90 times higher for food-insecure pregnant females compared with food-secure pregnant females. Other indicators of ID were not associated with food security status. PIR was not associated with iron intake or ID. Food insecurity status may be a better indicator compared with income status to identify populations at whom to direct interventions aimed at improving access and education regarding iron-rich foods and supplements.

  13. Conversational Memory Employing Cued and Free Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Pamela J.; Benoit, William L.

    1988-01-01

    Tests two hypotheses: (1) that cued recall elicits significantly more conversational information than free recall; and (2) that conversational interactants recall more of their partner's utterances than their own. Finds cued recall produced significantly higher amounts of remembering than free recall. (MS)

  14. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    PubMed

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research. PMID:18437803

  15. Food insecurity is inversely associated with diet quality of lower-income adults.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cindy W; Epel, Elissa S; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Crawford, Patricia B; Laraia, Barbara A

    2014-12-01

    Food insecurity acts as a chronic stressor independent of poverty. Food-insecure adults may consume more highly palatable foods as a coping mechanism, leading to poorer diet quality and increased risks of chronic disease over time. Using data from the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, this study aimed to examine the cross-sectional differences in dietary intake and diet quality by household food security among 8,129 lower-income adults (≤300% of the federal poverty level). Food insecurity was assessed using the 18-item US Household Food Security Survey Module. Dietary intake was assessed from 24-hour recalls and diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010. Relative mean differences in dietary outcomes by household food security were estimated using linear regression models, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Lower-income food-insecure adults reported higher consumption of some highly palatable foods, including high-fat dairy products (P trend<0.0001) and salty snacks (P trend=0.01) compared with lower-income food-secure adults. Food insecurity was also associated with more sugar-sweetened beverages (P trend=0.003); more red/processed meat (P trend=0.005); more nuts, seeds, and legumes (P trend=0.0006); fewer vegetables (P trend<0.0001); and fewer sweets and bakery desserts (P trend=0.0002). No differences were observed for intakes of total energy and macronutrients. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower Healthy Eating Index-2005 (P trend<0.0001) and Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (P trend<0.0001). Despite no macronutrient differences, food insecurity was associated with characteristics of poor diet quality known to increase chronic disease risk.

  16. 78 FR 33095 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... sodium from processed and restaurant foods, sodium inherent in foods, and salt added at the table and... questionnaire, a tap water questionnaire, four 24-hour dietary recalls, and four qualitative food records. In... Questionnaire. 24-Hour Dietary 225 4 30/60 Recall. Food Record......... 225 4 15/60 Duplicate Salt 225 4...

  17. Food pattern and nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Patrícia Ayrosa C.; Amancio, Olga Maria S.; Araújo, Roberta Faria C.; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de S.; Braga, Josefina Aparecida P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the food intake pattern and the nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 90 children from two to 12.8 years with cerebral palsy in the following forms: hemiplegia, diplegia, and tetraplegia. Nutritional status was assessed by weight, height, and age data. Food intake was verified by the 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire. The ability to chew and/or swallowing, intestinal habits, and physical activity were also evaluated. RESULTS For 2-3 year-old age group, the mean energy intake followed the recommended range; in 4-6 year-old age group with hemiplegia and tetraplegia, energy intake was below the recommended limits. All children presented low intake of carbohydrates, adequate intake of proteins and high intake of lipids. The tetraplegia group had a higher prevalence of chewing (41%) and swallowing (12.8%) difficulties compared to 14.5 and 6.6% of children with hemiplegia, respectively. Most children of all groups had a daily intestinal habit. All children presented mild physical activity, while moderate activity was not practiced by any child of the tetraplegia group, which had a significantly lower height/age Z score than those with hemiplegia (-2.14 versus -1.05; p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS The children with cerebral palsy presented inadequate dietary pattern and impaired nutritional status, with special compromise of height. Tetraplegia imposes difficulties regarding chewing/swallowing and moderate physical activity practice. PMID:24142317

  18. Child and parent perceived food-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Michelle J; Moore, Carolyn E; Tsai, Cynthia M; Shulman, Robert J; Chumpitazi, Bruno P

    2014-03-01

    It is unknown whether children with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders identify specific foods that exacerbate their GI symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived role of food on GI symptoms and to determine the impact of food-induced symptoms on quality of life (QOL) in children with functional GI disorders. Between August and November 2010, 25 children ages 11 to 17 years old with functional GI disorders and a parent completed a food symptom association questionnaire and validated questionnaires assessing FGID symptoms and QOL. In addition, children completed a 24-hour food recall, participated in focus groups to identify problematic foods and any coping strategies, and discussed how their QOL was affected. Statistical analyses were conducted using χ2, t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank, and Spearman's ρ. Children identified a median of 11 (range=2 to 25) foods as exacerbating a GI symptom, with the most commonly identified foods being spicy foods, cow's milk, and pizza. Several coping strategies were identified, including consuming smaller portions, modifying foods, and avoiding a median of 8 (range=1 to 20) foods. Children reported that food-induced symptoms interfered with school performance, sports, and social activities. Although the parent's assessment of their child's QOL negatively correlated with the number of perceived symptom-inducing foods in their child, this relationship was not found in the children. Findings suggest that specific foods are perceived to exacerbate GI symptoms in children with functional GI disorders. In addition, despite use of several coping strategies, food-induced symptoms can adversely impact children's QOL in several important areas.

  19. Investigation of cattle methane production and emission over a 24-hour period using measurements of δ13C and δD of emitted CH4 and rumen water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, R. S.; Tyler, S. C.; Kurihara, M.; Yagi, K.

    2001-07-01

    We have conducted a series of experiments to determine the effects different diets, including the addition of unsaturated fatty acids, had on isotopic signatures of CH4 emissions from dairy cattle. Measurements of emitted δ13CH4, δ13CO2, and δD-CH4 were made on gases collected over a 24-hour period from animal chambers containing individual Holstein cows. Some measurements of δD-H2O from samples collected directly from the rumen were also made. We observed variation in δ13CH4 values with time after feeding and a correlation in δ13C between emitted gases and diet. The average δ13CH4 value, which includes all samples of emitted gases, was -70.6±4.9‰ (n = 57). Measurements of δD-CH4 over the 24-hour sampling period had an average value of -357.8±15.0‰ (n = 56). These δD measurements are among the lightest reported for CH4 produced by cattle. Our cattle data indicate that hydrogen incorporated into the CH4 produced by CO2 reduction in high H2 concentration environments is fractionated to a greater degree than that incorporated in systems with relatively low H2 conditions, such as wetlands. Our results support bacterial studies that have demonstrated large hydrogen fractionation in high H2 concentration systems during methanogenesis.

  20. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 107.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an... chapter for transmittal to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-605), for action....

  1. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 107.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an... chapter for transmittal to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-605), for action....

  2. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 107.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an... chapter for transmittal to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-605), for action....

  3. 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion test

    MedlinePlus

    Gruber HA, Farag AF. Evaluation of endocrine function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 24.

  4. Toys Remain Viral Playground for 24 Hours

    MedlinePlus

    ... a toy's surface at typical indoor temperatures and humidity levels. Specifically, they tested the ability of so- ... East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). At 60 percent relative humidity, 1 percent of the virus remained infectious on ...

  5. Kids with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosed Real Families Faces of Food Allergies Rising Stars Gracie's Silver Linings Daniel's Confidence Ciara Builds a ... all recall alerts See all recent news Rising Stars Life As a Tween with Food Allergies MEET ...

  6. Proceedings of the workshop on food-consumption surveys in developing countries: future challenges.

    PubMed

    Tee, E-Siong; Dop, Marie Claude; Winichagoon, Pattanee

    2004-12-01

    The workshop "Food-consumption surveys in developing countries: Future challenges," held in Chiang Rai, Thailand, January 25--26, 2003, brought together 30 nutritionists and food safety experts from 10 Southeast Asian countries as well as from countries outside the region. It provided a forum for sharing information and experiences relating to food-consumption survey methodology. It enabled detailed discussions of the gathering of food-consumption data in developing countries for purposes of nutrition assessment, exposure assessment, and studies of diet-disease relationships. The workshop participants emphasized the need to obtain the support of policy and decision makers to establish a mechanism for conducting regular coordinated food-consumption surveys to meet these needs. The participants emphasized the importance of identifying all relevant stakeholders and involving them in the planning and conduct of these surveys. A number of technical issues related to food-con.sumption surveys were discussed, including food-intake methodologies. It was felt that surveys on individuals are preferred, and a combination of 24-hour recall and food-frequency questionnaire would most likely provide the required data. The workshop emphasized the need to develop, maintain, and update databases at the national and regional levels for nutrients and non-nutrients as well as contaminants and food additives. To ensure that surveys are conducted regularly and professionally, the importance of having qualified and trained personnel was emphasized. Several issues related to reports of food-consumption data were discussed, including timely reporting, effective dissemination, and appropriate usage. The participants unanimously recommended the organization of further technical meetings or workshops to follow up on recommended activities and enable continuing regional collaboration on food-consumption surveys. PMID:15646317

  7. Choline and betaine food sources and intakes in Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Chu, Da-Ming; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yeh, Nai-Hua; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2012-01-01

    Choline and betaine are involved in several similar health-relevant metabolic pathways, but the foods sources are different. We have assessed their intakes (individual, sums and ratios) from a dominantly Chinese food cultural point of view. A representative free-living Taiwanese population aged 13-64 years was drawn from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) 1993-1996. Food intake was derived from interviews as 24-hour recalls. The USDA database, with adaptations for Taiwan, provided choline and betaine food compositions. Major food contributors of these nutrients were identified and compared with data from the US Framingham offspring study. Mean and variance reduced median nutrient intakes were calculated. Top ten major food contributors of choline in Taiwan were eggs, pork, chicken, fish, soybean and its products, dark leafy vegetables, dairy, fruit, wheat products and light leafy vegetables in sequence. For betaine, the top ten were dark leafy vegetables, wheat products, fish, pork, bread, chicken, cake/cookies, grain-based alcoholic beverages, rice and its products and sauces. The main contributors of choline in Taiwan and the USA were, respectively, eggs and red meat; and for betaine, greens were similarly best contributor. The rankings of the main food contributors of choline and betaine differed substantially between Taiwan and the USA. The total daily intakes (mean±SE, mg) in Taiwan for choline were 372±19 (median=348) in men and 265±9 (median 261) for women; for betaine, values were 101±3 (median 93) in men and 78±8 (median 76) for women. These allow for health outcome considerations.

  8. Low accuracy and low consistency of fourth-graders' school breakfast and school lunch recalls

    PubMed Central

    THOMPSON, WILLIAM 0.; LITAKER, MARK S.; FRYE, FRANCESCA H.A.; GUINN, CAROLINE H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine the accuracy and consistency of fourth-graders' school breakfast and school lunch recalls obtained during 24-hour recalls and compared with observed intake. Design Children were interviewed using a multiple-pass protocol at school the morning after being observed eating school breakfast and school lunch. Subjects 104 children stratified by ethnicity (African-American, white) and gender were randomly selected and interviewed up to 3 times each with 4 to 14 weeks between each interview. Statistical analysis Match, omission, and intrusion rates to determine accuracy of reporting items; arithmetic and/or absolute differences to determine accuracy for reporting amounts; total inaccuracy to determine inaccuracy for reporting items and amounts combined; intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to determine consistency. Results Means were 51% for omission rate, 39% for intrusion rate, and 7.1 servings for total inaccuracy. Total inaccuracy decreased significantly from the first to the third recall (P=0.006). The ICC was 0.29 for total inaccuracy and 0.15 for omission rate. For all meal components except bread/grain and beverage, there were more omissions than intrusions. Mean arithmetic and absolute differences per serving in amount reported for matches were -0.08 and 0.24, respectively. Mean amounts per serving of omissions and intrusions were 0.86 and 0.80, respectively. Applications/conclusions The low accuracy and low consistency of children's recalls from this study raise concerns regarding the current uses of dietary recalls obtained from children. To improve the accuracy and consistency of children's dietary recalls, validation studies are needed to determine the best way(s) to interview children. PMID:11905461

  9. Permissive parental feeding behavior is associated with an increase in intake of low-nutrient-dense foods among American children living in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. During spring 2007, 99 parent-child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Child food intake was reported during two interviewer-administered, parent-assisted 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was defined as the average number of low-nutrient-dense (LND) foods consumed. Validated questionnaires were used to assess parental feeding practices and feeding style. Pearson correlations identified relationships among child food intake, parental feeding style typologies, and covariates. Regression analyses were used to predict child diet quality. Sixty percent of children and 76% of parents were overweight or obese. A permissive feeding style, which is highly responsive to a child's requests and sets few demands on him or her, was the most common (n=37) parental feeding style. This feeding style was associated with child intake of LND foods (r=0.3; P<0.001) and moderated the relationship between parental feeding practices and child intake of LND foods. In the presence of a permissive feeding style, higher levels of monitoring were associated with child intake of LND foods (β=.69; P<0.05). Parental feeding style may alter the effectiveness of parental feeding practices on children's food intake. More research is needed to understand the parent-child feeding relationship in the context of parental feeding styles and practices.

  10. Permissive parental feeding behavior is associated with an increase in intake of low-nutrient-dense foods among American children living in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. During spring 2007, 99 parent-child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Child food intake was reported during two interviewer-administered, parent-assisted 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was defined as the average number of low-nutrient-dense (LND) foods consumed. Validated questionnaires were used to assess parental feeding practices and feeding style. Pearson correlations identified relationships among child food intake, parental feeding style typologies, and covariates. Regression analyses were used to predict child diet quality. Sixty percent of children and 76% of parents were overweight or obese. A permissive feeding style, which is highly responsive to a child's requests and sets few demands on him or her, was the most common (n=37) parental feeding style. This feeding style was associated with child intake of LND foods (r=0.3; P<0.001) and moderated the relationship between parental feeding practices and child intake of LND foods. In the presence of a permissive feeding style, higher levels of monitoring were associated with child intake of LND foods (β=.69; P<0.05). Parental feeding style may alter the effectiveness of parental feeding practices on children's food intake. More research is needed to understand the parent-child feeding relationship in the context of parental feeding styles and practices. PMID:22709645

  11. Serial Position Curves in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model…

  12. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  13. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  14. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  15. 9 CFR 318.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recall procedure. 318.311 Section 318... Products § 318.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered by this subpart. Upon request, the recall procedure shall be...

  16. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... recall: (1) Depth of recall. Depending on the product's degree of hazard and extent of distribution, the recall strategy will specify the level in the distribution chain to which the recall is to extend, as... retail level; or (ii) Retail level, including any intermediate wholesale level; or (iii) Wholesale...

  17. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... recall: (1) Depth of recall. Depending on the product's degree of hazard and extent of distribution, the recall strategy will specify the level in the distribution chain to which the recall is to extend, as... retail level; or (ii) Retail level, including any intermediate wholesale level; or (iii) Wholesale...

  18. Novel description of the 24-hour circadian rhythms of brachial versus central aortic blood pressure and the impact of blood pressure treatment in a randomized controlled clinical trial: The Ambulatory Central Aortic Pressure (AmCAP) Study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bryan; Lacy, Peter S; Baschiera, Fabio; Brunel, Patrick; Düsing, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    Elevated brachial blood pressure (BP) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and predicts morbidity and mortality in humans. Recently, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and assessment of central aortic BP have been introduced to improve BP phenotyping. The Ambulatory Central Aortic Pressure (AmCAP) study combines these approaches and describes, for the first time, the diurnal patterns of simultaneously measured 24-hour ambulatory brachial and central pressures in a prespecified substudy embedded within a clinical trial of BP lowering in patients with hypertension. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory brachial and central pressure measurements were acquired using a tonometer mounted into the articulating strap of a wristwatch-like device (BPro) in 171 participants with hypertension recruited into the ASSERTIVE (AliSkiren Study of profound antihypERtensive efficacy in hyperTensIVE patients) trial. Participants were randomly assigned to BP lowering with either aliskiren 300 mg QD or telmisartan 80 mg QD for 12 weeks. Ambulatory brachial and central BP was measured in all participants both at baseline and at study end. Brachial and central BP both demonstrated typical diurnal patterns with lower pressures at night. However, night time was associated with smaller reductions in central relative to brachial pressure and decreased pulse pressure amplification (P<0.0001 for both). These effects were not modulated after BP lowering and were maintained after adjustment for day and night-time BP and heart rate (P=0.02). This study demonstrates that brachial and central pressure show different diurnal patterns, which are not modulated by BP-lowering therapy, with relatively higher night-time central pressures. These novel data indicate that night-time central BP may provide prognostic importance and warrants further investigation. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00865020. PMID:23630950

  19. Demographic profile and nutrient intake assessment of individuals using emergency food programs.

    PubMed

    Lenhart, N M; Read, M H

    1989-09-01

    A dietary assessment of food pantry and soup kitchen users was conducted. A demographic and socioeconomic profile of participants was developed. One hundred ninety-one persons completed 30- to 40-minute interviews while in line to receive food assistance. Dietary status was determined from 24-hour recall data. Intakes of calcium, iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin C were compared with the 1980 RDAs for age and sex. A dietary adequacy score was developed to evaluate nutrient quality by calculation of a nutrient density ratio (total intake for a nutrient divided by the RDA). A value of one was considered the norm. A score of 0.67 or less was considered an inadequate nutrient intake. Sixty-eight percent of the sample demonstrated some degree of inadequate nutrient intake. Nutrients that tended to be the lowest were calcium (76% inadequate), vitamin C (74% inadequate), and thiamin (74% inadequate). Inadequate nutrient intake was significantly associated with a lack of cooking facilities, lower monthly incomes, and lesser amounts of money spent on food. Comparison of food pantry users with soup kitchen participants indicated calcium was a problem nutrient for both groups.

  20. Predictors for Reporting of Dietary Assessment Methods in Food-based Randomized Controlled Trials over a Ten-year Period.

    PubMed

    Probst, Yasmine; Zammit, Gail

    2016-09-01

    The importance of monitoring dietary intake within a randomized controlled trial becomes vital to justification of the study outcomes when the study is food-based. A systematic literature review was conducted to determine how dietary assessment methods used to monitor dietary intake are reported and whether assisted technologies are used in conducting such assessments. OVID and ScienceDirect databases 2000-2010 were searched for food-based, parallel, randomized controlled trials conducted with humans using the search terms "clinical trial," "diet$ intervention" AND "diet$ assessment," "diet$ method$," "intake," "diet history," "food record," "food frequency questionnaire," "FFQ," "food diary," "24-hour recall." A total of 1364 abstracts were reviewed and 243 studies identified. The size of the study and country of origin appear to be the two most common predictors of reporting both the dietary assessment method and details of the form of assessment. The journal in which the study is published has no impact. Information technology use may increase in the future allowing other methods and forms of dietary assessment to be used efficiently.

  1. Estimation of arsenic intake from drinking water and food (raw and cooked) in a rural village of northern Chile. Urine as a biomarker of recent exposure.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam

    2015-05-22

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8-92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day⁻¹) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL⁻¹. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas.

  2. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked) in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas. PMID:26006131

  3. Free Recall Curves: Nothing but Rehearsing Some Items More or Recalling Them Sooner?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Delbert A.; Prytulak, Lubomir S.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that free recall curves reflecting effects of serial position, presentation time and delay of recall are attributable to subjects' pattern of rehearsal was explored. Experiments varied the patterns of rehearsal to examine the effects on recall. (CHK)

  4. Food security and child nutritional status among Orang Asli (Temuan) households in Hulu Langat, Selangor.

    PubMed

    Zalilah, M S; Tham, B L

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of household food insecurity and its potential risk factors and outcomes among the Orang Asli (Temuan) households. Socioeconomic, demographic and food security information of the households and anthropometric measurements and dietary intakes of preschoolers (n = 64) were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Food security was assessed using the Radimer/Cornell hunger and food insecurity instrument. Diet quality was based on 24 hour recall and analyzed according to the Malaysian RDA and Food Guide Pyramid. Majority of the households (82%) reported some kind of household food insecurity. The prevalence of significant underweight, stunting and wasting were 45.3%, 51.6% and 7.8%, respectively. Dietary intakes were less than 2/3 RDA levels for calories, calcium and iron. However, the intakes of protein, vitamin A, vitamin C and niacin exceeded the RDA and the sources for these nutrients were mainly rice, fish and green leafy vegetables. Among the five food groups, only the number of servings from cereals/cereal products/tubers group was achieved while that of the milk/diary products was the worst. Majority of the children (68.7%) had poor, 31.3% had fair and none with excellent diet quality. In general, diet quality and nutritional status of the children decreased as household food insecurity worsened. It is recommended that the nutritional problems of Orang Asli children be addressed through health, nutrition and economic programs and further studies should be carried out on determinants and consequences of household food insecurity. PMID:14569716

  5. Food security and child nutritional status among Orang Asli (Temuan) households in Hulu Langat, Selangor.

    PubMed

    Zalilah, M S; Tham, B L

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of household food insecurity and its potential risk factors and outcomes among the Orang Asli (Temuan) households. Socioeconomic, demographic and food security information of the households and anthropometric measurements and dietary intakes of preschoolers (n = 64) were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Food security was assessed using the Radimer/Cornell hunger and food insecurity instrument. Diet quality was based on 24 hour recall and analyzed according to the Malaysian RDA and Food Guide Pyramid. Majority of the households (82%) reported some kind of household food insecurity. The prevalence of significant underweight, stunting and wasting were 45.3%, 51.6% and 7.8%, respectively. Dietary intakes were less than 2/3 RDA levels for calories, calcium and iron. However, the intakes of protein, vitamin A, vitamin C and niacin exceeded the RDA and the sources for these nutrients were mainly rice, fish and green leafy vegetables. Among the five food groups, only the number of servings from cereals/cereal products/tubers group was achieved while that of the milk/diary products was the worst. Majority of the children (68.7%) had poor, 31.3% had fair and none with excellent diet quality. In general, diet quality and nutritional status of the children decreased as household food insecurity worsened. It is recommended that the nutritional problems of Orang Asli children be addressed through health, nutrition and economic programs and further studies should be carried out on determinants and consequences of household food insecurity.

  6. Cannabinoid modulation of prefrontal-limbic activation during fear extinction learning and recall in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rabinak, Christine A.; Angstadt, Mike; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Milad, Mohammed R.; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K. Luan

    2013-01-01

    Pre-extinction administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) facilitates recall of extinction in healthy humans, and evidence from animal studies suggest that this likely involves via enhancement of the cannabinoid system within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (HIPP), brain structures critical to fear extinction. However, the effect of cannabinoids on the underlying neural circuitry of extinction memory recall in humans has not been demonstrated. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design (N=14/group) coupled with a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) in healthy adult volunteers. We examined the effects of THC on vmPFC and HIPP activation when tested for recall of extinction learning 24 hours after extinction learning. Compared to subjects who received placebo, participants who received THC showed increased vmPFC and HIPP activation to a previously extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS+E) during extinction memory recall. This study provides the first evidence that pre-extinction administration of THC modulates prefrontal-limbic circuits during fear extinction in humans and prompts future investigation to test if cannabinoid agonists can rescue or correct the impaired behavioral and neural function during extinction recall in patients with PTSD. Ultimately, the cannabinoid system may serve as a promising target for innovative intervention strategies (e.g. pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based therapy) in PTSD and other fear learning-related disorders. PMID:24055595

  7. 21 CFR 1270.43 - Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue. 1270.43 Section 1270.43 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.43...

  8. 21 CFR 1270.43 - Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue. 1270.43 Section 1270.43 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.43...

  9. 21 CFR 810.17 - Termination of a cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination of a cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order. 810.17 Section 810.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... complied in full with all of the requirements of the order and shall include a copy of the most...

  10. 21 CFR 1270.43 - Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue. 1270.43 Section 1270.43 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.43...

  11. 21 CFR 1270.43 - Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue. 1270.43 Section 1270.43 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.43...

  12. 21 CFR 1270.43 - Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue. 1270.43 Section 1270.43 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.43...

  13. 21 CFR 810.15 - Communications concerning a cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Communications concerning a cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order. 810.15 Section 810.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... personal contacts may be made in addition to, but not as a substitute for, the verified...

  14. 21 CFR 810.14 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall strategy. 810.14 Section 810.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... the level in the chain of distribution to which the cease distribution and notification order...

  15. 21 CFR 810.14 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall strategy. 810.14 Section 810.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... the level in the chain of distribution to which the cease distribution and notification order...

  16. 21 CFR 810.14 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall strategy. 810.14 Section 810.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... the level in the chain of distribution to which the cease distribution and notification order...

  17. 21 CFR 810.14 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall strategy. 810.14 Section 810.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... the level in the chain of distribution to which the cease distribution and notification order...

  18. The Relationship of the Increase in the 'Time of the Earth Day,' from 18 Hours to 24 Hours, to the Increase in the Size of the Earth, Using the Laws of the Conservation of Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimorelli, S. A.; Samuels, C.

    2010-12-01

    There are three articles, by others, which discuss the increase in the Earth's day, from 18 hours to 24 hours, over a period of time of about a billion years. One article refers to Striations in the Substructure of Coral, C.T. Scrutton, et al, 1965. Another article refers to the Laws of the Conservation of Momentum, as related to the relationship of the Earth and the Moon, the lunar tides, the reduction of the Earth year from 481 days to our present 365.25 days, and an increase in the lunar orbit time from 20 days to 28 days. The third article is based on the dates of tidal sediment deposits, tidalites, C. P. Sonett, et al, in the late 1980's. In this paper, we explain how the Earth's Day could have increased from 18 hours to 24 hours, as related to the Laws of Conservation of Momentum (L). Wherein we use the simple formulation from the Law of the Conservation of Angular Momentum, L=Iω, in which I=Moment of Inertia and ω=Angular Velocity; for which we assume the earth to be a perfect sphere, for which I=0.4MR2, where M and R are the Mass and radius of the earth, respectively. We evaluate the radius of the earth over a time period of several billion years, during which time the earth's angular momentum, L=Iω, is conserved. In this formulation, we show a growth in the size of the earth; and present a curve, using just three points in time, which indicates that the rate of growth is increasing over time. The first point is from about 4.5 billion years ago, the second point is from about 1 billion years ago, and the third point represents present day, with an average growth of about 1mm per year. Although evidence has been presented, by others, showing circumferential growth at the Red Sea and in the Atlantic Ocean, at about 1.5cm per year, total. However, no proof of reduction in the size of the Earth has been shown to occur in the Pacific, or anywhere else, including in references to subduction. Some might say that the subduction is occurring at the rim of the

  19. Feasibility of increasing access to healthy foods in neighborhood corner stores.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Keelia; Gustat, Jeanette; Rice, Janet; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2013-08-01

    The feasibility of working with neighborhood corner stores to increase the availability of fresh fruit and vegetables in low-income neighborhoods in New Orleans was assessed. Household interviews and 24-hour dietary recalls (n = 97), corner store customer intercept interviews (n = 60) and interviews with corner store operators (owners/managers) (n = 12) were conducted in three neighborhoods without supermarkets. Regional produce wholesalers were contacted by phone. Results indicated that the majority of neighborhood residents use supermarkets or super stores as their primary food source. Those who did shop at corner stores typically purchased prepared foods and/or beverages making up nearly one third of their daily energy intake. Most individuals would be likely to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables from the corner stores if these foods were offered. Store operators identified cost, infrastructure and lack of customer demand as major barriers to stocking more fresh produce. Produce wholesalers did not see much business opportunity in supplying fresh produce to neighborhood corner stores on a small scale. Increasing availability of fresh fruit and vegetables in corner stores may be more feasible with the addition of systems changes that provide incentives and make it easier for neighborhood corner stores to stock and sell fresh produce.

  20. Weight loss strategies: Association with consumption of sugary beverages, snacks and values about food purchases

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether weight loss strategies are associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), snacks or food values. Design and Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 (N=9,440). Results Adults trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2000 total calories, 250 calories from SSBs, 225 calories from salty snacks, and 350 calories from sweet snacks. Adults not trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2300 total calories, 300 calories from SSBs, 250 calories from salty snacks, and 380 calories from sweet snacks. While overweight and obese adults trying to lose weight consumed fewer calories than those who were not, heavier adults trying to lose weight using dietary strategies or a combination of diet and physical activity consumed more calories than healthy weight adults using that same weight loss strategy (p < 0.05). Price (>70%) and nutrition (>50%) were most when making food choices (p < 0.05) for all groups. Conclusions Consumption of discretionary calories is high regardless of body weight or weight loss intention. Practice Implications Promoting reduced SSB and snack consumption in the clinical setting may be important for weight loss, particularly among heavier individuals. Clinicians should consider values related to food purchasing to identify concrete behavioral targets. PMID:24801411

  1. Energy intakes of US children and adults by food purchase location and by specific food source

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, no studies have examined energy intakes by food purchase location and food source using a representative sample of US children, adolescents and adults. Evaluations of purchase location and food sources of energy may inform public health policy. Methods Analyses were based on the first day of 24-hour recall for 22,852 persons in the 2003-4, 2005-6, and 2007-8 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The most common food purchase locations were stores (grocery store, supermarket, convenience store, or specialty store), quick-service restaurants/pizza (QSR), full-service restaurants (FSR), school cafeterias, or food from someone else/gifts. Specific food sources of energy were identified using the National Cancer Institute aggregation scheme. Separate analyses were conducted for children ages 6-11y, adolescents ages 12-19y, and adults aged 20-50y and ≥51y. Results Stores (grocery, convenience, and specialty) were the food purchase locations for between 63.3% and 70.3% of dietary energy in the US diet. Restaurants provided between 16.9% and 26.3% of total energy. Depending on the respondents’ age, QSR provided between 12.5% and 17.5% of energy, whereas FSR provided between 4.7% and 10.4% of energy. School meals provided 9.8% of energy for children and 5.5% for adolescents. Vending machines provided <1% of energy. Pizza from QSR, the top food away from home (FAFH) item, provided 2.2% of energy in the diets of children and 3.4% in the diets of adolescents. Soda, energy, and sports drinks from QSR provided approximately 1.2% of dietary energy. Conclusions Refining dietary surveillance approaches by incorporating food purchase location may help inform public health policy. Characterizing the important sources of energy, in terms of both purchase location and source may be useful in anticipating the population-level impacts of proposed policy or educational interventions. These data show that stores provide a majority of

  2. Effective cross-over to granisetron after failure to ondansetron, a randomized double blind study in patients failing ondansetron plus dexamethasone during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, R; de Boer, A C; vd Linden, G H M; Stoter, G; Sparreboom, A; Verweij, J

    2001-01-01

    In view of the similarity in chemical structure of the available 5HT3-receptor antagonists it is assumed, whilst these agents all act at the same receptor, that failure to one agent would predict subsequent failure to all 5HT3-receptor antagonists. We conducted a randomized double blind trial of granisetron 3 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg versus continued treatment with ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg in patients with protection failure on ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Of 40 eligible patients, 21 received ondansetron + dexamethasone and 19 received granisetron + dexamethasone. We found a significant benefit from crossing-over to granisetron after failure on ondansetron. Of the 19 patients who crossed over to granisetron, 9 patients obtained complete protection, whereas this was observed in 1 of the 21 patients continuing ondansetron, P = 0.005. These results indicate that there is no complete cross-resistance between 5HT3-receptor antagonists, and that patients who have acute protection failure on one 5HT3-receptor antagonist should be offered cross-over to another 5HT3-receptor antagonist. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11710819

  3. Isolation Effect in Immediate and Delayed Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellezza, Francis S.; Cheney, Terry L.

    1973-01-01

    If the hypothesis of selective rehearsal is used to account for the isolation effect, then the recall of isolated items will depend both on the serial position of the isolated item and on whether recall is immediate or delayed. (Author)

  4. Loss of Retrieval Information in Prose Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehulster, Jerome R.; And Others

    The purpose of this research was to experimentally manipulate input and output orders of information and separate storage and retrieval components of prose free recall. The cued partial recall method, used in word list recall, was adapted to a prose learning task. Four short biographical stories of about 55 words each were systematically combined…

  5. 16 CFR 1102.14 - Recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recall notices. 1102.14 Section 1102.14... AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.14 Recall notices. All information presented in a voluntary or mandatory recall notice that has been made available to the...

  6. 16 CFR 1102.14 - Recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recall notices. 1102.14 Section 1102.14... AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.14 Recall notices. All information presented in a voluntary or mandatory recall notice that has been made available to the...

  7. Practice Makes Perfect in Memory Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romani, Sandro; Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha

    2016-01-01

    A large variability in performance is observed when participants recall briefly presented lists of words. The sources of such variability are not known. Our analysis of a large data set of free recall revealed a small fraction of participants that reached an extremely high performance, including many trials with the recall of complete lists.…

  8. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recall procedure. 381.311 Section 381... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure. Establishments shall prepare and maintain a current procedure for the recall of all canned product covered...

  9. 16 CFR 1102.14 - Recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recall notices. 1102.14 Section 1102.14... AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.14 Recall notices. All information presented in a voluntary or mandatory recall notice that has been made available to the...

  10. 16 CFR 1102.14 - Recall notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recall notices. 1102.14 Section 1102.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS PUBLICLY... Recall notices. All information presented in a voluntary or mandatory recall notice that has been...

  11. Sequential Recall in Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Chapman, Robin S.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to recall correctly ordered information was examined using two auditory tasks (narrative recall and digit span) and a nonverbal, visual task, with 47 individuals with Down's syndrome (ages 5 to 20) and 47 mentally aged-matched children. Although Down's syndrome subjects recalled less information than controls, no differences in the…

  12. Radiation recall reaction causing cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Masri, Sofia Carolina; Misselt, Andrew James; Dudek, Arkadiusz; Konety, Suma H

    2014-01-01

    Radiation recall phenomenon is a tissue reaction that develops within a previously irradiated area, precipitated by the subsequent administration of certain chemotherapeutic agents. It commonly affects the skin, but can also involve internal organs with functional consequences. To our best knowledge, this phenomenon has never been reported as a complication on the heart and should be consider as a potential cause of cardiotoxicity. PMID:24755097

  13. [Dream recall and sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Schredl, M; Bozzer, A; Morlock, M

    1997-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between dream recall and sleep disorders. The sample comprised 762 patients who were diagnosed in the sleep laboratory. In the course of the examination they completed the sleep questionnaire SF-B (Görtelmeyer 1986). The results showed a heightened dream recall frequency (DRF) in insomniacs and patients with myoclonia. This result as well as the findings in the control group supports the arousal-retrieval model of dream recall (Koulack u. Goodenough 1976) which emphasizes the importance of nocturnal awakenings. However, this model seems only to be valid for males. In females, DRF is mainly influenced by emotional stress which is best explained by the salience hypothesis of Cohen and MacNeilage (1974). They pointed out that intensive dream emotions lead to high recallability of dream experience. The data gives evidence to the hypothesis of Ermann et al. (1993, 1994) which states that reduced DRF in terms of unsuccessful dream work is accompanied by frequent nocturnal awakenings. DRF of patients with sleep apnea syndrome did not differ from DRF in healthy controls. In addition, sleep apnea parameters did not correlate substantially with DRF. The finding that insomniacs reported more negatively toned dreams in comparison to persons who were examined for sleep apnea but did not showed a pathological apnea index. This may be an hint to increased emotional stress in this patient group. To summarize, the results are promising in clarifying the relationship between sleep disorders and dream life. The next step is to investigate dream reports of these patients by means of content analysis.

  14. Relative Validity and Reproducibility of a Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Rosana de Moraes Borges; de Oliveira, Amanda Cristine; Teles, Sheylle Almeida da Silva; Stringuini, Maria Luiza Ferreira; Fornés, Nélida Shimid

    2014-01-01

    Background. Food frequency questionnaires are used to assess dietary intake in epidemiological studies. Objective. The aim of the study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) for adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Validity was evaluated by comparing the data generated by QFFQs to those of 24-hour recalls (24 hrs). QFFQs were applied twice per patient to assess reproducibility. Statistical analysis included performing t-tests, obtaining Pearson correlation coefficients when necessary, correcting measurements for randomness by the weighted kappa method, calculating intraclass correlation coefficients, and generating Bland-Altman plots (P < 0,05). Results. The total energy and nutrient intake as estimated by the QFFQs were significantly higher than those from 24 hrs. Pearson correlation coefficients for energy-adjusted, deattenuated data ranged from 0.32 (protein) to 0.75 (lipid, unsaturated fat and calcium). Weighted kappa values ranged from 0.15 (vitamin C) to 0.45 (calcium). Bland-Altman plots indicated acceptable validity. As for reproducibility, intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.24 (calcium) to 0.65 (lipid), and the Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between the two questionnaires. Conclusion: The QFFQ presented an acceptable ability to classify correctly and with good reproducibility, adolescents with type 1 diabetes according to their levels of dietary intake. PMID:25250051

  15. Modality effects in sentence recall.

    PubMed

    Goolkasian, Paula; Foos, Paul W; Eaton, Mirrenda

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the intrusion of lures into sentence recall when manipulating the modality of distractor-word lists and sentences separately. Participants received a list of words followed by a sentence, and the list did or did not contain a lure related to a target in the sentence. Conceptual regeneration of the sentence during recall predicted higher lure intrusions than spontaneous intrusions in all conditions. However, if surface information is remembered, the modality of sentence and list should influence intrusions. The results from Experiment 1 showed that both factors are important, as intrusions were always higher when lures were contained in the distractor-word list and when visual, rather than auditory, sentences were recalled. The authors also found distractor modality to influence the results. In Experiment 2, when interference from the word probe was reduced by removing 40% of the word probes, the disruptive effect of the auditory distractors was attenuated on the trials without the word probe. Also, the authors found lure intrusions to be dependent on the presence of the word probe. PMID:19350835

  16. Recall of vegetable eating affects future predicted enjoyment and choice of vegetables in British University undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Blissett, Jackie; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-10-01

    Predictions about enjoyment of future experiences are influenced by recalling similar past experiences. However, little is known about the relationship between hedonic memories of past eating episodes and future eating behavior. We investigated recall of previous experiences of eating vegetables and the effect of recall on future predicted liking for and consumption of vegetables. British University undergraduate students were asked to retrieve memories of previous occasions when they ate vegetables and were asked to rate how enjoyable those experiences were (Study 1, n=54). The effect of different types of memory recall (including vegetable eating recall) and visualization of someone else eating vegetables (to control for priming effects) on predicted likelihood of choosing vegetables and predicted enjoyment of eating vegetables was examined (Study 2, n=95). Finally, the effect of recalling vegetable eating memories on actual food choice from a buffet was assessed (Study 3, n=63). It is reported that people recall positive memories of past vegetable consumption (P<0.05) and that reminding people of these experiences results in higher predicted future liking for vegetables (P<0.05) and choice of a larger portion size of vegetables (P<0.05) compared with recall of a personal nonfood memory, a nonvegetable food memory, or visualization of someone else enjoying eating vegetables (increase of approximately 70% in vegetable portion size compared to controls). The results suggest that recall of previous eating experiences could be a potential strategy for altering food choices.

  17. 9 CFR 3.16 - Food and water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Consignors who are subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) must certify that each... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.16 Food and water requirements. (a) Each dog and cat that is 16 weeks of age or more must be offered food at least once every 24 hours. Puppies...

  18. 9 CFR 3.16 - Food and water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Consignors who are subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) must certify that each... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.16 Food and water requirements. (a) Each dog and cat that is 16 weeks of age or more must be offered food at least once every 24 hours. Puppies...

  19. Nutrient Patterns and Their Food Sources in an International Study Setting: Report from the EPIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Moskal, Aurelie; Pisa, Pedro T.; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Freisling, Heinz; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Nailler, Laura; Wendt, Andrea; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Quirós, Jose R.; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castaño, José M.; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lentjes, Marleen A.; Key, Timothy J.; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocké, Marga C.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Nilsson, Lena M.; Winkvist, Anna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hjartåker, Anette; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. Conclusion/Significance The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs

  20. Association of Overweight with Food Portion Size among Adults of São Paulo – Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Aline; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies show that portion size affects energy intake, few have demonstrated a link between portion size and weight status, especially in free-living populations. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between food portion sizes and overweight in a representative population of adults of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional population-based study with 1005 adults from São Paulo, Brazil. Dietary data were obtained from two 24-hour recalls. Reported foods were classified into groups and energy contribution, prevalence of consumers and portion sizes were calculated. Individuals were classified according to BMI in with and without overweight. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between food portion sizes and being overweight. Results The most consumed food groups were: beans, breads/rolls, coffee/tea, milk, rice, and sugar. Rice, red meat, breads/rolls, and white meat were the groups with the highest percentage of contribution to total energy intake. Butter/margarine, toasts/biscuits, sugar, and cakes were the groups with the highest energy density. After adjustment for confounding variables, overweight was associated with larger portions of pizza (OR = 1.052; p = 0.048), red meat (OR = 1.025; p = 0.043), rice (OR = 1.033; p<0.001), salted snacks (OR = 1.078; p = 0.022), and soft drinks (OR = 1.016; p = 0.007). Conclusions Larger portions of few food groups with different energy densities were associated with being overweight, suggesting that overweight may be related to the consumption of larger portion sizes of a series of food groups, not a food group alone. Additionally, we highlight the importance of considering underreporting as a confounding factor in these associations. PMID:27706222

  1. Effects of Verapamil SR and Atenolol on 24-Hour Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Hypertension Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: An International Verapamil SR-Trandolapril Ambulatory Monitoring Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Denardo, Scott J.; Gong, Yan; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Farsang, Csaba; Keltai, Matyas; Szirmai, László; Messerli, Franz H.; Bavry, Anthony A.; Handberg, Eileen M.; Mancia, Giuseppe; Pepine, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated nighttime blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), increased BP and HR variability, and altered diurnal variations of BP and HR (nighttime dipping and morning surge) in patients with systemic hypertension are each associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events. However, there are no reports on the effect of hypertension treatment on these important hemodynamic parameters in the growing population of hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). This was a pre-specified subgroup analysis of the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST), which involved 22,576 clinically stable patients aged ≥50 years with hypertension and CAD randomized to either verapamil SR- or atenolol-based hypertension treatment strategies. The subgroup consisted of 117 patients undergoing 24-hour ambulatory monitoring at baseline and after 1 year of treatment. Hourly systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) decreased after 1 year for both verapamil SR- and atenolol-based treatment strategies compared with baseline (P<0.0001). Atenolol also decreased hourly HR (P<0.0001). Both treatment strategies decreased SBP variability (weighted standard deviation: P = 0.012 and 0.021, respectively). Compared with verapamil SR, atenolol also increased the prevalence of BP and HR nighttime dipping among prior non-dippers (BP: OR = 3.37; 95% CI: 1.26 – 8.97; P = 0.015; HR: OR = 4.06; 95% CI: 1.35-12.17; P = 0.012) and blunted HR morning surge (+2.8 vs. +4.5 beats/min/hr; P = 0.019). Both verapamil SR- and especially atenolol-based strategies resulted in favorable changes in ambulatory monitoring parameters that have been previously associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00133692 PMID:25835002

  2. Changing Relationship Between Recall Performance and Abilities as a Function of Stage of Learning and Timing of Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labouvie, Gisela V.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Intelligence variables were found to be good predictors of recall performance at later stages of acquisition under delayed recall, while under immediate recall, memory variables predicted recall performance best at early stages of acquisition. (Authors)

  3. Musculoskeletal allograft risks and recalls in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mroz, Thomas E; Joyce, Michael J; Steinmetz, Michael P; Lieberman, Isador H; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2008-10-01

    There have been several improvements to the US tissue banking industry over the past decade. Tissue banks had limited active government regulation until 1993, at which time the US Food and Drug Administration began regulatory oversight because of reports of disease transmission from allograft tissues. Reports in recent years of disease transmission associated with the use of allografts have further raised concerns about the safety of such implants. A retrospective review of allograft recall data was performed to analyze allograft recall by tissue type, reason, and year during the period from January 1994 to June 30, 2007. During the study period, more than 96.5% of all allograft tissues recalled were musculoskeletal. The reasons underlying recent musculoskeletal tissue recalls include insufficient or improper donor evaluation, contamination, recipient infection, and positive serologic tests. Infectious disease transmission following allograft implantation may occur if potential donors are not adequately evaluated or screened serologically during the prerecovery phase and if the implant is not sterilized before implantation. PMID:18832599

  4. Imprinting and recalling cortical ensembles.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yang, Weijian; Bando, Yuki; Peterka, Darcy S; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-08-12

    Neuronal ensembles are coactive groups of neurons that may represent building blocks of cortical circuits. These ensembles could be formed by Hebbian plasticity, whereby synapses between coactive neurons are strengthened. Here we report that repetitive activation with two-photon optogenetics of neuronal populations from ensembles in the visual cortex of awake mice builds neuronal ensembles that recur spontaneously after being imprinted and do not disrupt preexisting ones. Moreover, imprinted ensembles can be recalled by single- cell stimulation and remain coactive on consecutive days. Our results demonstrate the persistent reconfiguration of cortical circuits by two-photon optogenetics into neuronal ensembles that can perform pattern completion. PMID:27516599

  5. Change in food choices following a glycemic load intervention in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Carla K; Gutshcall, Melissa Davis; Mitchell, Diane C

    2009-02-01

    The glycemic index (GI) reflects the postprandial glucose response of carbohydrate-containing foods, and adoption of a lower-GI diet may be beneficial in diabetes management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate change in food-group intake by participants after completing an intervention that included instruction about carbohydrate and the GI using a quasi-experimental design. Recruitment occurred from February to August 2005 and September to December 2006. Individuals 40 to 70 years old with type 2 diabetes for 1 year or longer were randomly assigned to an immediate (n=55) or delayed (n=48) treatment group. A 9-week group-based intervention regarding the quantity and type of carbohydrate for diabetes management was provided. Three sets of 24-hour dietary recalls were used to assess food-group intake. Foods were divided into nine main food groups and 166 subgroups based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 and the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Guide Pyramid. Analysis of variance was used to examine between-group differences and paired t test compared maintenance of change for the immediate group. Change in dietary GI was significantly different between groups upon completion of the intervention by the immediate group (P<0.05). Participants consumed significantly more servings of whole fruit and nonfat dairy products following the intervention and fewer servings of vegetable fats (all P<0.05). Only whole-fruit consumption significantly declined in the immediate group during the maintenance period (P<0.05). Nutrition education can facilitate adoption of a lower-GI diet among free-living people with diabetes. Maintaining dietary change likely requires further intervention and support. PMID:19167961

  6. Relative validity and reliability of a food frequency questionnaire in youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liese, Angela D.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Tooze, Janet A.; Fangman, Mary T.; Couch, Sarah C.; Merchant, Anwar T.; Bell, Ronny A.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relative validity and reliability of the SEARCH food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was modified from the Block Kids Questionnaire. Design Study participants completed the 85-item FFQ twice plus three 24-hour dietary recalls within one month. We estimated correlations between frequencies obtained from participants with true usual intake for food groups and nutrients, using a two-part model for episodically-consumed foods and measurement error adjustment. Setting The multi-center SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Nutrition Ancillary Study. Subjects A subgroup of 172 participants aged 10 - 24 years with type 1 diabetes. Results The mean correlations adjusted for measurement error of food groups and nutrients between FFQ and true usual intake were 0.41 and 0.38, respectively, with 57% of the food groups and 70% of the nutrients exhibiting correlations >0.35. Correlations were high for low-fat dairy (0.80), sugar-sweetened beverages (0.54), cholesterol (0.59) and saturated fat (0.51), while correlations were poor for high fiber bread and cereal (0.16) and folate (0.11). Reliability of FFQ intake based on two FFQ administrations was also reasonable with 54% of Pearson correlation coefficients ≥ 0.5. Reliability was high for low fat dairy (0.7), vegetables (0.6), carbohydrates, fiber, folate and vitamin C (all 0.5), but less than desirable for low fat poultry and high fiber bread, cereal, rice and pasta (0.2-0.3). Conclusions While there is some room for improvement, our findings suggest that the SEARCH FFQ performs quite well for the assessment of many nutrients and food groups in a sample of youth with type 1 diabetes. PMID:24679679

  7. Change in food choices following a glycemic load intervention in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Carla K; Gutshcall, Melissa Davis; Mitchell, Diane C

    2009-02-01

    The glycemic index (GI) reflects the postprandial glucose response of carbohydrate-containing foods, and adoption of a lower-GI diet may be beneficial in diabetes management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate change in food-group intake by participants after completing an intervention that included instruction about carbohydrate and the GI using a quasi-experimental design. Recruitment occurred from February to August 2005 and September to December 2006. Individuals 40 to 70 years old with type 2 diabetes for 1 year or longer were randomly assigned to an immediate (n=55) or delayed (n=48) treatment group. A 9-week group-based intervention regarding the quantity and type of carbohydrate for diabetes management was provided. Three sets of 24-hour dietary recalls were used to assess food-group intake. Foods were divided into nine main food groups and 166 subgroups based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 and the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Guide Pyramid. Analysis of variance was used to examine between-group differences and paired t test compared maintenance of change for the immediate group. Change in dietary GI was significantly different between groups upon completion of the intervention by the immediate group (P<0.05). Participants consumed significantly more servings of whole fruit and nonfat dairy products following the intervention and fewer servings of vegetable fats (all P<0.05). Only whole-fruit consumption significantly declined in the immediate group during the maintenance period (P<0.05). Nutrition education can facilitate adoption of a lower-GI diet among free-living people with diabetes. Maintaining dietary change likely requires further intervention and support.

  8. The otolaryngologic manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): a clinical investigation of 225 patients using ambulatory 24-hour pH monitoring and an experimental investigation of the role of acid and pepsin in the development of laryngeal injury.

    PubMed

    Koufman, J A

    1991-04-01

    Occult (silent) gastroesophageal reflux disease (GER, GERD) is believed to be an important etiologic factor in the development of many inflammatory and neoplastic disorders of the upper aerodigestive tract. In order ot test this hypothesis, a human study and an animal study were performed. The human study consisted primarily of applying a new diagnostic technique (double-probe pH monitoring) to a population of otolaryngology patients with GERD to determine the incidence of overt and occult GERD. The animal study consisted of experiments to evaluate the potential damaging effects of intermittent GER on the larynx. Two hundred twenty-five consecutive patients with otolaryngologic disorders having suspected GERD evaluated from 1985 through 1988 are reported. Ambulatory 24-hour intraesophageal pH monitoring was performed in 197; of those, 81% underwent double-probe pH monitoring, with the second pH probe being placed in the hypopharynx at the laryngeal inlet. Seventy percent of the patients also underwent barium esophagography with videofluoroscopy. The patient population was divided into seven diagnostic subgroups: carcinoma of the larynx (n = 31), laryngeal and tracheal stenosis (n = 33), reflux laryngitis (n = 61), globus pharyngeus (n = 27), dysphagia (n = 25), chronic cough (n = 30), and a group with miscellaneous disorders (n = 18). The most common symptoms were hoarseness (71%), cough (51%), globus (47%), and throat clearing (42%). Only 43% of the patients had gastrointestinal symptoms (heartburn or acid regurgitation). Thus, by traditional symptomatology, GER was occult or silent in the majority of the study population. Twenty-eight patients (12%) refused or could not tolerate pH monitoring. Of the patients undergoing diagnostic pH monitoring, 62% had abnormal esophageal pH studies, and 30% demonstrated reflux into the pharynx. The results of diagnostic pH monitoring for each of the subgroups were as follows (percentage with abnormal studies): carcinoma (71

  9. Background instrumental music and serial recall.

    PubMed

    Nittono, H

    1997-06-01

    Although speech and vocal music are consistently shown to impair serial recall for visually presented items, instrumental music does not always produce a significant disruption. This study investigated the features of instrumental music that would modulate the disruption in serial recall. 24 students were presented sequences of nine digits and required to recall the digits in order of presentation. Instrumental music as played either forward or backward during the task. Forward music caused significantly more disruption than did silence, whereas the reversed music did not. Some higher-order factor may be at work in the effect of background music on serial recall.

  10. Food and beverage portion sizes in Australian children: a secondary analysis of 1995 and 2007 national data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Portion size of foods is reported to contribute to the rise in obesity prevalence. However, evidence of changes in portion size for commonly consumed foods in Australia is lacking. The aim was to evaluate whether Australian child and adolescent portion sizes of selected foods changed from 1995 to 2007. Methods Time-series study, comparing dietary data from two national cross-sectional surveys in nationally representative population survey of Australian households. The dietary data was from children aged 2–16 years who participated in the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n = 2198) and 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 4799). Results Differences were found across survey years in median portion size of common foods and beverages assessed by 24-hour recalls for age and sex categories. Of the 61 foods items evaluated across the whole population sample, portion size increased in 18 items, decreased in 22, with no change in 20, although the magnitude of change varied by age and sex. Decreases in portion size were detected for most dairy products, breakfast cereal, some packaged snack foods and vegetables, p < 0.0001. Increases were detected for cooked chicken, mixed chicken dishes, bacon and ham (p < 0.0001), cooked meat (p < 0.05), fish (p < 0.01) and pizza (p < 0.0001). No significant changes were detected for many items including white and wholemeal bread, mincemeat, chocolate and soft drink. Conclusions Small changes in portion sizes were detected over 12 years in Australian children and adolescents with the degree of change varying by sex, age and food group. Knowledge of usual portion sizes could inform programs targeting appropriate serving sizes selection in children and adolescents. PMID:24886094

  11. Quantum bounce and cosmic recall.

    PubMed

    Corichi, Alejandro; Singh, Parampreet

    2008-04-25

    Loop quantum cosmology predicts that, in simple models, the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce. A natural question is whether the universe retains, after the bounce, its memory about the previous epoch. More precisely, does the Universe retain various properties of the state after evolving unitarily through the bounce, or does it suffer from recently suggested cosmic amnesia? We show that this issue can be answered unambiguously at least within an exactly solvable model. A semiclassical state at late times on one side of the bounce, peaked on a pair of canonically conjugate variables, strongly bounds the fluctuations on the other side, implying semiclassicality. For a model universe growing to 1 megaparsec, the change in relative fluctuation across the bounce is less than 10(-56) (becoming smaller for larger universes). The universe maintains (an almost) total recall. PMID:18518182

  12. Quantum Bounce and Cosmic Recall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Singh, Parampreet

    2008-04-01

    Loop quantum cosmology predicts that, in simple models, the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce. A natural question is whether the universe retains, after the bounce, its memory about the previous epoch. More precisely, does the Universe retain various properties of the state after evolving unitarily through the bounce, or does it suffer from recently suggested cosmic amnesia? We show that this issue can be answered unambiguously at least within an exactly solvable model. A semiclassical state at late times on one side of the bounce, peaked on a pair of canonically conjugate variables, strongly bounds the fluctuations on the other side, implying semiclassicality. For a model universe growing to 1 megaparsec, the change in relative fluctuation across the bounce is less than 10-56 (becoming smaller for larger universes). The universe maintains (an almost) total recall.

  13. Precision and Recall for Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torgo, Luis; Ribeiro, Rita

    Cost sensitive prediction is a key task in many real world applications. Most existing research in this area deals with classification problems. This paper addresses a related regression problem: the prediction of rare extreme values of a continuous variable. These values are often regarded as outliers and removed from posterior analysis. However, for many applications (e.g. in finance, meteorology, biology, etc.) these are the key values that we want to accurately predict. Any learning method obtains models by optimizing some preference criteria. In this paper we propose new evaluation criteria that are more adequate for these applications. We describe a generalization for regression of the concepts of precision and recall often used in classification. Using these new evaluation metrics we are able to focus the evaluation of predictive models on the cases that really matter for these applications. Our experiments indicate the advantages of the use of these new measures when comparing predictive models in the context of our target applications.

  14. Is the relationship between pattern recall and decision-making influenced by anticipatory recall?

    PubMed

    Gorman, Adam D; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared traditional measures of pattern recall to measures of anticipatory recall and decision-making to examine the underlying mechanisms of expert pattern perception and to address methodological limitations in previous studies where anticipatory recall has generally been overlooked. Recall performance in expert and novice basketball players was measured by examining the spatial error in recalling player positions both for a target image (traditional recall) and at 40-ms increments following the target image (anticipatory recall). Decision-making performance was measured by comparing the participant's response to those identified by a panel of expert coaches. Anticipatory recall was observed in the recall task and was significantly more pronounced for the experts, suggesting that traditional methods of spatial recall analysis may not have provided a completely accurate determination of the full magnitude of the experts' superiority. Accounting for anticipatory recall also increased the relative contribution of recall skill to decision-making accuracy although the gains in explained variance were modest and of debatable functional significance.

  15. Dietary patterns and food choices of a population sample of adults on Guam.

    PubMed

    Pobocik, Rebecca S; Trager, Alison; Monson, Lora Morrell

    2008-01-01

    This study examined dietary patterns of adults on Guam. Four hundred subjects were selected via a multistage procedure to represent the island's population. A 24-hour dietary recall was administered via telephone in 1995 to 1996. Diets were computer analyzed. There were 4,913 food items reported, representing 1,042 individual foods. Most respondents, 51.3%, had a "more-frequent" eating pattern, 36.9% had "regular" and 11.8% had "less-frequent." Energy consumption increased (p<0.05) with eating frequency. Highest levels of all nutrients (p<0.05) were at the evening meal. The sexes did not differ in nutrient proportions by meal. Grains, meats, and beverages were eaten most frequently. Meat/fish, mixed dishes, and grains supplied 68% of the energy and 47% to 91% of the micronutrients. Twenty five percent of the carbohydrate was from sweetened drinks and desserts. Rice was the most frequently consumed food. More than half of the subjects had no fruit, a third had no vegetables, and only 38.5% had dairy foods. Calcium came from multiple sources: dairy (27.6%), mixed dishes (23.8%), fish (12.6%), desserts (8.5%) and vegetables (6.6%). Most people, 91.8%, had fiesta meals with median consumption at 6 meals per year (range: 0 to 200). Betel nut was used by 12.3% of the sample with median consumption 0 whole nuts per day (range: 0 to 25). Ethnic differences (p<0.01) were observed in both fiesta meal and betel nut consumption. The Guamanian diet includes limited use of traditional foods and dietary patterns associated with increased risk for chronic disease.

  16. Inverting the modality effect in serial recall.

    PubMed

    Beaman, C Philip

    2002-04-01

    Differences in recall ability between immediate serial recall of auditorily and visually presented verbal material have traditionally been considered restricted to the end of to-be-recalled lists, the recency section of the serial position curve (e.g., Crowder & Morton, 1969). Later studies showed that--under certain circumstances--differences in recall between the two modalities can be observed across the whole of the list (Frankish, 1985). However in all these studies the advantage observed is for recall of material presented in the auditorily modality. Six separate conditions across four experiments demonstrate that a visual advantage can be obtained with serial recall if participants are required to recall the list in two distinct sections using serial recall. Judged on a list-wide basis, the visual advantage is of equivalent size to the auditory advantage of the classical modality effect. The results demonstrate that differences in representation of auditory and visual verbal material in short-term memory persist beyond lexical and phonological categorization and are problematic for current theories of the modality effect.

  17. Does feigning amnesia impair subsequent recall?

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue; Punjabi, Paawan V; Greenberg, Lucy T; Seamon, John G

    2009-01-01

    Defendants who are accused of serious crimes sometimes feign amnesia to evade criminal responsibility. Previous research has suggested that feigning amnesia might impair subsequent recall. In two experiments, participants read and heard a story about a central character, described as "you," who was responsible for the death of either a puppy (Experiment 1) or a friend (Experiment 2). On free and cued recall tests immediately after the story, participants who had feigned amnesia recalled less than did participants who had recalled accurately. One week later, when all participants recalled accurately, participants who had previously feigned amnesia still performed worse than did participants who had recalled accurately both times. However, the participants who had formerly feigned amnesia did not perform worse than did a control group who had received only the delayed recall tests. Our results suggest that a "feigned amnesia effect" may reflect nothing more than differential practice at recall. Feigning amnesia for a crime need not impair memory for that crime when a person later seeks to remember accurately. PMID:19103978

  18. Aging and the Category-Recall Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worden, Patricia E.; Meggison, David L.

    A sorting-recall procedure was used to investigate how long-term memory in elderly subjects is affected by categorical organization. Sixty-four young adults (average age 20 years) and retirees (average age 67) sorted 48 unrelated words into two, four, six, or eight categories prior to recall. High- and low-frequency lists were tested, a…

  19. Directed Forgetting of Recently Recalled Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnier, Amanda J.; Conway, Martin A.; Mayoh, Lyndel; Speyer, Joanne; Avizmil, Orit; Harris, Celia B.

    2007-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated list-method directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories. Reliable directed forgetting effects were observed across all experiments. In 4 experiments, the authors examined the impact of memory valence on directed forgetting. The forget instruction impaired recall of negative,…

  20. 40 CFR 90.804 - Voluntary emissions recall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Voluntary emissions recall. 90.804...-Related Defect Reporting Requirements, Voluntary Emission Recall Program, Ordered Recalls § 90.804 Voluntary emissions recall. (a) When any manufacturer initiates a voluntary emissions recall...