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Sample records for 24-hour holter ecg

  1. Differences in the Slope of the QT-RR Relation Based on 24-Hour Holter ECG Recordings between Cardioembolic and Atherosclerotic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Fujiki, Akira; Sakabe, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Objective Detecting paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with ischemic stroke presenting in sinus rhythm is difficult because such episodes are often short, and they are also frequently asymptomatic. It is possible that the ventricular repolarization dynamics may reflect atrial vulnerability and cardioembolic stroke. Hence, we compared the QT-RR relation between cardioembolic stroke and atherosclerotic stroke during sinus rhythm. Methods The subjects comprised 62 consecutive ischemic stroke patients including 31 with cardioembolic strokes (71.8±12.7 years, 17 men) and 31 with atherosclerotic strokes (74.8±10.8 years, 23 men). The QT and RR intervals were measured from ECG waves based on a 15-sec averaged ECG during 24-hour Holter recording using an automatic QT analyzing system. The QT interval dependence on the RR interval was analyzed using a linear regression line for each subject ([QT]=A[RR]+B; where A is the slope and B is the y-intercept). Results The mean slope of the QT-RR relation was significantly greater in cardioembolic stroke than in atherosclerotic stroke (0.187±0.044 vs. 0.142±0.045, p<0.001). The mean QT, RR, or QTc during 24-hour Holter recordings did not differ between them. An increased slope (≥0.14) of the QT-RR regression line could predict cardioembolic stroke with 97% sensitivity, 55% specificity and a positive predictive value of 64%. Conclusion The increased slope of the QT-RR linear regression line based on 24-hour Holter ECG in patients with ischemic stroke presenting in sinus rhythm may therefore be a simple and useful marker for cardioembolic stroke. PMID:27746427

  2. Prognostic indices among hypertensive heart failure patients in Nigeria: the roles of 24-hour Holter electrocardiography and 6-minute walk test

    PubMed Central

    Mene-Afejuku, Tuoyo O; Balogun, Michael O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Adebayo, Rasaaq A

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertensive heart failure (HHF) is associated with a poor prognosis. There is paucity of data in Nigeria on prognosis among HHF patients elucidating the role of 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) in concert with other risk factors. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic utility of 24-hour Holter ECG, the 6-minute walk test (6-MWT), echocardiography, clinical and laboratory parameters among HHF patients. Methods A total of 113 HHF patients were recruited and followed up for 6 months. Thirteen of these patients were lost to follow-up, and as a result only 100 HHF patients were analyzed. All the patients underwent baseline laboratory tests, echocardiography, 24-hour Holter ECG and the 6-MWT. HHF patients were analyzed as “mortality vs alive” and as “events vs no-events” based on the outcome at the end of 6 months. Events was defined as HHF patients who were rehospitalized for heart failure (HF), had prolonged hospital stay or died. No-events group was defined as HHF patients who did not meet the criteria for the events group. Results HHF patients in the mortality group (n = 7) had significantly higher serum urea (5.71 ± 2.07 mmol/L vs 3.93 ± 1.45 mmol/L, p = 0.003) than that in those alive. After logistic regression, high serum urea conferred increased mortality risk (p = 0.035). Significant premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) on 24-hour Holter ECG following logistic regression were also significantly higher (p = 0.015) in the mortality group than in the “alive” group (n = 93) at the end of the 6-month follow-up period. The 6-minute walk distance (6-MWD) was least among the HHF patients who died (167.26 m ± 85.24 m). However, following logistic regression, the 6-MWT was not significant (p = 0.777) for predicting adverse outcomes among HHF patients. Patients in the events group (n = 41) had significantly higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) class (p = 0.001), Holter-detected ventricular tachycardia (VT; p

  3. ECG Holter monitor with alert system and mobile application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teron, Abigail C.; Rivera, Pedro A.; Goenaga, Miguel A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a new approach on the Holter monitor by creating a portable Electrocardiogram (ECG) Holter monitor that will alert the user by detecting abnormal heart beats using a digital signal processing software. The alarm will be triggered when the patient experiences arrhythmias such as bradycardia and tachycardia. The equipment is simple, comfortable and small in size that fit in the hand. It can be used at any time and any moment by placing three leads to the person's chest which is connected to an electronic circuit. The ECG data will be transmitted via Bluetooth to the memory of a selected mobile phone using an application that will store the collected data for up to 24 hrs. The arrhythmia is identified by comparing the reference signals with the user's signal. The diagnostic results demonstrate that the ECG Holter monitor alerts the user when an arrhythmia is detected thru the Holter monitor and mobile application.

  4. Heritability of ECG Biomarkers in the Netherlands Twin Registry Measured from Holter ECGs

    PubMed Central

    Hodkinson, Emily C.; Neijts, Melanie; Sadrieh, Arash; Imtiaz, Mohammad S.; Baumert, Mathias; Subbiah, Rajesh N.; Hayward, Christopher S.; Boomsma, Dorret; Willemsen, Gonneke; Vandenberg, Jamie I.; Hill, Adam P.; De Geus, Eco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The resting ECG is the most commonly used tool to assess cardiac electrophysiology. Previous studies have estimated heritability of ECG parameters based on these snapshots of the cardiac electrical activity. In this study we set out to determine whether analysis of heart rate specific data from Holter ECGs allows more complete assessment of the heritability of ECG parameters. Methods and Results: Holter ECGs were recorded from 221 twin pairs and analyzed using a multi-parameter beat binning approach. Heart rate dependent estimates of heritability for QRS duration, QT interval, Tpeak–Tend and Theight were calculated using structural equation modeling. QRS duration is largely determined by environmental factors whereas repolarization is primarily genetically determined. Heritability estimates of both QT interval and Theight were significantly higher when measured from Holter compared to resting ECGs and the heritability estimate of each was heart rate dependent. Analysis of the genetic contribution to correlation between repolarization parameters demonstrated that covariance of individual ECG parameters at different heart rates overlap but at each specific heart rate there was relatively little overlap in the genetic determinants of the different repolarization parameters. Conclusions: Here we present the first study of heritability of repolarization parameters measured from Holter ECGs. Our data demonstrate that higher heritability can be estimated from the Holter than the resting ECG and reveals rate dependence in the genetic—environmental determinants of the ECG that has not previously been tractable. Future applications include deeper dissection of the ECG of participants with inherited cardiac electrical disease. PMID:27199769

  5. Discussion of "Computational Electrocardiography: Revisiting Holter ECG Monitoring".

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Christian; Caiani, Enrico G; Dickhaus, Hartmut; Kulikowski, Casimir A; Schiecke, Karin; van Bemmel, Jan H; Witte, Herbert

    2016-08-05

    This article is part of a For-Discussion-Section of Methods of Information in Medicine about the paper "Computational Electrocardiography: Revisiting Holter ECG Monitoring" written by Thomas M. Deserno and Nikolaus Marx. It is introduced by an editorial. This article contains the combined commentaries invited to independently comment on the paper of Deserno and Marx. In subsequent issues the discussion can continue through letters to the editor.

  6. The Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW): the first three years of development and research.

    PubMed

    Couderc, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW) hosts more than 3700 digital 24-Holter ECG recordings from 13 independent studies. In addition to the ECGs, the repository includes patient information in separate clinical database with content varying according to the study focus. In its third year of activities, the THEW database has been accessed by researchers from 37 universities and 16 corporations located in 16 countries worldwide. Twenty publications were released primarily focusing on the development and validation of ECG-based technologies. This communication describes the content of the databases of the repository with brief summary of the research and development projects completed using these data.

  7. A portable ECG monitoring device with Bluetooth and Holter capabilities for telemedicine applications.

    PubMed

    Lucani, Daniel; Cataldo, Giancarlos; Cruz, Julio; Villegas, Guillermo; Wong, Sara

    2006-01-01

    A prototype of a portable ECG-monitoring device has been developed for clinical and non-clinical environments as part of a telemedicine system to provide remote and continuous surveillance of patients. The device can acquire, store and/or transmit ECG signals to computer-based platforms or specially configured access points (AP) with Intranet/Internet capabilities in order to reach remote monitoring stations. Acquired data can be stored in a flash memory card in FAT16 format for later recovery, or transmitted via Bluetooth or USB to a local station or AP. This data acquisition module (DAM) operates in two modes: Holter and on-line transmission.

  8. [Comparison of the data of 24-hour ECG monitoring and the condition of the coronary bed in patients with the variants of the course of unstable stenocardia].

    PubMed

    Karpov, Iu A; Pomerantsev, E V; Shibleva, V V; Merkulova, I N; Khakimov, A G; Podinovskaia, Ia A; Setin, V F

    1992-03-01

    A total of 232 patients with various clinical types of unstable angina pectoris were examined. All the patients underwent coronary angiographic studies, 24-hour ECG monitoring. In 40.5% of the patients, 24-hour monitoring revealed transient ST segment changes which were not accompanied by pain in 47% of the cases. ST segment changes were equally encountered in patients with one-, two-, and three-vessel disease in the presence or absence of pain. Ischemic ST segment changes generally occurred with an anginal episode in patients with crescendo unstable angina, whereas in those with more prolonged and intensified pain and angina at rest in particular, silent myocardial ischemic episodes were significantly more frequently recorded, which were more common in these patients with multivessel disease.

  9. A real-time ECG data compression algorithm for a digital holter system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangjoon; Lee, Myoungho

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a real time ECG compression algorithm for a digital holter system. Proposed algorithm consists of five main procedures. First procedure is to differentiate signals, second is to choose a period of the differentiated signals and store them in memory, third is to perform the DCT(Discrete Cosine Transform) on the stored data, fourth is to apply a window filter, and fifth procedure is to apply Huffman Coding compression method on the data. This developed algorithm has been tested by applying 12 ECGs(electrocardiograms) from the MIT-BIH database and the PRD(Percent RMS Difference) and the CR(Compression Ratio) are calculated. It is found that the algorithm achieved a high level of compression performance with 1.82 of PRD and 8.82:1 of CR in average.

  10. Evaluation of repolarization dynamics using the QT-RR regression line slope and intercept relationship during 24-h Holter ECG.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Akira; Yoshioka, Ryozo; Sakabe, Masao

    2015-03-01

    QT-RR linear regression consists of two parameters, slope and intercept, and the aim of this study was to evaluate repolarization dynamics using the QT-RR linear regression slope and intercept relationship during 24-h Holter ECG. This study included 466 healthy subjects (54.6 ± 14.6 years; 200 men and 266 women) and 17 patients with ventricular arrhythmias, consisted of 10 patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) and 7 patients with torsades de pointes (TDP). QT and RR intervals were measured from ECG waves based on a 15-s averaged ECG during 24-h Holter recording using an automatic QT analyzing system. The QT interval dependence on the RR interval was analyzed using a linear regression line for each subject ([QT] = A[RR] + B; where A is the slope and B is the y-intercept). The slope of the QT-RR regression line in healthy subjects was significantly greater in women than in men (0.185 ± 0.036 vs. 0.161 ± 0.033, p < 0.001) and the intercept was significantly smaller in women than in men (0.229 ± 0.028 vs. 0.240 ± 0.027, p < 0.001). A scatter diagram of the QT-RR regression line slope and intercept among healthy subjects demonstrated a statistically significant negative correlation (B = -0.62A + 0.34, r = -0.79). Distribution of both scatter diagrams of the slope and the intercept of the QT-RR regression line in patients with IVF and TDP was different from healthy subjects (left corner for IVF and upward shift for TDP). The slope and intercept relationship of the QT-RR linear regression line based on 24-h Holter ECG may become a simple useful marker for abnormality of ventricular repolarization dynamics.

  11. Holter registers and metabolic syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; Ramírez-Hernández, L.; Aguilar-Molina, A. M.; Zamora-Justo, J. A.; Gutiérrez-Calleja, R. A.; Virgilio-González, C. D.

    2014-11-01

    There is a relationship between the state of the cardiovascular system and metabolic syndrome (MS). A way to diagnose the heart state of a person is to monitor the electrical activity of the heart using a 24 hours Holter monitor. Scanned ECG signal can be analyzed beat-by-beat by algorithms that separate normal of abnormal heartbeats. If the percentage of abnormal heartbeats is too high it could be argued that the patient has heart problems. We have algorithms that can not only identify the abnormal heartbeats, but they can also classify them, so we classified and counted abnormal heartbeats in patients with MS and subjects without MS. Most of our patients have large waist circumference, high triglycerides and high levels of LDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol although some of them have high blood pressure. We enrolled adult patients with MS free of diabetes in a four month lifestyle intervention program including diet and physical aerobic exercise, and compared with healthy controls. We made an initial registration with a Holter, and 24 hours ECG signal is analyzed to identify and classify the different types of heartbeats. The patients then begin with diet or exercise (at least half an hour daily). Periodically Holter records were taken up and we describe the evolution in time of the number and type of abnormal heartbeats. Results show that the percentage of abnormal heartbeats decreases over time, in some cases the decline is very significant, and almost a reduction to half or less of abnormal heartbeats after several months since the patients changed their eating or physical activity habits.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Equivital EQ02 Lifemonitor with Holter Ambulatory ECG Device for Continuous Measurement of ECG, Heart Rate, and Heart Rate Variability: A Validation Study for Precision and Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Akintola, Abimbola A; van de Pol, Vera; Bimmel, Daniel; Maan, Arie C; van Heemst, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Equivital (EQ02) is a multi-parameter telemetric device offering both real-time and/or retrospective, synchronized monitoring of ECG, HR, and HRV, respiration, activity, and temperature. Unlike the Holter, which is the gold standard for continuous ECG measurement, EQO2 continuously monitors ECG via electrodes interwoven in the textile of a wearable belt. Objective: To compare EQ02 with the Holter for continuous home measurement of ECG, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: Eighteen healthy participants wore, simultaneously for 24 h, the Holter and EQ02 monitors. Per participant, averaged HR, and HRV per 5 min from the two devices were compared using Pearson correlation, paired T-test, and Bland-Altman analyses. Accuracy and precision metrics included mean absolute relative difference (MARD). Results: Artifact content of EQ02 data varied widely between (range 1.93-56.45%) and within (range 0.75-9.61%) participants. Comparing the EQ02 to the Holter, the Pearson correlations were respectively 0.724, 0.955, and 0.997 for datasets containing all data and data with < 50 or < 20% artifacts respectively. For datasets containing respectively all data, data with < 50, or < 20% artifacts, bias estimated by Bland-Altman analysis was -2.8, -1.0, and -0.8 beats per minute and 24 h MARD was 7.08, 3.01, and 1.5. After selecting a 3-h stretch of data containing 1.15% artifacts, Pearson correlation was 0.786 for HRV measured as standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN). Conclusions: Although the EQ02 can accurately measure ECG and HRV, its accuracy and precision is highly dependent on artifact content. This is a limitation for clinical use in individual patients. However, the advantages of the EQ02 (ability to simultaneously monitor several physiologic parameters) may outweigh its disadvantages (higher artifact load) for research purposes and/ or for home monitoring in larger groups of study participants. Further studies can be aimed at

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Equivital EQ02 Lifemonitor with Holter Ambulatory ECG Device for Continuous Measurement of ECG, Heart Rate, and Heart Rate Variability: A Validation Study for Precision and Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Akintola, Abimbola A.; van de Pol, Vera; Bimmel, Daniel; Maan, Arie C.; van Heemst, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Equivital (EQ02) is a multi-parameter telemetric device offering both real-time and/or retrospective, synchronized monitoring of ECG, HR, and HRV, respiration, activity, and temperature. Unlike the Holter, which is the gold standard for continuous ECG measurement, EQO2 continuously monitors ECG via electrodes interwoven in the textile of a wearable belt. Objective: To compare EQ02 with the Holter for continuous home measurement of ECG, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: Eighteen healthy participants wore, simultaneously for 24 h, the Holter and EQ02 monitors. Per participant, averaged HR, and HRV per 5 min from the two devices were compared using Pearson correlation, paired T-test, and Bland-Altman analyses. Accuracy and precision metrics included mean absolute relative difference (MARD). Results: Artifact content of EQ02 data varied widely between (range 1.93–56.45%) and within (range 0.75–9.61%) participants. Comparing the EQ02 to the Holter, the Pearson correlations were respectively 0.724, 0.955, and 0.997 for datasets containing all data and data with < 50 or < 20% artifacts respectively. For datasets containing respectively all data, data with < 50, or < 20% artifacts, bias estimated by Bland-Altman analysis was −2.8, −1.0, and −0.8 beats per minute and 24 h MARD was 7.08, 3.01, and 1.5. After selecting a 3-h stretch of data containing 1.15% artifacts, Pearson correlation was 0.786 for HRV measured as standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN). Conclusions: Although the EQ02 can accurately measure ECG and HRV, its accuracy and precision is highly dependent on artifact content. This is a limitation for clinical use in individual patients. However, the advantages of the EQ02 (ability to simultaneously monitor several physiologic parameters) may outweigh its disadvantages (higher artifact load) for research purposes and/ or for home monitoring in larger groups of study participants. Further studies can be aimed

  14. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  15. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  16. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  17. Effect of burden and origin sites of premature ventricular contractions on left ventricular function by 7-day Holter monitor

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenhua; Li, Mingfang; Chen, Minglong; Yang, Bing; Wang, Daowu; Kong, Xiangqing; Chen, Hongwu; Ju, Weizhu; Gu, Kai; Cao, Kejiang; Liu, Hailei; Jiang, Qi; Shi, Jiaojiao; Cui, Yan; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have shown that premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) could enlarge the heart, but its risk factors are incompletely understood as a single 24-hour recording cannot reflect the true PVC burden due to day-to-day variability. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of burden and origin sites on left ventricular (LV) function in patients with PVCs by 7-day Holter electrocardiography (ECG). From May 2012 to August 2013, 112 consecutive patients with PVCs were recruited from the authors' affiliated hospital. All patients received 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, 12-lead routing ECG and 7-days Holter ECG. Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured. A total of 102 participants with PVCs were included in the final analysis. Origin of PVCs from the tricuspid annulus had the highest burden and NT-proBNP level. LV papillary muscle had a higher LV ejection fraction (EF) level and a lower LV end-systolic dimension (ESD) than other PVC foci (P<0.05). The high burden group had a higher LV end-diastolic dimension (EDD) and LVESD but lower LVEF than the other two groups (P<0.05). Female, older age, physical work, and history of PVCs had a significantly positive correlation with symptoms. Male, older age, physical work, and high burden were positive predictors of enlarged LVEDD, LVESD and higher serum NT-proBNP level, but lower LVEF. Seven-day dynamic ECG Holter monitor showed the true PVC burden on patients with PVCs. PVCs with a lower burden or origin from the LV papillary muscle and the fascicle were relatively benign, while PVCs with a higher burden or origin from the tricuspid annulus may lead to cardiac dysfunction. PMID:26668581

  18. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  19. Relative prognostic value of rest thallium-201 imaging, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; Nestico, P.F.; Heo, J.; Unwala, A.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-07-01

    Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.

  20. Holter monitor (24h)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the machine gets an accurate recording of the heart's activity. While wearing the device, avoid: Electric blankets High- ... Holter monitoring is used to determine how the heart responds to normal activity. The monitor may also be used: After a ...

  1. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to... difference that she is furnished facilities for sleeping. Her time is given to her employer. She is...

  2. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to... difference that she is furnished facilities for sleeping. Her time is given to her employer. She is...

  3. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to... difference that she is furnished facilities for sleeping. Her time is given to her employer. She is...

  4. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to... difference that she is furnished facilities for sleeping. Her time is given to her employer. She is...

  5. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to... difference that she is furnished facilities for sleeping. Her time is given to her employer. She is...

  6. The Use of Continuous Electrocardiographic Holter Monitoring in Pediatric Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Begic, Zijo; Begic, Edin; Mesihovic-Dinarevic, Senka; Masic, Izet; Pesto, Senad; Halimic, Mirza; Kadic, Almira; Dobraca, Amra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To show the place and role of continuous electrocardiographic twenty-four-hour ECG monitoring in daily clinical practice of pediatric cardiologists. Methods: According to protocol, 2753 patients underwent dynamic continuous ECG Holter monitoring (data collected from the “Register of ECG Holter monitoring” of Pediatric Clinic, UCC Sarajevo in period April 2003- April 2015). Results: There were 50,5% boys and 49,5% girls, aged from birth to 19 years (1,63% - neonates and infants, 2,6% - toddlers, 9,95% - preschool children, 35,5% - gradeschoolers and 50,3% children in puberty and adolescence). In 68,1% of patients Holter was performed for the first time. Indications for conducting Holter were: arrhythmias in 42,2% cases, precordial pain in 23,5%, suspicion of pre-excitation and/or pre-excitation in 10%, crisis of consciousness in 8%, uncorrected congenital/acquired heart defects in 4,2%, operated heart defects in 3,7%, hypertension in 3,1% cases, control of the pacemaker in 1,63% and other causes in 3,5% cases. Discharge diagnosis after ECG Holter monitoring were: insignificant arrhythmias in 47,1% cases, wandering pacemaker in 21,3%, pre-excitation in 16,2%, benign ventricular premature beats in 6,3%, atrioventricular block in 3%, sinus pause in 2.2% cases and other arrhythmias in 3,5%. In mentioned period 57 cases of Wolf Parkinson White syndrome were registered, in 4,5% of patients antiarrhythmic therapy was administered. Radiofrequent ablation was performed in 23 cases. Conclusion: The development of pediatric cardiac surgery has initiated development of pediatric arrhythmology as imperative segment of pediatric cardiology. Continuous ECG Holter monitoring has become irreplaceable method in everyday diagnostics and therapy of arrhythmias in children. PMID:27708487

  7. High serum lactate level may predict death within 24 hours

    PubMed Central

    Zoubi, Abd Almajid; Kuria, Shiran; Blum, Nava

    2015-01-01

    Background Unexpected death within 24 hours of admission is a real challenge for the clinician in the emergency room. How to diagnose these patients and the right approach to prevent sudden death with 24 hours is still an enigma. The aims of our study were to find the independent factors that may affect the clinical outcome in the first 24 hours of admission to the hospital. Methods We performed a retrospective study defining unexpected death within 24 hours of admission in our Department of Medicine in the last 6 years. We found 43 patients who died within 24 hours of admission, and compared their clinical and biochemical characteristics to 6055 consecutive patients who were admitted in that period of time and did not die within the first 24 hours of admission. The parameters that were used include gender, age, temperature, clinical and laboratory criteria for SIRS, arterial blood lactate, and arterial blood pH. Results Most of the patients who died within 24 hours had sepsis with SIRS. These patients were older (78.6±14.7 vs. 65.2±20.2 years [p<.0001]), had higher lactate levels (8.0±4.8 vs. 2.1±1.8mmol/L [p<.0001]), and lower pH (7.2±0.2 vs. 7.4±0.1 [p<.0001]). Logistic regression analysis found that lactate was the strongest independent parameter to predict death within 24 hours of admission (OR 1.366 [95% CI 1.235–1.512]), followed by old age (OR 1.048 [95% CI 1.048–1.075] and low arterial blood pH (OR 0.007 [CI <0.001–0.147]). When gender was analyzed, pH was not an independent variable in females (only in males). Conclusions The significant independent variable that predicted death within 24 hours of admission was arterial blood lactate level on admission. Older age was also an independent variable; low pH affected only males, but was a less dominant variable. We suggest use of arterial blood lactate level on admission as a bio-marker in patients with suspected sepsis admitted to the hospital for risk assessment and prediction of death within 24

  8. The 24 Hours before Hospitalization: Factors Related to Suicide Attempting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, John A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Psychiatric inpatients (N=59) were interviewd concerning psychological and environmental events that occurred in the 24 hours prior to their hospitalization. Suicide attempters were more likely to have used alcohol or marijuana and less likely to have contacted a health care professional than suicide ideators, even when past history of suicide…

  9. 24-hour rhythmicity of seizures in refractory focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Menezes Cordeiro, Inês; Santos, Ana Catarina; Peralta, Rita; Paiva, Teresa; Bentes, Carla

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence of seizures in specific types of epilepsies can follow a 24-hour nonuniform or nonrandom pattern. We described the 24-hour pattern of clinical seizures in patients with focal refractory epilepsy who underwent video-electroencephalography monitoring. Only patients who were candidates for epilepsy surgery with an unequivocal seizure focus were included in the study. A total of 544 seizures from 123 consecutive patients were analyzed. Specific time of seizures were distributed along 3- or 4-hour time blocks or bins throughout the 24-hour period. The mean age of the subjects was 37.7 years, with standard deviation of 11.5 years, median of 37. The majority were females (70/56%). The majority of patients had a seizure focus located in the mesial temporal lobe (102/83%) and in the neocortical temporal lobe (13/11%). The remaining patients had a seizure focus located in the extratemporal lobe (8/6%). The most common etiology was mesial temporal sclerosis (86/69.9%). Nonuniform seizure distribution was observed in seizures arising from the temporal lobe (mesial temporal lobe and neocortical temporal lobe), with two peaks found in both 3- and 4-hour bins: 10:00-13:00/16:00-19:00 and 08:00-12:00/16:00-20:00 respectively (p=0.004). No specific 24-hour pattern was identified in seizures from extratemporal location. The 24-hour rhythmicity of seizure distribution is recognized in certain types of epilepsy, but studies on the topic are scarce. Their replication and validation is therefore needed. Our study confirms the bimodal pattern of temporal lobe epilepsy independently of the nature of the lesion. However, peak times differ between different studies, suggesting that the ambient, rhythmic exogenous factors or environmental/social zeitgebers, may modulate the 24-hour rhythmicity of seizures. Characterization of these 24-hour patterns of seizure occurrence can influence diagnosis and treatment in selected types of epilepsy, such as the case of temporal lobe

  10. Is 24-hour Intraocular Pressure Monitoring Necessary in Glaucoma?

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Kaweh; Weinreb, Robert N.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2013-01-01

    Although intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only treatable risk factor for glaucoma, its 24-hour behavior is poorly understood. Conflicting information is available in the literature with regard to the importance and predictive value of IOP peaks and fluctuations on the risk of glaucoma development and progression. This may be secondary to lack of prospective studies designed to address this issue. This article critically reviews the current evidence for the importance of 24-h IOP measurements in glaucoma and discusses shortcomings of current methods to assess 24-h IOP data, drawing attention to new developments in this field. PMID:23697618

  11. Long-Term Continuous Ambulatory ECG Monitors and External Cardiac Loop Recorders for Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kabali, Conrad; Xie, Xuanqian; Higgins, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Background Ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG) monitors are often used to detect cardiac arrhythmia. For patients with symptoms, an external cardiac loop recorder will often be recommended. The improved recording capacity of newer Holter monitors and similar devices, collectively known as longterm continuous ambulatory ECG monitors, suggests that they will perform just as well as, or better than, external loop recorders. This health technology assessment aimed to evaluate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and budget impact of longterm continuous ECG monitors compared with external loop recorders in detecting symptoms of cardiac arrhythmia. Methods Based on our systematic search for studies published up to January 15, 2016, we did not identify any studies directly comparing the clinical effectiveness of longterm continuous ECG monitors and external loop recorders. Therefore, we conducted an indirect comparison, using a 24-hour Holter monitor as a common comparator. We used a meta-regression model to control for bias due to variation in device-wearing time and baseline syncope rate across studies. We conducted a similar systematic search for cost-utility and cost-effectiveness studies comparing the two types of devices; none were found. Finally, we used historical claims data (2006–2014) to estimate the future 5-year budget impact in Ontario, Canada, of continued public funding for both types of longterm ambulatory ECG monitors. Results Our clinical literature search yielded 7,815 non-duplicate citations, of which 12 cohort studies were eligible for indirect comparison. Seven studies assessed the effectiveness of longterm continuous monitors and five assessed external loop recorders. Both types of devices were more effective than a 24-hour Holter monitor, and we found no substantial difference between them in their ability to detect symptoms (risk difference 0.01; 95% confidence interval −0.18, 0.20). Using GRADE for network meta-analysis, we evaluated the

  12. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work-social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns.

  13. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work–social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns. PMID:23957268

  14. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Geoffrey L.; Zaharieva, Dessi; Basset, Fabien A.; Hynes, Zach

    2016-01-01

    Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (Tc) and cognitive test battery (CTB) performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature). Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold) were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease Tc after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5–1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance. PMID:27478839

  15. Preparation and results of a 24-hour orbital flight.

    PubMed

    Titov, G S

    1963-01-01

    The space age presents man with unprecedented opportunities for discovery and for cooperative endeavors to benefit all mankind. My flight of August 6-7, 1961 was conducted for the purpose of determining whether man can stay and work effectively and whether all systems of the spaceship can operate successfully during a period of 24 hours in space. The flight of Vostok II represents an experimental step in a logical sequence which included the first earth orbiting flight of USSR citizen Yuri A. Gagarin. Preparation for the flight included the study of theoretical and applied subjects, testing in various kinds of apparatus which provide acceleration, heat and isolation experience, brief airborne weightless flights and parachute landings, in addition to extensive training in a real spacecraft having simulators for normal and emergency contingencies of space flight. The actual flight was therefore carried out with a sense of confidence and familiarity and with continuous close radio contact with ground centers from whom my fellow cosmonauts served as spokesmen. Sequential boosters totaling 600 000 kg thrust placed the 4731 kg spaceship into a perfect orbit varying in altitude from 178-246 km in a plane 64 degrees 58' inclined to the equator. The spaceship made 17 orbits around the earth landing 25 hours, 18 minutes after take-off. The cabin had full atmospheric pressure and a comfortable habitability which could be extended for 10 days. I was able to maneuver the spaceship and perform many other control functions, make observations and take pictures of the earth and its cloud cover, eat meals and sleep all with good efficiency. I experienced mild symptoms suggestive of seasickness which were aggravated by head turning, ameliorated by sleep and entirely relieved by resumption of g-loading during descent. Altogether analyses of the physical and structural performance of the spaceship and the continuously monitored physiological responses of the pilot indicate that all

  16. The evolution of ambulatory ECG monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Harold L

    2013-01-01

    Ambulatory Holter electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring has undergone continuous technological evolution since its invention and development in the 1950s era. With commercial introduction in 1963, there has been an evolution of Holter recorders from 1 channel to 12 channel recorders with increasingly smaller storage media, and there has evolved Holter analysis systems employing increasingly technologically advanced electronics providing a myriad of data displays. This evolution of smaller physical instruments with increasing technological capacity has characterized the development of electronics over the past 50 years. Currently the technology has been focused upon the conventional continuous 24 to 48 hour ambulatory ECG examination, and conventional extended ambulatory monitoring strategies for infrequent to rare arrhythmic events. However, the emergence of the Internet, Wi-Fi, cellular networks, and broad-band transmission has positioned these modalities at the doorway of the digital world. This has led to an adoption of more cost-effective strategies to these conventional methods of performing the examination. As a result, the emergence of the mobile smartphone coupled with this digital capacity is leading to the recent development of Holter smartphone applications. The potential of point-of-care applications utilizing the Holter smartphone and a vast array of new non-invasive sensors is evident in the not too distant future. The Holter smartphone is anticipated to contribute significantly in the future to the field of global health.

  17. A comparison of overnight and 24 hour collection to measure urinary catecholamines.

    PubMed

    White, I R; Brunner, E J; Barron, J L

    1995-02-01

    The period of urine collection used to measure excretion of catecholamines varies in epidemiological practice. We set out to compare overnight with 24 hour collection. Twenty-four subjects each collected urine for 24 hours, with the overnight urine being separately collected. The correlation of overnight and 24 hour catecholamines was highest when both measures were standardised for creatinine excretion and when creatinine excretion was adjusted for urine flow rate. The observed correlations were 0.74 for dopamine, 0.81 for noradrenaline and 0.54 for adrenaline. The use of overnight collections may therefore require a sample size up to 1.5 times as large (for noradrenaline) or 3.4 times as large (for adrenaline) to achieve the same power as with 24 hour collections. However, the figures given exaggerate the advantage of 24 hour collections if these incorporate measurement errors that are not present in overnight collections.

  18. Aldosterone-to-Renin Ratio Is Associated With Reduced 24-Hour Heart Rate Variability and QTc Prolongation in Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Grübler, Martin R; Kienreich, Katharina; Gaksch, Martin; Verheyen, Nicolas; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; März, Winfried; Schmid, Johannes; Oberreither, Eva-Maria; Wetzel, Julia; Catena, Cristiana; Sechi, Leonardo A; Pieske, Burkert; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pilz, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Aldosterone is considered to exert direct effects on the myocardium and the sympathetic nervous system. Both QT time and heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) are considered to be markers of arrhythmic risk and autonomous dysregulation. In this study, we investigated the associations between aldosterone, QT time, and HRV in patients with arterial hypertension.We recruited 477 hypertensive patients (age: 60.2 ± 10.2 years; 52.3% females) with a mean systolic/diastolic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) value of 128 ± 12.8/77.1 ± 9.2 mmHg and with a median of 2 (IQR: 1-3) antihypertensive agents. Patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Department of Internal Medicine of the Medical University of Graz, Austria. Blood samples, 24-hour HRV derived from 24-hour blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and ECG's were obtained. Plasma aldosterone and plasma renin concentrations were measured by means of a radioimmunoassay. Twenty-four-hour urine specimens were collected in parallel with ABPM.Mean QTc was 423.3 ± 42.0 milliseconds for males and 434.7 ± 38.3 milliseconds for females. Mean 24H-HR and 24H-HRV was 71.9 ± 9.8 and 10.0 ± 3.6 bpm, respectively. In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, ABPM, and current medication, aldosterone to active renin ratio (AARR) was significantly associated with the QTc interval, a marker for cardiac repolarization abnormalities (mean = 426 ± 42.4 milliseconds; β-coefficient = 0.121; P = 0.03) as well as with the 24-hour heart rate variability a surrogate for autonomic dysfunction (median = 9.67 [IQR = 7.38-12.22 bpm]; β-coefficient = -0.133; P = 0.01).In hypertensive patients, AARR is significantly related to QTc prolongation as well as HRV. Further studies investigating the effects of mineralocorticoid receptor blocker and aldosterone synthase inhibitors on QTc and HRV are warranted.

  19. Optimal dose of oral omeprazole for maximal 24 hour decrease of intragastric acidity.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, B K; Walt, R P; Pounder, R E; Gomes, M D; Wood, E C; Logan, L H

    1984-01-01

    In a series of 59 experiments in nine duodenal ulcer patients, 24 hour intragastric acidity was measured before, during, and after treatment with daily oral omeprazole. Omeprazole 10, 20, and 30 mg/day for one week caused a 37, 90, and 97% decrease of 24 hour intragastric acidity, respectively. No further decrease of acidity was observed when the dose of omeprazole was doubled to 60 mg/day, or after a second week of treatment with 30 mg/day. One week after stopping treatment with omeprazole (14 doses) there was a significant 26% decrease of 24 hour intragastric acidity, with full recovery seven weeks later. Fasting plasma gastrin concentration was significantly raised during treatment with all doses of omeprazole. Omeprazole 30 mg/day is the optimal dose for a maximal decrease of 24 hour intragastric acidity in duodenal ulcer patients. PMID:6469081

  20. Comparison of anthropometric and training characteristics between recreational male marathoners and 24-hour ultramarathoners

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Of the anthropometry and training variables used to predict race performance in a 24-hour ultrarun, the personal best marathon time is the strongest predictor in recreational male 24-hour ultramarathoners. This finding raises the question of whether similarities exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners. Methods The association between age, anthropometric variables (ie, body mass, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, skeletal muscle mass, limb circumference, and skinfold thickness at the pectoral, mid axillary, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, front thigh, and medial calf sites), previous experience and training characteristics (ie, volume, speed, and personal best time), and race time for 79 male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and 126 male recreational marathoners was investigated using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results The 24-hour ultramarathoners were older (P < 0.05), had a lower circumference at both the upper arm (P < 0.05) and thigh (P < 0.01), and a lower skinfold thickness at the pectoral, axillary, and suprailiac sites (P < 0.05) compared with the marathoners. During training, the 24-hour ultramarathoners were running for more hours per week (P < 0.001) and completed more kilometers (P < 0.001), but were running slower (P < 0.01) compared with the marathoners. In the 24-hour ultramarathoners, neither anthropometric nor training variables were associated with kilometers completed in the race (P > 0.05). In the marathoners, percent body fat (P < 0.001) and running speed during training (P < 0.0001) were related to marathon race times. Conclusion In summary, differences in anthropometric and training predictor variables do exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners for race performance. PMID:24198595

  1. Insights about serum sodium behavior after 24 hours of continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Thiago Gomes; Martins, Cassia Pimenta Barufi; Mendes, Pedro Vitale; Besen, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro; Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Park, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratorial factors associated with serum sodium variation during continuous renal replacement therapy and to assess whether the perfect admixture formula could predict 24-hour sodium variation. Methods Thirty-six continuous renal replacement therapy sessions of 33 patients, in which the affluent prescription was unchanged during the first 24 hours, were retrieved from a prospective collected database and then analyzed. A mixed linear model was performed to investigate the factors associated with large serum sodium variations (≥ 8mEq/L), and a Bland-Altman plot was generated to assess the agreement between the predicted and observed variations. Results In continuous renal replacement therapy 24-hour sessions, SAPS 3 (p = 0.022) and baseline hypernatremia (p = 0.023) were statistically significant predictors of serum sodium variations ≥ 8mEq/L in univariate analysis, but only hypernatremia demonstrated an independent association (β = 0.429, p < 0.001). The perfect admixture formula for sodium prediction at 24 hours demonstrated poor agreement with the observed values. Conclusions Hypernatremia at the time of continuous renal replacement therapy initiation is an important factor associated with clinically significant serum sodium variation. The use of 4% citrate or acid citrate dextrose - formula A 2.2% as anticoagulants was not associated with higher serum sodium variations. A mathematical prediction for the serum sodium concentration after 24 hours was not feasible. PMID:27410407

  2. Agreement between 24-hour salt ingestion and sodium excretion in a controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Lerchl, Kathrin; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Rauh, Manfred; Goller, Ulrike; Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F; Beck, Luis; Agureev, Alexander; Larina, Irina; Baranov, Victor; Morukov, Boris; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Vassilieva, Galina; Wabel, Peter; Vienken, Jörg; Kirsch, Karl; Johannes, Bernd; Krannich, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Accurately collected 24-hour urine collections are presumed to be valid for estimating salt intake in individuals. We performed 2 independent ultralong-term salt balance studies lasting 105 (4 men) and 205 (6 men) days in 10 men simulating a flight to Mars. We controlled dietary intake of all constituents for months at salt intakes of 12, 9, and 6 g/d and collected all urine. The subjects' daily menus consisted of 27 279 individual servings, of which 83.0% were completely consumed, 16.5% completely rejected, and 0.5% incompletely consumed. Urinary recovery of dietary salt was 92% of recorded intake, indicating long-term steady-state sodium balance in both studies. Even at fixed salt intake, 24-hour urine collection for sodium excretion (UNaV) showed infradian rhythmicity. We defined a ±25 mmol deviation from the average difference between recorded sodium intake and UNaV as the prediction interval to accurately classify a 3-g difference in salt intake. Because of the biological variability in UNaV, only every other daily urine sample correctly classified a 3-g difference in salt intake (49%). By increasing the observations to 3 consecutive 24-hour collections and sodium intakes, classification accuracy improved to 75%. Collecting seven 24-hour urines and sodium intake samples improved classification accuracy to 92%. We conclude that single 24-hour urine collections at intakes ranging from 6 to 12 g salt per day were not suitable to detect a 3-g difference in individual salt intake. Repeated measurements of 24-hour UNaV improve precision. This knowledge could be relevant to patient care and the conduct of intervention trials.

  3. Asymptomatic rhythm and conduction abnormalities in children with acute rheumatic fever: 24-hour electrocardiography study.

    PubMed

    Karacan, Mehmet; Işıkay, Sedat; Olgun, Haşim; Ceviz, Naci

    2010-12-01

    Some rhythm and conduction abnormalities can occur in children with acute rheumatic fever. These abnormalities have been defined based on standard electrocardiography; however, the real prevalence of these abnormalities has not been investigated previously by the evaluation of long-term electrocardiographic recordings. In this study, we evaluated the asymptomatic rhythm and conduction abnormalities in children with acute rheumatic fever by evaluating the 24-hour electrocardiography. We evaluated the standard electrocardiography and the 24-hour electrocardiography of 64 children with acute rheumatic fever. On standard electrocardiography, the frequency of the first-degree atrioventricular block was found to be 21.9%. Electrocardiography at 24 hours detected three additional and separate patients with a long PR interval. Mobitz type I block and atypical Wenckebach periodicity were determined in one patient (1.56%) on 24-hour electrocardiography. While accelerated junctional rhythm was detected in three patients on standard electrocardiography, it was present in nine patients according to 24-hour electrocardiography. Premature contractions were present in 1.7% of standard electrocardiography, but in 29.7% of 24-hour electrocardiography. Absence of carditis was found to be related to the presence of accelerated junctional rhythm (p > 0.05), and the presence of carditis was found to be related to the presence of premature contractions (p = 0.000). In conclusion, our results suggest that in children with acute rheumatic fever, the prevalence of rhythm and conduction abnormalities may be much higher than determined on standard electrocardiography. Further studies are needed to clarify whether or not these abnormalities are specific to acute rheumatic fever.

  4. Continual 24-hour observations of thermospheric winds made with the SOFDI instrument from Huancayo, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerrard, Andrew; Meriwether, John W.

    The Second generation Optimized Fabry-Perot Doppler Imager (SOFDI), a state-of-the-art triple-etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer, has been sucessfully relocated to Huancayo, Peru and is making continual 24-hour observations. The 630-nm data, originating from layer-integrated OI emission with centroid heights of 250 km at night and 220 km during the day, are analyzed so as to obtain measurements of horizontal winds in the thermosphere. In this paper we report the most recent results from continuous 24-hour observations of these thermospheric parameters.

  5. 29 CFR 785.22 - Duty of 24 hours or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.22 Duty of 24 hours or more. (a) General. Where an... bona fide meal periods and a bona fide regularly scheduled sleeping period of not more than 8 hours from hours worked, provided adequate sleeping facilities are furnished by the employer and the...

  6. 29 CFR 785.22 - Duty of 24 hours or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.22 Duty of 24 hours or more. (a) General. Where an... bona fide meal periods and a bona fide regularly scheduled sleeping period of not more than 8 hours from hours worked, provided adequate sleeping facilities are furnished by the employer and the...

  7. 24-Hour Access: Responding to Students' Need for Late Library Hours at the University of Denver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Bethany B.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Denver's Penrose Library saw a substantial increase in use as a result of several new and enhanced services over a six-year period. In turn, longer operating hours and increased staffing for a 24-hours-a-day, five-days-a-week (24 x 5) operating schedule was funded. This case study analyzes student need for longer library hours…

  8. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  9. Mood-Dependent Cognitive Change in a Man with Bipolar Disorder Who Cycles Every 24 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Dominic; Mansell, Warren

    2008-01-01

    A case study of a bipolar patient whose mood changes every 24 hours is described to illustrate the changes in cognitive processing and content during different phases of bipolar disorder. The participant completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks on 4 separate occasions: twice when depressed and twice when manic. Depression tended to be…

  10. The Three-Continent, 24-Hour Help Desk: An Academic First?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Describes Follow the Sun, a computer help-desk service that takes advantage of time differences around the world to permit four universities (University of Colorado Boulder, Australia's Macquarie and Newcastle universities, and the London School of Economics) to share services and provide 24-hour support to users. (EV)

  11. 29 CFR 785.22 - Duty of 24 hours or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.22 Duty of 24 hours or more. (a) General. Where an... bona fide meal periods and a bona fide regularly scheduled sleeping period of not more than 8 hours from hours worked, provided adequate sleeping facilities are furnished by the employer and the...

  12. 29 CFR 785.22 - Duty of 24 hours or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.22 Duty of 24 hours or more. (a) General. Where an... bona fide meal periods and a bona fide regularly scheduled sleeping period of not more than 8 hours from hours worked, provided adequate sleeping facilities are furnished by the employer and the...

  13. 29 CFR 785.22 - Duty of 24 hours or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.22 Duty of 24 hours or more. (a) General. Where an... bona fide meal periods and a bona fide regularly scheduled sleeping period of not more than 8 hours from hours worked, provided adequate sleeping facilities are furnished by the employer and the...

  14. Impact of Different Normality Thresholds for 24-hour ABPM at the Primary Health Care Level

    PubMed Central

    Grezzana, Guilherme Brasil; Moraes, David William; Stein, Airton Tetelbon; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Primary health care (PHC) physicians should be prepared to act appropriately in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the rates of patients with control of blood pressure (BP) remain low. The impact of the reclassification of high BP by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) can lead to different medical decisions in PHC. Objective To evaluate the agreement between the BP measured by a conventional method by PHC physicians and by 24-hour ABPM, considering different BP normal thresholds for the 24-hour ABPM according to the V Brazilian ABPM Guidelines and the European Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Methods A cross-sectional study including 569 hypertensive patients. The BP was initially measured by the PHC physicians and, later, by 24-hour ABPM. The BP measurements were obtained independently between the two methods. The therapeutic targets for the conventional BP followed the guidelines by the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8), the V ABPM Brazilian Guidelines, and the 2013 European Hypertension Guidelines. Results There was an accuracy of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.51 - 0.58%) for the BP measured with the conventional method when compared with the 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 85% (95%CI 80.8 - 88.6%), specificity of 31.9% (95%CI 28.7 - 34.7%), and kappa value of 0.155, when considering the European Hypertension Guidelines. When using more stringent thresholds to characterize the BP as "normal" by ABPM, the accuracy was 45% (95%CI 0.41 - 0.47%) for conventional measurement when compared with 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 86.7% (95%CI 0.81 - 0.91%), specificity of 29% (95%CI 0.26 - 0.30%), and kappa value of 0.103. Conclusion The BP measurements obtained by PHC physicians showed low accuracy when compared with those obtained by 24-hour ABPM, regardless of the threshold set by the different guidelines. PMID:28099585

  15. 24 Hours of Sleep, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Activity with Nine Wearable Devices

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, Mary E.; Buman, Matthew P.; Haskell, William L.; McConnell, Michael V.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Getting enough sleep, exercising and limiting sedentary activities can greatly contribute to disease prevention and overall health and longevity. Measuring the full 24-hour activity cycle - sleep, sedentary behavior (SED), light intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) - may now be feasible using small wearable devices. PURPOSE This study compares nine devices for accuracy in 24-hour activity measurement. METHODS Adults (N=40, 47% male) wore nine devices for 24-hours: Actigraph GT3X+, activPAL, Fitbit One, GENEactiv, Jawbone Up, LUMOback, Nike Fuelband, Omron pedometer, and Z-Machine. Comparisons (to standards) were made for total sleep time (Z-machine), time spent in SED (activPAL), LPA (GT3x+), MVPA (GT3x+), and steps (Omron). Analysis included mean absolute percent error, equivalence testing, and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS Error rates ranged from 8.1–16.9% for sleep; 9.5–65.8% for SED; 19.7–28.0% for LPA; 51.8–92% for MVPA; and 14.1–29.9% for steps. Equivalence testing indicated only two comparisons were significantly equivalent to standards: the LUMOback for sedentary behavior and the GT3X+ for sleep. Bland-Altman plots indicated GT3X+ had the closest measurement for sleep, LUMOback for sedentary behavior, GENEactiv for LPA, Fitbit for MVPA and GT3X+ for steps. CONCLUSIONS Currently, no device accurately captures activity data across the entire 24-hour day, but the future of activity measurement should aim for accurate 24-hour measurement as a goal. Researchers should continue to select measurement devices based on their primary outcomes of interest. PMID:26484953

  16. Seasonal changes of 24-hour intraocular pressure rhythm in healthy Shanghai population

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jingyi; Xiao, Ming; Xu, Huan; Fang, Shaobin; Chen, Xu; Kong, Xiangmei; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythms in winter and summer in the healthy population of Shanghai, China. This is a cross-sectional study in which 24-hour IOP measurements were taken for all eligible healthy volunteers in winter and summer, respectively, and the temperature, hours of sunlight (sunlight time), and circulatory parameters, including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, were also recorded. The 24-hour IOP curves and IOP parameters (mean, peak, trough, and fluctuation of IOP together with the diurnal-to-nocturnal IOP change) in winter and summer were obtained and compared. The magnitude of IOP changes from summer to winter was also calculated. A total of 29 participants (58 eyes), 14 (48.28%) male and 15 (51.72%) female, aged 43.66 ± 12.20 (19–61) years, were considered eligible for this study. Generally, IOP decreased progressively before noon, increased notably in the nocturnal period, and peaked at 12:00 am in winter and at 2:00 am in summer. The pattern of 24-hour IOP in winter and summer was significantly different (P = 0.002). The average IOPs from 4:00 pm to 8:00 am, except for 6:00 am, were significantly higher in winter (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were shown after adjusting for temperature and/or sunlight time. From summer to winter, the extent of IOP increase was mostly around 0 to 3 mm Hg, and the IOPs increased more significantly in the nocturnal period than in the diurnal period (P = 0.05). The 24-hour IOP rhythms were different in winter and summer, with higher IOP level in winter. Temperature and sunlight time, which are independent of heart rate and blood pressure, affected the 24-hour IOP rhythms in healthy people in Shanghai, China. Further investigations are expected for the rhythm of some endogenous substance secretion and the inner mechanism of regulation of IOP. PMID:27495076

  17. Experiences of 24-hour advice line services: a framework for good practice and meeting NICE guidelines.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Sarah J; Codling, Jan; Roberts, Dai; O Donnell, Valerie; Taylor, Sue

    2009-06-01

    This article presents a framework for the practical implementation of a 24-hour specialist palliative care advice line, illustrated by two case examples from the authors' experience. In the UK, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidance requires provision of 24-hour access to specialist palliative care advice for healthcare professionals and carers regardless of a patient's location. Effective implementation of a telephone advice line for specialist advice is one approach to addressing the current variability in palliative care service provision, both in the UK and elsewhere. The authors were unable to identify a model with documentation for ensuring adequate clinical governance of an advice line in the literature and so present their own. The accompanying case examples demonstrate the difference between 'evolution of services by demand' and taking a systemic approach to service design. Key recommendations for practice are outlined for an effective advice line service which incorporates training and education into the clinical governance structures of the host organization.

  18. Pharmacist-physician co-management of hypertension reduces 24-hour ambulatory blood pressures

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Cynthia A.; Ernst, Michael E.; Sezate, Genesis S.; Zheng, Shimin; Carter, Barry L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacist-physician co-management of hypertension has been shown to improve office blood pressures (BP). We sought to describe the effect of such a model on 24-hour ambulatory BPs. Methods We performed a prospective, cluster-randomised controlled clinical trial in 179 patients with uncontrolled hypertension from five primary care clinics in Iowa City, Iowa. Patients were randomized by clinic to receive pharmacist-physician collaborative management of hypertension (intervention) or usual care (control) for a 9-month period. In the intervention group, pharmacists helped patients identify barriers to BP control, counselled on lifestyle and dietary modifications, and adjusted antihypertensive therapy in collaboration with the patient’s primary care provider. Patients were seen by pharmacists a minimum every 2 months. Ambulatory BP was obtained at baseline and study end. Results Baseline and end of study ambulatory BP profiles were evaluated for 175 patients. Ambulatory BPs were reduced to a greater extent in the intervention compared to control group (daytime ΔSBP [SD] 15.2[11.5] vs 5.5[13.5], p<0.001; nighttime ΔSBP [SD] 12.2[14.8] vs 3.4[13.3], p<0.001; 24-hour ΔSBP [SD] 14.1[11.3] vs 5.5[12.5], p<0.001). More patients in the intervention group had BP controlled at the end of the study (75% vs 50.7%, p<0.001) as defined by overall 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Conclusions Pharmacist-physician collaborative management of hypertension achieved consistent and significantly greater reduction in 24-hour BP and a high rate of BP control. PMID:20937921

  19. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deitrick, Ronald W.; Hillman, Angela R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK: 19172 ± 4542 kJ versus NoBK: 15312 ± 4513 kJ; p < 0.001) and evening (BK: 12265 ± 4278 kJ versus NoBK: 10833 ± 4065; p = 0.039) energy intake and RQ (BK: 0.90 ± 0.03 versus NoBK: 0.86 ± 0.03; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise (5.2 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L; p = 0.025). Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management. PMID:27738523

  20. Circadian polymorphisms in night owls, in bipolars, and in non-24-hour sleep cycles.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F; Klimecki, Walter T; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Rex, Katharine M; Murray, Sarah S; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J; Loving, Richard T; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F; Poceta, J Steven; Jamil, Shazia M; Kline, Lawrence E; Kelsoe, John R

    2014-10-01

    People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression.

  1. Iodine Excretion in 24-hour Urine Collection and Its Dietary Determinants in Healthy Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Uechi, Ken; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Since seaweed is a common component of the Japanese diet, iodine intake in Japanese is expected to be high. However, urinary iodine excretion, measured using 24-hour urine samples, and its dietary determinants are not known. Methods Apparently healthy adults aged 20 to 69 years living in 20 areas throughout Japan were recruited in February and March, 2013. Urinary iodine excretion was evaluated using 24-hour urine collected from 713 subjects (362 men and 351 women), and the difference among age groups was assessed. The association between dietary intake of food groups and urinary iodine excretion was assessed among 358 subjects who completed a semi-weighed 4-day diet record (DR) and urine collection. The correlations between iodine intake and iodine excretion were also evaluated, and correlation coefficients were calculated for iodine intake in the DR of the overlapping day or the DR 1 day before and after urine collection. Results Median iodine excretion in 24-hour urine was 365 µg, and excretion was significantly higher in older subjects. Iodine intake estimated by the DRs was significantly correlated with urinary iodine excretion when DRs and urine collection were obtained on the same day (r = 0.37). After adjustment for confounding factors, iodine excretion was significantly associated with intakes of kelp and soup stock from kelp and fish. Conclusions Although multiple measurements for urinary iodine are required to confirm our results, this study showed the current iodine status of healthy Japanese adults. The results suggest that kelp and fish are the main contributors to Japanese iodine status measured by 24-hour urine. PMID:27374137

  2. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  3. [24-hour energy metabolism in the human: circadian rhythm, relation to body weight and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Steiniger, J

    1985-04-15

    In 7 men with normal weight and 9 man with overweight and healthy metabolism the resting and fasting energy expenditure was indirectly calorimetrically pursued in the open system over 24 hours. The total energy expenditure over 24 hours revealed an ascertained dependence on body-weight and nutrition. The persons with overweight had a higher absolute energy expenditure, however, the activity of the energy metabolism of the body mass free from fat and the active body mass, respectively, decreased with increasing overweight. The resting and fasting energy expenditure showed in all measured parameters (oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient and nitrogen excretion in the urine) an ascertained daily periodicity (circadian rhythm), which was widely independent of body weight. Only the average daily level C0 (rhythm adjusted level) of the resting and fasting energy expenditure was positively correlated with the body weight and the food energy intake. A negative energy balance (reduction 1.2 MJ/d over 28 days) influenced only the total energy and substrate balance over 24 hours and the daily average level, respectively. The circadian conditions remained unchanged (Chossat's phenomenon). The variability in daily rhythm of the energy expenditure of nearly 25% of the daily average should be taken into consideration in the judgment of exogenically stimulated changes in the energy metabolism.

  4. Validation of triple pass 24-hour dietary recall in Ugandan children by simultaneous weighed food assessment

    PubMed Central

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Amorut, Denis; Nakuya, Margaret; Arimi, Margaret; Frost, Gary; Maitland, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition remains highly prevalent in African children, highlighting the need for accurately assessing dietary intake. In order to do so, the assessment method must be validated in the target population. A triple pass 24 hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation has been described but not previously validated in African children. This study aimed to establish the relative validity of 24-hour dietary recalls of daily food consumption in healthy African children living in Mbale and Soroti, eastern Uganda compared to simultaneous weighed food records. Methods Quantitative assessment of daily food consumption by weighed food records followed by two independent assessments using triple pass 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. In conjunction with household measures and standard food sizes, volumes of liquid, dry rice, or play dough were used to aid portion size estimation. Inter-assessor agreement, and agreement with weighed food records was conducted primarily by Bland-Altman analysis and secondly by intraclass correlation coefficients and quartile cross-classification. Results 19 healthy children aged 6 months to 12 years were included in the study. Bland-Altman analysis showed 24-hour recall only marginally under-estimated energy (mean difference of 149kJ or 2.8%; limits of agreement -1618 to 1321kJ), protein (2.9g or 9.4%; -12.6 to 6.7g), and iron (0.43mg or 8.3%; -3.1 to 2.3mg). Quartile cross-classification was correct in 79% of cases for energy intake, and 89% for both protein and iron. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the separate dietary recalls for energy was 0.801 (95% CI, 0.429-0.933), indicating acceptable inter-observer agreement. Conclusions Dietary assessment using 24-hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation resulted in similar and acceptable estimates of dietary intake compared with weighed food records and thus is considered a valid method for daily dietary intake assessment of

  5. Static stretching can impair explosive performance for at least 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Monoem; Dridi, Amir; Chtara, Moktar; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Behm, David; Chamari, Karim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static vs. dynamic stretching (DS) on explosive performances and repeated sprint ability (RSA) after a 24-hour delay. Sixteen young male soccer players performed 15 minutes of static stretching (SS), DS, or a no-stretch control condition (CC) 24 hours before performing explosive performances and RSA tests. This was a within-subject repeated measures study with SS, DS, and CC being counterbalanced. Stretching protocols included 2 sets of 7 minutes 30 seconds (2 repetitions of 30 seconds with a 15-second passive recovery) for 5 muscle groups (quadriceps, hamstring, calves, adductors, and hip flexors). Twenty-four hours later (without any kind of stretching in warm-up), the players were tested for the 30-m sprint test (with 10- and 20-m lap times), 5 jump test (5JT), and RSA test. Significant differences were observed between CC, SS, and DS with 5JT (F = 9.99, p < 0.00, effect size [ES] = 0.40), 10-m sprint time (F = 46.52, p < 0.00, ES = 0.76), 20-m sprint time (F = 18.44, p < 0.000, ES = 0.55), and 30-m sprint time (F = 34.25, p < 0.000, ES = 0.70). The significantly better performance (p < 0.05) was observed after DS as compared with that after CC and SS in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. In contrast, significantly worse performance (p < 0.05) was observed after SS as compared with that after CC in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. With RSA, no significant difference was observed between different stretching protocols in the total time (F = 1.55, p > 0.05), average time (F = 1.53, p > 0.05), and fastest time (F = 2.30, p > 0.05), except for the decline index (F = 3.54, p < 0.04, ES = 0.19). Therefore, the SS of the lower limbs and hip muscles had a negative effect on explosive performances up to 24 hours poststretching with no major effects on the RSA. Conversely, the DS of the same muscle groups are highly recommended 24 hours before performing sprint and long-jump performances. In

  6. Treating allergic conjunctivitis: A once-daily medication that provides 24-hour symptom relief

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Jack; Donnenfeld, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is a common ocular inflammatory manifestation of allergen exposure in sensitized individuals. Signs and symptoms of AC can decrease quality of life, interfere with productivity, and lead to considerable economic burden. Consistent suppression of conjunctival inflammation is necessary for managing AC, but currently available medications require frequent administration and exhibit limited duration of action. Methods: In this review, we summarized AC pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment options as well as their limitations. Findings from the literature were discussed in the context of the unmet need for a once-daily medication with sustained 24-hour effectiveness. Results: Topical pharmacologic treatments are the most common approach for managing extant AC; however, most available medications require multiple daily instillations. Dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizing agents are currently considered first-line therapeutics for AC because they provide acute relief of signs and symptoms and block persistent inflammation to promote regression of AC. Recent studies of a newly-developed, higher-concentration formulation of a dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizer have demonstrated that this formulation provides a 24-hour duration of action with once-daily dosing. Conclusions: Dual-acting AC medications exhibit a high degree of overall effectiveness and are well tolerated for chronic use. A newly available once-daily medication that manages signs and symptoms of AC for a full 24 hours may be considered a treatment of choice for patients experiencing seasonal or perennial AC. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01743027 and NCT01479374 PMID:27466061

  7. Bioenergetical and Cardiac Adaptations of Pilots to a 24-Hour Team Kart Race.

    PubMed

    Durand, Sylvain; Ripamonti, Michael; Rahmani, Abderrahmane; Beaune, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate (HR) response in kart pilots to successive driving bouts during a 24-hour team race. Eight adult male pilots (22.8 ± 4.1 years) participated to a team 24-hour speedway kart race in Le Mans (France). They alternatively piloted a 390 cm kart. Each relay was 45 minutes long and each pilot performed 4 relays. For each pilot, mean speeds were calculated from lap-to-lap duration recordings using a telemetric infrared timing device. Heart rate values were recorded continuously on 5-second intervals using a portable cardiometric device. Total energy expenditure (EET) and physical activity ratio (PAR) were determined by accelerometry. To pilot a kart during 45 minutes at a mean speed around 62 km·h induces a 300-kcal EET, corresponding to a 5.6-Mets PAR. This effort is responsive for a 73 b·min increase in HR, from 84.1 ± 7.6 to 157.4 ± 11.0 b·min (82% maximal heart rate intensity). However, during this relay period, HR values seemed independent to mean speed performance and bioenergetical values. Thus, in the context of the 24-hour team race, the variability in effort made during each relay and relay succession did not alter bioenergetical adaptation of pilots to kart driving. The high EE and HR values would be better explained by both emotional stress and environmental constraints such as speedway configuration and vibrations. The way how these factors specifically influence bioenergetical demand, and their relative importance, has to be specified to optimize training procedure and recommendations.

  8. Heterogeneity of Prognostic Studies of 24-Hour Blood Pressure Variability: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kathryn S.; Heneghan, Carl J.; Stevens, Richard J.; Adams, Emily C.; Nunan, David; Ward, Alison

    2015-01-01

    In addition to mean blood pressure, blood pressure variability is hypothesized to have important prognostic value in evaluating cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of blood pressure variability within 24 hours. Using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library to April 2013, we conducted a systematic review of prospective studies of adults, with at least one year follow-up and any day, night or 24-hour blood pressure variability measure as a predictor of one or more of the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, all cardiovascular events, stroke and coronary heart disease. We examined how blood pressure variability is defined and how its prognostic use is reported. We analysed relative risks adjusted for covariates including the appropriate mean blood pressure and considered the potential for meta-analysis. Our analysis of methods included 24 studies and analysis of predictions included 16 studies. There were 36 different measures of blood pressure variability and 13 definitions of night- and day-time periods. Median follow-up was 5.5 years (interquartile range 4.2–7.0). Comparing measures of dispersion, coefficient of variation was less well researched than standard deviation. Night dipping based on percentage change was the most researched measure and the only measure for which data could be meaningfully pooled. Night dipping or lower night-time blood pressure was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events. The interpretation and use in clinical practice of 24-hour blood pressure variability, as an important prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events, is hampered by insufficient evidence and divergent methodologies. We recommend greater standardisation of methods. PMID:25984791

  9. Heterogeneity of prognostic studies of 24-hour blood pressure variability: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kathryn S; Heneghan, Carl J; Stevens, Richard J; Adams, Emily C; Nunan, David; Ward, Alison

    2015-01-01

    In addition to mean blood pressure, blood pressure variability is hypothesized to have important prognostic value in evaluating cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of blood pressure variability within 24 hours. Using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library to April 2013, we conducted a systematic review of prospective studies of adults, with at least one year follow-up and any day, night or 24-hour blood pressure variability measure as a predictor of one or more of the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, all cardiovascular events, stroke and coronary heart disease. We examined how blood pressure variability is defined and how its prognostic use is reported. We analysed relative risks adjusted for covariates including the appropriate mean blood pressure and considered the potential for meta-analysis. Our analysis of methods included 24 studies and analysis of predictions included 16 studies. There were 36 different measures of blood pressure variability and 13 definitions of night- and day-time periods. Median follow-up was 5.5 years (interquartile range 4.2-7.0). Comparing measures of dispersion, coefficient of variation was less well researched than standard deviation. Night dipping based on percentage change was the most researched measure and the only measure for which data could be meaningfully pooled. Night dipping or lower night-time blood pressure was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events. The interpretation and use in clinical practice of 24-hour blood pressure variability, as an important prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events, is hampered by insufficient evidence and divergent methodologies. We recommend greater standardisation of methods.

  10. Lack of effect of a 24-hour infusion of iloprost in intermittent claudication.

    PubMed

    Hay, C R; Waller, P C; Carter, C; Cameron, H A; Parnell, L; Ramsay, L E; Preston, F E; Greaves, M

    1987-04-15

    24 hour infusion of iloprost was compared with placebo infusion in 19 patients with stable intermittent claudication using a double blind, balanced crossover design. Despite significant inhibition of platelet aggregation to ADP and collagen (p less than 0.001) and the typical cardiovascular and gastrointestinal side effects, there was no significant effect on treadmill exercise times at any time up to 6 weeks after infusion. The 95% confidence limits indicated that an improvement of more than 25% was unlikely to occur. No significant changes in B thromboglobulin, platelet aggregate ratio, bleeding time, whole blood viscosity and euglobulin clot lysis time were demonstrated.

  11. [The changes in mental working capacity of operators during 24-hour shift work conditions].

    PubMed

    Kal'nysh, V V; Shvets', A V; Ieshchenko, O I

    2011-01-01

    Psychophysiological peculiarities of influence of a 24-hour shift work on the efficiency of operators have been discussed. It was shown that servicemen operators develop significant fatigue as a result of 24 hrs duty services. The informative psychophysiological characteristics which can be reliable indicators of fatigue level are highlighted. Individual psychophysiological indicators of fatigue level, according to different mechanisms of its development, have been proposed. The hypothesis about the existence of several compensatory mechanisms for maintenance of long duty operators' working capacity has been formulated.

  12. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  13. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. PMID:27525110

  14. Physician-pharmacist co-management and 24-hour blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ziqian; Ernst, Michael E; Ardery, Gail; Xu, Yinghui; Carter, Barry L

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare indices of 24-hour blood pressure (BP) following a physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention and to describe the associated changes in antihypertensive medications. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective, cluster-randomized clinical trial conducted in 6 family medicine clinics randomized to co-managed (n=3 clinics, 176 patients) or control (n=3 clinics, 198 patients) groups. Mean ambulatory systolic BP (SBP) was significantly lower in the co-managed vs the control group: daytime BP 122.8 mm Hg vs 134.4 mm Hg (P<.001); nighttime SBP 114.8 mm Hg vs 123.7 mm Hg (P<.001); and 24-hour SBP 120.4 mm Hg vs 131.8 mm Hg (P<.001), respectively. Significantly more drug changes were made in the co-managed than in the control group (2.7 vs 1.1 changes per patient, P<.001), and there was greater diuretic use in co-managed patients (79.6% vs 62.6%, P<.001). Ambulatory BPs were significantly lower for the patients who had a diuretic added during the first month compared with those who never had a diuretic added (P<.01). Physician-pharmacist co-management significantly improved ambulatory BP compared with the control group. Antihypertensive drug therapy was intensified much more for patients in the co-managed group.

  15. Deviation of innate circadian period from 24 hours reduces longevity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Libert, Sergiy; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Pointer, Kelli; Pletcher, Scott D.; Guarente, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Summary The variation of individual lifespans, even in highly inbred cohorts of animals and under strictly controlled environmental conditions, is substantial and not well understood. This variation in part could be due to epigenetic variation, which later affects the animal’s physiology and ultimately longevity. Identification of the physiological properties that impact health and lifespan is crucial for longevity research and the development of anti-aging therapies. Here we measured individual circadian and metabolic characteristics in a cohort of inbred F1 hybrid mice and correlated these parameters to their lifespans. We found that mice with innate circadian periods close to 24 hours (revealed during 30 days of housing in total darkness) enjoyed nearly 20% longer lifespans than their littermates, which had shorter or longer innate circadian periods. These findings show that maintenance of a 24 hour intrinsic circadian period is a positive predictor of longevity. Our data suggest that circadian period may be used to predict individual longevity and that processes that control innate circadian period affect aging. PMID:22702406

  16. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m(2), had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab(®) device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens(®) algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for "24-hour", "awake", and "asleep" periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects.

  17. Validity of 24-hour dietary recall interviews conducted among volunteers in an adult working community.

    PubMed

    Kahn, H A; Whelton, P K; Appel, L J; Kumanyika, S K; Meneses, J L; Hebert, P R; Woods, M

    1995-11-01

    There is considerable uncertainty regarding the validity of dietary data collected from free-living populations. Nevertheless, few attempts have been made to validate dietary assessment instruments. To address this issue, we compared average daily protein intake estimated from 24-hour dietary recall interviews to protein intake estimated from urinary nitrogen excretion in 24-hour samples. Among 244 community-dwelling adults who volunteered for a hypertension study, men (n = 139) overreported dietary protein intake by 12 to 19%. In contrast, women (n = 105) reported a dietary protein intake almost exactly in agreement with estimates based on urinary nitrogen levels. Thin men reported about one-third more protein intake than was reflected in their urinary nitrogen measurements. Our results suggest that the accuracy of dietary recall estimates may vary across subgroups of the population. Additional information from sufficiently large validation studies would be helpful in determining the role of dietary assessment instruments which are already in wide use in epidemiologic research. Until such information is obtained, doubts will remain regarding the validity of inferences drawn from nutritional epidemiologic studies.

  18. ECG (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG) is used extensively in the diagnosis of heart disease, ranging from congenital heart disease in infants to myocardial infarction and myocarditis in adults. Several different types of ...

  19. Effects of a canine Elizabethan collar on ambulatory electrocardiogram recorded by a Holter recording system and spontaneous activities measured continuously by an accelerometer in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Tokuriki, M

    2000-05-01

    Ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) has been recorded in dogs wearing a jacket to protect a Holter recording system, but the jacket was often damaged by dogs. We compared ECG recorded by a Holter recording system and spontaneous activity measured by an accelerometer in Beagle dogs with or without an Elizabethan collar. There were few significant differences in mean values (per hr) of the heart rate and the amount of spontaneous activity between dogs with or without the Elizabethan collar. Mean values (per 23 hr) of them had no significant difference between them. We concluded that the Elizabethan collar did not have any effect on ambulatory ECG and canine movements and was effective to protect the recording apparatus.

  20. Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Normal and Abnormal 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, P.; Stevenson, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) plays an important role in assessing cardiovascular prognosis, through presence or absence of ABPM-related prognostic features. Objectives. To study relationship between 24-hour ABPM and cardiovascular outcomes in patients from Chesterfield Royal Hospital. Material and Methods. Over 12 months from the 1st of August 2002, 1187 individuals had 24-hour ABPM performed. Cardiovascular outcomes were studied in a subset (297) of the original cohort, made up by every 4th consecutive subject. The following ABPM-related prognostic features were studied—high day time systolic and diastolic BP (≥135, ≥85 mmHg), high night time systolic and diastolic BP (≥120 mmHg, ≥75 mmHg), absence of nocturnal dip (≤10% fall in night time SBP), high early morning SBP (≥140 mmHg), and morning surge (≥20/15 mmHg). The cardiovascular outcomes studied in the fourth table included fatal and nonfatal MI, new diagnosis of angina, acute coronary syndrome, sudden cardiac death, cardiac arrhythmias, acute LVF, cerbrovascular events, peripheral vascular disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and CKD stage 3 or above. Results. Over a followup period of 2015 ± 116 days (1720–2305 days) 82 cardiovascular events occurred in 61 subjects. Cardiac arrhythmias were the most common CV outcome (34 events) followed by cerebrovascular events (15). Statistically significant associations found were between cerebrovascular events and absent nocturnal dip ≤ 10% (P = .05) and high day time DBP (P = .029), peripheral vascular disease and morning surge ≥ 20/15 mmHg (P = .014), cardiac arrhythmias and high day time and night time DBP (P = .009 and .033, resp.). Conclusion. Significant associations were found between cerebrovascular events and absent nocturnal dip ≤ 10% and high day time DBP, peripheral vascular disease and morning surge ≥ 20/15 mmHg, cardiac arrhythmias and high day time and night time DBP. PMID

  1. Comparison of 24-hour intragastric pH using four liquid formulations of lansoprazole and omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K

    1999-12-01

    The results of previous studies evaluating the effect of four liquid formulations of proton-pump inhibitors on 24-hour intragastric pH are described. Patients with a gastrostomy who were resident in a Veterans Affairs medical center or its affiliated nursing home were eligible for enrollment in one of four open-label studies in which each patient served as his own control. Patients underwent 24-hour intragastric pH studies before and after receiving seven consecutive days of one of the following liquid formulations of a proton-pump inhibitor administered once daily: omeprazole granules 20 mg in orange juice, lansoprazole granules 30 mg in orange juice, simplified omeprazole suspension 20 mg, and simplified lansoprazole suspension 30 mg. The suspensions were prepared with 10 mL of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate solution. Mean intragastric pH was measured, as was the time pH stayed above 3.0 and 4.0 during the 24-hour period. Six to 14 patients participated in each study. The mean posttreatment pH was 4.9+/-0.8, 4.7+/-0.6, 4.1+/-1.5, and 5.1+/-1.1 for omeprazole granules in orange juice, lansoprazole granules in orange juice, simplified omeprazole suspension, and simplified lansoprazole suspension, respectively. Both drugs in orange juice maintained pH above 4.0 longer than 14 hours and above 3.0 for close to 20 hours, which are the levels deemed optimal for healing erosive esophagitis and duodenal ulcers, respectively. Simplified lansoprazole suspension maintained pH above those thresholds for the optimal times, but simplified omeprazole suspension did not (20 and 15 hr above 3.0, 17 and 12 hr above 4.0 for lansoprazole and omeprazole, respectively). Further development of liquid formulations of proton-pump inhibitors may have important implications for the treatment of acid-related diseases in patients, including children, who are unable to swallow capsules.

  2. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations: the INTERSALT study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie; Cogswell, Mary E; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

    2013-06-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984-1987 at the ages of 20-59 years from 29 North American and European samples. Participants were randomly assigned to test or validation data sets. Equations derived from casual urinary sodium concentration and other variables in the test data were applied to the validation data set. Correlations between observed and estimated 24-hour sodium excretion were 0.50 for individual men and 0.51 for individual women; the values were 0.79 and 0.71, respectively, for population samples. Bias in mean values (observed minus estimated) was small; for men and women, the values were -1.6 mmol per 24 hours and 2.3 mmol per 24 hours, respectively, at the individual level and -1.8 mmol per 24 hours and 2.2 mmol per 24 hours, respectively, at the population level. Proportions of individuals with urinary 24-hour sodium excretion above the recommended levels were slightly overestimated by the models. Casual urine specimens may be a useful, low-burden, low-cost alternative to 24-hour urine collections for estimation of population sodium intakes; ongoing calibration with study-specific 24-hour urinary collections is recommended to increase validity.

  3. Setting Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for 1 hour or 24 hour contingency exposures to airborne chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Hector D.; Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Since the early years of the manned space program, NASA has developed and used exposure limits called Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) to help protect astronauts from airborne toxicants. Most of these SMACS are based on an exposure duration of 7 days, since this is the duration of a 'typical' mission. A set of 'contingency SMACs' is also being developed for scenarios involving brief (1-hour or 24- hour) exposures to relatively high levels of airborne toxicants from event-related 'contingency' releases of contaminants. The emergency nature of contingency exposures dictates the use of different criteria for setting exposure limits. The NASA JSC Toxicology Group recently began a program to document the rationales used to set new SMACs and plans to review the older, 7-day SMACs. In cooperation with the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology, a standard procedure has been developed for researching, setting, and documenting SMAC values.

  4. New method for assessing cardiac parasympathetic activity using 24 hour electrocardiograms.

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, D J; Neilson, J M; Travis, P

    1984-01-01

    Cardiac parasympathetic activity was assessed using 24 hour electrocardiographic recordings by measuring the incidence of larger changes in successive RR intervals, which in normal subjects occur frequently but irregularly. In 25 normal subjects the mean number of times per hour in which the change in successive RR interval was greater than 50 ms was 150-250 during waking and 350-450 during sleeping. By contrast, 30 diabetics with medically denervated hearts (12 with cardiovascular reflex evidence of parasympathetic damage and 18 with additional sympathetic damage) and six cardiac transplant patients with surgically denervated hearts had extremely low counts. Additionally, of 20 diabetics with normal cardiovascular reflexes, about half had abnormally low counts, suggesting that this method is better than currently available reflex tests in detecting early cardiac parasympathetic damage. This technique provides a valid and sensitive way of monitoring cardiac parasympathetic activity over prolonged periods. PMID:6383446

  5. After 24-hour scrub, another tower rollback for the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    As tower rollback begins, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for the second launch attempt at 4:04 p.m. EST. The original launch was scrubbed on Feb. 6 for 24 hours. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  6. The Cardiac Safety Research Consortium ECG database.

    PubMed

    Kligfield, Paul; Green, Cynthia L

    2012-01-01

    The Cardiac Safety Research Consortium (CSRC) ECG database was initiated to foster research using anonymized, XML-formatted, digitized ECGs with corresponding descriptive variables from placebo- and positive-control arms of thorough QT studies submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) by pharmaceutical sponsors. The database can be expanded to other data that are submitted directly to CSRC from other sources, and currently includes digitized ECGs from patients with genotyped varieties of congenital long-QT syndrome; this congenital long-QT database is also linked to ambulatory electrocardiograms stored in the Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW). Thorough QT data sets are available from CSRC for unblinded development of algorithms for analysis of repolarization and for blinded comparative testing of algorithms developed for the identification of moxifloxacin, as used as a positive control in thorough QT studies. Policies and procedures for access to these data sets are available from CSRC, which has developed tools for statistical analysis of blinded new algorithm performance. A recently approved CSRC project will create a data set for blinded analysis of automated ECG interval measurements, whose initial focus will include comparison of four of the major manufacturers of automated electrocardiographs in the United States. CSRC welcomes application for use of the ECG database for clinical investigation.

  7. Low correlation between visit-to-visit variability and 24-hour variability of blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi; Diaz, Keith M.; Newman, Jonathan; Sloan, Richard P.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of clinic systolic blood pressure (SBP) has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Given the need for obtaining blood pressure (BP) at multiple visits to calculate VVV, substituting BP variability from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) may be a practical alternative. We assessed the correlation between VVV of BP and BP variability from ABPM using data from 146 untreated, mostly normotensive participants (mean age 47.9 years) in a substudy of the ongoing Masked Hypertension Study. VVV of SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was estimated by the standard deviation (SDvvv) and average real variability (ARVvvv) from 6 study visits over a median of 216 days. ABPM data were used to calculate the day-night SD (SDdn) and the ARV of SBP and DBP over 24 hours (ARV24). For SBP, the mean SDvvv and SDdn were 6.3 (SD=2.5) and 8.8 (SD=1.8) mmHg, respectively, and mean ARVvvv and ARV24 were 7.2 (SD=3.2) and 8.4 (SD=2.1) mmHg, respectively. The Spearman correlation coefficient between SDvvv and SDdn of SBP was rs=0.25 and between ARVvvv and ARV24 was rs=0.17. Participants in the highest quartile of SDdn of SBP were 1.66 (95% CI: 0.93 – 2.75) times more likely to be in the highest quartile of SDvvv of SBP. The observed-to-expected ratio between the highest quartiles of ARVvvv and ARV24 of SBP was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.41 – 1.69). The correlations for SDvvv and SDdn and ARVvvv and ARV24 of DBP were minimal. These data suggest VVV and 24-hour variability are weakly correlated and not interchangeable. PMID:23784506

  8. Mice increased target biting behaviors 24 hours after co-administration of alcohol and fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Ping Chao; Matray-Devoti, Judith; Fisher, Hans; Wagner, George C

    2017-02-10

    Increased alcohol consumption has been linked to social isolation. Individuals showed heightened aggression following social isolation. Animals treated with alcohol following social separation showed higher aggression and lower serotonin transmission. Although reduced serotonin transmission in the brain may be related to alcohol induced heightened aggression, it remains unclear whether there are specific brain regions where changes in serotonin transmission are critical for animal aggression following alcohol treatment. In the present study, we isolated mice for 4 - 6 weeks and injected them with alcohol, fluoxetine and alcohol with fluoxetine. We studied their aggression by using two types of behavioral paradigms: isolation-induced attack behavior towards a naïve mouse in a neutral cage, or shock-induced target biting aggression. We observed that alcohol administered at 500 mg/kg significantly increased animal attack behaviors towards naïve mice 30 minutes after injections. This dose of alcohol co-administered with a low dose of fluoxetine (2 mg/kg) further increased the attack behaviors, but with higher doses of fluoxetine decreased the attack behaviors. Alcohol administered at a dose of 1,000 mg/kg significantly decreased the shock-induced target biting rates 24 hours after injections. Interestingly, we observed a significant increase in target biting rates when alcohol was co-administered with fluoxetine at a dose of 16 mg/kg 24 hours after injections. We also observed the same heightened target biting rates when animals were injected with fluoxetine alone. This heightened biting attack engendered by the fluoxetine (alone or in combination with the alcohol) occurred at a time when brain serotonin activity was reduced by these drugs in the frontal lobe and hypothalamus. These observations indicate that heightened biting attack behavior may be associated with reduced serotonergic activity in brain regions regulating aggression.

  9. Effects of exenatide and liraglutide on 24-hour glucose fluctuations in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Jo; Yamakawa, Tadashi; Taguri, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Hirohisa; Shigematsu, Erina; Suzuki, Jun; Morita, Satoshi; Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of short-term treatment with exenatide twice daily or liraglutide once daily on daily blood glucose fluctuations in 40 patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by sulfonylureas. The patients in a multicenter, open-label trial were randomly assigned to receive add-on exenatide (10 μg/day, n = 21) or add-on liraglutide (0.3-0.9 mg/day, n = 19), and underwent 24-hour continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring. There was no significant between-group difference in glucose fluctuations during the day, as assessed by calculating mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) and standard deviation (SD). However, the mean blood glucose levels at 3 hours after breakfast and dinner were significantly lower in the exenatide group than the liraglutide group (breakfast: 127.3 ± 24.1 vs. 153.4 ± 28.7 mg/dL; p = 0.006, dinner: 108.7 ± 17.3 vs. 141.9 ± 24.2 mg/dL; p < 0.001). In contrast, mean blood glucose levels and their SD were significantly lower between 0000 h and 0600 h in the liraglutide group than the exenatide group (average glucose: 126.9 ± 27.1 vs. 107.1 ± 24.0 mg/dL; p = 0.029, SD: 15.2 ± 10.5 vs. 8.7 ± 3.8; p = 0.020). Both groups had similar glucose fluctuations despite differences in 24-hour blood glucose profiles. Therefore, each of these agents may have advantages or disadvantages and should be selected according to the blood glucose profile of the patient.

  10. The effect of Operation 24 Hours on reducing collision in the City of Edmonton.

    PubMed

    Halim, Siana; Jiang, Heming

    2013-09-01

    In the City of Edmonton, in order to reduce the prevalence of collisions, the Operation 24 Hours program (OPS24) was developed by using existing police and transportation services resources. The program uses traditional manned police speed enforcement method, which are supplemented by traffic safety messages displayed on permanent and mobile dynamic messaging signs (DMS). In this paper, collision data analysis was performed by looking at the daily number of collisions from 2008 to 2011 that covers 28 Operation 24 Hours (OPS24) events. The objective of the collision data analysis is to analyze if there is a reduction in collision frequencies after OPS24 was held and examined how long the collision reduction effect last. Weather factors such as temperature, thickness of snow, and wind gust have been considered by many as a great influence on collision occurrences, especially in a city with long and cold winter such as Edmonton. Therefore, collision modeling was performed by considering these external weather factors. To analyze the linear and periodic trend of different collision types (injury, fatal, and property damage only (PDO)) and examine the influence of weather factors on collisions, negative binomial time series model that accounts for seasonality and weather factors was used to model daily collision data. The modeling also considered collision proportion to account for missing traffic volume data; the Gaussian time series model that accounts for seasonality and weather factors was used to model collision proportion. To estimate the collision trend and test for changes in collision levels before/after OPS24, interrupted time series model with segmented regression was used. While for estimating how long the effect of the OPS24 last, change point method was applied.

  11. Estimation of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Moo-Yong; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Sung-Joon; Gu, Namyi; Nah, Deuk-Young; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Cho, Eun-Joo; Sung, Ki-Chul

    2014-06-20

    The present study evaluated the reliability of equations using spot urine (SU) samples in the estimation of 24-hour urine sodium excretion (24-HUNa). Equations estimating 24-HUNa from SU samples were derived from first-morning SU of 101 participants (52.4 ± 11.1 years, range 24-70 years). Equations developed by us and other investigators were validated with SU samples from a separate group of participants (n = 224, 51.0 ± 10.9 years, range 24-70 years). Linear, quadratic, and cubic equations were derived from first-morning SU samples because these samples had a sodium/creatinine ratio having the highest correlation coefficient for 24-HUNa/creatinine ratio (r = 0.728, p < 0.001). In the validation group, the estimated 24-HUNa showed significant correlations with measured 24-HUNa values. The estimated 24-HUNa by the linear, quadratic, and cubic equations developed from our study were not significantly different from measured 24-HUNa, while estimated 24-HUNa by previously developed equations were significantly different from measured 24-HUNa values. The limits of agreement between measured and estimated 24-HUNa by six equations exceeded 100 mmol/24-hour in the Bland-Altman analysis. All equations showed a tendency of under- or over-estimation of 24-HUNa, depending on the level of measured 24-HUNa. Estimation of 24-HUNa from single SU by equations as tested in the present study was found to be inadequate for the estimation of an individual's 24-HUNa.

  12. Dietary restraint and disinhibition do not affect accuracy of 24-hour recall in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Desmond, Renee Ann; Allison, David B; Conway, Joan Marie

    2006-03-01

    Some psychological predictors of eating behaviors have been shown to affect usefulness of methods for dietary assessment. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the association of dietary restraint and disinhibition with dietary recall accuracy for total energy, fat, carbohydrate, and protein. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 79 male and 71 female non-Hispanic whites and African-American volunteers. Participants selected and consumed all foods for a 1-day period under observation and actual intake was determined. The following day, each participant completed a telephone 24-hour recall using the US Department of Agriculture Multiple-Pass method to obtain recalled intake. The Eating Inventory, which measures dietary restraint and disinhibition, was administered prior to eating any food in the study. Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to determine if dietary restraint or disinhibition were independent predictors of recall accuracy. The mean (+/-standard deviation) age and body mass index of the participants was 43+/-12 years and 29+/-5.5 (calculated as kg/m2), respectively. On average, men overreported intake of energy by 265 kcal and women by 250 kcal; both groups also overreported intake of protein, carbohydrate, and fat. When controlling for body mass index, sex, and race, restraint was a significant independent predictor of energy intake (P=0.004) and negatively correlated with energy intake (r=-0.23, P<0.001). Unlike intake of carbohydrate or protein, fat intake was significantly and negatively associated with dietary restraint (P<0.001; r=-0.3). Dietary restraint did not affect accuracy of recall of intake of energy, fat, carbohydrate, or protein, but was significantly associated with intake of energy and fat. Disinhibition was not related to intake or accuracy. Dietetics professionals should consider dietary restraint a possible reason for a lower than expected estimate of energy intake when using 24-hour recalls.

  13. Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours Maps and Data of Model-Based Small Area Estimates - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours is defined as a person 18 years of age or older who must have reported smoking at least 100 cigarettes in his/her life, and now does not smoke at all but it has been less than 365 days since completely stopped smoking cigarettes, or now smoke everyday or some days but reported that have made attempt of quitting for more than 24 hours in the past 12 months.

  14. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  15. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited – A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P.; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light–dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (“master clock”) of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli (“zeitgebers”), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5–0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy

  16. Low mean impedance in 24-hour tracings and esophagitis in children: a strong connection.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, S; Salvatoni, A; Ummarino, D; Ghanma, A; Van der Pol, R; Rongen, A; Fuoti, M; Meneghin, F; Benninga, M Alexander; Vandenplas, Y

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal multiple intraluminal impedance baseline is an additional impedance parameter that was recently related to esophageal integrity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between mean esophageal impedance value and endoscopic findings in a large group of children. Children with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux submitted to both endoscopy and impedance were included. Esophagitis was graded according to the Los Angeles classification. Mean impedance value was automatically calculated over 24-hour tracings. Data were adjusted for age through z-score transformation using percentiles normalized by the LMS (Lambda for the skew, Mu for the median, and Sigma for the generalized coefficient of variation) method. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, multiple, and stepwise regression were used. P-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. A total of 298 impedance tracings were analyzed. Endoscopic and histological esophagitis were detected in 30 and 29% patients, respectively. Median baseline z-score was significantly decreased both in proximal (P = 0.02) and distal (P = 0.01) esophagus in patients with endoscopic (but not histological) esophagitis. Patients with more severe esophagitis showed the lowest z-score. Bolus exposure index and the number of reflux episodes were the variables that were significantly associated with the baseline z-score. Impedance z-score is significantly decreased in infants and children with endoscopic esophagitis. Severity of esophagitis, bolus exposure index, and number of reflux episodes are factors influencing mean esophageal impedance.

  17. Deep venous thrombophlebitis: detection with 4-hour versus 24-hour platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Ponto, J.A.; Kimball, D.A.; Frey, E.E.; Ahmed, F.; Coughlan, J.D.; Jensen, K.C.

    1987-11-01

    Thirty-one nonheparinized patients with suspected deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT) underwent contrast venography and indium-111 platelet scintigraphy (In-111 PS). Venography permitted identification of acute DVT in 12 of 31 cases (39%). One additional patient was considered to have acute DVT despite nonconclusive venography results. In-111 PS results were positive at 4 hours in nine of 13 cases (69%) and at 24 hours in 12 of 13 cases (92%). Two of four patients with false-negative 4-hour In-111 PS studies had received warfarin. Thus, the sensitivity of 4-hour In-111 PS in patients not receiving anticoagulants was 82%. Venography results were negative for acute DVT in 18 cases, and 4-hour In-111 PS studies were negative or equivocal in each. In-111 PS is an alternative to contrast venography for detecting acute DVT. If 4-hour In-111 PS results are positive, anticoagulation can be initiated. Delayed images are necessary if the 4-hour images are negative or equivocal.

  18. Neonatal family care for 24 hours per day: effects on maternal confidence and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Wataker, Heidi; Meberg, Alf; Nestaas, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    In family care (FC) program for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), parents are encouraged to reside together with their infant for 24 hours a day to actively be involved in the care. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of FC on maternal confidence and breast-feeding. Maternal confidence and rate of breast-feeding were assessed in 31 mothers offered FC that included special family rooms in the NICU, and in 30 mothers from a comparable NICU providing traditional care without such facilities. One week prior to hospital discharge, mothers in the FC group felt better informed regarding nursing issues and had more confidence in interpretation of the infants regarding feeding issues and in caregiving without staff attendance (P < .05). They also reported a higher level of empowerment (P < .05). Three months after discharge, the mothers in the FC group had a higher self-reported skill level for interpretation of the infant's signals and knowledge about breast-feeding (P < .05). Despite similar rate of breast-feeding at discharge, more infants in the FC group were breastfed 3 months after discharge (P < .05). An FC program in the NICU promoted better maternal confidence during the hospital stay and 3 months after discharge compared with traditional care.

  19. The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Implications for practitioners, professionals, and organizations.

    PubMed

    Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Copeland, Jennifer L; Fowles, Jonathon; Zehr, Lori; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    The new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth emphasize the integration of all movement behaviours that occur over a whole day (i.e., light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep). These guidelines shift the paradigm away from considering each behaviour in isolation. This concept of the "whole day matters" not only calls for a change in thinking about movement but also for redevelopment of dissemination and implementation practice. Past guideline launch activities largely have aimed to create awareness through passive dissemination strategies (e.g., Website posts, distribution of print resources). For the integrated guidelines to have public health impact, we must move beyond dissemination and raising of awareness to implementation and behaviour change. Shifting this focus requires new, innovative approaches to intervention, including interdisciplinary collaboration, policy change, and refocused service provision. The purpose of this paper is to identify practitioners, professionals, and organizations with potential to disseminate and/or implement the guidelines, discuss possible implementation strategies for each of these groups, and describe the few resources being developed and those needed to support dissemination and implementation efforts. This discussion makes readily apparent the need for a well-funded, comprehensive, long-term dissemination, implementation, and evaluation plan to ensure uptake and activation of the guidelines.

  20. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust waits for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the late morning light at Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Cananveral Air Station, the fixed utility tower (right) casts a long shadow across the base of the Boeing Delta II rocket (left) waiting to launch the Stardust spacecraft. After a 24-hour scrub, the new targeted launch time is 4:04 p.m. EST. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  1. Obtaining liver tridimensional scaffold through the decellularization of rabbit whole liver in 24 hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Schliamser; Ayelen, Rinaldi; Romina, Comin; Alba Nelly, Borchert; Adrian, Nari Gustavo; Alicia, Salvatierra Nancy; Mariana Paula, Cid

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, we development a new protocol for liver decellularization in which the hole decellularization was reached over 24 h. Introduction: the availability of transplantable livers is not sufficient to fulfill the current demand for grafts, with the search for therapeutic alternatives having generated different lines of research, one of which is the use of decellularized three-dimensional biological matrices and subsequent cell seeding to obtain a functional organ. Objective: to produce a decellularization protocol from rabbit liver to generate a three-dimensional matrixin which the time period involved didn't pass 24 h. Methods: The decellularization is obtained through the use of water and SDS (0,1-0,3 %), after freezing at -80 degrees, is the best alternative of different physical and/or chemical mechanisms to break down organ cells and leave only the extracellular matriz. After 24 h of retrograde perfusion, a decellularized translucent matrix was generated. To evaluate if the decellularization protocol was successful, with the extracellular matrix being preserved, we carried out histological (light microscopy) and biochemical (DNA quantification) studies. Results: the decellularization process was verified by macroscopic observation of the organ using microscopic observation corroborated the macroscopic results, with the hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining showing no cells or nuclear material. In addition, the DNA quantification was less than 10% in the decellularized liver compared to control. Finally,the time taken to develop the decellularization protocol was less than 24 hours.

  2. Depressive Symptoms and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans: The SABPA Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Lespérance, François; Harvey, Brian H.; Malan, Nico T.; Malan, Leoné

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances in circadian rhythm might play a central role in the neurobiology of depression. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and 24-hour ambulatory BP in a sample of 405 (197 black and 208 Caucasian) urbanized African teachers aged 25 to 60 yrs (mean 44.6 ± 9.6 yrs). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-administered 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). After adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, participants with severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15) had higher odds of hypertension defined from ambulatory BP and/or use of antihypertensive medication (odds ratio = 2.19, 95% CI, 1.00–4.90) in comparison to participants with no symptoms. Compared to Caucasians with no depressive symptoms, those with severe symptoms had blunted nocturnal systolic BP drop of 4.7 mmHg (95% CI, −0.5 to 10.0, P = 0.07). In summary, depressive symptoms were associated with the circadian BP profile in black and Caucasian Africans. PMID:22028954

  3. Comparison of effects of amphotericin B deoxycholate infused over 4 or 24 hours: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Urs; Seifert, Burkhard; Schaffner, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that amphotericin B deoxycholate is less toxic when given by continuous infusion than by conventional rapid infusion. Design Randomised, controlled, non-blinded, single centre study. Setting University hospital providing tertiary clinical care. Patients 80 mostly neutropenic patients with refractory fever and suspected or proved invasive fungal infections. Intervention Patients were randomised to receive 0.97 mg/kg amphotericin B by continuous infusion over 24 hours or 0.95 mg/kg by rapid infusion over four hours. Main outcome measures Patients were evaluated for side effects related to infusion, nephrotoxicity, and mortality up to three months after treatment. Analysis was on an intention to treat basis. Results Patients in the continuous infusion group had fewer side effects and significantly reduced nephrotoxicity than those in the rapid infusion group. Overall mortality was higher during treatment and after three months' follow up in the rapid infusion than in the continuous infusion group. Conclusion Continuous infusions of amphotericin B reduce nephrotoxicity and side effects related to infusion without increasing mortality. PMID:11238151

  4. What and how much do we eat? 24-hour dietary recall method.

    PubMed

    Salvador Castell, Gemma; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes

    2015-02-26

    Diet, along with lifestyle factors, is an important determinant of the health status of an individual and of a community. Dietary assessment at the population level provides us with key information on the frequency and distribution of possible inadequate diets and/or nutritional status. It is also useful as input into the elaboration of food and nutrition policies aiming to improve dietary habits and the health status of a community. This article reviews the characteristics, advantages and limitations of the 24-hour dietary recall method (24hDR), which is one of the most widely used tools in nutrition epidemiology to identify food, energy and nutrient intake in national nutrition surveys, cross-sectional studies, clinical trials and cohort studies as well as in the evaluation of individual dietary intake and Total Diet assessment. To reduce the key factors associated with bias, the importance of previously trained interviewers is highlighted, as well as the role of support materials and the contribution of novel technologies.

  5. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust waits for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    After a 24-hour postponement, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for its scheduled launch at 4:04 p.m. EST. Umbilical lines (at top) still attached to the fixed utility tower (at right) feed electricity, air conditioning and coolants for the Stardust spacecraft inside the fairing (enclosing the upper stage) before launch. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  6. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust launches on time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Flames sear the pristine blue sky behind the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft after the 4:04:15 p.m. launch from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. A 24- hour scrub postponed the launch from the originally scheduled date of Feb. 6. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  7. A 24-hour study to investigate persistent chemical exposures associated with clandestine methamphetamine laboratories.

    PubMed

    VanDyke, Mike; Erb, Nicola; Arbuckle, Shawn; Martyny, John

    2009-02-01

    The clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine continues to be a concern across the United States. Although the exposures associated with the actual production process have been evaluated, the persistence of those exposures in a residential setting have not been investigated. This study was designed to document the contamination associated with two red phosphorous methamphetamine "cooks" conducted in a residence and the associated exposures up to 24 hours after the cook. The two cooks were conducted on the first day of the study, and exposures associated with different occupant activity levels were measured the following day. Airborne methamphetamine levels during the cook ranged from 520 microg/m(3) to 760 microg/m(3). On Day 2, airborne levels of methamphetamine ranged from 70 microg/m(3) to 210 microg/m(3) and increased with moderate to high activity levels within the residence. The majority of the methamphetamine measured during both days had a particle size of less than 1 mum, suggesting that the methamphetamine is formed as a condensation aerosol and is readily resuspended from contaminated surfaces. Significant methamphetamine contamination was found in the carpeting and likely was associated with the elevated levels of methamphetamine during activity. Levels of hydrogen chloride and iodine were also detected on Day 2 of the project although at very low levels. The study concluded that exposures may still present a significant inhalation exposure well after the actual cook.

  8. No Enhancement of 24-Hour Visuomotor Skill Retention by Post-Practice Caffeine Administration

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Sara J.; Cole, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed throughout the world and appears to indirectly facilitate learning and memory through effects on attention and motivation. Animal work indicates that post-training caffeine administration augments inhibitory avoidance memory, spatial memory, and object memory. In humans, post-training caffeine administration enhances the ability to discern between familiar images and new, similar images. However, the effect of post-training caffeine administration on motor memory has not been examined. Therefore, we tested two groups of low caffeine consumers (average weekly consumption ≤500 mg) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving acquisition of a continuous isometric visuomotor tracking skill. On Day 1, subjects completed 5 blocks (150 repetitions) of training on the continuous isometric visuomotor skill and subsequently ingested either 200 mg of caffeine or placebo. On day 2, subjects completed an additional 5 blocks of training. Day 1 mean performance and performance variability were both similar between groups, suggesting that both groups acquired the motor skill similarly. For mean performance on Day 2, patterns of re-learning, mean performance learning magnitudes, mean performance learning rates, and mean performance retention magnitudes were all similar between groups. For performance variability on Day 2, there was a small trend towards increased variability in the caffeine group during re-learning, but performance variability learning magnitudes and performance variability retention magnitudes did not differ between groups. Because motor skill acquisition can also be conceptualized as a reduction in performance variability, these results suggest that there may be a small negative effect of post-practice caffeine administration on memory of a newly-learned visuomotor skill. Overall, we found no evidence to suggest that post-training caffeine administration enhances 24-hour retention of a newly-learned continuous visuomotor

  9. No Enhancement of 24-Hour Visuomotor Skill Retention by Post-Practice Caffeine Administration.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sara J; Cole, Kelly J

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed throughout the world and appears to indirectly facilitate learning and memory through effects on attention and motivation. Animal work indicates that post-training caffeine administration augments inhibitory avoidance memory, spatial memory, and object memory. In humans, post-training caffeine administration enhances the ability to discern between familiar images and new, similar images. However, the effect of post-training caffeine administration on motor memory has not been examined. Therefore, we tested two groups of low caffeine consumers (average weekly consumption ≤500 mg) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving acquisition of a continuous isometric visuomotor tracking skill. On Day 1, subjects completed 5 blocks (150 repetitions) of training on the continuous isometric visuomotor skill and subsequently ingested either 200 mg of caffeine or placebo. On day 2, subjects completed an additional 5 blocks of training. Day 1 mean performance and performance variability were both similar between groups, suggesting that both groups acquired the motor skill similarly. For mean performance on Day 2, patterns of re-learning, mean performance learning magnitudes, mean performance learning rates, and mean performance retention magnitudes were all similar between groups. For performance variability on Day 2, there was a small trend towards increased variability in the caffeine group during re-learning, but performance variability learning magnitudes and performance variability retention magnitudes did not differ between groups. Because motor skill acquisition can also be conceptualized as a reduction in performance variability, these results suggest that there may be a small negative effect of post-practice caffeine administration on memory of a newly-learned visuomotor skill. Overall, we found no evidence to suggest that post-training caffeine administration enhances 24-hour retention of a newly-learned continuous visuomotor

  10. The Impact of Using Different Methods to Assess Completeness of 24-Hour Urine Collection on Estimating Dietary Sodium.

    PubMed

    Wielgosz, Andreas; Robinson, Christopher; Mao, Yang; Jiang, Ying; Campbell, Norm R C; Muthuri, Stella; Morrison, Howard

    2016-06-01

    The standard for population-based surveillance of dietary sodium intake is 24-hour urine testing; however, this may be affected by incomplete urine collection. The impact of different indirect methods of assessing completeness of collection on estimated sodium ingestion has not been established. The authors enlisted 507 participants from an existing community study in 2009 to collect 24-hour urine samples. Several methods of assessing completeness of urine collection were tested. Mean sodium intake varied between 3648 mg/24 h and 7210 mg/24 h depending on the method used. Excluding urine samples collected for longer or shorter than 24 hours increased the estimated urine sodium excretion, even when corrections for the variation in timed collections were applied. Until an accurate method of indirectly assessing completeness of urine collection is identified, the gold standard of administering para-aminobenzoic acid is recommended. Efforts to ensure participants collect complete urine samples are also warranted.

  11. Non-24-hour sleep–wake syndrome improved by low-dose valproic acid: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, Masatake; Moriya, Takahiro; Nishino, Satoshi; Hirata, Eishin; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Okubo, Yoshiro; Sato, Tadahiro

    2016-01-01

    A woman was diagnosed with non-24-hour sleep–wake syndrome and depressive symptoms. Her depressive symptoms did not respond to standard doses of several antidepressants or mood stabilizers. Furthermore, her sleep–wake cycle remained non-entrained despite treatment with a melatonin-related drug, vitamin B12, and phototherapy. Ultimately, her sleep–wake rhythm was restored to a 24-hour pattern with a low dose of valproic acid, and her depressive symptoms tended to improve as a result of synchronization without antidepressants. Low-dose valproic acid appears to be one of the effective means of entraining circadian rhythms in patients with non-24-hour sleep–wake syndrome, which in turn likely improves associated depressive symptoms. PMID:28008257

  12. To Compare the Microleakage Among Experimental Adhesives Containing Nanoclay Fillers after the Storages of 24 Hours and 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinasab, Seyed Mostafa; Atai, Mohammad; Alavi, Bagher

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the microleakage among experimental adhesives containing nanoclay fillers after the storages of 24 hours and 6 months. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on extracted human molars with the occlusal margins located in enamel and the cervical margins in cementum. Phosphoric acid was applied to the enamel and dentin margins.Subsequently, the cavities were treated using four groups of experimental adhesive systems and restored with a resin composite. Adper Single Bond® was used as control group. After 24- hour and 6- month storages, the samples were subjected to thermocycling shocks and then immersed in silver nitrate as well as developer solution and finally evaluated for leakage. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Based on Kruskal –Wallis test, significant differences were found between groups regarding microleakage. The Mann- Whitney test showed that Leakage was significantly lower in Adper Single Bond® compared to the other groups in dentinal margins after 24 hours and 6 months and in enamel margins after 6 months. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test showed that the enamel leakage in experimental adhesives was significantly lower than dentinal leakage after 24 hours as well as enamel leakage in Adper Single Bond and adhesive with 0.5% PMAA-g-nanoclay was significantly lower than dentinal margins after storage period of 6 months. Conclusion: All the experimental adhesives were effective in reducing enamel leakage after 24 hours, but were not effective in reducing dentinal leakage after 24 hours as well as in enamel and dentinal leakage after a 6-month storage. No improvement was observed in the microleakage in dentin in both short (24 hrs) and long times (6 months). The high microleakage in the adhesives is probably attributed to the high concentration of HEMA in the recipe of the bonding agent. PMID:21566692

  13. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. Results: The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. Conclusion: The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses

  14. Interchangeability between 24-hour collection and single spot urines for vanillylmandelic and homovanillic acid levels in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cangemi, Giuliana; Barco, Sebastiano; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Viscardi, Elisabetta; Di Cataldo, Andrea; Garaventa, Alberto; Melioli, Giovanni; Conte, Massimo

    2013-12-01

    The determination of the two urinary catecholamine metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) is of crucial importance for the diagnosis and follow-up of neuroblastoma (NB). The standard practice for their measurement requires the use of 24-hour collections that are time consuming and difficult to obtain. In this article, we directly demonstrate that 24-hour collections and single spot urines are interchangeable for the determination of HVA and VMA expressed as ratio on creatinine concentration. This study can be useful for a faster management of NB at onset.

  15. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Supplemental... particle (PM 2.5 ) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) air quality designations for the...

  16. Accuracy and Usefulness of Select Methods for Assessing Complete Collection of 24-Hour Urine: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    John, Katherine A; Cogswell, Mary E; Campbell, Norm R; Nowson, Caryl A; Legetic, Branka; Hennis, Anselm J M; Patel, Sheena M

    2016-05-01

    Twenty-four-hour urine collection is the recommended method for estimating sodium intake. To investigate the strengths and limitations of methods used to assess completion of 24-hour urine collection, the authors systematically reviewed the literature on the accuracy and usefulness of methods vs para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) recovery (referent). The percentage of incomplete collections, based on PABA, was 6% to 47% (n=8 studies). The sensitivity and specificity for identifying incomplete collection using creatinine criteria (n=4 studies) was 6% to 63% and 57% to 99.7%, respectively. The most sensitive method for removing incomplete collections was a creatinine index <0.7. In pooled analysis (≥2 studies), mean urine creatinine excretion and volume were higher among participants with complete collection (P<.05); whereas, self-reported collection time did not differ by completion status. Compared with participants with incomplete collection, mean 24-hour sodium excretion was 19.6 mmol higher (n=1781 specimens, 5 studies) in patients with complete collection. Sodium excretion may be underestimated by inclusion of incomplete 24-hour urine collections. None of the current approaches reliably assess completion of 24-hour urine collection.

  17. Population Pharmacokinetic Model Characterizing 24-Hour Variation in the Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Midazolam in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    van Rongen, A; Kervezee, L; Brill, MJE; van Meir, H; den Hartigh, J; Guchelaar, H-J; Meijer, JH; Burggraaf, J; van Oosterhout, F

    2015-01-01

    Daily rhythms in physiology may affect the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate 24-hour variation in the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A substrate midazolam. Oral (2 mg) and intravenous (1 mg) midazolam was administered at six timepoints throughout the 24-hour period in 12 healthy volunteers. Oral bioavailability (population mean value [RSE%] of 0.28 (7.1%)) showed 24-hour variation that was best parameterized as a cosine function with an amplitude of 0.04 (17.3%) and a peak at 12:14 in the afternoon. The absorption rate constant was 1.41 (4.7%) times increased after drug administration at 14:00. Clearance (0.38 L/min (4.8%)) showed a minor 24-hour variation with an amplitude of 0.03 (14.8%) L/min and a peak at 18:50. Simulations show that dosing time minimally affects the concentration time profiles after intravenous administration, while concentrations are higher during the day compared to the night after oral dosing, reflecting considerable variation in intestinal processes. PMID:26380154

  18. Activity-adjusted 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and cardiac remodeling in children with sleep disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Amin, Raouf; Somers, Virend K; McConnell, Keith; Willging, Paul; Myer, Charles; Sherman, Marc; McPhail, Gary; Morgenthal, Ashley; Fenchel, Matthew; Bean, Judy; Kimball, Thomas; Daniels, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Questions remain as to whether pediatric sleep disordered breathing increases the risk for elevated blood pressure and blood pressure-dependent cardiac remodeling. We tested the hypothesis that activity-adjusted morning blood pressure surge, blood pressure load, and diurnal and nocturnal blood pressure are significantly higher in children with sleep disordered breathing than in healthy controls and that these blood pressure parameters relate to left ventricular remodeling. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure parameters were compared between groups. The associations between blood pressure and left ventricular relative wall thickness and mass were measured. 140 children met the inclusion criteria. In children with apnea hypopnea index <5 per hour, a significant difference from controls was the morning blood surge. Significant increases in blood pressure surge, blood pressure load, and in 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure were evident in those whom the apnea hypopnea index exceeded 5 per hour. Sleep disordered breathing and body mass index had similar effect on blood pressure parameters except for nocturnal diastolic blood pressure, where sleep disordered breathing had a significantly greater effect than body mass index. Diurnal and nocturnal systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure predicted the changes in left ventricular relative wall thickness. Therefore, sleep disordered breathing in children who are otherwise healthy is independently associated with an increase in morning blood pressure surge, blood pressure load, and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. The association between left ventricular remodeling and 24-hour blood pressure highlights the role of sleep disordered breathing in increasing cardiovascular morbidity.

  19. Effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure during sleep on 24-hour blood pressure in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, I; Grunstein, R R; Hedner, J A; Doyle, J; Collins, F L; Fletcher, P J; Kelly, D T; Sullivan, C E

    1993-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) was measured noninvasively (Oxford Medilog ABP) at 15-minute intervals for 24 hours before and after 8 weeks of treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) in 19 men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We included both normotensive and hypertensive patients, but hypertensives were studied after withdrawal of antihypertensive drugs. Ambulatory BP before and after treatment was compared using patients as their own controls. Treatment with nCPAP was successfully established in 14 of the 19 patients (74%). Blood pressure fell significantly in patients who were successfully treated: 24-hour mean BP (systolic/diastolic) decreased from 141 +/- 18/89 +/- 11 mm Hg to 134 +/- 19/85 +/- 13 mm Hg (p < 0.05). The reduction in 24-hour mean systolic BP occurred during both day and night, but a significant fall in mean diastolic BP was only observed during the day. The mean blood pressure fell in both normotensive and hypertensive patients. Patients who were inadequately treated with nCPAP had no reduction in mean 24-hour BP. Effective treatment of sleep apnea with nCPAP was associated with a significant fall in both systolic and diastolic BP independent of changes in body weight or alcohol consumption, suggesting that sleep apnea was an independent factor contributing to elevated nighttime and daytime BP in these patients.

  20. Correlations of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in 8 hour and 24 hour urinary samples determined by dual column gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sjölin, K E; Nyholm, K K

    1980-05-01

    The correlations of beta-aminoisobutyric acid values in 8 hour and 24 hour urinary samples from 23 healthy persons were determined. beta-AIB in the 8 hour urinary samples was measured by gas chromatography and the 24 hour excretion was calculated from the results of three 8 hour determinations. Simultaneous determinations of urinary creatinine were performed by Jaffe's reaction. Based on the 8 hour values of urinary beta-AIB the results demonstrated a constant excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid within the 24 hour periods in both low and high excretors. The precision in distinguishing low and high 24 hour excretors of beta-AIB by using 8 hour values was 91%. If 8 hour values of beta-AIB were related to creatinine the same precision for this calculated ratio was 96.5%. However, for high excretors of beta-AIB, failures were 24.5% by using the 8 hour excretion of beta-AIB as indicator, but only 6.5% by using the ratio.

  1. Urinary saturation and risk factors for calcium oxalate stone disease based on spot and 24-hour urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yoshihide; Yonou, Hiroyuki; Hokama, Sanehiro; Oda, Masami; Morozumi, Makoto; Sugaya, Kimio

    2003-09-01

    In 222 random spot urine specimens, the calcium concentration and calcium oxalate saturation [DG(CaOx)] were significantly higher among stone formers than among non-stone formers, while the citrate and creatinine-corrected citrate concentrations were lower. In 188 24-hour urine specimens, magnesium excretion was lower among stone formers than non-stone formers, while the creatinine-corrected calcium concentration and DG(CaOx) were higher. Among stone formers, there was no gender difference in the urinary concentrations of calcium, oxalate, citrate, magnesium, and DG(CaOx), but the creatinine-corrected calcium, citrate, and magnesium concentrations were higher in women, as well as 24-hour citrate excretion. The levels of calcium and oxalate have a major influence on DG(CaOx), while citrate and magnesium levels have a minor influence. DG(CaOx) was correlated with calcium and oxalate excretion, as well as with the creatinine-corrected calcium and oxalate concentrations. Approximately 5% of 24-hour urine specimens showed critical supersaturation, 80% showed metastable supersaturation, and 15% were unsaturated. Hypercalciuria or hyperoxaluria was fairly common (30% and 40%) in critically supersaturated urine, while it was less common (22.4% and 8.6%) in metastably supersaturated urine and was not detected in unsaturated urine. Hypocitraturia and/or hypomagnesiuria was more common (63.8-80%) at any saturation. The urinary calcium, oxalate, and citrate concentrations, as well as the creatinine-corrected calcium, oxalate, citrate, and magnesium concentrations and DG(CaOx), showed a significant correlation between 57 paired early morning spot urine and 24-hour urine specimens. The creatinine-corrected calcium and citrate concentrations of the early morning urine specimens were significantly correlated with the levels of calcium and citrate excretion in the paired 24-hour urine specimens. In conclusion, no parameter other than urinary saturation gives more than a vague

  2. Irregular 24-hour Activity Rhythms and the Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Shahmir; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Lim, Andrew S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms – near 24-hour intrinsic biological rhythms – modulate many aspects of human physiology and hence disruption of circadian rhythms may have an important impact on human health. Experimental work supports a potential link between irregular circadian rhythms and several key risk factors for cardiovascular disease including hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, collectively termed the metabolic syndrome. While several epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between shift-work and the components of the metabolic syndrome in working-age adults, there is a relative paucity of data concerning the impact of non-occupational circadian irregularity in older women and men. To address this question, we studied 7 days of actigraphic data from 1137 older woman and men participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based cohort study of the chronic conditions of aging. The regularity of activity rhythms was quantified using the nonparametric interdaily stability metric, and was related to the metabolic syndrome and its components obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. More regular activity rhythms were associated with a lower odds of having the metabolic syndrome (OR=0.69, 95%CI=0.60–0.80, p=5.8×10−7), being obese (OR=0.73, 95%CI=0.63–0.85, p=2.5×10−5), diabetic (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.65–0.90, p=9.3×10−4), hypertensive (OR=0.78, 95%CI=0.66–0.91, p=2.0×10−3), or dyslipidemic (OR=0.82, 95%CI=0.72–0.92, p=1.2×10−3). These associations were independent of differences in objectively measured total daily physical activity or rest, and were not accounted for by prevalent coronary artery disease, stroke, or peripheral artery disease. Moreover, more regular activity rhythms were associated with lower odds of having cardiovascular disease (OR=0.83; 95%CI=0.73–0.95, p=5.7×10−3), an effect that was statistically mediated by the metabolic syndrome. We conclude that irregular activity

  3. Changes in platelet morphology and function during 24 hours of storage.

    PubMed

    Braune, S; Walter, M; Schulze, F; Lendlein, A; Jung, F

    2014-01-01

    aggregates could be visualized microscopically. After four hours, first debris and very small aggregates occurred. After 24 hours, platelet aggregates and also debris progressively increased. In accordance to this, the CASY system revealed an increase of platelet aggregates (up to 90 μm diameter) with increasing storage time. The percentage of CD62P positive platelets and PF4 increased significantly with storage time in resting PRP. When soluble ADP was added to stored PRP samples, the number of activatable platelets decreased significantly over storage time. The present study reveals the importance of a consequent standardization in the preparation of WB and PRP. Platelet morphology and function, particularly platelet reactivity to adherent or soluble agonists in their surrounding milieu, changed rapidly outside the vascular system. This knowledge is of crucial interest, particularly in the field of biomaterial development for cardiovascular applications, and may help to define common standards in the in vitro hemocompatibility testing of biomaterials.

  4. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with higher ratio of 24-hour urinary sodium to potassium in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2009-09-01

    Information on the relationship of neighborhood characteristics to objective indicators of dietary intake is extremely limited. The aim of this observational cross-sectional study was to examine the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium in a population with a high ratio of urinary sodium to potassium. Subjects were 1,032 female Japanese dietetics students aged 18 to 22 years, residing in 293 municipalities in Japan. Neighborhood SES index was defined by seven municipal-level variables, namely unemployment, household overcrowding, poverty, education, income, home ownership, and vulnerable groups, with an increasing index signifying increasing neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Urinary excretion of sodium and potassium was estimated from a single 24-hour urine sample. Neighborhood SES index was not significantly associated with 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium (mean value for each quartile of neighborhood SES: 133.5, 135.2, 126.5, and 141.7 mmol/day, respectively; P for trend 0.10) or potassium (mean value for each quartile: 43.5, 42.2, 38.4, and 42.5 mmol/day, respectively; P for trend 0.44). However, neighborhood SES index was significantly positively associated with the ratio of 24-hour urinary sodium to potassium (mean value for each quartile: 3.14, 3.28, 3.37, and 3.41, respectively; P for trend 0.03). This significant association remained after adjustment for household SES variables (mean value for each quartile: 3.15, 3.35, 3.29, and 3.41, respectively; P for trend 0.04). Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with higher ratio of 24-hour urinary sodium to potassium in young Japanese women.

  5. Microleakage of Two Self-Adhesive Cements in the Enamel and Dentin After 24 Hours and Two Months

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Kalantar Motamedi, Mojdeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Microleakage is a main cause of restorative treatment failure. In this study, we compared occlusal and cervical microleakage of two self-adhesive cements after 24 hours and two months. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, class II inlay cavities were prepared on 60 sound human third molars. Composite inlays were fabricated with Z100 composite resin. The teeth were randomly assigned to six groups. RelyX-Arc (control), RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem were used for the first three groups and specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The same cements were used for the remaining three groups, but the specimens were stored for 2 months. The teeth were subjected to 500 thermal cycles (5°C and 55°C) and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then sectioned mesiodistally and dye penetration was evaluated in a class II cavity with occlusal and cervical margins using X20 magnification stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: After 24 hours, cements had significant differences only in cervical margin microleakage (P=0.0001) and microleakage of RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was significantly more than that of RelyX-Arc (both P=0.0001). Cervical microleakage in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was greater than occlusal (P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively). Microleakage was not significantly different between the occlusal and cervical margins after 2 months. Conclusion: Cervical microleakage was greater than occlusal in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem after 24h. The greatest microleakage was reported for the cervical margin of RelyX-Unicem after 24 hours. PMID:25584053

  6. Effects of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) form and administration mode on PABA recovery in 24-hour urine collections.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rashmi S; Joy, Raechel C; Boushey, Carol J; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Leonov, Alexei P; McCrory, Megan A

    2014-03-01

    Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) has long been used as an objective measure to assess completeness of 24-hour urine collections. However, pharmaceutical-grade PABA for human ingestion is not available in the United States. An alternative, the potassium salt of PABA, aminobenzoate potassium, can be obtained for clinical use, although it has not yet been validated in this role. Both PABA and aminobenzoate potassium can be directly ingested in their tablet or capsule forms or added to food before consumption. Our aim was to investigate the effect of form (PABA vs aminobenzoate potassium) and administration mode (directly ingested as a tablet/capsule vs added to food) on urinary PABA recovery levels. Twenty healthy participants underwent 3 test days separated by two 24-hour wash-out periods. Three test conditions, one on each test day, were investigated in randomized order: PABA tablet, aminobenzoate potassium capsule, and PABA or aminobenzoate potassium in food. Ingestion of each dose was supervised and participants performed the 24-hour urine collections while free-living. The 24-hour urine collections were analyzed for PABA recovery (%R) levels using a colorimetric assay. Recoveries 85% to 110% were deemed complete and those >110% were reanalyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Only complete collections (>85%R) were included in analyses. The recovery for the PABA tablet, aminobenzoate potassium capsule, and PABA/aminobenzoate potassium in food were similar at 98.8%R±2.0%R, 95.1%R±2.3%R, and 93.2%R±2.1%R, respectively, and did not differ significantly. These results suggest that aminobenzoate potassium may be used as an alternative to PABA for assessing the completeness of 24-hour urine collections and to track compliance with consuming provided diets in community-dwelling studies.

  7. Changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of running and cycling on changes in hydration status and body composition during a 24-hour race have been described previously, but data for 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers are missing. The present study investigated changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers. Methods We compared in 49 (37 men and 12 women) 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers) changes (Δ) in body mass (BM). Fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF) and skeletal muscle mass (SM) were estimated using anthropometric methods. Changes in total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid (ECF) and intracellular fluid (ICF) were determined using bioelectrical impedance and changes in foot volume using plethysmography. Haematocrit, plasma [Na+], plasma urea, plasma osmolality, urine urea, urine specific gravity and urine osmolality were measured in a subgroup of 25 ultra-MTBers (16 men and 9 women). Results In male 24-hour ultra-MTBers, BM (P < 0.001), FM (P < 0.001), %BF (P < 0.001) and ECF (P < 0.05) decreased whereas SM and TBW did not change (P > 0.05). A significant correlation was found between post-race BM and post-race FM (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). In female ultra-MTBers, BM (P < 0.05), %BF (P < 0.05) and FM (P < 0.001) decreased, whereas SM, ECF and TBW remained stable (P > 0.05). Absolute ranking in the race was related to Δ%BM (P < 0.001) and Δ%FM in men (P < 0.001) and to Δ%BM (P < 0.05) in women. In male ultra-MTBers, increased post-race plasma urea (P < 0.001) was negatively related to absolute ranking in the race, Δ%BM, post-race FM and Δ%ECF (P < 0.05). Foot volume remained stable in both sexes (P > 0.05). Conclusions Male and female 24-hour ultra-MTBers experienced a significant loss in BM and FM, whereas SM remained stable. Body weight changes and increases in plasma urea do not reflect a change in body hydration status. No oedema

  8. Study on Operation Optimization of Pumping Station's 24 Hours Operation under Influences of Tides and Peak-Valley Electricity Prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Gong; Jilin, Cheng; Lihua, Zhang; Rentian, Zhang

    2010-06-01

    According to different processes of tides and peak-valley electricity prices, this paper determines the optimal start up time in pumping station's 24 hours operation between the rating state and adjusting blade angle state respectively based on the optimization objective function and optimization model for single-unit pump's 24 hours operation taking JiangDu No.4 Pumping Station for example. In the meantime, this paper proposes the following regularities between optimal start up time of pumping station and the process of tides and peak-valley electricity prices each day within a month: (1) In the rating and adjusting blade angle state, the optimal start up time in pumping station's 24 hours operation which depends on the tide generation at the same day varies with the process of tides. There are mainly two kinds of optimal start up time which include the time at tide generation and 12 hours after it. (2) In the rating state, the optimal start up time on each day in a month exhibits a rule of symmetry from 29 to 28 of next month in the lunar calendar. The time of tide generation usually exists in the period of peak electricity price or the valley one. The higher electricity price corresponds to the higher minimum cost of water pumping at unit, which means that the minimum cost of water pumping at unit depends on the peak-valley electricity price at the time of tide generation on the same day. (3) In the adjusting blade angle state, the minimum cost of water pumping at unit in pumping station's 24 hour operation depends on the process of peak-valley electricity prices. And in the adjusting blade angle state, 4.85%˜5.37% of the minimum cost of water pumping at unit will be saved than that of in the rating state.

  9. Dipstick Spot urine pH does not accurately represent 24 hour urine PH measured by an electrode

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Mohamed; Sarkissian, Carl; Jianbo, Li; Calle, Juan; Monga, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To determine whether spot urine pH measured by dipstick is an accurate representation of 24 hours urine pH measured by an electrode. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed urine pH results of patients who presented to the urology stone clinic. For each patient we recorded the most recent pH result measured by dipstick from a spot urine sample that preceded the result of a 24-hour urine pH measured by the use of a pH electrode. Patients were excluded if there was a change in medications or dietary recommendations or if the two samples were more than 4 months apart. A difference of more than 0.5 pH was considered an inaccurate result. Results A total 600 patients were retrospectively reviewed for the pH results. The mean difference in pH between spot urine value and the 24 hours collection values was 0.52±0.45 pH. Higher pH was associated with lower accuracy (p<0.001). The accuracy of spot urine samples to predict 24-hour pH values of <5.5 was 68.9%, 68.2% for 5.5 to 6.5 and 35% for >6.5. Samples taken more than 75 days apart had only 49% the accuracy of more recent samples (p<0.002). The overall accuracy is lower than 80% (p<0.001). Influence of diurnal variation was not significant (p=0.588). Conclusions Spot urine pH by dipstick is not an accurate method for evaluation of the patients with urolithiasis. Patients with alkaline urine are more prone to error with reliance on spot urine pH. PMID:27286119

  10. Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Instrumented Spinal Fusion Surgery: A Comparative Analysis of 24-Hour and 72-Hour Dosages

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Vineet Thomas; Ravichandran, Mirunalini; Achimuthu, Rajamani

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective study. Purpose To compare the efficacy of 24-hour and 72-hour antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing surgical site infections (SSIs). Overview of Literature Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgical practice has become a universally accepted protocol for minimizing postoperative complications related to infections. Although prophylaxis is an accepted practice, a debate exists with regard to the antibiotic type and its administration duration for various surgical procedures. Methods Our institute is a tertiary care hospital with more than 100 spinal surgeries per year for various spine disorders in the department of orthopedics. We conducted this prospective study in our department from June 2012 to January 2015. A total of 326 patients were enrolled in this study, with 156 patients in the 72-hour antibiotic prophylaxis group (group A) and 170 patients in the 24-hour group (group B). Cefazolin was the antibiotic used in both groups. Two surgeons were involved in conducting all the spinal procedures. Our study compared SSIs among patients undergoing instrumented spinal fusion. Results The overall rate of SSIs was 1.8% with no statistical difference between the two groups. Conclusions The 24-hour antimicrobial prophylaxis is as effective as the 72-hour dosage in instrumented spinal fusion surgery. PMID:27994776

  11. Vanilmandelic acid and homovanillic acid levels in patients with neural crest tumor: 24-hour urine collection versus random sample.

    PubMed

    Gregianin, L J; McGill, A C; Pinheiro, C M; Brunetto, A L

    1997-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor in childhood and is the most frequent neural crest tumor (NCT). More than 90% of the patients excrete high levels of vanilmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the urine. Original biochemical methods for measuring these two metabolites of catecholamines employed a collection of urine for 24 hours to avoid errors related to circadian cycle variations. More recently, attempts have been made to replace the 24-hour collections by random samples (RSs). This has practical advantages particularly for young children. The objective of this study is to assess whether urinary VMA related to urinary creatinine levels can be determined reliably by the method of Pisano et al. from RSs in patients with NCT. The determination of the consumption of VMA in urine stored for prolonged periods of time was also studied. We found a good correlation between the values of metabolites of catecholamines in RSs compared with 24-hour urine collections. There was consumption of VMA in urine samples after storage. We conclude that determination of VMA in RSs of urine by Pisano's method may identify NCT production of catecholamines and that the consumption of these catecholamines is an important factor to consider in the interpretation of values obtained with stored urine specimens.

  12. Assessment of 24-hours Aldosterone Administration on Protein Abundances in Fluorescence-Sorted Mouse Distal Renal Tubules by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas B; Pisitkun, Trairak; Hoffert, Jason D; Jensen, Uffe B; Fenton, Robert A; Praetorius, Helle A; Knepper, Mark A; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Aldosterone exerts multiple long-term effects in the distal renal tubules. The aim of this study was to establish a method for identifying proteins in these tubules that change in abundance by only 24-hours aldosterone administration. Methods Mice endogenously expressing green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in the connecting tubule and cortical collecting ducts were treated with a subcutaneous injection of 2.0 mg/kg aldosterone or vehicle (n=5), and sacrificed 24 hours later. Suspensions of single cells were obtained enzymatically, and eGFP positive cells were isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Samples of 100 μg proteins were digested with trypsin and labeled with 8-plex iTRAQ reagents and processed for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results FACS yielded 1.4 million cells per mouse. The LC-MS/MS spectra were matched to peptides by the SEQUEST search algorithm, which identified 3002 peptides corresponding to 506 unique proteins of which 20 significantly changed abundance 24-hours after aldosterone injection. Conclusion We find the method suitable and useful for studying hormonal effects on protein abundance in distal tubular segments. PMID:23428628

  13. Convolutional Neural Networks for patient-specific ECG classification.

    PubMed

    Kiranyaz, Serkan; Ince, Turker; Hamila, Ridha; Gabbouj, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    We propose a fast and accurate patient-specific electrocardiogram (ECG) classification and monitoring system using an adaptive implementation of 1D Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) that can fuse feature extraction and classification into a unified learner. In this way, a dedicated CNN will be trained for each patient by using relatively small common and patient-specific training data and thus it can also be used to classify long ECG records such as Holter registers in a fast and accurate manner. Alternatively, such a solution can conveniently be used for real-time ECG monitoring and early alert system on a light-weight wearable device. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system achieves a superior classification performance for the detection of ventricular ectopic beats (VEB) and supraventricular ectopic beats (SVEB).

  14. Association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and hypertension subtypes in untreated Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Ting-Yan; Ding, Feng-Hua; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and ambulatory hypertension subtypes has not yet been examined in untreated Chinese patients. We measured left ventricular mass index by echocardiography (n=619), the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (n=1047), and aortic pulse wave velocity by tonometry (n=1013) in 1047 untreated subjects (mean age, 50.6 years; 48.9% women). Normotension was a 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure <130/<80 mm Hg. Hypertension subtypes were isolated diastolic hypertension and mixed systolic plus diastolic hypertension. We assessed associations of interest by multivariable-adjusted linear models. Using normotension as reference, mixed hypertension was associated with higher (P≤0.003) left ventricular mass index (+4.31 g/m(2)), urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.63 mg/mmol), and pulse wave velocity (+0.76 m/s); and isolated diastolic hypertension was associated with similar left ventricular mass index and pulse wave velocity (P≥0.39), but higher urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.24 mg/mmol; P=0.002). In younger participants (<55 years), the mutually independent effect sizes associated with 1 SD increases in 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure were +3.31/-0.36 g/m(2) (P=0.009/0.79) for left ventricular mass index, +1.15/+1.14 mg/mmol (P=0.02/0.04) for the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, and +0.54/-0.05 m/s (P<0.001/0.54) for pulse wave velocity. In older participants, these estimates were +3.58/+0.30 g/m(2) (P=0.045/0.88), +1.23/+1.05 mg/mmol (P=0.002/0.54), and +0.76/-0.49 m/s (P<0.001/<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, 24-hour systolic blood pressure and mixed hypertension are major determinants of target organ damage irrespective of age and target organ, whereas 24-hour diastolic blood pressure and isolated diastolic hypertension only relate to the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio below middle age.

  15. The electrocardiographic Holter monitoring in experimental veterinary practice.

    PubMed

    Scheer, P; Svoboda, P; Sepsi, M; Janecková, K; Doubek, J

    2010-01-01

    The long-term electrocardiographic recording with retrospective evaluation (Holter system) has been widely used not only in cardiology, but also in other disciplines of internal medicine and in pharmaceutical research. The Holter system can be used in mini-pig, sheep, dog, cat, rabbit, ferret, and rat. In this paper hardware, software, and anesthesia requirements are summarized with respect to the experimental work with various species. As the Holter systems work in bipolar mode, the use of bipolar leads in sagittal and transversal planes has been proved to be the most appropriate because of large amplitude of QRS complex and uncomplicated consequent automatic analysis of the record. In conclusion, Holter electrocardiography represents a simple and applicable method for monitoring the electrical activity of the heart in small animals' experimental studies.

  16. Caffeine does not entrain the circadian clock but improves daytime alertness in blind patients with non-24-hour rhythms

    PubMed Central

    St. Hilaire, Melissa A.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective/Background Totally blind individuals are highly likely to suffer from Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder due to a failure of light to reset the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. In this outpatient case series, we investigated whether daily caffeine administration could entrain the circadian pacemaker in non-entrained blind patients to alleviate symptoms of non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder. Patients/Methods Three totally blind males (63.0 ± 7.5 years old) were studied at home over ~4 months. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) rhythms were measured for 48 h every 1–2 weeks. Participants completed daily sleep–wake logs, and rated their alertness and mood using nine-point scales every ~2–4 h while awake on urine sampling days. Caffeine capsules (150 mg per os) were self-administered daily at 10 a.m. for approximately one circadian beat cycle based on each participant's endogenous circadian period τ and compared to placebo (n = 2) or no treatment (n = 1) in a single-masked manner. Results Non-24-h aMT6s rhythms were confirmed in all three participants (τ range = 24.32–24.57 h). Daily administration of 150 mg caffeine did not entrain the circadian clock. Caffeine treatment significantly improved daytime alertness at adverse circadian phases (p < 0.0001) but did not decrease the occurrence of daytime naps compared with placebo. Conclusions Although caffeine was able to improve daytime alertness acutely and may therefore provide temporary symptomatic relief, the inability of caffeine to correct the underlying circadian disorder means that an entraining agent is required to treat Non-24-Hour Sleep–Wake Disorder in the blind appropriately. PMID:25891543

  17. Effects of Fibrinogen Concentrate on Thrombin Generation, Thromboelastometry Parameters, and Laboratory Coagulation Testing in a 24-Hour Porcine Trauma Model

    PubMed Central

    Zentai, Christian; Solomon, Cristina; van der Meijden, Paola E. J.; Spronk, Henri M. H.; Schnabel, Jonas; Rossaint, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In a 24-hour porcine model of liver injury, we showed that fibrinogen supplementation does not downregulate endogenous fibrinogen synthesis. Here we report data from the same study showing the impact of fibrinogen on coagulation variables. Materials and Methods: Coagulopathy was induced in 20 German land race pigs by hemodilution and blunt liver injury. Animals randomly received fibrinogen concentrate (100 mg/kg) or saline. Coagulation parameters were assessed and thromboelastometry (ROTEM) was performed. Results: Fibrinogen concentrate significantly reduced the prolongations of EXTEM clotting time, EXTEM clot formation time, and prothrombin time induced by hemodilution and liver injury. A decrease in clot strength was also ameliorated. Endogenous thrombin potential was significantly higher in the fibrinogen group than in the control group, 20 minutes (353 ± 24 vs 289 ± 22 nmol/L·min; P < .05) and 100 minutes (315 ± 40 vs 263 ± 38 nmol/L·min; P < .05) after the start of infusion. However, no significant between-group differences were seen in other thrombin generation parameters or in d-dimer or thrombin–antithrombin levels. Fibrinogen–platelet binding was reduced following liver injury, with no significant differences between groups. No significant between-group differences were observed in any parameter at ∼12 and ∼24 hours. Conclusion: This study suggests that, in trauma, fibrinogen supplementation may shorten some measurements of the speed of coagulation initiation and produce a short-lived increase in endogenous thrombin potential, potentially through increased clotting substrate availability. Approximately 12 and 24 hours after starting fibrinogen concentrate/saline infusion, all parameters measured in this study were comparable in the 2 study groups. PMID:25948634

  18. Reliability and predictive validity of energy intake measures from the 24-hour dietary recalls of homebound older adults.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanhui; Roth, David L; Ritchie, Christine S; Burgio, Kathryn L; Locher, Julie L

    2010-05-01

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls are used frequently to study homebound older adults' eating behaviors. However, the reliability and predictive validity of this method have not been established in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine whether homebound older adults provide reliable and valid measures of total energy intake in 24-hour dietary recalls. Two hundred thirty homebound older adults were interviewed in their homes using a questionnaire to assess eating behaviors and factors that could affect those behaviors. Participants completed three 24-hour dietary recalls at baseline and again at 6-month follow-up. Two subsamples were identified for analyses. For participants who were not hospitalized during the 6-month interval and had their weight measured at both assessments (n=52), sufficient test-retest reliability of energy intake was observed (r=0.59), but energy intake deficiencies relative to estimated energy requirements did not predict actual weight loss (r=0.08). When this sample was supplemented with 91 participants who experienced any adverse event (weight loss of 2.5% or more, hospitalization, institutionalization, or mortality) in the 6-month period (n=143), adverse events were more likely to occur for those with insufficient energy intake (odds ratio 3.49, P=0.009), and in white participants compared to African-American participants (odds ratio 3.13, P=0.016). Adequate test-retest reliability of the 24-hour dietary recall was demonstrated, but additional research with larger samples and longer follow-up intervals is needed to better evaluate the predictive validity of energy intake measures for this population.

  19. Extent and Determinants of Thermogenic Responses to 24 Hours of Fasting, Energy Balance, and Five Different Overfeeding Diets in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pannacciulli, Nicola; Bonfiglio, Susan; Pacak, Karel; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Context: Individual variation in the ability to convert excess calories to heat and the effects of dietary macronutrient composition are unclear. Objective: Stability and determinants of the energy expenditure (EE) response to overconsumption were assessed. Design, Setting, and Participants: Twenty subjects (75% male) with normal glucose regulation were evaluated during 24 hours each of energy balance, fasting, and 5 different diets with 200% energy requirements in a clinical research unit. Interventions: Five 1-day overfeeding diets were given in random order: high carbohydrate (75%) and low protein (3%); high carbohydrate and normal protein (20%); high fat (46%) and low protein; high fat (60%) and normal protein; and balanced (50% carbohydrates, 20% protein). Main Outcome Measures: The 24-hour EE, sleeping EE, and thermic effect of food (TEF) during each diet were measured with a metabolic chamber. Appetitive hormones were measured before and after the diets. Results: The EE response to overfeeding exhibited good intraindividual reproducibility. Similar increases above eucaloric feeding in 24-hour EE (mean 10.7 ± 5.7%, P < .001; range 2.9–18.8%) and sleeping EE (14.4 ± 11.3%, P < .001; range 1.0–45.1%) occurred when overfeeding diets containing 20% protein, despite differences in fat and carbohydrate content, but the EE response during overfeeding diets containing 3% protein was attenuated. The percent body fat negatively correlated with TEF during normal protein overfeeding (r = −0.53, P < .01). Fasting peptide YY negatively correlated with TEF (r = −0.56, P < .01) and the increase in sleeping EE (r = −0.54, P < .01) during overfeeding. Conclusions: There is an intrinsic EE response to overfeeding that negatively associates with adiposity, although it represents a small percentage of consumed calories. PMID:23666976

  20. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 version, for youth aged 9 to 11 Years: A validation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites using a quasiexperimental design. In one s...

  1. Determination of and correlation between urine protein excretion and urine protein-to-creatinine ratio values during a 24-hour period in healthy horses and ponies.

    PubMed

    Uberti, Benjamin; Eberle, D Bernard; Pressler, Barrak M; Moore, George E; Sojka, Janice E

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To determine whether urine protein-to-creatinine (UP:C) ratio assessment provides an estimate of urine protein excretion (UPE) over a 24-hour period in horses and ponies, establish a preliminary UP:C ratio reference range, and determine UP:C ratio variation over time in healthy equids. ANIMALS-11 female horses and 6 female ponies. PROCEDURES-Urine was collected from all equids at 4-hour intervals for 24 hours. Total 24-hour UPE (mg of protein/kg of body weight) and UP:C ratio were determined; these variables were also assessed in aliquots of urine collected at 4-hour intervals. On 2 additional days, urine samples were also obtained from 6 horses (1 sample/horse/d) to determine day-to-day variation in UP:C ratio. Correlation between 4-hour or 24-hour UPE and UP:C ratio values was assessed. Reference ranges for 24-hour UPE, 24-hour UP:C ratio, and 4-hour UP:C ratios were calculated as central 95th percentiles of observed values. RESULTS-Mean 24-hour UPE (4.28 +/- 2.99 mg/kg) and 24-hour UP:C ratio (0.0 to 0.37) had excellent correlation (R = 0.826; P < 0.001) in both horses and ponies; analysis of 4-hour data also revealed good correlation (R = 0.782; P < 0.001) with these variables. Calculated UPE and UP:C ratio reference ranges were similar to established ranges in other species. Day-to-day variability in UP:C ratio was minimal, and all results were within the reference range calculated by use of the 24-hour urine samples. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Assessment of the UP:C ratio appears to be a reliable method for estimating 24-hour UPE in horses and ponies.

  2. Enhanced carotid-cardiac baroreflex response and elimination of orthostatic hypotension 24 hours after acute exercise in paraplegics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelke, K. A.; Shea, J. D.; Doerr, D. F.; Convertino, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that an acute bout of maximal exercise can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension consequent to prolonged wheelchair confinement, we evaluated heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure responses during 15 minutes of 70 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) in 10 paraplegic subjects 24 hours after arm crank exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, and during a control (no exercise) conditions. Additionally, the carotid baroreceptor stimulus-cardiac response relationship was determined by measurement of R-R interval during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses. One week separated the treatment conditions. The maximum slope of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response was increased (p = 0.049) by exercise (6.2 +/- 1.7 msec/mmHg) compared to control (3.3 +/- 0.6). During control HUT, HR increased from 61 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 7 bpm (p = 0.001) while SBP decreased from 118 +/- 5 to 106 +/- 9 mmHg (p = 0.025). During HUT 24 hours after exercise, HR increased from 60 +/- 2 to 90 +/- 4 bpm (p = 0.001), but the reduction in SBP was essentially eliminated (116 +/- 5 to 113 +/- 5 mmHg).

  3. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a day, such as: Creatinine Sodium Potassium Nitrogen Protein This test may also be done if ... disease Potassium urine test Sodium urine test Urea nitrogen urine test Urination - excessive amount Urine output - decreased ...

  4. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor may be able to order a test that is done on just one urine sample (protein-to-creatinine ratio). Normal Results The normal value is less than 100 milligrams per day or less than 10 milligrams per deciliter ... of these tests. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different ...

  5. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... thickness, problems with blood flow, or leaky heart valves ( mitral valve regurgitation ) may include: Echocardiography ECG 24-hour Holter ... You may need surgery to repair the heart's mitral valve if it is leaking. Watch this video about: ...

  6. [High performance of an implantable Holter monitor in the detection of concealed paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with cryptogenic stroke and a suspected embolic mechanism].

    PubMed

    Rojo-Martinez, Esther; Sandín-Fuentes, María; Calleja-Sanz, Ana I; Cortijo-García, Elisa; García-Bermejo, Pablo; Ruiz-Piñero, Marina; Rubio-Sanz, Jerónimo; Arenillas-Lara, Juan F

    2013-09-16

    Introduccion. El holter implantable permite detectar fibrilacion auricular paroxistica (FAP) oculta en pacientes con ictus criptogenico, pero se desconoce que algoritmo de seleccion tiene un mayor rendimiento y la duracion optima de monitorizacion. Objetivo. Conocer la frecuencia y el tiempo hasta detectar la FAP mediante un holter implantable Reveal XT ® en pacientes con ictus criptogenico seleccionados por sospecha elevada de embolismo cerebral. Pacientes y metodos. Criterios de seleccion: ausencia de etiologia del ictus tras el estudio completo incluyendo un ecocardiograma transesofagico, monitorizacion ECG y holter de 24 horas, asi como confirmacion de oclusion aguda embolica de la arteria intracraneal por duplex transcraneal o bien alta sospecha de embolismo por caracteristicas de neuroimagen. Tras implantar el holter Reveal XT se formo a los pacientes para que emprendieran transmisiones todos los meses o ante sintomas. Se reviso la informacion online mensualmente y se realizaron visitas clinicas en las unidades de Neurologia y Cardiologia. Resultados. Se incluyeron 101 pacientes con ictus criptogenico y al menos un mes de seguimiento: edad media de 67 años, 54 mujeres (53,5%). Tiempo medio de seguimiento: 281 ± 212 dias. Se detecto FAP oculta en 34 pacientes (33,7%) y falsos positivos en 23 (22,8%). Mediana desde el implante hasta la deteccion de la arritmia: 102 dias (rango: 26-240 dias). En un 70% de los pacientes se registraron multiples episodios de FAP. El 75% de los eventos se detectaron durante los primeros seis meses de monitorizacion. Conclusiones. El algoritmo de seleccion de pacientes con ictus criptogenico segun sospecha de embolismo cerebral se asocio a una elevada frecuencia (33,7%) de FAP oculta con holter implantable. Uno de cada cuatro eventos sucedio tras los primeros seis meses de monitorizacion.

  7. Ultra-Rapid dUT1 Measurements on Japan-Fennoscandian Baselines - Application to 24-hour Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuzaka, Shigeru; Kurihara, Shinobu; Sekido, Mamoru; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rudiger; Ritakari, Jouko; Wagner, Jan

    2010-01-01

    GSI, NICT, OSO, and MRO have been engaged in Ultra-rapid dUT1 experiments since 2007 aiming at the technological possibility of real-time dUT1 results using the e-VLBI technique. We have already successfully determined dUT1 in less than four minutes after the end of an experimental Intensive session in 2008, and at present we routinely get the results within 30 minutes for regular Intensives. In 2009 we applied the technique to 24-hour sessions and continuously obtained dUT1 values by processing and analyzing Tsukuba Onsala data in near real-time. It showed a detailed behavior of UT1 variations, which could be very valuable for scientific study as well as for precise prediction of UT1-UTC.

  8. 24-hour energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rates are unaffected by body fat distribution in obese women.

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A; Quaade, F; Madsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure (EE) and nonprotein respiratory quotient (RQnp) were measured by indirect calorimetry in 19 upper-body-obese (UBO) and 15 lower-body-obese (LBO) women with similar body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent. The measurements were performed in a respiration chamber on a predetermined physical activity program and a controlled diet. No differences between the UBO and LBO groups were found in 24-hour, daytime, and sleeping EE after adjustment for differences in fat-free mass (FFM). Furthermore, no group effect was observed in RQnp, but a positive correlation was found between RQnp and age. Despite the fact that an increased free fatty acid (FFA) turnover has been found in UBO subjects, the present study does not support the contention that upper-body obesity is accompanied by an increased lipid oxidation.

  9. Prognostic Significance of Initial Serum Albumin and 24 Hour Daily Protein Excretion before Treatment in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Hong; Hsu, Shun-Neng; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Lin, Chin; Chang, Ping-Ying; Chen, Yeu-Chin; Ho, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Renal failure is a common morbidity in multiple myeloma (MM). Although proteinuria has been increasingly reported in malignancies, it is not routinely used to refine risk estimates of survival outcomes in patients with MM. Here we aimed to investigate initial serum albumin and 24-hour daily protein excretion (24-h DPE) before treatment as prognostic factors in patients with MM. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 102 patients with myeloma who were ineligible for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation between October 2000 and December 2012. Initial proteinuria was assessed before treatment by quantitative analysis of 24-hour urine samples. The demographic and laboratory characteristics, survival outcome, and significance of pre-treatment 24-h DPE and albumin in the new staging system of MM were analyzed. Pre-treatment proteinuria (>300 mg/day) was present in 66 patients (64.7%). The optimal cut-off value of 24-h DPE before treatment was 500 mg/day. Analysis of the time-dependent area under the curve showed that the serum albumin and 24-h DPE before treatment were better than 24-h creatinine clearance rate and β2-microglobulin. A subgroup analysis showed that an initial excess proteinuria (24-h DPE ≥ 500 mg) was associated with poor survival status (17.51 vs. 34.24 months, p = 0.002). Furthermore, initial serum albumin was an independent risk factor on multivariate analysis (<2.8 vs. ≥ 2.8, hazard ratio = 0.486, p = 0.029). Using the A-DPE staging system, there was a significant survival difference among patients with stage I, II, and III MM (p < 0.001). Initial serum albumin and 24-h DPE before treatment showed significant prognostic factors in patients with MM, and the new A-DPE staging system may be utilized instead of the International Staging System. Its efficacy should be evaluated by further large prospective studies.

  10. Biomechanical evaluation of three fixation modalities for preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair: a 24-hour postoperative study in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Guérin, Gaëtan; Bourges, Xavier; Turquier, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Tacks and sutures ensure a strong fixation of meshes, but they can be associated with pain and discomfort. Less invasive methods are now available. Three fixation modalities were compared: the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh; the fibrin glue Tisseel™ with Bard™ Soft Mesh; and the SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system with Bard™ Soft Mesh. Materials and methods Meshes (6 cm ×6 cm) were implanted in the preperitoneal space of swine. Samples were explanted 24 hours after surgery. Centered defects were created, and samples (either ten or eleven per fixation type) were loaded in a pressure chamber. For each sample, the pressure, the mesh displacement through the defect, and the measurements of the contact area were recorded. Results At all pressures tested, the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh both exhibited a significantly lower displacement through the defect and retained a significantly higher percentage of its initial contact area than either the Bard™ Soft Mesh with Tisseel™ system or the Bard™ Soft Mesh with SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system. Dislocations occurred with the Bard™ Soft Mesh with Tisseel™ system and with the Bard™ Soft Mesh with SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system at physiological pressure (,225 mmHg). No dislocation was recorded for the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh. Conclusion At 24 hours after implantation, the mechanical fixation of the ProGrip™ laparoscopic self-fixating mesh was found to be significantly better than the fixation of the Tisseel™ system or the SorbaFix™ absorbable fixation system. PMID:25525396

  11. The prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers, 24-hour ultra-runners and multi-stage ultra-mountain bikers in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in two 24-hour mountain bike (MTB) (R1,R2), one 24-hour running (R3) and one multi-stage MTB (R4) races held in the Czech Republic in a cluster of four cross-sectional studies. Methods In 27 ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers), 12 ultra-runners, and 14 multi-stage MTBers, fluid intake, changes (Δ) in body mass, hematocrit, plasma volume, plasma [Na+], plasma [K+], plasma osmolality, urine [Na+], urine [K+], urine specific gravity, urine osmolality, K+/Na+ ratio in urine, transtubular potassium gradient and glomerular filtration rate were measured and calculated. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and symptoms of EAH were recorded using post-race questionnaires. Results Of the 53 finishers, three (5.7%) developed post-race EAH, thereof one (3.7%) ultra-MTBer, one (8.3%) ultra-runner and one (7.1%) multi-stage MTBer. Plasma [Na+] decreased significantly (p < 0.001) only in R4. Urine osmolality (R1, R3, R4 p < 0.001; R2 p < 0.05) and glomerular filtration rate (p < 0.001) increased, and body mass decreased in all races (p < 0.05). Δ body mass was inversely related to the number of kilometers achieved (p < 0.001) in R2 where better ultra-MTBers tended to lose more weight. Δ body mass (p < 0.001) and %Δ body mass (p = 0.05) were positively related to lower post-race plasma [Na+] in R3 that was associated with increased loss in body mass. Fluid intake was positively related to race performance in R1 and R2 (R1: p = 0.04; R2: p = 0.01) where ultra-MTBers in R1 and R2 who drank more finished ahead of those who drank less. Post-race plasma [Na+] was negatively associated with race performance in ultra-MTBers in R2 (p < 0.05), similarly ultra-runners in R3 (p < 0.05) where finishers with more kilometres had lower post-race plasma [Na+]. Conclusions The prevalence of EAH in the Czech Republic was no higher compared to existing reports on ultra-endurance athletes in other countries

  12. PocketECG: A New Noninvasive Method for Continuous and Real-Time ECG Monitoring-Initial Results in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bieganowska, Katarzyna; Kaszuba, Agnieszka; Bieganowski, Maciej; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof

    2017-03-01

    Long-term ECG is widely used in diagnosis and assessment of many cardiac symptoms which may be caused by dangerous arrhythmias that sometimes can be difficult to document. The PocketECG system is a new technological solution for a long-term, noninvasive, continuous and real-time ECG monitoring that provides automatic diagnosis of dysrhythmias. ECG data transmission occurs over a mobile network. The goal of this study was to assess the reliability of long-term ECG recordings acquired with the PocketECG system. One hundred and fifteen patients (43 girls and 72 boys) of an average age of 15.5 ± 2.5 years were examined at the Department of Cardiology at the Children's Memorial Health Institute. Two simultaneous 24-h ECG recordings were conducted: one with a Holter monitor and one with the PocketECG system. A linear correlation was demonstrated between the two methods with regard to the recorded QRS complexes [H = 1173.0 (-1946.40; 4838.50) + PocketECG*0.98 (0.94; 1.02)]. Mean diurnal heart rhythms were comparable (p > 0.05) despite the fact that the slowest and the fastest rates were different. The rate of detection for ventricular, supraventricular dysrhythmias and pauses in ventricular rhythm were comparable in both methods. The PocketECG system for continuous and real-time ECG recording is a reliable method for the assessment of heart rhythm and dysrhythmias in children and adolescents.

  13. Effect of an L- and T-Type Calcium Channel Blocker on 24-Hour Systolic Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Takeshi; Ebado, Mio; Takeyama, Youichi

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an L- and T-type calcium channel blocker (CCB) on 24-hour systolic blood pressure (24-hour SBP) and heart rate (24-hour HR) profiles in essential hypertensive patients. Subjects and Methods Thirty-seven consecutive patients were enrolled in this study. The 24-hour SBP and HR were recorded before and after treatment with efonidipine (L- and T-type CCB, 40 mg), after waking. Changes in 24-hour SBP and HR and the diurnal to nocturnal SBP ratio were measured. The best-fit curves of changes in SBP and HR were depicted using a periodic function. Results The mean 24-hour SBP and HR decreased significantly after treatment. The diurnal to nocturnal SBP ratio in dipper-type hypertension cases decreased from 16.7±6.1% to 8.3±9.8% (p<0.05), whereas in non-dipper hypertension cases, it increased from 2.3±2.9% to 7.7±5.1% (p<0.01). The antihypertensive effect was minimal at 5.0 hours after drug administration and it slowly recovered at a constant rate (2.1 mm Hg/h) over 12 hours in dipper cases. The median 24-hour changes in HR in the dipper and non-dipper cases were -2.3/min and -5.4/min, respectively. A continuous reduction in the change in HR was seen from 3.5 to 23 hours after drug administration. Conclusion The antihypertensive action of efonidipine was characterized by a slow recovery of the SBP decrease at a constant rate (2.1 mm Hg/h) and a non-administration time dependent reduction in 24-hour HR. PMID:22563335

  14. [A validation of the data obtained with the simultaneous recording of blood pressure and the 24-hour electrocardiogram].

    PubMed

    Germanò, G; Caparra, A; Valentino, S; Coia, F; Federico, L; Santucci, A

    1993-06-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the blood pressure (BP) measurement reliability of a light weight ambulatory BP and ECG recorder. Micro AM is a new 300 g portable apparatus that combines in one device both the ambulatory BP and solid state ECG recording. The dimensions of the Micro AM are 75 x 140 x 29 mm. The monitor measures BP using Korotkoff phase 1 for systolic and phase 5 for diastolic BP, and concurrently measures oscillometric BP, one method validating the other. In addition, the manual and programmed BP measurement modes can be supplemented by an "intelligent" mode in which the ECG triggers an ambulatory BP reading during an abnormal ST segment change. A standard mercury manometer was connected with the cuff of the Micro AM with a Y-shaped part, and 12 BP measurements were simultaneously taken at 5 min intervals by the automatic device in auscultatory mode and by a trained technician in 86 normotensive volunteers (aged from 18 to 44 years, 37 males and 49 females). The algebraic differences, the frequency distribution and the difference distribution of systolic and diastolic data between the 2 methods were calculated. The results show that the automatic method gives values for systolic BP that are lower than conventional ones (average differences -0.643 mmHg), whereas for diastolic BP, the values are higher (average differences +0.229 mmHg). Then, Student's paired t-test was used to evaluate statistically significant differences. The test relative to systolic BP was significant to the critical level of 0.1%, but the differences being 3 times smaller than the instrumental tolerance. On the contrary, diastolic BP differences were non significant. In conclusion, we found a good agreement between BP recorded automatically and by sphygmomanometer.

  15. Mean 24-hours sympathetic nervous system activity decreases during head-down tilted bed rest but not during microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Nj; Heer, M.; Ivanova, K.; Norsk, P.

    Sympathetic nervous system activity is closely related to gravitational stress in ground based experiments. Thus a high activity is present in the standing-up position and a very low activity is observed during acute head-out water immersion. Adjustments in sympathetic activity are necessary to maintain a constant blood pressure during variations in venous return. Head-down tilted bed rest is applied as a model to simulate changes observed during microgravity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that mean 24-hours sympathetic activity was low and similar during space flight and in ground based observation obtained during long-term head-down tilted bed rest. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline was measured by a radioenzymatic technique as an index of muscle sympathetic activity and thrombocyte noradrenaline and adrenaline were measured as indices of mean 24-hours sympathoadrenal activity. Previous results have indicated that thrombocyte noradrenaline level has a half-time of 2 days. Thus to reflect sympathetic activity during a specific experiment the study period must last for at least 6 days and a sample must be obtained within 12 hours after the experiment has ended. Ten normal healthy subjects were studied before and during a 14 days head-down tilted bed rest as well as during an ambulatory study period of a similar length. The whole experiment was repeated while the subjects were on a low calorie diet. Thrombocyte noradrenaline levels were studied in 4 cosmonauts before and within 12 hours after landing after more than 7 days in flight. Thrombocyte noradrenaline decreased markedly during the head-down tilted bed rest (p<0.001), whereas there were no significant changes in the ambulatory study. Plasma noradrenaline decreased in the adaptation period but not during the intervention. During microgravity thrombocyte noradrenaline increased in four cosmonauts and the percentage changes were significantly different in cosmonauts and in subjects

  16. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support. PMID:27398166

  17. Dietary quality varies according to data collection instrument: a comparison between a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; de Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes; De Cnop, Mara Lima; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Coura, Camila Pinheiro; Brito, Alessandra Page; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the agreement between the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R), estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and multiple 24-hour recalls (24h-R). The Wilcoxon paired test, partial correlations (PC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman method were used. The total BHEI-R scores and its components ("total fruits", "whole fruits", "total vegetables", "integral cereals", "saturated fat", "sodium", and "energy intake derived from solid fat, added sugar, and alcoholic beverages") were statistically different, with the ICC and PC indicating poor concordance and correlation. The mean concordance estimated for the total BHEI-R and its components varied from 68% for "integral cereals" to 147% for "whole fruits". The suitable concordance limits were violated for most of the components of the BHEI-R. Poor concordance was observed between the BHEI-R estimated by the FFQ and by multiple 24h-R, which indicated a strong reliability of the BHEI-R on the instrument used to collect information on food consumption.

  18. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support.

  19. Lessons from Studies to Evaluate an Online 24-Hour Recall for Use with Children and Adults in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Gilsing, Anne M; Hobin, Erin; Solbak, Nathan M; Wallace, Angela; Haines, Jess; Mayhew, Alexandra J; Orr, Sarah K; Raina, Parminder; Robson, Paula J; Sacco, Jocelyn E; Whelan, Heather K

    2017-01-31

    With technological innovation, comprehensive dietary intake data can be collected in a wide range of studies and settings. The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour (ASA24) Dietary Assessment Tool is a web-based system that guides respondents through 24-h recalls. The purpose of this paper is to describe lessons learned from five studies that assessed the feasibility and validity of ASA24 for capturing recall data among several population subgroups in Canada. These studies were conducted within a childcare setting (preschool children with reporting by parents), in public schools (children in grades 5-8; aged 10-13 years), and with community-based samples drawn from existing cohorts of adults and older adults. Themes emerged across studies regarding receptivity to completing ASA24, user experiences with the interface, and practical considerations for different populations. Overall, we found high acceptance of ASA24 among these diverse samples. However, the ASA24 interface was not intuitive for some participants, particularly young children and older adults. As well, technological challenges were encountered. These observations underscore the importance of piloting protocols using online tools, as well as consideration of the potential need for tailored resources to support study participants. Lessons gleaned can inform the effective use of technology-enabled dietary assessment tools in research.

  20. Global empirical model of TEC response to geomagnetic activity: Short-term (24 hours ahead) prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andonov, Borislav

    2013-04-01

    A global empirical model of the rTEC=(TECobs-TECmed)/TECmed depending on the geomagnetic activity (described by the Kp-index) and at a given moment is built by using global TEC data for full 13 years between 1999 and 2011.The data are downloaded from the CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) database in the Astronomical Institute, University of Bern. By using a 2D cross-correlation analysis it is found that the ionospheric response to the geomagnetic activity revealed both positive and negative phases of the response. The both phases of the ionospheric response have different duration and time delay with respect to the geomagnetic storm. It was found that these two parameters of the ionospheric response depend on the season, geographical/geomagnetic coordinates and local time. The rTEC response is represented by 2D (longitude-time) sine waves with different zonal wavenumbers and periods being harmonics of the diurnal period. The input data for the current and predicted geomagnetic activity are obtained from the MAK model developed in NIGGG-BAS, which uses the solar wind measurements from the ACE satellite. The background condition is defined by the recent CODE TEC maps. For each current hour the model provides predicted global TEC maps in geographic frame for the next 24 hours.

  1. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Carson, Valerie; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dinh, Thy; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Gray, Casey E; Gruber, Reut; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; LeBlanc, Claire; Okely, Anthony D; Olds, Timothy; Pate, Russell R; Phillips, Andrea; Poitras, Veronica J; Rodenburg, Sophie; Sampson, Margaret; Saunders, Travis J; Stone, James A; Stratton, Gareth; Weiss, Shelly K; Zehr, Lori

    2016-06-01

    Leaders from the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, content experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children and youth aged 5-17 years respect the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period). The development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and systematic reviews of evidence informing the guidelines were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Four systematic reviews (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, integrated behaviours) examining the relationships between and among movement behaviours and several health indicators were completed and interpreted by expert consensus. Complementary compositional analyses were performed using Canadian Health Measures Survey data to examine the relationships between movement behaviours and health indicators. A stakeholder survey was employed (n = 590) and 28 focus groups/stakeholder interviews (n = 104) were completed to gather feedback on draft guidelines. Following an introductory preamble, the guidelines provide evidence-informed recommendations for a healthy day (24 h), comprising a combination of sleep, sedentary behaviours, light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Proactive dissemination, promotion, implementation, and evaluation plans have been prepared in an effort to optimize uptake and activation of the new guidelines. Future research should consider the integrated relationships among movement behaviours, and similar integrated guidelines for other age groups should be developed.

  2. Wearable ECG Based on Impulse-Radio-Type Human Body Communication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianqing; Fujiwara, Takuya; Kato, Taku; Anzai, Daisuke

    2016-09-01

    Human body communication (HBC) provides a promising physical layer for wireless body area networks (BANs) in healthcare and medical applications, because of its low propagation loss and high security characteristics. In this study, we have developed a wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) which employs impulse radio (IR)-type HBC technology for transmitting vital signals on the human body in a wearable BAN scenario. The HBC-based wearable ECG has two excellent features. First, the wideband performance of the IR scheme contributed to very low radiation power so that the transceiver is easy to satisfy the extremely weak radio laws, which does not need a license. This feature can provide big convenience in the use and spread of the wearable ECG. Second, the realization of common use of sensing and transmitting electrodes based on time sharing and capacitive coupling largely simplified the HBC-based ECG structure and contributed to its miniaturization. To verify the validity of the HBC-based ECG, we evaluated its communication performance and ECG acquisition performance. The measured bit error rate, smaller than 10 (-3) at 1.25 Mb/s, showed a good physical layer communication performance, and the acquired ECG waveform and various heart-rate variability parameters in time and frequency domains exhibited good agreement with a commercially available radio-frequency ECG and a Holter ECG. These results sufficiently showed the validity and feasibility of the HBC-based ECG for healthcare applications. This should be the first time to have realized a real-time ECG transmission by using the HBC technology.

  3. The 24-hour shelf-life of cytapheresis platelet concentrates stored in polyvinyl chloride containers should be extended only with caution.

    PubMed

    Strauss, R G; Snyder, E L; Eckermann, I; Stewart, L

    1987-01-01

    A recent publication suggested that the 24-hour allowable shelf-life of apheresis platelet concentrates collected by open-system techniques be extended to 48 hours because platelets collected in this fashion usually remain sterile for that length of time. The current studies, however, show that the quality of platelet concentrates deteriorates rapidly after storage for more than 24 hours in the relatively small-volume, polyvinyl chloride containers of currently marketed, open-system software, as evidenced by the falling pH, the disintegration of platelets, and the inability of platelets to recover from hypotonic shock. Platelets were markedly defective within 48 hours. Thus, it seems unwise to extend the shelf-life of such platelet concentrates beyond 24 hours solely because they are likely to remain sterile. Collection techniques and software must also be modified to ensure satisfactory platelet quality before the period of storage should be extended.

  4. Segment clustering methodology for unsupervised Holter recordings analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sotelo, Jose Luis; Peluffo-Ordoñez, Diego; Castellanos Dominguez, German

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmia analysis on Holter recordings is an important issue in clinical settings, however such issue implicitly involves attending other problems related to the large amount of unlabelled data which means a high computational cost. In this work an unsupervised methodology based in a segment framework is presented, which consists of dividing the raw data into a balanced number of segments in order to identify fiducial points, characterize and cluster the heartbeats in each segment separately. The resulting clusters are merged or split according to an assumed criterion of homogeneity. This framework compensates the high computational cost employed in Holter analysis, being possible its implementation for further real time applications. The performance of the method is measure over the records from the MIT/BIH arrhythmia database and achieves high values of sensibility and specificity, taking advantage of database labels, for a broad kind of heartbeats types recommended by the AAMI.

  5. Effect of aging on 24-hour changes in dopamine and serotonin turnover and amino acid and somatostatin contents of rat corpus striatum.

    PubMed

    Esquifino, Ana I; Cano, Pilar; Chacon, Fernando; Reyes Toso, Carlos F; Cardinali, Daniel P

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the 24-hour changes in a number of transmitters in the corpus striatum of young and middle-aged male Wistar rats. The contents of excitatory amino acids (glutamate, aspartate) and inhibitory amino acids (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA; taurine, glycine) and of somatostatin were measured in 2-month- and 18- to 20-month-old rats killed at six different time points along the 24-hour cycle. The striatal serotonin and dopamine turnover was also measured. Both young and middle-aged rats showed significant 24-hour variations in striatal glutamate and aspartate contents; only in young rats these variations fitted a cosine function, with acrophase during the first part of rest span. Mesor values of striatal excitatory amino acid contents were lowest in middle-aged rats. Significant 24-hour variations in striatal contents of GABA, taurine, and glycine occurred in young rats, while only striatal GABA exhibited 24-hour changes in middle- aged rats (acrophases during the first part of rest span). For every inhibitory transmitter, the mesor values in middle-aged rats were significantly lower than in young rats. The 24-hour variation of the striatal somatostatin content showed acrophase during the first part of rest span, mesor values and amplitude being lowest in middle-aged rats. Aging rats exhibited significantly higher mesor values of striatal serotonin turnover (34% increase) and lower mesor values of dopamine turnover (69% decrease) than their younger counterparts. Some of the circadian modifications of motor function seen in aging rats could be related to the striatal transmitter changes reported herein.

  6. The relatively poor correlation between random and 24-hour urine protein excretion in patients with biopsy-proven glomerular diseases.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Marie C; Reich, Heather N; Nelson, Peter J; Adler, Sharon G; Cattran, Daniel C; Appel, Gerald B; Gipson, Debbie S; Kretzler, Matthias; Troost, Jonathan P; Lieske, John C

    2016-11-01

    Random urine protein creatinine ratios are used to estimate 24-hour urine protein excretion, which is considered a diagnostic gold standard. However, few studies are available of the sensitivity and specificity of this estimation in patients with glomerular proteinuria. To clarify this, we measured the urine protein and creatinine centrally in random and 24-hour urine collections at biopsy and longitudinally every 6 months in individuals participating in the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) cohort with glomerular disease. In the initial developmental cohort, 302 patients had same day random and 24-hour samples with a total of 827 paired measurements across all visits. The protein excretion (g/day) was higher in adult than pediatric patients. The correlation between the random urine protein creatinine ratio and 24-hour urine protein excretion was moderate in both groups (r of 0.60 and 0.67, respectively). However, the log10 transformation of values strengthened correlations in both groups (r of 0.85 and 0.82, respectively). Associations were moderately stronger among obese patients. Prediction equations were developed and validated in 232 unique cases from NEPTUNE (R(2) of 0.65). Thus, in patients with glomerular disease and proteinuria, the urine protein creatinine ratio correlates only moderately with 24-hour urine protein excretion. However an estimating equation was developed to derive 24-hour urine protein excretion from random urine protein creatinine ratio values with improved precision. The long-term prognostic value of log10-transformed random protein creatinine ratios values requires future study.

  7. Prevalence of Masked Hypertension: a Population-Based Survey in a Large City by Using 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Woong; Choi, Eun-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Nah, Deuk-Young; Shin, Sung-Joon; Gu, Namyi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We estimated the prevalence of hypertension and hypertension subtypes in a large semi-urban city in Korea, using 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a randomly selected sample population. Subjects and Methods A random sample (aged 20-65 years) from a city with an adult population of approximately 600000 was selected by using a list-assisted random digit dialing method. The 24-hour ABPM and conventional blood pressure measurement (CBPM) of these individuals were obtained. Results Among the 496 participants, valid 24-hour ABPM and CBPM were obtained from 462 (93%) individuals. The estimated prevalence of hypertension in Goyang was 17.54% by CBPM and 32.70% by 24-hour ABPM (p<0.01). In the age stratified analysis, both CBPM and 24-hour ABPM showed increased prevalence of hypertension with age. The estimated prevalence of masked hypertension was 16.22% and that of white-coat hypertension was 1.08%. Men had a higher prevalence of masked hypertension than women (20.79% vs. 11.86%, p=0.0295). The estimated prevalence of masked hypertension was 17.5%, 20.58%, 24.34%, and 13.29% in the age categories of 30s, 40s, 50s, and 60s, respectively. The estimated prevalence of masked uncontrolled hypertension was 26.79% in patients with hypertension who were taking antihypertensive medications. Conclusion The estimated prevalence of hypertension by 24-hour ABPM was higher than that by CBPM, revealing high prevalence of masked hypertension. The high prevalence of masked hypertension supports the adoption of ABPM in the national population survey and clinical practice to improve public health and reduce health care costs. PMID:27721860

  8. A Wearable Context-Aware ECG Monitoring System Integrated with Built-in Kinematic Sensors of the Smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Fen; Cheng, Yayu; He, Yi; He, Qingyun; Li, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Continuously monitoring the ECG signals over hours combined with activity status is very important for preventing cardiovascular diseases. A traditional ECG holter is often inconvenient to carry because it has many electrodes attached to the chest and because it is heavy. This work proposes a wearable, low power context-aware ECG monitoring system integrated built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone with a self-designed ECG sensor. The wearable ECG sensor is comprised of a fully integrated analog front-end (AFE), a commercial micro control unit (MCU), a secure digital (SD) card, and a Bluetooth module. The whole sensor is very small with a size of only 58 × 50 × 10 mm for wearable monitoring application due to the AFE design, and the total power dissipation in a full round of ECG acquisition is only 12.5 mW. With the help of built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone, the proposed system can compute and recognize user’s physical activity, and thus provide context-aware information for the continuous ECG monitoring. The experimental results demonstrated the performance of proposed system in improving diagnosis accuracy for arrhythmias and identifying the most common abnormal ECG patterns in different activities. In conclusion, we provide a wearable, accurate and energy-efficient system for long-term and context-aware ECG monitoring without any extra cost on kinetic sensor design but with the help of the widespread smartphone. PMID:25996508

  9. Jack Healy Remembers - Anecdotal Evidence for the Origin of the Approximate 24-hour Urine Sampling Protocol Used for Worker Bioassay Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2008-10-01

    The origin of the approximate 24-hour urine sampling protocol used at Hanford for routine bioassay is attributed to an informal study done in the mid-1940s. While the actual data were never published and have been lost, anecdotal recollections by staff involved in the initial bioassay program design and administration suggest that the sampling protocol had a solid scientific basis. Numerous alternate methods for normalizing partial day samples to represent a total 24-hour collection have since been proposed and used, but no one method is obviously preferred.

  10. Investigations into the source of two fungicides measured in the air for 24 hours following application to a cereal crop.

    PubMed

    Ellis, M C Butler; Lane, A G; O'Sullivan, C M; Miller, P C H

    2009-01-01

    Airborne pesticides can be detected near to recently-treated arable fields for a period of days following the application. Identifying the source of such pesticides is important in developing predictive models for use in exposure and risk assessments. Previous work showed levels of pesticide in the air that were higher than expected for a low-vapour-pressure active ingredient, epoxiconazole, and comparable with an active ingredient of a significantly higher vapour pressure, fenpropidin. It was possible that the measured concentrations could be attributed to 'dust' particles emitted from the crop, either biological material contaminated with pesticide or solid dried deposits of active ingredient and other formulation components. A second experiment was therefore undertaken to measure airborne concentrations of the same active ingredients and to determine whether some or all of the measured airborne pesticide could be attributed to particles, using a Marple personal cascade impactor, which collects particles in the range 0.3 - 50 microm. Such samplers are not optimised to give good sampling efficiencies under the proposed field conditions, so some initial tests were undertaken in the Silsoe wind tunnel to assess its ability to sample particles in an air flow. In the subsequent field trial, a 192 m square plot in a commercially established winter cereal crop was sprayed with a tank mix of commercial formulations of epoxiconazole and fenpropidin. Measurements of airborne pesticides were made for 24 hours following the application with suction samplers attached to tenax tubes to evaluate vapour concentrations and with the cascade impactor to determine whether contaminated airborne particles were present. The concentrations of pesticide measured with the tenax tubes were significantly higher than the particulate component detected on the cascade impactor plates and it is therefore it was very unlikely that there was a significant contribution from pesticide

  11. Perfusion-CT - Can We Predict Acute Pancreatitis Outcome within the First 24 Hours from the Onset of Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Pieńkowska, Joanna; Gwoździewicz, Katarzyna; Skrobisz-Balandowska, Katarzyna; Marek, Iwona; Kostro, Justyna; Szurowska, Edyta; Studniarek, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is still a significant clinical problem which is associated with a highly mortality. The aim of this study was the evaluation of prognostic value of CT regional perfusion measurement performed on the first day of onset of symptoms of AP, in assessing the risk of developing severe form of acute pancreatitis. Material and Methods 79 patients with clinical symptoms and biochemical criteria indicative of acute pancreatitis (acute upper abdominal pain, elevated levels of serum amylase and lipase) underwent perfusion CT within 24 hours after onset of symptoms. The follow-up examinations were performed after 4–6 days to detect progression of the disease. Perfusion parameters were compared in 41 people who developed severe form of AP (pancreatic and/or peripancreatic tissue necrosis) with parameters in 38 consecutive patients in whom course of AP was mild. Blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time and permeability surface area product were calculated in the three anatomic pancreatic subdivisions (head, body and tail). At the same time the patient's clinical status was assessed by APACHE II score and laboratory parameters such as CRP, serum lipase and amylase, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP and bilirubin were compared. Results Statistical differences in the perfusion parameters between the group of patients with mild and severe AP were shown. Blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time were significantly lower and permeability surface area product was significantly higher in patients who develop severe acute pancreatitis and presence of pancreatic and/or peripancreatic necrosis due to pancreatic ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of evaluated on admission severity of pancreatitis assessed using APACHE II score and laboratory tests. Conclusions CT perfusion is a very useful indicator for prediction and selection patients in early stages of acute pancreatitis who are at risk of

  12. Bath water contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria in 24-hour home baths, hot springs, and public bathhouses of Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bath water samples were collected from 116 hot springs, 197 public bathhouses, and 38 24-hour home baths in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, during the period of April 2009 to November 2011, for determining the presence and extent of contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Cultures positive for Legionella were observed in 123 of the 3,314 bath water samples examined. The distribution and abundance of Legionella and/or combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria were investigated to clarify the contamination levels. The abundance of Legionella was demonstrated to correlate considerably with the levels of combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Legionella spp. were obtained from 61% of the water samples from 24-hour home baths, but only from 3% of the samples from public bathhouses and hot springs. This is despite the fact that a few outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Nagano Prefecture as well as other regions of Japan have been traced to bath water contamination. The comparatively higher rate of contamination of the 24-hour home baths is a matter of concern. It is therefore advisable to routinely implement good maintenance of the water basins, particularly of the 24-hour home baths.

  13. 49 CFR 375.607 - What must I do if I am able to tender a shipment for final delivery more than 24 hours before a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What must I do if I am able to tender a shipment for final delivery more than 24 hours before a specified date? 375.607 Section 375.607 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL...

  14. Effect of one week of CPAP treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea on 24-hour profiles of glucose, insulin and counter-regulatory hormones in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mokhlesi, Babak; Grimaldi, Daniela; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Van Cauter, Eve

    2017-03-01

    Studies examining the impact of CPAP treatment on glycaemic control have yielded conflicting results, partly because of insufficient nightly CPAP use. We examined the 24-hour profiles of glucose, insulin and counter-regulatory hormones in 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes and OSA before and after 1 week of effective in-laboratory CPAP therapy over an entire 8-hour night thus ensuring optimal CPAP compliance. Blood samples were collected every 15 to 30 minutes for 24 hours under controlled conditions. The 24-hour mean glucose decreased from 153.2 ± 33.0 to 139.7 ± 24.2 mg/dL with CPAP (-13.5 ± 13.5 mg/dL; P = .005) without change in insulin levels. Morning fasting glucose levels decreased by 14.6 ± 3 mg/dL (P = .001) and the dawn phenomenon decreased by 7.8 ± 9.8 mg/dL (P = .019). CPAP treatment decreased norepinephrine levels while the 24-hour profiles of growth hormone and cortisol remained unchanged. In conclusion, 1 week of effective treatment of OSA over an entire 8-hour night results in a clinically significant improvement in glycaemic control via an amelioration of evening fasting glucose metabolism and a reduction in the dawn phenomenon, a late-night glucose increase that is not adequately treated by oral medications. Clinical Trials Information: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01136785.

  15. The effect of low level radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in operators during 24-hour shifts.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, K; Israel, M; Mihaylov, S

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long term exposure to low level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in satellite station operators during 24-hour shifts. Twelve male operators at a satellite station for TV communications and space research were studied during 24-hour shifts. Dosimetric evaluation of the exposure was carried out and showed low level exposure with specific absorption of 0.1127 J.kg-1. A control group of 12 unexposed male operators with similar job task and the same shift system were studied, too. The 11-oxycorticosteroids (11-OCS), adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed by spectrofluorimetric methods on 3-hour intervals during the 24-hour shifts. The data were analyzed by tests for interindividual analysis, Cosinor analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant increase in the 24-hour excretion of 11-OCS and disorders in its circadian rhythm, manifested by increase in the mesor, decrease in the amplitude and shift in the acrophase were found in the exposed operators. The changes in the excretion rates of the catecholamines were significant and showed greater variability of both variables. The long term effect of the exposure to low-level RF EM radiation evoked pronounced stress reaction with changes in the circadian rhythm of 11-OCS and increased variability of catecholamines secretion. The possible health hazards associated with observed alteration in the stress system need to be clarified by identification of their significance and prognostic relevance.

  16. Validation of the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall for children (ASA24-Kids) among 9- to 11-year-old youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty-nine children in two sites participated in the study. In one site, trained staff observed and recorded types and portions of foods and drinks consumed by ...

  17. Characterization of pulmonary protein profiles in response to zinc oxide nanoparticles in mice: a 24-hour and 28-day follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Jen-Kun; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Lai, Ching-Huang; Jones, Tim P; BéruBé, Kelly A; Hong, Gui-Bing; Ho, Kin-Fai; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are recognized to cause systemic disorders, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the time-dependent differences that occur after exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanistic differences at 24 hours and 28 days after the exposure of BALB/c mice to ZnONPs via intratracheal instillation. An isobaric tag for the relative and absolute quantitation coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the differential protein expression, biological processes, molecular functions, and pathways. A total of 18 and 14 proteins displayed significant changes in the lung tissues at 24 hours and 28 days after exposure, respectively, with the most striking changes being observed for S100-A9 protein. Metabolic processes and catalytic activity were the main biological processes and molecular functions, respectively, in the responses at the 24-hour and 28-day follow-up times. The glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway was continuously downregulated from 24 hours to 28 days, whereas detoxification pathways were activated at the 28-day time-point after exposure. A comprehensive understanding of the potential time-dependent effects of exposure to ZnONPs was provided, which highlights the metabolic mechanisms that may be important in the responses to ZnONP. PMID:26251593

  18. Identifying nutrients that are under-reported by an automated 24-hour dietary recall method in overweight and obese women after weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underreporting of energy intake by 15-50% is a common problem in dietary assessment. Evidence suggests overweight/obese respondents are more likely to under-report than normal weight. This study compared Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24)-reported dietary intake to true intake in ove...

  19. 24-HOUR DIFFUSIVE SAMPLING OF 1,3-BUTADIENE IN AIR ONTO CARBONPAK X SOLID ADSORBENT WITH THEMAL DESORPTION/GC/MS ANALYSIS - FEASIBILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffusive sampling of 1,3-butadiene for 24 hours onto the graphitic adsorbent Carbopack X contained in a stainless steel tube badge (6.3 mm OD, 5 mm ID, and 90 mm in length) with analysis by thermal desorption/GC/MS has been evaluated in controlled tests. A test matrix of 42 tr...

  20. Characterization of pulmonary protein profiles in response to zinc oxide nanoparticles in mice: a 24-hour and 28-day follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Jen-Kun; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Lai, Ching-Huang; Jones, Tim P; BéruBé, Kelly A; Hong, Gui-Bing; Ho, Kin-Fai; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are recognized to cause systemic disorders, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the time-dependent differences that occur after exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanistic differences at 24 hours and 28 days after the exposure of BALB/c mice to ZnONPs via intratracheal instillation. An isobaric tag for the relative and absolute quantitation coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the differential protein expression, biological processes, molecular functions, and pathways. A total of 18 and 14 proteins displayed significant changes in the lung tissues at 24 hours and 28 days after exposure, respectively, with the most striking changes being observed for S100-A9 protein. Metabolic processes and catalytic activity were the main biological processes and molecular functions, respectively, in the responses at the 24-hour and 28-day follow-up times. The glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway was continuously downregulated from 24 hours to 28 days, whereas detoxification pathways were activated at the 28-day time-point after exposure. A comprehensive understanding of the potential time-dependent effects of exposure to ZnONPs was provided, which highlights the metabolic mechanisms that may be important in the responses to ZnONP.

  1. Computational Analysis of ECGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Kevin

    2013-03-01

    Electrocardiogram is among the most powerful methods at present to diagnose heart conditions. Here we employed Fourier transform to analyze Electrocardiograms. The goal of the project is to find a way to isolate different wave signals in ways that today's technology is not capable of. Our focus was on building on a code that is capable of filtering out P, QRS, T waves and noise from the ECG, so we created frequency filters that omitted selected amount of data. We first deconstructed and then constructed the ECG this way to find an optimal code assembly for each ECG wave (P-wave, QRS-wave, T-wave). By focusing on one patient, we succeeded to disentangle the complicated ECG signal. We plan to extend this method to more patients.

  2. Value of random urinary homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid levels in the diagnosis and management of patients with neuroblastoma: comparison with 24-hour urine collections.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, M; Morris, C L; Ramnaraine, M L; Bowers, L D; Krivit, W

    1985-02-01

    Urinary homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) levels were determined in random samples and in 24-hour collections from 13 patients with neuroblastoma and 22 patients without neuroblastoma. Random sample levels were compared with levels in 24-hour collections and showed a positive correlation of 95% for HVA (N = 59) and 93% for VMA (N = 52). No false positives or false negatives occurred using random samples for diagnosis. Nonneuroblastoma (normal) HVA (N = 126) and VMA (N = 119) levels are reported for different age groups. Sequential random HVA and VMA determinations in patients with neuroblastoma during and after therapy are shown. Random urinary HVA and VMA levels are shown to be adequate for utilization in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma and sequential determinations of random HVA and VMA are shown to be helpful in the follow-up of those patients.

  3. In vitro study of 24-hour and 30-day shear bond strengths of three resin-glass ionomer cements used to bond orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Lippitz, S J; Staley, R N; Jakobsen, J R

    1998-06-01

    Interest in using composite resin-glass ionomer hybrid cements as orthodontic bracket adhesives has grown because of their potential for fluoride release. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare shear bond strengths of three resin-glass ionomer cements (Advance, Fuji Duet, Fuji Ortho LC) used as bracket adhesives with a composite resin 24 hours and 30 days after bonding. The amount of adhesive remaining on the debonded enamel surface was scored for each adhesive. Mesh-backed stainless-steel brackets were bonded to 100 extracted human premolars, which were stored in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C until being tested to failure in a testing machine. The hybrid cements, with one exception, had bond strengths similar to those of the composite resin at 24 hours and 30 days. Fuji Ortho LC had significantly lower bond strengths (ANOVA p < or = 0.05) than the other adhesives at 24 hours and 30 days when it was bonded to unetched, water-moistened enamel. Adhesive-remnant scores were similar for all cements, except for cement Fuji Ortho LC when it was bonded to unetched enamel. The resin-glass ionomer cements we tested appear to have bond strengths suitable for routine use as orthodontic bracket-bonding adhesives.

  4. Reductions in Mean 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure After 6-Week Treatment With Canagliflozin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Raymond R; Machin, Israel; Ren, Jimmy; Trujillo, Angelina; Kawaguchi, Masato; Vijapurkar, Ujjwala; Damaraju, Chandrasekharrao V; Pfeifer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the early effects of canagliflozin on blood pressure (BP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension. Patients were randomized to canagliflozin 300 mg, canagliflozin 100 mg, or placebo for 6 weeks and underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring before randomization, on day 1 of treatment, and after 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in mean 24-hour systolic BP (SBP) from baseline to week 6. Overall, 169 patients were included (mean age, 58.6 years; glycated hemoglobin, 8.1%; seated BP 138.5/82.7 mm Hg). At week 6, canagliflozin 300 mg provided greater reductions in mean 24-hour SBP than placebo (least squares mean -6.2 vs -1.2 mm Hg, respectively; P=.006). Numerical reductions in SBP were observed with canagliflozin 100 mg. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated, with side effects similar to those reported in previous studies. These results suggest that canagliflozin rapidly reduces BP in patients with T2DM and hypertension.

  5. Deconvolution of insulin secretion, insulin hepatic extraction post-hepatic delivery rates and sensitivity during 24-hour standardized meals: time course of glucose homeostasis in leptin replacement treatment.

    PubMed

    Andreev, V P; Paz-Filho, G; Wong, M-L; Licinio, J

    2009-02-01

    Minimally invasive methodology, mathematical model, and software for analysis of glucose homeostasis by deconvolution of insulin secretion, hepatic extraction, post-hepatic delivery, and sensitivity from 24-hour standardized meals test have been developed and illustrated by the study of glucose homeostasis of a genetically based leptin-deficient patient before and after leptin replacement treatment. The only genetically leptin-deficient adult man identified in the world was treated for 24 months with recombinant methionyl human leptin. Blood was collected every 7 minutes for 24 hours, with standardized meals consumed during the 4 visits: at baseline, one-week, 18-months, and 24-months after initiation of the treatment. Concentrations of insulin, C-peptide, and plasma glucose were measured. Insulin secretion was obtained by deconvolution of C-peptide data. Hepatic insulin extraction was determined based on our modifications of the insulin kinetics model . Insulin sensitivity for each of the four meals was calculated by using the minimal glucose model approach. Hepatic extraction of insulin was the first element of glucose homeostasis to respond to leptin replacement treatment and increased 2-fold after one week of treatment. Insulin secretion and delivery rates decreased more than 2-fold and insulin sensitivity increased 10-fold after 24 months of treatment. Computer programs for analysis of 24-hour insulin secretion, extraction, delivery, and action are available upon request.

  6. Effects of transdermal scopolamine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, on total 24 hour gastric acid secretion in patients with duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, C T; Feldman, M

    1986-01-01

    Transdermal scopolamine is an antimuscarinic preparation approved for use in the United States for prevention of motion sickness. A recent study using this drug (0.5 mg/patch) suggested that enough scopolamine was absorbed through the skin to reduce basal gastric acid secretion in patients with duodenal ulcer. We have compared the effect of transdermal scopolamine and oral cimetidine (400 mg twice daily) in seven men with chronic duodenal ulcer, both alone and in combination, on acid secretion throughout an entire 24 hour period in a placebo-controlled, randomised, double blinded cross over study. The effect of these drugs on basal, interprandial, and nocturnal gastric juice volume and hydrogen ion concentration also was measured. Transdermal scopolamine had no significant effect on mean 24 hour acid secretion (placebo, 409.4 mmol/day; scopolamine, 364.0 mmol/day) nor did it have a significant effect on gastric juice volume or hydrogen ion concentration. The combination of transdermal scopolamine plus cimetidine was not more effective than cimetidine alone in reducing total 24 hour acid secretion (mean, 231.8 versus 235.3 mmol/day) nor in reducing gastric juice volume or hydrogen ion concentration. PMID:3804025

  7. Correlation of 24-Hour Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability to Renal Function Parameters in Hypertensive Patients. The Effect of Smoking.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Charalampos I; Karpanou, Eva A; Markou, Maria I; Grassos, Charalampos A; Vyssoulis, Gregory P

    2015-12-01

    Intrarenal hemodynamics depend on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and smoking. Although BP levels have been associated with kidney function, the effect of HR levels, BP, and HR variability on renal function are less well clarified. This cross-sectional study sought to determine the association of 24-hour BP and HR variability with kidney function in hypertensive patients, stratified by smoking. The study comprised 9600 nondiabetic, never-treated hypertensive individuals without evident renal impairment examined from 1985 to 2014 (aged 53.3±13.4 years, 55.3% males). The 24-hour systolic BP (SBP) and HR variability were estimated via their coefficient of variation (CV =standard deviation×100/mean value) derived from ambulatory recording. The CV SBP-to-CV HR ratio (CV R) was used as a marker of the interplay between 24-hour SBP and HR variability. Renal function was estimated via 24-hour urine creatinine clearance (CrCl), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), and 24-hour urine α1 -microglobulin. After adjustment for age, sex, and smoking, CV SBP was found to be weakly correlated to eGFR (r=-0.017, P=.1) and somewhat more strongly to CrCl, ACR, and α1 -microglobulin (r=-0.032, 0.072, and 0.065; P=.002, <.001 and <.001, respectively). CV HR was much better related to renal function, with stronger adjusted correlations to CrCl, eGFR, ACR, and α1 -microglobulin (r=0.185, 0.134, -0.306, -0.247; all P<.001, respectively). CV R also showed equally good adjusted correlations (r=-0.175, -0.125, 0.336, 0.262; all P<.001, respectively). Most adjusted correlations for CV HR and CV R were even better in smokers (r=0.213, 0.158, -0.332, -0.272 and -0.183, -0.118, 0.351, 0.275, respectively; all P<.001). CV HR and CV R emerge as better related to kidney function than CV SBP, especially in smokers. The correlation of CV HR and CV SBP to renal function is inverse to each other. ACR and α1 -microglobulin are better related to

  8. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables

  9. Prognostic Role of Ventricular Ectopic Beats in Systemic Sclerosis: A Prospective Cohort Study Shows ECG Indexes Predicting the Worse Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielli, Francesca Augusta; Berardi, Giorgia; Parisi, Federico; Rucco, Manuela; Canestrari, Giovanni; Loperfido, Francesco; Galiuto, Leonarda; Crea, Filippo; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Background Arrhythmias are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) and portend a bad prognosis, accounting alone for 6% of total deaths. Many of these patients die suddenly, thus prevention and intensified risk-stratification represent unmet medical needs. The major goal of this study was the definition of ECG indexes of poor prognosis. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study to define the role of 24h-ECG-Holter as an additional risk-stratification technique in the identification of SSc-patients at high risk of life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). One-hundred SSc-patients with symptoms and/or signs suggestive of cardiac involvement underwent 24h-ECG-Holter. The primary end-point was a composite of SCD or need for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Results Fifty-six patients (56%) had 24h-ECG-Holter abnormalities and 24(24%) presented frequent ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs). The number of VEBs correlated with high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) levels and inversely correlated with left-ventricular ejection fraction (LV-EF) on echocardiography. During a mean follow-up of 23.1±16.0 months, 5 patients died suddenly and two required ICD-implantation. The 7 patients who met the composite end-point had a higher number of VEBs, higher levels of hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP and lower LV-EF (p = 0.001 for all correlations). All these 7 patients had frequent VEBs, while LV-EF was not reduced in all and its range was wide. At ROC curve, VEBs>1190/24h showed 100% of sensitivity and 83% of specificity to predict the primary end-point (AUROC = 0.92,p<0.0001). Patients with VEBS>1190/24h had lower LV-EF and higher hs-cTnT levels and, at multivariate analysis, the presence of increased hs-cTnT and of right bundle branch block on ECG emerged as independent predictors of VEBs>1190/24h. None of demographic or disease-related characteristics emerged as predictors of poor outcome. Conclusions VEBS>1190/24h identify patients at high risk of

  10. Hybrid ECG signal conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinard, G. A.; Steffen, D. A.; Sturm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Circuit with high common-mode rejection has ability to filter and amplify accepted analog electrocardiogram (ECG) signals of varying amplitude, shape, and polarity. In addition, low power circuit develops standardized pulses that can be counted and averaged by heart/breath rate processor.

  11. Motion artifact removal algorithm by ICA for e-bra: a women ECG measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyeokjun; Oh, Sechang; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2013-04-01

    Wearable ECG(ElectroCardioGram) measurement systems have increasingly been developing for people who suffer from CVD(CardioVascular Disease) and have very active lifestyles. Especially, in the case of female CVD patients, several abnormal CVD symptoms are accompanied with CVDs. Therefore, monitoring women's ECG signal is a significant diagnostic method to prevent from sudden heart attack. The E-bra ECG measurement system from our previous work provides more convenient option for women than Holter monitor system. The e-bra system was developed with a motion artifact removal algorithm by using an adaptive filter with LMS(least mean square) and a wandering noise baseline detection algorithm. In this paper, ICA(independent component analysis) algorithms are suggested to remove motion artifact factor for the e-bra system. Firstly, the ICA algorithms are developed with two kinds of statistical theories: Kurtosis, Endropy and evaluated by performing simulations with a ECG signal created by sgolayfilt function of MATLAB, a noise signal including 0.4Hz, 1.1Hz and 1.9Hz, and a weighed vector W estimated by kurtosis or entropy. A correlation value is shown as the degree of similarity between the created ECG signal and the estimated new ECG signal. In the real time E-Bra system, two pseudo signals are extracted by multiplying with a random weighted vector W, the measured ECG signal from E-bra system, and the noise component signal by noise extraction algorithm from our previous work. The suggested ICA algorithm basing on kurtosis or entropy is used to estimate the new ECG signal Y without noise component.

  12. Comparative study of T-amplitude features for fitness monitoring using the ePatch® ECG recorder.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Saida, Trine; Mehlsen, Jesper; Mehlsen, Anne-Birgitte; Langberg, Henning; Hoppe, Karsten; Sorensen, Helge B D

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates ECG features, focusing on T-wave amplitude, from a wearable ECG device as a potential method for fitness monitoring in exercise rehabilitation. An automatic T-peak detection algorithm is presented that uses local baseline detection to overcome baseline drift without the need for preprocessing, and offers adequate performance on data recorded in noisy environments. The algorithm is applied to 24 hour data recordings from two subject groups with different physical activity histories. Results indicate that, while mean heart rate (HR) differs most significantly between the groups, T-amplitude features could be useful depending on the disparities in fitness level, and require further investigation on an individual basis.

  13. Detection of Cardiac Abnormalities from Multilead ECG using Multiscale Phase Alternation Features.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, R K; Dandapat, S

    2016-06-01

    The cardiac activities such as the depolarization and the relaxation of atria and ventricles are observed in electrocardiogram (ECG). The changes in the morphological features of ECG are the symptoms of particular heart pathology. It is a cumbersome task for medical experts to visually identify any subtle changes in the morphological features during 24 hours of ECG recording. Therefore, the automated analysis of ECG signal is a need for accurate detection of cardiac abnormalities. In this paper, a novel method for automated detection of cardiac abnormalities from multilead ECG is proposed. The method uses multiscale phase alternation (PA) features of multilead ECG and two classifiers, k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and fuzzy KNN for classification of bundle branch block (BBB), myocardial infarction (MI), heart muscle defect (HMD) and healthy control (HC). The dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) is used to decompose the ECG signal of each lead into complex wavelet coefficients at different scales. The phase of the complex wavelet coefficients is computed and the PA values at each wavelet scale are used as features for detection and classification of cardiac abnormalities. A publicly available multilead ECG database (PTB database) is used for testing of the proposed method. The experimental results show that, the proposed multiscale PA features and the fuzzy KNN classifier have better performance for detection of cardiac abnormalities with sensitivity values of 78.12 %, 80.90 % and 94.31 % for BBB, HMD and MI classes. The sensitivity value of proposed method for MI class is compared with the state-of-art techniques from multilead ECG.

  14. High-frequency ECG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tragardh, Elin; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    The standard ECG is by convention limited to 0.05-150 Hz, but higher frequencies are also present in the ECG signal. With high-resolution technology, it is possible to record and analyze these higher frequencies. The highest amplitudes of the high-frequency components are found within the QRS complex. In past years, the term "high frequency", "high fidelity", and "wideband electrocardiography" have been used by several investigators to refer to the process of recording ECGs with an extended bandwidth of up to 1000 Hz. Several investigators have tried to analyze HF-QRS with the hope that additional features seen in the QRS complex would provide information enhancing the diagnostic value of the ECG. The development of computerized ECG-recording devices that made it possible to record ECG signals with high resolution in both time and amplitude, as well as better possibilities to store and process the signals digitally, offered new methods for analysis. Different techniques to extract the HF-QRS have been described. Several bandwidths and filter types have been applied for the extraction as well as different signal-averaging techniques for noise reduction. There is no standard method for acquiring and quantifying HF-QRS. The physiological mechanisms underlying HF-QRS are still not fully understood. One theory is that HF-QRS are related to the conduction velocity and the fragmentation of the depolarization wave in the myocardium. In a three-dimensional model of the ventricles with a fractal conduction system it was shown that high numbers of splitting branches are associated with HF-QRS. In this experiment, it was also shown that the changes seen in HF-QRS in patients with myocardial ischemia might be due to the slowing of the conduction velocity in the region of ischemia. This mechanism has been tested by Watanabe et al by infusing sodium channel blockers into the left anterior descending artery in dogs. In their study, 60 unipolar ECGs were recorded from the entire

  15. 24 Hours to Save the NHS - The Chief Executive's Account of Reform 2000 to 2006 Crisp Nigel 24 Hours to Save the NHS - The Chief Executive's Account of Reform 2000 to 2006 248pp Oxford University Press 9780199639953 0199639957 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2012-02-22

    The title of this book comes from Tony Blair's political slogan on the eve of the 1997 election when he told voters they had '24 hours to save the NHS' by voting for a Labour government. The new millennium, however, still found the NHS in decline.

  16. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lindsey P; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M; Mendez, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared with the written record-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared with the written record-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written record -assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared with the current written record-based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared with either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China's dynamic food and beverage landscape.

  17. Disproportional decrease in office blood pressure compared with 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure with antihypertensive treatment: dependency on pretreatment blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, Roland E; Schmidt, Stephanie T; Riemer, Thomas; Dechend, Ralf; Hagedorn, Ina; Senges, Jochen; Messerli, Franz H; Zeymer, Uwe

    2014-11-01

    The long-term relationship between 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and office BP in patients on therapy is not well documented. From a registry we included all patients in whom antihypertensive therapy needed to be uptitrated. Drug treatment included the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker or drugs not blocking the renin-angiotensin system, alone or on top of an existing drug regimen. In all patients, office BP and 24-hour ABP were obtained at baseline and after 1 year with validated devices. In the study population of 2722 patients, there was a good correlation between the change in office BP and 24-hour ABP (systolic: r=0.39; P<0.001; diastolic: r=0.34; P<0.001). However, the numeric decrease in office BP did not correspond to the decrease in ABP in a 1:1 fashion, for example, a decrease of 10, 20, and 30 mm Hg corresponded to a decrease of ≈7.2, 10.5, and 13.9 mm Hg in systolic ABP, respectively. The disproportionally greater decrease in systolic office BP compared with ABP was dependent on the level of the pretreatment BP, which was consistently higher for office BP than ABP. The white coat effect (difference between office BP and ABP) was on average 10/5 mm Hg lower 1 year after intensifying treatment and the magnitude of that was also dependent on pretreatment BP. There was a disproportionally greater decrease in systolic office BP than in ABP, which for both office BP and ABP seemed to depend on the pretreatment BP level.

  18. Ambulatory 24-hour cardiac oxygen consumption and blood pressure-heart rate variability: effects of nebivolol and valsartan alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Joseph L; Khan, Safi U; Saleem, Osman; Osmond, Peter J

    2015-07-01

    We compared an angiotensin receptor blocker (valsartan; VAL), a beta-blocker (nebivolol; NEB) and the combination of NEB/VAL with respect to 24-hour myocardial oxygen consumption (determined by 24-hour ambulatory heart rate-central systolic pressure product [ACRPP]) and its components. Subjects with hypertension (systolic blood pressure >140 or diastolic blood pressure >90; n = 26) were studied in a double-blinded, double-dummy, forced-titration, crossover design with 3 random-order experimental periods: VAL 320 mg, NEB 40 mg, and NEB/VAL 320/40 mg daily. After 4 weeks of each drug, ambulatory pulse wave analysis (MobilOGraph) was performed every 20 minutes for 24 hours. All three treatments resulted in nearly identical brachial and central systolic blood pressures. NEB alone or in combination with VAL resulted in lower ACRPP (by 11%-14%; P < .001 each) and heart rate (by 18%-20%; P < .001 each) compared with VAL, but stroke work (ACRPP per beat) was lower with VAL. Relative and adjusted variability (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of heart rate were also lower with NEB and NEB/VAL than VAL. Results in African Americans, the majority subpopulation, were similar to those of the entire treatment group. We conclude that the rate-slowing effects of NEB cause ambulatory cardiac myocardial oxygen consumption to be lower with NEB monotherapy or NEB/VAL combination therapy than with VAL monotherapy. NEB/VAL is not superior to NEB alone in controlling heart rate, blood pressure, or ACRPP. Heart rate variability but not ACRPP variability is reduced by NEB or the combination NEB/VAL. There is no attenuation of beta-blocker-induced rate-slowing effects of in African Americans.

  19. Correlation of random urine protein creatinine (P-C) ratio with 24-hour urine protein and P-C ratio, based on physical activity: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Seyed-Ali; Jaipaul, Navin

    2010-09-07

    Quantification of proteinuria is usually predicated upon 24-hour urine collection. Multiple factors influence urine collection and the rate of protein and creatinine excretion. Urine collection is often incomplete, and therefore creatinine and protein excretion rates are underestimated. A random urine protein-creatinine (P-C) ratio has been shown over the years to be a reliable alternative to the 24-hour collection for detection and follow up of proteinuria. However, urine protein excretion may be influenced by physical activity. We studied 48 patients with proteinuria and varying levels of physical activity to determine the correlation between the measures of urine protein excretion. The correlation coefficient (r) between 24-hour urine total protein and random urine P-C ratio was 0.75 (P < 0.01) in the overall study population, but varied according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity in a stratified analysis: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.95 (P < 0.01) in bedridden patients; r = 0.44 (P = not significant [NS]) and r = 0.54 (P = NS) in semiactive patients; and r = 0.44 (P = NS) and r = 0.58 (P < 0.05) in active patients with nephrotic- (>3500 mg/day) and non-nephrotic (<3500 mg/day) range proteinuria, respectively. The correlation appeared to be stronger between random urine and 24-hour urine P-C ratio for the overall study population (r = 0.84; P < 0.001), and when stratified according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.92 (P < 0.01) in bedridden patients; r = 0.61 (P = NS) and r = 0.54 (P = NS) in semiactive patients; and r = 0.64 (P < 0.02) and r = 0.52 (P < 0.05) in active patients with nephrotic and non-nephrotic range proteinuria, respectively. We conclude that the random urine P-C ratio is a reliable and practical way of estimating and following proteinuria, but its precision and accuracy may be affected by the level of patient physical activity.

  20. Variability of Urinary Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolite in General Population and Comparison of Spot, First-Morning, and 24-Hour Void Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C.; Lewin, Michael D; Porter, Erin N; Trinidad, Debra A; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G; Sjödin, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Urinary hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) are commonly used in biomonitoring to assess exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Similar to other biologically non-persistent chemicals, OH-PAHs have relatively short biological half-lives (4.4–35 hours). Little information is available on their variability in urinary concentrations over time in non- occupationally exposed subjects. This study was designed to (i) study the variability of 9 urinary OH-PAH metabolite concentrations over time and (ii) calculate sample size requirements for future epidemiological studies based on spot urine, first morning void and 24-hour void sampling. Individual urine samples (n = 427) were collected during one week from 8 non-occupationally exposed adults. We recorded the time and volume of each urine excretion, dietary details, and the driving activities of the participants. Within subjects, the coefficients of variation (CV) for the wet-weight concentration of OH-PAHs in all samples ranged from 45% to 297%; creatinine adjustment reduced the CV to 19–288% (p < 0.001; paired t-test). The simulated 24-hour void concentrations were the least variable measure, with CVs ranging 13–182% for the 9 OH-PAHs. Within-day variability contributed on average 84%, and between-day variability accounted for 16% of the total variance of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of 1-PYR levels were 0.55 for spot urine samples, 0.60 for first-morning voids, and 0.76 for 24-hour voids, indicating a high degree of correlation between urine measurements collected from the same subject over time. Sample size calculations were performed to estimate the number of subjects needed for detecting differences in geometric mean at a statistical power of 80% for spot urine, first-morning, and 24-hour void sampling. These data will aid in the design of future studies of PAHs and possibly other biologically non-persistent chemicals and the interpretation of

  1. Low adherence to exclusive breastfeeding in Eastern Uganda: A community-based cross-sectional study comparing dietary recall since birth with 24-hour recall

    PubMed Central

    Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie S; Wamani, Henry; Karamagi, Charles; Semiyaga, Nulu; Tumwine, James; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2007-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended as the best feeding alternative for infants up to six months and has a protective effect against mortality and morbidity. It also seems to lower HIV-1 transmission compared to mixed feeding. We studied infant feeding practices comparing dietary recall since birth with 24-hour dietary recall. Methods A cross-sectional survey on infant feeding practices was performed in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda in 2003 and 727 mother-infant (0–11 months) pairs were analysed. Four feeding categories were made based on WHO's definitions: 1) exclusive breastfeeding, 2) predominant breastfeeding, 3) complementary feeding and 4) replacement feeding. We analyzed when the infant fell into another feeding category for the first time. This was based on the recall since birth. Life-table analysis was made for the different feeding categories and Cox regression analysis was done to control for potential associated factors with the different practices. Prelacteal feeding practices were also addressed. Results Breastfeeding was practiced by 99% of the mothers. Dietary recall since birth showed that 7% and 0% practiced exclusive breastfeeding by 3 and 6 months, respectively, while 30% and 3% practiced predominant breastfeeding and had not started complementary feeding at the same points in time. The difference between the 24-hour recall and the recall since birth for the introduction of complementary feeds was 46 percentage points at two months and 59 percentage points at four months. Prelacteal feeding was given to 57% of the children. High education and formal marriage were protective factors against prelacteal feeding (adjusted OR 0.5, 0.2 – 1.0 and 0.5, 0.3 – 0.8, respectively). Conclusion Even if breastfeeding is practiced at a very high rate, the use of prelacteal feeding and early introduction of other food items is the norm. The 24-hour recall gives a higher estimate of exclusive breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding than

  2. The programmable ECG simulator.

    PubMed

    Caner, Candan; Engin, Mehmet; Engin, Erkan Zeki

    2008-08-01

    This paper reports the design and development of Digital Signal Controller (DSPIC)-based ECG simulator intended to use in testing, calibration and maintenance of electrocardiographic equipment, and to support biomedical engineering students' education. It generates all 12 healthy ECG derivation signals having a profile that varies with heart rate, amplitude, and different noise contamination in a manner which reflects true in vivo conditions. The heart rate can be set at the range of 30 to 120 beats/minute in four steps. The noise and power line interference effects can be set at the range of 0 to 20 dB in three steps. Since standard commercially available electronic components were used to construct the prototype simulator, the proposed design was also relatively inexpensive to produce.

  3. Treatment of burns in the first 24 hours: simple and practical guide by answering 10 questions in a step-by-step form

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose. PMID:22583548

  4. [THE INFLUENCE OF CYTOFLAVIN AND CARDIOXIPIN ON THE PARAMETERS OF 24-HOUR ARTERIAL PRESSURE MONITORING IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC CEREBRAL CIRCULATION INSUFFICIENCY, ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA].

    PubMed

    Vodop'ianova, O A; Moiseeva, I Ia; Rodina, O P; Kustikova, I N; Antropova, N V

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study of the influence of cytoflavin and cardioxipin on the parameters of 24-hour arterial pressure monitoring in 56 patients with chronic cerebral circulation insufficiency, arterial hypertension and hypercholesterolemia included 32 women and 24 men aged 42-72 years divided into 3 groups matchedfor the stage of diseases, age, sex, severity of AH, total cholesterol level, and antihypertensive therapy. Patients of group 1 were treated without cytoflavin and cardioxipin. Those in group 2 received daily i/v droplet infusion of 10 mg/kg cardioxipin (20-30 droplets/min). Patients of group 3 were given daily i/v droplet infusion of 10 ml cytoflavin in 200 ml 0.9% sodium chloride solution for 10 days. 24-hour arterial pressure monitoring was used to estimate the influence of the two drugs on systolic and diastolic pressure, its daily rhythm, AP variability and frequency of elevation. The study showed that both therapeutic modalities improved daily AP rhythm as manifested in a significant increase of the number of patients with the dipper rhythm and a decrease in the number of systolic/diastolic non-dipper patients. Moreover cytoflavin significantly decreased the number of systolic over-dippers compared with control group.

  5. Sodium and potassium intake in South Africa: an evaluation of 24-hour urine collections in a white, black, and Indian population.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Bianca; Schutte, Aletta E; Cockeran, Marike; Steyn, Krisela; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2016-11-01

    Limited number of studies on salt intake has been conducted in the South Africa. The present study established the sodium and potassium excretion (24-hour urine collection) of three different South African populations. In total, 692 successful 24-hour urine collections were analyzed for sodium, potassium, and iodine levels. The median sodium and potassium excretion was 122.9 and 33.5 mmol/d, respectively, and the median salt intake was 7.2 g/d. The majority (92.8%) of the population did not meet the recommended potassium intake/d, and 65.6% consumed more than 6 g of salt/d. Potassium excretion showed a linear relationship with salt intake (P-trend ≤ .001). The median sodium-to-potassium ratio was 3.5. These findings support the South African government's sodium reduction legislation, as well as global initiatives. More consideration should be given to promoting the intake of potassium-rich foods, as this may have a greater public health impact than focusing only on dietary sodium reduction.

  6. Treatment of burns in the first 24 hours: simple and practical guide by answering 10 questions in a step-by-step form.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Ziyad; Piatkowski, Andrzej; Dembinski, Rolf; Reckort, Sven; Grieb, Gerrit; Kauczok, Jens; Pallua, Norbert

    2012-05-14

    Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose.

  7. Comparison between two standardized cultural methods and 24 hour duplex SYBR green real-time PCR assay for Salmonella detectionin meat samples.

    PubMed

    Delibato, Elisabetta; Fiore, Alfonsina; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Filetici, Emma; Orefice, Leucio; Losio, Marina Nadia; De Medici, Dario

    2011-07-01

    Food-borne diseases caused by Salmonella represent a worldwide public health problem. Salmonella must be absent in an established amount depending on the kind of the product and usually cultural methods have to be applied to evaluate the compliance of the products. ISO 6579:2002 in Europe and FSIS MLG 4.04.:2008 in the USA have usually been employed to detect Salmonella in meat, poultry and egg products. A Real Time PCR method using probes has recently been validated against the NMKL (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis) standard method. This method has been modified using the less expensive Sybr Green Real Time PCR approach and applied directly in the 18 hours preenrichment broth for the purpose of detecting Salmonella in meat products in less than 24 hours. The purpose of this study was to: - compare the effectiveness of ISO and FSIS cultural methods; - develop a new 24 hour duplex Sybr Green Real Time PCR-melting curve analysis; - evaluate the performance of Salmonella, Standard Method, Rapid Method, SYBR Green Real Time PCR. The equivalence between ISO and FSIS methods was demonstrated and the use of SYBR Green Real Time PCR as a screening tool for negative results seems appealing especially to evaluate compliance with the HACCP systems.

  8. A Case Report on Dyskinesia Following Rivastigmine Patch 13.3 mg/24 hours for Alzheimer's Disease: Perspective in the Movement Disorders Spectrum Following Use of Cholinesterase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Maria Cristina B; Rosales, Raymond L

    2015-08-01

    Current reports on movement disorder adverse effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors only include extrapyramidal symptoms and myoclonus.Here is a case of an 81-year-old female Filipino with dementia who presented with first-onset generalized choreiform movements.The etiology of the clinical finding of dyskinesia was investigated through laboratories, neuroimaging, and electroencephalogram, all of which yielded negative results. Review of her medications included the rivastigmine (Exelon) patch, which had just been increased to 13.3 mg/24-hour-dose 3 months prior. With all other possible causes excluded, a trial discontinuation of rivastigmine, showed decreased frequency of the dyskinesia 48 hours after, with complete resolution after 6 days, and no recurrence since then.This case thus presents a probable association or causality between the choreiform movement and rivastigmine at 13.3 mg/24-hour-dose patch because of clear temporal proximity, lack of alternative explanations, and a reversal of the dyskinesia upon medicament discontinuation.

  9. Effect of current and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder on 24-hour urinary catecholamines and cortisol: results from the Mind Your Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Whooley, Mary A.; Neylan, Thomas C.; Otte, Christian; Cohen, Beth E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and several other chronic illnesses. Alterations in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in PTSD might contribute to these associations but findings regarding SNS and HPA activity in PTSD are heterogeneous. We measured 24-hour urinary catecholamines and cortisol in a large cohort of adult outpatients recruited from 2 Veterans Affairs medical centers. 24-hour urinary norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and cortisol were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. Lifetime and current PTSD were assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale using DSM-IV-TR criteria. Out of 613 participants, 199 (32.5%) had current PTSD, 100 (16.3%) had lifetime but not current PTSD, and 314 (51.2%) never had PTSD. Patients with current PTSD had significantly higher norepinephrine secretion compared to those without PTSD. Patients in the lifetime PTSD group exhibited lower cortisol values compared to those without PTSD. Participants who never had PTSD showed the lowest norepinephrine and the highest cortisol values. All results remained stable when controlling for potentially confounding variables. This study provides evidence for increased norepinephrine secretion and decreased cortisol in PTSD. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether these changes contribute to adverse health outcomes in patients with PTSD. PMID:25459895

  10. 24-hour urine copper test

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated with providing a urine sample. Alternative Names Quantitative urinary copper Images Copper urine test References McPherson ... for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis ...

  11. Digitalis toxicity: ECG vignette.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Aniruddha; Bachani, Neeta; Thakur, Hrishikesh; Lokhandwala, Yash

    2016-09-01

    "Digitalis toxicity, often candidly indexed as poisoning, has plagued the medical profession for over 200 years. The situation qualifies as a professional disgrace on the basis of three items: the situation persists, physicians are often slow to recognize it and, over the decades, writers have been harsh in their denunciation of fellow physicians when toxicity has occurred…." These are the opening remarks of an essay published in 1983 on the 2nd centenary of William Withering's 'magic potion from foxglove's extract for dropsy.' Even today, after many decades, these words appear relevant! We present and discuss an interesting ECG of digitalis toxicity.

  12. Antiplatelet Effect Durability of a Novel, 24-Hour, Extended-Release Prescription Formulation of Acetylsalicylic Acid in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Gurbel, Paul A; Bliden, Kevin P; Chaudhary, Rahul; Patrick, Jeff; Liu, Fang; Chen, Gailing; McLeod, Christopher; Tantry, Udaya S

    2016-12-15

    High platelet reactivity and high platelet turnover have been implicated in incomplete platelet inhibition during immediate-release acetylsalicylic acid therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). An extended-release acetylsalicylic acid (ER-ASA; Durlaza) formulation was developed to provide 24-hour antithrombotic effects with once-daily dosing. The objective of the study was to evaluate the antiplatelet effects of ER-ASA in patients with DM. In this open-label, single-center study, patients with DM (n = 40) and multiple cardiovascular risk factors received ER-ASA 162.5 mg/day for 14 ± 4 days. Multiple platelet function tests, serum and urinary thromboxane B2 metabolites, prostacyclin metabolite, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein levels were assessed at 1, 12, 16, and 24 hours post-dose. Patients with high platelet turnover and/or high platelet reactivity were treated with ER-ASA 325 mg/day for 14 ± 4 days, and laboratory analyses were repeated. All patients responded to ER-ASA 162.5 mg/day as measured by arachidonic acid-induced aggregation, and there was no loss of the platelet inhibitory effect of ER-ASA 162.5 mg/day over 24 hours post-dose (p = not significant). The antiplatelet effect was sustained over 24 hours for all platelet function measurements. Mean 1- to 24-hour serum thromboxane B2 levels were low with both doses and were lower with ER-ASA 325 mg/day compared with 162.5 mg/day therapy (p = 0.002). In conclusion, ER-ASA 162.5 mg daily dose provided sustained antiplatelet effects over 24 hours in patients with type 2 DM and multiple cardiovascular risk factors and had a favorable tolerability profile.

  13. Validity of a multipass, web-based, 24-hour self-administered recall for assessment of total energy intake in blacks and whites.

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Ang, Alfonso; Jardack, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    To date, Web-based 24-hour recalls have not been validated using objective biomarkers. From 2006 to 2009, the validity of 6 Web-based DietDay 24-hour recalls was tested among 115 black and 118 white healthy adults from Los Angeles, California, by using the doubly labeled water method, and the results were compared with the results of the Diet History Questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire developed by the National Cancer Institute. The authors performed repeated measurements in a subset of 53 subjects approximately 6 months later to estimate the stability of the doubly labeled water measurement. The attenuation factors for the DietDay recall were 0.30 for blacks and 0.26 for whites. For the Diet History Questionnaire, the attenuation factors were 0.15 and 0.17 for blacks and whites, respectively. Adjusted correlations between true energy intake and the recalls were 0.50 and 0.47 for blacks and whites, respectively, for the DietDay recall. For the Diet History Questionnaire, they were 0.34 and 0.36 for blacks and whites, respectively. The rate of underreporting of more than 30% of calories was lower with the recalls than with the questionnaire (25% and 41% vs. 34% and 52% for blacks and whites, respectively). These findings suggest that Web-based DietDay dietary recalls offer an inexpensive and widely accessible dietary assessment alternative, the validity of which is equally strong among black and white adults. The validity of the Web-administered recall was superior to that of the paper food frequency questionnaire.

  14. Acute effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure on 24-hour blood pressure and catecholamines in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Minemura, H; Akashiba, T; Yamamoto, H; Akahoshi, T; Kosaka, N; Horie, T

    1998-12-01

    To assess the acute effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on the 24-hour blood pressure and the secretion of catecholamines in urine and plasma, we investigated the changes in the 24-hour blood pressure and urinary and plasma concentrations of epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) in 26 men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with and without nasal CPAP. Nasal CPAP resulted in significant decreases in the daytime diastolic pressure (from 86 +/-16 mmHg to 83+/-12 mmHg), the nighttime diastolic pressure (from 81+/-12 mmHg to 77+/-9 mmHg) and the nighttime systolic pressures (from 125+/-15 mmHg to 120+/-10 mmHg). There was no significant difference between patients with and without CPAP in the daytime or nighttime urinary E level, but patients who received CPAP showed a significant decrease in daytime urinary NE level (from 156+/-112 microg/14h to 119+/-101 microg/14h) and nighttime urinary NE level (from 143+/-91 microg/10h to 112+/-65 microg/10h). The morning plasma level of NE also decreased (from 371+/-181 pg/ml to 273 +/-148 pg/ml) in patients who received nasal CPAP (p<0.02), but the plasma level of E remained unchanged. There were no correlations between PSG parameters and the reductions in blood pressure and the catecholamine levels induced by nasal CPAP. These findings suggest that OSA contributes, at least in part, to the development of systemic hypertension by increasing sympathetic nervous activity.

  15. [Indices of static and dynamic components of pressure load (assessed by 24-hour blood pressure monitoring) and the state of renal function in patients with essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Zelveian, P A; Buniatian, M S; Oshchepkova, E V; Lazareva, N V; Rogoza, A N

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate possible relationship between parameters of blood pressure (BP) profile and glomerular filtration rate in patients (pts) with I-II stage essential hypertension (EH). Material and methods. We studied 120 pts (97 men), aged 23-65 (50,2+/-0,6) years with I (n=98) and II (n=22) stage EH. In BP profile (SL-90207) we calculated 24-hour, daytime, nighttime values of systolic, diastolic, pulse pressures (SBP, DBP, PP), time load (TL), variability and nocturnal fall (NF) of BP. The state of renal function was assessed by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated by the Cockcroft formula. Results. After nonlinear statistical analysis by Gauss-Newton all patients were divided into three groups according to GFR tertiles. Significant differences were found between these groups by 24-hour, nighttime and daytime values of SBP and DBP. Values of SBP were the lowest in group II. In group II lowest values of PP were also observed, but statistically significant differences were found only in nocturnal PP values between groups II and III. There were no significant differences between groups by TL and NF of BP. In group Ill (high GFR) variability of daytime values of SBP and DBF were significantly higher. Univariate correlation analysis showed statistically significant negative relationship between GFR and nocturnal PP in patients with lowest level of GFR. Positive correlations between nocturnal values of PP and GFR in groups II and III were also observed. Conclusion. These results indicated the presence of strong relationship between high values of nocturnal PP and decreasing of glomerular filtration rate in patients with EH and thus confirmed significance of "constant" and "dynamic" components of pressure load as a marker of impairment of renal function.

  16. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): Comparison of a Mobile Phone Digital Entry App for Dietary Data Collection With 24-Hour Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Sarah; Giannelli, Valentina; Yap, Megan LH; Tang, Lie Ming; Roy, Rajshri; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Hebden, Lana; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background The electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA), a digital entry food record mobile phone app, was developed to measure energy and nutrient intake prospectively. This can be used in monitoring population intakes or intervention studies in young adults. Objective The objective was to assess the relative validity of e-DIA as a dietary assessment tool for energy and nutrient intakes using the 24-hour dietary recall as a reference method. Methods University students aged 19 to 24 years recorded their food and drink intake on the e-DIA for five days consecutively and completed 24-hour dietary recalls on three random days during this 5-day study period. Mean differences in energy, macro-, and micronutrient intakes were evaluated between the methods using paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and correlation coefficients were calculated on unadjusted, energy-adjusted, and deattenuated values. Bland-Altman plots and cross-classification into quartiles were used to assess agreement between the two methods. Results Eighty participants completed the study (38% male). No significant differences were found between the two methods for mean intakes of energy or nutrients. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.79 (mean 0.68). Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement between the methods but without obvious bias. Cross-classification into same or adjacent quartiles ranged from 75% to 93% (mean 85%). Conclusions The e-DIA shows potential as a dietary intake assessment tool at a group level with good ranking agreement for energy and all nutrients. PMID:26508282

  17. Correlation of Occupational Stress Index with 24-hour Urine Cortisol and Serum DHEA Sulfate among City Bus Drivers: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mia Chihya; Lu, Luo; Tai, John Jen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The questionnaire of occupational stress index (OSI) has been popular in the workplace, and it has been tailored for bus drivers in Taiwan. Nevertheless, its outcomes for participants are based on self-evaluations, thus validation by their physiological stress biomarker is warranted and this is the main goal of this study. Methods A cross-sectional study of sixty-three city bus drivers and fifty-four supporting staffs for comparison was conducted. Questionnaire surveys, 24-hour urine cortisol testing, and blood draws for dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) testing were performed. The measured concentrations of these biological measures were logarithmically transformed before the statistical analysis where various scores of stressor factors, moderators, and stress effects of each OSI domain were analyzed by applying multiple linear regression models. Results For drivers, the elevated 24-hour urine cortisol level was associated with a worker's relationship with their supervisor and any life change events in the most recent 3 months. The DHEA-S level was higher in drivers of younger age as well as drivers with more concerns relating to their salary and bonuses. Non-drivers showed no association between any stressor or satisfaction and urine cortisol and blood DHEA-S levels. Conclusion Measurements of biomarkers may offer additional stress evaluations with OSI questionnaires for bus drivers. Increased DHEA-S and cortisol levels may result from stressors like income security. Prevention efforts towards occupational stress and life events and health promotional efforts for aged driver were important anti-stress remedies. PMID:22953199

  18. An ultra-low power (ULP) bandage-type ECG sensor for efficient cardiac disease management.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kunsoo; Park, G G; Kim, J P; Lee, T H; Ko, B H; Kim, Y H

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposed an ultra-low power bandage-type ECG sensor (the size: 76 × 34 × 3 (mm(3)) and the power consumption: 1 mW) which allows for a continuous and real-time monitoring of a user's ECG signals over 24h during daily activities. For its compact size and lower power consumption, we designed the analog front-end, the SRP (Samsung Reconfigurable Processor) based DSP of 30 uW/MHz, and the ULP wireless RF of 1 nJ/bit. Also, to tackle motion artifacts(MA), a MA monitoring technique based on the HCP (Half-cell Potential) is proposed which resulted in the high correlation between the MA and the HCP, the correlation coefficient of 0.75 ± 0.18. To assess its feasibility and validity as a wearable health monitor, we performed the comparison of two ECG signals recorded form it and a conventional Holter device. As a result, the performance of the former is a little lower as compared with the latter, although showing no statistical significant difference (the quality of the signal: 94.3% vs 99.4%; the accuracy of arrhythmia detection: 93.7% vs 98.7%). With those results, it has been confirmed that it can be used as a wearable health monitor due to its comfortability, its long operation lifetime and the good quality of the measured ECG signal.

  19. Brugada ECG patterns in athletes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eugene H

    2015-01-01

    Brugada syndrome is responsible for up to 4% of all sudden cardiac deaths worldwide and up to 20% of sudden cardiac deaths in patients with structurally normal hearts. Heterogeneity of repolarization and depolarization, particularly over the right ventricle and the outflow tract, is responsible for the arrhythmogenic substrate. The coved Type I ECG pattern is considered diagnostic of the syndrome but its prevalence is very low. Distinguishing between a saddle back Type 2 Brugada pattern and one of many "Brugada-like" patterns presents challenges especially in athletes. A number of criteria have been proposed to assess Brugada ECG patterns. Proper precordial ECG lead placement is paramount. This paper reviews Brugada syndrome, Brugada ECG patterns, and recently proposed criteria. Recommendations for evaluating a Brugada ECG pattern are provided.

  20. A Pre-Screening Questionnaire to Predict Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (N24HSWD) among the Blind

    PubMed Central

    Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: There is currently no questionnaire-based pre-screening tool available to detect non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24HSWD) among blind patients. Our goal was to develop such a tool, derived from gold standard, objective hormonal measures of circadian entrainment status, for the detection of N24HSWD among those with visual impairment. Methods: We evaluated the contribution of 40 variables in their ability to predict N24HSWD among 127 blind women, classified using urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin period, an objective marker of circadian entrainment status in this population. We subjected the 40 candidate predictors to 1,000 bootstrapped iterations of a logistic regression forward selection model to predict N24HSWD, with model inclusion set at the p < 0.05 level. We removed any predictors that were not selected at least 1% of the time in the 1,000 bootstrapped models and applied a second round of 1,000 bootstrapped logistic regression forward selection models to the remaining 23 candidate predictors. We included all questions that were selected at least 10% of the time in the final model. We subjected the selected predictors to a final logistic regression model to predict N24SWD over 1,000 bootstrapped models to calculate the concordance statistic and adjusted optimism of the final model. We used this information to generate a predictive model and determined the sensitivity and specificity of the model. Finally, we applied the model to a cohort of 1,262 blind women who completed the survey, but did not collect urine samples. Results: The final model consisted of eight questions. The concordance statistic, adjusted for bootstrapping, was 0.85. The positive predictive value was 88%, the negative predictive value was 79%. Applying this model to our larger dataset of women, we found that 61% of those without light perception, and 27% with some degree of light perception, would be referred for further screening for N24HSWD. Conclusions: Our model has

  1. Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

    2014-03-11

    This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for

  2. EXTRAPOLATION TECHNIQUES EVALUATING 24 HOURS OF AVERAGE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EMITTED BY RADIO BASE STATION INSTALLATIONS: SPECTRUM ANALYZER MEASUREMENTS OF LTE AND UMTS SIGNALS.

    PubMed

    Mossetti, Stefano; de Bartolo, Daniela; Veronese, Ivan; Cantone, Marie Claire; Cosenza, Cristina; Nava, Elisa

    2016-12-01

    International and national organizations have formulated guidelines establishing limits for occupational and residential electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure at high-frequency fields. Italian legislation fixed 20 V/m as a limit for public protection from exposure to EMFs in the frequency range 0.1 MHz-3 GHz and 6 V/m as a reference level. Recently, the law was changed and the reference level must now be evaluated as the 24-hour average value, instead of the previous highest 6 minutes in a day. The law refers to a technical guide (CEI 211-7/E published in 2013) for the extrapolation techniques that public authorities have to use when assessing exposure for compliance with limits. In this work, we present measurements carried out with a vectorial spectrum analyzer to identify technical critical aspects in these extrapolation techniques, when applied to UMTS and LTE signals. We focused also on finding a good balance between statistically significant values and logistic managements in control activity, as the signal trend in situ is not known. Measurements were repeated several times over several months and for different mobile companies. The outcome presented in this article allowed us to evaluate the reliability of the extrapolation results obtained and to have a starting point for defining operating procedures.

  3. Control of bleeding by silk ligation and diathermy coagulation during tonsillectomy: A comparison of efficacy of the two techniques in the first 24 hours after surgery

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Khurshid; Ahmad, Rafiq; Khan, Muneeb

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the relative efficacy of silk ligation and diathermy coagulation techniques in controlling bleeding during tonsillectomy in the first 24 hours. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Department of ENT, Khalifa Gul Nawaz Teaching Hospital, Bannu and this department related consultants’ private clinics from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. The study included 180 cases. All patients included were having history of recurrent, acute tonsillitis, with more than 6–7 episodes in one year, five episodes per year for two years, or three episodes per year for three years. All the surgeries were performed by dissection method. Haemostasis during the procedure was secured by either ligation with silk 1 or using diathermy. The results were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 for windows. Results: A total of180 cases were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 5 to 40 years with the mean age of 15.56 years and a std.deviation of +/- 8.24. The male to female ratio was 1.25:1. The number of hemorrhages occurring was greater in the ‘diathermy coagulation’ group as compared to the ‘silk ligation’ group. However, the observed difference was statistically insignificant (p >.05). Conclusion: Primary haemorrhage occurring during tonsillectomy is a serious threat and control of bleeding during the procedure should therefore be meticulous. Both suture ligation and coagulation diathermy for control of bleeders during the procedure by dissection method are equally effective. PMID:26430438

  4. Computer simulation of the effect of dDAVP with saline loading on fluid balance after 24-hour head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R. S.; Simanonok, K. E.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid loading (FL) before Shuttle reentry is a countermeasure currently in use by NASA to improve the orthostatic tolerance of astronauts during reentry and postflight. The fluid load consists of water and salt tablets equivalent to 32 oz (946 ml) of isotonic saline. However, the effectiveness of this countermeasure has been observed to decrease with the duration of spaceflight. The countermeasure's effectiveness may be improved by enhancing fluid retention using analogs of vasopressin such as lypressin (LVP) and desmopressin (dDAVP). In a computer simulation study reported previously, we attempted to assess the improvement in fluid retention obtained by the use of LVP administered before FL. The present study is concerned with the use of dDAVP. In a recent 24-hour, 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) study involving seven men, dDAVP was found to improve orthostatic tolerance as assessed by both lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and stand tests. The treatment restored Luft's cumulative stress index (cumulative product of magnitude and duration of LBNP) to nearly pre-bedrest level. The heart rate was lower and stroke volume was marginally higher at the same LBNP levels with administration of dDAVP compared to placebo. Lower heart rates were also observed with dDAVP during stand test, despite the lower level of cardiovascular stress. These improvements were seen with only a small but significant increase in plasma volume of approximately 3 percent. This paper presents a computer simulation analysis of some of the results of this HDT study.

  5. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Exploring the perceptions of stakeholders regarding their acceptability, barriers to uptake, and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Guy; White, Lauren; Riazi, Negin; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    Engaging stakeholders in the development of guidelines and plans for implementation is vital. The purpose of this study was to examine stakeholders' (parents, teachers, exercise professionals, paediatricians, and youth) perceptions of the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth ("Movement Guidelines"). Stakeholders (n = 104) engaged in semi-structured focus groups or interviews to discuss the perceived acceptability of the guidelines, potential barriers to implementation, and preferred methods and messengers of dissemination. A thematic analysis was conducted. Overall, there was consistent support across all stakeholder groups, with the exception of youth participants, for the Movement Guidelines. Stakeholders identified a range of barriers to the uptake of the guidelines including concerns with accurately defining key terms such as "recreational" screen time; everyday challenges such as financial and time constraints; and the possibility of the Movement Guidelines becoming just another source of stress and guilt for already busy and overwhelmed parents. Participants identified a range of recommended methods and messengers for future dissemination. School and medical settings were the most commonly recommended settings through which dissemination efforts should be delivered. Overall, participants representing a range of stakeholder groups were receptive to the new Movement Guidelines and endorsed their value. In complementing the Movement Guidelines, messaging and resources will need to be developed that address common concerns participants had regarding their dissemination and implementation.

  6. Donor-reactive CD8 Memory T Cells Infiltrate Cardiac Allografts Within 24 Hours Post-Transplant in Naïve Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, A.D.; Nozaki, T.; Rabant, M.; Valujskikh, A.; Fairchild, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Normal immune responses stimulated by pathogenic and environmental antigens generate memory T cells that react with donor antigens and no currently used immunosuppressive drug completely inhibits memory T cell function. While donor-reactive memory T cells clearly compromise graft outcomes, mechanisms utilized by memory T cells to promote rejection are largely unknown. In the current study we investigated how early endogenous memory cells infiltrate and express effector function in cardiac allografts. Endogenous CD8 memory T cells in non-sensitized recipients distinguish syngeneic vs. allogeneic cardiac allografts within 24 hours of reperfusion. CD8-dependent production of IFN-γ and CXCL9/Mig was observed 24–72 hours post-transplant in allografts but not isografts. CXCL9 was produced by donor cells in response to IFN-γ made by recipient CD8 T cells reactive to donor class I MHC molecules. Activated CD8 T cells were detected in allografts at least three days before donor-specific effector T cells producing IFN-γ were detected in the recipient spleen. Early inflammation mediated by donor-reactive CD8 memory T cells greatly enhanced primed effector T cell infiltration into allografts. These results suggest that strategies for optimal inhibition of alloimmunity should include neutralization of infiltrating CD8 memory T cells within a very narrow window after transplantation. PMID:18557725

  7. Influence of irrigation protocols on the bond strength of fiber posts cemented with a self-adhesive luting agent 24 hours after endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Lima, Jessica Ferraz Carvalho; Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Humel, Maria Malerba Colombi; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different irrigation protocols on the bond strength, at different root depths, of fiber posts cemented with a self-adhesive cement 24 hours after endodontic treatment. Fifty-six bovine incisor roots were endodontically prepared and separated into 7 groups (n = 8) according to irrigation protocols: group 1, sterile saline (control); group 2, chlorhexidine (CHX) gel 2% and saline; group 3, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 5.25% and saline; group 4, CHX and saline (final irrigation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA] 17%); group 5, NaOCl and saline (final irrigation with EDTA); group 6, CHX and saline (final irrigation with NaOCl and EDTA); and group 7, NaOCl (final irrigation with CHX and EDTA). No statistically significant difference was found among the groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the different irrigation protocols did not influence the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement, which presented similar behaviors at the 3 root depths studied.

  8. Gastroesophageal and pharyngeal reflux detection using impedance and 24-hour pH monitoring in asymptomatic subjects: defining the normal environment.

    PubMed

    Oelschlager, Brant K; Quiroga, Elina; Isch, John A; Cuenca-Abente, Federico

    2006-01-01

    Airway symptoms are often caused by aspiration of refluxed materials into the larynx. In this study we sought to define the frequency, character, and proximal extent of refluxed contents - including nonacid reflux-in normal subjects using intraluminal impedance to improve our understanding of the relationship between reflux and aspiration. Ten subjects, who had no symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease or airway disease, underwent impedance/pH monitoring with a catheter that allowed simultaneous esophageal and pharyngeal monitoring. Impedance detected 496 gastroesophageal reflux episodes in the 10 subjects during 240 hours of study. The majority, 399 (81% of the total) were acid reflux episodes (pH < 4). Ninety-seven were nonacid (pH > 4). Most reflux episodes (348 of 496) reached the mid esophagus (9 cm above lower esophageal sphincter). There were 51 reflux episodes that reached the pharynx (PR). Only 13 (25%) of PR were acidic (pH < 4), while 38 were nonacid. Twenty-six PR episodes were liquid and 25 were mixed (liquid and gas). The median number of PR episodes measured with impedance was 5 (0-10). In asymptomatic subjects, most episodes of gastroesophageal reflux are acidic and reach the midesophagus. Reflux into the PR appears to be more common than previously believed, and most of these episodes are not acidic. Thus, traditional 24-hour pH monitoring may underestimate the presence of pharyngeal reflux. The combination of impedance with pH monitoring markedly enhances our ability to accurately detect potential microaspiration.

  9. Piezoelectric extraction of ECG signal.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2016-11-17

    The monitoring and early detection of abnormalities or variations in the cardiac cycle functionality are very critical practices and have significant impact on the prevention of heart diseases and their associated complications. Currently, in the field of biomedical engineering, there is a growing need for devices capable of measuring and monitoring a wide range of cardiac cycle parameters continuously, effectively and on a real-time basis using easily accessible and reusable probes. In this paper, the revolutionary generation and extraction of the corresponding ECG signal using a piezoelectric transducer as alternative for the ECG will be discussed. The piezoelectric transducer pick up the vibrations from the heart beats and convert them into electrical output signals. To this end, piezoelectric and signal processing techniques were employed to extract the ECG corresponding signal from the piezoelectric output voltage signal. The measured electrode based and the extracted piezoelectric based ECG traces are well corroborated. Their peaks amplitudes and locations are well aligned with each other.

  10. Piezoelectric extraction of ECG signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2016-11-01

    The monitoring and early detection of abnormalities or variations in the cardiac cycle functionality are very critical practices and have significant impact on the prevention of heart diseases and their associated complications. Currently, in the field of biomedical engineering, there is a growing need for devices capable of measuring and monitoring a wide range of cardiac cycle parameters continuously, effectively and on a real-time basis using easily accessible and reusable probes. In this paper, the revolutionary generation and extraction of the corresponding ECG signal using a piezoelectric transducer as alternative for the ECG will be discussed. The piezoelectric transducer pick up the vibrations from the heart beats and convert them into electrical output signals. To this end, piezoelectric and signal processing techniques were employed to extract the ECG corresponding signal from the piezoelectric output voltage signal. The measured electrode based and the extracted piezoelectric based ECG traces are well corroborated. Their peaks amplitudes and locations are well aligned with each other.

  11. 2001: A Space Odyssey Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2003-01-01

    The prospects for 24 hour commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, high leverage technologies: liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and lunar-derived oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass, or orange soil, discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4 percent oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an afterburner into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat, essentially scramjet propulsion in reverse. By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that big engine performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or in-line Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an expendable mode initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased payload is

  12. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2001-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon. similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale. are examined using two near term. "high leverage" technologies-liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass. or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow. has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat-essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller. more affordable. easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased

  13. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited--The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    1998-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, "high leverage" technologies--liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Ironrich volcanic glass, or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way, LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging front the engine's choked sonic throat--essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased

  14. Epidemiology of Urban Traffic Accident Victims Hospitalized More Than 24 Hours in a Level III Trauma Center, Kashan County, Iran, During 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Mahdian, Mehrdad; Sehat, Mojtaba; Fazel, Mohammad Reza; Moraveji, Alireza; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urban traffic accidents are an extensively significant problem in small and busy towns in Iran. This study tried to explore the epidemiological pattern of urban traffic accidents in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to assess various epidemiological factors affecting victims of trauma admitted to a main trauma center in Iran. Patients and Methods: During a retrospective study, data including age, sex, injury type and pattern, outcome, hospital stay and treatment expenditures regarding urban Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) for one year (March 2012-March 2013) were obtained from the registry of trauma research center, emergency medical services and deputy of health of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. One-way ANOVA and chi-square tests were used to analyze data using SPSS version 16.0. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 1723 victims (82.6% male, sex ratio of almost 5:1) were considered in this study. Mortality rate in trauma cases hospitalized more than 24 hours during our study was 0.8%. Young motorcyclist men with the rate of more than 103 per 10000 were the most vulnerable group. The most common injury was head injury (73.6%) followed by lower limb injury (33.2%). A significant association was found between mechanism of injury and head, lower limb, multiple injuries and high risk age group. Conclusions: Urban RTAs are one of the most important problems in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, which impose a great economic burden on health system. Motorcyclists are the most vulnerable victims and multiple trauma and head injury are seen among them extensively. PMID:26101765

  15. Spatial characteristics of extreme rainfall over China with hourly through 24-hour accumulation periods based on national-level hourly rain gauge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yongguang; Xue, Ming; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiong; Tao, Zuyu

    2016-11-01

    Hourly rainfall measurements of 1919 national-level meteorological stations from 1981 through 2012 are used to document, for the first time, the climatology of extreme rainfall in hourly through 24-h accumulation periods in China. Rainfall amounts for 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-h periods at each station are constructed through running accumulation from hourly rainfall data that have been screened by proper quality control procedures. For each station and for each accumulation period, the historical maximum is found, and the corresponding 50-year return values are estimated using generalized extreme value theory. Based on the percentiles of the two types of extreme rainfall values among all the stations, standard thresholds separating Grade I, Grade II and Grade III extreme rainfall are established, which roughly correspond to the 70th and 90th percentiles for each of the accumulation periods. The spatial characteristics of the two types of extreme rainfall are then examined for different accumulation periods. The spatial distributions of extreme rainfall in hourly through 6-h periods are more similar than those of 12- and 24-h periods. Grade III rainfall is mostly found over South China, the western Sichuan Basin, along the southern and eastern coastlines, and in the large river basins and plains. There are similar numbers of stations with Grade III extreme hourly rainfall north and south of 30°N, but the percentage increases to about 70% south of 30°N as the accumulation period increases to 24 hours, reflecting richer moisture and more prolonged rain events in southern China. Potential applications of the extreme rainfall climatology and classification standards are suggested at the end.

  16. Establishing normal plasma and 24-hour urinary biochemistry ranges in C3H, BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice following acclimatization in metabolic cages.

    PubMed

    Stechman, Michael J; Ahmad, Bushra N; Loh, Nellie Y; Reed, Anita A C; Stewart, Michelle; Wells, Sara; Hough, Tertius; Bentley, Liz; Cox, Roger D; Brown, Steve D M; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2010-07-01

    Physiological studies of mice are facilitated by normal plasma and 24-hour urinary reference ranges, but variability of these parameters may increase due to stress that is induced by housing in metabolic cages. We assessed daily weight, food and water intake, urine volume and final day measurements of the following: plasma sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, cholesterol and glucose; and urinary sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, glucose and protein in 24- to 30-week-old C3H/HeH, BALB/cAnNCrl and C57BL/6J mice. Between 15 and 20 mice of each sex from all three strains were individually housed in metabolic cages with ad libitum feeding for up to seven days. Acclimatization was evaluated using general linear modelling for repeated measures and comparison of biochemical data was by unpaired t-test and analysis of variance (SPSS version 12.0.1). Following an initial 5-10% fall in body weight, daily dietary intake, urinary output and weight in all three strains reached stable values after 3-4 days of confinement. Significant differences in plasma glucose, cholesterol, urea, chloride, calcium and albumin, and urinary glucose, sodium, phosphate, calcium and protein were observed between strains and genders. Thus, these results provide normal reference values for plasma and urinary biochemistry in three strains housed in metabolic cages and demonstrate that 3-4 days are required to reach equilibrium in metabolic cage studies. These variations due to strain and gender have significant implications for selecting the appropriate strain upon which to breed genetically-altered models of metabolic and renal disease.

  17. External Beam Radiotherapy Plus 24-Hour Continuous Infusion of Gemcitabine in Unresectable Pancreatic Carcinoma: Long-Term Results of a Phase II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mattiucci, Gian C.; Morganti, Alessio G.; Valentini, Vincenzo; Ippolito, Edy; Alfieri, Sergio; Antinori, Armando; Crucitti, Antonio; D'Agostino, Giuseppe R.; Di Lullo, Liberato; Luzi, Stefano; Mantini, Giovanna; Smaniotto, Daniela; Doglietto, Gian B.; Cellini, Numa

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of gemcitabine-based chemoradiation (CT-RT) in treating patients (pts) affected by locally advanced pancreatic cancers (LAPC). Methods and Materials: Weekly gemcitabine (100 mg/m{sup 2}) was given as a 24-hour infusion during the course of three-dimensional radiotherapy (50.4 Gy to the tumor, 39.6 Gy to the nodes). After CT-RT, pts received five cycles of sequential chemotherapy with gemcitabine (1000 mg/m{sup 2}; 1, 8, q21). Response rate was assessed according to World Health Organization criteria 6 weeks after the end of CT-RT. Local control (LC), time to progression (TTP), metastases-free survival (MFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by the Kaplan Meier method. Results: Forty pts (male/female 22/18; median age 62 years, range, 36-76) were treated from 2000 to 2005. The majority had T4 tumour (n = 34, 85%), six pts (15%) had T3 tumour. Sixteen pts (40%) were node positive at diagnosis. Grade 3-4 acute toxicity was observed in 21 pts (52.5%). Thirty pts (75%) completed the treatment schedule. A clinical response was achieved in 12 pts (30%). With a median follow-up of 76 months (range, 32-98), 2-year LC was 39.6% (median, 12 months), 2-year TTP was 18.4% (median, 10 months), and 2-year MFS was 29.7% (median, 10 months). Two-year OS (25%; median, 15.5 months) compared with our previous study on 5-fluorouracil-based CT-RT (2.8%) was significantly improved (p <0.001). Conclusions: Gemcitabine CT-RT seems correlated with improved outcomes. Healthier patients who are likely to complete the treatment schedule may benefit most from this therapy.

  18. The future of remote ECG monitoring systems

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shu-Li; Han, Li-Na; Liu, Hong-Wei; Si, Quan-Jin; Kong, De-Feng; Guo, Fu-Su

    2016-01-01

    Remote ECG monitoring systems are becoming commonplace medical devices for remote heart monitoring. In recent years, remote ECG monitoring systems have been applied in the monitoring of various kinds of heart diseases, and the quality of the transmission and reception of the ECG signals during remote process kept advancing. However, there remains accompanying challenges. This report focuses on the three components of the remote ECG monitoring system: patient (the end user), the doctor workstation, and the remote server, reviewing and evaluating the imminent challenges on the wearable systems, packet loss in remote transmission, portable ECG monitoring system, patient ECG data collection system, and ECG signals transmission including real-time processing ST segment, R wave, RR interval and QRS wave, etc. This paper tries to clarify the future developmental strategies of the ECG remote monitoring, which can be helpful in guiding the research and development of remote ECG monitoring. PMID:27582770

  19. Acute and chronic effects of a hypocaloric diet on 24-hour blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability in mildly-to-moderately obese patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Minami, J; Kawano, Y; Ishimitsu, T; Matsuoka, H; Takishita, S

    1999-11-01

    We examined the acute and chronic effects of a nutritionally balanced, moderately hypocaloric diet on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability in mildly-to-moderately obese patients with essential hypertension. We enrolled 16 obese patients with essential hypertension [age: 51-76 years, body mass index (BMI): 26-32 kg/m2]. For the initial week, a standard diet of 2,000 kcal/day was given, followed by a 3-week of a hypocaloric diet of 850 kcal/day. In the last period of the standard diet and in the first and the last periods of the hypocaloric diet, each subject's 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate and R-R intervals of the electrocardiogram were recorded, and electrolytes and catecholamines in 24-hour urine samples were also measured. A power spectral analysis of the heart-rate variability was performed over a 24-hour period based on the autoregressive method. The subjects lost 3.7+/-0.3 kg (mean +/- s.e.m.) of body weight during the 3-week hypocaloric diet period. The 24-hour blood pressure did not differ between the last period of the standard diet and the first period of the hypocaloric diet; however, it showed a significant reduction after 3 weeks of the hypocaloric diet. The decrease in the 24-hour blood pressure during the study period was 10.5+/-1.5 mm Hg systole and 4.3+/-1.8 mm Hg diastole. In contrast, the 24-hour heart rate was significantly reduced in the first period of the hypocaloric diet, although the body weight and blood pressure did not change, and the rate was maintained even in the last period of the hypocaloric diet. The decrease in the 24-hour heart rate during the study period was 2.8+/-0.9 beats per minute. The hypocaloric diet did not change any autonomic indices obtained from a power spectral analysis of the heart-rate variability. In conclusion, different responses to a hypocaloric diet were observed between the blood pressure and the heart rate in obese hypertensive patients. The changes in

  20. Performance of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall relative to a measure of true intakes and to an interviewer-administered 24-h recall123

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Subar, Amy F; Douglass, Deirdre; Zimmerman, Thea P; Thompson, Frances E; Kahle, Lisa L; George, Stephanie M; Dodd, Kevin W; Potischman, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall (ASA24), a freely available Web-based tool, was developed to enhance the feasibility of collecting high-quality dietary intake data from large samples. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the criterion validity of ASA24 through a feeding study in which the true intake for 3 meals was known. Design: True intake and plate waste from 3 meals were ascertained for 81 adults by inconspicuously weighing foods and beverages offered at a buffet before and after each participant served him- or herself. Participants were randomly assigned to complete an ASA24 or an interviewer-administered Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) recall the following day. With the use of linear and Poisson regression analysis, we examined the associations between recall mode and 1) the proportions of items consumed for which a match was reported and that were excluded, 2) the number of intrusions (items reported but not consumed), and 3) differences between energy, nutrient, food group, and portion size estimates based on true and reported intakes. Results: Respondents completing ASA24 reported 80% of items truly consumed compared with 83% in AMPM (P = 0.07). For both ASA24 and AMPM, additions to or ingredients in multicomponent foods and drinks were more frequently omitted than were main foods or drinks. The number of intrusions was higher in ASA24 (P < 0.01). Little evidence of differences by recall mode was found in the gap between true and reported energy, nutrient, and food group intakes or portion sizes. Conclusions: Although the interviewer-administered AMPM performed somewhat better relative to true intakes for matches, exclusions, and intrusions, ASA24 performed well. Given the substantial cost savings that ASA24 offers, it has the potential to make important contributions to research aimed at describing the diets of populations, assessing the effect of interventions on diet, and elucidating diet and health

  1. Sex and age-related differences in performance in a 24-hour ultra-cycling draft-legal event – a cross-sectional data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the sex and age-related differences in performance in a draft-legal ultra-cycling event. Methods Age-related changes in performance across years were investigated in the 24-hour draft-legal cycling event held in Schötz, Switzerland, between 2000 and 2011 using multi-level regression analyses including age, repeated participation and environmental temperatures as co-variables. Results For all finishers, the age of peak cycling performance decreased significantly (β = −0.273, p = 0.036) from 38 ± 10 to 35 ± 6 years in females but remained unchanged (β = −0.035, p = 0.906) at 41.0 ± 10.3 years in males. For the annual fastest females and males, the age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged at 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years, respectively. For all female and male finishers, males improved significantly (β = 7.010, p = 0.006) the cycling distance from 497.8 ± 219.6 km to 546.7 ± 205.0 km whereas females (β = −0.085, p = 0.987) showed an unchanged performance of 593.7 ± 132.3 km. The mean cycling distance achieved by the male winners of 960.5 ± 51.9 km was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the distance covered by the female winners with 769.7 ± 65.7 km but was not different between the sexes (p > 0.05). The sex difference in performance for the annual winners of 19.7 ± 7.8% remained unchanged across years (p > 0.05). The achieved cycling distance decreased in a curvilinear manner with advancing age. There was a significant age effect (F = 28.4, p < 0.0001) for cycling performance where the fastest cyclists were in age group 35–39 years. Conclusion In this 24-h cycling draft-legal event, performance in females remained unchanged while their age of peak cycling performance decreased and performance in males improved while their age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged. The annual fastest females and males were 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years old, respectively. The sex

  2. Non-contact ECG monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Alexey S.; Erlikh, Vadim V.; Kodkin, Vladimir L.; Keller, Andrei V.; Epishev, Vitaly V.

    2016-03-01

    The research is dedicated to non-contact methods of electrocardiography. The authors describe the routine of experimental procedure and suggest the approach to solving the problems which arise at indirect signal recording. The paper presents the results of experiments conducted by the authors, covers the flow charts of ECG recorders and reviews the drawbacks of filtering methods used in foreign equivalents.

  3. Piezoelectric extraction of ECG signal

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring and early detection of abnormalities or variations in the cardiac cycle functionality are very critical practices and have significant impact on the prevention of heart diseases and their associated complications. Currently, in the field of biomedical engineering, there is a growing need for devices capable of measuring and monitoring a wide range of cardiac cycle parameters continuously, effectively and on a real-time basis using easily accessible and reusable probes. In this paper, the revolutionary generation and extraction of the corresponding ECG signal using a piezoelectric transducer as alternative for the ECG will be discussed. The piezoelectric transducer pick up the vibrations from the heart beats and convert them into electrical output signals. To this end, piezoelectric and signal processing techniques were employed to extract the ECG corresponding signal from the piezoelectric output voltage signal. The measured electrode based and the extracted piezoelectric based ECG traces are well corroborated. Their peaks amplitudes and locations are well aligned with each other. PMID:27853180

  4. ECG parameters and exposure to carbon ultrafine particles in young healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Zareba, Wojciech; Couderc, Jean Philippe; Oberdörster, Günter; Chalupa, David; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li-Shan; Peters, Annette; Utell, Mark J; Frampton, Mark W

    2009-02-01

    The mechanisms underlying the association between air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are unknown. This study aimed to determine whether controlled exposure to elemental carbon ultrafine particles (UFP) affects electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters describing heart rate variability; repolarization duration, morphology, and variability; and changes in the ST segment. Two separate controlled studies (12 subjects each) were performed using a crossover design, in which each subject was exposed to filtered air and carbon UFP for 2 hours. The first protocol involved 2 exposures to air and 10 microg/m(3) (approximately 2 x 10(6) particles/cm(3), count median diameter approximately 25 nm, geometric standard deviation approximately 1.6), at rest. The second protocol included 3 exposures to air, 10, and 25 microg/m(3) UFP (approximately 7 x 10(6) particles/cm(3)), with repeated exercise. Each subject underwent a continuous digital 12-lead ECG Holter recording to analyze the above ECG parameters. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare tested parameters between exposures. The observed responses to UFP exposure were small and generally not significant, although there were trends indicating an increase in parasympathetic tone, which is most likely also responsible for trends toward ST elevation, blunted QTc shortening, and increased variability of T-wave complexity after exposure to UFP. Recovery from exercise showed a blunted response of the parasympathetic system after exposure to UFP in comparison to air exposure. In conclusion, transient exposure to 10-25 microg/m(3) ultrafine carbon particles does not cause marked changes in ECG-derived parameters in young healthy subjects. However, trends are observed indicating that some subjects might be susceptible to air pollution, with a response involving autonomic modulation of the heart and repolarization of the ventricular myocardium.

  5. Competency in ECG Interpretation Among Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Kopeć, Grzegorz; Magoń, Wojciech; Hołda, Mateusz; Podolec, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Background Electrocardiogram (ECG) is commonly used in diagnosis of heart diseases, including many life-threatening disorders. We aimed to assess skills in ECG interpretation among Polish medical students and to analyze the determinants of these skills. Material/Methods Undergraduates from all Polish medical schools were asked to complete a web-based survey containing 18 ECG strips. Questions concerned primary ECG parameters (rate, rhythm, and axis), emergencies, and common ECG abnormalities. Analysis was restricted to students in their clinical years (4th–6th), and students in their preclinical years (1st–3rd) were used as controls. Results We enrolled 536 medical students (females: n=299; 55.8%), aged 19 to 31 (23±1.6) years from all Polish medical schools. Most (72%) were in their clinical years. The overall rate of good response was better in students in years 4th–5th than those in years 1st–3rd (66% vs. 56%; p<0.0001). Competency in ECG interpretation was higher in students who reported ECG self-learning (69% vs. 62%; p<0.0001) but no difference was found between students who attended or did not attend regular ECG classes (66% vs. 66%; p=0.99). On multivariable analysis (p<0.0001), being in clinical years (OR: 2.45 [1.35–4.46] and self-learning (OR: 2.44 [1.46–4.08]) determined competency in ECG interpretation. Conclusions Polish medical students in their clinical years have a good level of competency in interpreting the primary ECG parameters, but their ability to recognize ECG signs of emergencies and common heart abnormalities is low. ECG interpretation skills are determined by self-education but not by attendance at regular ECG classes. Our results indicate qualitative and quantitative deficiencies in teaching ECG interpretation at medical schools. PMID:26541993

  6. Preliminary report: the effect of a 6-month dietary glycemic index manipulation in addition to healthy eating advice and weight loss on arterial compliance and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in men: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Philippou, Elena; Bovill-Taylor, Candace; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi; Vampa, Maria Luisa; Ntatsaki, Eleana; Brynes, Audrey E; Hickson, Mary; Frost, Gary S

    2009-12-01

    We aimed to determine whether altering dietary glycemic index (GI) in addition to healthy eating and weight loss advice affects arterial compliance and 24-hour blood pressure (BP), both coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. Middle-aged men with at least 1 CHD risk were randomized to a 6-month low-GI (LGI) or high-GI (HGI) diet. All were advised on healthy eating and weight loss. They were seen monthly to assess dietary compliance and anthropometrics. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), fasting blood lipid profile, and glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at baseline and at months 3 and 6. Six-hour postprandial glucose and insulin responses and 24-hour ambulatory BP were also assessed at baseline and month 6. Thirty-eight subjects (HGI group, n = 16; LGI group, n = 22) completed the study. At month 6, groups differed in dietary GI, glycemic load, and carbohydrate intake (P < .001). Fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (calculated by homeostatic model assessment) were lower in the LGI than the HGI group (P < .01). The reduction in total cholesterol and 24-hour BP was bigger in the LGI than the HGI group (P < .05); and only the LGI group had significant reductions (P < .05) in PWV, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerol concentration. There were no differences in postprandial glucose or insulin responses between the groups. The results suggest that an LGI diet may be more beneficial in reducing CHD risk, including PWV and 24-hour BP, even in the setting of healthy eating and weight loss; and thus, further study is warranted.

  7. Burns from ECG leads in an MRI scanner: Case series and discussion of mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Rehim, S.; Bagirathan, S.; Al-Benna, S.; O’Boyle, C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Iatrogenic burns are rare and preventable. The authors present two cases of burns from ECG leads, sustained during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Common features included a long duration spinal MR scan (120 and 60 minutes) and high patient body mass index (BMI >30). Both patients were discharged within 24 hours of admission, but required a period of outpatient burn care. The causation of these injuries remains unclear but there are several possible mechanisms including: electromagnetic induction heating, antenna effects and closed-loop current induction. The authors provide a description of the injuries, discuss possible mechanisms that may lead to burn injury in the MRI environment and suggest ways to reduce the risks of such injuries. PMID:26336370

  8. Burns from ECG leads in an MRI scanner: Case series and discussion of mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rehim, S; Bagirathan, S; Al-Benna, S; O'Boyle, C

    2014-12-31

    Iatrogenic burns are rare and preventable. The authors present two cases of burns from ECG leads, sustained during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Common features included a long duration spinal MR scan (120 and 60 minutes) and high patient body mass index (BMI >30). Both patients were discharged within 24 hours of admission, but required a period of outpatient burn care. The causation of these injuries remains unclear but there are several possible mechanisms including: electromagnetic induction heating, antenna effects and closed-loop current induction. The authors provide a description of the injuries, discuss possible mechanisms that may lead to burn injury in the MRI environment and suggest ways to reduce the risks of such injuries.

  9. Adaptive Fourier decomposition based ECG denoising.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze; Wan, Feng; Wong, Chi Man; Zhang, Liming

    2016-10-01

    A novel ECG denoising method is proposed based on the adaptive Fourier decomposition (AFD). The AFD decomposes a signal according to its energy distribution, thereby making this algorithm suitable for separating pure ECG signal and noise with overlapping frequency ranges but different energy distributions. A stop criterion for the iterative decomposition process in the AFD is calculated on the basis of the estimated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the noisy signal. The proposed AFD-based method is validated by the synthetic ECG signal using an ECG model and also real ECG signals from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database both with additive Gaussian white noise. Simulation results of the proposed method show better performance on the denoising and the QRS detection in comparing with major ECG denoising schemes based on the wavelet transform, the Stockwell transform, the empirical mode decomposition, and the ensemble empirical mode decomposition.

  10. Efficiency of superstimulatory protocol P-36 associated with the administration of eCG and LH in Nelore cows.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A C S; Mattos, M C C; Bastos, M R; Trinca, L A; Razza, E M; Satrapa, R A; Sartori, R; Barros, Ciro M

    2014-09-15

    Recent work with P-36 demonstrates that the replacement of the last two doses of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) increases embryo yields. However, it is unclear if the positive effect of eCG is related to its FSH-like activity, LH-like activity, or both. This study aimed to verify the replacement of eCG with pLH on the last day of superstimulatory treatment. Twenty-five Nelore cows were allocated to four groups: P-36 (control), P-36/eCG, P-36/LH2, and P-36/LH4. All animals underwent four treatments in a crossover design. The control group cows were superstimulated with decreasing doses of porcine Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (pFSH, 133 mg, im). In the P-36/eCG, P-36/LH2, and P-36/LH4 groups, the last two doses of pFSH were replaced in the former group by two doses of eCG (200 IU each dose, im) and in the latter two groups by two doses of pLH (1 and 2 mg each dose, im), respectively. Donors received fixed-time artificial insemination 12 and 24 hours after pLH. Embryo flushing was performed on D16. Data were analyzed by ANOVA (Proc Mixed, SAS). There was a trend of decreasing ovulation rate when comparing groups LH2 and eCG (P = 0.06). However, there was no significant difference in the mean number of viable embryos among groups P-36 (3.3 ± 0.7), P-36/eCG (4.5 ± 0.5), P-36/LH2 (3.7 ± 0.8), and P-36/LH4 (4.2 ± 1.0). It is concluded that the replacement of eCG by pLH on the last day of superstimulatory treatment can be performed with no significant variation in the production of viable embryos.

  11. Cross sectional longitudinal study of spot morning urine protein:creatinine ratio, 24 hour urine protein excretion rate, glomerular filtration rate, and end stage renal failure in chronic renal disease in patients without diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Ruggenenti, P.; Gaspari, F.; Perna, A.; Remuzzi, G.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the protein:creatinine ratio in spot morning urine samples is a reliable indicator of 24 hour urinary protein excretion and predicts the rate of decline of glomerular filtration rate and progression to end stage renal failure in non-diabetic patients with chronic nephropathy. DESIGN: Cross sectional correlation between the ratio and urinary protein excretion rate. Univariate and multivariate analysis of baseline predictors, including the ratio and 24 hour urinary protein, of decline in glomerular filtration rate and end stage renal failure in the long term. SETTING: Research centre in Italy. SUBJECTS: 177 non-diabetic outpatients with chronic renal disease screened for participation in the ramipril efficacy in nephropathy study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of decline in filtration rate evaluated by repeated measurements of unlabelled iohexol plasma clearance and rate of progression to renal failure. RESULTS: Protein:creatinine ratio was significantly correlated with absolute and log transformed 24 hour urinary protein values (P = 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively.) Ratios also had high predictive value for rate of decline of the glomerular filtration rate (univariate P = 0.0003, multivariate P = 0.004) and end stage renal failure (P = 0.002 and P = 0.04). Baseline protein:creatinine ratios and rate of decline of the glomerular filtration rate were also significantly correlated (P < 0.0005). In the lowest third of the protein:creatinine ratio (< 1.7) there was 3% renal failure compared with 21.2% in the highest third (> 2.7) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Protein:creatinine ratio in spot morning urine samples is a precise indicator of proteinuria and a reliable predictor of progression of disease in non-diabetic patients with chronic nephropathies and represents a simple and inexpensive procedure in establishing severity of renal disease and prognosis. PMID:9501711

  12. Index Blood Tests and National Early Warning Scores within 24 Hours of Emergency Admission Can Predict the Risk of In-Hospital Mortality: A Model Development and Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Rudge, Gavin; Watson, Duncan; Wood, Gordon; Smith, Gary B.; Prytherch, David R.; Girling, Alan; Stevens, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background We explored the use of routine blood tests and national early warning scores (NEWS) reported within ±24 hours of admission to predict in-hospital mortality in emergency admissions, using empirical decision Tree models because they are intuitive and may ultimately be used to support clinical decision making. Methodology A retrospective analysis of adult emergency admissions to a large acute hospital during April 2009 to March 2010 in the West Midlands, England, with a full set of index blood tests results (albumin, creatinine, haemoglobin, potassium, sodium, urea, white cell count and an index NEWS undertaken within ±24 hours of admission). We developed a Tree model by randomly splitting the admissions into a training (50%) and validation dataset (50%) and assessed its accuracy using the concordance (c-) statistic. Emergency admissions (about 30%) did not have a full set of index blood tests and/or NEWS and so were not included in our analysis. Results There were 23248 emergency admissions with a full set of blood tests and NEWS with an in-hospital mortality of 5.69%. The Tree model identified age, NEWS, albumin, sodium, white cell count and urea as significant (p<0.001) predictors of death, which described 17 homogeneous subgroups of admissions with mortality ranging from 0.2% to 60%. The c-statistic for the training model was 0.864 (95%CI 0.852 to 0.87) and when applied to the testing data set this was 0.853 (95%CI 0.840 to 0.866). Conclusions An easy to interpret validated risk adjustment Tree model using blood test and NEWS taken within ±24 hours of admission provides good discrimination and offers a novel approach to risk adjustment which may potentially support clinical decision making. Given the nature of the clinical data, the results are likely to be generalisable but further research is required to investigate this promising approach. PMID:23734195

  13. Improved Oxygenation 24 Hours After Transition to Airway Pressure Release Ventilation or High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation Accurately Discriminates Survival in Immunocompromised Pediatric Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Yehya, Nadir; Topjian, Alexis A.; Thomas, Neal J.; Friess, Stuart H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Children with an immunocompromised condition and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation have high risk of death. Such patients are commonly transitioned to rescue modes of non-conventional ventilation, including airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, for acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to conventional ventilation. Our aim was to describe our experience with airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in children with an immunocompromised condition and acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to conventional ventilation and to identify factors associated with survival. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary care, university-affiliated PICU. Patients Sixty pediatric patients with an immunocompromised condition and acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to conventional ventilation transitioned to either airway pressure release ventilation or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Demographic data, ventilator settings, arterial blood gases, oxygenation index, and Pao2/Fio2 were recorded before transition to either mode of nonconventional ventilation and at predetermined intervals after transition for up to 5 days. Mortality in the entire cohort was 63% and did not differ between patients transitioned to airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. For both airway pressure release ventilation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, improvements in oxygenation index and Pao2/Fio2 at 24 hours expressed as a fraction of pretransition values (oxygenation index24/oxygenation indexpre and Pao2/Fio224/Pao2/FIO2pre) reliably discriminated nonsurvivors from survivors, with receiver operating characteristic areas under the curves between 0.89 and 0.95 (p for all curves < 0.001). Sensitivity-specificity analysis suggested that less than 15% reduction in

  14. Differential Gene Expression in Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells 24-Hours Post-Exposure to 532 nm, 3.0 ns Pulsed Laser Light and 1064 nm, 170 ps Pulsed Laser Light 12-Hours Post-Exposure: Results Compendium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Laser Light and 1064 nm, 170 ps Pulsed Laser Light 12-hours Post-Exposure: Results Compendium John W. Obringer Martin D. Johnson Laser and Optics...Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells 12-hours Post-Exposure to 532 nm, 3.0 ns Pulsed Laser Light and 1064 nm, 170 ps Pulsed Laser Lightl2-hours...Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial USAFA F05611-02-P-0471 Cells 24-Hours Post-Exposure to 532 nm, 3.0 ns Pulsed Laser-Light and 1064nm, 170 ps Pulsed

  15. [A wireless ECG monitor based on ARM].

    PubMed

    Fan, Ai-Hua; Bian, Chun-Hua; Ning, Xin-Bao; He, Ai-Jun; Zhuang, Jian-Jun; Wu, Xu-Hui

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents a novel monitor which uses ARM controller AT91SAM7S64 as its main processor, LCM (Liquid Crystal Display Module) for displaying ECG waves, SD (Secure Digital memory) card for data storage and RF module PTR8000 for radio data transmission. This portable monitor boasts alarm function for abnormality and can provide dynamic ECG monitoring for patients.

  16. A novel algorithm for Bluetooth ECG.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Utpal T; Desai, Uday B

    2012-11-01

    In wireless transmission of ECG, data latency will be significant when battery power level and data transmission distance are not maintained. In applications like home monitoring or personalized care, to overcome the joint effect of previous issues of wireless transmission and other ECG measurement noises, a novel filtering strategy is required. Here, a novel algorithm, identified as peak rejection adaptive sampling modified moving average (PRASMMA) algorithm for wireless ECG is introduced. This algorithm first removes error in bit pattern of received data if occurred in wireless transmission and then removes baseline drift. Afterward, a modified moving average is implemented except in the region of each QRS complexes. The algorithm also sets its filtering parameters according to different sampling rate selected for acquisition of signals. To demonstrate the work, a prototyped Bluetooth-based ECG module is used to capture ECG with different sampling rate and in different position of patient. This module transmits ECG wirelessly to Bluetooth-enabled devices where the PRASMMA algorithm is applied on captured ECG. The performance of PRASMMA algorithm is compared with moving average and S-Golay algorithms visually as well as numerically. The results show that the PRASMMA algorithm can significantly improve the ECG reconstruction by efficiently removing the noise and its use can be extended to any parameters where peaks are importance for diagnostic purpose.

  17. III Lead ECG Pulse Measurement Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangaraju, S. K.; Munisamy, K.

    2015-09-01

    Heart rate sensing is very important. Method of measuring heart pulse by using an electrocardiogram (ECG) technique is described. Electrocardiogram is a measurement of the potential difference (the electrical pulse) generated by a cardiac tissue, mainly the heart. This paper also reports the development of a three lead ECG hardware system that would be the basis of developing a more cost efficient, portable and easy to use ECG machine. Einthoven's Three Lead method [1] is used for ECG signal extraction. Using amplifiers such as the instrumentation amplifier AD620BN and the conventional operational amplifier Ua741 that would be used to amplify the ECG signal extracted develop this system. The signal would then be filtered from noise using Butterworth filter techniques to obtain optimum output. Also a right leg guard was implemented as a safety feature to this system. Simulation was carried out for development of the system using P-spice Program.

  18. ECG signal denoising via empirical wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Singh, Omkar; Sunkaria, Ramesh Kumar

    2016-12-29

    This paper presents new methods for baseline wander correction and powerline interference reduction in electrocardiogram (ECG) signals using empirical wavelet transform (EWT). During data acquisition of ECG signal, various noise sources such as powerline interference, baseline wander and muscle artifacts contaminate the information bearing ECG signal. For better analysis and interpretation, the ECG signal must be free of noise. In the present work, a new approach is used to filter baseline wander and power line interference from the ECG signal. The technique utilized is the empirical wavelet transform, which is a new method used to compute the building modes of a given signal. Its performance as a filter is compared to the standard linear filters and empirical mode decomposition.The results show that EWT delivers a better performance.

  19. Adaptive responses of the cardiovascular system to prolonged spaceflight conditions: assessment with Holter monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baevsky, R. M.; Bennett, B. S.; Bungo, M. W.; Charles, J. B.; Goldberger, A. L.; Nikulina, G. A.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents selected findings obtained with Holter monitoring from two crew members of the expedition, performed during a 175-day space mission on board orbital space station "MIR." Using mathematical processing of daily cardiointervals files, 5-minute sections of records were analyzed consecutively. Then, the average daily values of indices, the average-per-every-eight-hours values (morning, evening, night) and mean values per hour were computed. The results of analysis showed that prolonged exposure of man to microgravity conditions leads to important functional alteration in human neuroautonomic regulatory mechanisms. Both crew members had significant increase of heart rate, the rise of stress index, the decrease in power of the spectrum in the range of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. These marked signs of activation of the sympathetic section of the vegetative nervous system showed individual variations. The analysis of the daily collection of cardiointervals with Holter monitoring allows us to understand and forecast the functional feasibilities of the human organism under a variety of stress conditions associated with acute and chronic microgravity exposure.

  20. Association of uremic pruritus in hemodialysis patients with the number of days of high mean 24-hour particulate matter with a diameter of <2.5 μm

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Hui; Chan, Ming-Jen; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Uremic pruritus (UP) is a common and incapacitating symptom in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). The pathogenesis of UP is multifactorial and complex. Particulate matter (PM), a major air pollutant, is a mixture of particles with various chemical compositions. PM is associated with several allergic diseases, including dermatitis. To assess the role of PM (PM with a diameter of <10 μm [PM10] and PM with a diameter of <2.5 μm [PM2.5]) and other clinical variables in UP in patients on HD, we recruited 866 patients on maintenance HD (MHD). We analyzed the number of days of mean 24-hour PM10 ≥125 μg/m3/12 months (NDPM10) or the number of days of mean 24-hour PM2.5 ≥35 μg/m3/12 months (NDPM2.5) exceeding the standard level in the past 12 months respectively to determine the association with UP. In a multivariate logistic regression, HD duration, serum ferritin levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, and NDPM2.5 ≥116 days/12 months were positively associated with UP. This cross-sectional study showed that the number of days on which the environmental PM2.5 exceeds the standard level might be associated with UP in patients on MHD. PMID:28260912

  1. Extraction of fetal ECG signal by an improved method using extended Kalman smoother framework from single channel abdominal ECG signal.

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, D; Sahu, P K

    2017-02-16

    This paper proposes a five-stage based methodology to extract the fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) from the single channel abdominal ECG using differential evolution (DE) algorithm, extended Kalman smoother (EKS) and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) framework. The heart rate of the fetus can easily be detected after estimation of the fetal ECG signal. The abdominal ECG signal contains fetal ECG signal, maternal ECG component, and noise. To estimate the fetal ECG signal from the abdominal ECG signal, removal of the noise and the maternal ECG component presented in it is necessary. The pre-processing stage is used to remove the noise from the abdominal ECG signal. The EKS framework is used to estimate the maternal ECG signal from the abdominal ECG signal. The optimized parameters of the maternal ECG components are required to develop the state and measurement equation of the EKS framework. These optimized maternal ECG parameters are selected by the differential evolution algorithm. The relationship between the maternal ECG signal and the available maternal ECG component in the abdominal ECG signal is nonlinear. To estimate the actual maternal ECG component present in the abdominal ECG signal and also to recognize this nonlinear relationship the ANFIS is used. Inputs to the ANFIS framework are the output of EKS and the pre-processed abdominal ECG signal. The fetal ECG signal is computed by subtracting the output of ANFIS from the pre-processed abdominal ECG signal. Non-invasive fetal ECG database and set A of 2013 physionet/computing in cardiology challenge database (PCDB) are used for validation of the proposed methodology. The proposed methodology shows a sensitivity of 94.21%, accuracy of 90.66%, and positive predictive value of 96.05% from the non-invasive fetal ECG database. The proposed methodology also shows a sensitivity of 91.47%, accuracy of 84.89%, and positive predictive value of 92.18% from the set A of PCDB.

  2. Improving ECG Services at a Children's Hospital: Implementation of a Digital ECG System

    PubMed Central

    Osei, Frank A.; Gates, Gregory J.; Choi, Steven J.; Hsu, Daphne T.; Pass, Robert H.; Ceresnak, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The use of digital ECG software and services is becoming common. We hypothesized that the introduction of a completely digital ECG system would increase the volume of ECGs interpreted at our children's hospital. Methods. As part of a hospital wide quality improvement initiative, a digital ECG service (MUSE, GE) was implemented at the Children's Hospital at Montefiore in June 2012. The total volume of ECGs performed in the first 6 months of the digital ECG era was compared to 18 months of the predigital era. Predigital and postdigital data were compared via t-tests. Results. The mean ECGs interpreted per month were 53 ± 16 in the predigital era and 216 ± 37 in the postdigital era (p < 0.001), a fourfold increase in ECG volume after introduction of the digital system. There was no significant change in inpatient or outpatient service volume during that time. The mean billing time decreased from 21 ± 27 days in the postdigital era to 12 ± 5 days in the postdigital era (p < 0.001). Conclusion. Implementation of a digital ECG system increased the volume of ECGs officially interpreted and reported. PMID:26451150

  3. 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion test

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium is in your diet Whether your kidneys work properly The condition being diagnosed Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor ...

  4. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  5. [A USB-Based Digital ECG Sensor].

    PubMed

    Shi Bol; Kong, Xiangyong; Ma, Xiaozhi; Zhang, Genxuan

    2016-01-01

    Based on the ECG-specific BMD 101 integrated circun chip, this study designed a digital ECG sensor. In practical application, users just need to connect the ECG sensor 'o upper computer (such as PC or mobile phone) through USB interface, to realize the functions including display, alarm, saving, transfer etc. After tests, They demonstrate that the sensor can be applied to the detection of arrhythmia, such as bigeminy coupled rhythm, proiosystole etc. Besides, the sensor has various advantages in monitoring an managing the heart health of people out of hospital, including low cost, small volume, usableness, simplicity of operation etc.

  6. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in Victoria, Australia, using 24-hour urine collections. Secondary aims were to identify the dietary sources of sodium and potassium, examine the association between these electrolytes and cardiovascular risk factors, and assess children’s taste preferences and saltiness perception of manufactured foods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of schoolchildren attending primary schools in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed one 24-hour urine collection, which was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Completeness of collections was assessed using collection time, total volume, and urinary creatinine. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed to assess dietary intake. Other data collected included blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumference. Children were also presented with high and low sodium variants of food products and asked to discriminate salt level and choose their preferred variant. Parents provided demographic information and information on use of discretionary salt. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sodium and potassium intakes. Linear and logistic regression models with clustered robust standard errors will be used to assess the association between electrolyte intake and health outcomes (blood pressure and body mass index/BMI z-score and waist circumference) and to assess differences in taste preference and discrimination between high and low sodium foods, and correlations between

  7. Wavelets for full reconfigurable ECG acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, D. P.; García, A.; Castillo, E.; Meyer-Baese, U.; Palma, A. J.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the use of wavelet cores for a full reconfigurable electrocardiogram signal (ECG) acquisition system. The system is compound by two reconfigurable devices, a FPGA and a FPAA. The FPAA is in charge of the ECG signal acquisition, since this device is a versatile and reconfigurable analog front-end for biosignals. The FPGA is in charge of FPAA configuration, digital signal processing and information extraction such as heart beat rate and others. Wavelet analysis has become a powerful tool for ECG signal processing since it perfectly fits ECG signal shape. The use of these cores has been integrated in the LabVIEW FPGA module development tool that makes possible to employ VHDL cores within the usual LabVIEW graphical programming environment, thus freeing the designer from tedious and time consuming design of communication interfaces. This enables rapid test and graphical representation of results.

  8. Smartphone home monitoring of ECG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Moon, Gyu; Landa, Joseph; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2012-06-01

    A system of ambulatory, halter, electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring system has already been commercially available for recording and transmitting heartbeats data by the Internet. However, it enjoys the confidence with a reservation and thus a limited market penetration, our system was targeting at aging global villagers having an increasingly biomedical wellness (BMW) homecare needs, not hospital related BMI (biomedical illness). It was designed within SWaP-C (Size, Weight, and Power, Cost) using 3 innovative modules: (i) Smart Electrode (lowpower mixed signal embedded with modern compressive sensing and nanotechnology to improve the electrodes' contact impedance); (ii) Learnable Database (in terms of adaptive wavelets transform QRST feature extraction, Sequential Query Relational database allowing home care monitoring retrievable Aided Target Recognition); (iii) Smartphone (touch screen interface, powerful computation capability, caretaker reporting with GPI, ID, and patient panic button for programmable emergence procedure). It can provide a supplementary home screening system for the post or the pre-diagnosis care at home with a build-in database searchable with the time, the place, and the degree of urgency happened, using in-situ screening.

  9. Highly Reliable Key Generation from Electrocardiogram (ECG).

    PubMed

    Karimian, Nima; Guo, Zimu; Tehranipoor, Mark; Forte, Domenic

    2016-09-08

    Traditional passwords are inadequate as cryptographic keys, as they are easy to forge and are vulnerable to guessing. Human biometrics have been proposed as a promising alternative due to their intrinsic nature. Electrocardiogram (ECG) is an emerging biometric that is extremely difficult to forge and circumvent, but has not yet been heavily investigated for cryptographic key generation. ECG has challenges with respect to immunity to noise, abnormalities, etc. In this paper, we propose a novel key generation approach that extracts keys from real valued ECG features with high reliability and entropy in mind. Our technique, called interval optimized mapping bit allocation (IOMBA), is applied to normal and abnormal ECG signals under multiple session conditions. We also investigate IOMBA in the context of different feature extraction methods, such as wavelet, discrete cosine transform, etc. to find the best method for feature extraction. Experiments of IOMBA show that 217-bit, 38-bit, and 100-bit keys with 99.9%, 97.4%, and 95% average reliability and high entropy can be extracted from normal, abnormal, and multiple session ECG signals, respectively. By allowing more errors or lowering entropy, key lengths can be further increased by tunable parameters of IOMBA which can be useful in other applications. While IOMBA is demonstrated on ECG, it should be useful for other biometrics as well.

  10. Quality assessment of digital annotated ECG data from clinical trials by the FDA ECG Warehouse.

    PubMed

    Sarapa, Nenad

    2007-09-01

    The FDA mandates that digital electrocardiograms (ECGs) from 'thorough' QTc trials be submitted into the ECG Warehouse in Health Level 7 extended markup language format with annotated onset and offset points of waveforms. The FDA did not disclose the exact Warehouse metrics and minimal acceptable quality standards. The author describes the Warehouse scoring algorithms and metrics used by FDA, points out ways to improve FDA review and suggests Warehouse benefits for pharmaceutical sponsors. The Warehouse ranks individual ECGs according to their score for each quality metric and produces histogram distributions with Warehouse-specific thresholds that identify ECGs of questionable quality. Automatic Warehouse algorithms assess the quality of QT annotation and duration of manual QT measurement by the central ECG laboratory.

  11. Robust human identification using ecg: eigenpulse revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Daniel; Wendelken, Suzanne; Irvine, John M.

    2010-04-01

    Biometrics, such as fingerprint, iris scan, and face recognition, offer methods for identifying individuals based on a unique physiological measurement. Recent studies indicate that a person's electrocardiogram (ECG) may also provide a unique biometric signature. Several methods for processing ECG data have appeared in the literature and most approaches rest on an initial detection and segmentation of the heartbeats. Various sources of noise, such as sensor noise, poor sensor placement, or muscle movements, can degrade the ECG signal and introduce errors into the heartbeat segmentation. This paper presents a screening technique for assessing the quality of each segmented heartbeat. Using this technique, a higher quality signal can be extracted to support the identification task. We demonstrate the benefits of this quality screening using a principal component technique known as eigenpulse. The analysis demonstrated the improvement in performance attributable to the quality screening.

  12. A Mixed Approach Of Automated ECG Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, A. K.; Das, J.; Majumder, D. Dutta

    1982-11-01

    ECG is one of the non-invasive and risk-free technique for collecting data about the functional state of the heart. However, all these data-processing techniques can be classified into two basically different approaches -- the first and second generation ECG computer program. Not the opposition, but simbiosis of these two approaches will lead to systems with the highest accuracy. In our paper we are going to describe a mixed approach which will show higher accuracy with lesser amount of computational work. Key Words : Primary features, Patients' parameter matrix, Screening, Logical comparison technique, Multivariate statistical analysis, Mixed approach.

  13. Developing a DICOM Middleware to Implement ECG Conversion and Viewing.

    PubMed

    Ling-Ling, Wang; Ni-Ni, Rao; Li-Xin, Pu; Gang, Wang

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, medical environment is integrated and complicated, involving large amounts of various medical data, such as images, waveforms and other digital data. For the interoperability of images and waveforms in imaging context, the images and waveforms usually need to be interchanged and stored using one standard. DICOM is the best choice, which is an international standard for the communication and storage of medical information. In this paper, we developed a DICOM middleware with capability of converting SCP-ECG, the European standard for resting ECGs, into DICOM ECGs. Then an ECG viewing component is implemented, which can parse and display SCP-ECG records and DICOM ECGs. The research results show that our work can realize seamless workflows in multi-vendor environment, contribute to the harmonization of ECG standards, and facilitate digital ECG applications.

  14. [Implementation of ECG Monitoring System Based on Internet of Things].

    PubMed

    Lu, Liangliang; Chen, Minya

    2015-11-01

    In order to expand the capabilities of hospital's traditional ECG device and enhance medical staff's work efficiency, an ECG monitoring system based on internet of things is introduced. The system can monitor ECG signals in real time and analyze data using ECG sensor, PDA, Web servers, which embeds C language, Android systems, .NET, wireless network and other technologies. After experiments, it can be showed that the system has high reliability and stability and can bring the convenience to medical staffs.

  15. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used...

  16. [Research of DICOM-ECG implementation based on DCMTK].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Wu, Jian; Ma, Yaquanz; Peng, Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Parsed the ECG descriptions in DICOM 3.0 standard and accomplished a DICOM-ECG file which conforms to the DICOM standard by a toolkit DCMTK. The DICOM-ECG file can communicate with systems which support DICOM standard directly.

  17. Multichannel ECG and Noise Modeling: Application to Maternal and Fetal ECG Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameni, Reza; Clifford, Gari D.; Jutten, Christian; Shamsollahi, Mohammad B.

    2007-12-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic model of the electrical activity of the heart is presented. The model is based on the single dipole model of the heart and is later related to the body surface potentials through a linear model which accounts for the temporal movements and rotations of the cardiac dipole, together with a realistic ECG noise model. The proposed model is also generalized to maternal and fetal ECG mixtures recorded from the abdomen of pregnant women in single and multiple pregnancies. The applicability of the model for the evaluation of signal processing algorithms is illustrated using independent component analysis. Considering the difficulties and limitations of recording long-term ECG data, especially from pregnant women, the model described in this paper may serve as an effective means of simulation and analysis of a wide range of ECGs, including adults and fetuses.

  18. ECG Beats Classification Using Mixture of Features

    PubMed Central

    Ari, Samit

    2014-01-01

    Classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals plays an important role in clinical diagnosis of heart disease. This paper proposes the design of an efficient system for classification of the normal beat (N), ventricular ectopic beat (V), supraventricular ectopic beat (S), fusion beat (F), and unknown beat (Q) using a mixture of features. In this paper, two different feature extraction methods are proposed for classification of ECG beats: (i) S-transform based features along with temporal features and (ii) mixture of ST and WT based features along with temporal features. The extracted feature set is independently classified using multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN). The performances are evaluated on several normal and abnormal ECG signals from 44 recordings of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. In this work, the performances of three feature extraction techniques with MLP-NN classifier are compared using five classes of ECG beat recommended by AAMI (Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation) standards. The average sensitivity performances of the proposed feature extraction technique for N, S, F, V, and Q are 95.70%, 78.05%, 49.60%, 89.68%, and 33.89%, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed feature extraction techniques show better performances compared to other existing features extraction techniques. PMID:27350985

  19. Effects of verapamil SR and atenolol on 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate in hypertension patients with coronary artery disease: an international verapamil SR-trandolapril ambulatory monitoring substudy.

    PubMed

    Denardo, Scott J; Gong, Yan; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Farsang, Csaba; Keltai, Matyas; Szirmai, László; Messerli, Franz H; Bavry, Anthony A; Handberg, Eileen M; Mancia, Giuseppe; Pepine, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    Elevated nighttime blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), increased BP and HR variability, and altered diurnal variations of BP and HR (nighttime dipping and morning surge) in patients with systemic hypertension are each associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events. However, there are no reports on the effect of hypertension treatment on these important hemodynamic parameters in the growing population of hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). This was a pre-specified subgroup analysis of the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST), which involved 22,576 clinically stable patients aged ≥ 50 years with hypertension and CAD randomized to either verapamil SR- or atenolol-based hypertension treatment strategies. The subgroup consisted of 117 patients undergoing 24-hour ambulatory monitoring at baseline and after 1 year of treatment. Hourly systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) decreased after 1 year for both verapamil SR- and atenolol-based treatment strategies compared with baseline (P<0.0001). Atenolol also decreased hourly HR (P<0.0001). Both treatment strategies decreased SBP variability (weighted standard deviation: P = 0.012 and 0.021, respectively). Compared with verapamil SR, atenolol also increased the prevalence of BP and HR nighttime dipping among prior non-dippers (BP: OR = 3.37; 95% CI: 1.26-8.97 P = 0.015; HR: OR = 4.06; 95% CI: 1.35-12.17; P = 0.012) and blunted HR morning surge (+2.8 vs. +4.5 beats/min/hr; P = 0.019). Both verapamil SR- and especially atenolol-based strategies resulted in favorable changes in ambulatory monitoring parameters that have been previously associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events.

  20. Comparison of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II risk scores in patients with acute myocardial infarction who require mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Eran, Oren; Novack, Victor; Gilutz, Harel; Zahger, Doron

    2011-02-01

    The ability to provide an accurate prognosis in an intensive care unit is of major importance. Numerous risk scores have been developed to predict hospital mortality based on demographic, physiologic, and clinical data. These scores were universally developed in general medical or surgical intensive care units. Patients admitted to a cardiac care unit differ in many aspects from those admitted to general medical intensive care units. Few patients require mechanical ventilation and prolonged intensive care. Performance of risk scores developed for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in this subgroup is unknown. We prospectively studied 51 consecutive patients who were admitted to a cardiac care unit from September 2006 to March 2008 for AMI and received mechanical ventilation for >24 hours. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction, and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk scores were calculated for each patient. Mortality rates were extrapolated based on these 3 risk scores. Twenty-two of 51 patients (43%) died in hospital. Age, mean arterial pressure, urea, albumin, hemoglobin, need for vasopressors, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were predictive of mortality. APACHE II and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events scores were higher in nonsurvivors but Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score was not predictive of mortality. APACHE II score had the highest value for area under receiver operator characteristics curve for mortality prediction. In conclusion, patients with AMI requiring mechanical ventilation have a high mortality rate. This risk is predicted by co-morbidities better than by direct cardiac parameters. Consequently, conventional AMI risk scores do not perform well in this very sick population and the APACHE II score better predicts their short-term outcome.

  1. The Development of a Portable ECG Monitor Based on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, CHI Jian; Tao, YAN Yan; Meng Chen, LIU; Li, YANG

    With the advent of global information, researches of Smart Home system are in the ascendant, the ECG real-time detection, and wireless transmission of ECG become more useful. In order to achieve the purpose we developed a portable ECG monitor which achieves the purpose of cardiac disease remote monitoring, and will be used in the physical and psychological disease surveillance in smart home system, we developed this portable ECG Monitor, based on the analysis of existing ECG Monitor, using TMS320F2812 as the core controller, which complete the signal collection, storage, processing, waveform display and transmission.

  2. Sparse Matrix for ECG Identification with Two-Lead Features

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Luo, Jiao; Wang, Wenmin; Haiting, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiograph (ECG) human identification has the potential to improve biometric security. However, improvements in ECG identification and feature extraction are required. Previous work has focused on single lead ECG signals. Our work proposes a new algorithm for human identification by mapping two-lead ECG signals onto a two-dimensional matrix then employing a sparse matrix method to process the matrix. And that is the first application of sparse matrix techniques for ECG identification. Moreover, the results of our experiments demonstrate the benefits of our approach over existing methods. PMID:25961074

  3. Hyperkalemia Induced Brugada Phenocopy: A Rare ECG Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Ghulam; Mirrani, Ghazi

    2017-01-01

    Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited disorder of cardiac ion channels characterized by peculiar ECG findings predisposing individuals to ventricular arrhythmias, syncope, and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Various electrolyte disturbances and ion channels blocking drugs could also provoke BrS ECG findings without genetic BrS. Clinical differentiation and recognition are essential for guiding the legitimate action. Hyperkalemia is well known to cause a wide variety of ECG manifestations. Severe hyperkalemia can even cause life threatening ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac conduction abnormalities. Most common ECG findings include peaked tall T waves with short PR interval and wide QRS complex. Since it is very commonly encountered disorder, physicians need to be aware of even its rare ECG manifestations, which include ST segment elevation and Brugada pattern ECG (BrP). We are adding a case to the limited literature about hyperkalemia induced reversible Brugada pattern ECG changes. PMID:28326201

  4. Identifying UMLS concepts from ECG Impressions using KnowledgeMap.

    PubMed

    Denny, Joshua C; Spickard, Anderson; Miller, Randolph A; Schildcrout, Jonathan; Darbar, Dawood; Rosenbloom, S Trent; Peterson, Josh F

    2005-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) impressions represent a wealth of medical information for potential decision support and drug-effect discovery. Much of this information is inaccessible to automated methods in the free-text portion of the ECG report. We studied the application of the KnowledgeMap concept identifier (KMCI) to map Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts from ECG impressions. ECGs were processed by KMCI and the results scored for accuracy by multiple raters. Reviewers also recorded unidentified concepts through the scoring interface. Overall, KMCI correctly identified 1059 out of 1171 concepts for a recall of 0.90. Precision, indicating the proportion of ECG concepts correctly identified, was 0.94. KMCI was particularly effective at identifying ECG rhythms (330/333), perfusion changes (65/66), and noncardiac medical concepts (11/11). In conclusion, KMCI is an effective method for mapping ECG impressions to UMLS concepts.

  5. Temporal Differential Gene Expression in Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells at 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, 12 and 24 Hours Post-Exposure to 1064 nm, 3.6 ns Pulsed Laser Light

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    USAFA TR 2005-05 Temporal Differential Gene Expression in Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells at 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, 12 and 24 Hours...AIR FORCE ACADEMY COLORADO 80840 20050630 417 USAFA TR 2005-05 This article, "Temporal Differential Gene Expression in Explanted Human Retinal ...Differential Gene Expression in Explanted Human Retinal Pigment USAFA F05611-02-P-0471 Epithelial Cells at 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, 12 and 24-Hours Post-Exposure

  6. Single frequency RF powered ECG telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. H.; Hynecek, J.; Homa, J.

    1979-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a radio frequency magnetic field can be used to power implanted electronic circuitry for short range telemetry to replace batteries. A substantial reduction in implanted volume can be achieved by using only one RF tank circuit for receiving the RF power and transmitting the telemetered information. A single channel telemetry system of this type, using time sharing techniques, was developed and employed to transmit the ECG signal from Rhesus monkeys in primate chairs. The signal from the implant is received during the period when the RF powering radiation is interrupted. The ECG signal is carried by 20-microsec pulse position modulated pulses, referred to the trailing edge of the RF powering pulse. Satisfactory results have been obtained with this single frequency system. The concept and the design presented may be useful for short-range long-term implant telemetry systems.

  7. ECG Sensor Card with Evolving RBP Algorithms for Human Verification

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Huang, Huang-Nan; Zeng, Fufu; Tu, Shu-Yi

    2015-01-01

    It is known that cardiac and respiratory rhythms in electrocardiograms (ECGs) are highly nonlinear and non-stationary. As a result, most traditional time-domain algorithms are inadequate for characterizing the complex dynamics of the ECG. This paper proposes a new ECG sensor card and a statistical-based ECG algorithm, with the aid of a reduced binary pattern (RBP), with the aim of achieving faster ECG human identity recognition with high accuracy. The proposed algorithm has one advantage that previous ECG algorithms lack—the waveform complex information and de-noising preprocessing can be bypassed; therefore, it is more suitable for non-stationary ECG signals. Experimental results tested on two public ECG databases (MIT-BIH) from MIT University confirm that the proposed scheme is feasible with excellent accuracy, low complexity, and speedy processing. To be more specific, the advanced RBP algorithm achieves high accuracy in human identity recognition and is executed at least nine times faster than previous algorithms. Moreover, based on the test results from a long-term ECG database, the evolving RBP algorithm also demonstrates superior capability in handling long-term and non-stationary ECG signals. PMID:26307995

  8. ECG Sensor Card with Evolving RBP Algorithms for Human Verification.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Huang, Huang-Nan; Zeng, Fufu; Tu, Shu-Yi

    2015-08-21

    It is known that cardiac and respiratory rhythms in electrocardiograms (ECGs) are highly nonlinear and non-stationary. As a result, most traditional time-domain algorithms are inadequate for characterizing the complex dynamics of the ECG. This paper proposes a new ECG sensor card and a statistical-based ECG algorithm, with the aid of a reduced binary pattern (RBP), with the aim of achieving faster ECG human identity recognition with high accuracy. The proposed algorithm has one advantage that previous ECG algorithms lack-the waveform complex information and de-noising preprocessing can be bypassed; therefore, it is more suitable for non-stationary ECG signals. Experimental results tested on two public ECG databases (MIT-BIH) from MIT University confirm that the proposed scheme is feasible with excellent accuracy, low complexity, and speedy processing. To be more specific, the advanced RBP algorithm achieves high accuracy in human identity recognition and is executed at least nine times faster than previous algorithms. Moreover, based on the test results from a long-term ECG database, the evolving RBP algorithm also demonstrates superior capability in handling long-term and non-stationary ECG signals.

  9. A model-based approach to human identification using ECG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homer, Mark; Irvine, John M.; Wendelken, Suzanne

    2009-05-01

    Biometrics, such as fingerprint, iris scan, and face recognition, offer methods for identifying individuals based on a unique physiological measurement. Recent studies indicate that a person's electrocardiogram (ECG) may also provide a unique biometric signature. Current techniques for identification using ECG rely on empirical methods for extracting features from the ECG signal. This paper presents an alternative approach based on a time-domain model of the ECG trace. Because Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models form a rich class of descriptors for representing the structure of periodic time series data, they are well-suited to characterizing the ECG signal. We present a method for modeling the ECG, extracting features from the model representation, and identifying individuals using these features.

  10. Compressed domain ECG biometric with two-lead features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wan-Jou; Chang, Wen-Whei

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a new method to combine ECG biometrics with data compression within a common JPEG2000 framework. We target the two-lead ECG configuration that is routinely used in long-term heart monitoring. Incorporation of compressed-domain biometric techniques enables faster person identification as it by-passes the full decompression. Experiments on public ECG databases demonstrate the validity of the proposed method for biometric identification with high accuracies on both healthy and diseased subjects.

  11. A nonlinear Bayesian filtering framework for ECG denoising.

    PubMed

    Sameni, Reza; Shamsollahi, Mohammad B; Jutten, Christian; Clifford, Gari D

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear Bayesian filtering framework is proposed for the filtering of single channel noisy electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings. The necessary dynamic models of the ECG are based on a modified nonlinear dynamic model, previously suggested for the generation of a highly realistic synthetic ECG. A modified version of this model is used in several Bayesian filters, including the Extended Kalman Filter, Extended Kalman Smoother, and Unscented Kalman Filter. An automatic parameter selection method is also introduced, to facilitate the adaptation of the model parameters to a vast variety of ECGs. This approach is evaluated on several normal ECGs, by artificially adding white and colored Gaussian noises to visually inspected clean ECG recordings, and studying the SNR and morphology of the filter outputs. The results of the study demonstrate superior results compared with conventional ECG denoising approaches such as bandpass filtering, adaptive filtering, and wavelet denoising, over a wide range of ECG SNRs. The method is also successfully evaluated on real nonstationary muscle artifact. This method may therefore serve as an effective framework for the model-based filtering of noisy ECG recordings.

  12. Denoising of ECG signal during spaceflight using singular value decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuo; Wang, Li

    2009-12-01

    The Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method is introduced to denoise the ECG signal during spaceflight. The theory base of SVD method is given briefly. The denoising process of the strategy is presented combining a segment of real ECG signal. We improve the algorithm of calculating Singular Value Ratio (SVR) spectrum, and propose a constructive approach of analysis characteristic patterns. We reproduce the ECG signal very well and compress the noise effectively. The SVD method is proved to be suitable for denoising the ECG signal.

  13. Arrhythmia ECG Noise Reduction by Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kang-Ming

    2010-01-01

    A novel noise filtering algorithm based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is proposed to remove artifacts in electrocardiogram (ECG) traces. Three noise patterns with different power—50 Hz, EMG, and base line wander – were embedded into simulated and real ECG signals. Traditional IIR filter, Wiener filter, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and EEMD were used to compare filtering performance. Mean square error between clean and filtered ECGs was used as filtering performance indexes. Results showed that high noise reduction is the major advantage of the EEMD based filter, especially on arrhythmia ECGs. PMID:22219702

  14. 3-lead acquisition using single channel ECG device developed on AD8232 analog front end for wireless ECG application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agung, Mochammad Anugrah; Basari

    2017-02-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) devices measure electrical activity of the heart muscle to determine heart conditions. ECG signal quality is the key factor in determining the diseases of the heart. This paper presents the design of 3-lead acquistion on single channel wireless ECG device developed on AD8232 chip platform using microcontroller. To make the system different from others, monopole antenna 2.4 GHz is used in order to send and receive ECG signal. The results show that the system still can receive ECG signal up to 15 meters by line of sight (LOS) condition. The shape of ECG signals is precisely similar with the expected signal, although some delays occur between two consecutive pulses. For further step, the system will be applied with on-body antenna in order to investigate body to body communication that will give variation in connectivity from the others.

  15. A Comparison of Atrial Fibrillation Monitoring Strategies After Cryptogenic Stroke (from the Cryptogenic Stroke and Underlying AF Trial).

    PubMed

    Choe, William C; Passman, Rod S; Brachmann, Johannes; Morillo, Carlos A; Sanna, Tommaso; Bernstein, Richard A; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Rymer, Marilyn M; Beckers, Frank; Koehler, Jodi; Ziegler, Paul D

    2015-09-15

    Ischemic stroke cause remains undetermined in 30% of cases, leading to a diagnosis of cryptogenic stroke. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major cause of ischemic stroke but may go undetected with short periods of ECG monitoring. The Cryptogenic Stroke and Underlying Atrial Fibrillation trial (CRYSTAL AF) demonstrated that long-term electrocardiographic monitoring with insertable cardiac monitors (ICM) is superior to conventional follow-up in detecting AF in the population with cryptogenic stroke. We evaluated the sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of various external monitoring techniques within a cryptogenic stroke cohort. Simulated intermittent monitoring strategies were compared to continuous rhythm monitoring in 168 ICM patients of the CRYSTAL AF trial. Short-term monitoring included a single 24-hour, 48-hour, and 7-day Holter and 21-day and 30-day event recorders. Periodic monitoring consisted of quarterly monitoring through 24-hour, 48-hour, and 7-day Holters and monthly 24-hour Holters. For a single monitoring period, the sensitivity for AF diagnosis was lowest with a 24-hour Holter (1.3%) and highest with a 30-day event recorder (22.8%). The NPV ranged from 82.3% to 85.6% for all single external monitoring strategies. Quarterly monitoring with 24-hour Holters had a sensitivity of 3.1%, whereas quarterly 7-day monitors increased the sensitivity to 20.8%. The NPVs for repetitive periodic monitoring strategies were similar at 82.6% to 85.3%. Long-term continuous monitoring was superior in detecting AF compared to all intermittent monitoring strategies evaluated (p <0.001). Long-term continuous electrocardiographic monitoring with ICMs is significantly more effective than any of the simulated intermittent monitoring strategies for identifying AF in patients with previous cryptogenic stroke.

  16. A novel biometric authentication approach using ECG and EMG signals.

    PubMed

    Belgacem, Noureddine; Fournier, Régis; Nait-Ali, Amine; Bereksi-Reguig, Fethi

    2015-05-01

    Security biometrics is a secure alternative to traditional methods of identity verification of individuals, such as authentication systems based on user name and password. Recently, it has been found that the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal formed by five successive waves (P, Q, R, S and T) is unique to each individual. In fact, better than any other biometrics' measures, it delivers proof of subject's being alive as extra information which other biometrics cannot deliver. The main purpose of this work is to present a low-cost method for online acquisition and processing of ECG signals for person authentication and to study the possibility of providing additional information and retrieve personal data from an electrocardiogram signal to yield a reliable decision. This study explores the effectiveness of a novel biometric system resulting from the fusion of information and knowledge provided by ECG and EMG (Electromyogram) physiological recordings. It is shown that biometrics based on these ECG/EMG signals offers a novel way to robustly authenticate subjects. Five ECG databases (MIT-BIH, ST-T, NSR, PTB and ECG-ID) and several ECG signals collected in-house from volunteers were exploited. A palm-based ECG biometric system was developed where the signals are collected from the palm of the subject through a minimally intrusive one-lead ECG set-up. A total of 3750 ECG beats were used in this work. Feature extraction was performed on ECG signals using Fourier descriptors (spectral coefficients). Optimum-Path Forest classifier was used to calculate the degree of similarity between individuals. The obtained results from the proposed approach look promising for individuals' authentication.

  17. Smart Helmet: Wearable Multichannel ECG and EEG

    PubMed Central

    Chanwimalueang, Theerasak; Goverdovsky, Valentin; Looney, David; Sharp, David; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2016-01-01

    Modern wearable technologies have enabled continuous recording of vital signs, however, for activities such as cycling, motor-racing, or military engagement, a helmet with embedded sensors would provide maximum convenience and the opportunity to monitor simultaneously both the vital signs and the electroencephalogram (EEG). To this end, we investigate the feasibility of recording the electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration, and EEG from face-lead locations, by embedding multiple electrodes within a standard helmet. The electrode positions are at the lower jaw, mastoids, and forehead, while for validation purposes a respiration belt around the thorax and a reference ECG from the chest serve as ground truth to assess the performance. The within-helmet EEG is verified by exposing the subjects to periodic visual and auditory stimuli and screening the recordings for the steady-state evoked potentials in response to these stimuli. Cycling and walking are chosen as real-world activities to illustrate how to deal with the so-induced irregular motion artifacts, which contaminate the recordings. We also propose a multivariate R-peak detection algorithm suitable for such noisy environments. Recordings in real-world scenarios support a proof of concept of the feasibility of recording vital signs and EEG from the proposed smart helmet. PMID:27957405

  18. [Dynamics of ECG voltage in changing gravity].

    PubMed

    Saltykova, M M; At'kov, O Iu; Capderou, A; Morgun, V V; Gusakov, V A; Kheĭmets, G I; Konovalov, G A; Kondratiuk, L L; Kataev, Iu V; Voronin, L I; Kaspranskiĭ, R R; Vaida, P

    2006-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the QRS voltage response to gravity variations was made using the data about 26 normal human subjects collected in parabolic flights (CNERS-AIRBUS A300 Zero-G, n=23; IL-76MD, n=3) and during the tilt test (head-up tilt at 70 degrees for a min and head-down tilt at-15 degrees for 5 min, n=14). Both the parabolic flights and provocative tilt tests affected R-amplitude in the Z lead. During the hypergravity episodes it was observed in 95% of cases with the mean gain of 16% and maximal--56%. On transition to the horizontal position, the Rz-amplitude showed a rise in each subject (16% on the average). In microgravity, the Rz-amplitude reduced in 95% of the observations. The voltage decline averaged 18% and reached 49% at the maximum. The head-down tilt was conducive to Rz reduction in 78% of observations averaging 2%. Analysis of the ECG records under changing gravity when blood redistribution developed within few seconds not enough for serious metabolic shifts still revealed QRS deviations associated exclusively with the physical factors, i.e., alteration in tissue conduction and distance to electrodes. Our findings can stand in good stead in evaluation of the dynamics of predictive ECG parameters during long-term experiments leading to changes as in tissue conduction, so metabolism.

  19. A novel similarity comparison approach for dynamic ECG series.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong; Zhu, Xiaoqian; Ma, Shaodong; Yang, Shuqiang; Chen, Liqian

    2015-01-01

    The heart sound signal is a reflection of heart and vascular system motion. Long-term continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) contains important information which can be helpful to prevent heart failure. A single piece of a long-term ECG recording usually consists of more than one hundred thousand data points in length, making it difficult to derive hidden features that may be reflected through dynamic ECG monitoring, which is also very time-consuming to analyze. In this paper, a Dynamic Time Warping based on MapReduce (MRDTW) is proposed to make prognoses of possible lesions in patients. Through comparison of a real-time ECG of a patient with the reference sets of normal and problematic cardiac waveforms, the experimental results reveal that our approach not only retains high accuracy, but also greatly improves the efficiency of the similarity measure in dynamic ECG series.

  20. ECG Signal Analysis and Arrhythmia Detection using Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Inderbir; Rajni, Rajni; Marwaha, Anupma

    2016-12-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) is used to record the electrical activity of the heart. The ECG signal being non-stationary in nature, makes the analysis and interpretation of the signal very difficult. Hence accurate analysis of ECG signal with a powerful tool like discrete wavelet transform (DWT) becomes imperative. In this paper, ECG signal is denoised to remove the artifacts and analyzed using Wavelet Transform to detect the QRS complex and arrhythmia. This work is implemented in MATLAB software for MIT/BIH Arrhythmia database and yields the sensitivity of 99.85 %, positive predictivity of 99.92 % and detection error rate of 0.221 % with wavelet transform. It is also inferred that DWT outperforms principle component analysis technique in detection of ECG signal.

  1. A method of ECG template extraction for biometrics applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Lu, Yang; Chen, Meng; Bao, Shu-Di; Miao, Fen

    2014-01-01

    ECG has attracted widespread attention as one of the most important non-invasive physiological signals in healthcare-system related biometrics for its characteristics like ease-of-monitoring, individual uniqueness as well as important clinical value. This study proposes a method of dynamic threshold setting to extract the most stable ECG waveform as the template for the consequent ECG identification process. With the proposed method, the accuracy of ECG biometrics using the dynamic time wraping for difference measures has been significantly improved. Analysis results with the self-built electrocardiogram database show that the deployment of the proposed method was able to reduce the half total error rate of the ECG biometric system from 3.35% to 1.45%. Its average running time on the platform of android mobile terminal was around 0.06 seconds, and thus demonstrates acceptable real-time performance.

  2. Long-term invariant parameters obtained from 24-h Holter recordings: A comparison between different analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Esposti, Federico; Ferrario, Manuela; Sassi, Roberto; Signorini, Maria Gabriella

    2007-03-01

    Over the last two decades, a large number of different methods had been used to study the fractal-like behavior of the heart rate variability (HRV). In this paper some of the most used techniques were reviewed. In particular, the focus is set on those methods which characterize the long memory behavior of time series (in particular, periodogram, detrended fluctuation analysis, rescale range analysis, scaled window variance, Higuchi dimension, wavelet-transform modulus maxima, and generalized structure functions). The performances of the different techniques were tested on simulated self-similar noises (fBm and fGn) for values of α, the slope of the spectral density for very small frequency, ranging from -1 to 3 with a 0.05 step. The check was performed using the scaling relationships between the various indices. DFA and periodogram showed the smallest mean square error from the expected values in the range of interest for HRV. Building on the results obtained from these tests, the effective ability of the different methods in discriminating different populations of patients from RR series derived from Holter recordings, was assessed. To this extent, the Noltisalis database was used. It consists of a set of 30, 24-h Holter recordings collected from healthy subjects, patients suffering from congestive heart failure, and heart transplanted patients. All the methods, with the exception at most of rescale range analysis, were almost equivalent in distinguish between the three groups of patients. Finally, the scaling relationships, valid for fBm and fGn, when empirically used on HRV series, also approximately held.

  3. Sequential Total Variation Denoising for the Extraction of Fetal ECG from Single-Channel Maternal Abdominal ECG

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Jin; Lee, Boreom

    2016-01-01

    Fetal heart rate (FHR) is an important determinant of fetal health. Cardiotocography (CTG) is widely used for measuring the FHR in the clinical field. However, fetal movement and blood flow through the maternal blood vessels can critically influence Doppler ultrasound signals. Moreover, CTG is not suitable for long-term monitoring. Therefore, researchers have been developing algorithms to estimate the FHR using electrocardiograms (ECGs) from the abdomen of pregnant women. However, separating the weak fetal ECG signal from the abdominal ECG signal is a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a method for estimating the FHR using sequential total variation denoising and compare its performance with that of other single-channel fetal ECG extraction methods via simulation using the Fetal ECG Synthetic Database (FECGSYNDB). Moreover, we used real data from PhysioNet fetal ECG databases for the evaluation of the algorithm performance. The R-peak detection rate is calculated to evaluate the performance of our algorithm. Our approach could not only separate the fetal ECG signals from the abdominal ECG signals but also accurately estimate the FHR. PMID:27376296

  4. Wavelet-based low-delay ECG compression algorithm for continuous ECG transmission.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung S; Yoo, Sun K; Lee, Moon H

    2006-01-01

    The delay performance of compression algorithms is particularly important when time-critical data transmission is required. In this paper, we propose a wavelet-based electrocardiogram (ECG) compression algorithm with a low delay property for instantaneous, continuous ECG transmission suitable for telecardiology applications over a wireless network. The proposed algorithm reduces the frame size as much as possible to achieve a low delay, while maintaining reconstructed signal quality. To attain both low delay and high quality, it employs waveform partitioning, adaptive frame size adjustment, wavelet compression, flexible bit allocation, and header compression. The performances of the proposed algorithm in terms of reconstructed signal quality, processing delay, and error resilience were evaluated using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology University and Beth Israel Hospital (MIT-BIH) and Creighton University Ventricular Tachyarrhythmia (CU) databases and a code division multiple access-based simulation model with mobile channel noise.

  5. ECG manifestations in acute organophosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Paul, Uttam Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Anup Kumar

    2012-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the electrocardiographic changes in 107 patients of acute organophosphorus poisoning admitted at casuality ward of MGM Medical College, Kisanganj from June 2007 to June 2010. Electrocardiographic changes were recorded before the administration of atropine. Prolonged Q-Tc interval was the commonest ECG abnormality, found in 67 patients (62.6%), followed by sinus tachycardia in 36 patients (33.6%). Sinus bradycardia was found in 33 patients (30.8%). Elevation of ST segment was seen in 27 patients (25.2%). T wave inversion was seen in 21 patients (19.6%). First-degree heart block (P-R interval >0.20 seconds) occurred in 9 cases (8.4%). Atrial fibrillation was seen in 5 patients (4.6%). Ventricular tachycardia was seen in 6 cases (5.6%) and ventricular premature complexes in 3 patients (2.8%). Of these 6 cases of ventricular tachycardia 1 responded to intravenous lignocaine, and the other 5 developed ventricular fibrillation leading to death despite other resuscitative measures. All the electrocardiographical abnormalities returned to normal before the patients were discharged. Seventeen patients died. The cause of death was ventricular fibrillation in 5 patients and non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema in others. In conclusion it can be said that ECG should be carefully recorded and analysed in all patients of acute organophosphorus poisoning, and depending upon these changes and other clinical and biochemical parameters, the patients should immediately be shifted to well equipped ICU for better care which will reduce the mortality rate caused by these highly lethal poisons.

  6. Diagnostic Role of ECG Recording Simultaneously With EEG Testing.

    PubMed

    Kendirli, Mustafa Tansel; Aparci, Mustafa; Kendirli, Nurten; Tekeli, Hakan; Karaoglan, Mustafa; Senol, Mehmet Guney; Togrol, Erdem

    2015-07-01

    Arrhythmia is not uncommon in the etiology of syncope which mimics epilepsy. Data about the epilepsy induced vagal tonus abnormalities have being increasingly reported. So we aimed to evaluate what a neurologist may gain by a simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) recording in the patients who underwent EEG testing due to prediagnosis of epilepsy. We retrospectively evaluated and detected ECG abnormalities in 68 (18%) of 376 patients who underwent EEG testing. A minimum of 20 of minutes artifact-free recording were required for each patient. Standard 1-channel ECG was simultaneously recorded in conjunction with the EEG. In all, 28% of females and 14% of males had ECG abnormalities. Females (mean age 49 years, range 18-88 years) were older compared with the male group (mean age 28 years, range 16-83 years). Atrial fibrillation was more frequent in female group whereas bradycardia and respiratory sinus arrhythmia was higher in male group. One case had been detected a critical asystole indicating sick sinus syndrome in the female group and treated with a pacemaker implantation in the following period. Simultaneous ECG recording in conjunction with EEG testing is a clinical prerequisite to detect and to clarify the coexisting ECG and EEG abnormalities and their clinical relevance. Potentially rare lethal causes of syncope that mimic seizure or those that could cause resistance to antiepileptic therapy could effectively be distinguished by detecting ECG abnormalities coinciding with the signs and abnormalities during EEG recording.

  7. Flexible Graphene Electrodes for Prolonged Dynamic ECG Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Cunguang; Li, Ruikai; Li, Zhaopeng; Liang, Tie; Wei, Zihui; Run, Mingtao; Yan, Xiaobing; Liu, Xiuling

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a graphene-based dry flexible electrocardiography (ECG) electrode and a portable wireless ECG measurement system. First, graphene films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and graphene paper were used to construct the ECG electrode. Then, a graphene textile was synthesized for the fabrication of a wearable ECG monitoring system. The structure and the electrical properties of the graphene electrodes were evaluated using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and alternating current impedance spectroscopy. ECG signals were then collected from healthy subjects using the developed graphene electrode and portable measurement system. The results show that the graphene electrode was able to acquire the typical characteristics and features of human ECG signals with a high signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio in different states of motion. A week-long continuous wearability test showed no degradation in the ECG signal quality over time. The graphene-based flexible electrode demonstrates comfortability, good biocompatibility, and high electrophysiological detection sensitivity. The graphene electrode also combines the potential for use in long-term wearable dynamic cardiac activity monitoring systems with convenience and comfort for use in home health care of elderly and high-risk adults. PMID:27809270

  8. Statistical performance evaluation of ECG transmission using wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Shakhatreh, Walid; Gharaibeh, Khaled; Al-Zaben, Awad

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents simulation of the transmission of biomedical signals (using ECG signal as an example) over wireless networks. Investigation of the effect of channel impairments including SNR, pathloss exponent, path delay and network impairments such as packet loss probability; on the diagnosability of the received ECG signal are presented. The ECG signal is transmitted through a wireless network system composed of two communication protocols; an 802.15.4- ZigBee protocol and an 802.11b protocol. The performance of the transmission is evaluated using higher order statistics parameters such as kurtosis and Negative Entropy in addition to the common techniques such as the PRD, RMS and Cross Correlation.

  9. The 24-lead ECG display for enhanced recognition of STEMI-equivalent patterns in the 12-lead ECG.

    PubMed

    Pahlm, Ulrika; Pahlm, Olle; Wagner, Galen S

    2014-01-01

    In a patient with chest pain and suspected acute coronary syndrome, the electrocardiogram (ECG) is the only readily available diagnostic tool. It is important to maximize its usefulness to detect acute myocardial ischemia that may evolve to myocardial infarction unless the patient is treated expediently with reperfusion therapy. Since diagnostic guidelines have usually included only ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as the entity that should be diagnosed and treated urgently, a patient with coronary occlusion represented on ECG as ST depression is likely not to be considered a candidate for receiving immediate coronary angiography and coronary intervention. ECG criteria for STEMI detection require that ST elevation meet predetermined millivolt thresholds and appear in at least two spatially contiguous ECG leads. The typical ECG reader recognizes only three contiguous pairs: aVL and I; II and aVF; aVF and III. However, viewing the "orderly sequenced" 12-lead ECG display, two more contiguous pairs become obvious in the frontal plane: +I and -aVR; -aVR and +II. The 24-lead ECG is a display of the standard 12-lead ECG as both the classical positive leads and their negative (inverted) counterparts. Leads +V1, +V2, +V3, +V4, +V5, and +V6 and their inverted counterparts are used to generate a "clock-face display" for the transverse plane. Similarly, +aVL, +I, -aVR, +II, +aVF, +III in the frontal plane and their inverted counterparts are used to generate a clock-face display for the frontal plane. Optimum results, 78% sensitivity and 93% specificity, were obtained using the following 19 ECG leads: frontal plane: +aVR, -III, +aVL, +I, -aVR, +II, +aVF, +III, -aVL; transverse plane: +V1, +V2, +V3, +V4, +V5, +V6, -V1, -V2, -V3.

  10. A Differential ECG Amplifier with Single-Ended Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katchis, L.

    1972-01-01

    Three-stage amplifier is used for ECG measurements which require conversion of differential input to single-ended output. Circuit may be useful in biological telemetry for amplification of signals from specimen-implanted sensors.

  11. Human ECG signal parameters estimation during controlled physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, Marcin; Surtel, Wojciech; Dzida, Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    ECG signal parameters are commonly used indicators of human health condition. In most cases the patient should remain stationary during the examination to decrease the influence of muscle artifacts. During physical activity, the noise level increases significantly. The ECG signals were acquired during controlled physical activity on a stationary bicycle and during rest. Afterwards, the signals were processed using a method based on Pan-Tompkins algorithms to estimate their parameters and to test the method.

  12. The ISCE ECG genome pilot challenge: a 2004 progress report.

    PubMed

    Kligfield, Paul; Badilini, Fabio; Brown, Barry; Helfenbein, Erich; Kohls, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The International Society for Computerized Electrocardiography (ISCE) "genome project" began in 2000 as an open-ended discussion of ECG database needs and opportunities. Cooperation within ISCE led to a "pilot challenge" of the database concept, which called for establishment of methodology for transmission, storage, and integrated re-analysis of digitized waveforms of three different ECG manufacturers. The present report documents the early implementation of that goal.

  13. Chest conduction properties and ECG equalization.

    PubMed

    Delle Cave, G; Fabricatore, G; Nolfe, G; Petrosino, M; Pizzuti, G P

    2000-01-01

    In common practice of detecting and recording biomedical signals, it is often implicitly assumed that the propagation, through the whole circuit human body-electrodes recording devices, is frequency and voltage independent. As a consequence, clinicians are not aware that recorded signals do not correspond faithfully to the original electrical activity of organs under investigation. We have studied the transmission of electrical signals in human body at various voltages and frequencies to understand if and to which extent the most diffused stimulating and recording techniques used in medicine are affected by global body conduction properties. Our results show that, in order to obtain a more faithful detection of electrical activity produced or evoked by human organs (e.g. EGG, electromyography, etc.), it is convenient to 'equalize'' recorded signals. To this purpose, two equalization techniques are proposed, based, respectively, on a simple hardware filtering during acquisition, or FFT post-processing of the acquired signals. As an application, we have studied the transmission of electrical signal in human chest and have compared equalized high frequency ECG signals with raw (original) recordings.

  14. Variability in surface ECG morphology: signal or noise?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.; Rosenbaum, D. S.; Cohen, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Using data collected from canine models of acute myocardial ischemia, we investigated two issues of major relevance to electrocardiographic signal averaging: ECG epoch alignment, and the spectral characteristics of the beat-to-beat variability in ECG morphology. With initial digitization rates of 1 kHz, an iterative a posteriori matched filtering alignment scheme, and linear interpolation, we demonstrated that there is sufficient information in the body surface ECG to merit alignment to a precision of 0.1 msecs. Applying this technique to align QRS complexes and atrial pacing artifacts independently, we demonstrated that the conduction delay from atrial stimulus to ventricular activation may be so variable as to preclude using atrial pacing as an alignment mechanism, and that this variability in conduction time be modulated at the frequency of respiration and at a much lower frequency (0.02-0.03Hz). Using a multidimensional spectral technique, we investigated the beat-to-beat variability in ECG morphology, demonstrating that the frequency spectrum of ECG morphological variation reveals a readily discernable modulation at the frequency of respiration. In addition, this technique detects a subtle beat-to-beat alternation in surface ECG morphology which accompanies transient coronary artery occlusion. We conclude that physiologically important information may be stored in the variability in the surface electrocardiogram, and that this information is lost by conventional averaging techniques.

  15. Unveiling the Biometric Potential of Finger-Based ECG Signals

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, André; Silva, Hugo; Fred, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The ECG signal has been shown to contain relevant information for human identification. Even though results validate the potential of these signals, data acquisition methods and apparatus explored so far compromise user acceptability, requiring the acquisition of ECG at the chest. In this paper, we propose a finger-based ECG biometric system, that uses signals collected at the fingers, through a minimally intrusive 1-lead ECG setup recurring to Ag/AgCl electrodes without gel as interface with the skin. The collected signal is significantly more noisy than the ECG acquired at the chest, motivating the application of feature extraction and signal processing techniques to the problem. Time domain ECG signal processing is performed, which comprises the usual steps of filtering, peak detection, heartbeat waveform segmentation, and amplitude normalization, plus an additional step of time normalization. Through a simple minimum distance criterion between the test patterns and the enrollment database, results have revealed this to be a promising technique for biometric applications. PMID:21837235

  16. Live ECG readings using Google Glass in emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Schaer, Roger; Salamin, Fanny; Jimenez Del Toro, Oscar Alfonso; Atzori, Manfredo; Muller, Henning; Widmer, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Most sudden cardiac problems require rapid treatment to preserve life. In this regard, electrocardiograms (ECG) shown on vital parameter monitoring systems help medical staff to detect problems. In some situations, such monitoring systems may display information in a less than convenient way for medical staff. For example, vital parameters are displayed on large screens outside the field of view of a surgeon during cardiac surgery. This may lead to losing time and to mistakes when problems occur during cardiac operations. In this paper we present a novel approach to display vital parameters such as the second derivative of the ECG rhythm and heart rate close to the field of view of a surgeon using Google Glass. As a preliminary assessment, we run an experimental study to verify the possibility for medical staff to identify abnormal ECG rhythms from Google Glass. This study compares 6 ECG rhythms readings from a 13.3 inch laptop screen and from the prism of Google Glass. Seven medical residents in internal medicine participated in the study. The preliminary results show that there is no difference between identifying these 6 ECG rhythms from the laptop screen versus Google Glass. Both allow close to perfect identification of the 6 common ECG rhythms. This shows the potential of connected glasses such as Google Glass to be useful in selected medical applications.

  17. Optimal ECG Electrode Sites and Criteria for Detection of Asymptomatic Coronary Artery Disease - Update 1990. Multilead ECG Changes at Rest, with Exercise, and with Coronary Angioplasty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    AD-A248 613 OPTIMAL ECG ELECTRODE SITES AND CRITERIA CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE -UPDATE 1990 MULILEAD ECG CHANGES AT REST, WITH A EXERCISE, AND WITH...5. FUNDING NUMBERS Optimal ECG Electrode Sites and Criteria for Detection of Asymptomatic C - F33615-87-D-0609/0023 Coronary Artery Disease --Update...improve the detection of asymptomatic coronary disease . Three ECG recording systems with signal processing of 30 simultaneous leads (30SL) have been

  18. Standard-compliant real-time transmission of ECGs: harmonization of ISO/IEEE 11073-PHD and SCP-ECG.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Chiarugi, Franco; Alesanco, Alvaro; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Chronaki, Catherine E; Escayola, Javier; Martínez, Ignacio; García, José

    2009-01-01

    Ambient assisted living and integrated care in an aging society is based on the vision of the lifelong Electronic Health Record calling for HealthCare Information Systems and medical device interoperability. For medical devices this aim can be achieved by the consistent implementation of harmonized international interoperability standards. The ISO/IEEE 11073 (x73) family of standards is a reference standard for medical device interoperability. In its Personal Health Device (PHD) version several devices have been included, but an ECG device specialization is not yet available. On the other hand, the SCP-ECG standard for short-term diagnostic ECGs (EN1064) has been recently approved as an international standard ISO/IEEE 11073-91064:2009. In this paper, the relationships between a proposed x73-PHD model for an ECG device and the fields of the SCP-ECG standard are investigated. A proof-of-concept implementation of the proposed x73-PHD ECG model is also presented, identifying open issues to be addressed by standards development for the wider interoperability adoption of x73-PHD standards.

  19. An adaptive Kalman filter for ECG signal enhancement.

    PubMed

    Vullings, Rik; de Vries, Bert; Bergmans, Jan W M

    2011-04-01

    The ongoing trend of ECG monitoring techniques to become more ambulatory and less obtrusive generally comes at the expense of decreased signal quality. To enhance this quality, consecutive ECG complexes can be averaged triggered on the heartbeat, exploiting the quasi-periodicity of the ECG. However, this averaging constitutes a tradeoff between improvement of the SNR and loss of clinically relevant physiological signal dynamics. Using a bayesian framework, in this paper, a sequential averaging filter is developed that, in essence, adaptively varies the number of complexes included in the averaging based on the characteristics of the ECG signal. The filter has the form of an adaptive Kalman filter. The adaptive estimation of the process and measurement noise covariances is performed by maximizing the bayesian evidence function of the sequential ECG estimation and by exploiting the spatial correlation between several simultaneously recorded ECG signals, respectively. The noise covariance estimates thus obtained render the filter capable of ascribing more weight to newly arriving data when these data contain morphological variability, and of reducing this weight in cases of no morphological variability. The filter is evaluated by applying it to a variety of ECG signals. To gauge the relevance of the adaptive noise-covariance estimation, the performance of the filter is compared to that of a Kalman filter with fixed, (a posteriori) optimized noise covariance. This comparison demonstrates that, without using a priori knowledge on signal characteristics, the filter with adaptive noise estimation performs similar to the filter with optimized fixed noise covariance, favoring the adaptive filter in cases where no a priori information is available or where signal characteristics are expected to fluctuate.

  20. The prevalence of abnormal ECG in trained sportsmen

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, V.K.; Singh, Navreet; Bishnoi, R.S.; Chadha, D.S.; Bhardwaj, P.; Madan, H.; Dutta, R.; Ghosh, A.K.; Sengupta, S.; Perumal, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Competitive sports training causes structural and conductive system changes manifesting by various electrocardiographic alterations. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of abnormal ECG in trained Indian athletes and correlate it with the nature of sports training, that is endurance or strength training. Methods We evaluated a standard resting, lying 12 lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) in 66 actively training Indian athletes. Standard diagnostic criteria were used to define various morphological ECG abnormalities. Results 33/66 (50%) of the athletes were undertaking endurance training while the other 33 (50%) were involved in a strength-training regimen. Overall 54/66 (81%) sportsmen had significant ECG changes. 68% of these changes were considered as normal training related features, while the remaining 32% were considered abnormal. There were seven common training related ECG changes–Sinus Bradycardia (21%), Sinus Arrhythmia (16%), 1st degree Atrioventricular Heart Block (6%), Type 1 2nd-degree Atrioventicular Heart Block (3%), Incomplete Right bundle branch block (RBBB) (24%), Early Repolarization (42%), Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) (14%); while three abnormal ECG changes--T-wave inversion (13%), RBBB(4%), Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) with strain (29%) were noted. Early repolarization (commonest change), sinus bradycardia, and incomplete RBBB were the commoner features noticed, with a significantly higher presence in the endurance trained athletes. Conclusion A high proportion of athletes undergoing competitive level sports training are likely to have abnormal ECG recordings. Majority of these are benign, and related to the physiological adaptation to the extreme levels of exertion. These changes are commoner during endurance training (running) than strength training (weightlifting). PMID:26663958

  1. A mobile phone-based ECG monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Junichi; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sada, Kouji; Hamada, Shingo; Hahn, Allen W; Caldwell, W Morton

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a telemedicine system for monitoring a patient's electrocardiogram during daily activities. The recording system consists of three ECG chest electrodes, a variable gain instrumentation amplifier, a low power 8-bit single-chip microcomputer, a 256 KB EEPROM and a 2.4 GHz low transmitting power mobile phone (PHS). The complete system is mounted on a single, lightweight, chest electrode array. When a heart discomfort is felt, the patient pushes the data transmission switch on the recording system. The system sends the recorded ECG waveforms of the two prior minutes and ECG waveforms of the two minutes after the switch is pressed, directly in the hospital server computer via the PHS. The server computer sends the data to the physician on call. The data is displayed on the doctor's Java mobile phone LCD (Liquid Crystal Display), so he or she can monitor the ECG regardless of their location. The developed ECG monitoring system is not only applicable to at-home patients, but should also be useful for monitoring hospital patients.

  2. A controlled study of a new ECG electrode system.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, L T; Roitman, D I; Kansal, S

    1978-07-01

    A newly marketed resting ECG electrode system was compared with conventional metal suction and plate electrodes, electrode cream and patient cable. Two experienced technicians were given special training in the use of the new electrode, electrolyte and patient cable system and alternated daily in using new and conventional equipment. Nearly equal numbers of perfect-scoring ECGs were recorded with each system, attesting to the impartiality of the technicians. A total of 1,062 ECGs were evaluated, 554 with the new system and 508 with the conventional one. ECG tracings were evaluated by electrocardiographers unaware of which system was used for each. A quantitative scoring system was used to measure the technical quality of each tracing in terms of baseline drift, powerline artifact and myographic plus miscellaneous artifacts. The new system received mean scores of 2.33, 3.08, and 2.72, respectively, while the conventional electrodes received scores of 2.56, 3.03 and 2.79. We concluded that the two types of electrodes produced ECGs of essentially equal quality.

  3. Fast multi-scale feature fusion for ECG heartbeat classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Wang, Zeyu; Fan, Jingfan; Ai, Changbin; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-12-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) is conducted to monitor the electrical activity of the heart by presenting small amplitude and duration signals; as a result, hidden information present in ECG data is difficult to determine. However, this concealed information can be used to detect abnormalities. In our study, a fast feature-fusion method of ECG heartbeat classification based on multi-linear subspace learning is proposed. The method consists of four stages. First, baseline and high frequencies are removed to segment heartbeat. Second, as an extension of wavelets, wavelet-packet decomposition is conducted to extract features. With wavelet-packet decomposition, good time and frequency resolutions can be provided simultaneously. Third, decomposed confidences are arranged as a two-way tensor, in which feature fusion is directly implemented with generalized N dimensional ICA (GND-ICA). In this method, co-relationship among different data information is considered, and disadvantages of dimensionality are prevented; this method can also be used to reduce computing compared with linear subspace-learning methods (PCA). Finally, support vector machine (SVM) is considered as a classifier in heartbeat classification. In this study, ECG records are obtained from the MIT-BIT arrhythmia database. Four main heartbeat classes are used to examine the proposed algorithm. Based on the results of five measurements, sensitivity, positive predictivity, accuracy, average accuracy, and t-test, our conclusion is that a GND-ICA-based strategy can be used to provide enhanced ECG heartbeat classification. Furthermore, large redundant features are eliminated, and classification time is reduced.

  4. Shannon's Energy Based Algorithm in ECG Signal Processing.

    PubMed

    Beyramienanlou, Hamed; Lotfivand, Nasser

    2017-01-01

    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) database is electrocardiograms (ECGs) set from healthy volunteers and patients with different heart diseases. PTB is provided for research and teaching purposes by National Metrology Institute of Germany. The analysis method of complex QRS in ECG signals for diagnosis of heart disease is extremely important. In this article, a method on Shannon energy (SE) in order to detect QRS complex in 12 leads of ECG signal is provided. At first, this algorithm computes the Shannon energy (SE) and then makes an envelope of Shannon energy (SE) by using the defined threshold. Then, the signal peaks are determined. The efficiency of the algorithm is tested on 70 cases. Of all 12 standard leads, ECG signals include 840 leads of the PTB Diagnostic ECG Database (PTBDB). The algorithm shows that the Shannon energy (SE) sensitivity is equal to 99.924%, the detection error rate (DER) is equal to 0.155%, Positive Predictivity (+P) is equal to 99.922%, and Classification Accuracy (Acc) is equal to 99.846%.

  5. Exploiting prior knowledge in compressed sensing wireless ECG systems.

    PubMed

    Polanía, Luisa F; Carrillo, Rafael E; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barner, Kenneth E

    2015-03-01

    Recent results in telecardiology show that compressed sensing (CS) is a promising tool to lower energy consumption in wireless body area networks for electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. However, the performance of current CS-based algorithms, in terms of compression rate and reconstruction quality of the ECG, still falls short of the performance attained by state-of-the-art wavelet-based algorithms. In this paper, we propose to exploit the structure of the wavelet representation of the ECG signal to boost the performance of CS-based methods for compression and reconstruction of ECG signals. More precisely, we incorporate prior information about the wavelet dependencies across scales into the reconstruction algorithms and exploit the high fraction of common support of the wavelet coefficients of consecutive ECG segments. Experimental results utilizing the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database show that significant performance gains, in terms of compression rate and reconstruction quality, can be obtained by the proposed algorithms compared to current CS-based methods.

  6. Shannon's Energy Based Algorithm in ECG Signal Processing

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) database is electrocardiograms (ECGs) set from healthy volunteers and patients with different heart diseases. PTB is provided for research and teaching purposes by National Metrology Institute of Germany. The analysis method of complex QRS in ECG signals for diagnosis of heart disease is extremely important. In this article, a method on Shannon energy (SE) in order to detect QRS complex in 12 leads of ECG signal is provided. At first, this algorithm computes the Shannon energy (SE) and then makes an envelope of Shannon energy (SE) by using the defined threshold. Then, the signal peaks are determined. The efficiency of the algorithm is tested on 70 cases. Of all 12 standard leads, ECG signals include 840 leads of the PTB Diagnostic ECG Database (PTBDB). The algorithm shows that the Shannon energy (SE) sensitivity is equal to 99.924%, the detection error rate (DER) is equal to 0.155%, Positive Predictivity (+P) is equal to 99.922%, and Classification Accuracy (Acc) is equal to 99.846%. PMID:28197213

  7. Acute “Pseudoischemic” ECG Abnormalities after Right Pneumonectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dimic-Janjic, Sanja; Stevic, Ruza; Milenkovic, Branislava; Djukanovic, Verica

    2017-01-01

    New onset of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities can occur after lung surgery due to the changes in the position of structures and organs in the chest cavity. The most common heart rhythm disorder is atrial fibrillation. So-called “pseudoischemic” ECG changes that mimic classic ECG signs of acute myocardial ischemia are also often noticed. We report the case of a 68-year-old male, with no prior cardiovascular disease, who underwent extensive surgical resection for lung cancer. On a second postoperative day, clinical and electrocardiographic signs of acute myocardial ischemia occurred. According to clinical course, diagnostic procedures, and therapeutic response, we excluded acute coronary syndrome. We concluded that physical lesion of the pericardium, caused by extended pneumonectomy with resection of the pericardium, provoked the symptoms and ECG signs that mimic acute coronary syndrome. Our final diagnosis was postpericardiotomy syndrome after extended pneumonectomy and further treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was recommended. It is necessary to consider possibility that nature of ECG changes after extended pneumonectomy could be “pseudoischemic.” PMID:28197356

  8. A system for intelligent home care ECG upload and priorisation.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Lorenzo T; Tarita, Eugeniu; Zywietz, Tosja K; Lueth, Tim C

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, a system for internet based, automated home care ECG upload and priorisation is presented for the first time. It unifies the advantages of existing telemonitoring ECG systems adding functionalities such as automated priorisation and usability for home care. Chronic cardiac diseases are a big group in the geriatric field. Most of them can be easily diagnosed with help of an electrocardiogram. A frequent or long-term ECG analysis allows early diagnosis of e.g. a cardiac infarction. Nevertheless, patients often aren't willing to visit a doctor for prophylactic purposes. Possible solutions of this problem are home care devices, which are used to investigate patients at home without the presence of a doctor on site. As the diffusion of such systems leads to a huge amount of data which has to be managed and evaluated, the presented approach focuses on an easy to use software for ECG upload from home, a web based management application and an algorithm for ECG preanalysis and priorisation.

  9. PIC microcontroller-based RF wireless ECG monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Oweis, R J; Barhoum, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a radio-telemetry system that provides the possibility of ECG signal transmission from a patient detection circuit via an RF data link. A PC then receives the signal through the National Instrument data acquisition card (NIDAQ). The PC is equipped with software allowing the received ECG signals to be saved, analysed, and sent by email to another part of the world. The proposed telemetry system consists of a patient unit and a PC unit. The amplified and filtered ECG signal is sampled 360 times per second, and the A/D conversion is performed by a PIC16f877 microcontroller. The major contribution of the final proposed system is that it detects, processes and sends patients ECG data over a wireless RF link to a maximum distance of 200 m. Transmitted ECG data with different numbers of samples were received, decoded by means of another PIC microcontroller, and displayed using MATLAB program. The designed software is presented in a graphical user interface utility.

  10. Sun Blasts 6 CMEs in 24 Hour Period

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie from the chronograph on board the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), shows the sun's atmosphere – the corona – from September 17 to September 20. The sun let loose with at ...

  11. Rethinking the Youth Weight Debate: The 24 Hour Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Graham; Biggs, Sarah; Agley, Daniel; Dollman, James; Lushington, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Approaches to weight management have traditionally focussed on caloric intake versus caloric expenditure. Despite a range of interventions based on these approaches, the proportion of overweight children and adolescents continues to rise. There are increasing indications that other factors, such as sleep duration, may be at play. This commentary…

  12. Newborn Infants' Memory for Speech Sounds Retained over 24 Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Irina U.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Neonates who were exposed to the same or different words on two consecutive days habituated to the sound on day one and recovered head turning on day two. Infants who heard the same word again on day two responded less well than infants exposed to the word for the first time on day two. (BC)

  13. Knighthelm 24-hour HMD: from development to production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, John; Cameron, Alexander A.

    2001-08-01

    The BAE SYSTEMS Knighthelm HMD is a unique two-part helmet design, using a form fitted inner helmet with an outer display module. It has been refined and enhanced, as part of an extensive development program, for the German Army Tiger helicopter, and is optimized for the attack helicopter application. The design optically mixes the output of an Image Intensifier Tube with Cathode Ray Tube imagery. This provides a flexible display of symbology overlaid on NVG imagery or symbology overlaid on FLIR video viewed as a collimated image in the see through combiner eyepiece in front of the users eyes.

  14. Perceptually relevant remapping of human somatotopy in 24 hours

    PubMed Central

    Kolasinski, James; Makin, Tamar R; Logan, John P; Jbabdi, Saad; Clare, Stuart; Stagg, Charlotte J; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Experience-dependent reorganisation of functional maps in the cerebral cortex is well described in the primary sensory cortices. However, there is relatively little evidence for such cortical reorganisation over the short-term. Using human somatosensory cortex as a model, we investigated the effects of a 24 hr gluing manipulation in which the right index and right middle fingers (digits 2 and 3) were adjoined with surgical glue. Somatotopic representations, assessed with two 7 tesla fMRI protocols, revealed rapid off-target reorganisation in the non-manipulated fingers following gluing, with the representation of the ring finger (digit 4) shifted towards the little finger (digit 5) and away from the middle finger (digit 3). These shifts were also evident in two behavioural tasks conducted in an independent cohort, showing reduced sensitivity for discriminating the temporal order of stimuli to the ring and little fingers, and increased substitution errors across this pair on a speeded reaction time task. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17280.001 PMID:28035900

  15. A 24-hour remote surveillance system for terrestrial wildlife studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W.; Ryman, W.E.; Kepler, C.B.; Hardy, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The configuration, components, specifications and costs of a state-of-the-art closed-circuit television system with wide application for wildlife research and management are described. The principal system components consist of color CCTV camera with zoom lens, pan/tilt system, infrared illuminator, heavy duty tripod, coaxial cable, coaxitron system, half-duplex equalizing video/control amplifier, timelapse video cassette recorder, color video monitor, VHS video cassettes, portable generator, fuel tank and power cable. This system was developed and used in a study of Mississippi sandhiIl Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) behaviors during incubation, hatching and fledging. The main advantages of the system are minimal downtime where a complete record of every event, its time of occurrence and duration, are permanently recorded and can be replayed as many times as necessary thereafter to retrieve the data. The system is particularly applicable for studies of behavior and predation, for counting individuals, or recording difficult to observe activities. The system can be run continuously for several weeks by two people, reducing personnel costs. This paper is intended to provide biologists who have litte knowledge of electronics with a system that might be useful to their specific needs. The disadvantages of this system are the initial costs (about $9800 basic, 1990-1991 U.S. dollars) and the time required to playback video cassette tapes for data retrieval, but the playback can be sped up when litte or no activity of interest is taking place. In our study, the positive aspects of the system far outweighed the negative.

  16. A new mobile phone-based ECG monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Junichi; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Ogawa, Hiromichi Maki Hidekuni; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sada, Kouji; Hamada, Shingo; Hahn, Allen W; Caldwell, W Morton

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a system for monitoring a patient's electrocardiogram (ECG) and movement during daily activities. The complete system is mounted on chest electrodes and continuously samples the ECG and three axis accelerations. When the patient feels a heart discomfort, he or she pushes the data transmission switch on the recording system and the system sends the recorded ECG waveforms and three axis accelerations of the two prior minutes, and for two minutes after the switch is pressed. The data goes directly to a hospital server computer via a 2.4 GHz low power mobile phone. These data are stored on a server computer and downloaded to the physician's Java mobile phone. The physician can display the data on the phone's liquid crystal display.

  17. Chaos control applied to cardiac rhythms represented by ECG signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borem Ferreira, Bianca; Amorim Savi, Marcelo; Souza de Paula, Aline

    2014-10-01

    The control of irregular or chaotic heartbeats is a key issue in cardiology. In this regard, chaos control techniques represent a good alternative since they suggest treatments different from those traditionally used. This paper deals with the application of the extended time-delayed feedback control method to stabilize pathological chaotic heart rhythms. Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are employed to represent the cardiovascular behavior. A mathematical model is employed to generate ECG signals using three modified Van der Pol oscillators connected with time delay couplings. This model provides results that qualitatively capture the general behavior of the heart. Controlled ECG signals show the ability of the strategy either to control or to suppress the chaotic heart dynamics generating less-critical behaviors.

  18. Non-contact ECG sensing employing gradiometer electrodes.

    PubMed

    Peng, GuoChen; Bocko, Mark F

    2013-01-01

    Noncontact, capacitive electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements are complicated by motion artifacts from the relative movement between the ECG electrodes and the subject. To compensate for such motion we propose to employ first and second order gradiometer electrode designs. A MATLAB-based simulation tool to enable assessment of different electrode configurations and placements on human subjects has been developed to guide the refinement of electrode designs. Experimental measurements of the sensitivity, motion artifact cancellation, and common mode rejection for various prototype designs were conducted with human subjects. Second order gradiometer electrode designs appear to give the best performance as measured by signal to noise plus distortion ratio. Finally, both gradiometer designs were compared with standard ECG recording methods and showed less than 1% beat detection mismatch employing an open source beat detection algorithm.

  19. ECG Interpretation Using the CRISP Method: A Guide for Nurses.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Denise; Wadlund, Diana L

    2015-10-01

    Nurses often struggle with identifying electrocardiogram (ECG) rhythms, but rapidly interpreting these rhythms is an essential skill that every nurse should master, especially in the perioperative setting. The CRISP (Cardiac Rhythm Identification for Simple People) method is an algorithm designed to help nurses rapidly interpret ECGs. Key aspects of assisting patients with suspected cardiac issues include the nursing assessment, correct three-lead ECG placement, and calculation of the heart rate. Then the perioperative nurse can use the steps of the CRISP method to identify nursing actions related to specific arrhythmias, including determining whether QRS complexes are present, P waves are present, and QRS complexes are wide or narrow or whether there are more P waves than QRS complexes.

  20. Design intelligent wheelchair with ECG measurement and wireless transmission function.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsi-Chiang; Wang, Yi-Ming; Chang, Huai-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of aging populations has produced widespread health awareness and magnified the need for improved medical quality and technologies. Statistics show that ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death for older people and people with reduced mobility; therefore, wheelchairs have become their primary means of transport. Hence, an arrhythmia-detecting smart wheelchair was proposed in this study to provide real-time electrocardiography (ECG)-monitoring to patients with heart disease and reduced mobility. A self-developed, handheld ECG-sensing instrument was integrated with a wheelchair and a lab-written, arrhythmia-detecting program. The measured ECG data were transmitted through a Wi-Fi module and analyzed and diagnosed using the human-machine interface.

  1. High Resolution 12-lead Electrocardiograms of On-Duty Professional Firefighters: A Pilot Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Mary G.; Thevenin, Bernard J.-M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular deaths among on-duty firefighters are high; double that of police officers and quadruple that of first responders. The aim of this pilot study was to establish the feasibility of obtaining high resolutions ECGs of on-duty firefighters useful for detecting ECG predictors for cardiac events. Methods Twenty-eight professional firefighters (age, 46 ± 6 years) wore a 12-lead ECG Holter for 24 hours (16 hours while on-duty and 8 hours post-duty). All activities including fire and medical calls were monitored. Results On average the recordings were 92% analyzable. All were in sinus with a heart rate of 80 ±11bpm (35–188 range). The average rr50 over the 24-hour Holter study was 6.2 ±6% (range: 1–23%) and rms-SD was 81 ± 55 (range: 24–209). Using the QRS/Tsimple formula, the average spatial QRS-T angle was 104 ±17 degrees (range 78–132 degrees). Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia occurred irrespectively of activity or time of day in three (11%) firefighters, which was significantly higher than in comparable normal populations (p<0.05). Conclusions This preliminary work demonstrates that it is feasible to obtain high resolution ECGs during firefighting activities and further points to the high prevalence of arrhythmias among firefighters. The strategy of continuous field monitoring of firefighters could provide new insight into the association between their specific professional lifestyle and high cardiac risks. PMID:21206348

  2. The ECG vertigo in diabetes and cardiac autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Voulgari, Christina; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2011-01-01

    The importance of diabetes in the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases cannot be overemphasized. About one third of acute myocardial infarction patients have diabetes, and its prevalence is steadily increasing. The decrease in cardiac mortality in people with diabetes is lagging behind that of the general population. Cardiovascular disease is a broad term which includes any condition causing pathological changes in blood vessels, cardiac muscle or valves, and cardiac rhythm. The ECG offers a quick, noninvasive clinical and research screen for the early detection of cardiovascular disease in diabetes. In this paper, the clinical and research value of the ECG is readdressed in diabetes and in the presence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy.

  3. Noninvasive fetal ECG estimation using adaptive comb filter.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng; Xueyun, Wei; Jian jian, Zhong; Hongxing, Liu

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a robust and simple algorithm for fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) estimation from abdominal signal using adaptive comb filter (ACF). The ACF can adjust itself to the temporal variations in fundamental frequency, which makes it qualified for the estimation of quasi-periodic component from physiologic signal, such as ECG. The validity and performance of the described method are confirmed through experiments on real fetal ECG data. A comparison with the well-known independent component analysis (ICA) method has also been presented.

  4. A World Wide Web accessible multi-species ECG database.

    PubMed

    Hammann, H P; Suedmeyer, W K; Hahn, A W

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a system for remotely accessible secure electronic storage of electrocardiographic (ECG) and other associated data. It allows entry of data from any authorized remote user and is specifically built to accommodate the ECGs of multiple species. The present system is implemented on a Sun Sparc Solaris 2.5 platform using Oracle 7.3.2, and the Oracle 7.3.2 Web server. It may be easily ported to any other UNIX or Windows NT platform. No client is needed other than an Internet Protocol connected computer using a web browser such as Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer.

  5. The impact of fertilization on the chicken egg yolk plasma and granule proteome 24 hours post-lay at room temperature: capitalizing on high-pH/low-pH reverse phase chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass tag (TMT) technology.

    PubMed

    Padliya, Neerav D; Qian, Meiqian; Mimi Roy, Sushmita; Chu, Patrick; Zheng, Haiyan; Tess, Alex; Dariani, Maghsoud; Hariri, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Chicken egg yolk is a rich source of nutrients providing high quality proteins, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids and antioxidants. Chicken egg yolk, recovered from whole egg within 24 hours post-lay has been utilized as a starting material in the preparation of a dietary supplement that has been demonstrated to lead to gains in muscle mass in a human clinical study. Further, an oil derived from chicken egg yolk has been utilized as a topical agent to treat third degree burn injury. The molecular changes that take place in fertilized, chicken egg yolk during the first 24 hours post-lay are not well understood. By studying how the protein composition of egg yolk varies with fertility status, one can utilize this knowledge to develop egg yolk-based products that have been optimized for specific applications. In this study, a direct quantitative comparison was made between the proteome of fertilized chicken egg yolk and the proteome of unfertilized chicken egg yolk, both maintained at 20 °C and analyzed within 24 hours post-lay. Egg yolk proteins from each fertility state were digested with trypsin, labeled with distinct chemical labels (tandem mass tag reagents) and then combined in a 1 : 1 ratio. A TMT-labeled tryptic digest derived from chicken egg yolk proteins (fertilized and unfertilized) was separated using high-pH/low-pH reverse-phase chromatography and analyzed using mass spectrometry. 225 protein identifications were made from this TMT-labeled tryptic digest based on a minimum of 2 unique peptides observed per protein. 9 proteins increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk and 9 proteins decreased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk. Some proteins that increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk play an important role in angiogenesis (pleiotrophin, histidine rich glycoprotein) and defense against pathogens (mannose-binding lectin, β-defensin 11, serum amyloid P-component, ovostatin

  6. Evaluation of cardiac emboli source

    PubMed Central

    Michels, M.; Meijboom, F.J.; ten Cate, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Background Evaluating the source of cardiac embolism is one of the most frequent reasons for cardiac consultation. Methods In 2003, 99 patients were referred for the evaluation of the source of cardiac emboli. Evaluation included history, physical examination, ECG, transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) with contrast and 24-hour Holter electrocardiography. Results Altogether, 58 men and 41 women were studied. In 32 patients a possible source of the cardiac emboli was found. Two patients were in atrial fibrillation. Of the patients, 16 had a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and six patients a PFO and atrial septum aneurysm (ASA). Two patients had a thrombus in the left atrial appendage and 14 had severe atherosclerosis in the aortic arch. In eight patients we found two possible cardiac sources of embolism. 24-hour Holter recording did not detect any emboligenic arrhythmias. Conclusion A possible cardiac source of embolism was found in 32% of the patients referred. TOE is the ideal tool to visualise the interatrial septum, left atrial appendage and aortic arch. We advise performing a TOE with contrast in young stroke patients and in older patients with a stroke likely to be caused by an embolism of cardiac origin. 24-hour Holter recording did not detect any emboligenic arrhythmias and should only be done in selected cases. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:25696441

  7. A Novel Automatic Detection System for ECG Arrhythmias Using Maximum Margin Clustering with Immune Evolutionary Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bohui; Ding, Yongsheng; Hao, Kuangrong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel maximum margin clustering method with immune evolution (IEMMC) for automatic diagnosis of electrocardiogram (ECG) arrhythmias. This diagnostic system consists of signal processing, feature extraction, and the IEMMC algorithm for clustering of ECG arrhythmias. First, raw ECG signal is processed by an adaptive ECG filter based on wavelet transforms, and waveform of the ECG signal is detected; then, features are extracted from ECG signal to cluster different types of arrhythmias by the IEMMC algorithm. Three types of performance evaluation indicators are used to assess the effect of the IEMMC method for ECG arrhythmias, such as sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Compared with K-means and iterSVR algorithms, the IEMMC algorithm reflects better performance not only in clustering result but also in terms of global search ability and convergence ability, which proves its effectiveness for the detection of ECG arrhythmias. PMID:23690875

  8. ECG Identification System Using Neural Network with Global and Local Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Lee, Dachao; Chen, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a human identification system via extracted electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Two hierarchical classification structures based on global shape feature and local statistical feature is used to extract ECG signals. Global shape feature represents the outline information of ECG signals and local statistical feature extracts the…

  9. Robust and Accurate Anomaly Detection in ECG Artifacts Using Time Series Motif Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sivaraks, Haemwaan

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) anomaly detection is an important technique for detecting dissimilar heartbeats which helps identify abnormal ECGs before the diagnosis process. Currently available ECG anomaly detection methods, ranging from academic research to commercial ECG machines, still suffer from a high false alarm rate because these methods are not able to differentiate ECG artifacts from real ECG signal, especially, in ECG artifacts that are similar to ECG signals in terms of shape and/or frequency. The problem leads to high vigilance for physicians and misinterpretation risk for nonspecialists. Therefore, this work proposes a novel anomaly detection technique that is highly robust and accurate in the presence of ECG artifacts which can effectively reduce the false alarm rate. Expert knowledge from cardiologists and motif discovery technique is utilized in our design. In addition, every step of the algorithm conforms to the interpretation of cardiologists. Our method can be utilized to both single-lead ECGs and multilead ECGs. Our experiment results on real ECG datasets are interpreted and evaluated by cardiologists. Our proposed algorithm can mostly achieve 100% of accuracy on detection (AoD), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value with 0% false alarm rate. The results demonstrate that our proposed method is highly accurate and robust to artifacts, compared with competitive anomaly detection methods. PMID:25688284

  10. Robust and accurate anomaly detection in ECG artifacts using time series motif discovery.

    PubMed

    Sivaraks, Haemwaan; Ratanamahatana, Chotirat Ann

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) anomaly detection is an important technique for detecting dissimilar heartbeats which helps identify abnormal ECGs before the diagnosis process. Currently available ECG anomaly detection methods, ranging from academic research to commercial ECG machines, still suffer from a high false alarm rate because these methods are not able to differentiate ECG artifacts from real ECG signal, especially, in ECG artifacts that are similar to ECG signals in terms of shape and/or frequency. The problem leads to high vigilance for physicians and misinterpretation risk for nonspecialists. Therefore, this work proposes a novel anomaly detection technique that is highly robust and accurate in the presence of ECG artifacts which can effectively reduce the false alarm rate. Expert knowledge from cardiologists and motif discovery technique is utilized in our design. In addition, every step of the algorithm conforms to the interpretation of cardiologists. Our method can be utilized to both single-lead ECGs and multilead ECGs. Our experiment results on real ECG datasets are interpreted and evaluated by cardiologists. Our proposed algorithm can mostly achieve 100% of accuracy on detection (AoD), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value with 0% false alarm rate. The results demonstrate that our proposed method is highly accurate and robust to artifacts, compared with competitive anomaly detection methods.

  11. Accurate Interpretation of the 12-Lead ECG Electrode Placement: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khunti, Kirti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) patients require monitoring through ECGs; the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is considered to be the non-invasive gold standard. Examples of incorrect treatment because of inaccurate or poor ECG monitoring techniques have been reported in the literature. The findings that only 50% of nurses and less than…

  12. ECG Monitoring in Cardiac Rehabilitation: Is It Needed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenland, Philip; Pomilla, Paul V.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the controversial use of continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring as a safety measure in cardiac rehabilitation exercise programs. Little evidence substantiates its value for all patients during exercise. In the absence of empirical evidence documenting the worth of this expensive procedure, it is recommended for use with high-risk…

  13. ECG-based heartbeat classification for arrhythmia detection: A survey.

    PubMed

    Luz, Eduardo José da S; Schwartz, William Robson; Cámara-Chávez, Guillermo; Menotti, David

    2016-04-01

    An electrocardiogram (ECG) measures the electric activity of the heart and has been widely used for detecting heart diseases due to its simplicity and non-invasive nature. By analyzing the electrical signal of each heartbeat, i.e., the combination of action impulse waveforms produced by different specialized cardiac tissues found in the heart, it is possible to detect some of its abnormalities. In the last decades, several works were developed to produce automatic ECG-based heartbeat classification methods. In this work, we survey the current state-of-the-art methods of ECG-based automated abnormalities heartbeat classification by presenting the ECG signal preprocessing, the heartbeat segmentation techniques, the feature description methods and the learning algorithms used. In addition, we describe some of the databases used for evaluation of methods indicated by a well-known standard developed by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) and described in ANSI/AAMI EC57:1998/(R)2008 (ANSI/AAMI, 2008). Finally, we discuss limitations and drawbacks of the methods in the literature presenting concluding remarks and future challenges, and also we propose an evaluation process workflow to guide authors in future works.

  14. Measurement of ventricular function by ECG gating during atrial fibrillation

    SciTech Connect

    Bacharach, S.L.; Green, M.V.; Bonow, R.O.; Findley, S.L.; Ostrow, H.G.; Johnston, G.S.

    1981-03-01

    The assumptions necessary to perform ECG-gated cardiac studies are seemingly not valid for patients in atrial fibrillation (AF). To evaluate the effect of AF on equilibrium gated scintigraphy, beat-by-beat measurements of left-ventricular function were made on seven subjects in AF (mean heart rate 64 bpm), using a high-efficiency nonimaging detector. The parameters evaluated were ejection fraction (EF), time to end-systole (TES), peak rates of ejection and filling (PER,PFR), and their times of occurrence (TPER, TPFR). By averaging together single-beat values of EF, PER, etc., it was possible to determine the true mean values of these parameters. The single-beam mean values were compared with the corresponding parameters calculated from one ECG-gated time-activity curve (TAC) obtained by superimposing all the single-beat TACs irrespective of their length. For this population with slow heart rates, we find that the values for EF, etc., produced from ECG-gated time-activity curves, are very similar to those obtained from the single-beat data. Thus use of ECG gating at low heart rates may allow reliable estimation of average cardiac function even in subjects with AF.

  15. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  17. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970 Section 892.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic...

  19. Cardiac Electrophysiology: Normal and Ischemic Ionic Currents and the ECG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klabunde, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    Basic cardiac electrophysiology is foundational to understanding normal cardiac function in terms of rate and rhythm and initiation of cardiac muscle contraction. The primary clinical tool for assessing cardiac electrical events is the electrocardiogram (ECG), which provides global and regional information on rate, rhythm, and electrical…

  20. ECG gated NMR-CT for cardiovascular diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, J.; Ohtake, T.; Machida, K.; Iio, M.; Yoshimoto, N.; Sugimoto, T.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have been applying ECG gated NMR-CT to mainly patients with myocardial infarction (MI), and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Thirteen patients with MI, 8 with HCM and 5 without any heart diseases were studied by ECG gated NMR imaging (spin-echo technique, TR: depends on patient heart rate, TE: 35 and 70 msec.) with 0.35 T superconducting magnet. On NMR images (MRI), the authors examined the wall thickness, wall motion and T/sub 2/ relaxation time in the area of diseased myocardium. The lesions of old MI were depicted as the area of thin wall and T/sub 2/ relaxation time of those lesions were similar to the area of non-infarcted myocardium. The lesions of recent MI (up to 3.5 months from the recent attack) were shown as the same wall thickness as the non-infarcted myocardium and the area of prolonged T/sub 2/ relaxation time compared with that of non-infarcted myocardium. MRI demonstrated diffusely thick myocardium in all patients with HCM. T/sub 2/ relaxation time of the areas of HCM was almost the same as that of normal myocardium, and it's difference among each ventricular wall in patients with HCM was not statistically significant. The authors conclude that ECG gated NMR-CT offers 3-D morphological information of the heart without any contrast material nor radioisotopes. ECG gated MRI provides the useful informations to diagnose MI, especially in the differential diagnosis between old and recent MI.

  1. Mean-shape vector quantizer for ECG signal compression.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Barrera, J L; Lorenzo-Ginori, J V

    1999-01-01

    A direct waveform mean-shape vector quantization (MSVQ) is proposed here as an alternative for electrocardiographic (ECG) signal compression. In this method, the mean values for short ECG signal segments are quantized as scalars and compression of the single-lead ECG by average beat substraction and residual differencing their waveshapes coded through a vector quantizer. An entropy encoder is applied to both, mean and vector codes, to further increase compression without degrading the quality of the reconstructed signals. In this paper, the fundamentals of MSVQ are discussed, along with various parameters specifications such as duration of signal segments, the wordlength of the mean-value quantization and the size of the vector codebook. The method is assessed through percent-residual-difference measures on reconstructed signals, whereas its computational complexity is analyzed considering its real-time implementation. As a result, MSVQ has been found to be an efficient compression method, leading to high compression ratios (CR's) while maintaining a low level of waveform distortion and, consequently, preserving the main clinically interesting features of the ECG signals. CR's in excess of 39 have been achieved, yielding low data rates of about 140 bps. This compression factor makes this technique especially attractive in the area of ambulatory monitoring.

  2. Holter and Event Monitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monitors What Are... Related Topics Arrhythmia Electrocardiogram Heart Failure Heart Palpitations Sudden Cardiac Arrest Send a link to ... Angina Arrhythmia Atrial Fibrillation Clinical Trials Electrocardiogram Heart Failure Heart Palpitations Stroke Sudden Cardiac Arrest Rate This Content: ...

  3. Some regularity on how to locate electrodes for higher fECG SNRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie-Min; Huang, Xiao-Lin; Guan, Qun; Liu, Tie-Bing; Li, Ping; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Hong-Xing

    2015-03-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) recorded from the abdominal surface of a pregnant woman is a composite of maternal ECG, fetal ECG (fECG) and other noises, while only the fECG component is always needed by us. With different locations of electrode pairs on the maternal abdominal surface to measure fECGs, the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the recorded abdominal ECGs are also correspondingly different. Some regularity on how to locate electrodes to obtain higher fECG SNRs is needed practically. In this paper, 343 groups of abdominal ECG records were acquired from 78 pregnant women with different electrode pairs locating, and an appropriate extended research database is formed. Then the regularity on fECG SNRs corresponding to different electrode pairs locating was studied. Based on statistical analysis, it is shown that the fECG SNRs are significantly higher in certain locations than others. Reasonable explanation is also provided to the statistical result using the theories of the fetal cardiac electrical axis and the signal phase delay. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61271079) and the Supporting Plan Project of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BE2010720).

  4. Fetal ECG extraction by extended state Kalman filtering based on single-channel recordings.

    PubMed

    Niknazar, Mohammad; Rivet, Bertrand; Jutten, Christian

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present an extended nonlinear Bayesian filtering framework for extracting electrocardiograms (ECGs) from a single channel as encountered in the fetal ECG extraction from abdominal sensor. The recorded signals are modeled as the summation of several ECGs. Each of them is described by a nonlinear dynamic model, previously presented for the generation of a highly realistic synthetic ECG. Consequently, each ECG has a corresponding term in this model and can thus be efficiently discriminated even if the waves overlap in time. The parameter sensitivity analysis for different values of noise level, amplitude, and heart rate ratios between fetal and maternal ECGs shows its effectiveness for a large set of values of these parameters. This framework is also validated on the extractions of fetal ECG from actual abdominal recordings, as well as of actual twin magnetocardiograms.

  5. QRS complex detection in ECG signal for wearable devices.

    PubMed

    Arefin, M Riadh; Tavakolian, Kouhyar; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents QRS complex detection algorithm based on dual slope technique, which is suitable for wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) applications. For cardiac patients of different arrhythmias, ECG signals are needed to be monitored over an extensive period of time. Thus, the wearable heart monitoring system needs computationally efficient QRS detection technique with good accuracy. In this paper, a method of QRS detection based on two slopes on both sides of an R peak is presented which is computationally efficient. Based on the slopes, first, a variable measuring steepness is developed, then by introducing an adjustable R-R interval based window and adaptive thresholding techniques, depending on the number of peaks detected in such window, R peaks are detected. The algorithm was evaluated against MIT/BIH arrhythmia database and achieved 99.16% detection rate with sensitivity of 0.9935 and positive predictivity of 0.9981. The method was compared with two widely used R peaks detection algorithms.

  6. Patient ECG recording control for an automatic implantable defibrillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fountain, Glen H. (Inventor); Lee, Jr., David G. (Inventor); Kitchin, David A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An implantable automatic defibrillator includes sensors which are placed on or near the patient's heart to detect electrical signals indicative of the physiology of the heart. The signals are digitally converted and stored into a FIFO region of a RAM by operation of a direct memory access (DMA) controller. The DMA controller operates transparently with respect to the microprocessor which is part of the defibrillator. The implantable defibrillator includes a telemetry communications circuit for sending data outbound from the defibrillator to an external device (either a patient controller or a physician's console or other) and a receiver for sensing at least an externally generated patient ECG recording command signal. The patient recording command signal is generated by the hand held patient controller. Upon detection of the patient ECG recording command, DMA copies the contents of the FIFO into a specific region of the RAM.

  7. Using ordinal partition transition networks to analyze ECG data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, Christopher W.; Chobot, Jeremy M.; Freitas, Helena R.; Sprechini, Gene D.

    2016-07-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) data from patients with a variety of heart conditions are studied using ordinal pattern partition networks. The ordinal pattern partition networks are formed from the ECG time series by symbolizing the data into ordinal patterns. The ordinal patterns form the nodes of the network and edges are defined through the time ordering of the ordinal patterns in the symbolized time series. A network measure, called the mean degree, is computed from each time series-generated network. In addition, the entropy and number of non-occurring ordinal patterns (NFP) is computed for each series. The distribution of mean degrees, entropies, and NFPs for each heart condition studied is compared. A statistically significant difference between healthy patients and several groups of unhealthy patients with varying heart conditions is found for the distributions of the mean degrees, unlike for any of the distributions of the entropies or NFPs.

  8. [Changes in ECG examination of patients with trichinosis].

    PubMed

    Siwak, E; Droń, D; Pancewicz, S; Zajkowska, J; Snarska, I; Szpakowicz, T; Januszkiewicz, E

    1994-07-01

    In the years 1963-1992, 560 patients with the diagnosis of trichinosis were treated in the Department of Parasitic Diseases and Neuroinfections, including 310 women (55.3%) and 250 men (44.7%) aged from 6 to 75 years. Out of this number of patients in 59 cases (10.5%) myocardial damage was found in the course of the disease. The most frequently found changes in ECG record were ventricular repolarization disturbances (66.1%) which persisted in 18.6% of cases before discharge from the hospital. Depolarization disturbances accounted for 32.2% of cases and persisted before discharge from the hospital in 10.1% of patients. In 6.7% of patients, persistence of pathological ECG record was found during the 4th month after the hospitalization which may be an evidence of prolongation of the inflammatory process within the myocardium.

  9. Using ordinal partition transition networks to analyze ECG data.

    PubMed

    Kulp, Christopher W; Chobot, Jeremy M; Freitas, Helena R; Sprechini, Gene D

    2016-07-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) data from patients with a variety of heart conditions are studied using ordinal pattern partition networks. The ordinal pattern partition networks are formed from the ECG time series by symbolizing the data into ordinal patterns. The ordinal patterns form the nodes of the network and edges are defined through the time ordering of the ordinal patterns in the symbolized time series. A network measure, called the mean degree, is computed from each time series-generated network. In addition, the entropy and number of non-occurring ordinal patterns (NFP) is computed for each series. The distribution of mean degrees, entropies, and NFPs for each heart condition studied is compared. A statistically significant difference between healthy patients and several groups of unhealthy patients with varying heart conditions is found for the distributions of the mean degrees, unlike for any of the distributions of the entropies or NFPs.

  10. ECG contamination of EEG signals: effect on entropy.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Dhritiman; Bansal, Sonia

    2016-02-01

    Entropy™ is a proprietary algorithm which uses spectral entropy analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals to produce indices which are used as a measure of depth of hypnosis. We describe a report of electrocardiographic (ECG) contamination of EEG signals leading to fluctuating erroneous Entropy values. An explanation is provided for mechanism behind this observation by describing the spread of ECG signals in head and neck and its influence on EEG/Entropy by correlating the observation with the published Entropy algorithm. While the Entropy algorithm has been well conceived, there are still instances in which it can produce erroneous values. Such erroneous values and their cause may be identified by close scrutiny of the EEG waveform if Entropy values seem out of sync with that expected at given anaesthetic levels.

  11. [Development of a portable dynamic state ECG based on DSP].

    PubMed

    Song, Li; Meng, Qing-jian; Zhang, Guang-yu; Cao, Wei-fang

    2009-11-01

    The Portable dynamic state electrocardiogram collecting system is introduced by using TMS302VC5402, TLC320AD50C, liquid crystal display model, and so on. This dissertation describes the work principle of the system and uses the united algorithm based on wavelet to identify and locate the ECG characteristic waves. This system has as follows of advantages: big memory, low noise,high common mode rejection ratio, the low power consume,the long record time etc.

  12. Clinical disease presentation and ECG characteristics of LMNA mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Ollila, Laura; Nikus, Kjell; Holmström, Miia; Jalanko, Mikko; Jurkko, Raija; Kaartinen, Maija; Koskenvuo, Juha; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kärkkäinen, Satu; Palojoki, Eeva; Reissell, Eeva; Piirilä, Päivi; Heliö, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    Objective Mutations in the LMNA gene encoding lamins A and C of the nuclear lamina are a frequent cause of cardiomyopathy accounting for 5–8% of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Our aim was to study disease onset, presentation and progression among LMNA mutation carriers. Methods Clinical follow-up data from 27 LMNA mutation carriers and 78 patients with idiopathic DCM without an LMNA mutation were collected. In addition, ECG data were collected and analysed systematically from 20 healthy controls. Results Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed no difference in event-free survival (death, heart transplant, resuscitation and appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy included as events) between LMNA mutation carriers and DCM controls (p=0.5). LMNA mutation carriers presented with atrial fibrillation at a younger age than the DCM controls (47 vs 57 years, p=0.003). Male LMNA mutation carriers presented with clinical manifestations roughly a decade earlier than females. In close follow-up non-sustained ventricular tachycardia was detected in 78% of LMNA mutation carriers. ECG signs of septal remodelling were present in 81% of the LMNA mutation carriers, 21% of the DCM controls and none of the healthy controls giving a high sensitivity and specificity for the standard ECG in distinguishing LMNA mutation carriers from patients with DCM and healthy controls. Conclusions Male LMNA mutation carriers present clinical manifestations at a younger age than females. ECG septal remodelling appears to distinguish LMNA mutation carriers from healthy controls and patients with DCM without LMNA mutations. PMID:28123761

  13. An ECG analysis interactive training system for understanding arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Yvon; Sinteff, Jean-Paul; Siregar, Pridi; Julen, Nathalie; Hannouche, Frédéric; Rio, Stéphane; Le Beux, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The ECG remains a daily diagnostic tool for the detection of numerous cardiovascular diseases. Our goal was to use a computerized qualitative model (QM) of heart in order to build cases of simple arrhythmias dedicated to initial and more advanced medical teaching. The original QM is able to generate videograms of many cardiac disturbances. A Flash player is used to view ECG, synchronous Lewis diagram and chromatic 2D cardiac animation of a specific case. OAAT is a standardized 18 yes/no answers questionnaire which allows the learner to diagnose five main types of arrhythmias that can be compared with normal sinus rhythm (NSR) analysis. This new tool has been recently used by medical students during practical sessions. Based on medical reasoning learning on NSR video and upon trying to recognize an abnormal cardiac rhythm, all users can reach the 100% winning score since they can perform as many attempts as they like. We believe that unlimited case review with questionnaire answering, ECG and Lewis diagram replay and step-by-step visualization of the abnormal propagation of the cardiac impulse on the 2D heart videos are a highly efficient means to help students understand even complex arrhythmic mechanisms.

  14. Real-time ECG transmission via Internet for nonclinical applications.

    PubMed

    Hernández, A I; Mora, F; Villegas, G; Passariello, G; Carrault, G

    2001-09-01

    Telemedicine is producing a great impact in the monitoring of patients located in remote nonclinical environments such as homes, elder communities, gymnasiums, schools, remote military bases, ships, and the like. A number of applications, ranging from data collection, to chronic patient surveillance, and even to the control of therapeutic procedures, are being implemented in many parts of the world. As part of this growing trend, this paper discusses the problems in electrocardiogram (ECG) real-time data acquisition, transmission, and visualization over the Internet. ECG signals are transmitted in real time from a patient in a remote nonclinical environment to the specialist in a hospital or clinic using the current capabilities and availability of the Internet. A prototype system is composed of a portable data acquisition and preprocessing module connected to the computer in the remote site via its RS-232 port, a Java-based client-server platform, and software modules to handle communication protocols between data acquisition module and the patient's personal computer, and to handle client-server communication. The purpose of the system is the provision of extended monitoring for patients under drug therapy after infarction, data collection in some particular cases, remote consultation, and low-cost ECG monitoring for the elderly.

  15. Compressive sensing exploiting wavelet-domain dependencies for ECG compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polania, Luisa F.; Carrillo, Rafael E.; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barner, Kenneth E.

    2012-06-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is an emerging signal processing paradigm that enables sub-Nyquist sampling of sparse signals. Extensive previous work has exploited the sparse representation of ECG signals in compression applications. In this paper, we propose the use of wavelet domain dependencies to further reduce the number of samples in compressive sensing-based ECG compression while decreasing the computational complexity. R wave events manifest themselves as chains of large coefficients propagating across scales to form a connected subtree of the wavelet coefficient tree. We show that the incorporation of this connectedness as additional prior information into a modified version of the CoSaMP algorithm can significantly reduce the required number of samples to achieve good quality in the reconstruction. This approach also allows more control over the ECG signal reconstruction, in particular, the QRS complex, which is typically distorted when prior information is not included in the recovery. The compression algorithm was tested upon records selected from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm leads to high compression ratios associated with low distortion levels relative to state-of-the-art compression algorithms.

  16. Robust electrocardiogram (ECG) beat classification using discrete wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Fayyaz-ul-Amir Afsar; Arif, Muhammad

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents a robust technique for the classification of six types of heartbeats through an electrocardiogram (ECG). Features extracted from the QRS complex of the ECG using a wavelet transform along with the instantaneous RR-interval are used for beat classification. The wavelet transform utilized for feature extraction in this paper can also be employed for QRS delineation, leading to reduction in overall system complexity as no separate feature extraction stage would be required in the practical implementation of the system. Only 11 features are used for beat classification with the classification accuracy of approximately 99.5% through a KNN classifier. Another main advantage of this method is its robustness to noise, which is illustrated in this paper through experimental results. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) has been used for feature reduction, which reduces the number of features from 11 to 6 while retaining the high beat classification accuracy. Due to reduction in computational complexity (using six features, the time required is approximately 4 ms per beat), a simple classifier and noise robustness (at 10 dB signal-to-noise ratio, accuracy is 95%), this method offers substantial advantages over previous techniques for implementation in a practical ECG analyzer.

  17. Unsupervised feature relevance analysis applied to improve ECG heartbeat clustering.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sotelo, J L; Peluffo-Ordoñez, D; Cuesta-Frau, D; Castellanos-Domínguez, G

    2012-10-01

    The computer-assisted analysis of biomedical records has become an essential tool in clinical settings. However, current devices provide a growing amount of data that often exceeds the processing capacity of normal computers. As this amount of information rises, new demands for more efficient data extracting methods appear. This paper addresses the task of data mining in physiological records using a feature selection scheme. An unsupervised method based on relevance analysis is described. This scheme uses a least-squares optimization of the input feature matrix in a single iteration. The output of the algorithm is a feature weighting vector. The performance of the method was assessed using a heartbeat clustering test on real ECG records. The quantitative cluster validity measures yielded a correctly classified heartbeat rate of 98.69% (specificity), 85.88% (sensitivity) and 95.04% (general clustering performance), which is even higher than the performance achieved by other similar ECG clustering studies. The number of features was reduced on average from 100 to 18, and the temporal cost was a 43% lower than in previous ECG clustering schemes.

  18. Extended Kalman smoother with differential evolution technique for denoising of ECG signal.

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, D; Sahu, P K

    2016-09-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal gives a lot of information on the physiology of heart. In reality, noise from various sources interfere with the ECG signal. To get the correct information on physiology of the heart, noise cancellation of the ECG signal is required. In this paper, the effectiveness of extended Kalman smoother (EKS) with the differential evolution (DE) technique for noise cancellation of the ECG signal is investigated. DE is used as an automatic parameter selection method for the selection of ten optimized components of the ECG signal, and those are used to create the ECG signal according to the real ECG signal. These parameters are used by the EKS for the development of the state equation and also for initialization of the parameters of EKS. EKS framework is used for denoising the ECG signal from the single channel. The effectiveness of proposed noise cancellation technique has been evaluated by adding white, colored Gaussian noise and real muscle artifact noise at different SNR to some visually clean ECG signals from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The proposed noise cancellation technique of ECG signal shows better signal to noise ratio (SNR) improvement, lesser mean square error (MSE) and percent of distortion (PRD) compared to other well-known methods.

  19. Capacitive ECG system with direct access to standard leads and body surface potential mapping.

    PubMed

    Oehler, Martin; Schilling, Meinhard; Esperer, Hans Dieter

    2009-12-01

    Capacitive electrodes provide the same access to the human electrocardiogram (ECG) as galvanic electrodes, but without the need of direct electrical skin contact and even through layers of clothing. Thus, potential artifacts as a result of poor electrode contact to the skin are avoided and preparation time is significantly reduced. Our system integrates such capacitive electrodes in a 15 sensor array, which is combined with a Tablet PC. This integrated lightweight ECG system (cECG) is easy to place on the chest wall and allows for simultaneous recordings of 14 ECG channels, even if the patient is slightly dressed, e.g., with a t-shirt. In this paper, we present preliminary results on the performance of the cECG regarding the capability of recording body surface potential maps (BSPMs) and obtaining reconstructed standard ECG leads including Einthoven, Goldberger and, with some limitations, Wilson leads. All signals were measured having the subject lie in a supine position and wear a cotton shirt. Signal quality and diagnostic ECG information of the extracted leads are compared with standard ECG measurements. The results show a very close correlation between both types of ECG measurements. It is concluded that the cECG lends itself to rapid screening in clinically unstable patients.

  20. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Intrinsic Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders: Advanced Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (ASWPD), Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD), Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (N24SWD), and Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (ISWRD). An Update for 2015

    PubMed Central

    Auger, R. Robert; Burgess, Helen J.; Emens, Jonathan S.; Deriy, Ludmila V.; Thomas, Sherene M.; Sharkey, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review and meta-analyses (where appropriate) were performed and the GRADE approach was used to update the previous American Academy of Sleep Medicine Practice Parameters on the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders. Available data allowed for positive endorsement (at a second-tier degree of confidence) of strategically timed melatonin (for the treatment of DSWPD, blind adults with N24SWD, and children/ adolescents with ISWRD and comorbid neurological disorders), and light therapy with or without accompanying behavioral interventions (adults with ASWPD, children/adolescents with DSWPD, and elderly with dementia). Recommendations against the use of melatonin and discrete sleep-promoting medications are provided for demented elderly patients, at a second- and first-tier degree of confidence, respectively. No recommendations were provided for remaining treatments/ populations, due to either insufficient or absent data. Areas where further research is needed are discussed. Citation: Auger RR, Burgess HJ, Emens JS, Deriy LV, Thomas SM, Sharkey KM. Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: advanced sleep-wake phase disorder (ASWPD), delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD), non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD), and irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder (ISWRD). An update for 2015. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1199–1236. PMID:26414986

  1. Pheochromocytoma diagnosed after anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation ablation procedure: a giant in disguise.

    PubMed

    Galvão Braga, Carlos; Ribeiro, Sílvia; Martins, Juliana; Arantes, Carina; Ramos, Vítor; Primo, João; Magalhães, Sónia; Correia, Adelino

    2014-04-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare catecholamine-producing tumor, discovered incidentally in 50% of cases. We present the case of a 44-year-old male with a history of paroxysmal palpitations. Baseline ECG, transthoracic echocardiogram and ECG stress test showed no relevant alterations. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was detected on 24-hour Holter ECG. After antiarrhythmic therapy, the patient remained symptomatic, and was accordingly referred for electrophysiological study and atrial fibrillation ablation. Anticoagulation was initiated before the procedure. After ablation and still anticoagulated, he complained of hematospermia. The abdominal and pelvic imaging study showed a 10-cm left adrenal mass, predominantly cystic, compatible with pheochromocytoma, which was confirmed after biochemical tests (increased urine metanephrines and plasma catecholamines). Metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy scanning confirmed localized disease in the adrenal gland, excluding other uptake foci. Following appropriate preoperative management, surgical resection of the giant mass was performed successfully and without complications.

  2. Progressive Familial Heart Block Type I in a Korean Patient

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Kun; Jang, Jin Kun; Jang, Kyeong-Hee; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Cheong, Sang-Sig; Yoo, Sang-Yong

    2011-01-01

    A 29-year-old man was referred to the emergency department with a complaint of abdominal pain and dizziness. He had experienced two previous syncopal episodes. His family history revealed that his mother and his two uncles had received permanent pacemaker implantation. His initial heart rate was 49 beats per minute. The electrocardiography (ECG) showed atrial flutter and right bundle branch block (RBBB) with left anterior fascicular block (LAFB). On admission, 24-hour Holter showed ventricular pause up to 16 seconds during syncope. Radio frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of atrial flutter was performed. The ECG revealed bifascicular block (RBBB and LAFB) and first-degree atrioventricular block. He received a permanent pacemaker implantation. His brother's and his sister's ECGs also showed trifascicular block and the pedigree showed autosomal dominant inheritance. This patient was diagnosed with a progressive familial heart block (PFHB) type I. This would be the first report of a PFHB type I case documented in Korea. PMID:21731570

  3. Noise and baseline wandering suppression of ECG signals by morphological filter.

    PubMed

    Taouli, S A; Bereksi-Reguig, F

    2010-02-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals describe the electrical activity of the heart, and are universally by physicists in the diagnosis of cardiac pathologies. However, during the acquisition of ECGs they are often contaminated with different sources of noise, making interpretation difficult. Different techniques have been used to filter the ECG signal, in order to optimize the signal to noise ratio (S/N). In this paper, an approach based on morphological filtering is developed in order to filter the ECG. Morphological filtering is concerned with the detection of the ECG morphology, therefore allowing the suppression of noises and particularly baseline wandering. The implemented filter is evaluated using signals taken from the MIT-BIH ECG universal database. The results show that the performance of this filter is good compared with other filtering techniques.

  4. Software design of a remote real-time ECG monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chengbo; Tao, Hongyan

    2005-12-01

    Heart disease is one of the main diseases that threaten the health and lives of human beings. At present, the normal remote ECG monitoring system has the disadvantages of a short testing distance and limitation of monitoring lines. Because of accident and paroxysmal disease, ECG monitoring has extended from the hospital to the family. Therefore, remote ECG monitoring through the Internet has the actual value and significance. The principle and design method of software of the remote dynamic ECG monitor was presented and discussed. The monitoring software is programmed with Delphi software based on client-sever interactive mode. The application program of the system, which makes use of multithreading technology, is shown to perform in an excellent manner. The program includes remote link users and ECG processing, i.e. ECG data's receiving, real-time displaying, recording and replaying. The system can connect many clients simultaneously and perform real-time monitoring to patients.

  5. On the improved correlative prediction scheme for aliased electrocardiogram (ECG) data compression.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin

    2012-01-01

    An improved scheme for aliased electrocardiogram (ECG) data compression has been constructed, where the predictor exploits the correlative characteristics of adjacent QRS waveforms. The twin-R correlation prediction and lifting wavelet transform (LWT) for periodical ECG waves exhibits feasibility and high efficiency to achieve lower distortion rates with realizable compression ratio (CR); grey predictions via GM(1, 1) model have been adopted to evaluate the parametric performance for ECG data compression. Simulation results illuminate the validity of our approach.

  6. Development of a portable wireless system for bipolar concentric ECG recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prats-Boluda, G.; Ye-Lin, Y.; Bueno Barrachina, J. M.; Senent, E.; Rodriguez de Sanabria, R.; Garcia-Casado, J.

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the biggest cause of deaths worldwide. ECG monitoring is a key tool for early diagnosis of CVDs. Conventional monitors use monopolar electrodes resulting in poor spatial resolution surface recordings and requiring extensive wiring. High-spatial resolution surface electrocardiographic recordings provide valuable information for the diagnosis of a wide range of cardiac abnormalities, including infarction and arrhythmia. The aim of this work was to develop and test a wireless recording system for acquiring high spatial resolution ECG signals, based on a flexible tripolar concentric electrode (TCE) without cable wiring or external reference electrode which would make more comnfortable its use in clinical practice. For this, a portable, wireless sensor node for analogue conditioning, digitalization and transmission of a bipolar concentric ECG signal (BC-ECG) using a TCE and a Mason-likar Lead-I ECG (ML-Lead-I ECG) signal was developed. Experimental results from a total of 32 healthy volunteers showed that the ECG fiducial points in the BC-ECG signals, recorded with external and internal reference electrode, are consistent with those of simultaneous ML-Lead-I ECG. No statistically significant difference was found in either signal amplitude or morphology, regardless of the reference electrode used, being the signal-to-noise similar to that of ML-Lead-I ECG. Furthermore, it has been observed that BC-ECG signals contain information that could not available in conventional records, specially related to atria activity. The proposed wireless sensor node provides non-invasive high-local resolution ECG signals using only a TCE without additional wiring, which would have great potential in medical diagnosis of diseases such as atrial or ventricular fibrillations or arrhythmias that currently require invasive diagnostic procedures (catheterization).

  7. Brugada ECG Pattern Unmasked by IV Flecainide in an Individual with Idiopathic Fascicular Ventricular Tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Andrew R; Young, Glenn D; McGavigan, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    A 45-year old man presents with stable monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. He had previously been diagnosed with idiopathic fascicular ventricular tachycardia. Intravenous flecainide results in termination of his tachycardia but unmasks a latent type 1 Brugada ECG pattern not seen on his resting ECG. We discuss his subsequent management and the need to consider an alternative diagnosis in individuals with a Brugada type ECG pattern who present with stable monomorphic ventricular tachycardia.

  8. Wavelet-based ECG compression by bit-field preserving and running length encoding.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Siao, You-Chen; Chen, Szi-Wen; Yu, Shih-Fan

    2008-04-01

    Efficient electrocardiogram (ECG) compression can reduce the payload of real-time ECG transmission as well as reduce the amount of data storage in long-term ECG recording. In this paper an ECG compression/decompression architecture based on the bit-field preserving (BFP) and running length encoding (RLE)/decoding schemes incorporated with the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is proposed. Compared to complex and repetitive manipulations in the set partitioning in hierarchical tree (SPIHT) coding and the vector quantization (VQ), the proposed algorithm has advantages of simple manipulations and a feedforward structure that would be suitable to implement on very-large-scale integrated circuits and general microcontrollers.

  9. ECG De-noising: A comparison between EEMD-BLMS and DWT-NN algorithms.

    PubMed

    Kærgaard, Kevin; Jensen, Søren Hjøllund; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan

    2015-08-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a widely used non-invasive method to study the rhythmic activity of the heart and thereby to detect the abnormalities. However, these signals are often obscured by artifacts from various sources and minimization of these artifacts are of paramount important. This paper proposes two adaptive techniques, namely the EEMD-BLMS (Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition in conjunction with the Block Least Mean Square algorithm) and DWT-NN (Discrete Wavelet Transform followed by Neural Network) methods in minimizing the artifacts from recorded ECG signals, and compares their performance. These methods were first compared on two types of simulated noise corrupted ECG signals: Type-I (desired ECG+noise frequencies outside the ECG frequency band) and Type-II (ECG+noise frequencies both inside and outside the ECG frequency band). Subsequently, they were tested on real ECG recordings. Results clearly show that both the methods works equally well when used on Type-I signals. However, on Type-II signals the DWT-NN performed better. In the case of real ECG data, though both methods performed similar, the DWT-NN method was a slightly better in terms of minimizing the high frequency artifacts.

  10. A Low Power Linear Phase Digital FIR Filter for Wearable ECG Devices.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yong; Yu, Jianghong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a low power linear phase digital FIR filter which is a part of an ECG-on-Chip. The ECG-on-Chip can be embedded into clothing to acquire the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal and send a warning message to a mobile phone or PDA if an abnormal ECG is detected. The proposed new filter structure significantly reduces the arithmetic operations for each sample which in turn lowers the power consumption. The filter is developed based on the interpolated finite impulse filter technique and is very attractive for a low cost and low power VLSI implementation.

  11. Arrhythmia Classification Based on Multi-Domain Feature Extraction for an ECG Recognition System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongqiang; Yuan, Danyang; Wang, Youxi; Cui, Dianyin; Cao, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Automatic recognition of arrhythmias is particularly important in the diagnosis of heart diseases. This study presents an electrocardiogram (ECG) recognition system based on multi-domain feature extraction to classify ECG beats. An improved wavelet threshold method for ECG signal pre-processing is applied to remove noise interference. A novel multi-domain feature extraction method is proposed; this method employs kernel-independent component analysis in nonlinear feature extraction and uses discrete wavelet transform to extract frequency domain features. The proposed system utilises a support vector machine classifier optimized with a genetic algorithm to recognize different types of heartbeats. An ECG acquisition experimental platform, in which ECG beats are collected as ECG data for classification, is constructed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the system in ECG beat classification. The presented system, when applied to the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database, achieves a high classification accuracy of 98.8%. Experimental results based on the ECG acquisition experimental platform show that the system obtains a satisfactory classification accuracy of 97.3% and is able to classify ECG beats efficiently for the automatic identification of cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:27775596

  12. Embedding patients confidential data in ECG signal for healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Ibaida, Ayman; Khalil, Ibrahim; Al-Shammary, Dhiah

    2010-01-01

    In Wireless tele-cardiology applications, ECG signal is widely used to monitor cardiac activities of patients. Accordingly, in most e-health applications, ECG signals need to be combined with patient confidential information. Data hiding and watermarking techniques can play a crucial role in ECG wireless tele-monitoring systems by combining the confidential information with the ECG signal since digital ECG data is huge enough to act as host to carry tiny amount of additional secret data. In this paper, a new steganography technique is proposed that helps embed confidential information of patients into specific locations (called special range numbers) of digital ECG host signal that will cause minimal distortion to ECG, and at the same time, any secret information embedded is completely extractable. We show that there are 2.1475 × 10(9) possible special range numbers making it extremely difficult for intruders to identify locations of secret bits. Experiments show that percentage residual difference (PRD) of watermarked ECGs can be as low as 0.0247% and 0.0678% for normal and abnormal ECG segments (taken from MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database) respectively.

  13. A novel approach to ECG classification based upon two-layered HMMs in body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei; Zhang, Yinlong; Tan, Jindong; Li, Yang

    2014-03-27

    This paper presents a novel approach to ECG signal filtering and classification. Unlike the traditional techniques which aim at collecting and processing the ECG signals with the patient being still, lying in bed in hospitals, our proposed algorithm is intentionally designed for monitoring and classifying the patient's ECG signals in the free-living environment. The patients are equipped with wearable ambulatory devices the whole day, which facilitates the real-time heart attack detection. In ECG preprocessing, an integral-coefficient-band-stop (ICBS) filter is applied, which omits time-consuming floating-point computations. In addition, two-layered Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are applied to achieve ECG feature extraction and classification. The periodic ECG waveforms are segmented into ISO intervals, P subwave, QRS complex and T subwave respectively in the first HMM layer where expert-annotation assisted Baum-Welch algorithm is utilized in HMM modeling. Then the corresponding interval features are selected and applied to categorize the ECG into normal type or abnormal type (PVC, APC) in the second HMM layer. For verifying the effectiveness of our algorithm on abnormal signal detection, we have developed an ECG body sensor network (BSN) platform, whereby real-time ECG signals are collected, transmitted, displayed and the corresponding classification outcomes are deduced and shown on the BSN screen.

  14. A Practical and Cheap Circuit for ECG Sensing and Heart Frequency Alarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aviña-Cervantes, J. G.; González-García, A. E.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Trejo-Durán, M.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; Sánchez-Yáñez, R.; Ayala-Ramírez, V.

    2006-09-01

    A practical electronic circuit for ECG sensing, using high gain instrumentation amplifiers, a PIC microcontroller and two electrodes is presented. It allows to identify and to amplify a well-delimited ECG signal for a further wave analysis, and using a zero crossing detector a heart frequency detector is also implemented. By the moment, the conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) configurations making use of separate electrical connections to the arms and legs (bipolar limb lead 1) is exploited. This device is a practical and cheap way to monitoring ECG signal and some heart anomalies (e.g., arrhythmias, tachycardia) that can be used in a network to communicate anytime with a far health supervisor.

  15. A Study on the Optimal Positions of ECG Electrodes in a Garment for the Design of ECG-Monitoring Clothing for Male.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hakyung; Lee, Joo Hyeon

    2015-09-01

    Smart clothing is a sort of wearable device used for ubiquitous health monitoring. It provides comfort and efficiency in vital sign measurements and has been studied and developed in various types of monitoring platforms such as T-shirt and sports bra. However, despite these previous approaches, smart clothing for electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring has encountered a serious shortcoming relevant to motion artifacts caused by wearer movement. In effect, motion artifacts are one of the major problems in practical implementation of most wearable health-monitoring devices. In the ECG measurements collected by a garment, motion artifacts are usually caused by improper location of the electrode, leading to lack of contact between the electrode and skin with body motion. The aim of this study was to suggest a design for ECG-monitoring clothing contributing to reduction of motion artifacts. Based on the clothing science theory, it was assumed in this study that the stability of the electrode in a dynamic state differed depending on the electrode location in an ECG-monitoring garment. Founded on this assumption, effects of 56 electrode positions were determined by sectioning the surface of the garment into grids with 6 cm intervals in the front and back of the bodice. In order to determine the optimal locations of the ECG electrodes from the 56 positions, ECG measurements were collected from 10 participants at every electrode position in the garment while the wearer was in motion. The electrode locations indicating both an ECG measurement rate higher than 80.0 % and a large amplitude during motion were selected as the optimal electrode locations. The results of this analysis show four electrode locations with consistently higher ECG measurement rates and larger amplitudes amongst the 56 locations. These four locations were abstracted to be least affected by wearer movement in this research. Based on this result, a design of the garment-formed ECG monitoring platform

  16. Real–Time ECG Algorithms for Ambulatory Patient Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Pino, Esteban; Ohno–Machado, Lucila; Wiechmann, Eduardo; Curtis, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    Brigham & Women’s Hospital is designing a wireless monitoring system for patients in the waiting area of the Emergency Department. A real–time ECG algorithm is required to monitor and alert changes in patients that have not yet been admitted to the Emergency Room. For this purpose, three simple algorithms are compared in terms of processing time, beat detection accuracy and heart rate (HR) estimation. Varying amounts of noise were added to records from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database [1] to mimic expected waiting room conditions. Some recommendations regarding selection of an algorithm and further processing of HR series are presented. PMID:16779111

  17. Advanced ECG in 2016: is there more than just a tracing?

    PubMed

    Reichlin, Tobias; Abächerli, Roger; Twerenbold, Raphael; Kühne, Michael; Schaer, Beat; Müller, Christian; Sticherling, Christian; Osswald, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most frequently used technology in clinical cardiology. It is critical for evidence-based management of patients with most cardiovascular conditions, including patients with acute myocardial infarction, suspected chronic cardiac ischaemia, cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure and implantable cardiac devices. In contrast to many other techniques in cardiology, the ECG is simple, small, mobile, universally available and cheap, and therefore particularly attractive. Standard ECG interpretation mainly relies on direct visual assessment. The progress in biomedical computing and signal processing, and the available computational power offer fascinating new options for ECG analysis relevant to all fields of cardiology. Several digital ECG markers and advanced ECG technologies have shown promise in preliminary studies. This article reviews promising novel surface ECG technologies in three different fields. (1) For the detection of myocardial ischaemia and infarction, QRS morphology feature analysis, the analysis of high frequency QRS components (HF-QRS) and methods using vectorcardiography as well as ECG imaging are discussed. (2) For the identification and management of patients with cardiac arrhythmias, methods of advanced P-wave analysis are discussed and the concept of ECG imaging for noninvasive localisation of cardiac arrhythmias is presented. (3) For risk stratification of sudden cardiac death and the selection of patients for medical device therapy, several novel markers including an automated QRS-score for scar quantification, the QRS-T angle or the T-wave peak-to-end-interval are discussed. Despite the existing preliminary data, none of the advanced ECG markers and technologies has yet accomplished the transition into clinical practice. Further refinement of these technologies and broader validation in large unselected patient cohorts are the critical next step needed to facilitate translation of advanced ECG technologies

  18. An XML based middleware for ECG format conversion.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuchen; Vojisavljevic, Vuk; Fang, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid development of information and communication technologies, various e-health solutions have been proposed. The digitized medical images as well as the mono-dimension medical signals are two major forms of medical information that are stored and manipulated within an electronic medical environment. Though a variety of industrial and international standards such as DICOM and HL7 have been proposed, many proprietary formats are still pervasively used by many Hospital Information System (HIS) and Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) vendors. Those proprietary formats are the big hurdle to form a nationwide or even worldwide e-health network. Thus there is an imperative need to solve the medical data integration problem. Moreover, many small clinics, many hospitals in developing countries and some regional hospitals in developed countries, which have limited budget, have been shunned from embracing the latest medical information technologies due to their high costs. In this paper, we propose an XML based middleware which acts as a translation engine to seamlessly integrate clinical ECG data from a variety of proprietary data formats. Furthermore, this ECG translation engine is designed in a way that it can be integrated into an existing PACS to provide a low cost medical information integration and storage solution.

  19. A Mobile Device System for Early Warning of ECG Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Szczepański, Adam; Saeed, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid increase in computational power of mobile devices the amount of ambient intelligence-based smart environment systems has increased greatly in recent years. A proposition of such a solution is described in this paper, namely real time monitoring of an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal during everyday activities for identification of life threatening situations. The paper, being both research and review, describes previous work of the authors, current state of the art in the context of the authors' work and the proposed aforementioned system. Although parts of the solution were described in earlier publications of the authors, the whole concept is presented completely for the first time along with the prototype implementation on mobile device—a Windows 8 tablet with Modern UI. The system has three main purposes. The first goal is the detection of sudden rapid cardiac malfunctions and informing the people in the patient's surroundings, family and friends and the nearest emergency station about the deteriorating health of the monitored person. The second goal is a monitoring of ECG signals under non-clinical conditions to detect anomalies that are typically not found during diagnostic tests. The third goal is to register and analyze repeatable, long-term disturbances in the regular signal and finding their patterns. PMID:24955946

  20. Ubiquitous wireless ECG recording: a powerful tool physicians should embrace.

    PubMed

    Saxon, Leslie A

    2013-04-01

    The use of smart phones has increased dramatically and there are nearly a billion users on 3G and 4G networks worldwide. Nearly 60% of the U.S. population uses smart phones to access the internet, and smart phone sales now surpass those of desktop and laptop computers. The speed of wireless communication technology on 3G and 4G networks and the widespread adoption and use of iOS equipped smart phones (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA) provide infrastructure for the transmission of wireless biomedical data, including ECG data. These technologies provide an unprecedented opportunity for physicians to continually access data that can be used to detect issues before symptoms occur or to have definitive data when symptoms are present. The technology also greatly empowers and enables the possibility for unprecedented patient participation in their own medical education and health status as well as that of their social network. As patient advocates, physicians and particularly cardiac electrophysiologists should embrace the future and promise of wireless ECG recording, a technology solution that can truly scale across the global population.

  1. Effects of fluorocarbon propellants on respiratory flow and ECG.

    PubMed Central

    Valić, F; Skurić, Z; Bantić, Z; Rudar, M; Hećej, M

    1977-01-01

    Ten subjects were exposed to the propellants freon 11, freon 12, freon 114, to two mixtures of freon 11 and 12 and to a mixture of freon 12 and 114. The length of exposure was 15, 45 or 60 seconds. Maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEF) curves and ECG were recorded before, and intermittently up to 1 hour after, exposure. Breathing level concentrations of propellants during exposure were determined by gas chromatography. All freons induced biphasic reduction of ventilatory capacity on inhalation. The first fall occurred within a few minutes of exposure while the second was delayed 13-30 minutes after exposure. The effects of mixtures were greater than those of individual freons. The relative fall in MEF 75% was more pronounced than that in MEF 50%. No clear-cut pathological changes in ECG were found. Nevertheless, most subjects developed variations in heart rate exceeding those noted before exposure. In a few cases inversion of the T wave, and in one case atrioventricular block, were observed. PMID:871444

  2. Application of Lead Field Theory and Computerized Thorax Modeling for the ECG Inverse Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Takano, P. Laarne, J. Malmivuo Ragnar Granit Institute, Tampere University of Technology, Finland Abstract – The ECG inverse problem is a...Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es) Ragnar Granit Institute, Tampere University of Technology, Finland Performing Organization Report Number...computational load for calculating ECG inverse solutions. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work has been kindly supported by The Ragnar Granit Foundation, The

  3. Effects of electrocardiography contamination and comparison of ECG removal methods on upper trapezius electromyography recordings.

    PubMed

    Marker, Ryan J; Maluf, Katrina S

    2014-12-01

    Electromyography (EMG) recordings from the trapezius are often contaminated by the electrocardiography (ECG) signal, making it difficult to distinguish low-level muscle activity from muscular rest. This study investigates the influence of ECG contamination on EMG amplitude and frequency estimations in the upper trapezius during muscular rest and low-level contractions. A new method of ECG contamination removal, filtered template subtraction (FTS), is described and compared to 30 Hz high-pass filter (HPF) and averaged template subtraction (ATS) methods. FTS creates a unique template of each ECG artifact using a low-pass filtered copy of the contaminated signal, which is subtracted from contaminated periods in the original signal. ECG contamination results in an over-estimation of EMG amplitude during rest in the upper trapezius, with negligible effects on amplitude and frequency estimations during low-intensity isometric contractions. FTS and HPF successfully removed ECG contamination from periods of muscular rest, yet introduced errors during muscle contraction. Conversely, ATS failed to fully remove ECG contamination during muscular rest, yet did not introduce errors during muscle contraction. The relative advantages and disadvantages of different ECG contamination removal methods should be considered in the context of the specific motor tasks that require analysis.

  4. Interactive Videoconference Supported Teaching in Undergraduate Nursing: A Case Study for ECG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikkan, Ufuk; Senuzun, Fisun; Sari, Dilek; Sahin, Yasar Guneri

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how interactive videoconference can benefit the Electrocardiography (ECG) skills of undergraduate nursing students. We have implemented a learning system that interactively transfers the visual and practical aspects of ECG from a nursing skills lab into a classroom where the theoretical part of the course is taught. The…

  5. Anomaly Detection using Multi-channel FLAC for Supporting Diagnosis of ECG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jiaxing; Kobayashi, Takumi; Murakawa, Masahiro; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Otsu, Nobuyuki

    In this paper, we propose an approach for abnormality detection in multi-channel ECG signals. This system serves as front end to detect the irregular sections in ECG signals, where symptoms may be observed. Thereby, the doctor can focus on only the detected suspected symptom sections, ignoring the disease-free parts. Hence the workload of the inspection by the doctors is significantly reduced and the diagnosis efficiency can be sharply improved. For extracting the predominant characteristics of multi-channel ECG signals, we propose multi-channel Fourier local auto-correlations (m-FLAC) features on multi-channel complex spectrograms. The method characterizes the amplitude and phase information as well as temporal dynamics of the multi-channel ECG signal. At the anomaly detection stage, we employ complex subspace method for statistically modeling the normal (healthy) ECG patterns as in one-class learning. Then, we investigate the input ECG signals by measuring its deviation distance to the trained subspace. The ECG sections with disordered spectral distributions can be effectively discerned based on such distance metric. To validate the proposed approach, we conducted experiments on ECG dataset. The experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach including promising performance and high efficiency, compared to conventional methods.

  6. Interoperability in digital electrocardiography: harmonization of ISO/IEEE x73-PHD and SCP-ECG.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Chiarugi, Franco; Alesanco, Alvaro; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Serrano, Luis; Chronaki, Catherine E; Escayola, Javier; Martínez, Ignacio; García, José

    2010-11-01

    The ISO/IEEE 11073 (x73) family of standards is a reference frame for medical device interoperability. A draft for an ECG device specialization (ISO/IEEE 11073-10406-d02) has already been presented to the Personal Health Device (PHD) Working Group, and the Standard Communications Protocol for Computer-Assisted ElectroCardioGraphy (SCP-ECG) Standard for short-term diagnostic ECGs (EN1064:2005+A1:2007) has recently been approved as part of the x73 family (ISO 11073-91064:2009). These factors suggest the coordinated use of these two standards in foreseeable telecardiology environments, and hence the need to harmonize them. Such harmonization is the subject of this paper. Thus, a mapping of the mandatory attributes defined in the second draft of the ISO/IEEE 11073-10406-d02 and the minimum SCP-ECG fields is presented, and various other capabilities of the SCP-ECG Standard (such as the messaging part) are also analyzed from an x73-PHD point of view. As a result, this paper addresses and analyzes the implications of some inconsistencies in the coordinated use of these two standards. Finally, a proof-of-concept implementation of the draft x73-PHD ECG device specialization is presented, along with the conversion from x73-PHD to SCP-ECG. This paper, therefore, provides recommendations for future implementations of telecardiology systems that are compliant with both x73-PHD and SCP-ECG.

  7. Simple electrocardiogram (ECG) signal analyzer for homecare system among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liuh-Chii; Yeh, Yun-Chi; Ho, Kuei-Jung

    2015-09-10

    This study presents a simple electrocardiogram (ECG) signal analyzer for homecare system among the elderly. It can transmit ECG signals of patient around his/her house through Bluetooth to computers in house. ECG signals are analyzed by the computer. If abnormal case of heartbeat is found, the emergency call is automatically dialed. Meanwhile, the determined heartbeat case of ECG signals will be forwarded to patient's MD through internet. Therefore, the patient can do whatever he/she wants around his/her house with our proposed simple cardiac arrhythmias signal analyzer. The proposed consists of five major processing stages: (i) preprocessing stage for enlarging ECG signals' amplitude and eliminating noises; (ii) ECG signal transmitter/receiver stage, ECG signals are transmitted through Bluetooth to the signal receiver in patient's house; (iii) QRS extraction stage for detecting QRS waveform using the Difference Operation Method (DOM) method; (iv) qualitative features stage for qualitative feature selection on ECG signals; and (v) classification stage for determining patient's heartbeat cases using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method. In the experiment, the total classification accuracy (TCA) was approximately 93.19% in average.

  8. Simple electrocardiogram (ECG) signal analyzer for homecare system among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liuh-Chii; Yeh, Yun-Chi; Ho, Kuei-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a simple electrocardiogram (ECG) signal analyzer for homecare system among the elderly. It can transmit ECG signals of patient around his/her house through Bluetooth to computers in house. ECG signals are analyzed by the computer. If abnormal case of heartbeat is found, the emergency call is automatically dialed. Meanwhile, the determined heartbeat case of ECG signals will be forwarded to patient's MD through internet. Therefore, the patient can do whatever he/she wants around his/her house with our proposed simple cardiac arrhythmias signal analyzer. The proposed consists of five major processing stages: (i) preprocessing stage for enlarging ECG signals' amplitude and eliminating noises; (ii) ECG signal transmitter/receiver stage, ECG signals are transmitted through Bluetooth to the signal receiver in patient's house; (iii) QRS extraction stage for detecting QRS waveform using the Difference Operation Method (DOM) method; (iv) qualitative features stage for qualitative feature selection on ECG signals; and (v) classification stage for determining patient's heartbeat cases using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method. In the experiment, the total classification accuracy (TCA) was approximately 93.19% in average.

  9. A review on digital ECG formats and the relationships between them.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús Daniel; Alesanco, Alvaro; Martínez, Ignacio; García, José

    2012-05-01

    A plethora of digital ECG formats have been proposed and implemented. This heterogeneity hinders the design and development of interoperable systems and entails critical integration issues for the healthcare information systems. This paper aims at performing a comprehensive overview on the current state of affairs of the interoperable exchange of digital ECG signals. This includes 1) a review on existing digital ECG formats, 2) a collection of applications and cardiology settings using such formats, 3) a compilation of the relationships between such formats, and 4) a reflection on the current situation and foreseeable future of the interoperable exchange of digital ECG signals. The objectives have been approached by completing and updating previous reviews on the topic through appropriate database mining. 39 digital ECG formats, 56 applications, tools or implantation experiences, 47 mappings/converters, and 6 relationships between such formats have been found in the literature. The creation and generalization of a single standardized ECG format is a desirable goal. However, this unification requires political commitment and international cooperation among different standardization bodies. Ongoing ontology-based approaches covering ECG domain have recently emerged as a promising alternative for reaching fully fledged ECG interoperability in the near future.

  10. Wavelet analysis and time-frequency distributions of the body surface ECG before and after angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Gramatikov, B; Brinker, J; Yi-chun, S; Thakor, N V

    2000-06-01

    In a pilot study, electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings of patients with left and right coronary stenosis taken before and after angioplasty were analyzed using the continuous wavelet transform. Time-frequency distributions were obtained for different leads in order to examine the dynamics of the QRS-spectrum and establish features specific of ischemia in the time-frequency domain. We found relevant changes in the mid-frequency range, reflecting the ECG's response to percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). The changes appeared in ECG leads close to ischemic zones of the myocardium. Time-frequency distributions of the ECG during the QRS may thus become another electrocardiographic indicator of ischemia, alternative to ST-level in standard ECG or body surface mapping. The paper demonstrates the ability of the continuous wavelet transform to detect short lasting events of low amplitude superimposed on large signal deflections.

  11. Relative Amplitude based Features of characteristic ECG-Peaks for Identification of Coronary Artery Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohel, Bakul; Tiwary, U. S.; Lahiri, T.

    Coronary artery disease or Myocardial Infarction is the leading cause of death and disability in the world. ECG is widely used as a cheap diagnostic tool for diagnosis of coronary artery disease but has low sensitivity with the present criteria based on ST-segment, T wave and Q wave changes. So to increase the sensitivity of the ECG we have introduced relative amplitude based new features of characteristic ‘R’ and ‘S’ ECG-peaks between two leads. Relative amplitude based features shows remarkable capability in discriminating Myocardial Infarction and Healthy pattern using backpropogation neural network classifier yield results with 81.82% sensitivity and 81.82% specificity. Also relative amplitude might be an efficient method in minimizing the effect of body composition on ECG amplitude based features without use of any information from other than ECG

  12. Performance of human body communication-based wearable ECG with capacitive coupling electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Jun; Anzai, Daisuke; Wang, Jianqing

    2016-09-01

    Wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) is attracting much attention in daily healthcare applications, and human body communication (HBC) technology provides an evident advantage in making the sensing electrodes of ECG also working for transmission through the human body. In view of actual usage in daily life, however, non-contact electrodes to the human body are desirable. In this Letter, the authors discussed the ECG circuit structure in the HBC-based wearable ECG for removing the common mode noise when employing non-contact capacitive coupling electrodes. Through the comparison of experimental results, they have shown that the authors' proposed circuit structure with the third electrode directly connected to signal ground can provide an effect on common mode noise reduction similar to the usual drive-right-leg circuit, and a sufficiently good acquisition performance of ECG signals.

  13. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: An allometric comparative analysis of different ECG markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonomini, M. P.; Ingallina, F.; Barone, V.; Valentinuzzi, M. E.; Arini, P. D.

    2011-12-01

    Allometry, in general biology, measures the relative growth of a part in relation to the whole living organism. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is the heart adaptation to excessive load (systolic or diastolic). The increase in left ventricular mass leads to an increase in the electrocardiographic voltages. Based on clinical data, we compared the allometric behavior of three different ECG markers of LVH. To do this, the allometric fit AECG = δ + β (VM) relating left ventricular mass (estimated from ecocardiographic data) and ECG amplitudes (expressed as the Cornell-Voltage, Sokolow and the ECG overall voltage indexes) were compared. Besides, sensitivity and specifity for each index were analyzed. The more sensitive the ECG criteria, the better the allometric fit. In conclusion: The allometric paradigm should be regarded as the way to design new and more sensitive ECG-based LVH markers.

  14. Utility of Electrocardiography (ECG)-Gated Computed Tomography (CT) for Preoperative Evaluations of Thymic Epithelial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Yoshiyuki; Hara, Masaki; Nakagawa, Motoo; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Preoperative evaluation of invasion to the adjacent organs is important for the thymic epithelial tumors on CT. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the utility of electrocardiography (ECG)-gated CT for assessing thymic epithelial tumors with regard to the motion artifacts produced and the preoperative diagnostic accuracy of the technique. Material/Methods Forty thymic epithelial tumors (36 thymomas and 4 thymic carcinomas) were examined with ECG-gated contrast-enhanced CT using a dual source scanner. The scan delay after the contrast media injection was 30 s for the non-ECG-gated CT and 100 s for the ECG-gated CT. Two radiologists blindly evaluated both the non-ECG-gated and ECG-gated CT images for motion artifacts and determined whether the tumors had invaded adjacent structures (mediastinal fat, superior vena cava, brachiocephalic veins, aorta, pulmonary artery, pericardium, or lungs) on each image. Motion artifacts were evaluated using a 3-grade scale. Surgical and pathological findings were used as a reference standard for tumor invasion. Results Motion artifacts were significantly reduced for all structures by ECG gating (p=0.0089 for the lungs and p<0.0001 for the other structures). Non-ECG-gated CT and ECG-gated CT demonstrated 79% and 95% accuracy, respectively, during assessments of pericardial invasion (p=0.03). Conclusions ECG-gated CT reduced the severity of motion artifacts and might be useful for preoperative assessment whether thymic epithelial tumors have invaded adjacent structures. PMID:27920842

  15. Personalized USB Biosensor Module for Effective ECG Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sladojević, Srdjan; Arsenović, Marko; Lončar-Turukalo, Tatjana; Sladojević, Miroslava; Ćulibrk, Dubravko

    2016-01-01

    The burden of chronic disease and associated disability present a major threat to financial sustainability of healthcare delivery systems. The need for cost-effective early diagnosis and disease prevention is evident driving the development of personalized home health solutions. The proposed solution presents an easy to use ECG monitoring system. The core hardware component is a biosensor dongle with sensing probes at one end, and micro USB interface at the other end, offering reliable and unobtrusive sensing, preprocessing and storage. An additional component is a smart phone, providing both the biosensor's power supply and an intuitive user application for the real-time data reading. The system usage is simplified, with innovative solutions offering plug and play functionality avoiding additional driver installation. Personalized needs could be met with different sensor combinations enabling adequate monitoring in chronic disease, during physical activity and in the rehabilitation process.

  16. An awareness approach to analyze ECG streaming data.

    PubMed

    Don, S; Chung, Duckwon; Choi, Eunmi; Min, Dugki

    2013-04-01

    Real-time remote health monitoring systems are experiencing tremendous advancement resulting from improvements in low power, reliable sensors; yet they are still constrained to low-level interpretation. Automatic data analysis continues to be a tedious task due to a lack of efficient, reliable platforms for data analysis. In this paper, we present a system for monitoring patients remotely by emphasizing the strength of Complex Event Processing (CEP) and Situation Awareness. In this approach, the system makes decisions in a declarative way, which helps medical experts to understand the situation in a more realistic manner. The primary objective of this paper is to explicate the different components inside the system. To verify the technical feasibility of each component, the proposed system is implemented and tested using ECG data.

  17. Ambulatory measurement of the ECG T-wave amplitude.

    PubMed

    van Lien, René; Neijts, Melanie; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C

    2015-02-01

    Ambulatory recording of the preejection period (PEP) can be used to measure changes in cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity under naturalistic conditions. Here, we test the ECG T-wave amplitude (TWA) as an alternative measure, using 24-h ambulatory monitoring of PEP and TWA in a sample of 564 healthy adults. The TWA showed a decrease in response to mental stress and a monotonic decrease from nighttime sleep to daytime sitting and more physically active behaviors. Within-participant changes in TWA were correlated with changes in the PEP across the standardized stressors (r = .42) and the unstandardized naturalistic conditions (mean r = .35). Partialling out changes in heart rate and vagal effects attenuated these correlations, but they remained significant. Ambulatory TWA cannot replace PEP, but simultaneous recording of TWA and PEP provides a more comprehensive picture of changes in cardiac SNS activity in real-life settings.

  18. Microcontroller-based underwater acoustic ECG telemetry system.

    PubMed

    Istepanian, R S; Woodward, B

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a microcontroller-based underwater acoustic telemetry system for digital transmission of the electrocardiogram (ECG). The system is designed for the real time, through-water transmission of data representing any parameter, and it was used initially for transmitting in multiplexed format the heart rate, breathing rate and depth of a diver using self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA). Here, it is used to monitor cardiovascular reflexes during diving and swimming. The programmable capability of the system provides an effective solution to the problem of transmitting data in the presence of multipath interference. An important feature of the paper is a comparative performance analysis of two encoding methods, Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) and Pulse Position Modulation (PPM).

  19. ECG findings after myocardial infarction in children after Kawasaki disease

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, T.; Takao, A.; Kondoh, C.; Nakazawa, M.; Hiroe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.

    1988-10-01

    Standard 12-lead ECGs were evaluated in 17 children with myocardial infarction and 78 children without myocardial infarction after Kawasaki disease; sensitivity and specificity of the ECG infarction criteria were determined. The presence or absence of myocardial infarction was determined from either clinical examination results (coronary angiography, ventriculography, and thallium-201 myocardial imaging) or autopsy findings. Of seven patients with inferior infarction, abnormally deep Q waves in lead II, III, or aVF were observed in six, but the duration was greater than 0.04 second in only one (14%). The sensitivity and specificity of inferior infarction criteria based on Q wave amplitude were 86% and 97%, respectively. Of eight patients with anterior infarction, seven (88%) had abnormally deep and wide (greater than or equal to 0.04 second) Q waves in anterior chest leads. The sensitivity and specificity of the infarction criteria based on the amplitude and duration of the Q wave were 75% and 99%, respectively. Of seven patients with lateral infarction, Q waves were observed in lead I, aVL, or both in four patients, and in all of these patients Q waves were wider than 0.04 second. In two patients with both inferior and anterior infarction, Q waves were observed only in leads II, III, and aVF; in only one patient were the Q waves wider than 0.04 second. Thus deep Q waves in lead II, III, or aVF that are not wider than 0.04 second may indicate inferior infarction in children. Q waves in lead I, aVL, and chest leads associated with anterolateral infarction are in most instances deep and wide.

  20. Noninvasive Cardiac Screening in Young Athletes With Ventricular Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Steriotis, Alexandros Klavdios; Nava, Andrea; Rigato, Ilaria; Mazzotti, Elisa; Daliento, Luciano; Thiene, Gaetano; Basso, Cristina; Corrado, Domenico; Bauce, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze using noninvasive cardiac examinations a series of young athletes discovered to have ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) during the preparticipation screening program for competitive sports. One hundred forty-five athletes (mean age 17 ± 5 years) were evaluated. The study protocol included electrocardiography (ECG), exercise testing, 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography, 24-hour Holter monitoring, signal-averaged ECG, and in selected cases contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results of ECG were normal in most athletes (85%). VAs were initially detected prevalently during exercise testing (85%) and in the remaining cases on ECG and Holter monitoring. Premature ventricular complexes disappeared during exercise in 56% of subjects. Premature ventricular complexes during Holter monitoring averaged 4,700 per day, predominantly monomorphic (88%), single, and/or in couplets (79%). The most important echocardiographic findings were mitral valve prolapse in 29 patients (20%), congenital heart disease in 4 (3%), and right ventricular regional kinetic abnormalities in 5 (3.5%). On cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, right ventricular regional kinetic abnormalities were detected in 9 of 30 athletes and were diagnostic of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in only 1 athlete. Overall, 30% of athletes were judged to have potentially dangerous VAs. In asymptomatic athletes with prevalently normal ECG, most VAs can be identified by adding an exercise test during preparticipation screening. In conclusion, cardiac screening with noninvasive examinations remains a fundamental tool for the identification of a possible pathologic substrate and for the characterization of electrical instability. PMID:23219000

  1. Synthetic ECG Generation and Bayesian Filtering Using a Gaussian Wave-Based Dynamical Model

    PubMed Central

    Sayadi, Omid; Shamsollahi, Mohammad B.; Clifford, Gari D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a Gaussian wave-based state space to model the temporal dynamics of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. It is shown that this model may be effectively used for generating synthetic ECGs as well as separate characteristic waves (CWs) such as the atrial and ventricular complexes. The model uses separate state variables for each CW, i.e. P, QRS and T, and hence is capable of generating individual synthetic CWs as well as realistic ECG signals. The model is therefore useful for generating arrhythmias. Simulations of sinus bradycardia, sinus tachycardia, ventricular flutter, atrial fibrillation, and ventricular tachycardia are presented. In addition, discrete versions of the equations are presented for a model-based Bayesian framework for denoising. This framework, together with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and extended Kalman smoother (EKS), were used for denoising the ECG for both normal rhythms and arrhythmias. For evaluating the denoising performance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement of the filter outputs and clinical parameter stability were studied. The results demonstrate superiority over a wide range of input SNRs, achieving a maximum 12.7 dB improvement. Results indicate that preventing clinically relevant distortion of the ECG is sensitive to the number of model parameters. Models are presented which do not exhibit such distortions. The approach presented in this paper may therefore serve as an effective framework for synthetic ECG generation and model-based filtering of noisy ECG recordings. PMID:20720288

  2. Classification of a Driver's cognitive workload levels using artificial neural network on ECG signals.

    PubMed

    Tjolleng, Amir; Jung, Kihyo; Hong, Wongi; Lee, Wonsup; Lee, Baekhee; You, Heecheon; Son, Joonwoo; Park, Seikwon

    2017-03-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed in the present study to classify the level of a driver's cognitive workload based on electrocardiography (ECG). ECG signals were measured on 15 male participants while they performed a simulated driving task as a primary task with/without an N-back task as a secondary task. Three time-domain ECG measures (mean inter-beat interval (IBI), standard deviation of IBIs, and root mean squared difference of adjacent IBIs) and three frequencydomain ECG measures (power in low frequency, power in high frequency, and ratio of power in low and high frequencies) were calculated. To compensate for individual differences in heart response during the driving tasks, a three-step data processing procedure was performed to ECG signals of each participant: (1) selection of two most sensitive ECG measures, (2) definition of three (low, medium, and high) cognitive workload levels, and (3) normalization of the selected ECG measures. An ANN model was constructed using a feed-forward network and scaled conjugate gradient as a back-propagation learning rule. The accuracy of the ANN classification model was found satisfactory for learning data (95%) and testing data (82%).

  3. A Hygroscopic Sensor Electrode for Fast Stabilized Non-Contact ECG Signal Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Fong, Ee-May; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-08-05

    A capacitive electrocardiography (cECG) technique using a non-invasive ECG measuring technology that does not require direct contact between the sensor and the skin has attracted much interest. The system encounters several challenges when the sensor electrode and subject's skin are weakly coupled. Because there is no direct physical contact between the subject and any grounding point, there is no discharge path for the built-up electrostatic charge. Subsequently, the electrostatic charge build-up can temporarily contaminate the ECG signal from being clearly visible; a stabilization period (3-15 min) is required for the measurement of a clean, stable ECG signal at low humidity levels (below 55% relative humidity). Therefore, to obtain a clear ECG signal without noise and to reduce the ECG signal stabilization time to within 2 min in a dry ambient environment, we have developed a fabric electrode with embedded polymer (FEEP). The designed hygroscopic FEEP has an embedded superabsorbent polymer layer. The principle of FEEP as a conductive electrode is to provide humidity to the capacitive coupling to ensure strong coupling and to allow for the measurement of a stable, clear biomedical signal. The evaluation results show that hygroscopic FEEP is capable of rapidly measuring high-accuracy ECG signals with a higher SNR ratio.

  4. Novel technical solutions for wireless ECG transmission & analysis in the age of the internet cloud.

    PubMed

    Al-Zaiti, Salah S; Shusterman, Vladimir; Carey, Mary G

    2013-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend early reperfusion therapy for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) within 90 min of first medical encounter. Telecardiology entails the use of advanced communication technologies to transmit the prehospital 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) to offsite cardiologists for early triage to the cath lab; which has been shown to dramatically reduce door-to-balloon time and total mortality. However, hospitals often find adopting ECG transmission technologies very challenging. The current review identifies seven major technical challenges of prehospital ECG transmission, including: paramedics inconvenience and transport delay; signal noise and interpretation errors; equipment malfunction and transmission failure; reliability of mobile phone networks; lack of compliance with the standards of digital ECG formats; poor integration with electronic medical records; and costly hardware and software pre-requisite installation. Current and potential solutions to address each of these technical challenges are discussed in details and include: automated ECG transmission protocols; annotatable waveform-based ECGs; optimal routing solutions; and the use of cloud computing systems rather than vendor-specific processing stations. Nevertheless, strategies to monitor transmission effectiveness and patient outcomes are essential to sustain initial gains of implementing ECG transmission technologies.

  5. A Review of Fetal ECG Signal Processing; Issues and Promising Directions

    PubMed Central

    Sameni, Reza; Clifford, Gari D.

    2010-01-01

    The field of electrocardiography has been in existence for over a century, yet despite significant advances in adult clinical electrocardiography, signal processing techniques and fast digital processors, the analysis of fetal ECGs is still in its infancy. This is, partly due to a lack of availability of gold standard databases, partly due to the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio of the fetal ECG compared to the maternal ECG (caused by the various media between the fetal heart and the measuring electrodes, and the fact that the fetal heart is simply smaller), and in part, due to the less complete clinical knowledge concerning fetal cardiac function and development. In this paper we review a range of promising recording and signal processing techniques for fetal ECG analysis that have been developed over the last forty years, and discuss both their shortcomings and advantages. Before doing so, however, we review fetal cardiac development, and the etiology of the fetal ECG. A selection of relevant models for the fetal/maternal ECG mixture is also discussed. In light of current understanding of the fetal ECG, we then attempt to justify recommendations for promising future directions in signal processing, and database creation. PMID:21614148

  6. An IoT-cloud Based Wearable ECG Monitoring System for Smart Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhe; Zhou, Qihao; Lei, Lei; Zheng, Kan; Xiang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Public healthcare has been paid an increasing attention given the exponential growth human population and medical expenses. It is well known that an effective health monitoring system can detect abnormalities of health conditions in time and make diagnoses according to the gleaned data. As a vital approach to diagnose heart diseases, ECG monitoring is widely studied and applied. However, nearly all existing portable ECG monitoring systems cannot work without a mobile application, which is responsible for data collection and display. In this paper, we propose a new method for ECG monitoring based on Internet-of-Things (IoT) techniques. ECG data are gathered using a wearable monitoring node and are transmitted directly to the IoT cloud using Wi-Fi. Both the HTTP and MQTT protocols are employed in the IoT cloud in order to provide visual and timely ECG data to users. Nearly all smart terminals with a web browser can acquire ECG data conveniently, which has greatly alleviated the cross-platform issue. Experiments are carried out on healthy volunteers in order to verify the reliability of the entire system. Experimental results reveal that the proposed system is reliable in collecting and displaying real-time ECG data, which can aid in the primary diagnosis of certain heart diseases.

  7. A low-power portable ECG sensor interface with dry electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaofei, Pu; Lei, Wan; Hui, Zhang; Yajie, Qin; Zhiliang, Hong

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes a low-power portable sensor interface dedicated to sensing and processing electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Dry electrodes were employed in this ECG sensor, which eliminates the need of conductive gel and avoids complicated and mandatory skin preparation before electrode attachment. This ECG sensor system consists of two ICs, an analog front-end (AFE) and a successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC) containing a relaxation oscillator. This proposed design was fabricated in a 0.18 μm 1P6M standard CMOS process. The AFE for extracting the biopotential signals is essential in this ECG sensor. In measurements, the AFE obtains a mid-band gain of 45 dB, a bandwidth from 0.6 to 160 Hz, and a total input referred noise of 2.8 μV rms while consuming 1 μW from the 1.8 V supply. The noise efficiency factor (NEF) of our design is 3.4. After conditioning, the amplified ECG signal is digitized by a 12-bit SAR ADC with 61.8 dB SNDR and 220 fJ/conversion-step. Finally, a complete ECG sensor interface with three dry copper electrodes is demonstrated in real-word setting, showing successful recordings of a capture ECG waveform.

  8. Assurance of energy efficiency and data security for ECG transmission in BASNs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tao; Shrestha, Pradhumna Lal; Hempel, Michael; Peng, Dongming; Sharif, Hamid; Chen, Hsiao-Hwa

    2012-04-01

    With the technological advancement in body area sensor networks (BASNs), low cost high quality electrocardiographic (ECG) diagnosis systems have become important equipment for healthcare service providers. However, energy consumption and data security with ECG systems in BASNs are still two major challenges to tackle. In this study, we investigate the properties of compressed ECG data for energy saving as an effort to devise a selective encryption mechanism and a two-rate unequal error protection (UEP) scheme. The proposed selective encryption mechanism provides a simple and yet effective security solution for an ECG sensor-based communication platform, where only one percent of data is encrypted without compromising ECG data security. This part of the encrypted data is essential to ECG data quality due to its unequally important contribution to distortion reduction. The two-rate UEP scheme achieves a significant additional energy saving due to its unequal investment of communication energy to the outcomes of the selective encryption, and thus, it maintains a high ECG data transmission quality. Our results show the improvements in communication energy saving of about 40%, and demonstrate a higher transmission quality and security measured in terms of wavelet-based weighted percent root-mean-squared difference.

  9. An Investigation on the Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Human Electrocardiograms (ECGs)

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Qiang; Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Yan, Jiayong; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    For this investigation, we studied the effects of extremely low frequency pulse electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMF) on the human cardiac signal. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) of 22 healthy volunteers before and after a short duration of ELF-PEMF exposure were recorded. The experiment was conducted under single-blind conditions. The root mean square (RMS) value of the recorded data was considered as comparison criteria. We also measured and analysed four important ECG time intervals before and after ELF-PEMF exposure. Results revealed that the RMS value of the ECG recordings from 18 participants (81.8% of the total participants) increased with a mean value of 3.72%. The increase in ECG voltage levels was then verified by a second experimental protocol with a control exposure. In addition to this, we used hyperbolic T-distributions (HTD) in the analysis of ECG signals to verify the change in the RR interval. It was found that there were small shifts in the frequency-domain signal before and after EMF exposure. This shift has an influence on all frequency components of the ECG signals, as all spectrums were shifted. It is shown from this investigation that a short time exposure to ELF-PEMF can affect the properties of ECG signals. Further study is needed to consolidate this finding and discover more on the biological effects of ELF-PEMF on human physiological processes. PMID:27886102

  10. Compressed sensing for real-time energy-efficient ECG compression on wireless body sensor nodes.

    PubMed

    Mamaghanian, Hossein; Khaled, Nadia; Atienza, David; Vandergheynst, Pierre

    2011-09-01

    Wireless body sensor networks (WBSN) hold the promise to be a key enabling information and communications technology for next-generation patient-centric telecardiology or mobile cardiology solutions. Through enabling continuous remote cardiac monitoring, they have the potential to achieve improved personalization and quality of care, increased ability of prevention and early diagnosis, and enhanced patient autonomy, mobility, and safety. However, state-of-the-art WBSN-enabled ECG monitors still fall short of the required functionality, miniaturization, and energy efficiency. Among others, energy efficiency can be improved through embedded ECG compression, in order to reduce airtime over energy-hungry wireless links. In this paper, we quantify the potential of the emerging compressed sensing (CS) signal acquisition/compression paradigm for low-complexity energy-efficient ECG compression on the state-of-the-art Shimmer WBSN mote. Interestingly, our results show that CS represents a competitive alternative to state-of-the-art digital wavelet transform (DWT)-based ECG compression solutions in the context of WBSN-based ECG monitoring systems. More specifically, while expectedly exhibiting inferior compression performance than its DWT-based counterpart for a given reconstructed signal quality, its substantially lower complexity and CPU execution time enables it to ultimately outperform DWT-based ECG compression in terms of overall energy efficiency. CS-based ECG compression is accordingly shown to achieve a 37.1% extension in node lifetime relative to its DWT-based counterpart for "good" reconstruction quality.

  11. A comprehensive survey of wearable and wireless ECG monitoring systems for older adults.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; Gholamhosseini, Hamid; Connolly, Martin J

    2013-05-01

    Wearable health monitoring is an emerging technology for continuous monitoring of vital signs including the electrocardiogram (ECG). This signal is widely adopted to diagnose and assess major health risks and chronic cardiac diseases. This paper focuses on reviewing wearable ECG monitoring systems in the form of wireless, mobile and remote technologies related to older adults. Furthermore, the efficiency, user acceptability, strategies and recommendations on improving current ECG monitoring systems with an overview of the design and modelling are presented. In this paper, over 120 ECG monitoring systems were reviewed and classified into smart wearable, wireless, mobile ECG monitoring systems with related signal processing algorithms. The results of the review suggest that most research in wearable ECG monitoring systems focus on the older adults and this technology has been adopted in aged care facilitates. Moreover, it is shown that how mobile telemedicine systems have evolved and how advances in wearable wireless textile-based systems could ensure better quality of healthcare delivery. The main drawbacks of deployed ECG monitoring systems including imposed limitations on patients, short battery life, lack of user acceptability and medical professional's feedback, and lack of security and privacy of essential data have been also discussed.

  12. Synthetic ECG generation and Bayesian filtering using a Gaussian wave-based dynamical model.

    PubMed

    Sayadi, Omid; Shamsollahi, Mohammad B; Clifford, Gari D

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we describe a Gaussian wave-based state space to model the temporal dynamics of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. It is shown that this model may be effectively used for generating synthetic ECGs as well as separate characteristic waves (CWs) such as the atrial and ventricular complexes. The model uses separate state variables for each CW, i.e. P, QRS and T, and hence is capable of generating individual synthetic CWs as well as realistic ECG signals. The model is therefore useful for generating arrhythmias. Simulations of sinus bradycardia, sinus tachycardia, ventricular flutter, atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia are presented. In addition, discrete versions of the equations are presented for a model-based Bayesian framework for denoising. This framework, together with an extended Kalman filter and extended Kalman smoother, was used for denoising the ECG for both normal rhythms and arrhythmias. For evaluating the denoising performance, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement of the filter outputs and clinical parameter stability were studied. The results demonstrate superiority over a wide range of input SNRs, achieving a maximum 12.7 dB improvement. Results indicate that preventing clinically relevant distortion of the ECG is sensitive to the number of model parameters. Models are presented which do not exhibit such distortions. The approach presented in this paper may therefore serve as an effective framework for synthetic ECG generation and model-based filtering of noisy ECG recordings.

  13. A Hygroscopic Sensor Electrode for Fast Stabilized Non-Contact ECG Signal Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Ee-May; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-01-01

    A capacitive electrocardiography (cECG) technique using a non-invasive ECG measuring technology that does not require direct contact between the sensor and the skin has attracted much interest. The system encounters several challenges when the sensor electrode and subject’s skin are weakly coupled. Because there is no direct physical contact between the subject and any grounding point, there is no discharge path for the built-up electrostatic charge. Subsequently, the electrostatic charge build-up can temporarily contaminate the ECG signal from being clearly visible; a stabilization period (3–15 min) is required for the measurement of a clean, stable ECG signal at low humidity levels (below 55% relative humidity). Therefore, to obtain a clear ECG signal without noise and to reduce the ECG signal stabilization time to within 2 min in a dry ambient environment, we have developed a fabric electrode with embedded polymer (FEEP). The designed hygroscopic FEEP has an embedded superabsorbent polymer layer. The principle of FEEP as a conductive electrode is to provide humidity to the capacitive coupling to ensure strong coupling and to allow for the measurement of a stable, clear biomedical signal. The evaluation results show that hygroscopic FEEP is capable of rapidly measuring high-accuracy ECG signals with a higher SNR ratio. PMID:26251913

  14. Low-power analog integrated circuits for wireless ECG acquisition systems.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Hong, Jia-Hua; Wang, Liang-Hung; Lee, Shuenn-Yuh

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents low-power analog ICs for wireless ECG acquisition systems. Considering the power-efficient communication in the body sensor network, the required low-power analog ICs are developed for a healthcare system through miniaturization and system integration. To acquire the ECG signal, a low-power analog front-end system, including an ECG signal acquisition board, an on-chip low-pass filter, and an on-chip successive-approximation analog-to-digital converter for portable ECG detection devices is presented. A quadrature CMOS voltage-controlled oscillator and a 2.4 GHz direct-conversion transmitter with a power amplifier and upconversion mixer are also developed to transmit the ECG signal through wireless communication. In the receiver, a 2.4 GHz fully integrated CMOS RF front end with a low-noise amplifier, differential power splitter, and quadrature mixer based on current-reused folded architecture is proposed. The circuits have been implemented to meet the specifications of the IEEE 802.15.4 2.4 GHz standard. The low-power ICs of the wireless ECG acquisition systems have been fabricated using a 0.18 μm Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) CMOS standard process. The measured results on the human body reveal that ECG signals can be acquired effectively by the proposed low-power analog front-end ICs.

  15. System for unconstrained ECG measurement on a toilet seat using capacitive coupled electrodes : the efficacy and practicality.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Kim, Jung Soo; Kim, Ko Keun; Park, Kwang Suk

    2008-01-01

    Home healthcare is a common matter of concern to modern people. For the successful home healthcare, unconstrained bio-signal monitoring is important. Previously, unconstrained lavatory typed ECG measurement system was developed. It is enough to measure subject's ECG signal non-intrusively, but not practical because of moist environment of toilet. In this study, capacitive coupled electrode was employed for overcome above disadvantages. ECG was obtained by capacitive coupled electrode and compared with ECGs obtained from conventional Ag/AgCl electrode. Possible motion artifacts were investigated. Experimental results showed that toilet based capacitive coupled ECG signal was measured successfully.

  16. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos

    2011-01-01

    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P < 0.001) from a linear combination of 5 independent variables: QRS elevation in the frontal plane (p<0.001), a new repolarization parameter QTcorr (p<0.001), mean high frequency QRS amplitude (p=0.009), the variability parameter % VLF of RRV (p=0.021) and the P-wave width (p=0.10). Here, QTcorr represents the correlation between the calculated QT and the measured QT signal. Conclusions: In apparently healthy subjects with normal conventional ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  17. Association between obesity and ECG variables in children and adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    SUN, GUO-ZHE; LI, YANG; ZHOU, XING-HU; GUO, XIAO-FAN; ZHANG, XIN-GANG; ZHENG, LI-QIANG; LI, YUAN; JIAO, YUN-DI; SUN, YING-XIAN

    2013-01-01

    Obesity exhibits a wide variety of electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities in adults, which often lead to cardiovascular events. However, there is currently no evidence of an association between obesity and ECG variables in children and adolescents. The present study aimed to explore the associations between obesity and ECG intervals and axes in children and adolescents. A cross-sectional observational study of 5,556 students aged 5–18 years was performed. Anthropometric data, blood pressure and standard 12-lead ECGs were collected for each participant. ECG variables were measured manually based on the temporal alignment of simultaneous 12 leads using a CV200 ECG Work Station. Overweight and obese groups demonstrated significantly longer PR intervals, wider QRS durations and leftward shifts of frontal P-wave, QRS and T-wave axes, while the obese group also demonstrated significantly higher heart rates, compared with normal weight groups within normotensive or hypertensive subjects (P<0.05). Abdominal obesity was also associated with longer PR intervals, wider QRS duration and a leftward shift of frontal ECG axes compared with normal waist circumference (WC) within normotensive or hypertensive subjects (P<0.05). Gender was a possible factor affecting the ECG variables. Furthermore, the ECG variables, including PR interval, QRS duration and frontal P-wave, QRS and T-wave axes, were significantly linearly correlated with body mass index, WC and waist-to-height ratio adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and blood pressure. However, there was no significant association between obesity and the corrected QT interval (P>0.05). The results of the current study indicate that in children and adolescents, general and abdominal obesity is associated with longer PR intervals, wider QRS duration and a leftward shift of frontal P-wave, QRS and T-wave axes, independent of age, gender, ethnicity and blood pressure. PMID:24255675

  18. Diagnostic quality of time-averaged ECG-gated CT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Almar; Oostveen, Luuk J.; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; Hoogeveen, Yvonne; Schultze Kool, Leo J.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Renema, W. Klaas Jan

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: ECG-gated CTA allows visualization of the aneurysm and stentgraft during the different phases of the cardiac cycle, although with a lower SNR per cardiac phase than without ECG gating using the same dose. In our institution, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is evaluated using non-ECG-gated CTA. Some common CT scanners cannot reconstruct a non-gated volume from ECG-gated acquired data. In order to obtain the same diagnostic image quality, we propose offline temporal averaging of the ECG-gated data. This process, though straightforward, is fundamentally different from taking a non-gated scan, and its result will certainly differ as well. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively investigate how good off-line averaging approximates a non-gated scan. Method: Non-gated and ECG-gated CT scans have been performed on a phantom (Catphan 500). Afterwards the phases of the ECG-gated CTA data were averaged to create a third dataset. The three sets are compared with respect to noise properties (NPS) and frequency response (MTF). To study motion artifacts identical scans were acquired on a programmable dynamic phantom. Results and Conclusions: The experiments show that the spatial frequency content is not affected by the averaging process. The minor differences observed for the noise properties and motion artifacts are in favor of the averaged data. Therefore the averaged ECG-gated phases can be used for diagnosis. This enables the use of ECG-gating for research on stentgrafts in AAA, without impairing clinical patient care.

  19. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to deploy and then evaluate the contribution of resting advanced ECG (A-ECG) in addition to other screening tools (family history, lipid profiles, and cardiopulmonary exercise tests, XT) in assessment of an individual fs cardiac risk profile. METHODS: Forty-four career firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance, fasting lipids and glucose. Five-min resting 12-lead A-ECGs were obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=21) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a NASA physician collaborator. Using myocardial perfusion and other imaging as the gold standard, A-ECG scoring has been proven useful in accurately identifying a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and non-ischemic and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: Subjects f mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI 28 (3) kg/m2. Fifty-one percent of subjects had .3 cardiovascular risk factors. One subject had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the

  20. Real-time ECG emulation: a multiple dipole model for electrocardiography simulation.

    PubMed

    Abkai, Ciamak; Hesser, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    A new model for describing electrocardiography (ECG) is presented, which is based on multiple dipoles compared to standard single dipole approaches in vector electrocardiography. The multiple dipole parameters are derived from real data (e.g. four dipoles from 12-channel ECG) by solving the backward problem of ECG numerically. Results are transformed to a waveform description based on Gaussian mixture for every dimension of each dipole. These compact parameterized descriptors are used for a very realistic real-time simulation applying the forward solution of the proposed model.

  1. Evaluation of novel ECG signal processing on quantification of transient ischemia and baseline wander suppression.

    PubMed

    Kostic, Marko N; Fakhar, Sina; Foxall, Tom; Drakulic, Budimir S; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2007-01-01

    The performance assessment of a novel ECG signal processing technology in Fidelity 100 (test) and four modern ECG systems (controls) was conducted. A quantitative evaluation for one control and a test system was done by simultaneous recordings on 54 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and on a biological reference signal from an ECG simulator. A qualitative performance of baseline wander suppression was done on all five systems. The results showed that the Fidelity 100 system provided excellent detection and quantification of transient ischemia and baseline wander suppression.

  2. Principal component analysis of atrial fibrillation: Inclusion of posterior ECG leads does not improve correlation with left atrial activity

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Daniel; Langley, Philip; Shepherd, Ewen; Lord, Stephen; Murray, Stephen; Murray, Alan; Bourke, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lead V1 is routinely analysed due to its large amplitude AF waveform. V1 correlates strongly with right atrial activity but only moderately with left atrial activity. Posterior lead V9 correlates strongest with left atrial activity. Aims (1) To establish whether surface dominant AF frequency (DAF) calculated using principal component analysis (PCA) of a modified 12-lead ECG (including posterior leads) has a stronger correlation with left atrial activity compared to the standard ECG. (2) To assess the contribution of individual ECG leads to the AF principal component in both ECG configurations. Methods Patients were assigned to modified or standard ECG groups. In the modified ECG, posterior leads V8 and V9 replaced V4 and V6. AF waveform was extracted from one-minute surface ECG recordings using PCA. Surface DAF was correlated with intracardiac DAF from the high right atrium (HRA), coronary sinus (CS) and pulmonary veins (PVs). Results 96 patients were studied. Surface DAF from the modified ECG did not have a stronger correlation with left atrial activity compared to the standard ECG. Both ECG configurations correlated strongly with HRA, CS and right PVs but only moderately with left PVs. V1 contributed most to the AF principal component in both ECG configurations. PMID:25619612

  3. CinC Challenge 2013: comparing three algorithms to extract fetal ECG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loja, Juan; Velecela, Esteban; Palacio-Baus, Kenneth; Astudillo, Darwin; Medina, Rubén.; Wong, Sara

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports a comparison between three fetal ECG (fECG) detectors developed during the CinC 2013 challenge for fECG detection. Algorithm A1 is based on Independent Component Analysis, A2 is based on fECG detection of RS Slope and A3 is based on Expectation-Weighted Estimation of Fiducial Points. The proposed methodology was validated using the annotated database available for the challenge. Each detector was characterized in terms of its performance by using measures of sensitivity, (Se), positive predictive value (P+) and delay time (td). Additionally, the database was contaminated with white noise for two SNR conditions. Decision fusion was tested considering the most common types of combination of detectors. Results show that the decision fusion of A1 and A2 improves fQRS detection, maintaining high Se and P+ even under low SNR conditions without a significant td increase.

  4. Design and implementation of a 3-lead ECG wireless remote monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shi; Jia, Xiaonan; Shang, Shuai

    2006-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the main diseases that menaces human health. It is necessary to monitor the patient's real-time electrocardiograph (ECG) for a long time to realize diagnosis and salvage. Remote ECG monitoring system is the solution. This paper introduces the design and implement of a 3-lead ECG wireless remote monitoring system. It collects, stores and transmits user's ECG which can be received by hospital and diagnosed by doctors. The development of the whole system contains three parts, the hardware and embedded software implementation of MONITOR, software of the MONITORING CENTER, and the routing software of NETWORK CENTER. According to the clinic experimentation, this system has high reliability and utility. There will be great social and economic benefit if this system is put into use.

  5. Segmentation of ECG from Surface EMG Using DWT and EMD: A Comparison Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbakhti, Mohammad; Heydari, Elnaz; Luu, Gia Thien

    2014-10-01

    The electrocardiographic (ECG) signal is a major artifact during recording the surface electromyography (SEMG). Removal of this artifact is one of the important tasks before SEMG analysis for biomedical goals. In this paper, the application of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for elimination of ECG artifact from SEMG is investigated. The focus of this research is to reach the optimized number of decomposed levels using mean power frequency (MPF) by both techniques. In order to implement the proposed methods, ten simulated and three real ECG contaminated SEMG signals have been tested. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and mean square error (MSE) between the filtered and the pure signals are applied as the performance indexes of this research. The obtained results suggest both techniques could remove ECG artifact from SEMG signals fair enough, however, DWT performs much better and faster in real data.

  6. An ECG ambulatory system with mobile embedded architecture for ST-segment analysis.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Cid, Alejandro; Alvarado-Serrano, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    A prototype of a ECG ambulatory system for long term monitoring of ST segment of 3 leads, low power, portability and data storage in solid state memory cards has been developed. The solution presented is based in a mobile embedded architecture of a portable entertainment device used as a tool for storage and processing of bioelectric signals, and a mid-range RISC microcontroller, PIC 16F877, which performs the digitalization and transmission of ECG. The ECG amplifier stage is a low power, unipolar voltage and presents minimal distortion of the phase response of high pass filter in the ST segment. We developed an algorithm that manages access to files through an implementation for FAT32, and the ECG display on the device screen. The records are stored in TXT format for further processing. After the acquisition, the system implemented works as a standard USB mass storage device.

  7. ECG Based Heart Arrhythmia Detection Using Wavelet Coherence and Bat Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kora, Padmavathi; Sri Rama Krishna, K.

    2016-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a type of heart abnormality, during the AF electrical discharges in the atrium are rapid, results in abnormal heart beat. The morphology of ECG changes due to the abnormalities in the heart. This paper consists of three major steps for the detection of heart diseases: signal pre-processing, feature extraction and classification. Feature extraction is the key process in detecting the heart abnormality. Most of the ECG detection systems depend on the time domain features for cardiac signal classification. In this paper we proposed a wavelet coherence (WTC) technique for ECG signal analysis. The WTC calculates the similarity between two waveforms in frequency domain. Parameters extracted from WTC function is used as the features of the ECG signal. These features are optimized using Bat algorithm. The Levenberg Marquardt neural network classifier is used to classify the optimized features. The performance of the classifier can be improved with the optimized features.

  8. A PD control-based QRS detection algorithm for wearable ECG applications.

    PubMed

    Choi, Changmok; Kim, Younho; Shin, Kunsoo

    2012-01-01

    We present a QRS detection algorithm for wearable ECG applications using a proportional-derivative (PD) control. ECG data of arrhythmia have irregular intervals and magnitudes of QRS waves that impede correct QRS detection. To resolve the problem, PD control is applied to avoid missing a small QRS wave followed from a large QRS wave and to avoid falsely detecting noise as QRS waves when an interval between two adjacent QRS waves is large (e.g. bradycardia, pause, and arioventricular block). ECG data was obtained from 78 patients with various cardiovascular diseases and tested for the performance evaluation of the proposed algorithm. The overall sensitivity and positive predictive value were 99.28% and 99.26%, respectively. The proposed algorithm has low computational complexity, so that it can be suitable to apply mobile ECG monitoring system in real time.

  9. Check your biosignals here: a new dataset for off-the-person ECG biometrics.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Hugo Plácido; Lourenço, André; Fred, Ana; Raposo, Nuno; Aires-de-Sousa, Marta

    2014-02-01

    The Check Your Biosignals Here initiative (CYBHi) was developed as a way of creating a dataset and consistently repeatable acquisition framework, to further extend research in electrocardiographic (ECG) biometrics. In particular, our work targets the novel trend towards off-the-person data acquisition, which opens a broad new set of challenges and opportunities both for research and industry. While datasets with ECG signals collected using medical grade equipment at the chest can be easily found, for off-the-person ECG data the solution is generally for each team to collect their own corpus at considerable expense of resources. In this paper we describe the context, experimental considerations, methods, and preliminary findings of two public datasets created by our team, one for short-term and another for long-term assessment, with ECG data collected at the hand palms and fingers.

  10. Misinterpretation of the mouse ECG: ‘musing the waves of Mus musculus’

    PubMed Central

    Boukens, Bastiaan J; Rivaud, Mathilde R; Rentschler, Stacey; Coronel, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The ECG is a primary diagnostic tool in patients suffering from heart disease, underscoring the importance of understanding factors contributing to normal and abnormal electrical patterns. Over the past few decades, transgenic mouse models have been increasingly used to study pathophysiological mechanisms of human heart diseases. In order to allow extrapolation of insights gained from murine models to the human condition, knowledge of the similarities and differences between the mouse and human ECG is of crucial importance. In this review, we briefly discuss the physiological mechanisms underlying differences between the baseline ECG of humans and mice, and provide a framework for understanding how these inherent differences are relevant to the interpretation of the mouse ECG during pathology and to the translation of the results from the mouse to man. PMID:25260630

  11. An innovative non-contact ECG sensor for monitoring heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ye; Yu, Xiong (Bill); Berilla, Jim

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a non-contact sensing platform to monitor the ECG signals. The non-contact sensing will be based on capacitive coupling the bioelectricity produced by cardiovascular activities around the heart. High sensitivity sensor and electronics are designed to amplify the signals. Our preliminary study has pointed to the promise of this sensing concept. A sensor prototype was able to clearly detect the ECG signals from 10 cm away from the body. Research tasks continue improving the sensor design to detect the polarization in the ECG signals. The final goal is a non-contact sensing platform for ECG signals and for real time diagnostics of the mental distress and cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Adaptive sensing of ECG signals using R-R interval prediction.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Shogo; Nakamura, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    There is growing demand for systems consisting of tiny sensor nodes powered with small batteries that acquire electrocardiogram (ECG) data and wirelessly transmit the data to remote base stations or mobile phones continuously over a long period. Conserving electric power in the wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) is essential in such systems. Adaptive sensing is promising for this purpose since it can reduce the energy consumed not only for data transmission but also for sensing. However, the basic method of adaptive sensing, referred to here as "plain adaptive sensing," is not suitable for ECG signals because it sometimes capture the R waves defectively. We introduce an improved adaptive sensing method for ECG signals by incorporating R-R interval prediction. Our method improves the characteristics of ECG compression and drastically reduces the total energy consumption of the WSNs.

  13. A Human ECG Identification System Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhidong; Yang, Lei; Chen, Diandian; Luo, Yi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a human electrocardiogram (ECG) identification system based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is designed. A robust preprocessing method comprising noise elimination, heartbeat normalization and quality measurement is proposed to eliminate the effects of noise and heart rate variability. The system is independent of the heart rate. The ECG signal is decomposed into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and Welch spectral analysis is used to extract the significant heartbeat signal features. Principal component analysis is used reduce the dimensionality of the feature space, and the K-nearest neighbors (K-NN) method is applied as the classifier tool. The proposed human ECG identification system was tested on standard MIT-BIH ECG databases: the ST change database, the long-term ST database, and the PTB database. The system achieved an identification accuracy of 95% for 90 subjects, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of accuracy and robustness. PMID:23698274

  14. A Primary Study of Indirect ECG Monitor Embedded in a Bed for Home Health Care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Akinori; Shiogai, Yuuki; Ishiyama, Yoji

    A system for monitoring electrocardiogram (ECG) through clothes inserted between the measuring electrodes and the body surface of a subject when lying on a mattress has been proposed. The principle of the system is based on capacitive coupling involving the electrode, the clothes, and the skin. Validation of the system revealed the following: (1) In spite of the gain attenuation in the pass band of the system, distortion of the detected signal was subtle even when clothes thicker than 1mm were inserted, (2) The system was able to yield a stable ECG from a subject particularly during sound sleep, (3) The system succeeded in detecting ECG after changing the posture into any of supine, right lateral, or left lateral positions by adopting a newly devised electrode configuration. Therefore, the proposed system appears promising for application to bedding as a non-invasive and awareness-free system for ECG monitoring during sleep.

  15. [Study on mobile phone based wireless ECG monitoring technology system typical demonstration applications].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Liu, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Based on the mobile phone platform with wireless real-time ECG monitoring system developed in our lab, this article is dedicated to evaluate its practical value in people test. A series of new conceptual experiments were designed and performed. Particularly, ECG characteristics under different age, gender, health and motion conditions are evaluated. Effects of living habits such as drinking wine, coffee including various psychological conditions such as excitation, anxiety etc. to the ECG response are investigated. The human ECG under different time in a day such as morning, afternoon and late-night was evaluated. These conceptual experiments, which are hard to conduct otherwise using conventional devices, demonstrate the pervasive merits of the new system for fundamental study of heart disease as well as daily healthcare.

  16. [Development of a portable ECG monitor with diagnostic & therapeutic functions and its clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shou-nian; Jiang, Chen-xi; Cai, Yun-chang; Liu, Jun-shi; Fan, Yuan-yuan; Liu, Zhi-qin; Zhao, Ning; Wu, Qiang

    2005-01-01

    A portable ECG monitor is introduced in the paper, which has a temporary intravenous and transesophageal fixable rate pacing function. During the PSVT attack, the tachyarrythmia can be stopped by the transesophageal cardiac pacing while the ECG signals are monitored. The instrument has some advantages such as small size, low price and good practicality. It is worth while introducing and popularizing it to all hospitals.

  17. ECG Segmentation and P-Wave Feature Extraction: Application to Patients Prone to Atrial Fibrillation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    detection of patients prone to atrial fibrillation (AF), one of the most frequent arrhythmias. It focuses first on the segmentation of the...Keywords : atrial fibrillation , ECG segmentation, P-wave, hidden Markov model, wavelets, ECG database I. INTRODUCTION Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a very... atrial thrombosis, with the subsequent risk of a stroke. The aim of this study is to try to automatically detect patients prone to atrial fibrillation (AF

  18. Arrhythmia recognition and classification using combined linear and nonlinear features of ECG signals.

    PubMed

    Elhaj, Fatin A; Salim, Naomie; Harris, Arief R; Swee, Tan Tian; Ahmed, Taqwa

    2016-04-01

    Arrhythmia is a cardiac condition caused by abnormal electrical activity of the heart, and an electrocardiogram (ECG) is the non-invasive method used to detect arrhythmias or heart abnormalities. Due to the presence of noise, the non-stationary nature of the ECG signal (i.e. the changing morphology of the ECG signal with respect to time) and the irregularity of the heartbeat, physicians face difficulties in the diagnosis of arrhythmias. The computer-aided analysis of ECG results assists physicians to detect cardiovascular diseases. The development of many existing arrhythmia systems has depended on the findings from linear experiments on ECG data which achieve high performance on noise-free data. However, nonlinear experiments characterize the ECG signal more effectively sense, extract hidden information in the ECG signal, and achieve good performance under noisy conditions. This paper investigates the representation ability of linear and nonlinear features and proposes a combination of such features in order to improve the classification of ECG data. In this study, five types of beat classes of arrhythmia as recommended by the Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation are analyzed: non-ectopic beats (N), supra-ventricular ectopic beats (S), ventricular ectopic beats (V), fusion beats (F) and unclassifiable and paced beats (U). The characterization ability of nonlinear features such as high order statistics and cumulants and nonlinear feature reduction methods such as independent component analysis are combined with linear features, namely, the principal component analysis of discrete wavelet transform coefficients. The features are tested for their ability to differentiate different classes of data using different classifiers, namely, the support vector machine and neural network methods with tenfold cross-validation. Our proposed method is able to classify the N, S, V, F and U arrhythmia classes with high accuracy (98.91%) using a combined support

  19. Agreement between a smart-phone pulse sensor application and ECG for determining lnRMSSD.

    PubMed

    Esco, Michael R; Flatt, Andrew A; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2016-06-27

    The purpose of this study was to determine the agreement between a smartphone pulse finger sensor (SPFS) and electrocardiography (ECG) for determining ultra-short-term heart rate variability (HRV) in three different positions. Thirty college-aged men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) volunteered to participate in this study. Sixty second heart rate measures were simultaneously taken with the SPFS and ECG in supine, seated and standing positions. lnRMSSD was calculated from the SPFS and ECG. The lnRMSSD values were 81.5 ± 11.7 via ECG and 81.6 ± 11.3 via SPFS (p = 0.63, Cohen's d = 0.01) in the supine position, 76.5 ± 8.2 via ECG and 77.5 ± 8.2 via SPFS (p = 0.007, Cohen's d = 0.11) in the seated position, and 66.5 ± 9.2 via ECG and 67.8 ± 9.1 via SPFS (p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.15) in the standing positions. The SPFS showed a possibly strong correlation to the ECG in all three positions (r values from 0.98 to 0.99). In addition, the limits of agreement (CE ± 1.98 SD) were -0.13 ± 2.83 for the supine values, -0.94± 3.47 for the seated values, and -1.37 ± 3.56 for the standing values. The results of the study suggest good agreement between the SPFS and ECG for measuring lnRMSSD in supine, seated, and standing positions. Though significant differences were noted between the two methods in the seated and standing positions, the effect sizes were trivial.

  20. ECG Response of Koalas to Tourists Proximity: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Brooks, Lisa; Yamamoto, Maki; Kato, Akiko

    2009-01-01

    Koalas operate on a tight energy budget and, thus, may not always display behavioral avoidance reaction when placed in a stressful condition. We investigated the physiological response of captive koalas Phascolarctos cinereus in a conservation centre to the presence of tourists walking through their habitat. We compared, using animal-attached data-recorders, the electrocardiogram activity of female koalas in contact with tourists and in a human-free area. One of the koalas in the tourist zone presented elevated heart rate values and variability throughout the recording period. The remaining female in the exhibit area showed a higher field resting heart rates during the daytime than that in the isolated area. In the evening, heart rate profiles changed drastically and both the koalas in the exhibit and in the tourist-free zones displayed similar field resting heart rates, which were lower than those during the day. In parallel, the autonomic nervous systems of these two individuals evolved from sympathetic-dominant during the day to parasympathetic-dominant in the evening. Our results report ECG of free-living koalas for the first time. Although they are preliminary due to the difficulty of having sufficient samples of animals of the same sex and age, our results stress out the importance of studies investigating the physiological reaction of animals to tourists. PMID:19823679

  1. Human ECG indicators for fast screening and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, Marcin; DzierŻak, RóŻa; Surtel, Wojciech; Saran, Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    Telemedical system design and implementation requires numerous steps. It is necessary to evaluate the operation of algorithms responsible for analysis and detection of life-threatening situations. By performing ECG analysis it is possible to obtain information about the overall patient health condition as well as detailed information about the circulatory system condition. To achieve that goal one must gather, filter and process data. Data was gathered using a purposely built device from a group of four volunteers. Available data set was processed to obtain information about the patients condition. Pan-Tompkins algorithm was used to detect R peaks and calculate heart rhythm. Afterward the rest of parameters were extracted in time domain using windowed peak detection and polynomial estimation. The parameters were calculated as delays between appropriate points in the signal. The method proved to be able to extract parameters in some of the cases, and proved limited effectiveness in situations where physical activity was significant. It was nevertheless possible to eliminate noise from the mains, the trend and higher frequency noise Further improvements need to be introduced to increase the method's robustness in the presence of significant muscle noise.

  2. Ambulatory respiratory rate detection using ECG and a triaxial accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alexander M; Ferdosi, Nima; Narasimhan, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of respiratory rate in ambulatory conditions has widespread applications for screening of respiratory diseases and remote patient monitoring. Unfortunately, minimally obtrusive techniques often suffer from low accuracy. In this paper, we describe an algorithm with low computational complexity for combining multiple respiratory measurements to estimate breathing rate from an unobtrusive chest patch sensor. Respiratory rates derived from the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and modulation of the QRS amplitude of electrocardiography (ECG) are combined with a respiratory rate derived from tri-axial accelerometer data. The three respiration rates are combined by a weighted average using weights based on quality metrics for each signal. The algorithm was evaluated on 15 elderly subjects who performed spontaneous and metronome breathing as well as a variety of activities of daily living (ADLs). When compared to a reference device, the mean absolute error was 1.02 breaths per minute (BrPM) during metronome breathing, 1.67 BrPM during spontaneous breathing, and 2.03 BrPM during ADLs.

  3. Wireless long-term ECG integrated into clothing.

    PubMed

    Despang, Hans Günter; Netz, Steffen; Heinig, Andreas; Holland, Hans Jürgen; Fischer, Wolf Joachim

    2008-12-01

    The integration of electronic devices into clothing to monitor biosignals is demonstrated with the integration of a 3-channel ECG device into a shirt. It is shown that several basic requirements concerning the electronic design must be fulfilled, exceeding the capabilities of conventional portable systems. The application of flexible connection and housing technologies is addressed in the present paper. Printed boards should be flexible enough to adapt to movements of the human body. Small size as well as water-resistant or even washable construction is required. Additional points concern replacing the disturbing loose cable connections with a more integrated solution. A long period of operation without recharging the battery, uploading the data or changing the electrodes has to be achieved. The system should feature an uninterrupted 7-day operation period known as 24/7-monitoring regime. Starting with its specification, the basic design of the prototype is presented. First investigations have shown the washability of the shirt together with the inserted electronics.

  4. Investigations of sensitivity and resolution of ECG and MCG in a realistically shaped thorax model.

    PubMed

    Mäntynen, Ville; Konttila, Teijo; Stenroos, Matti

    2014-12-07

    Solving the inverse problem of electrocardiography (ECG) and magnetocardiography (MCG) is often referred to as cardiac source imaging. Spatial properties of ECG and MCG as imaging systems are, however, not well known. In this modelling study, we investigate the sensitivity and point-spread function (PSF) of ECG, MCG, and combined ECG+MCG as a function of source position and orientation, globally around the ventricles: signal topographies are modelled using a realistically-shaped volume conductor model, and the inverse problem is solved using a distributed source model and linear source estimation with minimal use of prior information. The results show that the sensitivity depends not only on the modality but also on the location and orientation of the source and that the sensitivity distribution is clearly reflected in the PSF. MCG can better characterize tangential anterior sources (with respect to the heart surface), while ECG excels with normally-oriented and posterior sources. Compared to either modality used alone, the sensitivity of combined ECG+MCG is less dependent on source orientation per source location, leading to better source estimates. Thus, for maximal sensitivity and optimal source estimation, the electric and magnetic measurements should be combined.

  5. Real-time CHF detection from ECG signals using a novel discretization method.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Umut

    2013-10-01

    This study proposes a new method, equal frequency in amplitude and equal width in time (EFiA-EWiT) discretization, to discriminate between congestive heart failure (CHF) and normal sinus rhythm (NSR) patterns in ECG signals. The ECG unit pattern concept was introduced to represent the standard RR interval, and our method extracted certain features from the unit patterns to classify by a primitive classifier. The proposed method was tested on two classification experiments by using ECG records in Physiobank databases and the results were compared to those from several previous studies. In the first experiment, an off-line classification was performed with unit patterns selected from long ECG segments. The method was also used to detect CHF by real-time ECG waveform analysis. In addition to demonstrating the success of the proposed method, the results showed that some unit patterns in a long ECG segment from a heart patient were more suggestive of disease than the others. These results indicate that the proposed approach merits additional research.

  6. Modulations of Heart Rate, ECG, and Cardio-Respiratory Coupling Observed in Polysomnography.

    PubMed

    Penzel, Thomas; Kantelhardt, Jan W; Bartsch, Ronny P; Riedl, Maik; Kraemer, Jan F; Wessel, Niels; Garcia, Carmen; Glos, Martin; Fietze, Ingo; Schöbel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The cardiac component of cardio-respiratory polysomnography is covered by ECG and heart rate recordings. However, their evaluation is often underrepresented in summarizing reports. As complements to EEG, EOG, and EMG, these signals provide diagnostic information for autonomic nervous activity during sleep. This review presents major methodological developments in sleep research regarding heart rate, ECG, and cardio-respiratory couplings in a chronological (historical) sequence. It presents physiological and pathophysiological insights related to sleep medicine obtained by new technical developments. Recorded nocturnal ECG facilitates conventional heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, studies of cyclical variations of heart rate, and analysis of ECG waveform. In healthy adults, the autonomous nervous system is regulated in totally different ways during wakefulness, slow-wave sleep, and REM sleep. Analysis of beat-to-beat heart-rate variations with statistical methods enables us to estimate sleep stages based on the differences in autonomic nervous system regulation. Furthermore, up to some degree, it is possible to track transitions from wakefulness to sleep by analysis of heart-rate variations. ECG and heart rate analysis allow assessment of selected sleep disorders as well. Sleep disordered breathing can be detected reliably by studying cyclical variation of heart rate combined with respiration-modulated changes in ECG morphology (amplitude of R wave and T wave).

  7. ECG Wave-Maven: a self-assessment program for students and clinicians.

    PubMed Central

    Nathanson, L. A.; Safran, C.; McClennen, S.; Goldberger, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    Proficiency in the interpretation of electrocardiograms (ECGs) is an essential skill for medical students, house officers, and attending physicians. However, resources to develop and upgrade the necessary high level of "ECG literacy" are limited. A small number of centers have attempted to address this challenge by developing "ECG of the week" internet sites. These resources are difficult to maintain and update, and many of them quickly become stagnant. We present "ECG Wave-Maven," an innovative web-based tutorial that overcomes these obstacles via a direct link to the hospital's extensive and increasing clinical ECG repository. By interfacing our educational tool to live data, we can greatly decrease the time and effort required from the time a practitioner notes an interesting case to its inclusion in the program. Users can opt to encounter the test cases sequentially or randomly, or by reviewing a list of questions or diagnoses, making this not just a quiz, but a basic educational reference. This tool may be useful in meeting the challenge of reducing serious medical errors related to ECG misinterpretation. PMID:11825236

  8. A configurable and low-power mixed signal SoC for portable ECG monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejung; Kim, Sunyoung; Van Helleputte, Nick; Artes, Antonio; Konijnenburg, Mario; Huisken, Jos; Van Hoof, Chris; Yazicioglu, Refet Firat

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes a mixed-signal ECG System-on-Chip (SoC) that is capable of implementing configurable functionality with low-power consumption for portable ECG monitoring applications. A low-voltage and high performance analog front-end extracts 3-channel ECG signals and single channel electrode-tissue-impedance (ETI) measurement with high signal quality. This can be used to evaluate the quality of the ECG measurement and to filter motion artifacts. A custom digital signal processor consisting of 4-way SIMD processor provides the configurability and advanced functionality like motion artifact removal and R peak detection. A built-in 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is capable of adaptive sampling achieving a compression ratio of up to 7, and loop buffer integration reduces the power consumption for on-chip memory access. The SoC is implemented in 0.18 μm CMOS process and consumes 32 μ W from a 1.2 V while heart beat detection application is running, and integrated in a wireless ECG monitoring system with Bluetooth protocol. Thanks to the ECG SoC, the overall system power consumption can be reduced significantly.

  9. Genetic algorithm for the optimization of features and neural networks in ECG signals classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongqiang; Yuan, Danyang; Ma, Xiangdong; Cui, Dianyin; Cao, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Feature extraction and classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are necessary for the automatic diagnosis of cardiac diseases. In this study, a novel method based on genetic algorithm-back propagation neural network (GA-BPNN) for classifying ECG signals with feature extraction using wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) is proposed. WPD combined with the statistical method is utilized to extract the effective features of ECG signals. The statistical features of the wavelet packet coefficients are calculated as the feature sets. GA is employed to decrease the dimensions of the feature sets and to optimize the weights and biases of the back propagation neural network (BPNN). Thereafter, the optimized BPNN classifier is applied to classify six types of ECG signals. In addition, an experimental platform is constructed for ECG signal acquisition to supply the ECG data for verifying the effectiveness of the proposed method. The GA-BPNN method with the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database achieved a dimension reduction of nearly 50% and produced good classification results with an accuracy of 97.78%. The experimental results based on the established acquisition platform indicated that the GA-BPNN method achieved a high classification accuracy of 99.33% and could be efficiently applied in the automatic identification of cardiac arrhythmias.

  10. Development of a portable Linux-based ECG measurement and monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chang, Ching-Su; Huang, Yung-Fa; Chen, Yung-Fu; Lee, Cheng

    2011-08-01

    This work presents a portable Linux-based electrocardiogram (ECG) signals measurement and monitoring system. The proposed system consists of an ECG front end and an embedded Linux platform (ELP). The ECG front end digitizes 12-lead ECG signals acquired from electrodes and then delivers them to the ELP via a universal serial bus (USB) interface for storage, signal processing, and graphic display. The proposed system can be installed anywhere (e.g., offices, homes, healthcare centers and ambulances) to allow people to self-monitor their health conditions at any time. The proposed system also enables remote diagnosis via Internet. Additionally, the system has a 7-in. interactive TFT-LCD touch screen that enables users to execute various functions, such as scaling a single-lead or multiple-lead ECG waveforms. The effectiveness of the proposed system was verified by using a commercial 12-lead ECG signal simulator and in vivo experiments. In addition to its portability, the proposed system is license-free as Linux, an open-source code, is utilized during software development. The cost-effectiveness of the system significantly enhances its practical application for personal healthcare.

  11. An efficient unsupervised fetal QRS complex detection from abdominal maternal ECG.

    PubMed

    Varanini, M; Tartarisco, G; Billeci, L; Macerata, A; Pioggia, G; Balocchi, R

    2014-08-01

    Non-invasive fetal heart rate is of great relevance in clinical practice to monitor fetal health state during pregnancy. To date, however, despite significant advances in the field of electrocardiography, the analysis of abdominal fetal ECG is considered a challenging problem for biomedical and signal processing communities. This is mainly due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of fetal ECG and difficulties in cancellation of maternal QRS complexes, motion and electromyographic artefacts. In this paper we present an efficient unsupervised algorithm for fetal QRS complex detection from abdominal multichannel signal recordings combining ICA and maternal ECG cancelling, which outperforms each single method. The signal is first pre-processed to remove impulsive artefacts, baseline wandering and power line interference. The following steps are then applied: maternal ECG extraction through independent component analysis (ICA); maternal QRS detection; maternal ECG cancelling through weighted singular value decomposition; enhancing of fetal ECG through ICA and fetal QRS detection. We participated in the Physionet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2013, obtaining the top official scores of the challenge (among 53 teams of participants) of event 1 and event 2 concerning fetal heart rate and fetal interbeat intervals estimation section. The developed algorithms are released as open-source on the Physionet website.

  12. Modulations of Heart Rate, ECG, and Cardio-Respiratory Coupling Observed in Polysomnography

    PubMed Central

    Penzel, Thomas; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Riedl, Maik; Kraemer, Jan F.; Wessel, Niels; Garcia, Carmen; Glos, Martin; Fietze, Ingo; Schöbel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The cardiac component of cardio-respiratory polysomnography is covered by ECG and heart rate recordings. However, their evaluation is often underrepresented in summarizing reports. As complements to EEG, EOG, and EMG, these signals provide diagnostic information for autonomic nervous activity during sleep. This review presents major methodological developments in sleep research regarding heart rate, ECG, and cardio-respiratory couplings in a chronological (historical) sequence. It presents physiological and pathophysiological insights related to sleep medicine obtained by new technical developments. Recorded nocturnal ECG facilitates conventional heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, studies of cyclical variations of heart rate, and analysis of ECG waveform. In healthy adults, the autonomous nervous system is regulated in totally different ways during wakefulness, slow-wave sleep, and REM sleep. Analysis of beat-to-beat heart-rate variations with statistical methods enables us to estimate sleep stages based on the differences in autonomic nervous system regulation. Furthermore, up to some degree, it is possible to track transitions from wakefulness to sleep by analysis of heart-rate variations. ECG and heart rate analysis allow assessment of selected sleep disorders as well. Sleep disordered breathing can be detected reliably by studying cyclical variation of heart rate combined with respiration-modulated changes in ECG morphology (amplitude of R wave and T wave). PMID:27826247

  13. Wavelet-Based ECG Steganography for Protecting Patient Confidential Information in Point-of-Care Systems.

    PubMed

    Ibaida, Ayman; Khalil, Ibrahim

    2013-12-01

    With the growing number of aging population and a significant portion of that suffering from cardiac diseases, it is conceivable that remote ECG patient monitoring systems are expected to be widely used as point-of-care (PoC) applications in hospitals around the world. Therefore, huge amount of ECG signal collected by body sensor networks from remote patients at homes will be transmitted along with other physiological readings such as blood pressure, temperature, glucose level, etc., and diagnosed by those remote patient monitoring systems. It is utterly important that patient confidentiality is protected while data are being transmitted over the public network as well as when they are stored in hospital servers used by remote monitoring systems. In this paper, a wavelet-based steganography technique has been introduced which combines encryption and scrambling technique to protect patient confidential data. The proposed method allows ECG signal to hide its corresponding patient confidential data and other physiological information thus guaranteeing the integration between ECG and the rest. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed technique on the ECG signal, two distortion measurement metrics have been used: the percentage residual difference and the wavelet weighted PRD. It is found that the proposed technique provides high-security protection for patients data with low (less than 1%) distortion and ECG data remain diagnosable after watermarking (i.e., hiding patient confidential data) and as well as after watermarks (i.e., hidden data) are removed from the watermarked data.

  14. Artificial neural network-based classification of body movements in ambulatory ECG signal.

    PubMed

    Darji, Sachin T; Kher, Rahul K

    2013-11-01

    Abstract Ambulatory ECG monitoring provides electrical activity of the heart when a person is involved in doing normal routine activities. Thus, the recorded ECG signal consists of cardiac signal along with motion artifacts introduced due to a person's body movements during routine activities. Detection of motion artifacts due to different physical activities might help in further cardiac diagnosis. Ambulatory ECG signal analysis for detection of various motion artifacts using adaptive filtering approach is addressed in this paper. We have used BIOPAC MP 36 system for acquiring ECG signal. The ECG signals of five healthy subjects (aged between 22-30 years) were recorded while the person performed various body movements like up and down movement of the left hand, up and down movement of the right hand, waist twisting movement while standing and change from sitting down on a chair to standing up movement in lead I configuration. An adaptive filter-based approach has been used to extract the motion artifact component from the ambulatory ECG signal. The features of motion artifact signal, extracted using Gabor transform, have been used to train the artificial neural network (ANN) for classifying body movements.

  15. Low-cost compact ECG with graphic LCD and phonocardiogram system design.

    PubMed

    Kara, Sadik; Kemaloğlu, Semra; Kirbaş, Samil

    2006-06-01

    Till today, many different ECG devices are made in developing countries. In this study, low cost, small size, portable LCD screen ECG device, and phonocardiograph were designed. With designed system, heart sounds that take synchronously with ECG signal are heard as sensitive. Improved system consist three units; Unit 1, ECG circuit, filter and amplifier structure. Unit 2, heart sound acquisition circuit. Unit 3, microcontroller, graphic LCD and ECG signal sending unit to computer. Our system can be used easily in different departments of the hospital, health institution and clinics, village clinic and also in houses because of its small size structure and other benefits. In this way, it is possible that to see ECG signal and hear heart sounds as synchronously and sensitively. In conclusion, heart sounds are heard on the part of both doctor and patient because sounds are given to environment with a tiny speaker. Thus, the patient knows and hears heart sounds him/herself and is acquainted by doctor about healthy condition.

  16. Electrocardiographic systems with reduced numbers of leads-synthesis of the 12-lead ECG.

    PubMed

    Tomašić, Ivan; Trobec, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Systems with reduced numbers of leads that can synthesize the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) with an insignificant or a small loss of diagnostic information have been proposed. The advantage over standard 12-lead ECG systems is the smaller number of measurement sites (i.e., electrodes) and, consequently, fewer wires. In this paper, we review all the important systems with reduced numbers of leads together with the methodology for synthesizing the leads. The fundamental theoretical background necessary to understand the most important concepts related to the synthesis is included. The presented theoretical and experimental justifications for the synthesis show that it is not necessary to measure a large number of leads directly, because the standard 12-lead ECG and arbitrary additional leads can be synthesized. Various approaches to evaluating the synthesized 12-lead ECG are defined and explained, and a number of systems that synthesize 12-lead ECG are presented as they were introduced in the literature. We cover the developments and improvements from the 1940s to the present day. The systems are classified on the basis of the synthesis method used, the approach to the evaluation of the synthesized ECG (depending on the measurement sites used), and on the number and types of leads employed. Based on a detailed assessment of state-of-the-art systems, open problems and challenges are highlighted, while further developments of electrocardiographic systems are envisaged.

  17. Genetic algorithm for the optimization of features and neural networks in ECG signals classification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongqiang; Yuan, Danyang; Ma, Xiangdong; Cui, Dianyin; Cao, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Feature extraction and classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are necessary for the automatic diagnosis of cardiac diseases. In this study, a novel method based on genetic algorithm-back propagation neural network (GA-BPNN) for classifying ECG signals with feature extraction using wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) is proposed. WPD combined with the statistical method is utilized to extract the effective features of ECG signals. The statistical features of the wavelet packet coefficients are calculated as the feature sets. GA is employed to decrease the dimensions of the feature sets and to optimize the weights and biases of the back propagation neural network (BPNN). Thereafter, the optimized BPNN classifier is applied to classify six types of ECG signals. In addition, an experimental platform is constructed for ECG signal acquisition to supply the ECG data for verifying the effectiveness of the proposed method. The GA-BPNN method with the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database achieved a dimension reduction of nearly 50% and produced good classification results with an accuracy of 97.78%. The experimental results based on the established acquisition platform indicated that the GA-BPNN method achieved a high classification accuracy of 99.33% and could be efficiently applied in the automatic identification of cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:28139677

  18. Self-organized neural network for the quality control of 12-lead ECG signals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Yang, Hui

    2012-09-01

    Telemedicine is very important for the timely delivery of health care to cardiovascular patients, especially those who live in the rural areas of developing countries. However, there are a number of uncertainty factors inherent to the mobile-phone-based recording of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals such as personnel with minimal training and other extraneous noises. PhysioNet organized a challenge in 2011 to develop efficient algorithms that can assess the ECG signal quality in telemedicine settings. This paper presents our efforts in this challenge to integrate multiscale recurrence analysis with a self-organizing map for controlling the ECG signal quality. As opposed to directly evaluating the 12-lead ECG, we utilize an information-preserving transform, i.e. Dower transform, to derive the 3-lead vectorcardiogram (VCG) from the 12-lead ECG in the first place. Secondly, we delineate the nonlinear and nonstationary characteristics underlying the 3-lead VCG signals into multiple time-frequency scales. Furthermore, a self-organizing map is trained, in both supervised and unsupervised ways, to identify the correlations between signal quality and multiscale recurrence features. The efficacy and robustness of this approach are validated using real-world ECG recordings available from PhysioNet. The average performance was demonstrated to be 95.25% for the training dataset and 90.0% for the independent test dataset with unknown labels.

  19. CNT/PDMS composite flexible dry electrodes for long-term ECG monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ha-Chul; Moon, Jin-Hee; Baek, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Hee; Choi, Yoon-Young; Hong, Joung-Sook; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2012-05-01

    We fabricated a carbon nanotube (CNT)/ polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite-based dry ECG electrode that can be readily connected to conventional ECG devices, and showed its long-term wearable monitoring capability and robustness to motion and sweat. While the dispersion of CNTs in PDMS is challenging, we optimized the process to disperse untreated CNTs within PDMS by mechanical force only. The electrical and mechanical characteristics of the CNT/PDMS electrode were tested according to the concentration of CNTs and its thickness. The performances of ECG electrodes were evaluated by using 36 types of electrodes which were fabricated with different concentrations of CNTs, and with a differing diameter and thickness. The ECG signals were obtained by using electrodes of diverse sizes to observe the effects of motion and sweat, and the proposed electrode was shown to be robust to both factors. The CNT concentration and diameter of the electrodes were critical parameters in obtaining high-quality ECG signals. The electrode was shown to be biocompatible from the cytotoxicity test. A seven-day continuous wearability test showed that the quality of the ECG signal did not degrade over time, and skin reactions such as itching or erythema were not observed. This electrode could be used for the long-term measurement of other electrical biosignals for ubiquitous health monitoring including EMG, EEG, and ERG.

  20. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. Screening for cardiovascular risk factors is recommended but not always followed in this population. PHASER is a project charged with identifying and prioritizing risk factors in emergency responders. We have deployed an advanced ECG (A-ECG) system developed at NASA for improved sensitivity and specificity in the detection of cardiac risk. METHODS Forty-four professional firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance and laboratory tests for fasting lipid profiles and glucose. Heart rate and conventional 12-lead ECG were obtained at rest and during incremental treadmill exercise testing (XT). In addition, a 5-min resting 12-lead A-ECG was obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=18) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a physician collaborator at NASA for advanced-ECG analysis. This A-ECG system has been proven, using myocardial perfusion and other imaging, to accurately identify a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS Subjects mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI of 28 (3) kg/square meter. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 39 (9) ml/kg/min. This compares with the 45th %ile in healthy reference values and a recommended standard of 42 ml/kg/min for firefighters. The metabolic threshold (VO

  1. Analysis of long term heart rate variability: methods, 1/f scaling and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saul, J. P.; Albrecht, P.; Berger, R. D.; Cohen, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of spectral techniques to quantify short term heart rate fluctuations on the order of seconds to minutes has helped define the autonomic contributions to beat-to-beat control of heart rate. We used similar techniques to quantify the entire spectrum (0.00003-1.0 Hz) of heart rate variability during 24 hour ambulatory ECG monitoring. The ECG from standard Holter monitor recordings from normal subjects was sampled with the use of a phase locked loop, and a heart rate time series was constructed at 3 Hz. Frequency analysis of the heart rate signal was performed after a nonlinear filtering algorithm was used to eliminate artifacts. A power spectrum of the entire 24 hour record revealed power that was inversely proportional to frequency, 1/f, over 4 decades from 0.00003 to 0.1 Hz (period approximately 10 hours to 10 seconds). Displaying consecutive spectra calculated at 5 minute intervals revealed marked variability in the peaks at all frequencies throughout the 24 hours, probably accounting for the lack of distinct peaks in the spectra of the entire records.

  2. Intraoperative MRI electrical noise and monitor ECG filters affect arrhythmia detection and identification.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Melissa; Kirchen, Gwynne; Bonaventura, Bridget; Rosborough, Kelly; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Dzwonczyk, Roger

    2012-06-01

    Most electrical equipment in the modern operating room (OR) radiates electrical noise (EN) that can interfere with patient monitors. We have described the EN that an intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) system emits and have shown that this high-energy EN diminishes the quality of the ECG waveform during iMRI scans in our neurosurgical OR. We have also shown that the ECG signal filters in our iMRI-compatible patient monitor reduce this interference but, in the process, disturb the true morphology of the displayed waveform. This simulation study evaluates how iMRI-generated EN affects the ability of the anesthetist to detect and identify ECG arrhythmias and whether the patient monitor's ECG signal filters can improve arrhythmia recognition. Using an ECG simulator, we generated Lead II and V5 ECG signal segments that contained either no arrhythmia or one of four common cardiac arrhythmias. We filtered the ECG segments with four filters available on our iMRI-compatible monitor (Veris MR, MEDRAD Inc., Indianola, PA USA). We then digitized the segments and mixed simulated iMRI EN into the resultant tracings. With institutional approval and written informed consent, board-certified anesthesiologists reviewed the tracings, determined if an arrhythmia was present and identified the arrhythmia. We conducted the study anonymously. We reported the data as percent correct arrhythmia detection and correct arrhythmia identification. Thirty-one anesthesiologists completed the study. Overall, the participants correctly detected 79.5% (95% CI: 77.2, 81.7%) of the arrhythmias and correctly identified 62.5% (95% CI: 59.8, 65.3%) of the arrhythmias, regardless of EN presence. Although the proportions among monitor noise filters studied were not significant, the manufacturer-designated MR5 Veris MR filter optimized arrhythmia detection and arrhythmia identification for our participants, regardless if EN was present in the ECG tracings. In the neurosurgical OR, the

  3. The clinical application of a PACS-dependent 12-lead ECG and image information system in E-medicine and telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jui-Chien; Lo, Hsiu-Chiung

    2010-08-01

    This study presents a software technology to transform paper-based 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) examination into (1) 12-lead ECG electronic diagnoses (e-diagnoses) and (2) mobile diagnoses (m-diagnoses) in emergency telemedicine. While Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-based images are commonly used in hospitals, the development of computerized 12-lead ECG is impeded by heterogeneous data formats of clinically used 12-lead ECG instrumentations, such as Standard Communications Protocol (SCP) ECG and Extensible Markup Language (XML) ECG. Additionally, there is no data link between clinically used 12-lead ECG instrumentations and mobile devices. To realize computerized 12-lead ECG examination procedures and ECG telemedicine, this study develops a DICOM-based 12-lead ECG information system capable of providing clinicians with medical images and waveform-based ECG diagnoses via Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). First, a waveform-based DICOM-ECG converter transforming clinically used SCP-ECG and XML-ECG to DICOM is applied to PACS for image- and waveform-based DICOM file manipulation. Second, a mobile Structured Query Language database communicating with PACS is installed in physicians' mobile phones so that they can retrieve images and waveform-based ECG ubiquitously. Clinical evaluations of this system indicated the following. First, this developed PACS-dependent 12-lead ECG information system improves 12-lead ECG management and interoperability. Second, this system enables the remote physicians to perform ubiquitous 12-lead ECG and image diagnoses, which enhances the efficiency of emergency telemedicine. These findings prove the effectiveness and usefulness of the PACS-dependent 12-lead ECG information system, which can be easily adopted in telemedicine.

  4. The chaos and order in human ECG under the influence of the external perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragulskaya, Maria; Valeriy, Pipin

    The results of the many-year telecommunication heliomedical monitoring "Heliomed" show, that space weather and geophysical factor variations serve as a training factor for the adaptation-resistant member of the human population. Here we discuss the specific properties of the human ECG discovered in our experiment. The program "Heliomed" is carried out simultaneously at the different geographical areas that cover the different latitudes. The daily registered param-eters include: the psycho-emotional tests and the 1-st lead ECG, the arterial pressure, the variability cardiac contraction, the electric conduction of bioactive points on skin. The results time series compared with daily values of space weather and geomagnetic parameters. The analysis of ECG signal proceeds as follows. At first step we construct the ECG embedding into 3D phase space using the first 3 Principal Components of the ECG time series. Next, we divide ECG on the separate cycles using the maxima of the ECG's QRS complex. Then, we filter out the non-typical ECG beats by means of the Housdorff distance. Finally, we average the example of the ECG time series along the reference trajectory and study of the dynamical characteristics of the averaged ECG beat. It is found, that the ECG signal embeded in 3D phase space can be considered as a mix of a few states. At the rest, the occurrence of the primary ECG state compare to additional ones is about 8:2. The occurrence of the primary state increases after the stress. The main effect of the external perturbation is observed in structural change of the cardio-cycle and not in the variability of the R-R interval. The num-ber of none-typical cycles increase during an isolated magnetic storm. At the all monitoring centers participating experiment the same type of changes in the cardiac activity parameters is detected to go nearly simultaneously during an isolated magnetic storm. To understand the origin of the standard cardio-cycle changes we use the dynamical

  5. Transform Domain Robust Variable Step Size Griffiths' Adaptive Algorithm for Noise Cancellation in ECG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Veena; Deekshit, Ravishankar; Satyanarayana, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is widely used for diagnosis of heart diseases. Good quality of ECG is utilized by physicians for interpretation and identification of physiological and pathological phenomena. However, in real situations, ECG recordings are often corrupted by artifacts or noise. Noise severely limits the utility of the recorded ECG and thus needs to be removed, for better clinical evaluation. In the present paper a new noise cancellation technique is proposed for removal of random noise like muscle artifact from ECG signal. A transform domain robust variable step size Griffiths' LMS algorithm (TVGLMS) is proposed for noise cancellation. For the TVGLMS, the robust variable step size has been achieved by using the Griffiths' gradient which uses cross-correlation between the desired signal contaminated with observation or random noise and the input. The algorithm is discrete cosine transform (DCT) based and uses symmetric property of the signal to represent the signal in frequency domain with lesser number of frequency coefficients when compared to that of discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The algorithm is implemented for adaptive line enhancer (ALE) filter which extracts the ECG signal in a noisy environment using LMS filter adaptation. The proposed algorithm is found to have better convergence error/misadjustment when compared to that of ordinary transform domain LMS (TLMS) algorithm, both in the presence of white/colored observation noise. The reduction in convergence error achieved by the new algorithm with desired signal decomposition is found to be lower than that obtained without decomposition. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is better than traditional adaptive filter using LMS algorithm in the aspects of retaining geometrical characteristics of ECG signal.

  6. Construction of a Resting High Fidelity ECG "SuperScore" for Management and Screening of Heart Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Delgado, Reynolds; Poulin, Greg; Starc, Vito; Arenare, Brian; Rahman, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Resting conventional ECG is notoriously insensitive for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) and only nominally useful in screening for cardiomyopathy (CM). Similarly, conventional exercise stress test ECG is both time- and labor-consuming and its accuracy in identifying CAD is suboptimal for use in population screening. We retrospectively investigated the accuracy of several advanced resting electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters, both alone and in combination, for detecting CAD and cardiomyopathy (CM).

  7. Reduction of Motion Artifacts and Improvement of R Peak Detecting Accuracy Using Adjacent Non-Intrusive ECG Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Minho; Jeong, J