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Sample records for 24-hour pad weight

  1. Rethinking the Youth Weight Debate: The 24 Hour Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Graham; Biggs, Sarah; Agley, Daniel; Dollman, James; Lushington, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Approaches to weight management have traditionally focussed on caloric intake versus caloric expenditure. Despite a range of interventions based on these approaches, the proportion of overweight children and adolescents continues to rise. There are increasing indications that other factors, such as sleep duration, may be at play. This commentary…

  2. Identifying nutrients that are under-reported by an automated 24-hour dietary recall method in overweight and obese women after weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underreporting of energy intake by 15-50% is a common problem in dietary assessment. Evidence suggests overweight/obese respondents are more likely to under-report than normal weight. This study compared Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24)-reported dietary intake to true intake in ove...

  3. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  4. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  5. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  6. HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND 24-HOUR MINIMUM HEART RATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heart rate variability (HRV) indices based on 24-hour electrocardiograph recordings have been used in clinical research studies to assess the aggregate activity of the autonomic nervous system. While 24-hour HRV is generally considered non-invasive, use in research protocols typically involves cons...

  7. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  8. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  9. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  10. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  11. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  12. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work. PMID:8899576

  13. Chapter 4: 24-hour recall and diet record methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two methods described in this chapter, the 24-hour dietary recall (24hdr) and the food record (FR) method, are the currently preferred methods of dietary intake assessment, and are based on foods and amounts actually consumed by an individual on one or more specific days. This minimizes some sou...

  14. The 24 Hours before Hospitalization: Factors Related to Suicide Attempting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, John A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Psychiatric inpatients (N=59) were interviewd concerning psychological and environmental events that occurred in the 24 hours prior to their hospitalization. Suicide attempters were more likely to have used alcohol or marijuana and less likely to have contacted a health care professional than suicide ideators, even when past history of suicide…

  15. Mesh skin graft and digital pad transfer to reconstruct the weight-bearing surface in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Sheila C.; Mortari, Ana C.; Morishin Filho, Milton M.

    2007-01-01

    A 2-month-old dog was presented with injuries involving both hind paws. Only the 5th digit and its digital pad were present on the right paw. Following a full-thickness skin graft, the 5th digital pad was transferred distal to the metatarsal bones. The transferred pad permitted weight-bearing on the limb. PMID:18189047

  16. Breast milk intake: 12 hour versus 24 hour assessment.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, M; Pittard, W

    1982-11-01

    Letter to the editor commenting on "Clinical and field studies of human lactation: methodological considerations," by Brown et al. The point is made that in test-weighing infants to estimate breast milk intake, culture related breastfeeding practices must be studied before a 12 hour test period is used to estimate intake for a complete 24 hour period. In western cultures milk intake between 7 am and 7 pm was found to differ significantly from intake between 7 pm and 7 am, whereas in a Bangladesh study milk intake during the 2 12 hour periods was comparable. PMID:7137079

  17. After 24-hour scrub, another tower rollback for the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    As tower rollback begins, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for the second launch attempt at 4:04 p.m. EST. The original launch was scrubbed on Feb. 6 for 24 hours. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  18. [Isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex from the "24-hour bath"].

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Murakami, K; Ishii, N; Kwon, H H

    2000-01-01

    The "24-HOUR BATH" is an apparatus which circulates the bath water, keeps it clean and warm, and makes it possible to take a bath at any time during the day or night. It consists of apparatus for cleaning (sponge or mesh filter and filter material), heating (ceramic heater), and sterilizing (UV lamp). Recently, three cases of skin disease due to M. avium infection in private homes, in which "24-HOUR BATH" water was suspected to be the source of infection, have been reported. We attempted to isolate M. avium complex from the water (32 specimens), sponge filter (29 specimens), and filter material (32 specimens) of the "24-HOUR BATH". One hundred-ml samples of bath water, and 50-ml samples of rinse from a sponge filter or filter material were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 20 min. Sediment was suspended in distilled water and a smear was prepared, and then digested and decontaminated with 2% sodium hydroxide. The processed specimens were cultured on 2% Ogawa medium containing ofloxacin (1 microgram/ml) and ethambutol (2.5 micrograms/ml) for 8 weeks at 37 degrees C. Positive smears were 3 (9.4%), 25 (86.2%) and 25 (78.1%) specimens from the water, sponge and filter material, respectively. A few bacterial clumps were observed, especially in the sponge specimens. The number of positive culture was 5 (15.6%), 24 (82.8%) and 25 (78.1%) from the water, sponge and filter material, respectively. Among them the number of Runyon's Group III-positive cultures was 5 (100%), 22 (91.7%) and 20 (80%) in the water, sponge, and filter material specimens, respectively. In most cases, cultures were positive for both the sponge and filter material specimens. All of the Group III mycobacteria were smooth, grew at 28, 37, 42, and 45 degrees C, negative for niacin, nitrate reductase, semiquantitative catalase, urease and Tween80 hydrolysis, and positive for 68 degrees C catalase. All of the strains reacted with M. avium complex AccuProbe and M. avium AccuProbe, but none of the strains reacted

  19. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286–4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the

  20. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work–social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns. PMID:23957268

  1. [Necessity of a 24-hour system of blood transfusion testing].

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    The preventive effects of a 24-hour system of blood transfusion testing on mistyping of transfused blood was examined. Blood transfusion tests have been performed by blood transfusion technologists during working hours and by physicians at other times. In March 2000, we introduced a system in which technologists perform blood transfusion tests after working hours. Technologists of the Blood Transfusion Unit and Central Clinical Laboratory perform the test jointly, and column agglutination technology was introduced as the test method. A computer system setup exclusively for the testing was also introduced to perform computer cross-matching. Since transfusion error is likely to occur during emergency blood transfusion, a manual was established to prioritize safety. After introduction of the system, mistyping that may have been caused by inaccurate blood test results markedly decreased, confirming the usefulness of this system for prevention of mistyping. In addition, transfusion errors also decreased in wards and the improved system increased the safety of the entire medical care system. The frequency of mistyping was about 1% when physicians performed blood typing, showing the importance of clinical technologists for blood transfusion tests. PMID:12652691

  2. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Geoffrey L.; Zaharieva, Dessi; Basset, Fabien A.; Hynes, Zach

    2016-01-01

    Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (Tc) and cognitive test battery (CTB) performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature). Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold) were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease Tc after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5–1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance. PMID:27478839

  3. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation.

    PubMed

    Taber, Michael J; Hartley, Geoffrey L; McGarr, Gregory W; Zaharieva, Dessi; Basset, Fabien A; Hynes, Zach; Haman, Francois; Pinet, Bernard M; DuCharme, Michel B; Cheung, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (T c) and cognitive test battery (CTB) performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature). Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold) were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease T c after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5-1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance. PMID:27478839

  4. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ehr, I J; Kerr, B J; Persia, M E

    2015-07-01

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, which have a greater potential for peroxidation. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of peroxidized corn oil on broiler performance, dietary AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight. The same refined corn oil sample was divided into 3 subsamples, 2 of which were exposed to different peroxidative processes. The 3 diets contained the unperoxidized corn oil (UO), a slowly peroxidized corn oil (SO; heated for 72 h at 95°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min), or a rapidly peroxidized corn oil (RO; heated for 12 h at 185°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min). Diets were fed from 0 to 14 d of age with each lipid fed at a 5% inclusion rate, continuing on from 15 to 27 d of age with each lipid fed at a 10% inclusion rate. There were 6 Ross 708 broiler chicks per cage with 10 replicates for each of the 3 dietary treatments. Abdominal fat pad and excreta collection was performed on d 27. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured for the 0 to 14 and 0 to 27 d periods. The increased level of peroxidation reduced AMEn in broiler diets (UO = 3,490 kcal/kg; SO = 3,402 kcal/kg; RO = 3,344 kcal/kg on an as-is basis; SEM = 12.9, P ≤ 0.01). No significant treatment differences were observed among oil supplemented birds for BW gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, or abdominal fat pad weight. In conclusion, corn oil peroxidation status resulted in a decrease in dietary AMEn, but had minimal effects on broiler performance or fat pad weights. PMID:26015587

  5. Preparation and results of a 24-hour orbital flight.

    PubMed

    Titov, G S

    1963-01-01

    The space age presents man with unprecedented opportunities for discovery and for cooperative endeavors to benefit all mankind. My flight of August 6-7, 1961 was conducted for the purpose of determining whether man can stay and work effectively and whether all systems of the spaceship can operate successfully during a period of 24 hours in space. The flight of Vostok II represents an experimental step in a logical sequence which included the first earth orbiting flight of USSR citizen Yuri A. Gagarin. Preparation for the flight included the study of theoretical and applied subjects, testing in various kinds of apparatus which provide acceleration, heat and isolation experience, brief airborne weightless flights and parachute landings, in addition to extensive training in a real spacecraft having simulators for normal and emergency contingencies of space flight. The actual flight was therefore carried out with a sense of confidence and familiarity and with continuous close radio contact with ground centers from whom my fellow cosmonauts served as spokesmen. Sequential boosters totaling 600 000 kg thrust placed the 4731 kg spaceship into a perfect orbit varying in altitude from 178-246 km in a plane 64 degrees 58' inclined to the equator. The spaceship made 17 orbits around the earth landing 25 hours, 18 minutes after take-off. The cabin had full atmospheric pressure and a comfortable habitability which could be extended for 10 days. I was able to maneuver the spaceship and perform many other control functions, make observations and take pictures of the earth and its cloud cover, eat meals and sleep all with good efficiency. I experienced mild symptoms suggestive of seasickness which were aggravated by head turning, ameliorated by sleep and entirely relieved by resumption of g-loading during descent. Altogether analyses of the physical and structural performance of the spaceship and the continuously monitored physiological responses of the pilot indicate that all

  6. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust launches on time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Flames sear the pristine blue sky behind the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft after the 4:04:15 p.m. launch from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. A 24- hour scrub postponed the launch from the originally scheduled date of Feb. 6. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  7. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust waits for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the late morning light at Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Cananveral Air Station, the fixed utility tower (right) casts a long shadow across the base of the Boeing Delta II rocket (left) waiting to launch the Stardust spacecraft. After a 24-hour scrub, the new targeted launch time is 4:04 p.m. EST. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  8. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust waits for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    After a 24-hour postponement, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for its scheduled launch at 4:04 p.m. EST. Umbilical lines (at top) still attached to the fixed utility tower (at right) feed electricity, air conditioning and coolants for the Stardust spacecraft inside the fairing (enclosing the upper stage) before launch. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  9. Reliability and Predictive Validity of Caloric Intake Measures from the 24-Hour Dietary Recalls of Homebound Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanhui; Roth, David L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Locher, Julie L.

    2010-01-01

    24-hour dietary recalls are used frequently to study homebound older adults’ eating behaviors. However, the reliability and predictive validity of this method have not been established in this population. The purpose of this study is to examine whether homebound older adults provide reliable and valid measures of total caloric intake in 24-hour dietary recalls. 230 homebound older adults were interviewed in their homes using a questionnaire to assess eating behaviors and factors that could affect those behaviors. Participants completed three 24-hour dietary recalls at baseline and again at 6-month follow-up. Two sub-samples were identified for analyses. For participants who were not hospitalized during the 6-month interval and had their weight measured at both assessments (n = 52), sufficient test-retest reliability of caloric intake was observed (r = 0.59); but caloric intake deficiencies relative to estimated energy requirements did not predict actual weight loss (r = 0.08). When this sample was supplemented with 91 participants who experienced any adverse event (weight loss of 2.5% or more, hospitalization, institutionalization, or mortality) in the 6-month period (n = 143), adverse events were more likely to occur for those with insufficient caloric intake (odds ratio = 3.49, p = .009), and in White participants compared to African American participants (odds ratio = 3.13, p=0.016). Adequate test-retest reliability of the 24-hour dietary recall was demonstrated, but additional research with larger samples and longer follow-up intervals are needed to better evaluate the predictive validity of caloric intake measures for this population. PMID:20430140

  10. A 24-Hour Study of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary Axes in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nambron, Rajasree; Costelloe, Seán J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hill, Nathan R.; Frost, Chris; Watt, Hilary C.; Hindmarsh, Peter; Björkqvist, Maria; Warner, Thomas T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Huntington’s disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Patients exhibit other symptoms including sleep and mood disturbances, muscle atrophy and weight loss which may be linked to hypothalamic pathology and dysfunction of hypothalamo-pituitary axes. Methods We studied neuroendocrine profiles of corticotropic, somatotropic and gonadotropic hypothalamo-pituitary axes hormones over a 24-hour period in controlled environment in 15 healthy controls, 14 premanifest and 13 stage II/III Huntington’s disease subjects. We also quantified fasting levels of vasopressin, oestradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free total thyroxine, prolactin, adrenaline and noradrenaline. Somatotropic axis hormones, growth hormone releasing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like factor binding protein-3 were quantified at 06:00 (fasting), 15:00 and 23:00. A battery of clinical tests, including neurological rating and function scales were performed. Results 24-hour concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone did not differ significantly between the Huntington’s disease group and controls. Daytime growth hormone secretion was similar in control and Huntington’s disease subjects. Stage II/III Huntington’s disease subjects had lower concentration of post-sleep growth hormone pulse and higher insulin-like growth factor-1:growth hormone ratio which did not reach significance. In Huntington’s disease subjects, baseline levels of hypothalamo-pituitary axis hormones measured did not significantly differ from those of healthy controls. Conclusions The relatively small subject group means that the study may not detect subtle perturbations in hormone concentrations. A targeted study of the somatotropic axis in larger cohorts may be warranted. However, the lack

  11. A comparison between 24-hour and 2-hour urine collection for the determination of proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Somanathan, N; Farrell, T; Galimberti, A

    2003-07-01

    Proteinuria is one of the fundamental criteria for the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia with quantitative assessment based on the 24-hour urine protein estimation as the gold standard. This study was undertaken to determine whether a 2-hour protein estimation correlated with that of a formal 24-hour collection. Thirty women with proteinuric hypertension were recruited. There was significant correlation between the 2-hour and 24-hour urine protein levels (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.76 (P 0.000). A positive 2-hour test was associated more closely with significant levels of 24-hour proteinuria than dipstick analysis alone. We conclude from this study that a random 2-hour sample could be used for the initial assessment of proteinuria and so avoid the delay associated with 24-hour quantification of urinary protein. PMID:12881076

  12. Recruiting Strategy and 24-Hour Biomonitoring of Paraquat in Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Kee; Tagles, Hector Duarte; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lee, Kiyoung; Schenker, Marc B.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to recruit agricultural workers in Costa Rica to participate in a 24-hour urine collection for paraquat exposure assessment and to compare the 24-hour sampling to end-of-shift sampling. The authors recruited 187 handlers and 54 nonhandlers from coffee, banana, and palm oil plantations. The completeness of 24-hour urine samples collected (a total of 393 samples) was confirmed by questionnaire and urinary creatinine level. For a subset of 12 samples, the absorbed paraquat level was determined in 24-hours and end-of-shift spot urine samples. The participation rate for handlers was ~90%. The completeness of 24-hour urine collections was verified as the overall average of creatinine levels from 393 urines (1.11 ± 0.50 g/L). A total of 92.4% to 96.7% of urine samples were considered within the acceptable range of urinary creatinine, whereas 94.7% of the samples were described as “complete” from the questionnaire. Measured creatinine correlated well to predicted values (r = .327, p = .0024, 95% CI .12–.51). Detected paraquat levels in spot urine samples had a sensitivity of 96.9% at the high specificity of 100% compared to 24-hour urine samples as the gold standard. There was a significant (p < .0001) correlation between spot and 24-hour urine paraquat levels (r = .7825, 95% CI .61–.88). The recruiting strategy was successful in getting 24-hour urine samples from a farm worker population. Comparison between the paraquat levels in spot and 24-hour urine samples demonstrated that for this compound, end-of-shift spot urine samples would be an appropriate substitute for 24-hour collections. PMID:19064412

  13. Changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of running and cycling on changes in hydration status and body composition during a 24-hour race have been described previously, but data for 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers are missing. The present study investigated changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers. Methods We compared in 49 (37 men and 12 women) 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers) changes (Δ) in body mass (BM). Fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF) and skeletal muscle mass (SM) were estimated using anthropometric methods. Changes in total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid (ECF) and intracellular fluid (ICF) were determined using bioelectrical impedance and changes in foot volume using plethysmography. Haematocrit, plasma [Na+], plasma urea, plasma osmolality, urine urea, urine specific gravity and urine osmolality were measured in a subgroup of 25 ultra-MTBers (16 men and 9 women). Results In male 24-hour ultra-MTBers, BM (P < 0.001), FM (P < 0.001), %BF (P < 0.001) and ECF (P < 0.05) decreased whereas SM and TBW did not change (P > 0.05). A significant correlation was found between post-race BM and post-race FM (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). In female ultra-MTBers, BM (P < 0.05), %BF (P < 0.05) and FM (P < 0.001) decreased, whereas SM, ECF and TBW remained stable (P > 0.05). Absolute ranking in the race was related to Δ%BM (P < 0.001) and Δ%FM in men (P < 0.001) and to Δ%BM (P < 0.05) in women. In male ultra-MTBers, increased post-race plasma urea (P < 0.001) was negatively related to absolute ranking in the race, Δ%BM, post-race FM and Δ%ECF (P < 0.05). Foot volume remained stable in both sexes (P > 0.05). Conclusions Male and female 24-hour ultra-MTBers experienced a significant loss in BM and FM, whereas SM remained stable. Body weight changes and increases in plasma urea do not reflect a change in body hydration status. No oedema

  14. Sweetening yoghurt with glucose, but not with saccharin, promotes weight gain and increased fat pad mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Boakes, Robert A; Kendig, Michael D; Martire, Sarah I; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-10-01

    The claim that non-nutritive sweeteners accelerate body weight gain by disrupting sweet-calorie associations was tested in two experiments using rats. The experiments were modelled on a key study from a series of experiments reporting greater body weight gain in rats fed yoghurt sweetened with saccharin than with glucose (Swithers & Davidson, 2008). Both of the current experiments likewise compared groups fed saccharin- or glucose-sweetened yoghurt in addition to chow and water, while Experiment 1 included a third group (Control) given unsweetened yoghurt. In Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2, rats were initially exposed to both saccharin- and glucose-sweetened yoghurts to assess their relative palatability. We also tested whether the provision of an energy-dense sweet biscuit would augment any effects of saccharin on food intake and weight gain, as seemingly predicted by Swithers and Davidson (2008). In Experiment 1 there were no differences in body weight gain or fat pad mass between the Saccharin and Control group, whereas the Glucose group was the heaviest by the final 5 weeks and at cull had the largest fat pads. Greater acceptance of saccharin predicted more weight gain over the whole experiment. Consistent with past reports, fasting blood glucose and insulin measures did not differ between the Saccharin and Control groups, but suggested some impairment of insulin sensitivity in the Glucose group. Experiment 2 found similar effects of glucose on fat mass, but not on body weight gain. In summary, adding saccharin had no detectable effects on body-weight regulation, whereas the effects of glucose on fat pad mass were consistent with previous studies reporting more harmful effects of sugars compared to non-nutritive sweeteners. PMID:27189382

  15. Ocean tide loading effects on 24 hour GPS height estimates and resulting time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, N. T.; Stewart, M. P.

    2003-04-01

    GPS data from continuously operating GPS receivers are usually made available on a daily basis in 24 hour data files, so it is convenient for the user to adopt 24 hour data processing sessions. Time series are often then formed from the discrete 24 hour solutions, used for such applications as crustal deformation monitoring or high quality coordinate determination. When heights are estimated, ocean tide loading is a systematic error source that must be considered. Since the principal ocean tide loading effects have periods close to 12 and 24 hours respectively, it has been suggested from previous works that if models for ocean tide loading are not applied when processing GPS data as 24 hour sessions, at worst a small increase in the variance of the height time series will result. This paper further investigates the effects of ocean tide loading on 24 hour GPS height estimates and resulting time series, by considering a year of both simulated and real data from sites in Australia, at which the ocean tide loading effects differ substantially. The effect of each of the individual constituents is also considered. The role of the tropospheric delay mitigation strategy is addressed, regarding the effect on the height estimates when ocean tide loading effects are modelled or ignored.

  16. 24-hour central blood pressure and intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes in untreated subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bednarek, Agnieszka; Jankowski, Piotr; Olszanecka, Agnieszka; Windak, Adam; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recently, 24-hour monitoring of central systolic blood pressure (SBP) has become available. However, the relation between end-organ damage and the 24-hour central SBP profile and variability has not so far been analyzed. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relation between 24-hour central SBP, 24-hour central SBP profile as well as central SBP short-term variability and parameters of cardiac and vascular intermediate phenotypes. Methods: The study group consisted of 50 patients with newly diagnosed, untreated hypertension (age 40.4 ± 11.5 years, 35 men) and 50 normotensive subjects (age 38.3 ± 12.0 years, 35 men). Applanation tonometry of the radial artery and the “n-point forward moving average” method were used to determine 24-hour central SBP. Each study participant underwent echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography. Results: 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime central SBP was related to left ventricle end-diastole diameter (p < 0.05), left ventricular mass index (p < 0.001), relative wall thickness (p < 0.05), E/E’ ratio (p < 0.01), and left atrium volume (p < 0.01). The nocturnal central SBP fall was not related to any of the mentioned parameters, whereas parameters of short-term variability were related to IMT in hypertensives only (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The present study showed that 24-hour central SBP is related to intermediate cardiac phenotypes as assessed by echocardiography whereas short-term central SBP variability is mainly related to vascular phenotype as determined by IMT. PMID:25628959

  17. Insights about serum sodium behavior after 24 hours of continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Thiago Gomes; Martins, Cassia Pimenta Barufi; Mendes, Pedro Vitale; Besen, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro; Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Park, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratorial factors associated with serum sodium variation during continuous renal replacement therapy and to assess whether the perfect admixture formula could predict 24-hour sodium variation. Methods Thirty-six continuous renal replacement therapy sessions of 33 patients, in which the affluent prescription was unchanged during the first 24 hours, were retrieved from a prospective collected database and then analyzed. A mixed linear model was performed to investigate the factors associated with large serum sodium variations (≥ 8mEq/L), and a Bland-Altman plot was generated to assess the agreement between the predicted and observed variations. Results In continuous renal replacement therapy 24-hour sessions, SAPS 3 (p = 0.022) and baseline hypernatremia (p = 0.023) were statistically significant predictors of serum sodium variations ≥ 8mEq/L in univariate analysis, but only hypernatremia demonstrated an independent association (β = 0.429, p < 0.001). The perfect admixture formula for sodium prediction at 24 hours demonstrated poor agreement with the observed values. Conclusions Hypernatremia at the time of continuous renal replacement therapy initiation is an important factor associated with clinically significant serum sodium variation. The use of 4% citrate or acid citrate dextrose - formula A 2.2% as anticoagulants was not associated with higher serum sodium variations. A mathematical prediction for the serum sodium concentration after 24 hours was not feasible. PMID:27410407

  18. The Road Ahead to Continuous 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure Monitoring in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Kaweh

    2014-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only treatable risk factor for glaucoma. Yet, current glaucoma management usually relies on single IOP measurements during clinic hours despite the fact that IOP is a dynamic parameter with individual rhythms. Single IOP measurements underpin all major clinical guidelines on treatment of glaucoma. Other potentially informative parameters, such as IOP fluctuations and peak IOP, have been neglected, and effects of IOP-lowering interventions on such measures are largely unknown. The search for continuous 24-hour IOP monitoring started over 50 years ago, but only recent technological advances have provided clinician-researchers with devices for continuous IOP monitoring. Herein, we discuss innovative approaches with permanent and temporary devices for 24-hour IOP monitoring, such as a contact lens sensor. Despite being in their infancy, these devices may soon enable clinicians to use 24-hour IOP data to improve glaucoma management and reduce the glaucoma-related burden of disease. PMID:25279129

  19. Microtensile bond strength of resin-resin interfaces after 24-hour and 2-month soaking.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Curry; Boberick, Kenneth G; Winkler, Sheldon

    2007-01-01

    Evaluate the bond strengths of denture base-repair materials to minimize recurrent failure rate. Use microtensile bond strength (muTBS) testing to evaluate the interfacial bonding strength of 6 commercial denture repair materials after 24-hour and 12-month soaking. Blocks of poly(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) and Triad were fabricated, fractured, and repaired. Twenty bars (1 x 1 x 30 mm) per group were sectioned from each block parallel to the long axis and approximately 90 degrees to the resin-resin repair interface and stored before muTBS testing in a servo-hydraulic tensile-testing machine. Intact PMMA and Triad bars that had been soaked for 24 hours and 12 months were tested for reference. The 24-hour repair strengths for PMMA ranged from 52% to 84% of original strength. Soaking for 12 months resulted in a 20% decrease in strength for the PMMA control. The 12-month repair strengths for PMMA ranged from 43% to 74% of the 12-month soaked material strength. Triad repair tested 35% of original strength after soaking for 24 hours. Permabond (cyanoacrylate) to PMMA tested 47% of original strength after 24 hours of soaking and 26% of the 12-month soaked material strength. Permabond to Triad tested 30% of original strength after 24 hours of soaking. Permabond and Triad showed a 100% adhesive mode of failure. All other materials tested exhibited either an adhesive mode of failure at the denture base-repair-material interface or a complex cohesive failure within the repair-material interface. The muTBS approach can be used to analyze the resin-resin interface of repaired acrylics. The relatively small standard deviations make the muTBS approach attractive. In this study, muTBS was used to evaluate the repair strength of 6 denture repair materials enabling clinicians to make clinical judgments regarding the strongest repair bond available. PMID:17987865

  20. The Three-Continent, 24-Hour Help Desk: An Academic First?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Describes Follow the Sun, a computer help-desk service that takes advantage of time differences around the world to permit four universities (University of Colorado Boulder, Australia's Macquarie and Newcastle universities, and the London School of Economics) to share services and provide 24-hour support to users. (EV)

  1. Oropharyngeal 24-Hour pH Monitoring in Children With Airway-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Mesallam, Tamer A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diagnosis and clinical presentation of pediatric laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is still controversial. The aims of this work were to study the possibility of performing 24-hour oropharyngeal pH monitoring for children in the outpatient clinic setup and to explore the results of this test in correlation to airway-related problems. Methods In this descriptive qualitative study, 26 children suffering from airway-related problems were included. Oropharyngeal 24-hour pH monitoring was performed for all subjects in the outpatient clinic setting. The distribution of airway diagnoses among the study group was studied versus the results of the pH monitoring. Results There were 16 males and 10 females participated in the study with a mean age of 6.88 (SD, ±5.77) years. Thirty-five percent of the patients were under the age of 3 years (range, 11 months to 3 years). Eight-five percent of the patients tolerated the pH probe insertion and completed 24-hour of pH recording. Laryngomalacia and subglottic stenosis (SGS) were more frequently reported in the positive LPR patients (77%). Conclusion Oropharyngeal 24-hour pH monitoring can be conducted for children in the outpatient setup even in young age children below 3 years old. Among the positive LPR group, SGS and laryngomalacia were the most commonly reported airway findings. PMID:27090271

  2. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  3. 24-Hour Access: Responding to Students' Need for Late Library Hours at the University of Denver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Bethany B.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Denver's Penrose Library saw a substantial increase in use as a result of several new and enhanced services over a six-year period. In turn, longer operating hours and increased staffing for a 24-hours-a-day, five-days-a-week (24 x 5) operating schedule was funded. This case study analyzes student need for longer library hours…

  4. Mood-Dependent Cognitive Change in a Man with Bipolar Disorder Who Cycles Every 24 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Dominic; Mansell, Warren

    2008-01-01

    A case study of a bipolar patient whose mood changes every 24 hours is described to illustrate the changes in cognitive processing and content during different phases of bipolar disorder. The participant completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks on 4 separate occasions: twice when depressed and twice when manic. Depression tended to be…

  5. Seasonal changes of 24-hour intraocular pressure rhythm in healthy Shanghai population

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jingyi; Xiao, Ming; Xu, Huan; Fang, Shaobin; Chen, Xu; Kong, Xiangmei; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythms in winter and summer in the healthy population of Shanghai, China. This is a cross-sectional study in which 24-hour IOP measurements were taken for all eligible healthy volunteers in winter and summer, respectively, and the temperature, hours of sunlight (sunlight time), and circulatory parameters, including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, were also recorded. The 24-hour IOP curves and IOP parameters (mean, peak, trough, and fluctuation of IOP together with the diurnal-to-nocturnal IOP change) in winter and summer were obtained and compared. The magnitude of IOP changes from summer to winter was also calculated. A total of 29 participants (58 eyes), 14 (48.28%) male and 15 (51.72%) female, aged 43.66 ± 12.20 (19–61) years, were considered eligible for this study. Generally, IOP decreased progressively before noon, increased notably in the nocturnal period, and peaked at 12:00 am in winter and at 2:00 am in summer. The pattern of 24-hour IOP in winter and summer was significantly different (P = 0.002). The average IOPs from 4:00 pm to 8:00 am, except for 6:00 am, were significantly higher in winter (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were shown after adjusting for temperature and/or sunlight time. From summer to winter, the extent of IOP increase was mostly around 0 to 3 mm Hg, and the IOPs increased more significantly in the nocturnal period than in the diurnal period (P = 0.05). The 24-hour IOP rhythms were different in winter and summer, with higher IOP level in winter. Temperature and sunlight time, which are independent of heart rate and blood pressure, affected the 24-hour IOP rhythms in healthy people in Shanghai, China. Further investigations are expected for the rhythm of some endogenous substance secretion and the inner mechanism of regulation of IOP. PMID:27495076

  6. Seasonal changes of 24-hour intraocular pressure rhythm in healthy Shanghai population.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jingyi; Xiao, Ming; Xu, Huan; Fang, Shaobin; Chen, Xu; Kong, Xiangmei; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythms in winter and summer in the healthy population of Shanghai, China.This is a cross-sectional study in which 24-hour IOP measurements were taken for all eligible healthy volunteers in winter and summer, respectively, and the temperature, hours of sunlight (sunlight time), and circulatory parameters, including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, were also recorded. The 24-hour IOP curves and IOP parameters (mean, peak, trough, and fluctuation of IOP together with the diurnal-to-nocturnal IOP change) in winter and summer were obtained and compared. The magnitude of IOP changes from summer to winter was also calculated.A total of 29 participants (58 eyes), 14 (48.28%) male and 15 (51.72%) female, aged 43.66 ± 12.20 (19-61) years, were considered eligible for this study. Generally, IOP decreased progressively before noon, increased notably in the nocturnal period, and peaked at 12:00 AM in winter and at 2:00 AM in summer. The pattern of 24-hour IOP in winter and summer was significantly different (P = 0.002). The average IOPs from 4:00 PM to 8:00 AM, except for 6:00 AM, were significantly higher in winter (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were shown after adjusting for temperature and/or sunlight time. From summer to winter, the extent of IOP increase was mostly around 0 to 3 mm Hg, and the IOPs increased more significantly in the nocturnal period than in the diurnal period (P = 0.05).The 24-hour IOP rhythms were different in winter and summer, with higher IOP level in winter. Temperature and sunlight time, which are independent of heart rate and blood pressure, affected the 24-hour IOP rhythms in healthy people in Shanghai, China. Further investigations are expected for the rhythm of some endogenous substance secretion and the inner mechanism of regulation of IOP. PMID:27495076

  7. [24-hour blood pressure measurement in normal pregnancy in hypertensive pregnant patients].

    PubMed

    Rath, W; Schrader, J; Guhlke, U; Buhr-Schinner, H; Haupt, A; Kramer, A; Kuhn, W

    1990-08-01

    Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in 17 normotensive and 19 preeclamptic pregnant women. The normotensive women showed a significant nightly decline in their systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In contrast, the preeclamptic women demonstrated either an attenuated circadian rhythm or no circadian rhythm at all. This result was even more pronounced in patients with severe hypertension, some of whom had a nocturnal increase in blood pressure in spite of being treated with antihypertensive drugs in an evening dose. The lack of nocturnal blood pressure decrease was also found 24 hours post partum. In summary, these results suggest that preeclamptic women are endangered by hypertensive emergencies mostly during the night. Therefore blood pressure controls should be extended into the night, and antihypertensive drugs should also be given in a sufficient evening dose. PMID:2214601

  8. [Identification of paroxysmal, transient arrhythmias: Intermittent registration more efficient than the 24-hour Holter monitoring].

    PubMed

    Hendrikx, Tijn; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Sandström, Herbert; Persson, Mats; Hörnsten, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Many patients suffer from palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. These patients are often referred for Holter ECG (24 hour), although the sensitivity for detecting arrhythmias is low. A new method, short intermittent regular and symptomatic ECG registrations at home, might be a convenient and more sensitive alternative also suitable for primary health care. In this case report we present a patient who had contacted health care several times during a seven year period for paroxysmal palpitations. Routine examination with 24 hour Holter ECG and event recorder did not result in a diagnosis. Using intermittent handheld ECG registration at home, a paroxysmal supraventricular arrhythmia was diagnosed. Further investigation revealed that the patient had a concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. PMID:25584602

  9. Circadian Polymorphisms in Night Owls, in Bipolars, and in Non-24-Hour Sleep Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Klimecki, Walter T.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Rex, Katharine M.; Murray, Sarah S.; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J.; Loving, Richard T.; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F.; Poceta, J. Steven; Jamil, Shazia M.; Kline, Lawrence E.; Kelsoe, John R.

    2014-01-01

    People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression. PMID:25395965

  10. Recovery of amplitude integrated electroencephalographic background patterns within 24 hours of perinatal asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    van Rooij, L G M; Toet, M; Osredkar, D; van Huffelen, A C; Groenendaal, F; de Vries, L S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the time course of recovery of severely abnormal initial amplitude integrated electroencephalographic (aEEG) patterns (flat trace (FT), continuous low voltage (CLV), or burst suppression (BS)) in full term asphyxiated neonates, in relation to other neurophysiological and neuroimaging findings and neurodevelopmental outcome. Methods: A total of 190 aEEGs of full term infants were reviewed. The neonates were admitted within 6 hours of birth to the neonatal intensive care unit because of perinatal asphyxia, and aEEG recording was started immediately. In all, 160 infants were included; 65 of these had an initial FT or CLV pattern and 25 an initial BS pattern. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed using a full neurological examination and the Griffiths' mental developmental scale. Results: In the FT/CLV group, the background pattern recovered to continuous normal voltage within 24 hours in six of the 65 infants (9%). All six infants survived the neonatal period; one had a severe disability, and five were normal at follow up. In the BS group, the background pattern improved to normal voltage in 12 of the 25 infants (48%) within 24 hours. Of these infants, one died, five survived with moderate to severe disability, two with mild disability, and four were normal. The patients who did not recover within 24 hours either died in the neonatal period or survived with a severe disability. Conclusion: In this study there was a small group of infants who presented with a severely abnormal aEEG background pattern within six hours of birth, but who achieved recovery to a continuous normal background pattern within the first 24 hours. Sixty one percent of these infants survived without, or with a mild, disability. PMID:15846017

  11. Patients in 24-hour home care striving for control and safety

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This article concerns Swedish patients receiving 24-hour home care from health care assistants (HC assistants) employed by the municipality. Home care is a complex interactive process involving the patient, family, HC assistants as well as professional care providers. Previous studies exploring patient perspectives on home care have been based mainly on patient interviews. In contrast, the present study took a broad perspective on patients’ experiences and thoughts by combining field observations on care situations with patient and HC assistant interviews. The aim of the study presented in this article was to promote a new and broadened understanding of patients receiving 24-hour home care by constructing a theoretical model to illuminate their main concern. Methods Field observations and semi-structured interviews were conducted with four patients receiving 24-hour home care and their HC assistants. Grounded theory methodology was used. Results The core process identified was Grasping the lifeline, which describes compensatory processes through which patients strived for control and safe care when experiencing a number of exposed states due to inadequate home care. Patients tried to take control by selecting their own HC assistants and sought safe hands by instructing untrained HC assistants in care procedures. When navigating the care system, the patients maintained contacts with professional care providers and coordinated their own care. When necessary, a devoted HC assistant could take over the navigating role. The results are illuminated in a theoretical model. Conclusions The results accentuate the importance to patients of participating in their own care, especially in the selection of HC assistants. The model illustrates some challenging areas for improvement within the organisation of 24-hour home care, such as personnel continuity and competence, collaboration, and routines for acute care. Furthermore, it may be used as a basis for reflection

  12. Mechanical properties of direct and indirect composites after storage for 24 hours and 10 months

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Paula Barbosa; Brandt, William Cunha; Neves, Ana Christina Claro; Cunha, Leonardo Gonçalves; Silva-Concilio, Lais Regiane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diametral tensile strength (DTS) and Knoop hardness (KH) of direct (Filtek Z350-3M/ESPE and Charisma-Heraeus Kulzer) and indirect composites (Sinfony-3M/ESPE and Signum-Heraeus Kulzer) kept in storage for two periods of time, 24 hours and 10 months, in distilled water. Methods: Twenty-five specimens of each material were prepared. DTS (n=10) was tested using a universal testing machine (Versat, model 2000) at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. KH (n=5) was measured using Knoop micro-hardness (HMV-2000; 50 gf for 15 s). All tests were performed 24 hours after polymerization and after 10 months of storage in distilled water at 37°C. The data were statistically analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA and t-Student (P=.05). Results: Filtek Z350, Sinfony, and Signum showed higher DTS values than Charisma after 24 hours. After storage, Sinfony and Signum showed higher DTS values because the storage did not influence the DTS values of the indirect composites. Filtek Z350 showed higher KH values after 24 hours and after storage than other composites; the storage influenced the KH of all composites except Sinfony. Conclusion: Storage for 10 months did not influence the properties of the indirect composite Sinfony. In general, the indirect composites showed higher DTS values than direct composites, especially after 10 months storage. The direct composite Filtek Z350 obtained the highest KH values regardless of storage. PMID:23407869

  13. Analogue step-by-step DC component eliminator for 24-hour PPG signal monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pilt, Kristjan; Meigas, Kalju; Lass, Jaanus; Rosmann, Mart; Kaik, Jüri

    2007-01-01

    For applications where PPG signal AC component needs to be measured without disturbances in its shape and recorded digitally with high digitalization accuracy, the step-by-step DC component eliminator is developed. This paper describes step-by-step DC component eliminator, which is utilized with analogue comparator and operational amplifier. It allows to record PPG signal without disturbances in its shape in 24-hours PPG signal monitoring system. The experiments with PPG signal have been carried out. PMID:18002130

  14. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  15. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  16. A New Method to Make 24-Hour Urine Collection More Convenient: A Validity Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. This study proposes a novel urine collection device that can divide each urine collection into 20 parts and store and cool just one part. The aim of the current study is to compare measured biomarkers from the proposed urine collection device to those of conventional 24-hour sampling method. We also hypothesized that the new method would significantly increase patients' adherence to the timed urine collection. Methods. Two 24-hour urine samples with the conventional method and with the new automated urine collection device that uses just one-twentieth of each void were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers. Urine parameters including volume, creatinine, and protein levels were compared between the two methods and the agreement of two measurements for each subject was reported through Bland-Altman plots. Results. Our results confirmed that for all three variables, there is a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between the two measurements and high degree of agreement could be seen in Bland-Altman plots. Moreover, more subjects reported the new method as “more convenient” for 24-hour urine collection. Conclusions. Our results clearly indicate that a fixed proportion of each void may significantly reduce the urine volume in timed collections and this, in turn, may increase subjects' adherence to this difficult sampling. PMID:24963405

  17. Phase II trial of cyclophosphamide, leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil 24-hour infusion and tamoxifen in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Eckel, F; Lersch, C; Lippl, F; Assmann, G; Schulte-Frohlinde, E

    2000-09-01

    Leucovorin modulates the cytotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the treatment of cancer. 24-hour infusion of 5-FU has been shown to enhance antitumor activity in colorectal cancer compared to bolus infusion. According to experimental data cyclophosphamide and tamoxifen may enhance the effectiveness of leucovorin and 5-FU. A phase II trial was initiated to evaluate the effect of a combination of low-dose cyclophosphamide (C), leucovorin (L), 5-FU (F) and tamoxifen (T) (CLFT) in advanced pancreatic cancer. Fifty patients were treated monthly with 300 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide and weekly with 500 mg/m2 leucovorin followed by a 24-hour infusion of 2000 mg/m2 5-FU and tamoxifen 20 mg bid. Three patients had a partial response (6%), two a minor response (4%) and 32 (64%) no change of disease. The median survival time was 8.5 months for all patients, the median time to progression of disease was 4.6 months and the 1-year survival rate was 28%. CLFT was fairly well tolerated. These data suggest that biochemical modulation of 24-hour infusional 5-FU with leucovorin together with cyclophosphamide and tamoxifen has some positive effects in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:11144522

  18. [Formula creatinine clearance as a substitute for 24-hour creatine clearance in children with kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Aufricht, C; Balbisi, A; Gerdov, C; Müller, T; Lothaller, M A; Balzar, E

    1995-01-01

    Despite many theoretical advantages, formula-creatininclearance (Schwartz et al, Journal of Pediatrics 1976) has not found broad clinical acceptance in everyday pediatric patient care. In this study we report our results of long term observations (11.7 +/- 6.8 (1.7-24.8) months) of measured and computed creatininclearance in 27 children after renal transplantation (15 boys, 12 girls, mean age 14.5 +/- 4.2 (5.5-20) years) at the Kinderdialyse of the Universitäts-Kinderklinik of Vienna. We found a wide scattered correlation between the measured and computed creatininclearance values with a 90% confidence interval between -30% to +60% of the 24 hour creatininclearance. Formula creatininclearance (SD 17.8%) was markedly better reproducable than the 24 hour creatininclearancethe (SD 37.8%), the intraindividuell collecting error (36.1%) was almost twice the interindividuell "coefficient" error (20.27%). We therefore conclude that the 24 hour creatininclearance is by far not as accurate as the complexity of the procedure pretends and support broad clinical acceptance for the formula creatininclearance. PMID:7752601

  19. Impact of diet on 24-hour intragastric pH profile in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Damkel, Cornelia; Snyder, Alice; Uhlig, Albrecht; Coenen, Manfred; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2015-01-01

    An electrode incorporated into a polyethylene hose was introduced under endoscopic control into the stomach of six fasting adult horses for long-lasting pH measurements. The intragastric pH was recorded every four seconds for a period of 24 hours. The Warmblood horses were assigned randomly to receive hay ad libitum (H group); 1.5 kg hay/100 kg BW/day and 1 kg concentrate/100 kg BW/ day (C group) or protocol C plus 75 g pectin-lecithin supplement/100 kg BW/day (P group). The horses were adapted to each diet for 14 days. The 24-hour median pH value for protocol H (2.69) was significantly lower compared to protocol C (3.35) and P (3.44) (p < 0.05). The horses in protocol P had a significant higher percentage (40.1 %) of 24-hour intragastric pH values ≥ 4 than in protocol C (36.2 %) or in protocol H (25.3 %) (p < 0.05). PMID:26591378

  20. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... the 2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' 74 FR 58688... Federal Regulations DC District of Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR... EPA finalized designations for the 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS (74 FR 58688, November 13, 2009), the...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1990 - Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1990 Section 52.1990 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) EPA approves the portion of...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1990 - Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1990 Section 52.1990 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) EPA approves the portion of...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1990 - Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1990 Section 52.1990 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) EPA approves the portion of...

  4. Tasimelteon for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, D N

    2015-01-01

    Tasimelteon (Hetlioz®), a melatonin receptor agonist, is the first, and, at the time of the publication, the only drug to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder (non-24). This circadian rhythm disorder occurs most commonly in blind individuals without light perception, and it results from their inability to entrain to the 24-hour photoperiod, although the indication does not specify a particular patient population. Non-24 is characterized by a persistent cycle of nighttime insomnia and daytime sleepiness, alternating with asymptomatic periods depending on an individual's degree of circadian rhythm synchronization with the photoperiod at any particular time. Phase II clinical trials in healthy individuals confirmed the circadian phase-shifting potential of tasimelteon. Phase III trials in totally blind subjects diagnosed with non-24 demonstrated the efficacy of tasimelteon in reducing both nighttime wakefulness and daytime napping. Physiologic monitoring revealed that tasimelteon resulted in a higher proportion of individuals becoming entrained to the 24-hour cycle compared with placebo. Safety assessments indicated that tasimelteon is well tolerated, with the most common adverse events being headache, alanine aminotransferase elevation, nightmares or unusual dreams, and upper respiratory or urinary tract infections. Tasimelteon is available as a capsule in a single 20-mg dose and it must be obtained through Vanda Pharmaceutical's HetliozSolutions program with dispensing through a specialty pharmacy. Safety studies in blind individuals diagnosed with non-24 are ongoing and a future clinical trial with Smith-Magenis syndrome patients is planned. PMID:25685859

  5. 24-Hour Measurement of Gastric pH in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sammon, Alastair M.; Ndebia, Eugene J.; Umapathy, Ekambaram; Iputo, Jehu E.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have established norms of 24-hour gastric pH profiles for western countries. This study was designed to establish the pattern for a rural African population with a high incidence of oesophageal cancer. Methods. After lower oesophageal manometry a probe was placed 10 cm distal to the lower oesophageal sphincter. We carried out 24-hour ambulatory monitoring of gastric pH on 59 healthy subjects. This was satisfactorily completed on 26 female and 18 male (age 21–64, median 35) subjects in the Transkei region of South Africa. Results. The mean 24 hour gastric pH was 2.84 and the mean night-time pH was 3.7. 40 volunteers recorded a night-time pH reaching over 4. 33 volunteers recorded a night-time pH over 7. Night-time alkalinisation was present for 136.4 minutes (25th centile 22.8, 75th centile 208.1) at pH4 or over, and 79.3 (2.5, 122.7) minutes at pH7 or over. Episodes of rapid alkaline rise were 17 (10, 47). 21.1% of these occurred while supine. 35 of 36 tested subjects were positive for H. pylori IgG. Conclusion. Gastric alkalinisation is common in Transkei, at a higher pH than that reported in other studies, and is sustained longer. Nighttime alkalinisation is frequent. This suggests a high level of duodenogastric reflux. PMID:25861260

  6. Bioenergetical and Cardiac Adaptations of Pilots to a 24-Hour Team Kart Race.

    PubMed

    Durand, Sylvain; Ripamonti, Michael; Rahmani, Abderrahmane; Beaune, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate (HR) response in kart pilots to successive driving bouts during a 24-hour team race. Eight adult male pilots (22.8 ± 4.1 years) participated to a team 24-hour speedway kart race in Le Mans (France). They alternatively piloted a 390 cm kart. Each relay was 45 minutes long and each pilot performed 4 relays. For each pilot, mean speeds were calculated from lap-to-lap duration recordings using a telemetric infrared timing device. Heart rate values were recorded continuously on 5-second intervals using a portable cardiometric device. Total energy expenditure (EET) and physical activity ratio (PAR) were determined by accelerometry. To pilot a kart during 45 minutes at a mean speed around 62 km·h induces a 300-kcal EET, corresponding to a 5.6-Mets PAR. This effort is responsive for a 73 b·min increase in HR, from 84.1 ± 7.6 to 157.4 ± 11.0 b·min (82% maximal heart rate intensity). However, during this relay period, HR values seemed independent to mean speed performance and bioenergetical values. Thus, in the context of the 24-hour team race, the variability in effort made during each relay and relay succession did not alter bioenergetical adaptation of pilots to kart driving. The high EE and HR values would be better explained by both emotional stress and environmental constraints such as speedway configuration and vibrations. The way how these factors specifically influence bioenergetical demand, and their relative importance, has to be specified to optimize training procedure and recommendations. PMID:25029011

  7. Evaluation of Intradermal and Subcutaneous Infusion Set Performance Under 24-Hour Basal and Bolus Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McVey, Elaine; Keith, Steven; Herr, Joshua K.; Sutter, Diane; Pettis, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study sought to assess the function and delivery reliability of intradermal (ID) infusion sets used with commercial insulin pumps. Method: Healthy subjects (n = 43) were randomized to either ID or subcutaneous (SC) arms, and received basal/bolus placebo delivery for 24 hours. Subjects received 4 of 8 infusion set combinations (ID: microneedle design A or B, with 2 pump brands [Animas or MiniMed]; SC: Teflon Quickset or steel Rapid-D, Animas pump only, with or without overtaping) and were evaluated for pump occlusion alarms, fluid leakage, pain, and tissue tolerability. A novel algorithm was developed to determine flow consistency based on fluid pressure, and the duration and occurrence rate for periods of unalarmed but interrupted flow (“silent occlusions’”) were compared. Results: ID delivery was successfully maintained over the 24-hour infusion period. The number of silent occlusions was lower for ID microneedle cannula design B than A (P < .01) and lower for Rapid-D SC device compared to Quick-set (P = .03). There was no significant difference in the number of occlusion alarms between the ID and SC devices with the Animas pump. However, the pumps tested with ID devices had significantly different alarm rates (MiniMed 29.5%, Animas 0%, P < .001). Leakage and tissue tolerability were comparable across devices. Conclusion: The ID infusion set reliably delivered diluent for an extended 24-hour period in healthy subjects and was well tolerated. Silent occlusion flow interruptions could be detected in both ID and SC infusion sets using a proprietary algorithm. This algorithm is a promising method for quantitatively evaluating infusion set flow performance. PMID:26319228

  8. Implementation of a 24-Hour Pharmacy Service with Prospective Medication Review in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Linda; Claudio-Saez, Maria; Halim, Qazi; Marshall, Lewis; Hayes-Quinn, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is reported that more than 128 million patients are seen in emergency departments (EDs) annually. Patient overcrowding had been associated with an increased occurrence of medication errors. Purpose: Due to increased patient volume and the need for improved patient safety, a 24-hour pharmacy service was established for our institution’s ED. The purpose of the study is to quantify and demonstrate the impact of a 24-hour pharmacy service in an urban ED. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at a regional level 1 trauma center. The study period occurred between December 2012 and July 2013. The following variables were quantified and analyzed: number of medication orders reviewed, number of intravenous medications compounded, and number of clinical interventions that were recommended by the ED pharmacy team (EDPT) and accepted by ED clinicians. Results: A total of 3,779 medication orders were reviewed by the EDPT. Of these orders, 3,482 (92%) were prospectively reviewed. A total of 3,068 (81.2%) and 711 (18.8%) orders were reviewed for the adult and pediatric ED, respectively. During the study period, the EDPT procured 549 intravenous admixtures and conducted 642 clinical interventions. Most of the interventions involved providing drug information for physicians and nurses (45.9%), adjusting drug dosages (21.1%), and recommending antimicrobial therapy (15.1%). Conclusion: The implementation of a 24-hour pharmacy service at our institution was an innovative practice that increased the role of pharmacists in the ED. The EDPT conducted prospective medication review, procured intravenous admixtures from a sterile environment, and provided therapeutic recommendations for the ED interdisciplinary team. PMID:25717209

  9. Treating allergic conjunctivitis: A once-daily medication that provides 24-hour symptom relief

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Jack; Donnenfeld, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is a common ocular inflammatory manifestation of allergen exposure in sensitized individuals. Signs and symptoms of AC can decrease quality of life, interfere with productivity, and lead to considerable economic burden. Consistent suppression of conjunctival inflammation is necessary for managing AC, but currently available medications require frequent administration and exhibit limited duration of action. Methods: In this review, we summarized AC pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment options as well as their limitations. Findings from the literature were discussed in the context of the unmet need for a once-daily medication with sustained 24-hour effectiveness. Results: Topical pharmacologic treatments are the most common approach for managing extant AC; however, most available medications require multiple daily instillations. Dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizing agents are currently considered first-line therapeutics for AC because they provide acute relief of signs and symptoms and block persistent inflammation to promote regression of AC. Recent studies of a newly-developed, higher-concentration formulation of a dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizer have demonstrated that this formulation provides a 24-hour duration of action with once-daily dosing. Conclusions: Dual-acting AC medications exhibit a high degree of overall effectiveness and are well tolerated for chronic use. A newly available once-daily medication that manages signs and symptoms of AC for a full 24 hours may be considered a treatment of choice for patients experiencing seasonal or perennial AC. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01743027 and NCT01479374 PMID:27466061

  10. Comparison of observation level versus 24-hour average atmospheric loading corrections in VLBI analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, D. S.; van Dam, T. M.

    2009-04-01

    Variations in the horizontal distribution of atmospheric mass induce displacements of the Earth's surface. Theoretical estimates of the amplitude of the surface displacement indicate that the predicted surface displacement is often large enough to be detected by current geodetic techniques. In fact, the effects of atmospheric pressure loading have been detected in Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinate time series [van Dam et al., 1994; Dong et al., 2002; Scherneck et al., 2003; Zerbini et al., 2004] and very long baseline interferometery (VLBI) coordinates [Rabble and Schuh, 1986; Manabe et al., 1991; van Dam and Herring, 1994; Schuh et al., 2003; MacMillan and Gipson, 1994; and Petrov and Boy, 2004]. Some of these studies applied the atmospheric displacement at the observation level and in other studies, the predicted atmospheric and observed geodetic surface displacements have been averaged over 24 hours. A direct comparison of observation level and 24 hour corrections has not been carried out for VLBI to determine if one or the other approach is superior. In this presentation, we address the following questions: 1) Is it better to correct geodetic data at the observation level rather than applying corrections averaged over 24 hours to estimated geodetic coordinates a posteriori? 2) At the sub-daily periods, the atmospheric mass signal is composed of two components: a tidal component and a non-tidal component. If observation level corrections reduce the scatter of VLBI data more than a posteriori correction, is it sufficient to only model the atmospheric tides or must the entire atmospheric load signal be incorporated into the corrections? 3) When solutions from different geodetic techniques (or analysis centers within a technique) are combined (e.g., for ITRF2008), not all solutions may have applied atmospheric loading corrections. Are any systematic effects on the estimated TRF introduced when atmospheric loading is applied?

  11. Pulse wave velocity 24-hour monitoring with one-site measurements by oscillometry

    PubMed Central

    Posokhov, Igor N

    2013-01-01

    This review describes issues for the estimation of pulse wave velocity (PWV) under ambulatory conditions using oscillometric systems. The difference between the principles of measuring the PWV by the standard method and by oscillometry is shown, and information on device validation studies is summarized. It was concluded that currently oscillometry is a method that is very convenient to use in the 24-hour monitoring of the PWV, is relatively accurate, and is reasonably comfortable for the patient. Several indices with the same principles as those in the analysis of blood pressure in ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure, namely the assessment of load, variability, and circadian rhythm, are proposed. PMID:23549868

  12. [Program for early detection of illness level in foals during the first 24 hours of life].

    PubMed

    Bostedt, H; Hospes, R; Herfen, K

    1997-11-01

    Basing on exact investigations of normal behaviour and abnormalities in newborn and up to 24 hours old foals a program for evaluation, comprehending exogeniously judgable criteria, was developed. It aims at a quick recognition of aberrations in behaviour. The program includes a score, which allows early diagnosis of even subtile abnormalities. As a result, a veterinary surgeon should be consulted if the score exposes a critical situation, so that therapy can be started in time. Furthermore informations about investigations on blood-glucose- and immunoglobulin-G-concentration in relation to neonatal foal diseases are given. PMID:9451764

  13. Intermittent short ECG recording is more effective than 24-hour Holter ECG in detection of arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patients report symptoms of palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. These patients are often referred for 24-hour Holter ECG, although the sensitivity for detecting relevant arrhythmias is comparatively low. Intermittent short ECG recording over a longer time period might be a convenient and more sensitive alternative. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of 24-hour Holter ECG with intermittent short ECG recording over four weeks to detect relevant arrhythmias in patients with palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. Methods Design: prospective, observational, cross-sectional study. Setting: Clinical Physiology, University Hospital. Patients: 108 consecutive patients referred for ambiguous palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. Interventions: All individuals underwent a 24-hour Holter ECG and additionally registered 30-second handheld ECG (Zenicor EKG® thumb) recordings at home, twice daily and when having cardiac symptoms, during 28 days. Main outcome measures: Significant arrhythmias: atrial fibrillation (AF), paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), atrioventricular (AV) block II–III, sinus arrest (SA), wide complex tachycardia (WCT). Results 95 patients, 42 men and 53 women with a mean age of 54.1 years, completed registrations. Analysis of Holter registrations showed atrial fibrillation (AF) in two patients and atrioventricular (AV) block II in one patient (= 3.2% relevant arrhythmias [95% CI 1.1–8.9]). Intermittent handheld ECG detected nine patients with AF, three with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) and one with AV-block-II (= 13.7% relevant arrhythmias [95% CI 8.2–22.0]). There was a significant difference between the two methods in favour of intermittent ECG with regard to the ability to detect relevant arrhythmias (P = 0.0094). With Holter ECG, no symptoms were registered during any of the detected arrhythmias. With intermittent ECG, symptoms were registered during half of the arrhythmia

  14. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:25883059

  15. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. PMID:27525110

  16. Comparison of 3 different anesthetic techniques on 24-hour recovery after otologic surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Jellish, W S; Leonetti, J P; Fahey, K; Fury, P

    1999-03-01

    Intravenous propofol anesthesia is better than inhalational anesthesia for otologic surgery, but cost and intraoperative movement make this technique prohibitive. This study compares a propofol sandwich anesthetic with a total propofol or inhalational anesthetic for otologic surgery to determine which produces the best perioperative conditions and least expense. One hundred twenty patients undergoing ear surgery were randomly chosen to receive an anesthetic with either isoflurane (INHAL), total propofol (TPROP), or propofol used in conjunction with isoflurane (PSAND). Postoperative wakeup and the incidence and severity of nausea, vomiting, and pain were compared among groups. Antiemetic administration and discharge times from recovery and the hospital were also compared. The groups were similar, but anesthesia times were longer in the INHAL group. Emergence from anesthesia after PSAND or TPROP was more rapid than after INHAL. Recovery during the next 24 hours was associated with less nausea and vomiting with PSAND than with INHAL. The cost of the PSAND anesthetic was similar to that of INHAL, and both were less than TPROP. PSAND anesthesia may be similar to TPROP and better than INHAL for otologic procedures. PSAND was less expensive than TPROP and produced a similar recovery profile and antiemetic effect in the 24-hour period after surgery. PMID:10064647

  17. Regional Neurodegeneration and Gliosis Are Amplified by Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Repeated at 24-Hour Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Amanda Nicholle; Saatman, Kathryn Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Most traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) that occur every year are classified as ‘mild’. Individuals involved in high-risk activities may sustain multiple mild TBIs. We evaluated the acute physiological and histopathological consequences of mild TBI in a mouse model, comparing sham injury, single impact, or 5 impacts at a 24- or 48-hour inter-injury interval. A single closed skull impact resulted in bilateral gliosis in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex that was proportional to impact depth. Midline impact, at a depth just above the threshold to induce transient unconsciousness, produced occasional axonal injury and degenerating neurons accompanied by astrogliosis in the entorhinal cortex and cerebellum. Mild TBI repeated every 24 hours resulted in bilateral hemorrhagic lesions in the entorhinal cortex along with significantly increased neurodegeneration and microglial activation despite diminished durations of apnea and unconsciousness with subsequent impacts. Astrogliosis and diffusely distributed axonal injury were also observed bilaterally in the cerebellum and the brainstem. When the interval between mild TBIs was increased to 48 hours, the pathological consequences were comparable to a single TBI. Together, these data suggest that in mice the brain remains at increased risk for damage for 24 hours after mild TBI despite reduced acute physiological responses to subsequent mild impacts. PMID:25232942

  18. Physician-pharmacist co-management and 24-hour blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ziqian; Ernst, Michael E; Ardery, Gail; Xu, Yinghui; Carter, Barry L

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare indices of 24-hour blood pressure (BP) following a physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention and to describe the associated changes in antihypertensive medications. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective, cluster-randomized clinical trial conducted in 6 family medicine clinics randomized to co-managed (n=3 clinics, 176 patients) or control (n=3 clinics, 198 patients) groups. Mean ambulatory systolic BP (SBP) was significantly lower in the co-managed vs the control group: daytime BP 122.8 mm Hg vs 134.4 mm Hg (P<.001); nighttime SBP 114.8 mm Hg vs 123.7 mm Hg (P<.001); and 24-hour SBP 120.4 mm Hg vs 131.8 mm Hg (P<.001), respectively. Significantly more drug changes were made in the co-managed than in the control group (2.7 vs 1.1 changes per patient, P<.001), and there was greater diuretic use in co-managed patients (79.6% vs 62.6%, P<.001). Ambulatory BPs were significantly lower for the patients who had a diuretic added during the first month compared with those who never had a diuretic added (P<.01). Physician-pharmacist co-management significantly improved ambulatory BP compared with the control group. Antihypertensive drug therapy was intensified much more for patients in the co-managed group. PMID:23614849

  19. Sleep in healthy elderly subjects: a 24-hour ambulatory polysomnographic study.

    PubMed

    Gigli, G L; Placidi, F; Diomedi, M; Maschio, M; Silvestri, G; Scalise, A; Marciani, M G

    1996-04-01

    It is still debated whether the deterioration of the sleep pattern, frequently reported by elderly subjects, is due only to aging per se. Other factors associated with aging or modifications of biological rhythms could also be involved. Elderly subjects frequently complain of daytime sleepiness, but it is not clear whether this actually represents a return to a polyphasic structure of sleep, or only a consequence of a disturbed night sleep. Ten healthy, independent and active elderly subjects (age > 72 years) were elevated by means of 24-hour ambulatory polysomnography. Findings of nocturnal sleep were compared with sleep of the same group in the 24-hour period and with sleep of young healthy controls. We observed a fragmentation of nocturnal sleep, but a fairly good representation of stages and a preservation of cyclicity. Except for three cases, with early or late times of sleep onset and wake-up, sleep disruption did not seem to be related to modification of circadian rhythms. Only three subjects presented undesired daytime naps, whereas the others either did not show daytime sleep at all, or were used to having their siesta after lunch since their young adulthood. In normal aging, daytime sleep does not constitute a social problem. Ambulatory polysomnography is a valid alternative to laboratory recordings in the identification of daytime sleep. PMID:8734563

  20. Deviation of innate circadian period from 24 hours reduces longevity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Libert, Sergiy; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Pointer, Kelli; Pletcher, Scott D.; Guarente, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Summary The variation of individual lifespans, even in highly inbred cohorts of animals and under strictly controlled environmental conditions, is substantial and not well understood. This variation in part could be due to epigenetic variation, which later affects the animal’s physiology and ultimately longevity. Identification of the physiological properties that impact health and lifespan is crucial for longevity research and the development of anti-aging therapies. Here we measured individual circadian and metabolic characteristics in a cohort of inbred F1 hybrid mice and correlated these parameters to their lifespans. We found that mice with innate circadian periods close to 24 hours (revealed during 30 days of housing in total darkness) enjoyed nearly 20% longer lifespans than their littermates, which had shorter or longer innate circadian periods. These findings show that maintenance of a 24 hour intrinsic circadian period is a positive predictor of longevity. Our data suggest that circadian period may be used to predict individual longevity and that processes that control innate circadian period affect aging. PMID:22702406

  1. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sarah C; Gauthier, Angela C; Liu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. PMID:27525110

  2. A Compute Perspective: Delivering Decision Support Products in 24 Hours from the Airborne Snow Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, P.; Mattmann, C. A.; Painter, T. H.; Seidel, F. C.; Trangsrud, A.; Hart, A. F.; Goodale, C. E.; Boardman, J. W.; Heneghan, C.; Verma, R.; Khudikyan, S.; Boustani, M.; Zimdars, P. A.; Horn, J.; Neely, S.

    2013-12-01

    The JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) must process 100s of GB of raw data to 100s of Terabytes of derived data in 24 hour Near Real Time (NRT) latency in a geographically distributed mobile compute and data-intensive processing setting. ASO provides meaningful information to water resource managers in the Western US letting them know how much water to maintain; or release, and what the prospectus of the current snow season is in the Sierra Nevadas. Providing decision support products processed from airborne data in a 24 hour timeframe is an emergent field and required the team to develop a novel solution as this process is typically done over months. We've constructed a system that combines Apache OODT; with Apache Tika; with the Interactive Data Analysis (IDL)/ENVI programming environment to rapidly and unobtrusively generate, distribute and archive ASO data as soon as the plane lands near Mammoth Lakes, CA. Our system is flexible, underwent several redeployments and reconfigurations, and delivered this critical information to stakeholders during the recent "Snow On" campaign March 2013 - June 2013. This talk will take you through a day in the life of the compute team from data acquisition, delivery, processing, and dissemination. Within this context, we will discuss the architecture of ASO; the open source software we used; the data we stored; and how it was delivered to its users. Moreover we will discuss the logistics, system engineering, and staffing that went into the developing, deployment, and operation of the mobile compute system.

  3. Acute respiratory distress induced by repeated saline lavage provides stable experimental conditions for 24 hours in pigs.

    PubMed

    Muellenbach, Ralf M; Kredel, Markus; Zollhoefer, Bernd; Bernd, Zollhoefer; Johannes, Amelie; Kuestermann, Julian; Schuster, Frank; Schwemmer, Ulrich; Wurmb, Thomas; Wunder, Christian; Roewer, Norbert; Brederlau, Jörg

    2009-04-01

    Surfactant depletion is most often used to study acute respiratory failure in animal models. Because model stability is often criticized, the authors tested the following hypotheses: Repeated pulmonary lavage with normal saline provides stable experimental conditions for 24 hours with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 300 mm Hg. Lung injury was induced by bilateral pulmonary lavages in 8 female pigs (51.5 +/- 4.8 kg). The animals were ventilated for 24 hours (PEEP: 5 cm H2O; tidal volume: 6 mL/kg; respiratory rate: 30/min). After 24 hours the animals were euthanized. For histopathology slides from all pulmonary lobes were obtained. Supernatant of the bronchoalveolar fluid collected before induction of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and after 24 hours was analyzed. A total of 19 +/- 6 lavages were needed to induce ARDS. PaO2/FiO2 ratio and pulmonary shunt fraction remained significantly deteriorated compared to baseline values after 24 hours (P < .01). Slight to moderate histopathologic changes were detected. Significant increases of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 were observed after 24 hours (P < .01). The presented surfactant depletion-based lung injury model was associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and fulfilled the criteria of acute ling injury (ALI) for 24 hours. PMID:19337905

  4. Association between Sleep Duration and 24-Hour Urine Free Cortisol in the MrOS Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Madhu N.; Blackwell, Terri; Redline, Susan; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Neylan, Thomas C.; Stone, Katie L.

    2013-01-01

    Context Short sleep duration is associated with adverse health outcomes, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. It has been postulated that short sleep duration may elevate cortisol levels, but studies have had conflicting results. It is unclear whether these differing findings may be due to methodological issues, such as assessment of sleep duration. Specifically, objective versus subjective methods of measuring habitual sleep duration may account for the conflicting results found in epidemiological studies. Objective Our goal was to determine whether habitual sleep duration, measured objectively (by actigraphy) and subjectively (by self-report), was associated with 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), a measure of integrated cortisol secretion. Our secondary goal was to determine whether slow wave sleep (SWS, determined by polysomnography) was associated with 24-hour UFC. Design/Setting Cross sectional study of community dwelling older men. Patients/Participants 325 men (mean age = 76.6 years, SD = 5.5) from the Portland site of the MrOS Sleep Study, who underwent 24-hour urine collection, polysomnography, actigraphy and sleep questionnaire. Primary Outcome 24-hour UFC. Results In this study of community dwelling older men, self-reported sleep duration was inversely related to 24-hour UFC levels. Participants reporting <5 hours of habitual sleep had an adjusted mean 24-hour UFC of 29.8 ug, compared to 28.0 ug in participants reporting >5 to <8 hours of sleep 25.5 ug in those reporting >8 hours of habitual sleep. However, sleep duration determined by actigraphy was not associated with 24-hour UFC in either univariable or multivariable regression models. SWS was not associated with 24-hour UFC. Conclusion Objectively measured (i.e., actigraphic) sleep duration is not associated with 24-hour UFC in these community dwelling older men. This finding, together with prior studies, suggests that elevated levels of integrated cortisol secretion is not the

  5. The prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers, 24-hour ultra-runners and multi-stage ultra-mountain bikers in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in two 24-hour mountain bike (MTB) (R1,R2), one 24-hour running (R3) and one multi-stage MTB (R4) races held in the Czech Republic in a cluster of four cross-sectional studies. Methods In 27 ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers), 12 ultra-runners, and 14 multi-stage MTBers, fluid intake, changes (Δ) in body mass, hematocrit, plasma volume, plasma [Na+], plasma [K+], plasma osmolality, urine [Na+], urine [K+], urine specific gravity, urine osmolality, K+/Na+ ratio in urine, transtubular potassium gradient and glomerular filtration rate were measured and calculated. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and symptoms of EAH were recorded using post-race questionnaires. Results Of the 53 finishers, three (5.7%) developed post-race EAH, thereof one (3.7%) ultra-MTBer, one (8.3%) ultra-runner and one (7.1%) multi-stage MTBer. Plasma [Na+] decreased significantly (p < 0.001) only in R4. Urine osmolality (R1, R3, R4 p < 0.001; R2 p < 0.05) and glomerular filtration rate (p < 0.001) increased, and body mass decreased in all races (p < 0.05). Δ body mass was inversely related to the number of kilometers achieved (p < 0.001) in R2 where better ultra-MTBers tended to lose more weight. Δ body mass (p < 0.001) and %Δ body mass (p = 0.05) were positively related to lower post-race plasma [Na+] in R3 that was associated with increased loss in body mass. Fluid intake was positively related to race performance in R1 and R2 (R1: p = 0.04; R2: p = 0.01) where ultra-MTBers in R1 and R2 who drank more finished ahead of those who drank less. Post-race plasma [Na+] was negatively associated with race performance in ultra-MTBers in R2 (p < 0.05), similarly ultra-runners in R3 (p < 0.05) where finishers with more kilometres had lower post-race plasma [Na+]. Conclusions The prevalence of EAH in the Czech Republic was no higher compared to existing reports on ultra-endurance athletes in other countries

  6. Pattern of 24 hour intragastric acidity in active duodenal ulcer disease and in healthy controls.

    PubMed Central

    Merki, H S; Fimmel, C J; Walt, R P; Harre, K; Röhmel, J; Witzel, L

    1988-01-01

    Twenty four hour intragastric acidity was measured by continuous recording using intragastric combined glass electrodes in 46 duodenal ulcer patients within 48 hours of endoscopic confirmation of active ulceration. Acidity during predefined time periods was compared with that measured in 40 healthy controls without gastrointestinal disease: it was significantly higher in duodenal ulcer patients at all times, but 25% of ulcer patients had median 24 hour acidity within the interquartile range of the normal group. During the evening (18,00 to 22,00 h) ulcer patients had considerable acidity with a median of 39.8 (63.1-31.6) mmol/l (interquartile range) compared with 5.6 (22.3-0.4) mmol/l of controls. It is suggested that antisecretory treatment be directed to decrease this period of unbuffered acidity, as well as during the night, which is presently considered of prime importance. PMID:3209116

  7. The Effects of 24-hour Sleep Deprivation on the Exploration-Exploitation Trade-off

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Brian D.; Maddox, W. Todd; Bowen, Christopher; Savarie, Zachary R.; Matthews, Michael D.; Markman, Arthur B.; Schnyer, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has a complex set of neurological effects that go beyond a mere slowing of mental processes. While cognitive and perceptual impairments in sleep deprived individuals are widespread, some abilities remain intact. In an effort to characterize these effects, some have suggested an impairment of complex decision making ability despite intact ability to follow simple rules. To examine this trade-off, 24-hour total sleep deprived individuals performed two versions of a resource acquisition foraging task, one in which exploration is optimal (to succeed, abandon low value, high saliency options) and another in which exploitation is optimal (to succeed, refrain from switching between options). Sleep deprived subjects exhibited decreased performance on the exploitation task compared to non-sleep deprived controls, yet both groups exhibited increased performance on the exploratory task. These results speak to previous neuropsychological work on cognitive control. PMID:21686036

  8. Tasimelteon: A Review in Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder in Totally Blind Individuals.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2016-05-01

    Tasimelteon (Hetlioz(®)) is a dual melatonin receptor agonist indicated for the treatment of Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder (Non-24) (free-running disorder). In two randomized, double-masked, multicentre, phase III trials, totally blind individuals with Non-24 who received oral tasimelteon 20 mg once nightly were significantly more likely than those receiving placebo to entrain the circadian pacemaker (the SET trial) and maintain entrainment (the RESET trial). Sleep/wake parameters and functioning were also improved with tasimelteon. Oral tasimelteon was generally well tolerated in totally blind patients with Non-24. In conclusion, tasimelteon is a useful drug for the treatment of Non-24 in totally blind individuals. PMID:27003694

  9. Setting Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for 1 hour or 24 hour contingency exposures to airborne chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Hector D.; Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Since the early years of the manned space program, NASA has developed and used exposure limits called Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) to help protect astronauts from airborne toxicants. Most of these SMACS are based on an exposure duration of 7 days, since this is the duration of a 'typical' mission. A set of 'contingency SMACs' is also being developed for scenarios involving brief (1-hour or 24- hour) exposures to relatively high levels of airborne toxicants from event-related 'contingency' releases of contaminants. The emergency nature of contingency exposures dictates the use of different criteria for setting exposure limits. The NASA JSC Toxicology Group recently began a program to document the rationales used to set new SMACs and plans to review the older, 7-day SMACs. In cooperation with the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology, a standard procedure has been developed for researching, setting, and documenting SMAC values.

  10. The association of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to salt with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aim Salt reduction efforts usually have a strong focus on consumer education. Understanding the association between salt consumption levels and knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt should provide insight into the likely effectiveness of education-based programs. Methods A single 24-hour urine sample and a questionnaire describing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was obtained from 306 randomly selected participants and 113 volunteers from a regional town in Australia. Results Mean age of all participants was 55 years (range 20–88), 55% were women and mean 24-hour urinary salt excretion was 8.8(3.6) g/d. There was no difference in salt excretion between the randomly selected and volunteer sample. Virtually all participants (95%) identified that a diet high in salt can cause serious health problems with the majority of participants (81%) linking a high salt diet to raised blood pressure. There was no difference in salt excretion between those who did 8.7(2.1) g/d and did not 7.5(3.3) g/d identify that a diet high in salt causes high blood pressure (p = 0.1). Nor was there a difference between individuals who believed they consumed “too much” 8.9(3.3) g/d “just the right amount” 8.4(2.6) g/d or “too little salt” 9.1(3.7) g/d (p = 0.2). Likewise, individuals who indicated that lowering their salt intake was important 8.5(2.9) g/d vs. not important 8.8(2.4) g/d did not have different consumption levels (p = 0.4). Conclusion The absence of a clear association between knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt and actual salt consumption suggests that interventions focused on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours alone may be of limited efficacy. PMID:24708561

  11. Fasting for 24 Hours Heightens Reward from Food and Food-Related Cues

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Jameason D.; Goldfield, Gary S.; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E.; Doucet, Éric

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We examined the impact of a 24 hour complete fast (vs. fed state) on two measures of food reward: 1) ‘wanting’, as measured by response to food images and by the relative-reinforcing value of food (RRV), and 2) ‘liking’, as measured by response to food images and the hedonic evaluation of foods consumed. Methods Utilizing a randomized crossover design, 15 subjects (9 male; 6 female) aged 28.6±4.5 yrs with body mass index 25.3±1.4 kg/m2 were randomized and counterbalanced to normal feeding (FED) and 24-hour fast (FASTED) conditions. Trait characteristics were measured with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. Two computer tasks measured food reward: 1) RRV progressive ratio task, 2) explicit ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire, LFPQ). Also measured were ad libitum energy intake (EI; buffet) and food ‘liking’ (visual analogue scale) of personalized stimuli. Results There were no significant anthropometric changes between conditions. Appetite scores, hedonic ratings of ‘liking’, and ad libitum EI all significantly increased under the FASTED condition (p<0.05). Under the FASTED condition there were significant increases in the RRV of snack foods; similarly, explicit ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ significantly increased for all food categories. ‘Liking’ of sweet foods remained high across-meals under FASTED, but savory foods decreased in hedonic saliency. Conclusion Relative to a fed state, we observed an increase in hedonic ratings of food, the rewarding value of food, and food intake after a 24 hr fast. Alliesthesia to food and food cues is suggested by heightened hedonic ratings under the FASTED condition relative to FED. PMID:24454949

  12. The effect of Operation 24 Hours on reducing collision in the City of Edmonton.

    PubMed

    Halim, Siana; Jiang, Heming

    2013-09-01

    In the City of Edmonton, in order to reduce the prevalence of collisions, the Operation 24 Hours program (OPS24) was developed by using existing police and transportation services resources. The program uses traditional manned police speed enforcement method, which are supplemented by traffic safety messages displayed on permanent and mobile dynamic messaging signs (DMS). In this paper, collision data analysis was performed by looking at the daily number of collisions from 2008 to 2011 that covers 28 Operation 24 Hours (OPS24) events. The objective of the collision data analysis is to analyze if there is a reduction in collision frequencies after OPS24 was held and examined how long the collision reduction effect last. Weather factors such as temperature, thickness of snow, and wind gust have been considered by many as a great influence on collision occurrences, especially in a city with long and cold winter such as Edmonton. Therefore, collision modeling was performed by considering these external weather factors. To analyze the linear and periodic trend of different collision types (injury, fatal, and property damage only (PDO)) and examine the influence of weather factors on collisions, negative binomial time series model that accounts for seasonality and weather factors was used to model daily collision data. The modeling also considered collision proportion to account for missing traffic volume data; the Gaussian time series model that accounts for seasonality and weather factors was used to model collision proportion. To estimate the collision trend and test for changes in collision levels before/after OPS24, interrupted time series model with segmented regression was used. While for estimating how long the effect of the OPS24 last, change point method was applied. PMID:23727551

  13. Heart rate variability and arrhythmic patterns of 24-hour Holter electrocardiography among Nigerians with cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Adebayo, Rasaaq Ayodele; Ikwu, Amanze Nkemjika; Balogun, Michael Olabode; Akintomide, Anthony Olubunmi; Ajayi, Olufemi Eyitayo; Adeyeye, Victor Oladeji; Mene-Afejuku, Tuoyo Omasan; Bamikole, Olaniyi James; Ogunyemi, Suraj Adefabi; Ajibare, Adeola Olubunmi; Oketona, Omolola Abiodun

    2015-01-01

    Background Facilities for Holter electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring in many Nigerian hospitals are limited. There are few published works in Nigeria on the use of 24-hour Holter ECG in cardiac arrhythmic evaluation of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Objective To study the clinical indications, arrhythmic pattern, and heart rate variability (HRV) among subjects referred for 24-hour Holter ECG at our Cardiac Care Unit. Methods Three-hundred and ten patients (134 males and 176 females) were studied consecutively over a 48-month period using Schiller type (MT-101) Holter ECG machine. Results Out of the 310 patients reviewed, 134 were males (43.2%) and 176 were females (56.8%). The commonest indication for Holter ECG was palpitation followed by syncope in 71 (23%) and 49 (15.8%) of subjects, respectively. Premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex were the commonest types of arrhythmia in 51.5% and 15% subjects, respectively. Ventricular arrhythmia was more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy patients (85.7%). The HRV of subjects with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy, using standard deviation of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds), were 107.32±49.61, 79.15±49.15, and 66.50±15.54, respectively. The HRV, using standard deviation of averages of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds), of patients with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy were 77.39±62.34, 57.82±37.05, and 55.50±12.71, respectively. Conclusion Palpitation and syncope were the commonest indications for Holter ECG among our subjects. The commonest arrhythmic patterns were premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex, with ventricular arrhythmia being more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy. There was a reduction in HRV in patients with stroke and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. PMID:26170685

  14. Effects of exenatide and liraglutide on 24-hour glucose fluctuations in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Jo; Yamakawa, Tadashi; Taguri, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Hirohisa; Shigematsu, Erina; Suzuki, Jun; Morita, Satoshi; Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-03-31

    We evaluated the influence of short-term treatment with exenatide twice daily or liraglutide once daily on daily blood glucose fluctuations in 40 patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by sulfonylureas. The patients in a multicenter, open-label trial were randomly assigned to receive add-on exenatide (10 μg/day, n = 21) or add-on liraglutide (0.3-0.9 mg/day, n = 19), and underwent 24-hour continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring. There was no significant between-group difference in glucose fluctuations during the day, as assessed by calculating mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) and standard deviation (SD). However, the mean blood glucose levels at 3 hours after breakfast and dinner were significantly lower in the exenatide group than the liraglutide group (breakfast: 127.3 ± 24.1 vs. 153.4 ± 28.7 mg/dL; p = 0.006, dinner: 108.7 ± 17.3 vs. 141.9 ± 24.2 mg/dL; p < 0.001). In contrast, mean blood glucose levels and their SD were significantly lower between 0000 h and 0600 h in the liraglutide group than the exenatide group (average glucose: 126.9 ± 27.1 vs. 107.1 ± 24.0 mg/dL; p = 0.029, SD: 15.2 ± 10.5 vs. 8.7 ± 3.8; p = 0.020). Both groups had similar glucose fluctuations despite differences in 24-hour blood glucose profiles. Therefore, each of these agents may have advantages or disadvantages and should be selected according to the blood glucose profile of the patient. PMID:26743240

  15. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables

  16. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support. PMID:27398166

  17. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support. PMID:27398166

  18. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    PubMed

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  19. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  20. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited – A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P.; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light–dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (“master clock”) of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli (“zeitgebers”), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5–0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy

  1. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited - A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light-dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus ("master clock") of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli ("zeitgebers"), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5-0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy might have

  2. Personal best marathon time and longest training run, not anthropometry, predict performance in recreational 24-hour ultrarunners.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2011-08-01

    In recent studies, a relationship between both low body fat and low thicknesses of selected skinfolds has been demonstrated for running performance of distances from 100 m to the marathon but not in ultramarathon. We investigated the association of anthropometric and training characteristics with race performance in 63 male recreational ultrarunners in a 24-hour run using bi and multivariate analysis. The athletes achieved an average distance of 146.1 (43.1) km. In the bivariate analysis, body mass (r = -0.25), the sum of 9 skinfolds (r = -0.32), the sum of upper body skinfolds (r = -0.34), body fat percentage (r = -0.32), weekly kilometers ran (r = 0.31), longest training session before the 24-hour run (r = 0.56), and personal best marathon time (r = -0.58) were related to race performance. Stepwise multiple regression showed that both the longest training session before the 24-hour run (p = 0.0013) and the personal best marathon time (p = 0.0015) had the best correlation with race performance. Performance in these 24-hour runners may be predicted (r2 = 0.46) by the following equation: Performance in a 24-hour run, km) = 234.7 + 0.481 (longest training session before the 24-hour run, km) - 0.594 (personal best marathon time, minutes). For practical applications, training variables such as volume and intensity were associated with performance but not anthropometric variables. To achieve maximum kilometers in a 24-hour run, recreational ultrarunners should have a personal best marathon time of ∼3 hours 20 minutes and complete a long training run of ∼60 km before the race, whereas anthropometric characteristics such as low body fat or low skinfold thicknesses showed no association with performance. PMID:21642857

  3. Continuous 24 hour ambulatory monitoring of intragastric pH in man.

    PubMed

    Kapur, B K; Howlett, P J; Kenyon, N G; Lunt, M J; Mills, J G; Smallwood, R H; Wilson, A J; Bardhan, K D

    1987-05-01

    A system has been developed which permits continuous 24 hour ambulatory recording of intragastric pH under near-physiological conditions. The system utilises a Cecar combination pH electrode connected through a pre-amplifier to an Oxford Medical Systems Medilog 4-24 cassette recorder, and the pH recorded continuously on to tape. The data is replayed at high speed, digitised and then analysed. Sources of error included system drift, system noise and the effect of changes in electrode environment due to saliva, food, loss of fluid contact, temperature variations and electrode time constant. These were found to be small. In contrast, the major changes in pH detected reflect real changes at the electrode tip. These changes can be recorded by the system. Developments in electronics and improvements in both the size and quality of pH electrodes, over the past few decades, has enabled intragastric pH recordings to be made with greater ease. However, a large number of investigators still assess gastric acidity by infrequent, intermittent sampling of gastric secretion through a naso-gastric tube. This new ambulatory system is a significant improvement and its versatility allows studies in acid secretion physiology, pharmacology and pathophysiology. PMID:3595080

  4. The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Implications for practitioners, professionals, and organizations.

    PubMed

    Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Copeland, Jennifer L; Fowles, Jonathon; Zehr, Lori; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    The new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth emphasize the integration of all movement behaviours that occur over a whole day (i.e., light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep). These guidelines shift the paradigm away from considering each behaviour in isolation. This concept of the "whole day matters" not only calls for a change in thinking about movement but also for redevelopment of dissemination and implementation practice. Past guideline launch activities largely have aimed to create awareness through passive dissemination strategies (e.g., Website posts, distribution of print resources). For the integrated guidelines to have public health impact, we must move beyond dissemination and raising of awareness to implementation and behaviour change. Shifting this focus requires new, innovative approaches to intervention, including interdisciplinary collaboration, policy change, and refocused service provision. The purpose of this paper is to identify practitioners, professionals, and organizations with potential to disseminate and/or implement the guidelines, discuss possible implementation strategies for each of these groups, and describe the few resources being developed and those needed to support dissemination and implementation efforts. This discussion makes readily apparent the need for a well-funded, comprehensive, long-term dissemination, implementation, and evaluation plan to ensure uptake and activation of the guidelines. PMID:27306438

  5. [The diagnostic impact and limitations of 24 hour pH monitoring with multichannel intraluminal impedance].

    PubMed

    Korszun, Karolina; Dyrla, Przemysław; Wojtuń, Stanisław; Gil, Jerzy

    2014-08-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a result of reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus. Gastroscopy is often the first examination performed in GERD diagnosis. Some patients have macroscopic lesions, namely erosions, in the esophagus above the cardia of stomach. It enables to diagnose gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, many patients have no macroscopic lesions of the esophageal mucosa in endoscopy. That is why 24-hour pH monitoring with multichannel intraluminal impedance is the gold standard in diagnosis establishing of GERD and make feasible to distinguish acid, weakly acid and nonacid reflux and its correlation with reported symptoms. Impedance-pH is used to establish diagnosis of GERD, in patient qualification to anti-reflux surgery, to find the cause of not efficient reflux disease treatment as well as the cause of extra-esophageal symptoms of reflux disease. During impedance-pH test catheter connected with the recorder is placed in patient's esophagus. Recorded data is analyzed with the computer program. The examination is safe, the only complication that can occur is nasal bleeding, which can be a result of mucosa damage caused while catheter implementation. Nowadays disposable catheters are used, that excludes the risk of catheter related infection. On the basis of pH-impedance results it is possible to divide patients into 3 groups: patients with functional heartburn, patients with esophageal hypersensitivity and abnormal esophageal acid exposure. This classification is very helpful in the choice of treatment - antireflux surgery, proton pump inhibitor or prokinetic therapy. PMID:25252438

  6. Evaluation study of the California Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program: 24-hour food recall data.

    PubMed

    Del Tredici, A M; Joy, A B; Omelich, C L; Laughlin, S G

    1988-02-01

    The California Expanded Food and Nutrition Education program (EFNEP) Evaluation Study evaluated the effectiveness of the California program. The eating habits of 683 persons were studied in a group receiving EFNEP instruction (355 participants) and a control group (328 participants) that received no instruction. The 24-hour food recall was used to assess eating habits using the Synectics method. At the beginning of the study, there were no differences in food recall scores between the EFNEP and the control groups. After 6 months of instruction in the EFNEP group, there was a significant increase in food recall score for that group and no change in the control group. The improvements observed in the EFNEP group resulted from increased intakes from the milk, protein, and fruit and vegetable food groups. The program characteristics that led to those changes were determined to be in the length of the EFNEP visit, the number of EFNEP visits, and the EFNEP instruction topics. These results show that the California EFNEP is effective in producing significant changes in the eating habits of the low-income individuals it serves. PMID:3339205

  7. Electrodes for 24 hours pH monitoring--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    McLauchlan, G; Rawlings, J M; Lucas, M L; McCloy, R F; Crean, G P; McColl, K E

    1987-08-01

    Three pH electrodes in clinical use were examined--(1) antimony electrode with remote reference electrode (Synectics 0011), (2) glass electrode with remote reference electrode (Microelectrodes Inc. MI 506) and (3) combined glass electrode with integral reference electrode (Radiometer GK2801C). In vitro studies showed that both glass electrodes were similar and superior to the antimony electrode with respect to response time, drift, and sensitivity. The effect of the siting of the reference electrode on the recorded pH was examined in five human volunteers. The pH reading using a remote skin reference electrode was higher by a mean of 0.3 pH units (range 0.0-0.6) in the stomach, lower by 0.65 pH units (0.5-0.8) in the duodenum and lower by 0.3 pH units (0.0-0.6) in the oesophagus than that simultaneously obtained with an intraluminal reference electrode. Buccal reference electrodes gave similar readings to skin. Combined reference and glass pH electrodes are recommended for 24-hour ambulatory pH monitoring. PMID:3666560

  8. Depressive Symptoms and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans: The SABPA Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Lespérance, François; Harvey, Brian H.; Malan, Nico T.; Malan, Leoné

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances in circadian rhythm might play a central role in the neurobiology of depression. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and 24-hour ambulatory BP in a sample of 405 (197 black and 208 Caucasian) urbanized African teachers aged 25 to 60 yrs (mean 44.6 ± 9.6 yrs). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-administered 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). After adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, participants with severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15) had higher odds of hypertension defined from ambulatory BP and/or use of antihypertensive medication (odds ratio = 2.19, 95% CI, 1.00–4.90) in comparison to participants with no symptoms. Compared to Caucasians with no depressive symptoms, those with severe symptoms had blunted nocturnal systolic BP drop of 4.7 mmHg (95% CI, −0.5 to 10.0, P = 0.07). In summary, depressive symptoms were associated with the circadian BP profile in black and Caucasian Africans. PMID:22028954

  9. Age and individual sleep characteristics affect cognitive performance in anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift.

    PubMed

    Tadinac, Meri; Sekulić, Ante; Hromatko, Ivana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Ivancić, Romina

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown that both shift work and sleep deprivation have an adverse influence on various aspects of human cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to explore changes in cognitive functioning and subjective sleepiness of anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift. Twenty-six anesthesiology residents completed a set of psychological instruments at the beginning and at the end of the shift, as well as a questionnaire regarding information about the shift, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and Circadian Type Questionnaire. There was a significant decline in cognitive performance measured by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test after the shift. The effect was stronger in older participants and in those with high scores on rigidity of sleep scale and low scores on the ability to overcome sleepiness scale. There were no differences in the digits forward test (a measure of concentration), while digits backward test (a measure of working memory) even showed an improved performance after the shift. Although participants reported being significantly sleepier after the shift, the subjective sleepiness did not correlate with any of the objective measures of cognitive performance. In conclusion, the performance in short tasks involving concentration and working memory was not impaired, while performance in long-term and monotone tasks declined after sleep deprivation, and the magnitude of this decline depended on the specific individual characteristics of sleep and on age Surprisingly, age seemed to have an important impact on cognitive functions after shift work even in the relatively age-homogeneous population of young anesthesiology residents. PMID:24974663

  10. Importance of all movement behaviors in a 24 hour period for overall health.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Carson, Valerie; Gray, Casey E; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-12-01

    Physical inactivity and childhood obesity are well-recognized public health concerns that are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes. Historically, the benefits of physical activity (e.g., moderate-to-vigorous physical activity-MVPA) to overall health have dominated discussions and emerging evidence indicates that a broader, more integrated approach is needed to better understand and address current public health crises. Existing guidelines for children and youth around the world only focus on MVPA, and recently sedentary behavior, despite an accumulating body of evidence showing that light-intensity physical activity (LPA) such as walking can provide important health benefits. Furthermore, there is accumulating support for the importance of adequate sleep and that these behaviors moderate the health impact of each other. Ignoring the other components of the movement continuum (i.e., sleep, sedentary time, LPA) while focusing efforts exclusively on MVPA (accounting for <5% of the time in a 24 h period) limits the potential to optimize the health benefits of movement behaviors. In order to address this limitation, experts in Canada are currently developing the world's first Integrated 24 Hour Movement Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth to help advance an integrated healthy active living agenda that has the potential to significantly improve the overall health and well-being of children and youth. PMID:25485978

  11. [Ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure monitoring in patients with resistant hypertension].

    PubMed

    Sznajderman, M; Popławska, W; Cybulska, I; Niegowska, J; Makowiecka-Cieśla, M; Baranowski, R

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of 24-hour blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitoring in patients with "resistant" hypertension. 30 patients (44.1 +/- 9.9 years) with diastolic BP 100 mm Hg or more in spite of treatment with three or more antihypertensive drugs were studied. Ambulatory recording of BP and HR was performed by means of Del Mar Avionics monitoring system 9000. Mean recording time was 21.5 hours and mean number of measurements during one recording--56.7. Mean ambulatory systolic and diastolic BP values were significantly lower than mean value of three casual measurements (146.0 +/- 24.6 vs 171.5 +/- 21.2 mm Hg for systolic and 97.2 +/- 11.3 vs 110.4 +/- 7.5 mm Hg for diastolic BP p less than 0.01) In 14 (46.6%) systolic BP and in 10 patients (33.3%) diastolic BP were normal. The patients with normal and abnormal ambulatory BP recordings did not differ in regard to age and mean clinic BP levels. However, patients with abnormal ambulatory BP recordings were more often overweight and showed a greater frequency of left ventricular hypertrophy and family history of hypertension and its complications. The results of the study show that ambulatory BP monitoring may be of value in assessing the response to antihypertensive treatment in patients with so called resistant hypertension as judged on the basis of clinic pressure. PMID:2074634

  12. Accuracy of commercial 24-hour electrocardiogram analyzers for quantitation of total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Salerno, D M; Granrud, G; Hodges, M

    1987-12-01

    The accuracy of 2 commercial 24-hour electrocardiogram analyzers was tested for quantitation of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs). Scanner 1 was the Cardiodata Systems Mark III and scanner 2 was the Avionics Trendsetter DCG VII. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic recordings from 19 consecutive ambulatory patients with frequent VPCs were analyzed by each device. Results were compared with those from hand counts of complete printouts of each of the 19 recordings. For total VPCs, scanner 1 had an average error of 13% (range 0 to 58%) and scanner 2 had an average error of 24% (range (1 to 80%). Scanner 1 had an error of more than 10% for 9 of the 19 recordings and scanner 2 more than 10% for 11 of the 19 recordings. For paired VPCs, scanner 1 had a mean error of 23% (range 4 to 77%), and scanner 2 of 56% (range 34 to 79%). For nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, scanner 1 had an average error of 20% (range 8 to 41%) and scanner 2 had an error of 56% (range 34 to 78%). Thus, when recordings from consecutive ambulatory patients with frequent VPCs were analyzed, neither device was consistently accurate for quantitation of total VPCs. Both analyzers had an unacceptable error for quantitation of repetitive VPCs. All currently available devices may have comparably large errors. This possibility is confirmed by recalculation of the reported data from a third scanner. PMID:2446488

  13. Obtaining liver tridimensional scaffold through the decellularization of rabbit whole liver in 24 hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Schliamser; Ayelen, Rinaldi; Romina, Comin; Alba Nelly, Borchert; Adrian, Nari Gustavo; Alicia, Salvatierra Nancy; Mariana Paula, Cid

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, we development a new protocol for liver decellularization in which the hole decellularization was reached over 24 h. Introduction: the availability of transplantable livers is not sufficient to fulfill the current demand for grafts, with the search for therapeutic alternatives having generated different lines of research, one of which is the use of decellularized three-dimensional biological matrices and subsequent cell seeding to obtain a functional organ. Objective: to produce a decellularization protocol from rabbit liver to generate a three-dimensional matrixin which the time period involved didn't pass 24 h. Methods: The decellularization is obtained through the use of water and SDS (0,1-0,3 %), after freezing at -80 degrees, is the best alternative of different physical and/or chemical mechanisms to break down organ cells and leave only the extracellular matriz. After 24 h of retrograde perfusion, a decellularized translucent matrix was generated. To evaluate if the decellularization protocol was successful, with the extracellular matrix being preserved, we carried out histological (light microscopy) and biochemical (DNA quantification) studies. Results: the decellularization process was verified by macroscopic observation of the organ using microscopic observation corroborated the macroscopic results, with the hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining showing no cells or nuclear material. In addition, the DNA quantification was less than 10% in the decellularized liver compared to control. Finally,the time taken to develop the decellularization protocol was less than 24 hours.

  14. Association between Diurnal Variation of Ozone Concentration and Stroke Occurrence: 24-Hour Time Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Myung-Hoon; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Kim, Young-Seo; Ko, Yong; Kim, Young-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Increasing ozone concentrations have been known to damage human health and ecosystems. Although ozone tends to display diurnal variation, most studies have reported only on the association between daily ozone concentrations and ischemic stroke occurrence on the same day, or with a 1-day lag. We investigated the effect of the diurnal variation of ozone on ischemic stroke occurrence during the same day. Methods We included a consecutive series of 1,734 patients from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2014, at a single tertiary hospital in Seoul, South Korea. We evaluated differences between temperature and pollutants at the time of stroke onset for each time interval and averaged those parameters across the 7-year study period. Results During the interval from 13:00 to 16:59, we found a positive association between ischemic stroke occurrence and ozone concentration relative to other time periods. Upper median ozone levels from 13:00 to 16:59 were positively correlated with ischemic stroke (odds ratio, 1.550; 95% confidence intervals, 1.220 to 1.970; P = <0.001) when compared with lower median levels. Conclusions The results show diurnal patterns of ischemic stroke occurrence based on upper and lower median ozone levels for a 24-hour period, which extends understanding of the association between stroke occurrence and environmental influences. PMID:27015421

  15. Deep venous thrombophlebitis: detection with 4-hour versus 24-hour platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Ponto, J.A.; Kimball, D.A.; Frey, E.E.; Ahmed, F.; Coughlan, J.D.; Jensen, K.C.

    1987-11-01

    Thirty-one nonheparinized patients with suspected deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT) underwent contrast venography and indium-111 platelet scintigraphy (In-111 PS). Venography permitted identification of acute DVT in 12 of 31 cases (39%). One additional patient was considered to have acute DVT despite nonconclusive venography results. In-111 PS results were positive at 4 hours in nine of 13 cases (69%) and at 24 hours in 12 of 13 cases (92%). Two of four patients with false-negative 4-hour In-111 PS studies had received warfarin. Thus, the sensitivity of 4-hour In-111 PS in patients not receiving anticoagulants was 82%. Venography results were negative for acute DVT in 18 cases, and 4-hour In-111 PS studies were negative or equivocal in each. In-111 PS is an alternative to contrast venography for detecting acute DVT. If 4-hour In-111 PS results are positive, anticoagulation can be initiated. Delayed images are necessary if the 4-hour images are negative or equivocal.

  16. Severe community-acquired pneumonia: timely management measures in the first 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Phua, Jason; Dean, Nathan C; Guo, Qi; Kuan, Win Sen; Lim, Hui Fang; Lim, Tow Keang

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) range from 17 to 48 % in published studies.In this review, we searched PubMed for relevant papers published between 1981 and June 2016 and relevant files. We explored how early and aggressive management measures, implemented within 24 hours of recognition of severe CAP and carried out both in the emergency department and in the ICU, decrease mortality in severe CAP.These measures begin with the use of severity assessment tools and the application of care bundles via clinical decision support tools. The bundles include early guideline-concordant antibiotics including macrolides, early haemodynamic support (lactate measurement, intravenous fluids, and vasopressors), and early respiratory support (high-flow nasal cannulae, lung-protective ventilation, prone positioning, and neuromuscular blockade for acute respiratory distress syndrome).While the proposed interventions appear straightforward, multiple barriers to their implementation exist. To successfully decrease mortality for severe CAP, early and close collaboration between emergency medicine and respiratory and critical care medicine teams is required. We propose a workflow incorporating these interventions. PMID:27567896

  17. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m2, had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab® device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens® algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for “24-hour”, “awake”, and “asleep” periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects. PMID:24812515

  18. A 24-HOUR AMBULATORY ECG MONITORING IN ASSESSMENT OF QT INTERVAL DURATION AND DISPERSION IN ROWERS WITH PHYSIOLOGICAL MYOCARDIAL HYPERTROPHY

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Z.F.; Bilalova, R.R.; Tsibulkin, N.A.; Almetova, R.R.; Mudarisova, R.R.; Ahmetov, I.I.

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial hypertrophy (MH) due to cardiac pathology is characterized by an increase in QT interval duration and dispersion, while the findings for exercise-induced myocardial hypertrophy are contradictory. The majority of published research findings have not explored this relationship, but there have only been a few conducted studies using 24-hour ECG monitoring. The aim of the study was to determine the QT interval duration and dispersion in short-term and 24-hour ECG in endurance athletes with myocardial hypertrophy and without it. Methods: A total of 26 well-trained rowers underwent a resting 12-lead ECG, 24-hour ECG monitoring and echocardiography. Results: Athletes with MH (n = 7) at rest did not show any increase in QTc interval duration and dispersion, or mean and maximal QTc duration in Holter monitoring compared to athletes without MH (n = 19). Left ventricular mass was not significantly correlated with any QTc characteristics. Furthermore, athletes with MH had significantly longer mean QT (P = 0.01) and maximal QT (P = 0.018) intervals in Holter monitoring and higher 24-hour heart rate variability indexes due to stronger vagal effects. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that athlete's heart syndrome with myocardial hypertrophy as a benign phenomenon does not lead to an increase in QT interval duration, or increases in maximal and mean duration in a 24-hour ECG. An increase in QT interval duration in athletes may have an autonomic nature. PMID:24744494

  19. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and 24-Hour Blood Pressure Pattern Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, William B.; Kutner, Michael; Ouslander, Joseph G.; Bliwise, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Background To examine the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and 24-hour blood pressure (BP) pattern among community-dwelling older adults. Methods A convenience sample of 70 community-dwelling older adults, recruited from senior housing, community centers, and learning centers, were admitted to General Clinical Research Center, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Ga. Information regarding demographic and clinical history was obtained using questionnaires. Twenty-four–hour BP monitoring in supine position was performed using Spacelabs model 20207. Breathing during sleep was monitored with the use of a modified sleep recording system (Embletta, PDS), which monitors nasal and oral airflow, chest and abdominal movements, and pulse oximetry. Night time–daytime (night-day) BP ratio (average night-time BP divided by daytime BP) was calculated both for systolic and diastolic BPs. Results Sixty-nine participants, mean age 74.9 ± 6.4 years (41 [57%] women), completed the study. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 13 ± 13 per hour of sleep, and 20 participants (29%) had AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep, indicating moderate to severe SDB. Moderate to severe SDB (AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep) was significantly associated with nocturnal hypertension, whereas there was no statistically significant difference in wake-time BP between those with and without moderate to severe SDB. Stepwise multiple regressions showed that AHI independently predicted increased night-day systolic and night-day diastolic BP ratio, even after controlling for nocturia frequency. Conclusions The results indicate increased BP load associated with increased AHI in this group of older adults. This increased BP load may contribute to increased hypertension-related morbidity and disease burden. PMID:19196901

  20. Usability of a smartphone food picture app for assisting 24-hour dietary recall: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Benjamin T.; Bilgiç, Pelin; Orr, Barron J.; Suzuki, Asuka; Kim, Angela Sarah; Merchant, Nirav C.; Roe, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The Recaller app was developed to help individuals record their food intakes. This pilot study evaluated the usability of this new food picture application (app), which operates on a smartphone with an embedded camera and Internet capability. SUBJECTS/METHODS Adults aged 19 to 28 years (23 males and 22 females) were assigned to use the Recaller app on six designated, nonconsecutive days in order to capture an image of each meal and snack before and after eating. The images were automatically time-stamped and uploaded by the app to the Recaller website. A trained nutritionist administered a 24-hour dietary recall interview 1 day after food images were taken. Participants' opinions of the Recaller app and its usability were determined by a follow-up survey. As an evaluation indicator of usability, the number of images taken was analyzed and multivariate Poisson regression used to model the factors determining the number of images sent. RESULTS A total of 3,315 food images were uploaded throughout the study period. The median number of images taken per day was nine for males and 13 for females. The survey showed that the Recaller app was easy to use, and 50% of the participants would consider using the app daily. Predictors of a higher number of images were as follows: greater interval (hours) between the first and last food images sent, weekend, and female. CONCLUSIONS The results of this pilot study provide valuable information for understanding the usability of the Recaller smartphone food picture app as well as other similarly designed apps. This study provides a model for assisting nutrition educators in their collection of food intake information by using tools available on smartphones. This innovative approach has the potential to improve recall of foods eaten and monitoring of dietary intake in nutritional studies. PMID:25861429

  1. Difference in 24-Hour Urine Composition between Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Adults without Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jing; Duan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Zhijian; Yuan, Jian; Wan, Shaw P.; Zeng, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetic patients are more likely to develop kidney stones than the general population. The underlying mechanisms for this disparity remain to be elucidated. Little is known about the relationship between urine composition and diabetes mellitus in non-stone-forming individuals. We sought to examine the differences in the 24-hour (24-h) urine composition between diabetic and non-diabetic adults who were not stone formers. Methods A convenience sample of 538 individuals without a history of nephrolithiasis, gout, hyperparathyroidism, or gastroenteric diseases participated in this study. The 24-h urine profiles of 115 diabetic adults were compared with those of 423 non-diabetic adults. Diabetes was defined by self-reported physician diagnosis or medication use. All participants were non-stone formers confirmed by urinary tract ultrasonography. Participants provided a fasting blood sample and a single 24-h urine collection for stone risk analysis. Student’s t-test was used to compare mean urinary values. Linear regression models were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, fasting serum glucose, serum total cholesterol, estimated creatinine clearance rate and urinary factors. Results Univariable analysis showed that the diabetic participants had significantly higher 24-h urine volumes and lower urine calcium and magnesium excretions than non-diabetic participants (all P < 0.05). After multivariate adjustment, no significant differences in 24-h urine composition were observed between diabetic and non-diabetic participants except for a slightly increased 24-h urine volume in diabetic participants (all P > 0.05). The main limitation of this study is that the convenience samples and self-reported data may have been sources of bias. Conclusion Our data showed that there were no differences in 24-h urine composition between diabetic and non-diabetic adults who are not stone formers. The reason for it might be the improved glycemic control in

  2. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of bisphenol A: Evidence against sublingual absorption following ingestion in soup.

    PubMed

    Teeguarden, Justin G; Twaddle, Nathan C; Churchwell, Mona I; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Seryak, Liesel M; Doerge, Daniel R

    2015-10-15

    Extensive first-pass metabolism of ingested bisphenol A (BPA) in the gastro-intestinal tract and liver restricts blood concentrations of bioactive BPA to <1% of total BPA in humans and non-human primates. Absorption of ingested BPA through non-metabolizing tissues of the oral cavity, recently demonstrated in dogs, could lead to the higher serum BPA concentrations reported in some human biomonitoring studies. We hypothesized that the extensive interaction with the oral mucosa by a liquid matrix, like soup, relative to solid food or capsules, might enhance absorption through non-metabolizing oral cavity tissues in humans, producing higher bioavailability and higher serum BPA concentrations. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24hour period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. Absorption of d6-BPA was rapid (t1/2=0.45h) and elimination of the administered dose was complete 24h post-ingestion, evidence against any tissue depot for BPA. The maximum serum d6-BPA concentration was 0.43nM at 1.6h after administration and represented <0.3% of total d6-BPA. Pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacokinetic model simulations, and the significantly faster appearance half-life of d6-BPA-glucuronide compared to d6-BPA (0.29h vs 0.45h) were evidence against meaningful absorption of BPA in humans through any non-metabolizing tissue (<1%). This study confirms that typical exposure to BPA in food produces picomolar to subpicomolar serum BPA concentrations in humans, not nM concentrations reported in some biomonitoring studies. PMID:25620055

  3. To Compare the Microleakage Among Experimental Adhesives Containing Nanoclay Fillers after the Storages of 24 Hours and 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinasab, Seyed Mostafa; Atai, Mohammad; Alavi, Bagher

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the microleakage among experimental adhesives containing nanoclay fillers after the storages of 24 hours and 6 months. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on extracted human molars with the occlusal margins located in enamel and the cervical margins in cementum. Phosphoric acid was applied to the enamel and dentin margins.Subsequently, the cavities were treated using four groups of experimental adhesive systems and restored with a resin composite. Adper Single Bond® was used as control group. After 24- hour and 6- month storages, the samples were subjected to thermocycling shocks and then immersed in silver nitrate as well as developer solution and finally evaluated for leakage. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Based on Kruskal –Wallis test, significant differences were found between groups regarding microleakage. The Mann- Whitney test showed that Leakage was significantly lower in Adper Single Bond® compared to the other groups in dentinal margins after 24 hours and 6 months and in enamel margins after 6 months. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test showed that the enamel leakage in experimental adhesives was significantly lower than dentinal leakage after 24 hours as well as enamel leakage in Adper Single Bond and adhesive with 0.5% PMAA-g-nanoclay was significantly lower than dentinal margins after storage period of 6 months. Conclusion: All the experimental adhesives were effective in reducing enamel leakage after 24 hours, but were not effective in reducing dentinal leakage after 24 hours as well as in enamel and dentinal leakage after a 6-month storage. No improvement was observed in the microleakage in dentin in both short (24 hrs) and long times (6 months). The high microleakage in the adhesives is probably attributed to the high concentration of HEMA in the recipe of the bonding agent. PMID:21566692

  4. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. Results: The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. Conclusion: The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses

  5. Tasimelteon (Hetlioz™): A New Melatonin Receptor Agonist for the Treatment of Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bonacci, Janene M; Venci, Jineane V; Gandhi, Mona A

    2015-10-01

    In January 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration approved tasimelteon (Hetlioz™), a melatonin-receptor agonist for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder. This article provides an overview of the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetic properties, as well as the clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of tasimelteon. Relevant information was identified through a comprehensive literature search of several databases using the key words tasimelteon, Non-24-hour Sleep-Wake disorder, Non-24, and melatonin. Further information was obtained from the tasimelteon package insert, fda.gov, clinicaltrials.gov, briefing materials provided by Vanda Pharmaceuticals, and posters from scientific meetings. PMID:25092604

  6. Characterisation of sleep in intensive care using 24-hour polysomnography: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many intensive care patients experience sleep disruption potentially related to noise, light and treatment interventions. The purpose of this study was to characterise, in terms of quantity and quality, the sleep of intensive care patients, taking into account the impact of environmental factors. Methods This observational study was conducted in the adult ICU of a tertiary referral hospital in Australia, enrolling 57 patients. Polysomnography (PSG) was performed over a 24-hour period to assess the quantity (total sleep time: hh:mm) and quality (percentage per stage, duration of sleep episode) of patients' sleep while in ICU. Rechtschaffen and Kales criteria were used to categorise sleep. Interrater checks were performed. Sound pressure and illuminance levels and care events were simultaneously recorded. Patients reported on their sleep quality in ICU using the Richards Campbell Sleep Questionnaire and the Sleep in Intensive Care Questionnaire. Data were summarised using frequencies and proportions or measures of central tendency and dispersion as appropriate and Cohen's Kappa statistic was used for interrater reliability of the sleep data analysis. Results Patients' median total sleep time was 05:00 (IQR: 02:52 to 07:14). The majority of sleep was stage 1 and 2 (medians: 19 and 73%) with scant slow wave and REM sleep. The median duration of sleep without waking was 00:03. Sound levels were high (mean Leq 53.95 dB(A) during the day and 50.20 dB(A) at night) and illuminance levels were appropriate at night (median <2 lux) but low during the day (median: 74.20 lux). There was a median 1.7 care events/h. Patients' mean self-reported sleep quality was poor. Interrater reliability of sleep staging was highest for slow wave sleep and lowest for stage 1 sleep. Conclusions The quantity and quality of sleep in intensive care patients are poor and may be related to noise, critical illness itself and treatment events that disturb sleep. The study highlights the

  7. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust launches on time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Into a pristine blue sky, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft leaves clouds of exhaust behind as it lifts off at 4:04:15 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  8. Self-Renewal and Differentiation Capacity of Urine-Derived Stem Cells after Urine Preservation for 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yingai; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Leng, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobo; Liu, Hong; Atala, Anthony; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite successful approaches to preserve organs, tissues, and isolated cells, the maintenance of stem cell viability and function in body fluids during storage for cell distribution and transportation remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize urine-derived stem cells (USCs) after optimal preservation of urine specimens for up to 24 hours. A total of 415 urine specimens were collected from 12 healthy men (age range 20–54 years old). About 6×104 cells shed off from the urinary tract system in 24 hours. At least 100 USC clones were obtained from the stored urine specimens after 24 hours and maintained similar biological features to fresh USCs. The stored USCs had a “rice grain” shape in primary culture, and expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, high telomerase activity, and normal karyotypes. Importantly, the preserved cells retained bipotent differentiation capacity. Differentiated USCs expressed myogenic specific proteins and contractile function when exposed to myogenic differentiation medium, and they expressed urothelial cell-specific markers and barrier function when exposed to urothelial differentiation medium. These data demonstrated that up to 75% of fresh USCs can be safely persevered in urine for 24 hours and that these cells stored in urine retain their original stem cell properties, indicating that preserved USCs could be available for potential use in cell-based therapy or clinical diagnosis. PMID:23349776

  9. Accuracy and Usefulness of Select Methods for Assessing Complete Collection of 24-Hour Urine: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    John, Katherine A; Cogswell, Mary E; Campbell, Norm R; Nowson, Caryl A; Legetic, Branka; Hennis, Anselm J M; Patel, Sheena M

    2016-05-01

    Twenty-four-hour urine collection is the recommended method for estimating sodium intake. To investigate the strengths and limitations of methods used to assess completion of 24-hour urine collection, the authors systematically reviewed the literature on the accuracy and usefulness of methods vs para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) recovery (referent). The percentage of incomplete collections, based on PABA, was 6% to 47% (n=8 studies). The sensitivity and specificity for identifying incomplete collection using creatinine criteria (n=4 studies) was 6% to 63% and 57% to 99.7%, respectively. The most sensitive method for removing incomplete collections was a creatinine index <0.7. In pooled analysis (≥2 studies), mean urine creatinine excretion and volume were higher among participants with complete collection (P<.05); whereas, self-reported collection time did not differ by completion status. Compared with participants with incomplete collection, mean 24-hour sodium excretion was 19.6 mmol higher (n=1781 specimens, 5 studies) in patients with complete collection. Sodium excretion may be underestimated by inclusion of incomplete 24-hour urine collections. None of the current approaches reliably assess completion of 24-hour urine collection. PMID:26726000

  10. Population Pharmacokinetic Model Characterizing 24-Hour Variation in the Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Midazolam in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    van Rongen, A; Kervezee, L; Brill, MJE; van Meir, H; den Hartigh, J; Guchelaar, H-J; Meijer, JH; Burggraaf, J; van Oosterhout, F

    2015-01-01

    Daily rhythms in physiology may affect the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate 24-hour variation in the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A substrate midazolam. Oral (2 mg) and intravenous (1 mg) midazolam was administered at six timepoints throughout the 24-hour period in 12 healthy volunteers. Oral bioavailability (population mean value [RSE%] of 0.28 (7.1%)) showed 24-hour variation that was best parameterized as a cosine function with an amplitude of 0.04 (17.3%) and a peak at 12:14 in the afternoon. The absorption rate constant was 1.41 (4.7%) times increased after drug administration at 14:00. Clearance (0.38 L/min (4.8%)) showed a minor 24-hour variation with an amplitude of 0.03 (14.8%) L/min and a peak at 18:50. Simulations show that dosing time minimally affects the concentration time profiles after intravenous administration, while concentrations are higher during the day compared to the night after oral dosing, reflecting considerable variation in intestinal processes. PMID:26380154

  11. Population Pharmacokinetic Model Characterizing 24-Hour Variation in the Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Midazolam in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    van Rongen, A; Kervezee, L; Brill, Mje; van Meir, H; den Hartigh, J; Guchelaar, H-J; Meijer, J H; Burggraaf, J; van Oosterhout, F

    2015-08-01

    Daily rhythms in physiology may affect the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate 24-hour variation in the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A substrate midazolam. Oral (2 mg) and intravenous (1 mg) midazolam was administered at six timepoints throughout the 24-hour period in 12 healthy volunteers. Oral bioavailability (population mean value [RSE%] of 0.28 (7.1%)) showed 24-hour variation that was best parameterized as a cosine function with an amplitude of 0.04 (17.3%) and a peak at 12:14 in the afternoon. The absorption rate constant was 1.41 (4.7%) times increased after drug administration at 14:00. Clearance (0.38 L/min (4.8%)) showed a minor 24-hour variation with an amplitude of 0.03 (14.8%) L/min and a peak at 18:50. Simulations show that dosing time minimally affects the concentration time profiles after intravenous administration, while concentrations are higher during the day compared to the night after oral dosing, reflecting considerable variation in intestinal processes. PMID:26380154

  12. Physical and Mental Health of Patients Immediately After Discharge From Intensive Care Unit and 24 Hours Later

    PubMed Central

    Momennasab, Marzieh; Ghahramani, Tahereh; Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Zand, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Monitoring the health status of patients discharged from intensive care units is a crucial method of service evaluation. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the physical and mental health status of patients immediately after discharge from the ICU and 24 hours later. Patients and Methods: This descriptive comparative study was conducted on 104 patients discharged from the ICUs of a referral trauma center in Shiraz, Southwest Iran. Physical parameters, including respiratory rate, need for supplemental oxygen, heart rate, blood pressure, and need for cardiac monitoring, were assessed. Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) was used for mental health evaluation. The mental and physical status of patients were assessed before ICU discharge and 24 hours later; data were recorded in information forms and were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 17. Results: At the time of discharge, the respiratory rate of 28% of the participants was more than 24 minutes, and 95.2% received supplemental oxygen. However, after 24 hours these values decreased to 10% and 21.6%, respectively. The mean heart rate and systolic blood pressure were within the normal range at both time points. Additionally, 63% of the patients had anxiety scores above 11 at both time points, reflecting high anxiety. The number of patients who reported depression increased from 58.7% at ICU discharge to 69.6% after 24 hours. Conclusions: Despite the considerable improvement in most of the patients’ physical condition in the first 24 hours after discharge from ICU, a significant number of them remain at risk for the development of adverse effects from this transition. The high prevalence of mental health disorders in these patients reveals the necessity to conduct follow-up consultations. PMID:27218059

  13. Value of 24-hour Delayed Film of Barium Enema for Evaluation of Colon Transit Function in Young Children with Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ha Yeong; Son, Jae Sung; Park, Hye Won; Kwak, Byung Ok; Kim, Hyeong Su; Bae, Sun Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims A colon transit time test using radio-opaque markers (CTTRM) is considered the gold standard for evaluating colon transit function. A 24-hour delayed film of barium enema (BE) has been used as a supplementary method in structural evaluations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a 24-hour delayed BE film for assessing colon transit function in young children with constipation. Methods In total, 93 children with constipation who performed both single-contrast BE and CTTRM were enrolled in this study. Of these, the data from 70 children were analyzed (males 33, females 37; mean age [range], 5.63 ± 2.94 [2–14] years). The basic principle of the study is “velocity = distance/time”. Time values were identified in both studies, and the colon length and distance of barium movement were measured on the 24-hour delayed BE film. Thus, colon transit velocity values could be calculated using both methods. The correlation between colon transit velocity using a 24-hour delayed BE film versus CTTRM was analyzed statistically. Results Median value (interquartile range) of colon transit velocity using CTTRM was 1.57 (1.07–2.89) cm/hr, and that using BE of that was 1.58 (0.94–2.07) cm/hr. The Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.438 (P < 0.001) for the overall group. The correlation was strongest in children younger than 4 years (r = 0.537, P = 0.032). Conclusions Although the correlation between BE and CTTRM was not very strong, the 24-hour delayed BE film could provide broad information about colon transit function in young children, especially those under 4 years who usually cannot undergo CTTRM. PMID:26979249

  14. Microleakage of Two Self-Adhesive Cements in the Enamel and Dentin After 24 Hours and Two Months

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Kalantar Motamedi, Mojdeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Microleakage is a main cause of restorative treatment failure. In this study, we compared occlusal and cervical microleakage of two self-adhesive cements after 24 hours and two months. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, class II inlay cavities were prepared on 60 sound human third molars. Composite inlays were fabricated with Z100 composite resin. The teeth were randomly assigned to six groups. RelyX-Arc (control), RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem were used for the first three groups and specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The same cements were used for the remaining three groups, but the specimens were stored for 2 months. The teeth were subjected to 500 thermal cycles (5°C and 55°C) and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then sectioned mesiodistally and dye penetration was evaluated in a class II cavity with occlusal and cervical margins using X20 magnification stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: After 24 hours, cements had significant differences only in cervical margin microleakage (P=0.0001) and microleakage of RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was significantly more than that of RelyX-Arc (both P=0.0001). Cervical microleakage in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was greater than occlusal (P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively). Microleakage was not significantly different between the occlusal and cervical margins after 2 months. Conclusion: Cervical microleakage was greater than occlusal in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem after 24h. The greatest microleakage was reported for the cervical margin of RelyX-Unicem after 24 hours. PMID:25584053

  15. Changes in platelet morphology and function during 24 hours of storage.

    PubMed

    Braune, S; Walter, M; Schulze, F; Lendlein, A; Jung, F

    2014-01-01

    aggregates could be visualized microscopically. After four hours, first debris and very small aggregates occurred. After 24 hours, platelet aggregates and also debris progressively increased. In accordance to this, the CASY system revealed an increase of platelet aggregates (up to 90 μm diameter) with increasing storage time. The percentage of CD62P positive platelets and PF4 increased significantly with storage time in resting PRP. When soluble ADP was added to stored PRP samples, the number of activatable platelets decreased significantly over storage time. The present study reveals the importance of a consequent standardization in the preparation of WB and PRP. Platelet morphology and function, particularly platelet reactivity to adherent or soluble agonists in their surrounding milieu, changed rapidly outside the vascular system. This knowledge is of crucial interest, particularly in the field of biomaterial development for cardiovascular applications, and may help to define common standards in the in vitro hemocompatibility testing of biomaterials. PMID:25227196

  16. Irregular 24-hour Activity Rhythms and the Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Shahmir; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Lim, Andrew S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms – near 24-hour intrinsic biological rhythms – modulate many aspects of human physiology and hence disruption of circadian rhythms may have an important impact on human health. Experimental work supports a potential link between irregular circadian rhythms and several key risk factors for cardiovascular disease including hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, collectively termed the metabolic syndrome. While several epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between shift-work and the components of the metabolic syndrome in working-age adults, there is a relative paucity of data concerning the impact of non-occupational circadian irregularity in older women and men. To address this question, we studied 7 days of actigraphic data from 1137 older woman and men participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based cohort study of the chronic conditions of aging. The regularity of activity rhythms was quantified using the nonparametric interdaily stability metric, and was related to the metabolic syndrome and its components obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. More regular activity rhythms were associated with a lower odds of having the metabolic syndrome (OR=0.69, 95%CI=0.60–0.80, p=5.8×10−7), being obese (OR=0.73, 95%CI=0.63–0.85, p=2.5×10−5), diabetic (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.65–0.90, p=9.3×10−4), hypertensive (OR=0.78, 95%CI=0.66–0.91, p=2.0×10−3), or dyslipidemic (OR=0.82, 95%CI=0.72–0.92, p=1.2×10−3). These associations were independent of differences in objectively measured total daily physical activity or rest, and were not accounted for by prevalent coronary artery disease, stroke, or peripheral artery disease. Moreover, more regular activity rhythms were associated with lower odds of having cardiovascular disease (OR=0.83; 95%CI=0.73–0.95, p=5.7×10−3), an effect that was statistically mediated by the metabolic syndrome. We conclude that irregular activity

  17. Dietary galacto-oligosaccharides and calcium: effects on energy intake, fat-pad weight and satiety-related, gastrointestinal hormones in rats.

    PubMed

    Overduin, Joost; Schoterman, Margriet H C; Calame, Wim; Schonewille, Arjan J; Ten Bruggencate, Sandra J M

    2013-04-14

    Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are carbohydrates that are fermented by colonic microbiota. The present study examined effects of a 3-week dietary enrichment with 6 % (w/w) GOS on parameters of energy balance in forty-three male Wistar rats. GOS was tested with two doses of calcium phosphate (30 and 100 mmol/kg), known to differently affect colonic fermentation. After 17 d, isoenergetic test meals were presented and plasma responses of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) were measured. On day 21 (study termination) epididymal fat pads and caecum were weighed. Additionally, gastrointestinal mucosal samples and proximal colonic contents were analysed for gene expression (ghrelin, proglucagon and PYY) and fermentation metabolites (SCFA and lactate), respectively. GOS reduced energy intake most prominently during the first week, without provoking compensatory overeating later on (average intake reduction: 14 %). The GOS-fed rats showed increased caecal and reduced fat-pad weight and increased gene expression of the satiety-related peptides, PYY (1.7-fold) and proglucagon (3.5-fold). Pre-meal baseline and post-meal plasma levels of PYY, but not of ghrelin or GLP-1, were higher in GOS-fed rats than in control rats. Ca enrichment resulted in higher energy intake (average 4.5 %). GOS diets increased lactic acid levels and slightly reduced butyric acid in proximal colonic contents. Ca abolished the GOS-related elevation of lactic acid, while increasing propionic acid levels, but did not inhibit GOS-related effects on energy intake, fat-pad weight or gene expression. These results indicate that dietary GOS stimulate a number of physiological mechanisms that can reduce energy intake, regardless of the calcium phosphate content of the diet. PMID:22850280

  18. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): A Self-Completed 24 Hour Dietary Recall for Children

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Tom; Islam, Noemi; Douglass, Deirdre; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Cullen, Karen W.; Subar, Amy F.

    2012-01-01

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4(FIRSSt4), is a web-based 24 hour dietary recall (24hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24hdr for adults). The food choices in FIRSST4 are abbreviated to include only those reported by children in U.S. national surveys; and detailed food probe questions are simplified to exclude those that children could not be expected to answer (for example questions regarding food preparation and added fats). ASA24 and FIRSSt4 incorporate 10,000+ food images with up to eight images per food to assist in portion size estimation. This paper reviews the formative research conducted during the development of FIRSSt4. When completed, FIRSSt4 will be hosted and maintained for investigator use on the National Cancer Institute’s ASA24 website. PMID:22616645

  19. Dipstick Spot urine pH does not accurately represent 24 hour urine PH measured by an electrode

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Mohamed; Sarkissian, Carl; Jianbo, Li; Calle, Juan; Monga, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To determine whether spot urine pH measured by dipstick is an accurate representation of 24 hours urine pH measured by an electrode. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed urine pH results of patients who presented to the urology stone clinic. For each patient we recorded the most recent pH result measured by dipstick from a spot urine sample that preceded the result of a 24-hour urine pH measured by the use of a pH electrode. Patients were excluded if there was a change in medications or dietary recommendations or if the two samples were more than 4 months apart. A difference of more than 0.5 pH was considered an inaccurate result. Results A total 600 patients were retrospectively reviewed for the pH results. The mean difference in pH between spot urine value and the 24 hours collection values was 0.52±0.45 pH. Higher pH was associated with lower accuracy (p<0.001). The accuracy of spot urine samples to predict 24-hour pH values of <5.5 was 68.9%, 68.2% for 5.5 to 6.5 and 35% for >6.5. Samples taken more than 75 days apart had only 49% the accuracy of more recent samples (p<0.002). The overall accuracy is lower than 80% (p<0.001). Influence of diurnal variation was not significant (p=0.588). Conclusions Spot urine pH by dipstick is not an accurate method for evaluation of the patients with urolithiasis. Patients with alkaline urine are more prone to error with reliance on spot urine pH. PMID:27286119

  20. 24-hour evaluation of dental plaque bacteria and halitosis after consumption of a single placebo or dental treat by dogs.

    PubMed

    Jeusette, Isabelle C; Román, Aurora Mateo; Torre, Celina; Crusafont, Josep; Sánchez, Nuria; Sánchez, Maria C; Pérez-Salcedo, Leire; Herrera, David

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether consumption of a single dental treat with specific mechanical properties and active ingredients would provide a 24-hour effect on dental plaque bacteria and halitosis in dogs. ANIMALS 10 dogs of various breeds from a privately owned colony that had received routine dental scaling and polishing 4 weeks before the study began. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 placebo or dental treat first. A 4-week washout period was provided, and then dogs received the opposite treatment. Oral plaque and breath samples were collected before and 0.5, 3, 12, and 24 hours after treat consumption. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) concentration was measured in breath samples. Total aerobic, total anaerobic, Porphyromonas gulae, Prevotella intermedia-like, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum bacterial counts (measured via bacterial culture) and total live bacterial counts, total live and dead bacterial counts, and bacterial vitality (measured via quantitative real-time PCR assay) were assessed in plaque samples. RESULTS Compared with placebo treat consumption, dental treat consumption resulted in a significant decrease in breath VSCs concentration and all plaque bacterial counts, without an effect on bacterial vitality. Effects of the dental treat versus the placebo treat persisted for 12 hours for several bacterial counts and for 24 hours for breath VSCs concentration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although clinical benefits should be investigated in larger scale, longer-term studies, results of this study suggested that feeding the evaluated dental treat may help to decrease oral bacterial growth in dogs for 12 hours and oral malodor for 24 hours. A feeding interval of 12 hours is therefore recommended. PMID:27227499

  1. HOW RELIABLE IS 24 HOUR SERUM LITHIUM LEVEL AFTER A TEST DOSE OF LITHIUM IN PREDICTING OPTIMAL LITHIUM DOSE?

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, K.; Shaji, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY 57% of a group of 35 patients treated with Lithium Carbonate at dosages predicted by the nomogram suggested by Cooper et al (1973) failed to reach therapeutic levels of serum lithium. This finding casts serious doubts on the usefulness of the claim by Cooper et al (1973 & 1976) that 24 hour serum lithium level after a test dose of 600 mg. lithium can predict the daily lithium dose. PMID:21927360

  2. Comparing food intake using the Dietary Risk Assessment with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls and the 7-Day Dietary Recall.

    PubMed

    Olendzki, B; Hurley, T G; Hebert, J R; Ellis, S; Merriam, P A; Luippold, R; Rider, L; Ockene, I S

    1999-11-01

    The Dietary Risk Assessment (DRA) is a brief dietary assessment tool used to identify dietary behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease. Intended for use by physicians and other nondietitians, the DRA identifies healthful and problematic dietary behaviors and alerts the physician to patients who require further nutrition counseling. To determine the relative validity of this tool, we compared it to the 7-Day Dietary Recall (an instrument developed to assess intake of dietary fat) and to the average of 7 telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls. Forty-two free-living subjects were recruited into the study. The 7-Day Dietary Recall and DRA were administered to each subject twice, at the beginning and the end of the study period, and the 24-hour recalls were conducted during the intervening time period. Correlation coefficients were computed to compare the food scores derived from the 3 assessment methods. Correlations between the DRA and 7-Day Dietary Recall data were moderate (r = .47, on average, for postmeasures); correlations between the DRA and 24-hour recalls were lower. The ability of the DRA to assess dietary fat consumption and ease of administration make it a clinically useful screening instrument for the physician when counseling patients about dietary fat reduction. PMID:10570682

  3. [Exercise tolerance in angina patients 3 and 24 hours after administration of a new delayed-action preparation of metoprolol].

    PubMed

    Giusti, C; Verdecchia, P; Pentimone, F; Regoli, F; Cordoni, M; Bongini, A M

    1981-01-01

    To assess the duration of improved exercise tolerance by metoprolol given in a new sustained-release formulation, 40 in-patients affected by stable exercise-induced angina pectoris received single-blind placebo in day 1 and thereafter, in double-blind cross-over once daily administration, metoprolol RETARD 100 mg and 200 mg in days 3 and 5. Symptom-limited cycloergometric exercise tests were performed at 3 and 24 hours after placebo and after each of the two doses of metoprolol RETARD. Duration of exercise, maximal workload and total work performed did significantly increase at 3 and 24 hours after metoprolol RETARD 100 mg (P less than 0.01) and 200 mg (P less than 0.01), without any significant difference between the two doses. Peak systolic arterial pressure and heart rate were lowered by metoprolol RETARD 200 mg at 3 (P less than 0.01) and 24 (P less than 0.01) hours, whereas only the peak heart rate at 3 hours was lowered (P less than 0.05) by the 100 mg dose. It is concluded that in patients with stable exercise-induced angina pectoris, metoprolol RETARD 200 mg appears to be able to increase exercise tolerance and to reduce exercise-induced myocardial oxygen consumption throughout 24 hours period. This may justify a once daily dosing schedule of the 200 mg dose, aimed at improving patient compliance. PMID:7343379

  4. Flow cytometric comparison of platelets from a whole blood and finger-prick sample: impact of 24 hours storage.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Albe C; Stander, Andre; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the validity and laboratory utility of flow cytometry when analyzing platelet activation by studying CD41, CD42b, CD62P and CD63. We compare flow cytometry results from citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples directly after collection and also after storing both a finger-prick and whole-blood sample for 24 hours. Citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples were taken from three healthy individuals on two occasions, and a total of 60,000 cells were analyzed for each of the four phycoerythrin-labeled monoclonal antibodies. Half of each sample was analyzed immediately after sampling while the other half was kept in the fridge at 6 °C for 24 hours before analysis. No significant difference was found between the sampling methods or the period of time before analysis. Results therefore suggest that an appropriately prepared finger-prick sample can be used for platelet function analysis, and samples can be stored for 24 hours in the fridge at 6 °C before analysis. PMID:23320994

  5. Assessment of 24-hours Aldosterone Administration on Protein Abundances in Fluorescence-Sorted Mouse Distal Renal Tubules by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas B; Pisitkun, Trairak; Hoffert, Jason D; Jensen, Uffe B; Fenton, Robert A; Praetorius, Helle A; Knepper, Mark A; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Aldosterone exerts multiple long-term effects in the distal renal tubules. The aim of this study was to establish a method for identifying proteins in these tubules that change in abundance by only 24-hours aldosterone administration. Methods Mice endogenously expressing green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in the connecting tubule and cortical collecting ducts were treated with a subcutaneous injection of 2.0 mg/kg aldosterone or vehicle (n=5), and sacrificed 24 hours later. Suspensions of single cells were obtained enzymatically, and eGFP positive cells were isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Samples of 100 μg proteins were digested with trypsin and labeled with 8-plex iTRAQ reagents and processed for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results FACS yielded 1.4 million cells per mouse. The LC-MS/MS spectra were matched to peptides by the SEQUEST search algorithm, which identified 3002 peptides corresponding to 506 unique proteins of which 20 significantly changed abundance 24-hours after aldosterone injection. Conclusion We find the method suitable and useful for studying hormonal effects on protein abundance in distal tubular segments. PMID:23428628

  6. Fluid and electrolyte balance during 24-hour fluid and/or energy restriction.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2013-12-01

    Weight categorized athletes use a variety of techniques to induce rapid weight loss (RWL) in the days leading up to weigh in. This study examined the fluid and electrolyte balance responses to 24-hr fluid restriction (FR), energy restriction (ER) and fluid and energy restriction (F+ER) compared with a control trial (C), which are commonly used techniques to induce RWL in weight category sports. Twelve subjects (six male, six female) received adequate energy and water (C) intake, adequate energy and restricted water (~10% of C; FR) intake, restricted energy (~25% of C) and adequate water (ER) intake or restricted energy (~25% of C) and restricted (~10% of C) water intake (F+ER) in a randomized counterbalanced order. Subjects visited the laboratory at 0 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr for blood and urine sample collection. Total body mass loss was 0.33% (C), 1.88% (FR), 1.97% (ER), and 2.44% (F+ER). Plasma volume was reduced at 24 hr during FR, ER, and F+ER, while serum osmolality was increased at 24 hr for FR and F+ER and was greater at 24 hr for FR compared with all other trials. Negative balances of sodium, potassium, and chloride developed during ER and F+ER but not during C and FR. These results demonstrate that 24 hr fluid and/ or energy restriction significantly reduces body mass and plasma volume, but has a disparate effect on serum osmolality, resulting in hypertonic hypohydration during FR and isotonic hypohydration during ER. These findings might be explained by the difference in electrolyte balance between the trials. PMID:24413436

  7. Effect of 16 and 24 hours daily radiation (light) on lettuce growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, H. V.; Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    A 50% increase in total radiation by extending the photoperiod from 16 to 24 hr doubled the weight of all cultivars of loose-leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) 'Grand Rapids Forcing', 'Waldmanns Green', 'Salad Bowl', and 'RubyConn', but not a Butterhead cultivar, 'Salina'. When total daily radiation (moles of photons) was the same, plants under continuous radiation weighed 30% to 50% more than plants under a 16 hr photoperiod. By using continuous radiation on loose-leaf lettuce, fewer lamp fixtures were required and yield was increased.

  8. Relationship between skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity and 24-hour macronutrient oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, R T; Eckel, R H; Larson, D E; Fontvieille, A M; Rising, R; Jensen, D R; Ravussin, E

    1993-01-01

    A low ratio of whole-body 24-h fat/carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation has been shown to be a predictor of subsequent body weight gain. We tested the hypothesis that the variability of this ratio may be related to differences in skeletal muscle metabolism. Since lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a pivotal role in partitioning lipoprotein-borne triglycerides to adipose (storage) and skeletal muscle (mostly oxidation), we postulated that a low ratio of fat/CHO oxidation was associated with a low skeletal muscle LPL (SMLPL) activity. As an index of substrate oxidation, 24-h RQ was measured under sedentary and eucaloric conditions in 16 healthy nondiabetic Pima males. During a 6-h euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp, muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline, 3, and 6 h. Heparin-elutable SMLPL activity was 2.92 +/- 0.56 nmol free fatty acids/g.min (mean +/- SD) at baseline, was unchanged (2.91 +/- 0.51) at the third hour, and increased significantly (P < 0.05) to 3.13 +/- 0.57 at the sixth hour of the clamp. The mean (of baseline and 3-h) SMLPL activity correlated inversely with 24-h RQ (r = 0.57, P < 0.03) but not with body size, body composition, or insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Since SMLPL activity is related to the ratio of whole body fat/CHO oxidation rate, a decreased muscle LPL activity may, therefore, predispose to obesity. PMID:8326010

  9. Moderate Alcohol Consumption and 24-Hour Urinary Levels of Melatonin in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mahabir, S.; Baer, D. J.; Stevens, R. G.; Albert, P. S.; Dorgan, J. F.; Kesner, J. S.; Meadows, J. W.; Shields, R.; Taylor, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Low overnight urinary melatonin metabolite concentrations have been associated with increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Women's Alcohol Study was a controlled feeding study to test the effects of low to moderate alcohol intake on potential risk factors for breast cancer including serum and urinary levels of hormones and other biomarkers. Previously, we observed significant increases in concentrations of serum estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in participants after consumption of 15 or 30 g (one or two drinks) of alcohol per day. Objective: In the present analysis, we evaluated the relationship of alcohol consumption with 24-h urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-SMT) concentration (micrograms per 24 h). Design and Participants: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 51) consumed a controlled diet plus each of three treatments (a nonalcoholic placebo beverage or 15 or 30 g alcohol/d) during three 8-wk periods in random order under conditions of weight maintenance. Measures: 6-SMT was measured in 24-h urine samples that were collected at entry into the study (baseline) and at the midpoint (4 wk) and end (8 wk) of each of the three diet periods. Results: Concentration of 6-SMT was not significantly modified by the alcohol treatment after adjustment for body mass index, hours of sleep, daylight hours, and baseline level of 6-SMT. Conclusions: These results suggest that low to moderate daily alcohol consumption does not significantly affect 24-h urinary levels of melatonin among healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:22013099

  10. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 version, for youth aged 9 to 11 Years: A validation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites using a quasiexperimental design. In one s...

  11. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CLEANING: 24 HOUR FOOD DIARY (HAND ENTRY) (UA-D-40.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the SOP is to define the particular steps involved in cleaning the electronic data generated from data entry of the 24 Hour Food Diary. The procedure was developed to use during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: data; cleaning; 24 hour ...

  12. Arrhythmias Seen in Baseline 24-Hour Holter ECG Recordings in Healthy Normal Volunteers During Phase 1 Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Hingorani, Pooja; Karnad, Dilip R; Rohekar, Prashant; Kerkar, Vaibhav; Lokhandwala, Yash Y; Kothari, Snehal

    2016-07-01

    Regulatory agencies encourage sponsors to submit 24-hour ambulatory ECG data for assessing cardiac safety of new drugs, and some arrhythmias, hitherto considered rare, have been observed in some early-phase studies. Interpretation of these observations is difficult given the dearth of published data on the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias seen during 24-hour continuous ECG monitoring in healthy volunteers (HV) from clinical trials. We analyzed drug-free ambulatory ECG recordings from 1273 HV (1000 males, 273 females; age 18-65 years) from 22 phase 1 studies that were analyzed in a core ECG laboratory; all subjects had normal screening ECGs. Supraventricular arrhythmias such as supraventricular premature complexes were observed in 60.8% of healthy volunteers, supraventricular tachycardia in 2.2%, and atrial fibrillation in 0.1%. Ventricular arrhythmias included premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) in 43.4%, >200 PVCs per 24 hours in 3.3%, multifocal PVCs in 5.3%, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in 0.7%, and accelerated idioventricular rhythm in 0.3%. Bradyarrhythmias included sinus pause >3 seconds in 0.3%, and second-degree AV block in 2.4%. Complete heart block and torsades de pointes were not seen in any subject. Based on the observed incidence, we estimated the maximum number of healthy subjects in whom these arrhythmias may be seen as a matter of chance in studies with smaller sample sizes if the study drug has no arrhythmogenic effect. Our results and these estimates could help interpret whether cardiac arrhythmias observed in early-phase studies are due to chance or possibly are a drug effect. PMID:26626443

  13. Developing a Method to Test the Validity of 24 Hour Time Use Diaries Using Wearable Cameras: A Feasibility Pilot

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Paul; Thomas, Emma; Doherty, Aiden; Harms, Teresa; Burke, Órlaith; Gershuny, Jonathan; Foster, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Self-report time use diaries collect a continuous sequenced record of daily activities but the validity of the data they produce is uncertain. This study tests the feasibility of using wearable cameras to generate, through image prompted interview, reconstructed 'near-objective' data to assess their validity. 16 volunteers completed the Harmonised European Time Use Survey (HETUS) diary and used an Autographer wearable camera (recording images at approximately 15 second intervals) for the waking hours of the same 24-hour period. Participants then completed an interview in which visual images were used as prompts to reconstruct a record of activities for comparison with the diary record. 14 participants complied with the full collection protocol. We compared time use and number of discrete activities from the diary and camera records (using 10 classifications of activity). In terms of aggregate totals of daily time use we found no significant difference between the diary and camera data. In terms of number of discrete activities, participants reported a mean of 19.2 activities per day in the diaries, while image prompted interviews revealed 41.1 activities per day. The visualisations of the individual activity sequences reveal some potentially important differences between the two record types, which will be explored at the next project stage. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using wearable cameras to reconstruct time use through image prompted interview in order to test the concurrent validity of 24-hour activity time-use budgets. In future we need a suitably powered study to assess the validity and reliability of 24-hour time use diaries. PMID:26633807

  14. Axial Diffusivity of the Corona Radiata at 24 Hours Post-Stroke: A New Biomarker for Motor and Global Outcome.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Eric; Amor-Sahli, Mélika; Perlbarg, Vincent; Pires, Christine; Crozier, Sophie; Galanaud, Damien; Valabregue, Romain; Yger, Marion; Baronnet-Chauvet, Flore; Samson, Yves; Dormont, Didier; Rosso, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Fractional anisotropy (FA) is an effective marker of motor outcome at the chronic stage of stroke yet proves to be less efficient at early time points. This study aims to determine which diffusion metric in which location is the best marker of long-term stroke outcome after thrombolysis with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 24 hours post-stroke. Twenty-eight thrombolyzed patients underwent DTI at 24 hours post-stroke onset. Ipsilesional and contralesional FA, mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities values were calculated in different Regions-of-Interest (ROIs): (1) the white matter underlying the precentral gyrus (M1), (2) the corona radiata (CoRad), (3) the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and (4) the cerebral peduncles (CP). NIHSS scores were acquired at admission, day 1, and day 7; modified Rankin Scores (mRS) at 3 months. Significant decreases were found in FA, MD, and AD of the ipsilesional CoRad and M1. MD and AD were also significantly lower in the PLIC. The ratio of ipsi and contralesional AD of the CoRad (CoRad-rAD) was the strongest diffusion parameter correlated with motor NIHSS scores on day 7 and with the mRS at 3 months. A Receiver-Operator Curve analysis yielded a model for the CoRad-rAD to predict good outcome based on upper limb NIHSS motor scores and mRS with high specificity and sensitivity. FA values were not correlated with clinical outcome. In conclusion, axial diffusivity of the CoRad from clinical DTI at 24 hours post-stroke is the most appropriate diffusion metric for quantifying stroke damage to predict outcome, suggesting the importance of early axonal damage. PMID:26562509

  15. Caffeine does not entrain the circadian clock but improves daytime alertness in blind patients with non-24-hour rhythms

    PubMed Central

    St. Hilaire, Melissa A.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective/Background Totally blind individuals are highly likely to suffer from Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder due to a failure of light to reset the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. In this outpatient case series, we investigated whether daily caffeine administration could entrain the circadian pacemaker in non-entrained blind patients to alleviate symptoms of non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder. Patients/Methods Three totally blind males (63.0 ± 7.5 years old) were studied at home over ~4 months. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) rhythms were measured for 48 h every 1–2 weeks. Participants completed daily sleep–wake logs, and rated their alertness and mood using nine-point scales every ~2–4 h while awake on urine sampling days. Caffeine capsules (150 mg per os) were self-administered daily at 10 a.m. for approximately one circadian beat cycle based on each participant's endogenous circadian period τ and compared to placebo (n = 2) or no treatment (n = 1) in a single-masked manner. Results Non-24-h aMT6s rhythms were confirmed in all three participants (τ range = 24.32–24.57 h). Daily administration of 150 mg caffeine did not entrain the circadian clock. Caffeine treatment significantly improved daytime alertness at adverse circadian phases (p < 0.0001) but did not decrease the occurrence of daytime naps compared with placebo. Conclusions Although caffeine was able to improve daytime alertness acutely and may therefore provide temporary symptomatic relief, the inability of caffeine to correct the underlying circadian disorder means that an entraining agent is required to treat Non-24-Hour Sleep–Wake Disorder in the blind appropriately. PMID:25891543

  16. The Relationship Between 24-Hour Symptoms and COPD Exacerbations and Healthcare Resource Use: Results from an Observational Study (ASSESS).

    PubMed

    Miravitlles, Marc; Worth, Heinrich; Soler-Cataluña, Juan José; Price, David; De Benedetto, Fernando; Roche, Nicolas; Godtfredsen, Nina S; van der Molen, Thys; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Padullés, Laura; Ribera, Anna

    2016-10-01

    This observational study assessed the relationship between nighttime, early-morning and daytime chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms and exacerbations and healthcare resource use. COPD symptoms were assessed at baseline in patients with stable COPD using a standardised questionnaire during routine clinical visits. Information was recorded on exacerbations and healthcare resource use during the year before baseline and during a 6-month follow-up period. The main objective of the analysis was to determine the predictive nature of current symptoms for future exacerbations and healthcare resource use. 727 patients were eligible (65.8% male, mean age: 67.2 years, % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 52.8%); 698 patients (96.0%) provided information after 6 months. Symptoms in any part of the day were associated with a prior history of exacerbations (all p < 0.05) and nighttime and early-morning symptoms were associated with the frequency of primary care visits in the year before baseline (both p < 0.01). During follow-up, patients with baseline symptoms during any part of the 24-hour day had more exacerbations than patients with no symptoms in each period (all p < 0.05); there was also an association between 24-hour symptoms and the frequency of primary care visits (all p ≤ 0.01). Although there was a significant association between early-morning and daytime symptoms and exacerbations during follow-up (both p < 0.01), significance was not maintained when adjusted for potential confounders. Prior exacerbations were most strongly associated with future risk of exacerbation. The results suggest 24-hour COPD symptoms do not independently predict future exacerbation risk. PMID:26983349

  17. Axial Diffusivity of the Corona Radiata at 24 Hours Post-Stroke: A New Biomarker for Motor and Global Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Eric; Amor-Sahli, Mélika; Perlbarg, Vincent; Pires, Christine; Crozier, Sophie; Galanaud, Damien; Valabregue, Romain; Yger, Marion; Baronnet-Chauvet, Flore; Samson, Yves; Dormont, Didier; Rosso, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Fractional anisotropy (FA) is an effective marker of motor outcome at the chronic stage of stroke yet proves to be less efficient at early time points. This study aims to determine which diffusion metric in which location is the best marker of long-term stroke outcome after thrombolysis with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 24 hours post-stroke. Twenty-eight thrombolyzed patients underwent DTI at 24 hours post-stroke onset. Ipsilesional and contralesional FA, mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities values were calculated in different Regions-of-Interest (ROIs): (1) the white matter underlying the precentral gyrus (M1), (2) the corona radiata (CoRad), (3) the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and (4) the cerebral peduncles (CP). NIHSS scores were acquired at admission, day 1, and day 7; modified Rankin Scores (mRS) at 3 months. Significant decreases were found in FA, MD, and AD of the ipsilesional CoRad and M1. MD and AD were also significantly lower in the PLIC. The ratio of ipsi and contralesional AD of the CoRad (CoRad-rAD) was the strongest diffusion parameter correlated with motor NIHSS scores on day 7 and with the mRS at 3 months. A Receiver-Operator Curve analysis yielded a model for the CoRad-rAD to predict good outcome based on upper limb NIHSS motor scores and mRS with high specificity and sensitivity. FA values were not correlated with clinical outcome. In conclusion, axial diffusivity of the CoRad from clinical DTI at 24 hours post-stroke is the most appropriate diffusion metric for quantifying stroke damage to predict outcome, suggesting the importance of early axonal damage. PMID:26562509

  18. Aldosterone-to-Renin Ratio Is Associated With Reduced 24-Hour Heart Rate Variability and QTc Prolongation in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grübler, Martin R.; Kienreich, Katharina; Gaksch, Martin; Verheyen, Nicolas; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó.; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; März, Winfried; Schmid, Johannes; Oberreither, Eva-Maria; Wetzel, Julia; Catena, Cristiana; Sechi, Leonardo A.; Pieske, Burkert; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pilz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aldosterone is considered to exert direct effects on the myocardium and the sympathetic nervous system. Both QT time and heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) are considered to be markers of arrhythmic risk and autonomous dysregulation. In this study, we investigated the associations between aldosterone, QT time, and HRV in patients with arterial hypertension. We recruited 477 hypertensive patients (age: 60.2 ± 10.2 years; 52.3% females) with a mean systolic/diastolic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) value of 128 ± 12.8/77.1 ± 9.2 mmHg and with a median of 2 (IQR: 1–3) antihypertensive agents. Patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Department of Internal Medicine of the Medical University of Graz, Austria. Blood samples, 24-hour HRV derived from 24-hour blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and ECG's were obtained. Plasma aldosterone and plasma renin concentrations were measured by means of a radioimmunoassay. Twenty-four-hour urine specimens were collected in parallel with ABPM. Mean QTc was 423.3 ± 42.0 milliseconds for males and 434.7 ± 38.3 milliseconds for females. Mean 24H-HR and 24H-HRV was 71.9 ± 9.8 and 10.0 ± 3.6 bpm, respectively. In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, ABPM, and current medication, aldosterone to active renin ratio (AARR) was significantly associated with the QTc interval, a marker for cardiac repolarization abnormalities (mean = 426 ± 42.4 milliseconds; β-coefficient = 0.121; P = 0.03) as well as with the 24-hour heart rate variability a surrogate for autonomic dysfunction (median = 9.67 [IQR = 7.38–12.22 bpm]; β-coefficient = −0.133; P = 0.01). In hypertensive patients, AARR is significantly related to QTc prolongation as well as HRV. Further studies investigating the effects of mineralocorticoid receptor blocker and aldosterone synthase inhibitors on QTc and HRV are warranted

  19. Exercise thermoregulation in men after 1 and 24-hours of 6 degrees head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ertl, A. C.; Dearborn, A. S.; Weidhofer, A. R.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise thermoregulation is dependent on heat loss by increased skin blood flow (convective and conductive heat loss) and through enhanced sweating (evaporative heat loss). Reduction of plasma volume (PV), increased plasma osmolality, physical deconditioning, and duration of exposure to simulated and actual microgravity reduces the ability to thermoregulate during exercise. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that 24 h of head down tilt (HDT24) would alter thermoregulatory responses to a submaximal exercise test and result in a higher exercise rectal temperature (Tre) when compared with exercise Tre after 1 h of head down tilt (HDT1). METHODS: Seven men (31+/-SD 6 yr, peak oxygen uptake (VpO2peak) of 44+/-6 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) were studied during 70 min of supine cycling at 58+/-SE 1.5% VO2peak at 22.0 degrees C Tdb and 47% rh. RESULTS: Relative to pre-tilt sitting chair rest data, HDT1 resulted in a 6.1+/-0.9% increase and HDT24 in a 4.3+/-2.3% decrease in PV (delta = 10.4% between experiments, p<0.05) while plasma osmolality remained unchanged (NS). Pre-exercise Tre was elevated after HDT24 (36.71 degrees C +/-0.06 HDT1 vs. 36.93 degrees C+/-0.11 HDT24, p<0.05). The 70 min of exercise did not alter this relationship (p<0.05) with respective end exercise increases in Tre to 38.01 degrees C and 38.26 degrees C (degrees = 1.30 degrees C (HDT1) and 1.33 degrees C (HDT24)). While there were no pre-exercise differences in mean skin temperature (Tsk), a significant (p<0.05) time x treatment interaction occurred during exercise: after min 30 in HDT24 the Tsk leveled off at 31.1 degrees C, while it continued to increase reaching 31.5 degrees C at min 70 in HDT1. A similar response (NS) occurred in skin blood velocity. Neither local sweating rates nor changes in body weight during exercise of -1.63+/-0.24 kg (HDT1) or - 1.33+/-0.09 kg (HDT24) were different (NS) between experiments. CONCLUSION: While HDT24 resulted in elevated pre-exercise Tre, reduced PV

  20. Comparison of Interviewer-Administered and Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recalls in 3 Diverse Integrated Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Frances E; Dixit-Joshi, Sujata; Potischman, Nancy; Dodd, Kevin W; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Kushi, Lawrence H; Alexander, Gwen L; Coleman, Laura A; Zimmerman, Thea P; Sundaram, Maria E; Clancy, Heather A; Groesbeck, Michelle; Douglass, Deirdre; George, Stephanie M; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Subar, Amy F

    2015-06-15

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls provide high-quality intake data but have been prohibitively expensive for large epidemiologic studies. This study's goal was to assess whether the web-based Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24) performs similarly enough to the standard interviewer-administered, Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) 24-hour dietary recall to be considered a viable alternative. In 2010-2011, 1,081 adults from 3 integrated health systems in Detroit, Michigan; Marshfield, Wisconsin; and Kaiser-Permanente Northern California participated in a field trial. A quota design ensured a diverse sample by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Each participant was asked to complete 2 recalls and was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 protocols differing by type of recall and administration order. For energy, the mean intakes were 2,425 versus 2,374 kcal for men and 1,876 versus 1,906 kcal for women by AMPM and ASA24, respectively. Of 20 nutrients/food groups analyzed and controlling for false discovery rate, 87% were judged equivalent at the 20% bound. ASA24 was preferred over AMPM by 70% of the respondents. Attrition was lower in the ASA24/AMPM study group than in the AMPM/ASA24 group, and it was lower in the ASA24/ASA24 group than in the AMPM/AMPM group. ASA24 offers the potential to collect high-quality dietary intake information at low cost with less attrition. PMID:25964261

  1. Modeling of 24-hour glucose and insulin profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with biphasic insulin aspart.

    PubMed

    Røge, Rikke M; Klim, Søren; Kristensen, Niels R; Ingwersen, Steen H; Kjellsson, Maria C

    2014-07-01

    Insulin therapy for diabetes patients is designed to mimic the endogenous insulin response of healthy subjects and thereby generate normal blood glucose levels. In order to control the blood glucose in insulin-treated diabetes patients, it is important to be able to predict the effect of exogenous insulin on blood glucose. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model for glucose homoeostasis describing the effect of exogenous insulin would facilitate such prediction. Thus the aim of this work was to extend the previously developed integrated glucose-insulin (IGI) model to predict 24-hour glucose profiles for patients with Type 2 diabetes following exogenous insulin administration. Clinical data from two trials were included in the analysis. In both trials, 24-hour meal tolerance tests were used as the experimental setup, where exogenous insulin (biphasic insulin aspart) was administered in relation to meals. The IGI model was successfully extended to include the effect of exogenous insulin. Circadian variations in glucose homeostasis were assessed on relevant parameters, and a significant improvement was achieved by including a circadian rhythm on the endogenous glucose production in the model. The extended model is a useful tool for clinical trial simulation and for elucidating the effect profile of new insulin products. PMID:24446385

  2. The impact of kidney transplantation on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Min; Ahn, Seung Won; Bae, Myoung Nam; Choi, Bum Soon; Park, Cheol Whee; Kim, Yong-Soo; Yang, Chul Woo; Chung, Byung Ha

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we prospectively investigated the impact of kidney transplantation (KT) on the status of hypertension, including circadian rhythm in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and office BP measurement in 48 patients before and 1 year after KT. According to the nocturnal reduction in systolic BP (ΔSBP), the patients were divided into dippers, non-dippers, and reverse dippers. After KT, the mean BP value in office BP and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring did not change, but the proportion of patients taking anti-hypertensive drugs and the pill number significantly decreased. In contrast, the mean ΔSBP significantly decreased, and the proportion of non-dippers and reverse dippers did not decrease. Decrease in ΔSBP after KT was associated with inferior allograft function during follow-up. Our study suggests that KT improved the overall BP level, but it did not affect abnormal circadian rhythm in ESRD patients. PMID:26051924

  3. QTc interval prolongation in HIV-infected patients: a case–control study by 24-hour Holter ECG recording

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aim of the study was to assess QTc interval by a 24-hour ECG recording in a group of HIV-infected individuals with a basal prolonged QTc. The risk factors associated with QTc prolongation and the indices of cardiovascular autonomic control were also evaluated. Methods A case–control study was performed using as cases 32 HIV-infected patients with prolonged (>440 msec) QTc interval as assessed by Holter ECG, and as controls 64 HIV-infected subjects with normal QTc interval. Autonomic function was evaluated by heart rate variability analysis during 24-hour recording. Results Duration of HIV disease was significantly longer among cases than among controls (p=0.04). Waist/hip ratio was also higher among cases than among controls (p=0.05). Frequency domain analysis showed the absence of physiologic decrease of low frequency (LF) in the night period in both cases and controls. The LF night in cases showed a statistically significant reduction when compared with controls (p=0.007). Conclusions In our study group, QTc interval prolongation was associated with a longer duration of HIV infection and with a greater waist/hip ratio. HIV patients with QTc interval prolongation and with a longer duration of HIV infection were more likely to have an impairment of parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac component. PMID:23259665

  4. Enhanced carotid-cardiac baroreflex response and elimination of orthostatic hypotension 24 hours after acute exercise in paraplegics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelke, K. A.; Shea, J. D.; Doerr, D. F.; Convertino, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that an acute bout of maximal exercise can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension consequent to prolonged wheelchair confinement, we evaluated heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure responses during 15 minutes of 70 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) in 10 paraplegic subjects 24 hours after arm crank exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, and during a control (no exercise) conditions. Additionally, the carotid baroreceptor stimulus-cardiac response relationship was determined by measurement of R-R interval during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses. One week separated the treatment conditions. The maximum slope of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response was increased (p = 0.049) by exercise (6.2 +/- 1.7 msec/mmHg) compared to control (3.3 +/- 0.6). During control HUT, HR increased from 61 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 7 bpm (p = 0.001) while SBP decreased from 118 +/- 5 to 106 +/- 9 mmHg (p = 0.025). During HUT 24 hours after exercise, HR increased from 60 +/- 2 to 90 +/- 4 bpm (p = 0.001), but the reduction in SBP was essentially eliminated (116 +/- 5 to 113 +/- 5 mmHg).

  5. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fluid (dehydration) Any type of x-ray exam with dye (contrast material) within 3 days before the urine test Fluid from the vagina that gets into the urine Severe emotional stress Strenuous exercise Urinary tract infection

  6. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... test results: Dehydration Any type of x-ray exam with dye (contrast material) within 3 days before the urine test Fluid from the vagina that gets into the urine Emotional stress Heavy exercise Urinary tract infection

  7. 24-hour care programs.

    PubMed

    Hergenrader, R

    1996-06-01

    Twenty-four-hour care programs, which combine group health programs with workers' compensation and disability benefits, hold considerable potential for cost savings and greater efficiency. This article explains these programs and uses a care history to show the savings they can achieve. PMID:10157798

  8. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a day, such as: Creatinine Sodium Potassium Nitrogen Protein This test may also be done if ... disease Potassium urine test Sodium urine test Urea nitrogen urine test Urination - excessive amount Urine output - decreased ...

  9. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... a blockage of blood vessels, or other causes Multiple myeloma Healthy people may have higher than normal urine ... Distal Hemolytic anemia Macroglobulinemia of Waldenstrom Microalbuminuria test Multiple myeloma Nephrotic syndrome Proximal Wilson disease Update Date 11/ ...

  10. A 24-hour Approach to the Study of Health Behaviors: Temporal Relationships between Waking Health Behaviors and Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Leah A.; Kline, Christopher E.; Rothenberger, Scott D.; Krafty, Robert T.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Zheng, Huiyong; Hall, Martica H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although sleep is often associated with waking health behaviors (WHB) such as alcohol consumption, caffeine use, smoking, and exercise, the causal direction of these relationships is unclear. Purpose The present study used time-series data to examine the temporal dynamics of WHB and sleep characteristics in participants of the SWAN Sleep Study. Methods 303 women completed daily assessments of WHB and wore wrist actigraphs to measure sleep characteristics for the duration of the study (Mean=29.42 days, SD=6.71). Results Vector autoregressive modeling revealed that weekly patterns of sleep and WHB best predicted subsequent sleep and WHB, suggesting that the associations between WHB and sleep persist beyond their immediate influence. Some WHB predicted some subsequent sleep characteristics, but sleep did not predict subsequent WHB. Conclusions These novel findings provide insight into the temporal dynamics of 24-hour behaviors and encourage consideration of both sleep and WHB in health promotion and behavior change efforts. PMID:24043549

  11. Ultra-Rapid dUT1 Measurements on Japan-Fennoscandian Baselines - Application to 24-hour Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuzaka, Shigeru; Kurihara, Shinobu; Sekido, Mamoru; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rudiger; Ritakari, Jouko; Wagner, Jan

    2010-01-01

    GSI, NICT, OSO, and MRO have been engaged in Ultra-rapid dUT1 experiments since 2007 aiming at the technological possibility of real-time dUT1 results using the e-VLBI technique. We have already successfully determined dUT1 in less than four minutes after the end of an experimental Intensive session in 2008, and at present we routinely get the results within 30 minutes for regular Intensives. In 2009 we applied the technique to 24-hour sessions and continuously obtained dUT1 values by processing and analyzing Tsukuba Onsala data in near real-time. It showed a detailed behavior of UT1 variations, which could be very valuable for scientific study as well as for precise prediction of UT1-UTC.

  12. Tolvaptan Prolongs Blockage of the Vasopressin Type II Receptor Over 24 Hours in Responders With Stage D Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Komuro, Issei

    2016-01-01

    The urine aquaporin-2 (U-AQP2) level relative to the plasma arginine vasopressin (P-AVP) level is a novel predictor of the responsiveness to the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) antagonist tolvaptan (TLV). However, little has been reported about the concentration-time profile of U-AQP2 after TLV treatment. We evaluated 24 patients with decompensated stage D heart failure (HF) who had received 3.75 mg/day of TLV on a de novo basis for > 7 days to treat congestion refractory to conventional diuretics. Seventeen patients were TLV-responders, whose 24-hour urine volume (UV) increased after TLV initiation; the other 7 patients were TLV-non-responders. The U-AQP2 of the TLV-responders, corrected for the urine creatinine concentration, decreased significantly at 4 hours after TLV administration without returning to the day-1 morning level on the morning of day-7. The TLV-non-responder U-AQP2 levels remained low even before the TLV treatment. On the morning of day-7, the TLV-responder U-AQP2/P-AVP ratio was comparable to that of the TLV-non-responders. Among 18 patients (11 responders and 7 non-responders), the day-7 TLV trough concentration was 64 ± 62 ng/mL and was negatively correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). TLV has antagonistic effects on the V2R over 24 hours in TLV-responders with advanced heart failure and chronic kidney disease, probably due to persistently elevated blood TLV concentration. The unresponsiveness to TLV in the TLV-non-responders is not attributable to malabsorption. PMID:26742881

  13. Pad TPC

    SciTech Connect

    Hilke, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A new kind of TPC is described, in which no sense wires exist but gas amplification is obtained from a single parallel gap. A mesh separates the drift volume from the amplifying gap. The anode is segmented into circular rows of narrow pads for rphi measurement by centroid finding and into wide circular pads for dE/dx sampling. The expected advantages of this technique are: better, track angle independent rphi resolution (no need for wire pulse height corrections); better two-track separation if more electronic channels can be afforded; less dead space from frame structures; reduced positive feedback and slower chamber deterioration by deposit formation on the anode. Very tight construction tolerances are the principle drawback. The properties of the Pad TPC are discussed in view of large scale construction and first test results are presented.

  14. Prognostic Value of the 24-Hour Neurological Examination in Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke: A post hoc Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled Stroke Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Frankel, Michael; Jovin, Tudor G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early prognostication of long-term outcomes following ischemic stroke can facilitate medical decision-making. We hypothesized that the 24-hour National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) predicts 3-month clinical outcomes in anterior circulation stroke. Methods Secondary analyses of the Interventional Management of Stroke 3 (IMS3) and intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) for acute ischemic stroke [National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) IV tPA] trials were performed. In participants with documented 24-hour NIHSS and 3-month Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), the predictive power of the 24-hour NIHSS and 24-hour NIHSS improvement for 3-month outcomes [mRS 0-2 and Barthel Index (BI) ≥95] was assessed. Percentages of good outcome (mRS 0-2 or BI ≥95) at 3, 6, and 12 months and mean quality of life (EQ5D™) index at 3 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were compared. Results The majority of the study participants were included (IMS3 n = 587/656, NINDS IV tPA n = 619/624). The 24-hour NIHSS was correlated with 3-month mRS (R = 0.73) with excellent predictive power for mRS 0-2 [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.91] and BI ≥95 (AUC = 0.9) in both cohorts. A model with the 24-hour NIHSS alone correctly classified 82-84% of patients in both cohorts. The percentages of good outcomes at 3-12 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were similar in both cohorts. mRS 0-2 was achieved by 75.6-77.7% of patients with 24-hour NIHSS ≤11 but by only 1.4-3.6% with 24-hour NIHSS ≥20. The EQ5D index at 3 months varied among NIHSS 0-4 (mean 0.86 ± 0.16), 5-11 (0.77 ± 0.18), and 12-19 (0.59 ± 0.26) quartiles. Conclusions The 24-hour NIHSS strongly predicts long-term stroke outcomes and is associated with quality of life. Its easy availability, reliability, and validity support its use as an early prognostic marker and surrogate of clinical outcome in ischemic stroke. PMID:27051408

  15. Mean 24-hours sympathetic nervous system activity decreases during head-down tilted bed rest but not during microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Nj; Heer, M.; Ivanova, K.; Norsk, P.

    Sympathetic nervous system activity is closely related to gravitational stress in ground based experiments. Thus a high activity is present in the standing-up position and a very low activity is observed during acute head-out water immersion. Adjustments in sympathetic activity are necessary to maintain a constant blood pressure during variations in venous return. Head-down tilted bed rest is applied as a model to simulate changes observed during microgravity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that mean 24-hours sympathetic activity was low and similar during space flight and in ground based observation obtained during long-term head-down tilted bed rest. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline was measured by a radioenzymatic technique as an index of muscle sympathetic activity and thrombocyte noradrenaline and adrenaline were measured as indices of mean 24-hours sympathoadrenal activity. Previous results have indicated that thrombocyte noradrenaline level has a half-time of 2 days. Thus to reflect sympathetic activity during a specific experiment the study period must last for at least 6 days and a sample must be obtained within 12 hours after the experiment has ended. Ten normal healthy subjects were studied before and during a 14 days head-down tilted bed rest as well as during an ambulatory study period of a similar length. The whole experiment was repeated while the subjects were on a low calorie diet. Thrombocyte noradrenaline levels were studied in 4 cosmonauts before and within 12 hours after landing after more than 7 days in flight. Thrombocyte noradrenaline decreased markedly during the head-down tilted bed rest (p<0.001), whereas there were no significant changes in the ambulatory study. Plasma noradrenaline decreased in the adaptation period but not during the intervention. During microgravity thrombocyte noradrenaline increased in four cosmonauts and the percentage changes were significantly different in cosmonauts and in subjects

  16. Dietary quality varies according to data collection instrument: a comparison between a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; de Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes; De Cnop, Mara Lima; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Coura, Camila Pinheiro; Brito, Alessandra Page; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the agreement between the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R), estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and multiple 24-hour recalls (24h-R). The Wilcoxon paired test, partial correlations (PC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman method were used. The total BHEI-R scores and its components ("total fruits", "whole fruits", "total vegetables", "integral cereals", "saturated fat", "sodium", and "energy intake derived from solid fat, added sugar, and alcoholic beverages") were statistically different, with the ICC and PC indicating poor concordance and correlation. The mean concordance estimated for the total BHEI-R and its components varied from 68% for "integral cereals" to 147% for "whole fruits". The suitable concordance limits were violated for most of the components of the BHEI-R. Poor concordance was observed between the BHEI-R estimated by the FFQ and by multiple 24h-R, which indicated a strong reliability of the BHEI-R on the instrument used to collect information on food consumption. PMID:26910251

  17. Relative prognostic value of rest thallium-201 imaging, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; Nestico, P.F.; Heo, J.; Unwala, A.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-07-01

    Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.

  18. An Analysis of 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Data using Orthonormal Polynomials in the Linear Mixed Model

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Lloyd J.; Simpson, Sean L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in clinical practice and observational epidemiological studies has grown considerably in the past 25 years. ABPM is a very effective technique for assessing biological, environmental, and drug effects on blood pressure. Objectives In order to enhance the effectiveness of ABPM for clinical and observational research studies via analytical and graphical results, developing alternative data analysis approaches using modern statistical techniques are important. Methods The linear mixed model for the analysis of longitudinal data is particularly well-suited for the estimation of, inference about, and interpretation of both population (mean) and subject-specific trajectories for ABPM data. We propose using a linear mixed model with orthonormal polynomials across time in both the fixed and random effects to analyze ABPM data. Results We demonstrate the proposed analysis technique using data from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study, a multicenter, randomized, parallel arm feeding study that tested the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. Conclusions The linear mixed model is relatively easy to implement (given the complexity of the technique) using available software, allows for straight-forward testing of multiple hypotheses, and the results can be presented to research clinicians using both graphical and tabular displays. Using orthonormal polynomials provides the ability to model the nonlinear trajectories of each subject with the same complexity as the mean model (fixed effects). PMID:24667908

  19. Under-reporting of Energy Intake from 24-hour Dietary Recalls in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kye, Seunghee; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Lee, Soon-Young; Lee, Jiyoon; Kim, Bok Hee; Suh, Hee-Jae; Moon, Hyun-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Chronic degenerative diseases are closely related to daily eating habits, nutritional status, and, in particular, energy intake. In clarifying these relationships it is very important for dietary surveys to report accurate information about energy intake. This study attempted to identify the prevalence of the under-reporting of energy intake and its related characteristics based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in the years 2007–2009. Methods The present study analyzed dietary intake data from 15,133 adults aged ≥19 years using 24-hour dietary recalls. Basal metabolic rates were calculated from the age- and gender-specific equations of Schofield and under-reporting was defined as an energy intake <0.9, represented by the ratio of energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate. Results Under-reporters (URs) accounted for 14.4% of men and 23.0% of women and the under-reporting rate was higher in the age group 30–49 years for both men and women. The results from an analysis of the age-specific socioeconomic characteristics of participants classified as URs showed that under-reporting was high in women living alone and in women with only elementary school education or no education. The results from an analysis of the health-specific characteristics of URs showed that a large proportion of URs had poor self-rated health or were obese, or both, compared with non-URs. The proportion of participants who consumed less than the estimated average requirements for nutrients was significantly higher in URs compared with non-URs. Conclusion The under-reporting of energy intake was associated with age, gender, education level, income level, household status (single-person or multi-person), self-rated health, physical activity, and obesity. PMID:24955317

  20. Variants in the LEPR gene are nominally associated with higher BMI and lower 24 hour energy expenditure in Pima Indians

    PubMed Central

    Traurig, Michael; Perez, Jessica; Ma, Lijun; Bian, Li; Kobes, Sayuko; Hanson, Robert L.; Knowler, William C.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Bogardus, Clifton; Baier, Leslie J.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been used to search for susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes and obesity in the Pima Indians, a population with high a prevalence of both diseases. In these studies, a variant (rs2025804) in the LEPR gene was nominally associated with BMI in 1082 subjects (P=0.03 adjusted for age, sex, birth year, and family membership). Therefore the LEPR and leptin overlapping transcript (LEPROT) genes were selected for further sequencing and genotyping in larger population-based samples for association analyses with obesity-related phenotypes. Selected variants (n=80) spanning these genes were genotyped in a sample of full-heritage Pima Indians (n=2842) and several common variants including rs2025804 were nominally associated with BMI (P=0.05-0.003 adjusted for age, sex, birth year, and family membership). Four common tag variants associated with BMI in the full-heritage Pima Indian sample were genotyped in a second sample of mixed-heritage Native Americans (n=2969) and 3 of the variants showed nominal replication (P=0.03-0.006 adjusted as above and additionally for Indian heritage). Combining both samples provided the strongest evidence for association (adjusted P=0.0003-0.0001). A subset of these individuals (n=403) had been metabolically characterized for predictors of obesity and the BMI risk alleles for the variants tagged by rs2025804 were also associated with lower 24 hour energy expenditure as assessed in a human respiratory chamber (P=0.0007 adjusted for age, sex, fat mass, fat free mass, activity, and family membership). We conclude that common non-coding variation in the LEPR gene is associated with higher BMI and lower energy expenditure in Native Americans. PMID:22810975

  1. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Carson, Valerie; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dinh, Thy; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Gray, Casey E; Gruber, Reut; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; LeBlanc, Claire; Okely, Anthony D; Olds, Timothy; Pate, Russell R; Phillips, Andrea; Poitras, Veronica J; Rodenburg, Sophie; Sampson, Margaret; Saunders, Travis J; Stone, James A; Stratton, Gareth; Weiss, Shelly K; Zehr, Lori

    2016-06-01

    Leaders from the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, content experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children and youth aged 5-17 years respect the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period). The development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and systematic reviews of evidence informing the guidelines were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Four systematic reviews (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, integrated behaviours) examining the relationships between and among movement behaviours and several health indicators were completed and interpreted by expert consensus. Complementary compositional analyses were performed using Canadian Health Measures Survey data to examine the relationships between movement behaviours and health indicators. A stakeholder survey was employed (n = 590) and 28 focus groups/stakeholder interviews (n = 104) were completed to gather feedback on draft guidelines. Following an introductory preamble, the guidelines provide evidence-informed recommendations for a healthy day (24 h), comprising a combination of sleep, sedentary behaviours, light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Proactive dissemination, promotion, implementation, and evaluation plans have been prepared in an effort to optimize uptake and activation of the new guidelines. Future research should consider the integrated relationships among movement behaviours, and similar integrated guidelines for other age groups should be developed. PMID:27306437

  2. The association of resting state heart rate variability and 24-hour blood pressure variability in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Julian F; Sollers, John J; Clamor, Annika; Koenig, Julian; Hagglund, Kristofer J

    2016-02-15

    Patients with high cervical complete spinal cord injuries (tetraplegia) sustain damage to the autonomic neural pathways that influence cardiovascular functioning and produce variability in the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). In non-injured individuals, an inverse relationship exists between resting autonomic control of the heart (as evidenced by HR variability (HRV)) and BP variability (BPV). This study examined the relationship between HRV, BP and BPV in individuals with tetraplegic (n=10) and paraplegic (n=10) spinal cord injuries, and a group of healthy controls (n=14). Resting HRV at baseline and 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements were collected from electrocardiogram measures of each participant. HRV was quantified using time- and frequency-domain measures. The standard deviation of the BP measurements was used as an index of BPV. Multivariate analyses of variance were performed to examine group differences for laboratory-based and 24-h dependent variables. The MANOVAs for HRV parameters (λ(14,50)=.352, p=.010, η(2)=.407) and for BP indices and HR (λ(16,48)=.318, p=.013, η(2)=.436) were significant. Furthermore, in line with existing evidence, we found that vagally mediated HRV was inversely related to BPV in healthy controls. However, this relationship did not hold for the tetraplegia group (ρ<|.42|), and mixed results were found for the paraplegia group (e.g., ρ<|.29| for time domain HRV, ρ>|.65| for low-frequency power). These results support the conclusion that the damage to the spinal sympathetic pathways to the heart found in people with tetraplegia causes a significant disruption in baroreflex control of BP. PMID:26810517

  3. Jack Healy Remembers - Anecdotal Evidence for the Origin of the Approximate 24-hour Urine Sampling Protocol Used for Worker Bioassay Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2008-10-01

    The origin of the approximate 24-hour urine sampling protocol used at Hanford for routine bioassay is attributed to an informal study done in the mid-1940s. While the actual data were never published and have been lost, anecdotal recollections by staff involved in the initial bioassay program design and administration suggest that the sampling protocol had a solid scientific basis. Numerous alternate methods for normalizing partial day samples to represent a total 24-hour collection have since been proposed and used, but no one method is obviously preferred.

  4. Perfusion-CT - Can We Predict Acute Pancreatitis Outcome within the First 24 Hours from the Onset of Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Pieńkowska, Joanna; Gwoździewicz, Katarzyna; Skrobisz-Balandowska, Katarzyna; Marek, Iwona; Kostro, Justyna; Szurowska, Edyta; Studniarek, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is still a significant clinical problem which is associated with a highly mortality. The aim of this study was the evaluation of prognostic value of CT regional perfusion measurement performed on the first day of onset of symptoms of AP, in assessing the risk of developing severe form of acute pancreatitis. Material and Methods 79 patients with clinical symptoms and biochemical criteria indicative of acute pancreatitis (acute upper abdominal pain, elevated levels of serum amylase and lipase) underwent perfusion CT within 24 hours after onset of symptoms. The follow-up examinations were performed after 4–6 days to detect progression of the disease. Perfusion parameters were compared in 41 people who developed severe form of AP (pancreatic and/or peripancreatic tissue necrosis) with parameters in 38 consecutive patients in whom course of AP was mild. Blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time and permeability surface area product were calculated in the three anatomic pancreatic subdivisions (head, body and tail). At the same time the patient's clinical status was assessed by APACHE II score and laboratory parameters such as CRP, serum lipase and amylase, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP and bilirubin were compared. Results Statistical differences in the perfusion parameters between the group of patients with mild and severe AP were shown. Blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time were significantly lower and permeability surface area product was significantly higher in patients who develop severe acute pancreatitis and presence of pancreatic and/or peripancreatic necrosis due to pancreatic ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of evaluated on admission severity of pancreatitis assessed using APACHE II score and laboratory tests. Conclusions CT perfusion is a very useful indicator for prediction and selection patients in early stages of acute pancreatitis who are at risk of

  5. Characterization of pulmonary protein profiles in response to zinc oxide nanoparticles in mice: a 24-hour and 28-day follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Jen-Kun; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Lai, Ching-Huang; Jones, Tim P; BéruBé, Kelly A; Hong, Gui-Bing; Ho, Kin-Fai; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are recognized to cause systemic disorders, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the time-dependent differences that occur after exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanistic differences at 24 hours and 28 days after the exposure of BALB/c mice to ZnONPs via intratracheal instillation. An isobaric tag for the relative and absolute quantitation coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the differential protein expression, biological processes, molecular functions, and pathways. A total of 18 and 14 proteins displayed significant changes in the lung tissues at 24 hours and 28 days after exposure, respectively, with the most striking changes being observed for S100-A9 protein. Metabolic processes and catalytic activity were the main biological processes and molecular functions, respectively, in the responses at the 24-hour and 28-day follow-up times. The glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway was continuously downregulated from 24 hours to 28 days, whereas detoxification pathways were activated at the 28-day time-point after exposure. A comprehensive understanding of the potential time-dependent effects of exposure to ZnONPs was provided, which highlights the metabolic mechanisms that may be important in the responses to ZnONP. PMID:26251593

  6. VALIDATION OF THREE FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRES AND 24-HOUR RECALLS WITH SERUM CAROTENOID LEVELS IN A SAMPLE OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN ADULTS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The validity of self-reported fruit and vegetable intake in minority populations has not been adequately established. In this study, the authors examined the association of three food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour dietary recalls with serum carotenoid levels. Approximately 1,000 Africa...

  7. Validation of the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall for children (ASA24-Kids) among 9- to 11-year-old youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty-nine children in two sites participated in the study. In one site, trained staff observed and recorded types and portions of foods and drinks consumed by ...

  8. Normal values of 24-hour ambulatory esophageal impedance-pH monitoring in a rural South African cohort of healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Ndebia, E J; Sammon, A M; Umapathy, E; Iputo, J E

    2016-05-01

    There are no data on 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring in African populations. The purpose of this study was to provide the normal values of esophageal impedance and pH monitoring in a rural African populations. South African healthy rural participants were recruited and underwent 24 hours of esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. The median and the 95th percentiles of the total reflux episodes were 49 and 97, respectively, of which the corresponding number of acidic, weakly acidic, and weakly alkaline reflux were 15 and 55, 17 and 51, and 8 and 36, respectively. The compositions of the total reflux were 5 and 21 for liquid, 27 and 72 for mixed, and 10 and 39 for gas reflux, respectively. The median bolus clearance was 18 seconds and the median bolus exposure was 14 minutes/24 hours. The proximal extent was 6%. The 95th percent time of esophageal exposure to acid was 8.6 in 24 hours. Female and overweight participants were associated with an increased number of reflux events. There were more reflux episodes, and of which, more were weakly alkaline compared with previous similar studies. The findings provide reference values of gastroesophageal reflux for a South African rural population. PMID:25721534

  9. 24-HOUR DIFFUSIVE SAMPLING OF 1,3-BUTADIENE IN AIR ONTO CARBONPAK X SOLID ADSORBENT WITH THEMAL DESORPTION/GC/MS ANALYSIS - FEASIBILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffusive sampling of 1,3-butadiene for 24 hours onto the graphitic adsorbent Carbopack X contained in a stainless steel tube badge (6.3 mm OD, 5 mm ID, and 90 mm in length) with analysis by thermal desorption/GC/MS has been evaluated in controlled tests. A test matrix of 42 tr...

  10. Characterization of pulmonary protein profiles in response to zinc oxide nanoparticles in mice: a 24-hour and 28-day follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Jen-Kun; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Lai, Ching-Huang; Jones, Tim P; BéruBé, Kelly A; Hong, Gui-Bing; Ho, Kin-Fai; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are recognized to cause systemic disorders, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the time-dependent differences that occur after exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanistic differences at 24 hours and 28 days after the exposure of BALB/c mice to ZnONPs via intratracheal instillation. An isobaric tag for the relative and absolute quantitation coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the differential protein expression, biological processes, molecular functions, and pathways. A total of 18 and 14 proteins displayed significant changes in the lung tissues at 24 hours and 28 days after exposure, respectively, with the most striking changes being observed for S100-A9 protein. Metabolic processes and catalytic activity were the main biological processes and molecular functions, respectively, in the responses at the 24-hour and 28-day follow-up times. The glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway was continuously downregulated from 24 hours to 28 days, whereas detoxification pathways were activated at the 28-day time-point after exposure. A comprehensive understanding of the potential time-dependent effects of exposure to ZnONPs was provided, which highlights the metabolic mechanisms that may be important in the responses to ZnONP. PMID:26251593

  11. 49 CFR 375.607 - What must I do if I am able to tender a shipment for final delivery more than 24 hours before a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What must I do if I am able to tender a shipment... INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Transportation of Shipments § 375.607 What must I do if I am able to tender a shipment for final delivery more than 24 hours before a specified date?...

  12. The effect of low level radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in operators during 24-hour shifts.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, K; Israel, M; Mihaylov, S

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long term exposure to low level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in satellite station operators during 24-hour shifts. Twelve male operators at a satellite station for TV communications and space research were studied during 24-hour shifts. Dosimetric evaluation of the exposure was carried out and showed low level exposure with specific absorption of 0.1127 J.kg-1. A control group of 12 unexposed male operators with similar job task and the same shift system were studied, too. The 11-oxycorticosteroids (11-OCS), adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed by spectrofluorimetric methods on 3-hour intervals during the 24-hour shifts. The data were analyzed by tests for interindividual analysis, Cosinor analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant increase in the 24-hour excretion of 11-OCS and disorders in its circadian rhythm, manifested by increase in the mesor, decrease in the amplitude and shift in the acrophase were found in the exposed operators. The changes in the excretion rates of the catecholamines were significant and showed greater variability of both variables. The long term effect of the exposure to low-level RF EM radiation evoked pronounced stress reaction with changes in the circadian rhythm of 11-OCS and increased variability of catecholamines secretion. The possible health hazards associated with observed alteration in the stress system need to be clarified by identification of their significance and prognostic relevance. PMID:12096679

  13. The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24): A resource for researchers, clinicians, and educators from the National Cancer Institute

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) provide high-quality dietary intake data with minimal bias, making them the preferred tool for monitoring the diets of populations and, increasingly, for studying diet and disease associations. Traditional 24HDRs, however, are...

  14. Screening for proteinuria in a rheumatology clinic: comparison of dipstick testing, 24 hour urine quantitative protein, and protein/creatinine ratio in random urine samples.

    PubMed

    Ralston, S H; Caine, N; Richards, I; O'Reilly, D; Sturrock, R D; Capell, H A

    1988-09-01

    Measurements of protein/creatinine ratio in 'spot' urine samples were compared with measurements of 24 hour quantitative proteinuria and side room 'dipstick' testing in 104 samples from 90 patients presenting consecutively to a rheumatology unit. Linear regression analysis showed a highly significant correlation between the random urinary protein/creatinine ratio and total protein excretion in 24 hour urine samples (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001, y = 6.55x + 0.04). Although an approximation of 24 hour urinary protein excretion could have been made from the regression line: 24 hour urine protein = 6.55 x protein/creatinine ratio + 0.04 (g/l), there was a wide scatter of values, particularly in patients with greater than 1 g/24 h urinary protein excretion. Nevertheless, significant proteinuria (greater than 300 mg/24 h) could have been confirmed or excluded with a sensitivity and specificity of 97% by adopting random protein/creatinine values of less than 0.04 as 'normal'. Specificity and sensitivity could have been increased to 100%, however, by excluding patients with values lying between 0.01 and 0.10 as all the false negatives (n = 3) and false positives (n = 3) lay within this range. In comparison, dipstick testing, although 100% sensitive, had a poor specificity due to the high false positive rate (40/83 (48%] in patients with 1+ to 3+ readings. Assessment of random urinary protein/creatinine ratio may obviate the need for 24 hour urine collections in the initial assessment of suspected proteinuria. A wider application of this technique seems indicated in view of the obvious advantages in terms of cost, time, and patient convenience. PMID:3263087

  15. Urinary electrolyte excretion in 24 hours and blood pressure in the INTERSALT Study. I. Estimates of reliability. The INTERSALT Cooperative Research Group.

    PubMed

    Dyer, A R; Shipley, M; Elliott, P

    1994-05-01

    This is the first of two reports dealing with the reliability of measurements of 24-hour urinary electrolyte excretion and blood pressure and estimates of electrolyte-blood pressure associations in INTERSALT, an international study of the relations of electrolyte excretion and other factors to blood pressure, involving more than 10,000 persons from 52 centers in 32 countries. This first report describes methods for estimating reliability, taking into account age and sex, and provides estimates for several urinary variables, blood pressure, and pulse rate. The second report (Am J Epidemiol 1994; 139:940-51) uses these estimates of reliability and multivariate procedures to correct multiple regression coefficients from regressions of blood pressure on 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion, body mass index, and alcohol intake for "regression dilution bias." Age- and sex-adjusted estimates of reliability were computed from data on 805 INTERSALT participants with repeat measurements. These estimates ranged from 0.37 to 0.40 for 24-hour urinary sodium, from 0.47 to 0.52 for potassium, from 0.32 to 0.36 for the sodium:potassium ratio, from 0.64 to 0.69 for calcium, from 0.59 to 0.65 for creatinine, from 0.49 to 0.57 for urinary volume, from 0.49 to 0.51 for magnesium, from 0.58 to 0.62 for pulse, from 0.69 to 0.74 for systolic blood pressure, and from 0.63 to 0.67 for diastolic blood pressure. In addition, estimates of within- and between-person covariances among electrolytes indicated that about half of the observed covariance for sodium and potassium excretion in a single 24-hour urine collection was due to within-person covariation in excretion. PMID:8166143

  16. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in Victoria, Australia, using 24-hour urine collections. Secondary aims were to identify the dietary sources of sodium and potassium, examine the association between these electrolytes and cardiovascular risk factors, and assess children’s taste preferences and saltiness perception of manufactured foods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of schoolchildren attending primary schools in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed one 24-hour urine collection, which was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Completeness of collections was assessed using collection time, total volume, and urinary creatinine. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed to assess dietary intake. Other data collected included blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumference. Children were also presented with high and low sodium variants of food products and asked to discriminate salt level and choose their preferred variant. Parents provided demographic information and information on use of discretionary salt. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sodium and potassium intakes. Linear and logistic regression models with clustered robust standard errors will be used to assess the association between electrolyte intake and health outcomes (blood pressure and body mass index/BMI z-score and waist circumference) and to assess differences in taste preference and discrimination between high and low sodium foods, and correlations between

  17. Air Bearing Lift Pad (ABLP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, Dan H.; Blaise, Herman T.

    1968-01-01

    Typical air bearings float on air films of only a few thousandths of an inch and so will only operate above very smooth, even surfaces. For the mechanical simulation of space, the small drag of the bladder type air pads is much more than can be coped with, and the practicality of large floor areas being machined for precision air bearings is nonexistent. To enable operation above surfaces that undulate slightly or feature cracks and discontinuities, an ABLP has been developed. It consists of a rigid pad beneath which an inflatable bladder is mounted. The bladder is inflated with air which then escapes through passages into a cavity in the center of the bladder to produce the lifting energy. As the air escapes about the perimeter of the bladder, a certain degree of balance and equilibrium is imparted to the pad as it is able to move a limited weight across slightly uneven surfaces.

  18. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of Bisphenol A following ingestion in soup: Individual pharmacokinetic data and emographics

    SciTech Connect

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Churchwell, Mona I.; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Seryak, Liesel M.; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2015-09-01

    Here we present data to evaluate potential absorption of Bisphenol A through non-metabolizing tissues of the upper digestive tract. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24 h period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30 μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. The pharmacokinetic behavior of BPA and its metabolites in this cohort (rapid absorption, complete elimination, evidence against sublingual absorption) was reported. This Data in Brief article contains the corresponding individual pharmacokinetic data, reports the demographics of the cohort and provides additional details related to the analytical methods employed and is related to [4].

  19. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of Bisphenol A following ingestion in soup: Individual pharmacokinetic data and emographics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Churchwell, Mona I.; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Seryak, Liesel M.; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2015-09-01

    Here we present data to evaluate potential absorption of Bisphenol A through non-metabolizing tissues of the upper digestive tract. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24 h period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30 μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. The pharmacokinetic behavior of BPA and its metabolites in this cohort (rapid absorption, complete elimination, evidence against sublingual absorption) was reported. This Data in Brief article contains the corresponding individual pharmacokinetic data, reports the demographics of the cohort and provides additional details related to the analyticalmore » methods employed and is related to [4].« less

  20. [A validation of the data obtained with the simultaneous recording of blood pressure and the 24-hour electrocardiogram].

    PubMed

    Germanò, G; Caparra, A; Valentino, S; Coia, F; Federico, L; Santucci, A

    1993-06-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the blood pressure (BP) measurement reliability of a light weight ambulatory BP and ECG recorder. Micro AM is a new 300 g portable apparatus that combines in one device both the ambulatory BP and solid state ECG recording. The dimensions of the Micro AM are 75 x 140 x 29 mm. The monitor measures BP using Korotkoff phase 1 for systolic and phase 5 for diastolic BP, and concurrently measures oscillometric BP, one method validating the other. In addition, the manual and programmed BP measurement modes can be supplemented by an "intelligent" mode in which the ECG triggers an ambulatory BP reading during an abnormal ST segment change. A standard mercury manometer was connected with the cuff of the Micro AM with a Y-shaped part, and 12 BP measurements were simultaneously taken at 5 min intervals by the automatic device in auscultatory mode and by a trained technician in 86 normotensive volunteers (aged from 18 to 44 years, 37 males and 49 females). The algebraic differences, the frequency distribution and the difference distribution of systolic and diastolic data between the 2 methods were calculated. The results show that the automatic method gives values for systolic BP that are lower than conventional ones (average differences -0.643 mmHg), whereas for diastolic BP, the values are higher (average differences +0.229 mmHg). Then, Student's paired t-test was used to evaluate statistically significant differences. The test relative to systolic BP was significant to the critical level of 0.1%, but the differences being 3 times smaller than the instrumental tolerance. On the contrary, diastolic BP differences were non significant. In conclusion, we found a good agreement between BP recorded automatically and by sphygmomanometer. PMID:8402748

  1. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared to the written-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared to the written-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written-assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared to the current written record based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared to either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

  2. Ambulatory 24-hour cardiac oxygen consumption and blood pressure-heart rate variability: effects of nebivolol and valsartan alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Joseph L; Khan, Safi U; Saleem, Osman; Osmond, Peter J

    2015-07-01

    We compared an angiotensin receptor blocker (valsartan; VAL), a beta-blocker (nebivolol; NEB) and the combination of NEB/VAL with respect to 24-hour myocardial oxygen consumption (determined by 24-hour ambulatory heart rate-central systolic pressure product [ACRPP]) and its components. Subjects with hypertension (systolic blood pressure >140 or diastolic blood pressure >90; n = 26) were studied in a double-blinded, double-dummy, forced-titration, crossover design with 3 random-order experimental periods: VAL 320 mg, NEB 40 mg, and NEB/VAL 320/40 mg daily. After 4 weeks of each drug, ambulatory pulse wave analysis (MobilOGraph) was performed every 20 minutes for 24 hours. All three treatments resulted in nearly identical brachial and central systolic blood pressures. NEB alone or in combination with VAL resulted in lower ACRPP (by 11%-14%; P < .001 each) and heart rate (by 18%-20%; P < .001 each) compared with VAL, but stroke work (ACRPP per beat) was lower with VAL. Relative and adjusted variability (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of heart rate were also lower with NEB and NEB/VAL than VAL. Results in African Americans, the majority subpopulation, were similar to those of the entire treatment group. We conclude that the rate-slowing effects of NEB cause ambulatory cardiac myocardial oxygen consumption to be lower with NEB monotherapy or NEB/VAL combination therapy than with VAL monotherapy. NEB/VAL is not superior to NEB alone in controlling heart rate, blood pressure, or ACRPP. Heart rate variability but not ACRPP variability is reduced by NEB or the combination NEB/VAL. There is no attenuation of beta-blocker-induced rate-slowing effects of in African Americans. PMID:26116459

  3. Decreased striatal dopamine release underlies increased expression of long-term synaptic potentiation at corticostriatal synapses 24 hours after 3-nitropropionic acid induced chemical hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Akopian, Garnik; Crawford, Cynthia; Beal, M. Flint; Cappelletti, Maurand; Jakowec, Michael W.; Petzinger, Giselle M.; Zheng, Ling; Gheorghe, Stacey L.; Reichel, Carmela M.; Chow, Robert; Walsh, John P

    2008-01-01

    The striatum is particularly sensitive to the irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehyrdrogenase 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP). In the present study we examined early changes in behavior and dopamine and glutamate synaptic physiology created by a single systemic injection of 3-NP in Fischer 344 rats. Hind limb dystonia was seen 2 hours after 3-NP injections and rats performed poorly on balance beam and rota-rod motor tests 24 hours later. Systemic 3-NP increased NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at corticostriatal synapses over the same time period. The 3-NP induced corticostriatal LTP was not due to increased NMDA receptor number or function, since 3-NP did not change MK-801 binding or NMDA/AMPA receptor current ratios. The LTP seen 24 hours after 3-NP was D1 receptor-dependent and reversed by exogenous addition of dopamine or a D2 receptor agonist to brain slices. High performance liquid chromatography and fast scan cyclic voltammetry revealed a decrease in dopamine content and release in rats injected 24 hours earlier with 3-NP, and much like the enhanced LTP, dopamine changes were reversed by 48 hours. Tyrosine hydroxylase expression was not changed and there was no evidence of striatal cell loss at 24–48 hours after 3-NP exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats showed similar physiological responses to systemic 3-NP, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Thus, 3-NP causes significant changes in motor behavior marked by parallel changes in striatal dopamine release and corticostriatal synaptic plasticity. PMID:18799690

  4. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes and medication . View an animation of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis and PAD Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up ... of an artery. PAD is usually caused by atherosclerosis in the peripheral arteries (or outer regions away ...

  5. Treatment of burns in the first 24 hours: simple and practical guide by answering 10 questions in a step-by-step form

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose. PMID:22583548

  6. Effect of current and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder on 24-hour urinary catecholamines and cortisol: results from the Mind Your Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Whooley, Mary A.; Neylan, Thomas C.; Otte, Christian; Cohen, Beth E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and several other chronic illnesses. Alterations in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in PTSD might contribute to these associations but findings regarding SNS and HPA activity in PTSD are heterogeneous. We measured 24-hour urinary catecholamines and cortisol in a large cohort of adult outpatients recruited from 2 Veterans Affairs medical centers. 24-hour urinary norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and cortisol were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. Lifetime and current PTSD were assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale using DSM-IV-TR criteria. Out of 613 participants, 199 (32.5%) had current PTSD, 100 (16.3%) had lifetime but not current PTSD, and 314 (51.2%) never had PTSD. Patients with current PTSD had significantly higher norepinephrine secretion compared to those without PTSD. Patients in the lifetime PTSD group exhibited lower cortisol values compared to those without PTSD. Participants who never had PTSD showed the lowest norepinephrine and the highest cortisol values. All results remained stable when controlling for potentially confounding variables. This study provides evidence for increased norepinephrine secretion and decreased cortisol in PTSD. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether these changes contribute to adverse health outcomes in patients with PTSD. PMID:25459895

  7. Estimation of 24-hour thyroid uptake of I-131 sodium iodide using a 5-minute uptake of technetium-99m pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.J.; Croft, B.Y.; Brookeman, V.A.; Teates, C.D. )

    1990-02-01

    The authors have developed a method to estimate the 24-hour sodium iodide thyroid uptake based on a 5-minute Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake using the equation: Estimated Iodide Uptake = 17.72*In(Pertechnetate Uptake) + 30.40. This estimation has a correlation coefficient of 0.90. It is based on a data pool of 44 patients who underwent I-131 and Tc-99m studies within 2 weeks of each other from 1978-1988, with established diagnoses as follows: 12 euthyroid, 6 hyperthyroid with multinodular goiters, 15 hyperthyroid with diffuse goiters, 4 with subacute thyroiditis, and 7 unknown. The population consisted of 30 women and 14 men with a mean age of 52.0 +/- 17.5 years; this sample was screened for use of thyroid hormone, propylthiouracil, and radiographic contrast. The authors believe this estimation method is of value whenever a 24-hour iodide uptake is desired, and where speed and minimizing radiation dose are factors. This method is strongly recommended for thyroid uptake evaluation before I-131 therapy.

  8. [THE INFLUENCE OF CYTOFLAVIN AND CARDIOXIPIN ON THE PARAMETERS OF 24-HOUR ARTERIAL PRESSURE MONITORING IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC CEREBRAL CIRCULATION INSUFFICIENCY, ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA].

    PubMed

    Vodop'ianova, O A; Moiseeva, I Ia; Rodina, O P; Kustikova, I N; Antropova, N V

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study of the influence of cytoflavin and cardioxipin on the parameters of 24-hour arterial pressure monitoring in 56 patients with chronic cerebral circulation insufficiency, arterial hypertension and hypercholesterolemia included 32 women and 24 men aged 42-72 years divided into 3 groups matchedfor the stage of diseases, age, sex, severity of AH, total cholesterol level, and antihypertensive therapy. Patients of group 1 were treated without cytoflavin and cardioxipin. Those in group 2 received daily i/v droplet infusion of 10 mg/kg cardioxipin (20-30 droplets/min). Patients of group 3 were given daily i/v droplet infusion of 10 ml cytoflavin in 200 ml 0.9% sodium chloride solution for 10 days. 24-hour arterial pressure monitoring was used to estimate the influence of the two drugs on systolic and diastolic pressure, its daily rhythm, AP variability and frequency of elevation. The study showed that both therapeutic modalities improved daily AP rhythm as manifested in a significant increase of the number of patients with the dipper rhythm and a decrease in the number of systolic/diastolic non-dipper patients. Moreover cytoflavin significantly decreased the number of systolic over-dippers compared with control group. PMID:26117922

  9. Estimate of the time zero lung burden of depleted uranium in Persian Gulf War veterans by the 24-hour urinary excretion and exponential decay analysis.

    PubMed

    Durakovic, Asaf; Horan, Patricia; Dietz, Leonard A; Zimmerman, Isaac

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of depleted uranium (DU) in the respiratory system of Allied Forces Gulf War Veterans. Mass spectrometry (thermal ionization mass spectrometry) analysis of 24-hour urinary excretion of DU isotopes in five positive (238U/235U > 191.00) and six negative (238U/235U > 138.25) veterans was utilized in the mathematical estimation of the pulmonary burden at the time of exposure. A minimum value for the biological half-life of ceramic DU oxide in the lungs was derived from the Battelle report of the minimum dissolution half-time in simulated interstitial lung fluid corresponding to 3.85 years. The average DU concentration was 3.27 x 10(-5) mg per 24 hours in DU-positive veterans and 1.46 x 10(-8) mg in DU-negative veterans. The estimated lung burden was 0.34 mg in the DU-positive and 0.00015 mg in the DU-negative veterans. Our results provide evidence that the pulmonary concentration of DU at time zero can be quantitated as late as 9 years after inhalational exposure. PMID:12943033

  10. Prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients receiving CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery

    PubMed Central

    Siriphuwanun, Visith; Punjasawadwong, Yodying; Lapisatepun, Worawut; Charuluxananan, Somrat; Uerpairojkit, Ketchada

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) within 24 hours of receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery. Patients and methods A retrospective cohort study approved by the Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai University Hospital Ethical Committee. Data used were taken from records of 751 cardiac arrest patients who received their first CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery between January 1, 2003 and October 31, 2011. The reviewed data included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status classification, anesthesia information, the timing of cardiac arrest, CPR details, and outcomes at 24 hours after CPR. Univariate and polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to determine prognostic factors associated with the outcome variable. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results The outcomes at 24 hours were death (638/751, 85.0%), survival with complications (73/751, 9.7%), and survival without complications (40/751, 5.3%). The prognostic factors associated with death were: age between 13–34 years (OR =3.08, 95% CI =1.03–9.19); ASA physical status three and higher (OR =6.60, 95% CI =2.17–20.13); precardiopulmonary comorbidity (OR =3.28, 95% CI =1.09–9.90); the condition of patients who were on mechanical ventilation prior to receiving anesthesia (OR =4.11, 95% CI =1.17–14.38); surgery in the upper abdominal site (OR =14.64, 95% CI =2.83–75.82); shock prior to cardiac arrest (OR =6.24, 95% CI =2.53–15.36); nonshockable electrocardiography (EKG) rhythm (OR =5.67, 95% CI =1.93–16.62); cardiac arrest occurring in postoperative period (OR =7.35, 95% CI =2.89–18.74); and duration of CPR more than 30 minutes (OR =4.32, 95% CI =1.39–13.45). The prognostic factors associated with survival with complications were being greater

  11. New Advantage 24 contraceptive gel claims 24-hour effectiveness. But proposed FDA rule could put N-9 products to the test.

    PubMed

    1995-04-01

    Advantage 24 is a new contraceptive gel that makes use of bioadhesive technology to offer 24 hours of protection relying on the spermicide nonoxynol-9 (N-9) in lower concentrations. If a proposed US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rule is enforced N-9 may be examined closely. The manufacturer, Whitehall-Robins Healthcare in New Jersey, stopped production of the Today contraceptive sponge because of the costs of complying with FDA standards. The Advantage 24 gel costs twice as much as the sponge. It is made in Switzerland and distributed by an Illinois company. Any vaginal contraceptive containing N-9 would be approved by the FDA as long as it complied with guidelines laid down in an FDA monograph. However, the registration of the gel could not be confirmed. The product uses a bioadhesive technology concept that natural substances adhere to epithelial and mucosal tissues in the body. Polycarbofil is mixed with water, N-9, and mineral oil to create an emulsion that allows for a time-release mechanism, but at any given time only 2 mg of N-9 is available to kill sperm. The final formula for Advantage 24 is 52.5 mg per dose. Too much N-9 can be toxic, as demonstrated by the Today sponge, which contained 1000 mg of N-9. In Kenya prostitutes using it frequently experienced 3 times as many genital lesions as those using a placebo. A study of Advantage 24 by a Miami laboratory involved 250 women, 22-45 years old, who had had prior tubal ligations. When the gel was applied 15-30 minutes before intercourse the efficacy rate was 98%; it was 91% for those applying it 12 hours before; and it was 86% when the gel was applied 24 hours ahead of time. FDA compliance officers are intrigued about the claim that the gel lasts 24 hours. However, if the claim is held up by research data, women will have an easily available, portable, efficient, aesthetic, and highly effective contraceptive. PMID:12347026

  12. STS-32 Columbia, OV-102, liftoff from KSC LC Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-32 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, its external tank (ET), and solid rocket boosters (SRBs) rise above the mobile launcher platform and begin to clear fixed service structure (FSS) tower (with rotating service structure (RSS) retracted) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A. Liftoff occurred at 7:34:59:98 am Eastern Standard Time (EST) some 24 hours after dubious weather at the return-to-landing site (RTLS) had cancelled a scheduled launch. An exhaust cloud covers the launch pad. The firing SRBs and space shuttle main engines (SSMEs) are reflected in a nearby waterway. OV-102's launch is highlighted against the early morning darkness.

  13. STS-32 Columbia, OV-102, liftoff from KSC LC Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-32 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, atop the external tank (ET) and flanked by two solid rocket boosters (SRBs) rises above the mobile launcher platform and is nearly clear of the fixed service structure (FSS) tower at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A. Plumes of smoke billow from the SRBs and cover the launch pad in a cloud. Liftoff occurred at 7:34:59:98 am Eastern Standard Time (EST) some 24 hours after dubious weather at the return-to-landing site (RTLS) had cancelled a scheduled launch. OV-102's launch is highlighted against the early morning darkness.

  14. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): Comparison of a Mobile Phone Digital Entry App for Dietary Data Collection With 24-Hour Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Sarah; Giannelli, Valentina; Yap, Megan LH; Tang, Lie Ming; Roy, Rajshri; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Hebden, Lana; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background The electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA), a digital entry food record mobile phone app, was developed to measure energy and nutrient intake prospectively. This can be used in monitoring population intakes or intervention studies in young adults. Objective The objective was to assess the relative validity of e-DIA as a dietary assessment tool for energy and nutrient intakes using the 24-hour dietary recall as a reference method. Methods University students aged 19 to 24 years recorded their food and drink intake on the e-DIA for five days consecutively and completed 24-hour dietary recalls on three random days during this 5-day study period. Mean differences in energy, macro-, and micronutrient intakes were evaluated between the methods using paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and correlation coefficients were calculated on unadjusted, energy-adjusted, and deattenuated values. Bland-Altman plots and cross-classification into quartiles were used to assess agreement between the two methods. Results Eighty participants completed the study (38% male). No significant differences were found between the two methods for mean intakes of energy or nutrients. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.79 (mean 0.68). Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement between the methods but without obvious bias. Cross-classification into same or adjacent quartiles ranged from 75% to 93% (mean 85%). Conclusions The e-DIA shows potential as a dietary intake assessment tool at a group level with good ranking agreement for energy and all nutrients. PMID:26508282

  15. Demand and characteristics of a psychiatric 24-hour emergency service performed by mandatory rotation of licensed psychiatrists in Swiss primary care

    PubMed Central

    Chmiel, Corinne; Rosemann, Thomas; Senn, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate characteristics of and satisfaction with psychiatric 24-hour emergency primary care performed by mandatory rotation of licensed psychiatrists as a viable baseline for possible reorganizational measures. Methods This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study (November 2010–April 2011). The number of patient–psychiatrist encounters, modes of contact, and patient and psychiatrist characteristics were assessed. Diagnoses were coded with ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10). Results From 167 duty episodes, 74 (44%) were recorded. Of the psychiatrists (n=44), 52% were female, and mean age (standard deviation) was 49.9 (5.2) years. The median number of encounters per episode was 4 (interquartile range 0–8), mainly in the evenings. Demand for “face-to-face” (direct) patient visits was significantly more common (64.0%) than practice (1.3%) or telephone consultations (34.7%). In 83.8%, psychiatrists judged the encounter as adequate at the patient’s location. A total of 43 different diagnoses were recorded: mainly schizophrenic disorders (23.9%), suicidal behavior (15.2%), and acute stress reactions (10.3%). Psychiatrists felt burdened by services (62.5%): in 39.2%, they felt threatened; and in 6.8%, violence occurred. In 32.4%, bills were not paid for. If services were optional, 45.2% would participate. Conclusion Our findings indicate justified demand for direct mobile patient visits, suggesting that emergency care should be multifaceted, and sole provision of psychiatric care at stationed emergency facilities may not always be appropriate. Reorganization of 24-hour emergency services should carefully evaluate patient and provider’s needs before changing established structures. PMID:24707172

  16. Correlation of Occupational Stress Index with 24-hour Urine Cortisol and Serum DHEA Sulfate among City Bus Drivers: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mia Chihya; Lu, Luo; Tai, John Jen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The questionnaire of occupational stress index (OSI) has been popular in the workplace, and it has been tailored for bus drivers in Taiwan. Nevertheless, its outcomes for participants are based on self-evaluations, thus validation by their physiological stress biomarker is warranted and this is the main goal of this study. Methods A cross-sectional study of sixty-three city bus drivers and fifty-four supporting staffs for comparison was conducted. Questionnaire surveys, 24-hour urine cortisol testing, and blood draws for dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) testing were performed. The measured concentrations of these biological measures were logarithmically transformed before the statistical analysis where various scores of stressor factors, moderators, and stress effects of each OSI domain were analyzed by applying multiple linear regression models. Results For drivers, the elevated 24-hour urine cortisol level was associated with a worker's relationship with their supervisor and any life change events in the most recent 3 months. The DHEA-S level was higher in drivers of younger age as well as drivers with more concerns relating to their salary and bonuses. Non-drivers showed no association between any stressor or satisfaction and urine cortisol and blood DHEA-S levels. Conclusion Measurements of biomarkers may offer additional stress evaluations with OSI questionnaires for bus drivers. Increased DHEA-S and cortisol levels may result from stressors like income security. Prevention efforts towards occupational stress and life events and health promotional efforts for aged driver were important anti-stress remedies. PMID:22953199

  17. Validation of the BPLab® 24-hour blood pressure monitoring system in a pediatric population according to the 1993 British Hypertension Society protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ledyaev, Mikhail Y; Stepanova, Olga V; Ledyaeva, Anastasia M

    2015-01-01

    Background Automatic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) is a basic procedure performed in adults with arterial hypertension, but ABPM monitors have become widely used in pediatric practice only recently. The main problem is the lack of common normative data sets for ABPM in children and the small number of appropriate monitors that can be used for analysis of the 24-hour BP profile in this age group. The aim of this study was to validate the BPLab® ABPM monitor according to the 1993 British Hypertension Society (BHS-93) protocol, as well as to work out solutions regarding the feasibility of this device in pediatric practice. Methods Our study included 30 children of both sexes and aged 5–15 years, ie, “older” children according to the BHS-93 protocol. Before starting the study, we obtained ethical approval from the regional scientific ethics committee. All participants and their parents signed their written consent for participation in the study. The data were simultaneously obtained by three experts, who had completed a noninvasive BP measurement training course. BP values were measured using the Korotkoff auscultatory method (Phase I for systolic BP and Phase V for diastolic BP). Discrepancies in the systolic and diastolic BP measurements (n=180; 90 for each expert) were analyzed according to the criteria specified in the BHS-93 protocol. Results The device was graded “A” for both systolic BP and diastolic BP according to the criteria of the BHS-93 protocol. Conclusion The BPLab ABPM device may be recommended for extensive pediatric use. PMID:25674018

  18. Treating P.A.D. | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Peripheral Artery Disease Treating P.A.D. Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of ... provider to develop a supervised weight loss plan. P.A.D. Glossary Ankle-brachial index (ABI) A ...

  19. Treating P.A.D. | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Peripheral Artery Disease Treating P.A.D. Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents As ... develop a supervised weight loss plan. P.A.D. Glossary Ankle-brachial index (ABI) A simple test ...

  20. Prediction of Appropriate Shocks Using 24-Hour Holter Variables and T-Wave Alternans After First Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation in Patients With Ischemic or Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Seegers, Joachim; Bergau, Leonard; Expósito, Pascal Muñoz; Bauer, Axel; Fischer, Thomas H; Lüthje, Lars; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Friede, Tim; Zabel, Markus

    2016-07-01

    In patients treated with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), prediction of both overall survival and occurrence of shocks is important if improved patient selection is desired. We prospectively studied the predictive value of biomarkers and indexes of cardiac and renal function and spectral microvolt T-wave alternans testing and 24-hour Holter variables in a population who underwent first ICD implantation. Consecutive patients in sinus rhythm with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy scheduled for primary or secondary prophylactic ICD implantation were enrolled. Exercise microvolt T-wave alternans and 24-hour Holter for number of ventricular premature contractions (VPCs), deceleration capacity, heart rate variability, and heart rate turbulence were done. Death of any cause and first appropriate ICD shock were defined as end points. Over 33 ± 15 months of follow-up, 36 of 253 patients (14%) received appropriate shocks and 39 of 253 patients (15%) died. Only 3 of 253 patients (1%) died after receiving at least 1 appropriate shock. In univariate analyses, New York Heart Association class, ejection fraction, N-terminal pro brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), renal function, ICD indication, deceleration capacity, heart rate variability, and heart rate turbulence were predictive of all-cause mortality and VPC number and deceleration capacity predicted first appropriate shock. NT-proBNP (≥1,600 pg/ml) was identified as the only independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.0, confidence interval 1.3 to 7.3, p = 0.014). In contrast, VPC number predicted appropriate shocks (hazard ratio 2.3, confidence interval 1.0 to 5.5, p = 0.047) as the only independent risk marker. In conclusion, NT-proBNP is a strong independent predictor of mortality in a typical prospective cohort of newly implanted patients with ICD, among many electrocardiographic and clinical variables studied. Number of VPCs was identified as a predictor of appropriate shocks

  1. Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

    2014-03-11

    This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for

  2. Shortening the retention interval of 24-hour dietary recalls increases fourth-grade children’s accuracy for reporting energy and macronutrient intake at school meals

    PubMed Central

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Royer, Julie A.; Hardin, James W.; Mackelprang, Alyssa J.; Smith, Albert F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate information about children’s intake is crucial for national nutrition policy and for research and clinical activities. To analyze accuracy for reporting energy and nutrients, most validation studies utilize the conventional approach which was not designed to capture errors of reported foods and amounts. The reporting-error-sensitive approach captures errors of reported foods and amounts. Objective To extend results to energy and macronutrients for a validation study concerning retention interval (elapsed time between to-be-reported meals and the interview) and accuracy for reporting school-meal intake, the conventional and reporting-error-sensitive approaches were compared. Design and participants/setting Fourth-grade children (n=374) were observed eating two school meals, and interviewed to obtain a 24-hour recall using one of six interview conditions from crossing two target periods (prior-24-hours; previous-day) with three interview times (morning; afternoon; evening). Data were collected in one district during three school years (2004–2005; 2005–2006; 2006–2007). Main outcome measures Report rates (reported/observed), correspondence rates (correctly reported/observed), and inflation ratios (intruded/observed) were calculated for energy and macronutrients. Statistical analyses performed For each outcome measure, mixed-model analysis of variance was conducted with target period, interview time, their interaction, and sex in the model; results were adjusted for school year and interviewer. Results Conventional approach — Report rates for energy and macronutrients did not differ by target period, interview time, their interaction, or sex. Reporting-error-sensitive approach — Correspondence rates for energy and macronutrients differed by target period (four P-values<0.0001) and the target-period by interview-time interaction (four P-values<0.0001); inflation ratios for energy and macronutrients differed by target period (four P

  3. Pad testing in incontinent women: a review.

    PubMed

    Ryhammer, A M; Djurhuus, J C; Laurberg, S

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on pad-weighing tests used for objectifying and quantifying incontinence in urinary incontinent women. The patients wear pads weighed before and after the test period. A weight gain is taken as a measure of the amount of urine loss. The tests are in principle of two different types: short-term office tests and long-term home tests, and measure different aspects of urinary control and dysfunction. Both have an inherent large intra- and interindividual variability. Pad weight gains obtained from patients referred for incontinence and those from self-reported continent controls overlap to a certain degree, and it is not possible to identify distinct numerical cut-off values separating continence from incontinence. This suggests that incontinence is a complex condition in which the amount of leakage, other sources of weight gain, and differences in the individual patients' personal characteristics influence the identification and quantification of the problem. In spite of the shortcomings the pad tests remain a valuable tool for both the clinician and the researcher. The home pad tests are superior to the office tests in terms of authenticity, and should be performed with a concomitant systematic registration of the participant's voidings, fluid intake and episodes of incontinence. PMID:10384973

  4. Control of bleeding by silk ligation and diathermy coagulation during tonsillectomy: A comparison of efficacy of the two techniques in the first 24 hours after surgery

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Khurshid; Ahmad, Rafiq; Khan, Muneeb

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the relative efficacy of silk ligation and diathermy coagulation techniques in controlling bleeding during tonsillectomy in the first 24 hours. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Department of ENT, Khalifa Gul Nawaz Teaching Hospital, Bannu and this department related consultants’ private clinics from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. The study included 180 cases. All patients included were having history of recurrent, acute tonsillitis, with more than 6–7 episodes in one year, five episodes per year for two years, or three episodes per year for three years. All the surgeries were performed by dissection method. Haemostasis during the procedure was secured by either ligation with silk 1 or using diathermy. The results were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 for windows. Results: A total of180 cases were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 5 to 40 years with the mean age of 15.56 years and a std.deviation of +/- 8.24. The male to female ratio was 1.25:1. The number of hemorrhages occurring was greater in the ‘diathermy coagulation’ group as compared to the ‘silk ligation’ group. However, the observed difference was statistically insignificant (p >.05). Conclusion: Primary haemorrhage occurring during tonsillectomy is a serious threat and control of bleeding during the procedure should therefore be meticulous. Both suture ligation and coagulation diathermy for control of bleeders during the procedure by dissection method are equally effective. PMID:26430438

  5. A Day in the Life of Millisecond Pulsar J1713+0747: Limits on Timing Precision Over 24 Hours and Implications for Gravitational Wave Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolch, Timothy; Bailes, M.; Bassa, C.; Bhat, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Champion, D.; Chatterjee, S.; Cognard, I.; Cordes, J. M.; Crowter, K.; Demorest, P.; Finn, L. S.; Fonseca, E.; Hessels, J.; Hobbs, G.; Janssen, G.; Jones, G.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Keith, M.; Kramer, M.; Kraus, A.; Lam, M. T.; Lazarus, P.; Lazio, J.; Lee, K.; Levin, L.; Liu, K.; Lorimer, D.; Manchester, R. N.; McLaughlin, M.; Palliyaguru, N.; Perrodin, D.; Petroff, E.; Rajwade, K.; Rankin, J. M.; Ransom, S. M.; Rosenblum, J.; Roy, J.; Shannon, R.; Stappers, B.; Stinebring, D.; Stovall, K.; Teixeira, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; van Straten, W.; Verbiest, J.; Zhu, W.

    2014-01-01

    A 24-hour global observation of millisecond radio pulsar J1713+0747 was undertaken by the International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA) collaboration as an effort to better quantify sources of noise in this object, which is regularly timed for the purpose of detecting gravitational waves (GWs). Given an 8-year timing RMS of 30ns, it is regarded as one of the best precision clocks in the PTA. However, sources of timing noise visible on timescales longer than the usual 20-30min biweekly observation may nonetheless be present. Data from the campaign were taken contiguously with the Parkes, Arecibo, Green Bank, GMRT, LOFAR, Effelsberg, WSRT, Lovell, and Nancay radio telescopes. The combined pulse times-of-arrival provide an estimate of the absolute noise floor, in other words, what unaccounted sources of timing noise impede an otherwise simple sqrt(N) improvement in timing precision, where N is the number of pulses in a single observing session. We present first results of specific phenomena probed on the unusual timescale of tens of hours, in particular interstellar scattering (ISS), and discuss the degree to which ISS affects precision timing. Finally, we examine single pulse information during selected portions of the observation and determine the degree to which the pulse jitter of J1713+0747 varies throughout the course of the day-long dataset.

  6. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Exploring the perceptions of stakeholders regarding their acceptability, barriers to uptake, and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Guy; White, Lauren; Riazi, Negin; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    Engaging stakeholders in the development of guidelines and plans for implementation is vital. The purpose of this study was to examine stakeholders' (parents, teachers, exercise professionals, paediatricians, and youth) perceptions of the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth ("Movement Guidelines"). Stakeholders (n = 104) engaged in semi-structured focus groups or interviews to discuss the perceived acceptability of the guidelines, potential barriers to implementation, and preferred methods and messengers of dissemination. A thematic analysis was conducted. Overall, there was consistent support across all stakeholder groups, with the exception of youth participants, for the Movement Guidelines. Stakeholders identified a range of barriers to the uptake of the guidelines including concerns with accurately defining key terms such as "recreational" screen time; everyday challenges such as financial and time constraints; and the possibility of the Movement Guidelines becoming just another source of stress and guilt for already busy and overwhelmed parents. Participants identified a range of recommended methods and messengers for future dissemination. School and medical settings were the most commonly recommended settings through which dissemination efforts should be delivered. Overall, participants representing a range of stakeholder groups were receptive to the new Movement Guidelines and endorsed their value. In complementing the Movement Guidelines, messaging and resources will need to be developed that address common concerns participants had regarding their dissemination and implementation. PMID:27306436

  7. Tele-ECG and 24-hour physician support over telephone for rural doctors can help early treatment of acute myocardial infarction in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Vivek, Chauhan; Vikrant, Kanwar

    2016-04-01

    We observed that many patients of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were reaching our hospital out of the 12 hour window period for thrombolysis. This led to poor patient outcomes. There were multiple reasons for the delay, prominent among them was lack of diagnostic facilities in the rural health care centers. We therefore planned a Tele-Electrocardiography (Tele-ECG) based pilot project in Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh in India, which was funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research. The intention was to reduce the pre-hospital delay in AMI by enabling the rural doctors of Kangra using Tele-ECG facility and a 24-hour physician support to manage patients of AMI. We did a baseline knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) assessment study of the doctors in our intervention centers to understand their needs. The data obtained through the KAP study was an eye opener for us and justifies the need for a Tele-ECG facility for rural doctors in India. PMID:26187625

  8. Intersalt: an international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results for 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion. Intersalt Cooperative Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The relations between 24 hour urinary electrolyte excretion and blood pressure were studied in 10,079 men and women aged 20-59 sampled from 52 centres around the world based on a highly standardised protocol with central training of observers, a central laboratory, and extensive quality control. Relations between electrolyte excretion and blood pressure were studied in individual subjects within each centre and the results of these regression analyses pooled for all 52 centres. Relations between population median electrolyte values and population blood pressure values were also analysed across the 52 centres. Sodium excretion ranged from 0.2 mmol/24 h (Yanomamo Indians, Brazil) to 242 mmol/24 h (north China). In individual subjects (within centres) it was significantly related to blood pressure. Four centres found very low sodium excretion, low blood pressure, and little or no upward slope of blood pressure with age. Across the other 48 centres sodium was significantly related to the slope of blood pressure with age but not to median blood pressure or prevalence of high blood pressure. Potassium excretion was negatively correlated with blood pressure in individual subjects after adjustment for confounding variables. Across centres there was no consistent association. The relation of sodium to potassium ratio to blood pressure followed a pattern similar to that of sodium. Body mass index and heavy alcohol intake had strong, significant independent relations with blood pressure in individual subjects. PMID:3416162

  9. Computer simulation of the effect of dDAVP with saline loading on fluid balance after 24-hour head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R. S.; Simanonok, K. E.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid loading (FL) before Shuttle reentry is a countermeasure currently in use by NASA to improve the orthostatic tolerance of astronauts during reentry and postflight. The fluid load consists of water and salt tablets equivalent to 32 oz (946 ml) of isotonic saline. However, the effectiveness of this countermeasure has been observed to decrease with the duration of spaceflight. The countermeasure's effectiveness may be improved by enhancing fluid retention using analogs of vasopressin such as lypressin (LVP) and desmopressin (dDAVP). In a computer simulation study reported previously, we attempted to assess the improvement in fluid retention obtained by the use of LVP administered before FL. The present study is concerned with the use of dDAVP. In a recent 24-hour, 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) study involving seven men, dDAVP was found to improve orthostatic tolerance as assessed by both lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and stand tests. The treatment restored Luft's cumulative stress index (cumulative product of magnitude and duration of LBNP) to nearly pre-bedrest level. The heart rate was lower and stroke volume was marginally higher at the same LBNP levels with administration of dDAVP compared to placebo. Lower heart rates were also observed with dDAVP during stand test, despite the lower level of cardiovascular stress. These improvements were seen with only a small but significant increase in plasma volume of approximately 3 percent. This paper presents a computer simulation analysis of some of the results of this HDT study.

  10. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2001-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon. similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale. are examined using two near term. "high leverage" technologies-liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass. or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow. has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat-essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller. more affordable. easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased

  11. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited--The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    1998-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, "high leverage" technologies--liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Ironrich volcanic glass, or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way, LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging front the engine's choked sonic throat--essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased

  12. 2001: A Space Odyssey Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2003-01-01

    The prospects for 24 hour commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, high leverage technologies: liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and lunar-derived oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass, or orange soil, discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4 percent oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an afterburner into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat, essentially scramjet propulsion in reverse. By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that big engine performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or in-line Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an expendable mode initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased payload is

  13. PAD_AUDIT -- PAD Auditing Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, C. A.

    The PAD (Packet Assembler Disassembler) utility is the part of the VAX/VMS Coloured Book Software (CBS) which allows a user to log onto remote computers from a local VAX. Unfortunately, logging into a computer via either the Packet SwitchStream (PSS) or the International Packet SwitchStream (IPSS) costs real money. Some users either do not appreciate this or do not care and have been known to clock up rather large quarterly bills. This software package allows a system manager to determine who has used PAD to call where and (most importantly) how much it has cost. The system manager can then take appropriate action - either charging the individuals, warning them to use the facility with more care or even denying access to a greedy user to one or more sites.

  14. External Beam Radiotherapy Plus 24-Hour Continuous Infusion of Gemcitabine in Unresectable Pancreatic Carcinoma: Long-Term Results of a Phase II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mattiucci, Gian C.; Morganti, Alessio G.; Valentini, Vincenzo; Ippolito, Edy; Alfieri, Sergio; Antinori, Armando; Crucitti, Antonio; D'Agostino, Giuseppe R.; Di Lullo, Liberato; Luzi, Stefano; Mantini, Giovanna; Smaniotto, Daniela; Doglietto, Gian B.; Cellini, Numa

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of gemcitabine-based chemoradiation (CT-RT) in treating patients (pts) affected by locally advanced pancreatic cancers (LAPC). Methods and Materials: Weekly gemcitabine (100 mg/m{sup 2}) was given as a 24-hour infusion during the course of three-dimensional radiotherapy (50.4 Gy to the tumor, 39.6 Gy to the nodes). After CT-RT, pts received five cycles of sequential chemotherapy with gemcitabine (1000 mg/m{sup 2}; 1, 8, q21). Response rate was assessed according to World Health Organization criteria 6 weeks after the end of CT-RT. Local control (LC), time to progression (TTP), metastases-free survival (MFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by the Kaplan Meier method. Results: Forty pts (male/female 22/18; median age 62 years, range, 36-76) were treated from 2000 to 2005. The majority had T4 tumour (n = 34, 85%), six pts (15%) had T3 tumour. Sixteen pts (40%) were node positive at diagnosis. Grade 3-4 acute toxicity was observed in 21 pts (52.5%). Thirty pts (75%) completed the treatment schedule. A clinical response was achieved in 12 pts (30%). With a median follow-up of 76 months (range, 32-98), 2-year LC was 39.6% (median, 12 months), 2-year TTP was 18.4% (median, 10 months), and 2-year MFS was 29.7% (median, 10 months). Two-year OS (25%; median, 15.5 months) compared with our previous study on 5-fluorouracil-based CT-RT (2.8%) was significantly improved (p <0.001). Conclusions: Gemcitabine CT-RT seems correlated with improved outcomes. Healthier patients who are likely to complete the treatment schedule may benefit most from this therapy.

  15. Pad 39B Deconstruction

    NASA Video Gallery

    A time-lapse video of the deconstruction of Launch Pad 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The fixed service structure and rotating service structure were removed. Both structures were b...

  16. Comparison of validity of food group intake by food frequency questionnaire between pre- and post- adjustment estimates derived from 2-day 24-hour recalls in combination with the probability of consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Woo; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Kim, Jeongseon

    2012-01-01

    Validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) utilising a short-term measurement method is challenging when the reference method does not accurately reflect the usual food intake. In addition, food group intake that is not consumed on daily basis is more critical when episodically consumed foods are related and compared. To overcome these challenges, several statistical approaches have been developed to determine usual food intake distributions. The Multiple Source Method (MSM) can calculate the usual food intake by combining the frequency questions of an FFQ with the short-term food intake amount data. In this study, we applied the MSM to estimate the usual food group intake and evaluate the validity of an FFQ with a group of 333 Korean children (aged 3-6 y) who completed two 24-hour recalls (24HR) and one FFQ in 2010. After adjusting the data using the MSM procedure, the true rate of non-consumption for all food groups was less than 1% except for the beans group. The median Spearman correlation coefficients against FFQ of the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and the MSM-adjusted data were 0.20 (range: 0.11 to 0.40) and 0.35 (range: 0.14 to 0.60), respectively. The weighted kappa values against FFQ ranged from 0.08 to 0.25 for the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and from 0.10 to 0.41 for the MSM-adjusted data. For most food groups, the MSM-adjusted data showed relatively stronger correlations against FFQ than raw 2-d 24HRs data, from 0.03 (beverages) to 0.34 (mushrooms). The results of this study indicated that the application of the MSM, which was a better estimate of the usual intake, could be worth considering in FFQ validation studies among Korean children. PMID:22938437

  17. Effects of ranitidine and cisapride on acid reflux and oesophageal motility in patients with reflux oesophagitis: a 24 hour ambulatory combined pH and manometry study.

    PubMed

    Inauen, W; Emde, C; Weber, B; Armstrong, D; Bettschen, H U; Huber, T; Scheurer, U; Blum, A L; Halter, F; Merki, H S

    1993-08-01

    The effect of ranitidine and cisapride on acid reflux and oesophageal motility was investigated in 18 patients with endoscopically verified erosive reflux oesophagitis. Each patient was treated with placebo, ranitidine (150 mg twice daily), and ranitidine (150 mg twice daily) plus cisapride (20 mg twice daily) in a double blind, double dummy, within subject, three way cross over design. Oesophageal acidity and motility were monitored under ambulatory conditions for 24 hours on the fourth day of treatment, after a wash out period of 10 days during which patients received only antacids for relief of symptoms. Acid reflux was monitored by a pH electrode located 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter. Intraoesophageal pressure was simultaneously recorded from four transducers placed 20, 15, 10, and 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter. Upright reflux was three times higher than supine reflux (median (range) 13.3 (3.7-35.0)% v 3.7 (0-37.6)% of the time with pH < 4.0, p < 0.01, n = 18). Compared with placebo, ranitidine decreased total reflux (from 10.0 (3.2-32.6)% to 6.4 (1.2-22.9)%, p < 0.01), upright reflux (p < 0.05), supine reflux (p < 0.001), and postprandial reflux (p < 0.01), but did not affect oesophageal motility. The combination of ranitidine with cisapride further diminished the acid reflux found with ranitidine--that is, cisapride led to an additional reduction of total reflux (from 6.4 (1.2-22.9)% to 3.7 (1.0-12.7)%, p < 0.01), supine reflux (p < 0.05), and postprandial reflux (p < 0.05). Cisapride also reduced both the number (p<0.01) and duration (p<0.05) of reflux episodes and significantly increased amplitude, duration, and propagation velocity of oesophageal contractions (p<0.05) but did not affect the number of contractions. The findings show that the 30% reduction of oesophageal acid exposure achieved by a conventional dose of ranitidine (150 mg twice daily) can be improved to more than 60% by combination with cisapride (20 mg twice daily

  18. Sex and age-related differences in performance in a 24-hour ultra-cycling draft-legal event – a cross-sectional data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the sex and age-related differences in performance in a draft-legal ultra-cycling event. Methods Age-related changes in performance across years were investigated in the 24-hour draft-legal cycling event held in Schötz, Switzerland, between 2000 and 2011 using multi-level regression analyses including age, repeated participation and environmental temperatures as co-variables. Results For all finishers, the age of peak cycling performance decreased significantly (β = −0.273, p = 0.036) from 38 ± 10 to 35 ± 6 years in females but remained unchanged (β = −0.035, p = 0.906) at 41.0 ± 10.3 years in males. For the annual fastest females and males, the age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged at 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years, respectively. For all female and male finishers, males improved significantly (β = 7.010, p = 0.006) the cycling distance from 497.8 ± 219.6 km to 546.7 ± 205.0 km whereas females (β = −0.085, p = 0.987) showed an unchanged performance of 593.7 ± 132.3 km. The mean cycling distance achieved by the male winners of 960.5 ± 51.9 km was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the distance covered by the female winners with 769.7 ± 65.7 km but was not different between the sexes (p > 0.05). The sex difference in performance for the annual winners of 19.7 ± 7.8% remained unchanged across years (p > 0.05). The achieved cycling distance decreased in a curvilinear manner with advancing age. There was a significant age effect (F = 28.4, p < 0.0001) for cycling performance where the fastest cyclists were in age group 35–39 years. Conclusion In this 24-h cycling draft-legal event, performance in females remained unchanged while their age of peak cycling performance decreased and performance in males improved while their age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged. The annual fastest females and males were 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years old, respectively. The sex

  19. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes and medication . View an animation of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis and PAD Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up ... of an artery. PAD is usually caused by atherosclerosis in the peripheral arteries (or outer regions away ...

  20. Treating P.A.D.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Treating P.A.D. Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of ... is diminished. Illustration courtesy of NHLBI Treatment for P.A.D. is designed to reduce a patient's ...

  1. Treating P.A.D.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Treating P.A.D. Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... Illustration courtesy of NHLBI Treatment for P.A.D. is designed to reduce a patient's symptoms, prevent ...

  2. D-Tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, increases hydrogen production in humans without affecting 24-hour energy expenditure or respiratory exchange ratio.

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Toubro, S; Astrup, A

    1998-09-01

    In growth studies on rats, the ketohexose D-tagatose has been shown to contribute no net metabolizable energy, and a pronounced thermic effect of the sugar has been suggested to account for the absence of energy. In a double-blind and balanced cross-over design, we measured 24-h energy expenditure in eight normal weight humans in a respiration chamber during the consumption of 30 g D-tagatose or 30 g sucrose/d. Metabolic measurements were performed before and after a 2-wk adaptation period with a 30-g daily intake of the test sugar. Total 24-h energy expenditure and hour-by-hour profile were unaffected by the test sugar. The nonprotein respiratory exchange ratio (RERnp) was similar during consumption of D-tagatose and sucrose. However, the effect on RERnp due to CO2 produced by fermentation of D-tagatose could not be quantified in this study. A significant increase in 24-h H2 production (35%) during D-tagatose administration suggests a substantial malabsorption of the sugar. We found no effects of the 2-wk adaptation period on the measured gas exchange variables. Significantly lower fasting plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations were observed during D-tagatose administration compared with the sucrose period. No effects of D-tagatose on body weight and composition were seen, but the perception of fullness 2.5 h after the sugar load was greater with D-tagatose. In conclusion, this study does not suggest a pronounced thermic effect of D-tagatose, and other mechanisms seem to be required to explain its lack of net energy. PMID:9732308

  3. Relationships Between Blood Pressure and 24-Hour Urinary Excretion of Sodium and Potassium by Body Mass Index Status in Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liuxia; Bi, Zhenqiang; Tang, Junli; Wang, Linhong; Yang, Quanhe; Guo, Xiaolei; Cogswell, Mary E; Zhang, Xiaofei; Hong, Yuling; Engelgau, Michael; Zhang, Jiyu; Elliott, Paul; Angell, Sonia Y; Ma, Jixiang

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the impact of overweight/obesity on sodium, potassium, and blood pressure associations using the Shandong-Ministry of Health Action on Salt Reduction and Hypertension (SMASH) project baseline survey data. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in 1948 Chinese adults aged 18 to 69 years. The observed associations of sodium, potassium, sodium-potassium ratio, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were stronger in the overweight/obese population than among those of normal weight. Among overweight/obese respondents, each additional standard deviation (SD) higher of urinary sodium excretion (SD=85 mmol) and potassium excretion (SD=19 mmol) was associated with a 1.31 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.37-2.26) and -1.43 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -2.23 to -0.63) difference in SBP, and each higher unit in sodium-potassium ratio was associated with a 0.54 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.75) increase in SBP. The association between sodium, potassium, sodium-potassium ratio, and prevalence of hypertension among overweight/obese patients was similar to that of SBP. Our study indicated that the relationships between BP and both urinary sodium and potassium might be modified by BMI status in Chinese adults. PMID:26332433

  4. Inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-alpha reduces myocyte apoptosis and leukocyte transmigration in aged rat hearts following 24 hours of reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peitan; Xu, Baohuan; Cavalieri, Thomas A; Hock, Carl E

    2008-11-01

    Ischemic heart disease is a common age-related disease. Apoptotic cell death and inflammation are the major contributors to I/R injury. The mechanisms that trigger myocyte apoptosis and inflammation during myocardial I/R (MI/R) remain to be elucidated. Published data from our laboratory demonstrated that pretreatment of MI/R rats with pifithrin-alpha (PFT), a specific p53 inhibitor, reduced myocyte apoptosis and improved cardiac function compared with MI/R rats pretreated with saline at 4 h of reperfusion. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PFT on the occurrence of myocyte apoptosis and leukocyte transmigration in the later period of reperfusion. Aged (20-month-old) male F344 rats were subjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemia via ligature of the LCA, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Pifithrin-alpha (2.2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline was administered to rats before ischemia. The results indicate that pretreatment of MI/R rats with PFT significantly decreased the percentage of infarct area to ischemic area (33 +/- 8 vs. 54 +/- 9, P < 0.05) and improved cardiac output (79 +/- 11 vs. 38 +/- 9 mL/min per 100 g body weight, P < 0.05) when compared with rats pretreated with saline at 24 h of reperfusion. The protective effects of PFT may involve the p53/Bax-mediated apoptosis because treatment of MI/R rats with PFT attenuated the ratio of Bax to Bcl2 (0.97 +/- 0.1 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.2, P < 0.05) and reduced myocyte apoptosis. Interestingly, inhibition of p53 transcriptional function by PFT alleviated leukocyte infiltration into the ischemic area of the heart (339 +/- 37 vs. 498 +/- 75 cells/10 high-power fields, P < 0.05). These data suggest that inhibition of p53 transcriptional function by PFT attenuates myocyte apoptosis and alleviates leukocyte transmigration at 24 h of reperfusion. The mechanisms by which p53 modulates leukocyte transmigration require further investigation. PMID:18317410

  5. Improved Helmet-Padding Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S.; Weiss, Fred R.; Eck, John D.

    1994-01-01

    Polyimide foamed into lightweight padding material for use in helmets. Exhibits increased resistance to ignition, combustion, and impact, and it outgasses less. Foam satisfies offgassing and toxicity requirements of NASA/JSC criteria (NHB80601B). Helmets containing this improved padding material used by firefighters, police, offshore drilling technicians, construction workers, miners, and race-car drivers.

  6. Investigation of cattle methane production and emission over a 24-hour period using measurements of δ13C and δD of emitted CH4 and rumen water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, R. S.; Tyler, S. C.; Kurihara, M.; Yagi, K.

    2001-07-01

    We have conducted a series of experiments to determine the effects different diets, including the addition of unsaturated fatty acids, had on isotopic signatures of CH4 emissions from dairy cattle. Measurements of emitted δ13CH4, δ13CO2, and δD-CH4 were made on gases collected over a 24-hour period from animal chambers containing individual Holstein cows. Some measurements of δD-H2O from samples collected directly from the rumen were also made. We observed variation in δ13CH4 values with time after feeding and a correlation in δ13C between emitted gases and diet. The average δ13CH4 value, which includes all samples of emitted gases, was -70.6±4.9‰ (n = 57). Measurements of δD-CH4 over the 24-hour sampling period had an average value of -357.8±15.0‰ (n = 56). These δD measurements are among the lightest reported for CH4 produced by cattle. Our cattle data indicate that hydrogen incorporated into the CH4 produced by CO2 reduction in high H2 concentration environments is fractionated to a greater degree than that incorporated in systems with relatively low H2 conditions, such as wetlands. Our results support bacterial studies that have demonstrated large hydrogen fractionation in high H2 concentration systems during methanogenesis.

  7. Free tissue transfer of digital food pads for reconstruction of the distal limb in the dog.

    PubMed

    Basher, A W; Fowler, J D; Bowen, C V

    1991-01-01

    Reconstructive procedures used in salvaging distal limb injuries in the dog are reviewed. Techniques employed to resurface the distal weight-bearing surface include local reconstruction using pedicle flap transposition of foot pads. The development of a previously described free microneurovascular digital foot pad flap is reviewed; the experimental results and potential for clinical use of the free flap are discussed. PMID:1672726

  8. Dual-Mode Adhesive Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartz, Leslie

    1994-01-01

    Tool helps worker grip and move along large, smooth structure with no handgrips or footholds. Adheres to surface but easily released by actuating simple mechanism. Includes handle and segmented contact-adhesive pad. Bulk of pad made of soft plastic foam conforming to surface of structure. Each segment reinforced with rib. In sticking mode, ribs braced by side catches. In peeling mode, side catches retracted, and segmented adhesive pad loses its stiffness. Modified versions useful in inspecting hulls of ships and scaling walls in rescue operations.

  9. 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ... by: Brent Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University ...

  10. Toys Remain Viral Playground for 24 Hours

    MedlinePlus

    ... a toy's surface at typical indoor temperatures and humidity levels. Specifically, they tested the ability of so- ... East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). At 60 percent relative humidity, 1 percent of the virus remained infectious on ...

  11. Air-cushion lift pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaise, H. T.; Dane, D. H.

    1969-01-01

    Mathematical model is formulated for an air pad which is capable of lifting a structure to a height of 0.125 inch. Design is superior to conventional air cushion devices because it eliminates flutter, vibration, heaving, and pitching.

  12. Teaching with iPads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maj, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    Bilingual students in high school with bilingual units in Boguchwała have received iPads for learning English and a few subjects using CLIL (biology, basics of entrepreneurship, geography, IT and mathematics). Lessons with iPads are interesting for students for several reasons. First of all, teenagers like new technologies and using iPads for teaching helps students to learn by fun. Secondly, iPads give new possibilities of looking for knowledge about each theme. Moreover, teaching with iPads develops students' engagement. They have a chance to choose a few among over 65 000 applications for gathering and then presenting information about the lesson topic. They can easily prepare presentations, movies, cartoons, mind maps or whatever they like. Teaching students, thanks to the iPads, makes it their initiative, and the teacher can inspire them to look for the knowledge rather than disciplining pupils. But teaching with iPads is connected with many problems. For instance, there are not any examples on how to teach using these tools. It is very up-to-date technology and teachers firstly must learn the possibilities of iPads and look for new applications. It takes much time, especially at the beginning, and is difficult especially for inexperienced teachers. In addition, it is almost impossible to maintain control of the iPads for all of the students during the lesson. They can use their iPads for something unconnected with the topic of the lesson. Thirdly is lack of time - active methods (with iPads as well) are more time-consuming and it could be that they do not finish the whole program. And of course the last, but not at least, is the problem of money. Some of the applications must be paid for, and it is usually obligatory to possess a credit card. Fortunately, it is not expensive - applications usually cost a few euros and many of them are free and really good.

  13. Novel description of the 24-hour circadian rhythms of brachial versus central aortic blood pressure and the impact of blood pressure treatment in a randomized controlled clinical trial: The Ambulatory Central Aortic Pressure (AmCAP) Study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bryan; Lacy, Peter S; Baschiera, Fabio; Brunel, Patrick; Düsing, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    Elevated brachial blood pressure (BP) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and predicts morbidity and mortality in humans. Recently, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and assessment of central aortic BP have been introduced to improve BP phenotyping. The Ambulatory Central Aortic Pressure (AmCAP) study combines these approaches and describes, for the first time, the diurnal patterns of simultaneously measured 24-hour ambulatory brachial and central pressures in a prespecified substudy embedded within a clinical trial of BP lowering in patients with hypertension. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory brachial and central pressure measurements were acquired using a tonometer mounted into the articulating strap of a wristwatch-like device (BPro) in 171 participants with hypertension recruited into the ASSERTIVE (AliSkiren Study of profound antihypERtensive efficacy in hyperTensIVE patients) trial. Participants were randomly assigned to BP lowering with either aliskiren 300 mg QD or telmisartan 80 mg QD for 12 weeks. Ambulatory brachial and central BP was measured in all participants both at baseline and at study end. Brachial and central BP both demonstrated typical diurnal patterns with lower pressures at night. However, night time was associated with smaller reductions in central relative to brachial pressure and decreased pulse pressure amplification (P<0.0001 for both). These effects were not modulated after BP lowering and were maintained after adjustment for day and night-time BP and heart rate (P=0.02). This study demonstrates that brachial and central pressure show different diurnal patterns, which are not modulated by BP-lowering therapy, with relatively higher night-time central pressures. These novel data indicate that night-time central BP may provide prognostic importance and warrants further investigation. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00865020. PMID:23630950

  14. Extreme positive allometry of animal adhesive pads and the size limits of adhesion-based climbing.

    PubMed

    Labonte, David; Clemente, Christofer J; Dittrich, Alex; Kuo, Chi-Yun; Crosby, Alfred J; Irschick, Duncan J; Federle, Walter

    2016-02-01

    Organismal functions are size-dependent whenever body surfaces supply body volumes. Larger organisms can develop strongly folded internal surfaces for enhanced diffusion, but in many cases areas cannot be folded so that their enlargement is constrained by anatomy, presenting a problem for larger animals. Here, we study the allometry of adhesive pad area in 225 climbing animal species, covering more than seven orders of magnitude in weight. Across all taxa, adhesive pad area showed extreme positive allometry and scaled with weight, implying a 200-fold increase of relative pad area from mites to geckos. However, allometric scaling coefficients for pad area systematically decreased with taxonomic level and were close to isometry when evolutionary history was accounted for, indicating that the substantial anatomical changes required to achieve this increase in relative pad area are limited by phylogenetic constraints. Using a comparative phylogenetic approach, we found that the departure from isometry is almost exclusively caused by large differences in size-corrected pad area between arthropods and vertebrates. To mitigate the expected decrease of weight-specific adhesion within closely related taxa where pad area scaled close to isometry, data for several taxa suggest that the pads' adhesive strength increased for larger animals. The combination of adjustments in relative pad area for distantly related taxa and changes in adhesive strength for closely related groups helps explain how climbing with adhesive pads has evolved in animals varying over seven orders of magnitude in body weight. Our results illustrate the size limits of adhesion-based climbing, with profound implications for large-scale bio-inspired adhesives. PMID:26787862

  15. The Relationship of the Increase in the 'Time of the Earth Day,' from 18 Hours to 24 Hours, to the Increase in the Size of the Earth, Using the Laws of the Conservation of Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimorelli, S. A.; Samuels, C.

    2010-12-01

    There are three articles, by others, which discuss the increase in the Earth's day, from 18 hours to 24 hours, over a period of time of about a billion years. One article refers to Striations in the Substructure of Coral, C.T. Scrutton, et al, 1965. Another article refers to the Laws of the Conservation of Momentum, as related to the relationship of the Earth and the Moon, the lunar tides, the reduction of the Earth year from 481 days to our present 365.25 days, and an increase in the lunar orbit time from 20 days to 28 days. The third article is based on the dates of tidal sediment deposits, tidalites, C. P. Sonett, et al, in the late 1980's. In this paper, we explain how the Earth's Day could have increased from 18 hours to 24 hours, as related to the Laws of Conservation of Momentum (L). Wherein we use the simple formulation from the Law of the Conservation of Angular Momentum, L=Iω, in which I=Moment of Inertia and ω=Angular Velocity; for which we assume the earth to be a perfect sphere, for which I=0.4MR2, where M and R are the Mass and radius of the earth, respectively. We evaluate the radius of the earth over a time period of several billion years, during which time the earth's angular momentum, L=Iω, is conserved. In this formulation, we show a growth in the size of the earth; and present a curve, using just three points in time, which indicates that the rate of growth is increasing over time. The first point is from about 4.5 billion years ago, the second point is from about 1 billion years ago, and the third point represents present day, with an average growth of about 1mm per year. Although evidence has been presented, by others, showing circumferential growth at the Red Sea and in the Atlantic Ocean, at about 1.5cm per year, total. However, no proof of reduction in the size of the Earth has been shown to occur in the Pacific, or anywhere else, including in references to subduction. Some might say that the subduction is occurring at the rim of the

  16. Studies of Vehicular Padding Materials

    PubMed Central

    Sances, Anthony; Carlin, Fred H.; Herbst, Brian; Forrest, Steve; Meyer, Steve; Khadilkar, Anil; Friedman, Keith; Bish, Jack

    2000-01-01

    The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 571.201 discusses occupant protection with interior impacts of vehicles. Rule making by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has identified padding for potential injury reduction in vehicles. In these studies, head injury mitigation with padding on vehicular roll bars and brush bars was evaluated. Studies were conducted with free falling Hybrid 50% male head form drops on the fore head and side of the head and a 5% female head. Marked reductions in angular acceleration, as well as Head Injury Criterions (HIC), were observed when compared to unpadded roll bars and brush bars. PMID:11558079

  17. STS-32 Columbia, OV-102, liftoff from KSC LC Pad 39A is reflected in waterway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-32 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, atop the external tank (ET) and flanked by two solid rocket boosters (SRBs) begins its ascent from the mobile launcher platform at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A. Plumes of smoke billow from the SRBs and fill the surrounding area in a cloud. The glow of the SRB firings light up the fixed service structure (FSS) and the retracted rotating service structure (RSS). The 7:34:59:98 am Eastern Standard Time (EST) liftoff is reflected in a nearby waterway. A scheduled launch some 24 hours earlier had been cancelled because of dubious weather at the return-to-landing site (RTLS). OV-102's launch is highlighted against the early morning darkness.

  18. Effective cross-over to granisetron after failure to ondansetron, a randomized double blind study in patients failing ondansetron plus dexamethasone during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, R; de Boer, A C; vd Linden, G H M; Stoter, G; Sparreboom, A; Verweij, J

    2001-01-01

    In view of the similarity in chemical structure of the available 5HT3-receptor antagonists it is assumed, whilst these agents all act at the same receptor, that failure to one agent would predict subsequent failure to all 5HT3-receptor antagonists. We conducted a randomized double blind trial of granisetron 3 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg versus continued treatment with ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg in patients with protection failure on ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Of 40 eligible patients, 21 received ondansetron + dexamethasone and 19 received granisetron + dexamethasone. We found a significant benefit from crossing-over to granisetron after failure on ondansetron. Of the 19 patients who crossed over to granisetron, 9 patients obtained complete protection, whereas this was observed in 1 of the 21 patients continuing ondansetron, P = 0.005. These results indicate that there is no complete cross-resistance between 5HT3-receptor antagonists, and that patients who have acute protection failure on one 5HT3-receptor antagonist should be offered cross-over to another 5HT3-receptor antagonist. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11710819

  19. Extreme positive allometry of animal adhesive pads and the size limits of adhesion-based climbing

    PubMed Central

    Labonte, David; Clemente, Christofer J.; Dittrich, Alex; Kuo, Chi-Yun; Crosby, Alfred J.; Irschick, Duncan J.; Federle, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Organismal functions are size-dependent whenever body surfaces supply body volumes. Larger organisms can develop strongly folded internal surfaces for enhanced diffusion, but in many cases areas cannot be folded so that their enlargement is constrained by anatomy, presenting a problem for larger animals. Here, we study the allometry of adhesive pad area in 225 climbing animal species, covering more than seven orders of magnitude in weight. Across all taxa, adhesive pad area showed extreme positive allometry and scaled with weight, implying a 200-fold increase of relative pad area from mites to geckos. However, allometric scaling coefficients for pad area systematically decreased with taxonomic level and were close to isometry when evolutionary history was accounted for, indicating that the substantial anatomical changes required to achieve this increase in relative pad area are limited by phylogenetic constraints. Using a comparative phylogenetic approach, we found that the departure from isometry is almost exclusively caused by large differences in size-corrected pad area between arthropods and vertebrates. To mitigate the expected decrease of weight-specific adhesion within closely related taxa where pad area scaled close to isometry, data for several taxa suggest that the pads’ adhesive strength increased for larger animals. The combination of adjustments in relative pad area for distantly related taxa and changes in adhesive strength for closely related groups helps explain how climbing with adhesive pads has evolved in animals varying over seven orders of magnitude in body weight. Our results illustrate the size limits of adhesion-based climbing, with profound implications for large-scale bio-inspired adhesives. PMID:26787862

  20. Hump behind the shoulders (Dorsocervical fat pad)

    MedlinePlus

    Buffalo hump; Dorsocervical fat pad ... Cause of dorsocervical fat pad includes any of the following: Certain medicines used to treat HIV or AIDS Long-term use of certain glucocorticoid medicines, ...

  1. Your P.A.D. Checklist

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Peripheral Artery Disease Your P.A.D. Checklist Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... your risk of peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.). That can start by making sure you “know ...

  2. Your P.A.D. Checklist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Your P.A.D. Checklist Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table ... and reduce your risk of peripheral arterial disease (P.A.D.). That can start by making sure ...

  3. Your P.A.D. Checklist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Your P.A.D. Checklist Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents ... your risk of peripheral arterial disease (P.A.D.). That can start by making sure you "know ...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is... use as a bandage over the eye for protection or absorption of secretions. (b) Classification. Class...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad is... use as a bandage over the eye for protection or absorption of secretions. (b) Classification. Class...

  6. Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.)

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Peripheral Artery Disease (P.A.D.) What is P.A.D.? Arteries Clogged With Plaque Peripheral arterial disease (P. ... button on your keyboard.) Why Is P.A.D. Dangerous? Click for more information Blocked blood flow ...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4440 - Eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eye pad. 878.4440 Section 878.4440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4440 Eye pad. (a) Identification. An eye pad...

  10. STS-120 on Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A photographer used a fisheye lens attached to an electronic still camera to record a series of photos of the Space Shuttle Discovery at the launch pad while the STS-120 crew was at Kennedy Space Center for the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test in October 2007. The STS-120 mission launched from Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A at 11:38:19 a.m. (EDT) on October 23, 2007. The crew included Scott E. Parazynski, Douglas H. Wheelock, Stephanie D. Wilson, all mission specialists; George D. Zamka, pilot; Pamela A. Melroy, commander; Daniel M. Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer; and Paolo A. Nespoli, mission specialist representing the European Space Agency (ESA). Major objectives included the installation of the P6 solar array of the port truss and delivery and installment of Harmony, the Italian-built U.S. Node 2 on the International Space Station (ISS).

  11. Launch Pad in a Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Tamasy, G. J.; Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Sampson, J. W.; Lane, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a new deployable launch system capability to support a small class of launch vehicles for NASA and commercial space companies to test and launch their vehicles. The deployable launch pad concept was first demonstrated on a smaller scale at KSC in 2012 in support of NASA Johnson Space Center's Morpheus Lander Project. The main objective of the Morpheus Project was to test a prototype planetary lander as a vertical takeoff and landing test-bed for advanced spacecraft technologies using a hazard field that KSC had constructed at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). A steel pad for launch or landing was constructed using a modular design that allowed it to be reconfigurable and expandable. A steel flame trench was designed as an optional module that could be easily inserted in place of any modular steel plate component. The concept of a transportable modular launch and landing pad may also be applicable to planetary surfaces where the effects of rocket exhaust plume on surface regolith is problematic for hardware on the surface that may either be damaged by direct impact of high speed dust particles, or impaired by the accumulation of dust (e.g., solar array panels and thermal radiators). During the Morpheus free flight campaign in 2013-14, KSC performed two studies related to rocket plume effects. One study compared four different thermal ablatives that were applied to the interior of a steel flame trench that KSC had designed and built. The second study monitored the erosion of a concrete landing pad following each landing of the Morpheus vehicle on the same pad located in the hazard field. All surfaces of a portable flame trench that could be directly exposed to hot gas during launch of the Morpheus vehicle were coated with four types of ablatives. All ablative products had been tested by NASA KSC and/or the manufacturer. The ablative thicknesses were measured periodically following the twelve Morpheus free flight tests

  12. Activation of PAD4 in NET formation.

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Amanda S; Slade, Daniel J; Thompson, Paul R; Mowen, Kerri A

    2012-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis. PMID:23264775

  13. The otolaryngologic manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): a clinical investigation of 225 patients using ambulatory 24-hour pH monitoring and an experimental investigation of the role of acid and pepsin in the development of laryngeal injury.

    PubMed

    Koufman, J A

    1991-04-01

    Occult (silent) gastroesophageal reflux disease (GER, GERD) is believed to be an important etiologic factor in the development of many inflammatory and neoplastic disorders of the upper aerodigestive tract. In order ot test this hypothesis, a human study and an animal study were performed. The human study consisted primarily of applying a new diagnostic technique (double-probe pH monitoring) to a population of otolaryngology patients with GERD to determine the incidence of overt and occult GERD. The animal study consisted of experiments to evaluate the potential damaging effects of intermittent GER on the larynx. Two hundred twenty-five consecutive patients with otolaryngologic disorders having suspected GERD evaluated from 1985 through 1988 are reported. Ambulatory 24-hour intraesophageal pH monitoring was performed in 197; of those, 81% underwent double-probe pH monitoring, with the second pH probe being placed in the hypopharynx at the laryngeal inlet. Seventy percent of the patients also underwent barium esophagography with videofluoroscopy. The patient population was divided into seven diagnostic subgroups: carcinoma of the larynx (n = 31), laryngeal and tracheal stenosis (n = 33), reflux laryngitis (n = 61), globus pharyngeus (n = 27), dysphagia (n = 25), chronic cough (n = 30), and a group with miscellaneous disorders (n = 18). The most common symptoms were hoarseness (71%), cough (51%), globus (47%), and throat clearing (42%). Only 43% of the patients had gastrointestinal symptoms (heartburn or acid regurgitation). Thus, by traditional symptomatology, GER was occult or silent in the majority of the study population. Twenty-eight patients (12%) refused or could not tolerate pH monitoring. Of the patients undergoing diagnostic pH monitoring, 62% had abnormal esophageal pH studies, and 30% demonstrated reflux into the pharynx. The results of diagnostic pH monitoring for each of the subgroups were as follows (percentage with abnormal studies): carcinoma (71

  14. Design, Development and Test Challenges: Separation Mechanisms for the Orion Pad Abort-1 Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinsel, Alison; Morrey, Jeremy M.; OMalley, Patrick; Park, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    On May 6, 2010, NASA launched the first successful integrated flight test, Pad Abort-1, of the Orion Project from the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, New Mexico. This test demonstrated the ability to perform an emergency pad abort of a full-scale 4.8 m diameter, 8200 kg crew capsule. During development of the critical separation mechanisms for this flight test, various challenges were overcome related to environments definition, installation complications, separation joint retraction speed, thruster ordnance development issues, load path validation and significant design loads increases. The Launch Abort System retention and release (LAS R&R) mechanism consisted of 6 discrete structural connections between the LAS and the crew module (CM) simulator, each of which had a preloaded tension tie, Superbolt torque-nut and frangible nut. During the flight test, the frangible nuts were pyrotechnically split, permitting the CM to separate from the LAS. The LAS separation event was the driving case in the shock environment for many co-located hardware items. During development testing, it was necessary to measure the source shock during the separation event so the predicted shock environment could be validated and used for certification testing of multiple hardware items. The Lockheed Martin test team measured the source separation shock due to the LAS R&R function, which dramatically decreased the predicted environment by 90% at 100 Hz. During development testing a hydraulic tensioner was used to preload the joint; however, the joint relaxation with the tensioner proved unsatisfactory so the design was modified to include a Superbolt torque-nut. The observed preload creep during lab testing was 4% after 30 days, with 2.5% occurring in the first 24 hours. The conversion of strain energy (preload) to kinetic energy (retraction) was measured to be 50-75%. Design features and careful monitoring of multiple strain gauges on each tension tie allowed a pure tensile load

  15. PAD in women: the ischemic continuum.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Amy West

    2015-06-01

    Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is part of the ischemic continuum of atherosclerotic vascular disease and is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death. Compared to men, women with PAD are more likely to have asymptomatic disease or atypical symptoms. PAD in women is associated with decreased exercise capacity, reduced quality of life, increased risk of depression, as well as a greater risk of acute cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality than male counterparts. Ensuring an appropriate diagnosis of women with PAD offers an opportunity to begin risk factor modification therapy, improve walking capacity and make a timely referral for revascularization if needed. It is critical to highlight the sex-based disparities in lower extremity PAD so that we may work to improve outcomes for women with PAD. PMID:25939674

  16. Cantilever mounted resilient pad gas bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A gas-lubricated bearing is described, employing at least one pad mounted on a rectangular cantilever beam to produce a lubricating wedge between the face of the pad and a moving surface. The load-carrying and stiffness characteristics of the pad are related to the dimensions and modulus of elasticity of the beam. The bearing is applicable to a wide variety of types of hydrodynamic bearings.

  17. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region. PMID:26041209

  18. Effects of sleep restriction on glucose control and insulin secretion during diet-induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Nedeltcheva, A. V.; Imperial, J. G.; Penev, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with changes in glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and insulin action. Despite widespread use of weight-loss diets for metabolic risk reduction, the effects of insufficient sleep on glucose regulation in overweight dieters are not known. To examine the consequences of recurrent sleep restriction on 24-hour blood glucose control during diet-induced weight loss, 10 overweight and obese adults (3F/7M; mean [SD] age 41 [5] y; BMI 27.4 [2.0] kg/m2) completed two 14-day treatments with hypocaloric diet and 8.5 or 5.5-h nighttime sleep opportunity in random order 7 [3] months apart. Oral and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) data, fasting lipids and free-fatty acids (FFA), and 24-hour blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and counter-regulatory hormone measurements were collected after each treatment. Participants had comparable weight loss (1.0 [0.3] BMI units) during each treatment. Bedtime restriction reduced sleep by 131 [30] min/day. Recurrent sleep curtailment decreased 24-hour serum insulin concentrations (i.e. enhanced 24-hour insulin economy) without changes in oral glucose tolerance and 24-hour glucose control. This was accompanied by a decline in fasting blood glucose, increased fasting FFA which suppressed normally following glucose ingestion, and lower total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. Sleep-loss-related changes in counter-regulatory hormone secretion during the IVGTT limited the utility of the test in this study. In conclusion, sleep restriction enhanced 24-hour insulin economy without compromising glucose homeostasis in overweight individuals placed on a balanced hypocaloric diet. The changes in fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid and FFA concentrations in sleep-restricted dieters resembled the pattern of human metabolic adaptation to reduced carbohydrate availability. PMID:22513492

  19. Stretchable touch-sensing skin over padding for co-robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Yu, Miao; Bruck, Hugh A.; Smela, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    For robots that work collaboratively with people, often referred to as ‘co-robots’, it would be beneficial for them to be soft or padded and to have a touch-sensing ‘skin’ to enable tactile environmental awareness. However, a sensing skin over a padding material that undergoes large deformations requires ‘stretchable’ materials, which may possess time-dependent or viscoelastic mechanical responses. In this work the roles that a padding layer plays when placed under a stretchable sensing layer was investigated. A strain-sensing skin was formed by coating a thin film of compliant piezoresistive sensing paint, consisting of exfoliated graphite in latex, onto a rubber membrane, and the response of the skin was characterized. The change in resistance was linear with tensile strain. The role of the padding material was then investigated under indentation by examining three foams and two elastomers. As expected, the padding enhanced energy dissipation as shown by hysteresis in the sensor response, which is linked to its protective function; the hysteresis was comparable for the five padding materials. The padding also provided an unexpected advantage: it magnified the change in resistance compared to that obtained under free displacement in air. While hysteresis in viscoelastic materials can largely be handled with an appropriate model, inconsistency cannot be, and the two elastomers were found to have unacceptably high variability because of micro-cracks and other defects in these materials. On the other hand, foams that had few defects and regular cell sizes gave good consistency across trials and different sensor positions over the padding. Combined with their lighter weight and availability in a wide range of stiffness, we conclude that foams make a better choice for padding of co-robots.

  20. Learning Chinese Idioms through iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chunsheng; Xie, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an action research study using iPads during the teaching of Chinese idioms to heritage learners. A class of 12 second-year Chinese learners were engaged in a self-generated learning process focused on learning abstract and concrete idioms using iPads. Students' short-term and long-term learning was measured; feedback…

  1. STS-135 Launch Pad Lightning Strike

    NASA Video Gallery

    A pair of lightning strikes occurred near launch pad 39-A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center at 12:31 p.m. and 12:40 p.m. EDT on July 7. The first struck the water tower 515 feet from the pad and the s...

  2. Taking the iPad's Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    Soon after the iPad's release in 2010, several universities decided to issue the devices to all incoming freshmen. At the time, critics scoffed at the moves as little more than marketing gimmicks designed to attract students. In truth, few of the schools required instructors to design curriculum around the iPad or had specific plans to measure…

  3. First Graders with iPads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getting, Sara; Swainey, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Giving iPads to first graders is a leap of faith that many teachers are understandably hesitant to take, especially if their students need immediate reading intervention and school leaders want guaranteed results. This article discusses how the authors took on the challenge of improving elementary reading using iPads, found surprising success for…

  4. Using iPads to Your Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakrzewski, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, middle school mathematics teacher Jennifer Zakrzewski describes how she successfully incorporated iPads and Apple TV (for projection of iPad screens) into her classroom while having her students solve a problem about mangoes. As Zakrzewski began a unit on multiplying and dividing fractions, she chose to start with the Mangoes…

  5. Redstone Missile on Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Redstone missile No. 1002 on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral, Florida, on May 16, 1958. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the 'reliable workhorse' for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  6. Lateral pharyngeal fat pad pressure during breathing.

    PubMed

    Winter, W C; Gampper, T; Gay, S B; Suratt, P M

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether pressure in tissue lateral to the upper airway, the lateral pharyngeal fat pad, differs from atmospheric and pharyngeal pressure and whether it changes with breathing. We studied five male pigs by inserting a transducer-tipped catheter into their fat pad space using computed tomography (CT) scan guidance. We measured airflow with a pneumotachograph attached to a face mask and pharyngeal pressure with a balloon catheter. Fat pad pressure correlated positively with airflow and with pharyngeal pressure, decreasing during inspiration and increasing during expiration. Pressure in the fat pad differed from atmospheric pressure, generally exceeding it, and from pharyngeal pressure. We conclude that lateral pharyngeal fat pad pressure differs from atmospheric and pharyngeal pressure and that it changes with breathing. PMID:9085504

  7. Biological microtribology: anisotropy in frictional forces of orthopteran attachment pads reflects the ultrastructure of a highly deformable material.

    PubMed Central

    Gorb, S; Scherge, M

    2000-01-01

    Evolutionarily optimized frictional devices of insects are usually adapted to attach to a variety of natural surfaces. Orthopteran attachment pads are composed of hexagonal outgrowths with smooth flexible surfaces. The pads are designed to balance the weight of the insect in different positions and on different materials. In a scanning electron microscopy study followed by freezing-substitution experiments, the ultrastructural architecture of the pad material was visualized. In friction experiments, the interaction was measured between the attachment pad and a polished silicon surface. The inner structure of this material contains distally directed rods, branching close to the surface, and spaces filled with fluid. The specific design of the pad material provides a higher frictional force in the distal direction. Frictional anisotropy is more enhanced at higher normal forces and lower sliding velocities. It is concluded that optimal mechanical functionality of biosystems is the result of a combination of surface structuring and material design. PMID:10902690

  8. Pad B Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Felicia

    2007-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is home to two liquid hydrogen storage tanks, one at each launch pad of Launch Complex 39. The liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad B has a significantly higher boil off rate that the liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad A. This research looks at various calculations concerning the at Launch Pad B in an attempt to develop a solution to the excess boil off rate. We will look at Perlite levels inside the tank, Boil off rates, conductive heat transfer, and radiant heat transfer through the tank. As a conclusion to the research, we will model the effects of placing an external insulation to the tank in order to reduce the boil off rate and increase the economic efficiency of the liquid hydrogen storage tanks.

  9. Blue Origin Conducts Pad Escape Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    Blue Origin conducted a successful pad escape test Oct. 19 at the company's West Texas launch site, firing its pusher escape motor and launching a full-scale suborbital crew capsule from a simulate...

  10. Traumatic herniation of the buccal fat pad.

    PubMed

    Iehara, Tomoko; Tomoyasu, Chihiro; Nakajima, Hisakazu; Osamura, Toshio; Hosoi, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic herniation of the buccal fat pad is a rare traumatic disease. Treatment consists of either excision or replacement. We herein report the first case in which a traumatic herniation of the buccal fat pad healed naturally. It was necessary to differentiate the disease from lipoblastoma. A 17-month-old boy was admitted to a clinic with an intraoral tumor that had suddenly increased in size. The tumor was diagnosed as herniation of the buccal fat pad on pathology of a biopsy specimen. In the present case, the escaped buccal fat body returned naturally and engrafted without dysfunction or facial defects. Given that young children may easily fall down with various objects in their mouth, care is required to prevent traumatic accidents. Traumatic herniation of the buccal fat pad should be considered in the differentiation of tumors of the oral cavity in young children. PMID:26892590

  11. Alining Solder Pads on a Solar Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazzery, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    Mechanism consisting of stylus and hand-operated lever incorporated into screening machine to precisely register front and back solder pads during solar-cell assembly. Technique may interest those assembling solar cells manually for research or prototype work.

  12. The Road to Pad Abort 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, N.M., engineers and technicians are preparing for the Pad Abort 1 flight test. The Launch Abort System is a sophisticated new rocket tower designed t...

  13. Soyuz Rolled to Launch Pad in Kazakhstan

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Soyuz rocket is rolled out to the launch pad by train on Tuesday, March 26, 2013, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for March 29 and will send Ex...

  14. Expedition 30 Soyuz Moves to Launch Pad

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Dec. 19, the Soyuz TMA-03M spacecraft and its booster were moved to the launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan for final preparations before launch to the International Space Statio...

  15. Knuckle pads – a rare finding

    PubMed Central

    Gengenbacher, Michael; Bianchi, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Knuckle pads are rare harmless subcutaneous nodules that must be differentiated from joint disease of the proximal interphalangeal or rarely of the metacarpophalangeal joints as well as from other masses of the paraarticular tissues. We present a case of an otherwise healthy 36-year-old woman presenting with bilateral knuckle pads located at the dorsal aspect of the proximal interphalangeal joints. No predisposition to a specific musculoskeletal disorder was noted. Ultrasound revealed well-delimited subcutaneous hypoechoic masses without internal flow signals at color Doppler. Histology showed proliferation of myofibroblasts with a decrease of elastic filaments in the deep dermis. The clinical picture, the family history in addition to the histology allowed us to make the diagnosis of knuckle pads. We present the ultrasound findings of knuckle pads and discuss the differential diagnosis of a “swelling” in the dorsal region of proximal interphalangeal joints and metacarpophalangeal joints. PMID:26672439

  16. Gel pad application for automated breast sonography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Ju; Kim, Sung Hun; Jeh, Su Kyung; Choi, Jae Jeong; Kang, Bong Joo; Song, Byung Joo

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the technical aspects of gel pad application for automated breast sonography and to show its effects on pain relief, scan coverage, and image quality. Twenty patients underwent 2 sets of automated breast sonography with and without gel pad application and were then asked to provide feedback on the examination-related pain. Scan coverage and image quality were compared quantitatively and qualitatively. The degree of pain was significantly decreased after gel pad application (P < .0001). The scan coverage was expanded particularly at the mid-portion of the breast. Image quality was satisfactory without significant differences between the sets. Gel pad application for automated breast sonography is easy and provides significant pain relief. The scan coverage was expanded, while the image quality was maintained. PMID:25792588

  17. IT Does Not Love iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredette, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    On many campuses, iPads have taken over the hearts and minds of everyone. Everyone, that is, except the IT department. These sexy tablets might be the apple of faculty and students' eyes, but for IT directors and their staffs, working with iPads in an enterprise network environment is not the stuff of a love affair. To state the problem…

  18. Enter the iPad (or Not?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2010-01-01

    Few computing devices have sparked the burning gizmo lust ignited by the iPad. Apple's latest entry into the tablet PC market didn't generate much heat when it was first unveiled in January, but by April 3, the day of the official release, feverish customers were mobbing Apple stores. The company claims to have sold 300,000 iPads by midnight on…

  19. 21 CFR 884.5435 - Unscented menstrual pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unscented menstrual pad. 884.5435 Section 884.5435... § 884.5435 Unscented menstrual pad. (a) Identification. An unscented menstrual pad is a device that is a pad made of cellulosic or synthetic material which is used to absorb menstrual or other...

  20. VWF-mediated leukocyte recruitment with chromatin decondensation by PAD4 increases myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Savchenko, Alexander S.; Borissoff, Julian I.; Martinod, Kimberly; De Meyer, Simon F.; Gallant, Maureen; Erpenbeck, Luise; Brill, Alexander; Wang, Yanming

    2014-01-01

    Innate immune cells play a major role in the early response to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Recombinant human ADAMTS13 (rhADAMTS13), cleaving von Willebrand factor (VWF), reduces leukocyte recruitment in mice. Death of cardiomyocytes and the possible formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) may result in chromatin release that is prothrombotic and cytotoxic. We investigated the pathophysiological role of extracellular chromatin during MI/R to evaluate the therapeutic potential of targeting extracellular DNA and VWF by using DNase I with/without rhADAMTS13. Finally, we examined the impact of histone citrullination and NETosis by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) on MI/R. We used a 24-hour MI/R mouse surgical model. MI/R injury caused an increase in plasma nucleosomes, abundant neutrophil infiltration, and the presence of citrullinated histone H3 at the site of injury. Both monotherapies and coadministration of DNase I and rhADAMTS13 revealed a cardioprotective effect, resulting in subsequent improvement of cardiac contractile function. PAD4−/− mice, which do not produce NETs, were also significantly protected from MI/R and DNase I treatment had no further beneficial effect. We demonstrate that extracellular chromatin released through NETosis exacerbates MI/R injury. Targeting both VWF-mediated leukocyte recruitment and chromatin removal may be a new therapeutic strategy to reduce ischemia-related cardiac damage. PMID:24200682

  1. Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 1: Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program formulation for PADS computer program is presented. It can size launch vehicles in conjunction with calculus-of-variations optimal trajectories and can also be used as a general-purpose branched trajectory optimization program. In the former use, it has the Space Shuttle Synthesis Program as well as a simplified stage weight module for optimally sizing manned recoverable launch vehicles. For trajectory optimization alone or with sizing, PADS has two trajectory modules. The first trajectory module uses the method of steepest descent; the second employs the method of quasilinearization, which requires a starting solution from the first trajectory module.

  2. Reported energy intake by weight status, day and estimated energy requirement among adults: NHANES 2003-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To describe energy intake reporting by gender, weight status, and interview sequence and to compare reported intakes to the Estimated Energy Requirement at different levels of physical activity. Methods: Energy intake was self-reported by 24-hour recall on two occasions (day 1 and day 2)...

  3. [Can examination of spontaneous urine samples adequately replace 24-hour-urine samples for determining excretory rate of various lithogenic and inhibitory substances in metabolic evaluation of kidney calculi patients?].

    PubMed

    Brändle, E; Melzer, H; Gomez-Anson, B; Flohr, P; Kleinschmidt, K; Sieberth, H G; Hautmann, R E

    1996-03-01

    The gold standard for metabolic evaluation of stone-forming patients is the 24-h urine specimen. Recently, some authors have suggested that for routine metabolic evaluation spot urine samples are as valuable as the 24-h urine specimen. The purpose of our study, was to determine the value of the spot urine sample in comparison with the 24-h urine specimens. Eighty-eight healthy volunteers on different diets were investigated (32 vegetarians, 12 body-builders without protein concentrates, 28 body-builders on protein concentrates, and 16 subjects on a regular European diet). Using 24-h specimens, excretion rates of oxalate, calcium, sodium and potassium were determined. The concentration ratio of these electrolytes to creatinine was calculated for spot urine samples. A highly significant correlation between the excretion rates and the results of the spot urine samples was found for all parameters. However, the correlations showed considerable variations. On the other hand, we were able to show that creatinine excretion is highly dependent on daily protein intake, body weight and glomerular filtration rate. This leads to a considerable inter- and intraindividual variation in creatinine excretion. This variation of the creatinine excretion is the major cause for the variation in the results of spot urine samples. It is concluded that spot urine samples are an inadequate substitute for the 24-h urine specimen and that the 24-h urine specimen is still the basis for metabolic evaluation in stone patients. PMID:8650847

  4. Reliability Investigations on SnAg Bumps on Substrate Pads with Different Pad Finish

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, R.; Ebersberger, B.; Kupfer, C.; Alexa, L.

    2006-02-07

    SnAg solder bump is one bump type which is used to replace eutectic SnPb bumps. In this work tests have been done to characterize the reliability properties of this bump type. Electromigration (EM) tests, which were accelerated by high current and high temperature and high temperature storage (HTS) tests were performed. It was found that the reliability properties are sensitive to the material combinations in the interconnect stack. The interconnect stack includes substrate pad, pad finish, bump, underbump metallization (UBM) and the chip pad. Therefore separate test groups for SnAg bumps on Cu substrate pads with organic solderability preservative (OSP) finish and the identical bumps on pads with Ni/Au finish were used. In this paper the reliability test results and the corresponding failure analysis are presented. Some explanations about the differences in formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) are given.

  5. iPads at Field Camp: A First Test of the Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, S. D.; Stewart, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    An iPad 2 was given to approximately half of the University of Illinois students attending the Wasatch-Uinta Field Camp (WUFC) in summer 2011. The iPads were provisioned with orientation measuring, mapping and location software. The software would automatically transfer an orientation measurement to the current location on the Google Maps application, and was able to output a full list of orientation data. Students also had normal access to more traditional mapping tools such as Brunton compasses and GPS units and were required to map with these tools along with other students of WUFC not provided iPads. Compared to traditional tools, iPads have drawbacks such as increased weight, break-ability, need for power source and wireless connectivity; in sum, they need a substantial infrastructure that reduces range, availability, and probably most importantly, convenience. Some of these drawbacks inhibited adoption by our students, the primary reasons being the added weight and the inability to map directly to a GIS application with detailed topographic maps equivalent to the physical topographic map sheets used at WUFC. In their favor, the iPads combine a host of tools into one, including software that can measure orientation in a fashion more intuitively than a Brunton. They also allow storage, editing and analysis of data, notes (spoken and/or written) and potentially unlimited access to a variety of maps. Via a post-field camp survey of the University of Illinois students at WUFC, we have identified some of the important issues that need to be addressed before portable tablets like the iPad become the tool of choice for general field work. Some problems are intrinsic to almost any advanced technology, some are artifacts of the current generations of hardware and software available for these devices. Technical drawbacks aside, the adoption of iPads was further inhibited primarily by inexperience with their use as a mapping tool and secondarily by their redundancy with

  6. Phytoalexin-Deficient Mutants of Arabidopsis Reveal That Pad4 Encodes a Regulatory Factor and That Four Pad Genes Contribute to Downy Mildew Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Glazebrook, J.; Zook, M.; Mert, F.; Kagan, I.; Rogers, E. E.; Crute, I. R.; Holub, E. B.; Hammerschmidt, R.; Ausubel, F. M.

    1997-01-01

    We are working to determine the role of the Arabidopsis phytoalexin, camalexin, in protecting the plant from pathogen attack by isolating phytoalexin-deficient (pad) mutants in the accession Columbia (Col-0) and examining their response to pathogens. Mutations in PAD1, PAD2, and PAD4 caused enhanced susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola strain ES4326 (PsmES4326), while mutations in PAD3 or PAD5 did not. Camalexin was not detected in any of the double mutants pad1-1 pad2-1, pad1-1 pad3-1 or pad2-1 pad3-1. Growth of PsmES4326 in pad1-1 pad2-1 was greater than that in pad1-1 or pad2-1 plants, while growth in pad1-1 pad3-1 and pad2-1 pad3-1 plants was similar to that in pad1-1 and pad2-1 plants, respectively. The pad4-1 mutation caused reduced camalexin synthesis in response to PsmES4326 infection, but not in response to Cochliobolus carbonum infection, indicating that PAD4 has a regulatory function. PAD1, PAD2, PAD3 and PAD4 are all required for resistance to the eukaryotic biotroph Peronospora parasitica. The pad4-1 mutation caused the most dramatic change, exhibiting full susceptibility to four of six Col-incompatible parasite isolates. Interestingly, each combination of double mutants between pad1-1, pad2-1 and pad3-1 exhibited additive shifts to moderate or full susceptibility to most of the isolates. PMID:9136026

  7. Spacecraft factory-to-pad testing concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    It is noted that the concept of factory-to-pad testing is based on the shipment of a flight-ready spacecraft to the launch base and can be achieved by thorough and comprehensive factory testing of the spacecraft. The principal objectives and results of this approach are shown to be significant cost reductions, increased test effectiveness, and fewer flight problems. Key elements for this concept's success are discussed, including factory-to-pad commonality of support equipment, test requirements and procedures, test teams, and computer programs. Applications of this approach in the space-shuttle era are considered, and a preliminary factory-to-pad concept for the Large Space Telescope spacecraft is presented.

  8. The effect of peripheral chronic salsolinol administration on fat pad adipocytes morphological parameters.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrovych, Veronika; Kurnik, Magdalena; Białas, Magdalena; Bugajski, Andrzej; Thor, Piotr; Gil, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Salsolinol (1-methyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline) is thought to regulate dopaminergic neurons and to act as a mediator in the neuroendocrine system. We have previously reported that exogenous salsolinol evokes enteric neuronal cell death, leading to the impairment of myenteric neurons density and abnormal intestinal transit in rats. We also observed significant reduction of body weight, related to the disrupted gastrointestinal homeostasis. e aim of current study was to evaluate the influence of prolonged salsolinol administration body weight, food intake, adipose tissue accumulation and fad pad adipocyte morphological parameters assessed by image analysis. Male Wistar rats were subjected to continuous intraperitoneal low dosing of salsolinol - 200 mg/kg in total with ALZET osmotic mini-pumps (Durtec, USA) for 2 or 4 weeks with either normal or high-fat diet. Appropriate groups served as the controls. Food intake, body weight were measured each morning. Both epididymal fat pads were dissected, weighted and processed for routine hematoxylin and eosin staining. e following parameters: cell area, perimeter, long and short axis, aspect ratio and circularity factor were assessed in stained specimens with the image analysis system (Multiscan, Poland). Salsolinol administration significantly reduced total body mass with no differences in total food intake between the groups. The epididymal fat pad weight over final body mass ratio was lower in salsolinol treated rats on high fat diet in comparison with the control groups. e area, perimeter, short and long axis of the fad pad adipocytes were significantly decreased in salsolinol treated animals in comparison with relevant controls. Salsolinol targets some regulatory mechanisms concerned with the basic rat metabolism. Prolonged peripheral salsolinol administration in rats significantly decreases the adipocyte size, and such effect is related to the weight loss and reduced adipose tissue accumulation. PMID

  9. Electrostatic Evaluation of the SRB Velostat(Trademark) Pads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhler, Charles R.; Calle, Carlos I.

    2007-01-01

    During RSRM Grain inspection, pads constructed of Velostat are grounded and installed in the RSRM bore enabling inspectors to move throughout the bore during the inspection. Velostat pads are installed by grounding the first pad installed and subsequent pads are installed overlapping the previously installed pad maintaining a conductive path to facility ground. Pads are removed upon completion of the inspection in a reverse fashion. As the pads are removed scanning of propellant surfaces is performed per OMRS. During PPICI Audit of B5308.006 (Forward Segment Grain Inspection) in October 07 one audit finding noted that electrostatic scanning of propellant surfaces was being performed during removal of conductive pads following grain inspection. ATK does not perform electrostatic scanning of propellant surfaces during pad removal following final inspection at the plant. The integrated team consisting of NASA SE, USA SE, USA QE, ATK LSS, ATK Systems Safety and ATK DE concurred that electrostatic scanning of propellant surfaces was unnecessary as the conductive pads are grounded. Additional time spent in bore performing scanning presents itself as additional risk. Technicians reported that they have never seen any voltage readings while scanning propellant surfaces during pad removal. USA Systems engineering has written KB 17530 in response to the finding which will delete the requirement (item 2 B47GEN.ll0) to scan propellant surfaces during pad removal. As a result of an E3 panel discussion on December 13, 2007, it was decided that verification of the electrical grounding of the Velostat pads be verified.

  10. Padé approximations and diophantine geometry

    PubMed Central

    Chudnovsky, D. V.; Chudnovsky, G. V.

    1985-01-01

    Using methods of Padé approximations we prove a converse to Eisenstein's theorem on the boundedness of denominators of coefficients in the expansion of an algebraic function, for classes of functions, parametrized by meromorphic functions. This result is applied to the Tate conjecture on the effective description of isogenies for elliptic curves. PMID:16593552

  11. Momument at Pad 14 honoring Project Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Momument at Pad 14 honoring Project Mercury. The Arabic number 7 represents the seven original astronauts. The other figure is the astronomical symbol of the Planet Mercury. In background is the Gemini 12 Agena Target Docking Vehicle atop its Atlas launch vehicle at Cape Kennedy, Florida.

  12. Hemangioma of the buccal fat pad

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Ali; Saadat, Sarang; Moshiri, Roya; Shahmirzadi, Solaleh

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood vessels. Buccal fat pad (BFP) is a rare place for hemangioma. In this report, clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings are described in a rare case of hemangioma with phleboliths involving the BFP, and a review is made of the international literature on this subject. PMID:24963256

  13. Antares Rolls Out to Wallops Launch Pad

    NASA Video Gallery

    Orbital Sciences Corporation’s Antares rocket rolls out to the launch pad at NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility on the morning of Oct. 1, 2012. Over the next several months, Orbital plans a hot-fir...

  14. Cutting a Tapered Edge on Padding Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Resilience and flexibility of felt, rubber, or other padding materials allow them to be clamped in form block, cut straight down, and then released to produce straight clean tapered edge. With material held in slanted position, edge can be cut straight down; hence cut depth is minimum.

  15. Multivariate Padé Approximations For Solving Nonlinear Diffusion Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turut, V.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, multivariate Padé approximation is applied to power series solutions of nonlinear diffusion equations. As it is seen from tables, multivariate Padé approximation (MPA) gives reliable solutions and numerical results.

  16. Prevent P.A.D.: Know Your Numbers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Prevent P.A.D.: Know Your Numbers Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table ... Best "Timely detection and treatment of P.A.D. are critical," says Dr. Patrice Desvigne-Nickens of ...

  17. Biomechanical Comparison of Shorts With Different Pads

    PubMed Central

    Marcolin, Giuseppe; Petrone, Nicola; Reggiani, Carlo; Panizzolo, Fausto A.; Paoli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An intensive use of the bicycle may increase the risk of erectile dysfunction and the compression of the perineal area has been showed to be a major mechanism leading to sexual alterations compromising the quality of life. Manufacturers claim that pads contribute to increase cyclists perineal protection ensuring a high level of comfort. To investigate the influence of various cycling pads with regard to perineal protection and level of comfort. Nine club road cyclists rode 20 min on a drum simulator, located at the Nutrition and Exercise Physiology Laboratory, at a constant speed and gear ratio wearing the shorts with 3 cycling pads of different design and thickness: basic (BAS), intermediate (INT), and endurance (END). Kinematics and pressure data were recorded at min 5, 15, and 20 of the test using a motion capture system and a pressure sensor mat. The variables of interest were: 3-dimensional pelvis excursions, peak pressure, mean pressure, and vertical force. The comfort level was assessed with a ranking order based on the subjects’ perception after the 20-min trials and measuring the vertical ground reaction force under the anterior wheel as well as the length of the center of pressure (COP) trajectory on the saddle. Results showed that the vertical force and the average value of mean pressure on the saddle significantly decreased during the 20-min period of testing for BAS and END. Mean peak pressure on the corresponding perineal cyclist area significantly increased only for BAS during the 20-min period. Interestingly objective comfort indexes measured did not match cyclists subjective comfort evaluation. The lower capacity of BAS to reduce the peak pressure on the corresponding perineal area after 20 min of testing, together with its positive comfort evaluation, suggest that a balance between protection and perceived comfort should be taken into account in the choice of the pad. Hence, the quantitative approach of objective comfort indexes

  18. Rotor stability estimation with competing tilting pad bearing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloud, C. Hunter; Maslen, Eric H.; Barrett, Lloyd E.

    2012-05-01

    When predicting the stability of rotors supported by tilting pad journal bearings, it is currently debated whether or not the bearings should be represented with frequency dependent dynamics. Using an experimental apparatus, measurements of pad temperatures, unbalance response and stability are compared with modeling predictions for two tilting pad bearing designs. Predictions based on frequency dependent tilting pad bearing dynamics exhibited significantly better correlation with the stability measurements than those assuming frequency independent dynamics.

  19. 21 CFR 880.5270 - Neonatal eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neonatal eye pad. 880.5270 Section 880.5270 Food... § 880.5270 Neonatal eye pad. (a) Identification. A neonatal eye pad is an opaque device used to cover and protect the eye of an infant during therapeutic procedures, such as phototherapy....

  20. 21 CFR 880.5270 - Neonatal eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neonatal eye pad. 880.5270 Section 880.5270 Food... § 880.5270 Neonatal eye pad. (a) Identification. A neonatal eye pad is an opaque device used to cover and protect the eye of an infant during therapeutic procedures, such as phototherapy....

  1. 21 CFR 880.5270 - Neonatal eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neonatal eye pad. 880.5270 Section 880.5270 Food... § 880.5270 Neonatal eye pad. (a) Identification. A neonatal eye pad is an opaque device used to cover and protect the eye of an infant during therapeutic procedures, such as phototherapy....

  2. 21 CFR 880.5270 - Neonatal eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neonatal eye pad. 880.5270 Section 880.5270 Food... § 880.5270 Neonatal eye pad. (a) Identification. A neonatal eye pad is an opaque device used to cover and protect the eye of an infant during therapeutic procedures, such as phototherapy....

  3. 21 CFR 880.5270 - Neonatal eye pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neonatal eye pad. 880.5270 Section 880.5270 Food... § 880.5270 Neonatal eye pad. (a) Identification. A neonatal eye pad is an opaque device used to cover and protect the eye of an infant during therapeutic procedures, such as phototherapy....

  4. A fluopol-ABPP HTS assay to identify PAD inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Knuckley, Bryan; Jones, Justin E; Bachovchin, Daniel A; Slack, Jessica; Causey, Corey P; Brown, Steven J; Rosen, Hugh; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Thompson, Paul R

    2010-10-14

    Protein Arginine Deiminase (PAD) activity is dysregulated in numerous diseases, e.g., Rheumatoid Arthritis. Herein we describe the development of a fluorescence polarization-Activity Based Protein Profiling (fluopol-ABPP) based high throughput screening assay that can be used to identify PAD-selective inhibitors. Using this assay, streptonigrin was identified as a potent, selective, and irreversible PAD4 inactivator. PMID:20740228

  5. iPads in Higher Education--Hype and Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Lemai; Barton, Siew Mee; Nguyen, Linh Thuy

    2015-01-01

    This paper systematically reviews current research on using iPads in the higher education sector. Since the release of iPads by Apple in 2010, this new technology has been quickly adopted everywhere, especially by the younger generation and professionals. We were motivated to find out how iPads have been adopted for use in the higher education…

  6. Dynamic behavior of air lubricated pivoted-pad journal-bearing, rotor system. 2: Pivot consideration and pad mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Z. N.

    1972-01-01

    Rotor bearing dynamic tests were conducted with tilting-pad journal bearings having three different pad masses and two different pivot geometries. The rotor was vertically mounted and supported by two three-pad tilting-pad gas journal bearings and a simple externally pressurized thrust bearing. The bearing pads were 5.1 cm (2.02 in.) in diameter and 2.8 cm (1.5 in.) long. The length to diameter ratio was 0.75. One pad was mounted on a flexible diaphragm. The bearing supply pressure ranged from 0 to 690 kilonewtons per square meter (0 to 100 psig), and speeds ranged to 38,500 rpm. Heavy mass pad tilting-pad assemblies produced three rotor-bearing resonances above the first two rotor critical speeds. Lower supply pressure eliminated the resonances. The resonances were oriented primarily in the direction normal to the diaphragm.

  7. The 24-Hour Job Machine: Computerized Applicant Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedman, Lisa W.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of computerized job applicant systems is described and compared to that of computerized banking systems; the characteristics of such systems in the future, especially for minimizing data entry and maximizing accessibility, are then outlined and illustrated with the Carnegie-Mellon University system. (MSE)

  8. Collection of a 24-Hour Urine Specimen (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Licensed Materials from any location via the Internet. b. STANDALONE WORKSTATION: A standalone subscription permits multiple ... computer. A Standalone Workstation license does not include Internet access to the Licensed Materials. c. INSTITUTIONAL SUBSCRIPTION: ...

  9. Boerhaave's syndrome: Experience with patients presenting later than 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Amit; Porwal, Manish; Khandeparkar, Jagdish

    2015-01-01

    Boerhaave's syndrome is the most sinister cause of esophageal perforation. Clinical presentation is vague. Diagnostic delays are frequent. As condition is rare therefore no consensus exists on management. A wide variety of management options are described in literature, each with its advantages and disadvantages. We present our experience of managing these cases which presented after 24 hr. Of onset of symptoms with emphasis on primary reinforced repair as first line surgical option. PMID:27522739

  10. Nutrition habits in 24-hour mountain bike racers.

    PubMed

    Chlíbková, Daniela; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Tomášková, Ivana; Chadim, Vlastimil; Shortall, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    We investigated seventy-four ultra-mountain bikers (MTBers) competing in the solo category in the first descriptive field study to detail nutrition habits and the most common food before during and after the 24 hour race using questionnaires. During the race, bananas (86.5%), energy bars (50.0%), apples (43.2%) and cheese (43.2%) were the most commonly consumed food, followed by bread (44.6%), rice (33.8%) and bananas (33.8%) after the race. Average fluid intake was 0.5 ± 0.2 l/h. The main beverage was isotonic sports drink (82.4%) during and pure water (66.2%) after the race. The most preferred four supplements in the four weeks before, the day before, during and after the race were vitamin C (35.1%), magnesium (44.6%), magnesium (43.2%) and branched-chain amino acids (24.3%), respectively. Total frequency of food intake (30.6 ± 10.5 times/24 hrs) was associated with fluid intake (r = 0.43, P = 0.04) and both were highest at the beginning of the race and lower during the night hours and the last race segment in a subgroup of twenty-three ultra-MTBers. Supplement intake frequency (6.8 ± 8.4 times/24 hrs) was highest during the night hours and lower at the beginning and end of the race. Elevated food and fluid intake among participants tracked across all race segments (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the nutrition strategy employed by ultra-MTBers was similar to those demonstrated in previous studies of ultra-cyclists with some exceptions among selected individuals. PMID:25674455

  11. Elimination of 24-hour continuous medical resident duty in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Hamadani, Fadi; Deckelbaum, Dan; Shaheen, Mohammed; Sauvé, Alexandre; Dumitra, Sinziana; Ahmed, Najma; Latulippe, Jean-François; Balaa, Fady; Walsh, Mark; Fata, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Summary In 2012 Quebec limited continuous in-hospital duty to 16 consecutive hours for all residents regardless of postgraduate (PGY) level. The new restrictions in Quebec appeared to have a profound, negative effect on the quality of life of surgical residents at McGill University and a perceived detrimental effect on the delivery of surgical education and patient care. Here we discuss the results of a nationwide survey that we created and distributed to general surgery residents across Canada to capture and compare their perceptions of the changes to duty hour restrictions. PMID:26574704

  12. Sun Blasts 6 CMEs in 24 Hour Period

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie from the chronograph on board the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), shows the sun's atmosphere – the corona – from September 17 to September 20. The sun let loose with at ...

  13. A 24-hour remote surveillance system for terrestrial wildlife studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W., Jr.; Ryman, W.E.; Kepler, C.B.; Hardy, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The configuration, components, specifications and costs of a state-of-the-art closed-circuit television system with wide application for wildlife research and management are described. The principal system components consist of color CCTV camera with zoom lens, pan/tilt system, infrared illuminator, heavy duty tripod, coaxial cable, coaxitron system, half-duplex equalizing video/control amplifier, timelapse video cassette recorder, color video monitor, VHS video cassettes, portable generator, fuel tank and power cable. This system was developed and used in a study of Mississippi sandhiIl Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) behaviors during incubation, hatching and fledging. The main advantages of the system are minimal downtime where a complete record of every event, its time of occurrence and duration, are permanently recorded and can be replayed as many times as necessary thereafter to retrieve the data. The system is particularly applicable for studies of behavior and predation, for counting individuals, or recording difficult to observe activities. The system can be run continuously for several weeks by two people, reducing personnel costs. This paper is intended to provide biologists who have litte knowledge of electronics with a system that might be useful to their specific needs. The disadvantages of this system are the initial costs (about $9800 basic, 1990-1991 U.S. dollars) and the time required to playback video cassette tapes for data retrieval, but the playback can be sped up when litte or no activity of interest is taking place. In our study, the positive aspects of the system far outweighed the negative.

  14. Attenuated sympathetic nerve responses after 24 hours of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Mazhar H.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Leuenberger, Urs A.; Davidson, William R Jr; Ray, Chester A.; Gray, Kristen S.; Hogeman, Cynthia S.; Sinoway, Lawrence I.

    2002-01-01

    Bed rest reduces orthostatic tolerance. Despite decades of study, the cause of this phenomenon remains unclear. In this report we examined hemodynamic and sympathetic nerve responses to graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) before and after 24 h of bed rest. LBNP allows for baroreceptor disengagement in a graded fashion. We measured heart rate (HR), cardiac output (HR x stroke volume obtained by echo Doppler), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during a progressive and graded LBNP paradigm. Negative pressure was increased by 10 mmHg every 3 min until presyncope or completion of -60 mmHg. After bed rest, LBNP tolerance was reduced in 11 of 13 subjects (P <.023), HR was greater (P <.002), cardiac output was unchanged, and the ability to augment MSNA at high levels of LBNP was reduced (rate of rise for 30- to 60-mmHg LBNP before bed rest 0.073 bursts x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); after bed rest 0.035 bursts x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); P < 0.016). These findings suggest that 24 h of bed rest reduces sympathetic nerve responses to LBNP.

  15. The impact of fertilization on the chicken egg yolk plasma and granule proteome 24 hours post-lay at room temperature: capitalizing on high-pH/low-pH reverse phase chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass tag (TMT) technology.

    PubMed

    Padliya, Neerav D; Qian, Meiqian; Mimi Roy, Sushmita; Chu, Patrick; Zheng, Haiyan; Tess, Alex; Dariani, Maghsoud; Hariri, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Chicken egg yolk is a rich source of nutrients providing high quality proteins, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids and antioxidants. Chicken egg yolk, recovered from whole egg within 24 hours post-lay has been utilized as a starting material in the preparation of a dietary supplement that has been demonstrated to lead to gains in muscle mass in a human clinical study. Further, an oil derived from chicken egg yolk has been utilized as a topical agent to treat third degree burn injury. The molecular changes that take place in fertilized, chicken egg yolk during the first 24 hours post-lay are not well understood. By studying how the protein composition of egg yolk varies with fertility status, one can utilize this knowledge to develop egg yolk-based products that have been optimized for specific applications. In this study, a direct quantitative comparison was made between the proteome of fertilized chicken egg yolk and the proteome of unfertilized chicken egg yolk, both maintained at 20 °C and analyzed within 24 hours post-lay. Egg yolk proteins from each fertility state were digested with trypsin, labeled with distinct chemical labels (tandem mass tag reagents) and then combined in a 1 : 1 ratio. A TMT-labeled tryptic digest derived from chicken egg yolk proteins (fertilized and unfertilized) was separated using high-pH/low-pH reverse-phase chromatography and analyzed using mass spectrometry. 225 protein identifications were made from this TMT-labeled tryptic digest based on a minimum of 2 unique peptides observed per protein. 9 proteins increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk and 9 proteins decreased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk. Some proteins that increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk play an important role in angiogenesis (pleiotrophin, histidine rich glycoprotein) and defense against pathogens (mannose-binding lectin, β-defensin 11, serum amyloid P-component, ovostatin

  16. Hydrostatic Bearing Pad Maximum Load and Overturning Conditions for the 70-meter Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcginness, H. D.

    1985-01-01

    The reflector diameters of the 64-m antennas were increased to 70-m. In order to evaluate the minimum film thickness of the hydrostatic bearing which supports the antenna weight, it is first necessary to have a good estimation of the maximum operational load on the most heavily loaded bearing pad. The maximum hydrostatic bearing load is shown to be sufficiently small and the ratios of stabilizing to over turning moments are ample.

  17. Miniature tilting pad gas lubricated bearing

    SciTech Connect

    Sixsmith, H.; Swift, W.L.

    1983-12-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a miniature tilting pad gas bearing developed for use in very small turbomachines. The bearings have been developed for cryogenic turboexpanders with shaft diameters down to about 0.3 cm and rotational speeds up to one million rpm. Cryogenic expansion turbines incorporating this type of bearing should be suitable for refrigeration rates down to about 10 w.

  18. A miniature tilting pad gas lubricated bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sixsmith, H.; Swift, W. L.

    1983-12-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a miniature tilting pad gas bearing developed for use in very small turbomachines. The bearings have been developed for cryogenic turboexpanders with shaft diameters down to about 0.3 cm and rotational speeds up to one million rpm. Cryogenic expansion turbines incorporating this type of bearing should be suitable for refrigeration rates down to about 10 w.

  19. A miniature tilting pad gas lubricated bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sixsmith, H.; Swift, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a miniature tilting pad gas bearing developed for use in very small turbomachines. The bearings have been developed for cryogenic turboexpanders with shaft diameters down to about 0.3 cm and rotational speeds up to one million rpm. Cryogenic expansion turbines incorporating this type of bearing should be suitable for refrigeration rates down to about 10 w.

  20. Inflammation of the infrapatellar fat pad.

    PubMed

    Eymard, Florent; Chevalier, Xavier

    2016-07-01

    The infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) of Hoffa's fat pad is the main adipose structure within the knee joint. It is located between the joint capsule and the synovial membrane, which lines its posterior aspect. The IFP is composed chiefly of adipocytes and receives an abundant supply of blood vessels and nerves. Immune cells can infiltrate the IFP, which can become a major source of numerous proinflammatory mediators (cytokines and adipokines). The physiological role for the IFP remains unclear but may involve shock absorption and the protection of adjacent tissues. Hoffa's disease is characterized by inflammation, hypertrophy, and fibrosis of the pad in response to repetitive trauma. Anterior knee pain is the most common symptom. In advanced forms, metaplasia of the IFP may result in the development of a sometimes sizable osteochondroma. The IFP may also contribute to the pathophysiology of knee osteoarthritis, in particular via procatabolic and proinflammatory effects on its synovial lining. Finally, in patients with knee osteoarthritis, inflammation of the IFP may be a source of pain. PMID:27068617

  1. A new pad-based neutron detector for stereo coded aperture thermal neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dioszegi, I.; Yu, B.; Smith, G.; Schaknowski, N.; Fried, J.; Vanier, P. E.; Salwen, C.; Forman, L.

    2014-09-01

    A new coded aperture thermal neutron imager system has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The cameras use a new type of position-sensitive 3He-filled ionization chamber, in which an anode plane is composed of an array of pads with independent acquisition channels. The charge is collected on each of the individual 5x5 mm2 anode pads, (48x48 in total, corresponding to 24x24 cm2 sensitive area) and read out by application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The new design has several advantages for coded-aperture imaging applications in the field, compared to the previous generation of wire-grid based neutron detectors. Among these are its rugged design, lighter weight and use of non-flammable stopping gas. The pad-based readout occurs in parallel circuits, making it capable of high count rates, and also suitable to perform data analysis and imaging on an event-by-event basis. The spatial resolution of the detector can be better than the pixel size by using a charge sharing algorithm. In this paper we will report on the development and performance of the new pad-based neutron camera, describe a charge sharing algorithm to achieve sub-pixel spatial resolution and present the first stereoscopic coded aperture images of thermalized neutron sources using the new coded aperture thermal neutron imager system.

  2. Weight control practices in adults: results of a multistate telephone survey.

    PubMed

    Serdula, M K; Williamson, D F; Anda, R F; Levy, A; Heaton, A; Byers, T

    1994-11-01

    In this study, data collected in 1989 in a random-digit dialing telephone survey of 60,590 adults in 38 states and the District of Columbia were analyzed. Approximately 38% of women and 24% of men reported that they were currently trying to lose weight. Methods reported were counting calories (24% of women, 14% of men), participating in organized weight loss programs (10%, 3%), taking special supplements (10%, 7%), taking diet pills (4%, 2%), and fasting for 24 hours or longer (5%, 5%). Among both sexes, only half of those trying to lose weight reported using the recommended method of caloric restriction combined with physical activity. PMID:7977925

  3. The protein arginine deiminases (PADs): Structure, Function, Inhibition, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bicker, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    The post translational modification of histones has significant effects on overall chromatin function. One such modification is citrullination, which is catalyzed by the protein arginine deiminases (PADs), a unique family of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptidyl-arginine to form peptidyl-citrulline on histones, fibrinogen, and other biologically relevant proteins. Overexpression and/or increased PAD activity is observed in several diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, lupus, Parkinson’s disease, and cancer. This review discusses the important structural and mechanistic characteristics of the PADs, as well as recent investigations into the role of the PADs in increasing disease severity in RA and colitis and the importance of PAD activity in mediating neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation through chromatin decondensation. Lastly, efforts to develop PAD inhibitors with excellent potency, selectivity and in vivo efficacy are discussed, highlighting the most promising inhibitors. PMID:23175390

  4. Soyuz Spacecraft Transported to Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft and its booster rocket (rear view) is shown on a rail car for transport to the launch pad where it was raised to a vertical launch position at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 16, 2003. Liftoff occurred on October 18th, transporting a three man crew to the International Space Station (ISS). Aboard were Michael Foale, Expedition-8 Commander and NASA science officer; Alexander Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer, both members of the Expedition-8 crew; and European Space agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain. Photo Credit: 'NASA/Bill Ingalls'

  5. Soyuz Spacecraft Transported to Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft and its booster rocket (front view) is shown on a rail car for transport to the launch pad where it was raised to a vertical launch position at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 16, 2003. Liftoff occurred on October 18th, transporting a three man crew to the International Space Station (ISS). Aboard were Michael Foale, Expedition-8 Commander and NASA science officer; Alexander Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer, both members of the Expedition-8 crew; and European Space agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain. Photo Credit: 'NASA/Bill Ingalls'

  6. Launch Pad Coatings for Smart Corrosion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Bucherl, Cori N.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Whitten, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion is the degradation of a material as a result of its interaction with the environment. The environment at the KSC launch pads has been documented by ASM International (formerly American Society for Metals) as the most corrosive in the US. The 70 tons of highly corrosive hydrochloric acid that are generated by the solid rocket boosters during a launch exacerbate the corrosiveness of the environment at the pads. Numerous failures at the pads are caused by the pitting of stainless steels, rebar corrosion, and the degradation of concrete. Corrosion control of launch pad structures relies on the use of coatings selected from the qualified products list (QPL) of the NASA Standard 5008A for Protective Coating of Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel, and Aluminum on Launch Structures, Facilities, and Ground Support Equipment. This standard was developed to establish uniform engineering practices and methods and to ensure the inclusion of essential criteria in the coating of ground support equipment (GSE) and facilities used by or for NASA. This standard is applicable to GSE and facilities that support space vehicle or payload programs or projects and to critical facilities at all NASA locations worldwide. Environmental regulation changes have dramatically reduced the production, handling, use, and availability of conventional protective coatings for application to KSC launch structures and ground support equipment. Current attrition rate of qualified KSC coatings will drastically limit the number of commercial off the shelf (COTS) products available for the Constellation Program (CxP) ground operations (GO). CxP GO identified corrosion detection and control technologies as a critical, initial capability technology need for ground processing of Ares I and Ares V to meet Constellation Architecture Requirements Document (CARD) CxP 70000 operability requirements for reduced ground processing complexity, streamlined integrated testing, and operations phase affordability

  7. Metal pad instabilities in liquid metal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zikanov, Oleg

    2015-12-01

    A mechanical analogy is used to analyze the interaction between the magnetic field, electric current, and deformation of interfaces in liquid metal batteries. In the framework of a low-mode, nondissipative, linear stability model, it is found that, during charging or discharging, a sufficiently large battery is prone to instabilities of two types. One is similar to the metal pad instability known to exist in the aluminum reduction cells. Another type is new. It is related to the destabilizing effect of the Lorentz force formed by the azimuthal magnetic field induced by the base current, and the current perturbations caused by the local variations of the thickness of the electrolyte layer.

  8. Launch Pad Escape System Design (Human Spaceflight)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Kelli

    2011-01-01

    A launch pad escape system for human spaceflight is one of those things that everyone hopes they will never need but is critical for every manned space program. Since men were first put into space in the early 1960s, the need for such an Emergency Escape System (EES) has become apparent. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has made use of various types of these EESs over the past 50 years. Early programs, like Mercury and Gemini, did not have an official launch pad escape system. Rather, they relied on a Launch Escape System (LES) of a separate solid rocket motor attached to the manned capsule that could pull the astronauts to safety in the event of an emergency. This could only occur after hatch closure at the launch pad or during the first stage of flight. A version of a LES, now called a Launch Abort System (LAS) is still used today for all manned capsule type launch vehicles. However, this system is very limited in that it can only be used after hatch closure and it is for flight crew only. In addition, the forces necessary for the LES/LAS to get the capsule away from a rocket during the first stage of flight are quite high and can cause injury to the crew. These shortcomings led to the development of a ground based EES for the flight crew and ground support personnel as well. This way, a much less dangerous mode of egress is available for any flight or ground personnel up to a few seconds before launch. The early EESs were fairly simple, gravity-powered systems to use when thing's go bad. And things can go bad very quickly and catastrophically when dealing with a flight vehicle fueled with millions of pounds of hazardous propellant. With this in mind, early EES designers saw such a passive/unpowered system as a must for last minute escapes. This and other design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at the safety design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at

  9. Russian Soyuz Moves to Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle, which carried the first resident crew to the International Space Station, moves toward the launch pad at the Baikonur complex in Kazakhstan. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960' until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  10. Mars Science Laboratory Launch Pad Thermal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Dudik, Brenda; Birur, Gajanana; Bame, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe the challenges faced in accommodating the warm Multi Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) during the pre-launch phases of integration, launch pad operations as well as during launch. Predictions of temperatures during these phases will be presented when all the cooling systems (HRS and A/C) are operational. In-air tests conducted on the spacecraft in December 2008 to simulate the launch conditions were very successful and showed that all components would be within their allowable limits during these phases. Results of these tests will be shared in this paper.

  11. Tilting pad gas bearing design for micro gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabuurs, M. J. H. W.; Al-Bender, F.; Reynaerts, D.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a dynamic stability investigation of a micro gas turbine supported by two flexible tilting pad bearings. The pad flexibility allows centrifugal and thermal shaft growth of the rotor but can also introduce undesirable rotor instabilities. An eigenvalue analysis on the linearised rotor-bearing dynamics is performed to estimate the required pad stiffness and damping for stability. Results of the eigenvalue analysis are evaluated by fully nonlinear orbit simulations.

  12. Measuring pad-pad pinch strength in a non-human primate: Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Banks, Jacob J; Lavender, Steven A; Buford, John A; Sommerich, Carolyn M

    2007-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to establish a methodology for determining and perhaps predicting (via regression analysis of anthropometric measures) Macaca fascicularis isometric pinch strength for a specific task. The larger purpose of this work was to properly scale a pinching task for the monkeys in order to study dose-response relationships in a non-human primate model for carpal tunnel syndrome. Three female and one male macaque (n=4) of varying size and age were trained to perform a left-handed pad-pad pinch. The task required 60 degrees of wrist flexion at a static pinching distance of 3 cm between the thumb and fingers. Subjects were trained for a period of 20-weeks. After that time, an analysis of performance gradients found that they had each reached a plateau in their force output. Pinch strength for the four animals ranged from 29.4 to 59.8 N. Regression analysis revealed that body mass (kg) and wrist circumference (cm) were both predictive of pinch strength, exhibiting adjusted R(2) values of 0.93 (p=0.024) and 0.96 (p=0.015), respectively. Thus, the results suggest that maximal pinch strength could be acceptably estimated in future subjects using either the wrist circumference or the body mass measures, as both were strong predictors of pad-pad pinch strength. PMID:17035044

  13. Tilting pad journal bearings - Measured and predicted stiffness coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Parkins, D.W.; Horner, D. Michell Bearings, Newcastle-upon-Tyne )

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents measured and calculated characteristics of a tilting pad journal bearing suitable for high speed machinery. Descriptions are given of the experimental techniques used with this variety of bearing and the theoretical model for predicting performance. Measured values of pad temperature, eccentricity, attitude angle, and the four stiffness coefficients are given for a range of loads and rotational speeds. Data are given for both load on pad and between pad configurations, the two principal loading arrangements. Comparisons are made between the measured and predicted bearing temperatures and stiffness coefficients over a wide range of values. 11 refs.

  14. Pad Safety Personnel Launch Support For STS-200

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guarino, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The launch of a space shuttle is a complex and lengthy procedure. There are many places and components to look at and prepare. The components are the orbiter, solid rocket boosters, external tank, and ground equipment. Some of the places are the launch pad, fuel locations, and surrounding structures. Preparations for a launch include equipment checks, system checks, sniff checks for hazardous commodities, and countless walkdowns. Throughout these preparations, pad safety personnel must always be on call. This requires three shifts of multiple people to be ready when needed. Also, the pad safety personnel must be available for the non-launch tasks that are always present for both launch pads

  15. Tilting pad journal bearings - Measured and predicted stiffness coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkins, D. W.; Horner, D.

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents measured and calculated characteristics of a tilting pad journal bearing suitable for high speed machinery. Descriptions are given of the experimental techniques used with this variety of bearing and the theoretical model for predicting performance. Measured values of pad temperature, eccentricity, attitude angle, and the four stiffness coefficients are given for a range of loads and rotational speeds. Data are given for both load on pad and between pad configurations, the two principal loading arrangements. Comparisons are made between the measured and predicted bearing temperatures and stiffness coefficients over a wide range of values.

  16. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Pad Avian Abatement Efforts Including Related KSC Road Kill Reduction Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlierf, Roland; Hight, Ron; Payne, Stephen J.; Shaffer, John P.; Missimer, Brad; Willis, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    While birds might seem harmless, there's a good reason for the concern. During the July 2005 launch of Discovery on mission STS-1 14, a vulture soaring around the launch pad impacted the shuttle's external tank just after liftoff. With a vulture's average weight ranging from 3 to 5 pounds. a strike at a critical point on the Shuttle -- like the nose or wing leading thermal protection panels -- could cause catastrophic damage to the vehicle. The foam chunk that fatefully struck Columbia's wing in 2003 weighed only 1.7 pounds. (Cheryl L. Mansfield "Bye Bye Birdies" 2006) To address this issue, NASA formed an "Avian Abatement Team". The team goal is to have safer Shuttle missions by reducing the vulture population at KSC near the pad area thereby reducing the probability of another vulture strike during a Shuttle launch.

  17. Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 2: Program description, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program has a two-fold purpose. It can size launch vehicles in conjunction with calculus-of-variations optimal trajectories and can also be used as a general-purpose branched trajectory optimization program. In the former use, it has the Space Shuttle Synthesis Program as well as a simplified stage weight module for optimally sizing manned recoverable launch vehicles. For trajectory optimization alone or with sizing, PADS has two trajectory modules. The first trajectory module uses the method of steepest descent; the second employs the method of quasilinearization, which requires a starting solution from the first trajectory module. For Volume 1 see N73-13199.

  18. Weighted aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The use of a weighted aggregation technique to improve the precision of the overall LACIE estimate is considered. The manner in which a weighted aggregation technique is implemented given a set of weights is described. The problem of variance estimation is discussed and the question of how to obtain the weights in an operational environment is addressed.

  19. Gecko adhesion pad: a smart surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesika, Noshir S.; Zeng, Hongbo; Kristiansen, Kai; Zhao, Boxin; Tian, Yu; Autumn, Kellar; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2009-11-01

    Recently, it has been shown that humidity can increase the adhesion of the spatula pads that form the outermost (adhesive) surface of the tokay gecko feet by 50% relative to the main adhesion mechanism (i.e. van der Waals adhesive forces), although the mechanism by which the enhancement is realized is still not well understood. A change in the surface hydrophobicity of a gecko setal array is observed when the array, which supports the spatulae, is exposed to a water drop for more than 20 min, suggesting a change in the hydrophilic-lyophilic balance (HLB), and therefore of the conformation of the surface proteins. A surface force apparatus (SFA) was used to quantify these changes, i.e. in the adhesion and friction forces, while shearing the setal array against a silica surface under (i) dry conditions, (ii) 100% humidity and (iii) when fully immersed in water. The adhesion increased in the humid environment but greatly diminished in water. Although the adhesion forces changed significantly, the friction forces remained unaffected, indicating that the friction between these highly textured surfaces is 'load-controlled' rather than 'adhesion-controlled'. These results demonstrate that the gecko adhesive pads have the ability to exploit environmental conditions to maximize their adhesion and stabilize their friction forces. Future designs of synthetic dry adhesives inspired by the gecko can potentially include similar 'smart' surfaces that adapt to their environment.

  20. Launch Pad 39 Hail Monitor Array System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Weather conditions at Kennedy Space Center are extremely dynamic, and they greatly affect the safety of the Space Shuttles sitting on the launch pads. For example, on May 13, 1999, the foam on the External Tank (ET) of STS-96 was significantly damaged by hail at the launch pad, requiring rollback to the Vehicle Assembly Building. The loss of ET foam on STS-114 in 2005 intensified interest in monitoring and measuring damage to ET foam, especially from hail. But hail can be difficult to detect and monitor because it is often localized and obscured by heavy rain. Furthermore, the hot Florida climate usually melts the hail even before the rainfall subsides. In response, the hail monitor array (HMA) system, a joint effort of the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at KSC, was deployed for operational testing in the fall of 2006. Volunteers from the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail, and Snow (CoCoRaHS) network, in conjunction with Colorado State University, continue to test duplicate hail monitor systems deployed in the high plains of Colorado.

  1. The association of pre-sweetened or non-presweetened ready to eat cereal or other breakfast with nutrient intake, diet quality, and body weight of children aged 1 to 8 years: NHANES 1999-2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) has been associated with improved nutrient intake and weight status; presweetened ready-to-eat cereal (PSRTEC) has not been evaluated separately. Nutrient intakes, mean adequacy ratios (MAR) (average percentage of the Estimated Average Requirement from 24-hour recalls of 1...

  2. 40 CFR 265.442 - Design and installation of new drip pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pads. 265.442 Section 265.442 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 265.442 Design and installation of new drip pads. Owners and operators of new drip pads must ensure that the pads are designed, installed, and operated in...

  3. 40 CFR 264.572 - Design and installation of new drip pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pads. 264.572 Section 264.572 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 264.572 Design and installation of new drip pads. Owners and operators of new drip pads must ensure that the pads are designed, installed, and operated in accordance with...

  4. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Intrinsic Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders: Advanced Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (ASWPD), Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD), Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (N24SWD), and Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (ISWRD). An Update for 2015

    PubMed Central

    Auger, R. Robert; Burgess, Helen J.; Emens, Jonathan S.; Deriy, Ludmila V.; Thomas, Sherene M.; Sharkey, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review and meta-analyses (where appropriate) were performed and the GRADE approach was used to update the previous American Academy of Sleep Medicine Practice Parameters on the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders. Available data allowed for positive endorsement (at a second-tier degree of confidence) of strategically timed melatonin (for the treatment of DSWPD, blind adults with N24SWD, and children/ adolescents with ISWRD and comorbid neurological disorders), and light therapy with or without accompanying behavioral interventions (adults with ASWPD, children/adolescents with DSWPD, and elderly with dementia). Recommendations against the use of melatonin and discrete sleep-promoting medications are provided for demented elderly patients, at a second- and first-tier degree of confidence, respectively. No recommendations were provided for remaining treatments/ populations, due to either insufficient or absent data. Areas where further research is needed are discussed. Citation: Auger RR, Burgess HJ, Emens JS, Deriy LV, Thomas SM, Sharkey KM. Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: advanced sleep-wake phase disorder (ASWPD), delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD), non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD), and irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder (ISWRD). An update for 2015. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1199–1236. PMID:26414986

  5. Creating Microcomputer Graphics with the KoalaPad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Dennis W.

    1985-01-01

    The KoalaPad, an advanced graphic tablet introduced in 1983, reduces the cost and the degree of programing background required to create sophisticated images on the microcomputer. The potentials of the KoalaPad for use in an art education program are discussed, and recommendations for creating a microcomputer graphics lab are presented. (RM)

  6. 50. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LAUNCH PAD. RAIL AND BUMPER IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LAUNCH PAD. RAIL AND BUMPER IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH; FIRE SUPPRESSION NOZZLES ON RIGHT; THRUST SECTION HEATER DUCT ON LEFT. COMMUNICATIONS HOOKUP FOR THE MST LEFT OF DUCT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 14. VIEW OF MST, FACING SOUTHEAST, AND LAUNCH PAD TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF MST, FACING SOUTHEAST, AND LAUNCH PAD TAKEN FROM NORTHEAST PHOTO TOWER WITH WINDOW OPEN. FEATURES LEFT TO RIGHT: SOUTH TELEVISION CAMERA TOWER, SOUTHWEST PHOTO TOWER, LAUNCHER, UMBILICAL MAST, MST, AND OXIDIZER APRON. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  8. 42. VIEW OF UMBILICAL MAST AND LAUNCH PAD FROM MST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW OF UMBILICAL MAST AND LAUNCH PAD FROM MST BASE. LAUNCHER IS BEHIND UMBILICAL MAST AND RAIL SYSTEM IS PARALLEL TO MAST ON RIGHT AND LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. 41. VIEW OF UMBILICAL MAST AND LAUNCH PAD FROM LAUNCHER; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VIEW OF UMBILICAL MAST AND LAUNCH PAD FROM LAUNCHER; SOUTH FACE OF MST IN BACKGROUND. RAIL SYSTEM FROM BASE OF MST PARALLEL TO MAST. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. iPad Use and Student Engagement in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mango, Oraib

    2015-01-01

    iPads and handheld digital devices have been securing their place in educational institutions surrounded by debates between advocates and skeptics. In light of not enough evidence supporting the use of iPads in education, this study examined the ways that college students in two foreign language classrooms perceived the influence of the use of…

  11. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF PAD B MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF PAD B MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE IN SETTING WITH FACILITY 28416 (PAD A MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE) IN DISTANCE; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28417, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. Effectiveness of Using iPads to Build Math Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Patricia; Jenkins, Sandi; Wesley, Brooke; Donehower, Claire; Rabuck, Deidre; Lewis, MEB.

    2013-01-01

    Research into integrating technology such as iPads into the curriculum for students with disabilities is still new. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the use of a basic math skill application on an iPad to increase basic math fluency. As part of a classwide academic intervention, the study was conducted with 10 students with…

  13. iPads in Inclusive Classrooms: Ecologies of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Bente

    2013-01-01

    This paper builds on data from a project where iPads were used in a lower secondary school in Denmark to support school development and inclusive learning environments. The paper explores how iPads enter into and work as part of an ecology of learning in five classes in lower secondary school. The paper argues that we should disengage approaches…

  14. DETAIL OF THE SLOPING CONCRETE PAD AT THE SOUTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE SLOPING CONCRETE PAD AT THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE GUN EMPLACEMENT. NOTE ADDED BLOCK OF CAST CONCRETE AT THE LOW (RIGHT) END OF SLOPED PAD. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, East Gun Emplacement, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. iPad use during ward rounds: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Lehnbom, Elin C; Adams, Kristian; Day, Richard O; Westbrook, Johanna I; Baysari, Melissa T

    2014-01-01

    Much clinical information is computerised and doctors' use of mobile devices such as iPad tablets to access this information is expanding rapidly. This study investigated the use of iPads during ward rounds and their usefulness in providing access to information during ward rounds. Ten teams of doctors at a large teaching hospital were given iPads for ten weeks and were observed on ward rounds for 77.3 hours as they interacted with 525 patients. Use of iPads and other information technology devices to access clinical information was recorded. The majority of clinical information was accessed using iPads (56.2%), followed by computers-on-wheels (35.8%), stationary PCs (7.9%) and smartphones (0.1%). Despite having read-only access on iPads, doctors were generally happy using iPads on ward rounds. These findings provide evidence of the value of iPads as a tool to access information at the point of care. PMID:25087529

  16. Teaching with Technology: iPads and Primary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attard, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    iPads are beginning to appear in more and more primary classrooms, yet it is difficult to find teaching ideas that promote deep mathematical understanding. Catherine Attard provides a list of teaching considerations to be used when using iPads and two practical ideas for using them.

  17. 49. VIEW OF EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH PAD. THRUST SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. VIEW OF EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH PAD. THRUST SECTION HEATER AND DUCTS ON RIGHT; UMBILICAL MAST POWER CONNECTORS ON LEFT; RAIL SYSTEM AND FIRE SUPPRESSION NOZZLES IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Topography of whisking II: interaction of whisker and pad.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, R; Friedman, W; Zeigler, H P

    2005-09-01

    The peripheral effector system mediating rodent whisking produces protraction/retraction movements of the whiskers and translation movements of the collagenous mystacial pad. To examine the interaction of these movements during whisking in air we used high-resolution, optoelectronic methods for two-dimensional monitoring of whisker and pad movements in head-fixed rats. Under these testing conditions (1) whisker movements on the same side of the face are synchronous and of similar amplitude; (2) pad movements exhibit the characteristic 'exploratory' rhythm (6-12 Hz) of whisking but their movements often have a low frequency (1-2 Hz) component; (3) Pad movements occur in both antero-posterior and dorso-ventral planes but there are considerable variations in the amplitude and topography of movement parameters in the two planes. We conclude that (a) both whisker and pad receive input from a common central rhythm generator; (b) differences in whisker and pad amplitude and topography probably reflect differences in the biomechanical properties of the structures receiving that input; (c) pad movements make a significant contribution to the kinematics of whisking behavior and (d) the two-dimensional nature of pad translation movements significantly increases the rat's flexible control of its mobile sensor. PMID:16338829

  19. Public access to defibrillation (PAD): implementing a church program.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Jody

    2012-01-01

    For every minute without cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, the odds of surviving cardiac arrest decrease by 7% to 10%. Churches can implement a public access to defibrillation (PAD) program and help save lives. This article outlines steps and resources for setting up a PAD program. PMID:22480085

  20. Implementing iPads in the Inclusive Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maich, Kimberly; Hall, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This column provides practical suggestions to help guide teachers in utilizing classroom sets of iPads. Following a brief introduction to tablet technology in inclusive classrooms and the origin of these recommendations from a case study focus group, important elements of setting up classroom iPad use, from finding funding to teaching apps, are…

  1. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53), 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002

  2. Finite element analysis of heel pad with insoles.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gangming; Houston, Vern L; Garbarini, Mary Anne; Beattie, Aaron C; Thongpop, Chaiya

    2011-05-17

    To design optimal insoles for reduction of pedal tissue trauma, experimental measurements and computational analyses were performed. To characterize the mechanical properties of the tissues, indentation tests were performed. Pedal tissue geometry and morphology were obtained from magnetic resonance scan of the subject's foot. Axisymmetrical finite element models of the heel of the foot were created with 1/4 of body weight load applied. The stress, strain and strain energy density (SED) fields produced in the pedal tissues were computed. The effects of various insole designs and materials on the resulting stress, strain, and SED in the soft pedal tissues were analyzed. The results showed: (a) Flat insoles made of soft material provide some reductions in the maximum stress, strain and SED produced in the pedal tissues. These maximum values were computed near the calcaneus. (b) Flat insoles, with conical/cylindrical reliefs, provided more reductions in these maximum values than without reliefs. (c) Custom insoles, contoured to match the pedal geometry provide most reductions in the maximum stress, strain and SED. Also note, the maximum stress, strain and SED computed near the calcaneus were found to be about 10 times the corresponding peak values computed on the skin surface. Based on the FEA analysis, it can be concluded that changing insole design and using different material can significantly redistribute the stress/strain inside the heel pad as well as on the skin surface. PMID:21420682

  3. Open Vehicle Sketch Pad Aircraft Modeling Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Geometric modeling of aircraft during the Conceptual design phase is very different from that needed for the Preliminary or Detailed design phases. The Conceptual design phase is characterized by the rapid, multi-disciplinary analysis of many design variables by a small engineering team. The designer must walk a line between fidelity and productivity, picking tools and methods with the appropriate balance of characteristics to achieve the goals of the study, while staying within the available resources. Identifying geometric details that are important, and those that are not, is critical to making modeling and methodology choices. This is true for both the low-order analysis methods traditionally used in Conceptual design as well as the highest-order analyses available. This paper will highlight some of Conceptual design's characteristics that drive the designer s choices as well as modeling examples for several aircraft configurations using the open source version of the Vehicle Sketch Pad (Open VSP) aircraft Conceptual design geometry modeler.

  4. Launch Pad Flame Trench Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Bucherl, Cori; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark; Perusich, Steve; Whitten, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The launch complexes at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are critical support facilities for the successful launch of space-based vehicles. These facilities include a flame trench that bisects the pad at ground level. This trench includes a flame deflector system that consists of an inverted, V-shaped steel structure covered with a high temperature concrete material five inches thick that extends across the center of the flame trench. One side of the "V11 receives and deflects the flames from the orbiter main engines; the opposite side deflects the flames from the solid rocket boosters. There are also two movable deflectors at the top of the trench to provide additional protection to shuttle hardware from the solid rocket booster flames. These facilities are over 40 years old and are experiencing constant deterioration from launch heat/blast effects and environmental exposure. The refractory material currently used in launch pad flame deflectors has become susceptible to failure, resulting in large sections of the material breaking away from the steel base structure and creating high-speed projectiles during launch. These projectiles jeopardize the safety of the launch complex, crew, and vehicle. Post launch inspections have revealed that the number and frequency of repairs, as well as the area and size of the damage, is increasing with the number of launches. The Space Shuttle Program has accepted the extensive ground processing costs for post launch repair of damaged areas and investigations of future launch related failures for the remainder of the program. There currently are no long term solutions available for Constellation Program ground operations to address the poor performance and subsequent failures of the refractory materials. Over the last three years, significant liberation of refractory material in the flame trench and fire bricks along the adjacent trench walls following Space Shuttle launches have resulted in extensive investigations of

  5. Metal pad instabilities in liquid metal batteries.

    PubMed

    Zikanov, Oleg

    2015-12-01

    A mechanical analogy is used to analyze the interaction between the magnetic field, electric current, and deformation of interfaces in liquid metal batteries. In the framework of a low-mode, nondissipative, linear stability model, it is found that, during charging or discharging, a sufficiently large battery is prone to instabilities of two types. One is similar to the metal pad instability known to exist in the aluminum reduction cells. Another type is new. It is related to the destabilizing effect of the Lorentz force formed by the azimuthal magnetic field induced by the base current, and the current perturbations caused by the local variations of the thickness of the electrolyte layer. PMID:26764818

  6. Microneurovascular free digital pad transfer in the dog.

    PubMed

    Basher, A W; Fowler, J D; Bowen, C V; Clark, E G; Crosby, N L

    1990-01-01

    By cadaver dissections, the fifth digit of the canine hind limb was determined to have a consistent neurovascular anatomy, and therefore be a suitable donor for an axial pattern digital pad flap. The defined digital pad flap was transferred to the region of an excised metacarpal pad by microneurovascular anastomoses in five operations on four dogs. One flap failure was considered to result from failure of the venous anastomosis. In all four successful transfers, cutaneous sensation was reestablished on average in 78 days. There was histologic evidence of nerve regeneration across the anastomosis in one dog at week 24. The transferred pads of three dogs monitored for 15 months underwent hypertrophic changes. There were no complications in two active dogs. In one dog, superficial ulceration of a region of the flap adjacent to the pad required surgical revision. This dog continued to show mild lameness after daily runs of 3 to 4 km. PMID:1971973

  7. Pad printer for electronics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This is the Final report on DARPA-sponsored development Program Pad Printer for Electronics DE-FC04-95AL87486 which was initiated in February, 1995 and intended to run 24 months to February 1997. The Program has significant value to the Thick Film processing industry, an electronic manufacturing alternative for producing functional modules integrated at the multichip level. The result is highly reliable, high volumetric efficiency, subassemblies for military applications and for commercial applications in severe environments, such as automotive, portable communications, and bio-implantable devices. The program progressed quite satisfactorily through 19 months, when it encountered severe, non-technical, difficulties. Resolving these difficulties resulted in several months of delay in completing the Program, but resulted in only a trivial increase in total program cost and no increase in cost to the sponsor. The principle Objective of the Program was the development of a printing system -- machine and appropriate inks -- compatible with existing thick-film processing but offering a 5x improvement in line density. This objective has been met. The Pad Printer is capable of printing suitable inks in traces 25 g wide on 50g centers to a fired thickness of 3 {mu}; each of these parameters is roughly 1/5 the value of the current alternative, silk-screen printing. The available inks represent an assortment of conductor, dielectric, and insulator formulations and the knowledge developed permits extending this family of inks to new and diverse functional materials. An important secondary objective was maximum compatibility with existing Thick Film processing; the printer and ink systems may be substituted directly for the silk screen printers in existing processes. The Program reached or exceeded its other Technical Objectives in almost every case and, in those few instances where the objective was only partially met, work continues under private funding.

  8. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

  9. Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  10. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... to medicines, thyroid problems, heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

  11. iPads in Breast Imaging – A Phantom Study

    PubMed Central

    Hammon, M.; Schlechtweg, P. M.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Uder, M.; Schwab, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Modern tablet PCs as the iPad are becoming more and more integrated into medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the display quality of iPads regarding digital mammography. Materials and Methods: Three experienced readers compared the display quality of the iPad 2 and 3 with a dedicated 10 megapixel (MP) mammography liquid crystal display (LCD) screen in consensus using the standardized Contrast Detail Mammography (CDMAM) phantom. Phantom fields without agreement between the readers were classified as “uncertain”, correct 2 : 1 decisions were classified as “uncertain/readable”. In a second step display quality of the three reading devices was judged subjectively in a side by side comparison. Results: The 10 MP screen was superior to both iPads in 4 (phantom-)fields and inferior in 2 fields. Comparing the iPads, version 3 was superior in 4 fields and version 2 was superior in 1 field. However these differences were not significant. Total number of “uncertain” fields did not show significant differences. The number of “uncertain” fields was 15 with the 10 MP screen, 16 with the iPad 2 and 17 with the iPad 3 (p > 0.05), the number of “uncertain/readable” fields was 4, 7 and 8, respectively. Subjective image quality of the iPad 3 and the 10 MP screen was rated superior to the iPad 2. Conclusion: The evaluated iPads, especially in version 3, seem to be adequate to display mammograms in a diagnostic quality and thus could be useful e.g. for patient consultation, clinical demonstration or educational and teaching purposes. However primary mammogram reading should still be performed on dedicated large sized reading screens. PMID:24741126

  12. Binocular iPad treatment for amblyopia in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Eileen E.; Li, Simone L.; Jost, Reed M.; Morale, Sarah E.; De La Cruz, Angie; Stager, David; Dao, Lori; Stager, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent experimental evidence supports a role for binocular visual experience in the treatment of amblyopia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated binocular visual experience with dichoptic iPad games could effectively treat amblyopia in preschool children. Methods A total of 50 consecutive amblyopic preschool children 3–6.9 years of age were assigned to play sham iPad games (first 5 children) or binocular iPad games (n = 45) for at least 4 hours per week for 4 weeks. Thirty (67%) children in the binocular iPad group and 4 (80%) in the sham iPad group were also treated with patching at a different time of day. Visual acuity and stereoacuity were assessed at baseline, at 4 weeks, and at 3 months after the cessation of game play. Results The sham iPad group had no significant improvement in visual acuity (t4 = 0.34, P = 0.75). In the binocular iPad group, mean visual acuity (plus or minus standard error) improved from 0.43 ± 0.03 at baseline to 0.34 ± 0.03 logMAR at 4 weeks (n = 45; paired t44 = 4.93; P < 0.0001). Stereoacuity did not significantly improve (t44 = 1.35, P = 0.18). Children who played the binocular iPad games for ≥8 hours (≥50% compliance) had significantly more visual acuity improvement than children who played 0–4 hours (t43 = 4.21, P = 0.0001). Conclusions Repeated binocular experience, provided by dichoptic iPad game play, was more effective than sham iPad game play as a treatment for amblyopia in preschool children. PMID:25727578

  13. [The supinator fat pad in fractures of the elbow joint].

    PubMed

    Schunk, K; Grossholz, M; Schild, H

    1989-03-01

    The position of the supinator fat pad is regarded as a valuable sign in fractures of the elbow. In our patients the pad was visible in 277 out of 337 cases (82%). The sign was positive in only 27 out of 55 proximal fractures of the radius (sensitivity 0.49). There was no correlation between the severity of the fracture and the sign. There was marked variation in the distance between the pad and the radius, depending on age, build and projection. Our results indicate that the sign is not suitable for the diagnosis of fracture of the elbow. PMID:2538879

  14. 48. DETAIL VIEW OF AIR VENT AT 'CATFISH' LAUNCH PAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. DETAIL VIEW OF AIR VENT AT 'CATFISH' LAUNCH PAD Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 43. DETAIL VIEW OF 'CATFISH' LAUNCH PAD (continues view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. DETAIL VIEW OF 'CATFISH' LAUNCH PAD (continues view of CA-57-7) Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 32. DETAIL VIEW OF CAMERA PIT SOUTH OF LAUNCH PAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL VIEW OF CAMERA PIT SOUTH OF LAUNCH PAD WITH CAMERA AIMED AT LAUNCH DECK; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. 21 CFR 872.3540 - OTC denture cushion or pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-counter. (b) Classification. (1) Class I if the device is made of wax-impregnated cotton cloth that the... denture cushion or pad is made of a material other than wax-impregnated cotton cloth or if the...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3540 - OTC denture cushion or pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-counter. (b) Classification. (1) Class I if the device is made of wax-impregnated cotton cloth that the... denture cushion or pad is made of a material other than wax-impregnated cotton cloth or if the...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3540 - OTC denture cushion or pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-counter. (b) Classification. (1) Class I if the device is made of wax-impregnated cotton cloth that the... denture cushion or pad is made of a material other than wax-impregnated cotton cloth or if the...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3540 - OTC denture cushion or pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-counter. (b) Classification. (1) Class I if the device is made of wax-impregnated cotton cloth that the... denture cushion or pad is made of a material other than wax-impregnated cotton cloth or if the...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3540 - OTC denture cushion or pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-counter. (b) Classification. (1) Class I if the device is made of wax-impregnated cotton cloth that the... denture cushion or pad is made of a material other than wax-impregnated cotton cloth or if the...

  2. Preventive medicine oversight of splash pads on military installations.

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, Lisa Raysby; Perry, Matthew; Browne, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, an increasing number of military installations have installed splash pads that provide fun, recreational water entertainment for Soldiers and their families. The addition of splash pads brings added responsibilities for medical treatment facility preventive medicine oversight and installation facilities maintenance to ensure a safe and healthy environment. Currently, there are no consistent standards or detailed guidance for military installations to follow when installing and maintaining splash pads. The central issues associated with splash pads on military installations are water quality and risk for waterborne illnesses, responsibility for safety and health oversight, and federal energy and water sustainability mandates. This article examines the importance of implementing a standard for design and oversight to ensure the health and safety of Soldiers and their families. PMID:25651143

  3. Overview of the Colorado River Canyon from the helicopter pad. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the Colorado River Canyon from the helicopter pad. View of the Nevada side where new bridge will cross canyon, view northwest - Hoover Dam, Spanning Colorado River at Route 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  4. Correlations for Saturation Efficiency of Evaporative Cooling Pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, J. K.; Hindoliya, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents some experimental investigations to obtain correlations for saturation efficiency of evaporative cooling pads. Two commonly used materials namely aspen and khus fibers along with new materials namely coconut fibers and palash fibers were tested in a laboratory using suitably fabricated test setup. Simple mathematical correlations have been developed for calculating saturation efficiency of evaporating cooling pads which can be used to predict their performance at any desired mass flow rate. Performances of four different pad materials were also compared using developed correlations. An attempt was made to test two new materials (i.e. fibers of palash wood and coconut) to check their suitability as wetted media for evaporative cooling pads. It was found that Palash wood fibers offered highest saturation efficiency compared to that of other existing materials such as aspen and khus fibers at different mass flow rate of air.

  5. 35. Photocopy of Photograph VIEW TO EAST, VIEW OF PAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of Photograph VIEW TO EAST, VIEW OF PAD B LAUNCH DECK AND UMBILICAL MAST, 28 February 1966. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. 19. MUELLER FIRE HYDRANT NEAR LAUNCHING PAD IN STATION "0". ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. MUELLER FIRE HYDRANT NEAR LAUNCHING PAD IN STATION "0". - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 58. Overall view of entry to launch pad from inside ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. Overall view of entry to launch pad from inside gate with building 157, sentry control box on right, looking northeast - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  8. 56. Overall view towards launch pad with building 157, sentry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Overall view towards launch pad with building 157, sentry control box on left, and building 156, Warhead Building on right, looking southwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  9. 16 CFR 1632.5 - Mattress pad test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (v) A different number of... substrate. (b) Flame resistant mattress pads. The following additional requirements shall be applicable...

  10. 16 CFR 1632.5 - Mattress pad test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (v) A different number of... substrate. (b) Flame resistant mattress pads. The following additional requirements shall be applicable...

  11. 2. CONCRETE PADDING AREA BETWEEN BERM MOUNDS, LOOKING NORTH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONCRETE PADDING AREA BETWEEN BERM MOUNDS, LOOKING NORTH FROM TOP OF BERM. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Acid Fueling Station, North of Launch Area Entrance Drive, eastern central portion of base, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  12. 8. View east. East abutment, showing bearings on concrete pads, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View east. East abutment, showing bearings on concrete pads, drainage pipes for approach, and scupper downspouts. - Walpole-Westminster Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Walpole, NH & Westminster, VT, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  13. 7. Shed and keeper' house with helicopter pad in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Shed and keeper' house with helicopter pad in foreground, view east, southwest and northwest sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  14. Orbital Rolls to Launch Pad at Wallops for Station Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    An Orbital Sciences Corporation Antares rolled out to launch Pad-0A at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, Sunday, January 5, 2014, in advance of a planned Wednesday, Jan. 8th, 1:32 p.m. EST launch. Th...

  15. 16. CONCRETE PAD ON WHICH AN ELECTRICAL REACTOR WAS MOUNTED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. CONCRETE PAD ON WHICH AN ELECTRICAL REACTOR WAS MOUNTED, IN THE BASEMENT, EAST WALL - Bonneville Power Administration South Bank Substation, I-84, South of Bonneville Dam Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  16. Time-Lapse: Mobile Launcher Moves to Launch Pad

    NASA Video Gallery

    The mobile launcher that will host NASA's Space Launch System and new Orion spacecraft was moved to Launch Pad 39B at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to begin two weeks of structural and sys...

  17. 4. VIEW SOUTHEAST, COMPRESSOR PADS Imperial Carbon Black Plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SOUTHEAST, COMPRESSOR PADS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  18. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, COMPRESSOR PADS Imperial Carbon Black Plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, COMPRESSOR PADS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  19. Behind the Scenes: Shuttle Crawls to Launch Pad

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Behind the Scenes, take a look at what's needed to roll a space shuttle out of the Vehicle Assembly Building and out to the launch pad. Astronaut Mike Massimino talks to som...

  20. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quit Smoking Benefits of Quitting Health Effects of Smoking Secondhand Smoke Withdrawal Ways to Quit QuitGuide Pregnancy & Motherhood Pregnancy & Motherhood Before Your Baby is Born From Birth to 2 Years Quitting for Two SmokefreeMom Healthy Kids Parenting & ... Weight Management Weight Management ...

  1. Method for Producing Launch/Landing Pads and Structures Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Current plans for deep space exploration include building landing-launch pads capable of withstanding the rocket blast of much larger spacecraft that that of the Apollo days. The proposed concept will develop lightweight launch and landing pad materials from in-situ materials, utilizing regolith to produce controllable porous cast metallic foam brickstiles shapes. These shapes can be utilized to lay a landing launch platform, as a construction material or as more complex parts of mechanical assemblies.

  2. Assessment of Raman Spectroscopy as a Silicone Pad Production Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Saab, A P; Balazs, G B; Maxwell, R S

    2005-05-05

    Silicone pressure pads are currently deployed in the W80. The mechanical properties of these pads are largely based on the degree of crosslinking between the polymer components that comprise the raw gumstock from which they are formed. Therefore, it is desirable for purposes of both production and systematic study of these materials to have a rapid, reliable means of assaying the extent of crosslinking. The present report describes the evaluation of Raman spectroscopy in this capacity.

  3. 44. VIEW OF UMBILICAL MAST AND LAUNCH PAD FROM SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. VIEW OF UMBILICAL MAST AND LAUNCH PAD FROM SOUTHWEST. DOORS FOR THE UMBILICAL MAST TRENCH RAISED FOR MAINTENANCE POSITION OF 10 DEGREES. LAUNCHER IS RIGHT OF MAST; RAILS PARALLEL TO MAST. CONTROL PANELS LEFT TO RIGHT: ELECTRICAL PANEL, COMMUNICATIONS PANEL, AND MAST CONTROL PANEL. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. Demonstrating Optical Activity Using an iPad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Pauline M.; Lepore, Dante M.; Morneau, Brandy N.; Barratt, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Optical activity using an iPad as a source of polarized light is demonstrated. A sample crystal or solution can be placed on the iPad running a white screen app. The sample is viewed through a polarized filter that can be rotated. This setup can be used in the laboratory or with a document camera to easily project in a large lecture hall.…

  5. Riverland ERA maintenance pad site diesel contamination risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Valcich, P.J.

    1993-12-02

    The maintenance pad site consists of a concrete pad and underlying soils, approximately 15 by 46 m in area, and a drainage ditch with dimensions of 2.4 by 91 m. The ditch is located approximately 60 m from the concrete pad and is oriented parallel to the pads long axis. The facility was built in 1943, at which time the concrete pad was the floor of a maintenance shed for railroad activities. In 1955, use of the facility as a maintenance shed was discontinued. Between 1955 and 1957, the facility was used as a radioactivity decontamination area for railroad cars; acetone-soaked rags were used to remove surface contamination from the cars. The concrete pad was washed down with a mixture of water and diesel fuel, which was then flushed via clay pipe to the drainage ditch. In 1963, the maintenance shed was torn down and the concrete pad covered with approximately one-half meter of fill. The concrete pad was re-exposed in 1993. The site was sampled for Toxicity Characteristic Leachate Procedure (TCLP) metals, volatile, and semi-volatile compounds, as well as for extractable fuel hydrocarbons. A total of 17 samples were collected from surface concrete, soil beneath surface concrete, and ditch soil. One concrete sample and one ditch soil sample were split. The ditch soil sample was also duplicated. The relative percent difference (RPD) in extractable hydrocarbons of the two split samples, one from concrete and one from ditch soil are, respectively, 52% and 186%. The RPD for the duplicate sample, taken from the same ditch soil sample from which one of the splits was taken, is 39%.

  6. 21 CFR 884.5425 - Scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad. 884... Therapeutic Devices § 884.5425 Scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad. (a) Identification. A scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad is a device that is a pad made of cellulosic or synthetic material...

  7. The CIMSS iPad Library and ESIP Teacher Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlman, L.; Mooney, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison launched a new initiative in 2012 to engage teachers and students in data acquisition and regional climate studies. The CIMSS iPad Library, part of a NASA funded Climate Literacy Ambassadors project, loans iPads to science teachers for an entire school year. The first units were distributed at a NOAA funded teacher workshop conducted at the annual Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) summer conference. Educators learned about numerous NOAA and NASA resources at the ESIP Teacher Workshop and also several different climate-related Apps, including SatCam, an application for iOS devices that allows users to collect observations of local cloud and surface conditions coordinated with an overpass of the Terra, Aqua, or Suomi NPP satellite. This presentation will outline connections between the Climate Literacy Ambassadors community and ESIP Teacher Workshops before delving into details about the new iPad Library and SatCam. We will discuss considerations and challenges related to a technology loaning library, software recoding to HTML5, and some advantages and limitations related to iPads. We will also share feedback acquired over the fall from ESIP Educators using the SatCam App with their students with the iPads they borrowed (like books) from the CIMSS iPad Library.

  8. Saturn I (SA-1) on Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    On October 27, 1961, the Marshall Space Flight Center and the Nation marked a high point in the 3-year-old Saturn development program when the first Saturn vehicle, SA-1, flew a flawless 215-mile ballistic trajectory from Cape Canaveral, Florida. SA-1 is pictured here on the launch pad ready for lift off. Developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun, SA-1 incorporated a Saturn I, Block I engine. The typical height of a Block I vehicle was approximately 163 feet and had only one live stage. It consisted of eight tanks, each 70 inches in diameter, clustered around a central tank, 105 inches in diameter. Four of the external tanks were fuel tanks for the RP-1 (kerosene) fuel. The other four, spaced alternately with the fuel tanks, were liquid oxygen tanks, as was the large center tank. All fuel tanks and liquid oxygen tanks drained at the same rates respectively. The thrust for the stage came from eight H-1 engines, each producing a thrust of 165,000 pounds, for a total thrust of over 1,300,000 pounds. The engines were arranged in a double pattern. Four engines, located inboard, were fixed in a square pattern around the stage axis and canted outward slightly, while the remaining four engines were located outboard in a larger square pattern offset 40 degrees from the inner pattern. Unlike the inner engines, each outer engine was gimbaled. That is, each could be swung through an arc. They were gimbaled as a means of steering the rocket, by letting the instrumentation of the rocket correct any deviations of its powered trajectory. The block I required engine gimabling as the only method of guiding and stabilizing the rocket through the lower atmosphere. The upper stages of the Block I rocket reflected the three-stage configuration of the Saturn I vehicle.

  9. Aircraft Conceptual Design Using Vehicle Sketch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.; Antcliff, Kevin R.; Costa, Guillermo; Deshpande, Nachiket; Moore, Mark D.; Miguel, Edric A. San; Snyder, Alison N.

    2010-01-01

    Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is a parametric geometry modeling tool that is intended for use in the conceptual design of aircraft. The intent of this software is to rapidly model aircraft configurations without expending the expertise and time that is typically required for modeling with traditional Computer Aided Design (CAD) packages. VSP accomplishes this by using parametrically defined components, such as a wing that is defined by span, area, sweep, taper ratio, thickness to cord, and so on. During this phase of frequent design builds, changes to the model can be rapidly visualized along with the internal volumetric layout. Using this geometry-based approach, parameters such as wetted areas and cord lengths can be easily extracted for rapid external performance analyses, such as a parasite drag buildup. At the completion of the conceptual design phase, VSP can export its geometry to higher fidelity tools. This geometry tool was developed by NASA and is freely available to U.S. companies and universities. It has become integral to conceptual design in the Aeronautics Systems Analysis Branch (ASAB) here at NASA Langley Research Center and is currently being used at over 100 universities, aerospace companies, and other government agencies. This paper focuses on the use of VSP in recent NASA conceptual design studies to facilitate geometry-centered design methodology. Such a process is shown to promote greater levels of creativity, more rapid assessment of critical design issues, and improved ability to quickly interact with higher order analyses. A number of VSP vehicle model examples are compared to CAD-based conceptual design, from a designer perspective; comparisons are also made of the time and expertise required to build the geometry representations as well.

  10. The effect of football shoulder pads on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Coast, J Richard; Baronas, Jessica L; Morris, Colleen; Willeford, K Sean

    2005-12-01

    Restriction of expansion of the lungs or chest wall impedes inflation of the lungs during inhalation. Functional changes occurring during such restriction include reduced pulmonary and/or chest wall compliance, decreases in pulmonary function, and ultimately a decrease in exercise performance. Such restriction can be seen in several pathologic conditions such as scoliosis or obesity, as well as occupational situations such as the wearing of bullet-proof vests. This study investigated the hypothesis that tightened football shoulder pads produce decrements in pulmonary function similar to those shown in previous studies involving other external chest-wall restricting devices. In this study, 24 subjects, all members of a collegiate division IAA football team and used to wearing the pads, performed standard pulmonary function tests while wearing no pads (control, CTRL), wearing pads that were not secured (pads loose, PL) and while wearing pads secured "game-tight" (pads tight, PT). The data showed that both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.0) were significantly decreased in the PT condition compared to either the CTRL or PL condition, with no changes in the FEV1.0/FVC ratio or peak expiratory flow rate. These results are consistent with a restrictive condition and support our hypothesis that tightened shoulder pads reduce pulmonary function. Further studies remain to be performed to determine whether these changes lead to decreased exercise performance and whether equipment modifications can be made to limit alterations in pulmonary function without decreasing the protective value of the pads. Key PointsThe shoulder pads used in American football extend to the xyphoid process and may provide a restriction to breathing. This was tested in the present study in 24 college-level football players with normal resting pulmonary function.The results showed that there was a decrease in FVC of approximately 150 ml and a similar

  11. Inhibition of PAD4 activity is sufficient to disrupt mouse and human NET formation

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Huw D.; Liddle, John; Coote, Jim E.; Atkinson, Stephen J.; Barker, Michael D.; Bax, Benjamin, D.; Bicker, Kevin L.; Bingham, Ryan P.; Campbell, Matthew; Chen, Yu Hua; Chung, Chun-wa; Craggs, Peter D.; Davis, Rob P.; Eberhard, Dirk; Joberty, Gerard; Lind, Kenneth E.; Locke, Kelly; Maller, Claire; Martinod, Kimberly; Patten, Chris; Polyakova, Oxana; Rise, Cecil E.; Rüdiger, Martin; Sheppard, Robert J.; Slade, Daniel J.; Thomas, Pamela; Thorpe, Jim; Yao, Gang; Drewes, Gerard; Wagner, Denisa D.; Thompson, Paul R.; Prinjha, Rab K.; Wilson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    PAD4 has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune, cardiovascular and oncological diseases, through clinical genetics and gene disruption in mice. Novel, selective PAD4 inhibitors binding to a calcium-deficient form of the PAD4 enzyme have, for the first time, validated the critical enzymatic role of human and mouse PAD4 in both histone citrullination and neutrophil extracellular trap formation. The therapeutic potential of PAD4 inhibitors can now be explored. PMID:25622091

  12. Weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

  13. STS-101 Atlantis near Launch Pad 39-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Seen from across the backwaters of the Indian River Lagoon, the Space Shuttle Atlantis, atop the mobile launcher platform and crawler-transporter, nears Launch Pad 39A at 1 mph. The crawler- transporter takes about five hours to cover the 3.4 miles from the Vehicle Assembly Building to the launch pad. The crawler- transporter carries its cargo at 1 mph, taking about five hours to cover the 3.4 miles from the Vehicle Assembly Building to the launch pad. A leveling system on the crawler-transporter keeps the top of the Space Shuttle vertical, especially negotiating the ramp leading to the launch pads and when it is raised and lowered on pedestals at the pad. Liftoff of Atlantis on mission STS-101 is scheduled for April 17 at 7:03 p.m. EDT. STS-101 is a logistics and resupply mission for the International Space Station, to restore full redundancy to the International Space Station power system in preparation for the arrival of the next pressurized module, the Russian-built Zvezda.

  14. Insect tricks: two-phasic foot pad secretion prevents slipping.

    PubMed

    Dirks, Jan-Henning; Clemente, Christofer J; Federle, Walter

    2010-04-01

    Many insects cling to vertical and inverted surfaces with pads that adhere by nanometre-thin films of liquid secretion. This fluid is an emulsion, consisting of watery droplets in an oily continuous phase. The detailed function of its two-phasic nature has remained unclear. Here we show that the pad emulsion provides a mechanism that prevents insects from slipping on smooth substrates. We discovered that it is possible to manipulate the adhesive secretion in vivo using smooth polyimide substrates that selectively absorb its watery component. While thick layers of polyimide spin-coated onto glass removed all visible hydrophilic droplets, thin coatings left the emulsion in its typical form. Force measurements of stick insect pads sliding on these substrates demonstrated that the reduction of the watery phase resulted in a significant decrease in friction forces. Artificial control pads made of polydimethylsiloxane showed no difference when tested on the same substrates, confirming that the effect is caused by the insects' fluid-based adhesive system. Our findings suggest that insect adhesive pads use emulsions with non-Newtonian properties, which may have been optimized by natural selection. Emulsions as adhesive secretions combine the benefits of 'wet' adhesion and resistance against shear forces. PMID:19755498

  15. Visible light active photocatalyst from recycled disposable heating pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Meng-Chien; Wang, Chun-Yu; Chen, Che-Chin; Wang, Chih-Ming; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Tsai, Din Ping

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-Fe2O3 (α-Fe2O3) is cheap and abundant and has potential to be a highly efficient photocatalyst for water splitting. According to the report, there are a huge amount of disposable heating pads being created every year, and the pads are used one time then thrown away. We found that the main product of used heating pads is α-Fe2O3. Here, we collect and purify the α-Fe2O3 powder in the used heating pads using low power consumption processes. It is shown that the recycled heating pads can be used as a cost-effective photocatalyst for H2 energy and for decomposition of organic pollutants as well. Additionally, the plasmonic enhanced photocatalysis reaction of α-Fe2O3 is also investigated. It is found that H2 evolution rate can be enhanced 15% using α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with a thin Au layer. The degradation of methylene blue can also enhance 12% compared to photocatalyst α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated without Au layer.

  16. Effects of self-healing microcapsules on bending performance in composite brake pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Dong, Xiu-ping; Wang, Hui

    2009-07-01

    For the purpose of reducing self-weight, friction noise and cost, improving shock absorption, enhancing corrosion and wear resistance, brake pads made of composite materials with self-healing function are prepared to substitute metal ones by designing ingredients and applying optimized production technology. As self-healing capsules are chosen, new method with technology of self-healing microcapsules, dicyclpentadiene (DCPD) microcapsules coated with poly (urea-formaldehyde), is put forward in this paper. In the crack's extending process, the stress is concentrated at the crack end, where the microcapsule is designed to be located. When the stress goes through the microcapsules and causes them to break, the self-healing liquid runs out to fill the crack by the capillary and it will poly-react with catalyst in the composite. As a result, the crack is healed. In this paper, polymer matrix composite brake pads with 6 prescriptions are prepared and studied. Three-point bending tests are carried out according to standards in GB/T 3356-1999 and the elastic constants of these polymer matrix composites are obtained by experiments. In accordance with the law of the continuous fiber composite, elastic constants of the short-fiber composite can be calculated by proportions of each ingredient. Results show that the theoretical expected results and the experimental values are consistent. 0.3-1.2 % mass proportion of microcapsules has little effects on the composite's bending intensity and modulus of elasticity. These studies also show that self-healing microcapsules used in composite brake pads is feasible.

  17. Gecko inspired carbon nanotube based thermal gap pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Sunny; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2012-02-01

    Thermal management has become a critical factor in designing the next generation of microprocessors. The bottleneck in design of material for efficient heat transfer from electronic units to heat sinks is to enhance heat flow across interface between two dissimilar, rough surfaces. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been shown to be promising candidates for thermal transport. However, the heat transport across the interface continues to be a challenging hurdle. In the current work we designed free standing thermal pads based on gecko-inspired carbon nanotube adhesives. The pads were made of metallic carbon nanotubes and the structure was designed such that it would allow large area of intimate contact. We showed that these adhesive pads can be used as electrical and thermal interconnects.

  18. Closing microvascular lesions with fibrin sealant-attached muscle pads.

    PubMed

    Fehm, Nando Percy; Vatankhah, Bijan; Dittmar, Michael S; Tevetoglu, Yesim; Retzl, Gerald; Horn, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Fibrin sealants are used in a variety of surgical procedures, mainly for purposes of hemostasis and assisted wound healing. The combined use of fibrin sealant and autologous muscle pads for hemostasis was not reported previously. Arterial incisions in the common carotid artery in rats were closed by the combined application of fibrin sealant and an autologous muscle pad. Postsurgical vessel patency and degree of stenosis were evaluated by color duplex sonography, computed tomography angiography, and postmortem histology. The combined application of muscle pad and fibrin sealant and achievement of hemostasis was feasible in all animals. Seventy-eight percent of animals showed no or only slight postsurgical vessel stenosis. Our method is simple and quick to perform, showing a high potential for hemostasis in microvascular lesions. Therefore, it might be used in future experimental studies for conservation of vessel patency after arterial catheterization and in experimental or clinical vascular surgery. PMID:16184526

  19. On pads and filters: Processing strong-motion data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Processing of strong-motion data in many cases can be as straightforward as filtering the acceleration time series and integrating to obtain velocity and displacement. To avoid the introduction of spurious low-frequency noise in quantities derived from the filtered accelerations, however, care must be taken to append zero pads of adequate length to the beginning and end of the segment of recorded data. These padded sections of the filtered acceleration need to be retained when deriving velocities, displacements, Fourier spectra, and response spectra. In addition, these padded and filtered sections should also be included in the time series used in the dynamic analysis of structures and soils to ensure compatibility with the filtered accelerations.

  20. STS-112 Atlantis rollout to Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- After an early morning rollout, Space Shuttle Atlantis sits on the launch pad. Visible near the tail are the tail service masts that support the fluid, gas and electrical requirements of the orbiter's liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen aft T-0 umbilicals. After being stacked with its solid rocket boosters and external tank, Atlantis began its rollout to Launch Pad 39B at 2:27 a.m. EDT in preparation for launch to the International Space Station. The Shuttle arrived at the Pad and was hard down at 9:38 a.m. Launch is scheduled no earlier than Oct. 2 for mission STS-112, the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station. Atlantis will carry the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, which will be attached to the central truss segment, the S0 truss, during the mission.

  1. STS-112 Atlantis rollout to Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- After an early morning rollout, Space Shuttle Atlantis nears the top of the launch pad. The Rotating Service Structure is wide open (in front of the Mobile Launcher Platform). After being stacked with its solid rocket boosters and external tank, Atlantis began its rollout to Launch Pad 39B at 2:27 a.m. EDT in preparation for launch to the International Space Station. The Shuttle arrived at the Pad and was hard down at 9:38 a.m. Launch is scheduled no earlier than Oct. 2 for mission STS-112, the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station. Atlantis will carry the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, which will be attached to the central truss segment, the S0 truss, during the mission.

  2. STS-112 Atlantis rollout to Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the early morning hours, Space Shuttle Atlantis, with its solid rocket boosters and orange external tank, sits atop the Mobile Launcher Platform ready to roll to the launch pad. Atlantis began its rollout to Launch Pad 39B at 2:27 a.m. EDT in preparation for launch to the International Space Station. The Shuttle arrived at the Pad and was hard down at 9:38 a.m. Launch is scheduled no earlier than Oct. 2 for mission STS-112, the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station. Atlantis will carry the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, which will be attached to the central truss segment, the S0 truss, during the mission.

  3. STS-112 Atlantis rollout to Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- After an early morning rollout, Space Shuttle Atlantis, atop the Mobile Launcher Platform, passes by the American flag as it moves through the gate at the launch pad. After being stacked with its solid rocket boosters and external tank, Atlantis began its rollout to Launch Pad 39B at 2:27 a.m. EDT in preparation for launch to the International Space Station. The Shuttle arrived at the Pad and was hard down at 9:38 a.m. Launch is scheduled no earlier than Oct. 2 for mission STS-112, the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station. Atlantis will carry the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, which will be attached to the central truss segment, the S0 truss, during the mission.

  4. STS-112 Atlantis rollout to Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- After an early morning rollout, Space Shuttle Atlantis sits on the launch pad. The Rotating Service Structure is wide open (at left). After being stacked with its solid rocket boosters and external tank, Atlantis began its rollout to Launch Pad 39B at 2:27 a.m. EDT in preparation for launch to the International Space Station. The Shuttle arrived at the Pad and was hard down at 9:38 a.m. Launch is scheduled no earlier than Oct. 2 for mission STS-112, the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station. Atlantis will carry the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, which will be attached to the central truss segment, the S0 truss, during the mission.

  5. STS-112 Atlantis rollout to Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the early light of dawn, Atlantis heads to the launch pad, lighted in the distance. After being stacked with its solid rocket boosters and external tank, Atlantis began its rollout to Launch Pad 39B at 2:27 a.m. EDT in preparation for launch to the International Space Station. The Shuttle arrived at the Pad and was hard down at 9:38 a.m. Launch is scheduled no earlier than Oct. 2 for mission STS-112, the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station. Atlantis will carry the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, which will be attached to the central truss segment, the S0 truss, during the mission.

  6. STS-100 crew members practice emergency escape from the pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - As part of emergency escape training at Launch Pad 39A, the STS-100 crew climb into slidewire baskets that, during a real emergency, would propel them off the Fixed Service Structure to a landing area away from the pad. The crew is taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities that also include a simulated launch countdown. The mission is carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello and the SSRMS, to the International Space Station. Raffaello carries six system racks and two storage racks for the U.S. Lab. The SSRMS is crucial to the continued assembly of the orbiting complex. Launch of mission STS-100 is scheduled for April 19 at 2:41 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  7. STS-100 crew members practice emergency escape from the pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - During emergency escape training at Launch Pad 39A, STS-100 Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby (left) and Commander Kent V. Rominger are in their slidewire basket that, during a real emergency, would propel them off the Fixed Service Structure to a landing area away from the pad. The crew is taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities that also include a simulated launch countdown. The mission is carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello and the SSRMS, to the International Space Station. Raffaello carries six system racks and two storage racks for the U.S. Lab. The SSRMS is crucial to the continued assembly of the orbiting complex. Launch of mission STS-100 is scheduled for April 19 at 2:41 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  8. An approach to evaluate capacitance, capacitive reactance and resistance of pivoted pads of a thrust bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prashad, Har

    1992-07-01

    A theoretical approach is developed for determining the capacitance and active resistance between the interacting surfaces of pivoted pads and thrust collar, under different conditions of operation. It is shown that resistance and capacitive reactance of a thrust bearing decrease with the number of pads times the values of these parameters for an individual pad, and that capacitance increases with the number of pads times the capacitance of an individual pad. The analysis presented has a potential to diagnose the behavior of pivoted pad thrust bearings with the angle of tilt and the ratio of film thickness at the leading to trailing edge, by determining the variation of capacitance, resistance, and capacitive reactance.

  9. Woodpecker Preventative measures at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Technicians at Launch Pad 39B take steps to prevent further damage from woodpeckers to the Space Shuttle Discovery, set to lift off July 13 on Mission STS-70. Installing balloons with scary eyes, such as these two near the external tank, are just one of the measures being taken to keep woodpeckers away since Discovery's second rollout to Pad B. Discovery had to be rolled back once to the Vehicle Assembly Building to repair woodpecker holes made in the insulation covering the external tank.

  10. Discrete integrable systems generated by Hermite-Padé approximants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aptekarev, Alexander I.; Derevyagin, Maxim; Van Assche, Walter

    2016-05-01

    We consider Hermite-Padé approximants in the framework of discrete integrable systems defined on the lattice {{{Z}}2} . We show that the concept of multiple orthogonality is intimately related to the Lax representations for the entries of the nearest neighbor recurrence relations and it thus gives rise to a discrete integrable system. We show that the converse statement is also true. More precisely, given the discrete integrable system in question there exists a perfect system of two functions, i.e. a system for which the entire table of Hermite-Padé approximants exists. In addition, we give a few algorithms to find solutions of the discrete system.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, S. K.; Shaw, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364952

  12. Compression Pad Cavity Heating Augmentation on Orion Heat Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to assess the effects of compression pad cavities on the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle heat shield. Testing was conducted in Mach 6 and 10 perfect-gas wind tunnels to obtain heating measurements in and around the compression pads cavities using global phosphor thermography. Data were obtained over a wide range of Reynolds numbers that produced laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow within and downstream of the cavities. The effects of cavity dimensions on boundary-layer transition and heating augmentation levels were studied. Correlations were developed for transition onset and for the average cavity-heating augmentation.

  13. The STS-98 crew practices emergency egress from the pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- During emergency egress training at the Launch Pad, Commander Ken Cockrell gets help adjusting his helmet. The crew is practicing using the slidewire baskets that slide along 1200-foot wire to the landing zone below and nearby bunker. The crew has been taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include the simulated countdown and emergency egress training at the pad. STS-98 is the seventh construction flight to the International Space Station, carrying as payload the U.S. Lab Destiny, a key element in the construction of the ISS. Launch of STS-98 is scheduled for Jan. 19 at 2:11 a.m. EST.

  14. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids which have a greater potential for peroxidat...

  15. A stereologic study of the plantar fat pad in young and aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Molligan, Jeremy; Schon, Lew; Zhang, Zijun

    2013-01-01

    Plantar fat pad (PFP) is a tissue structure that absorbs the initial impact of walking and running and ultimately bears body weight at standing. This study was designed to quantify the histomorphological changes of the PFP in aged rats. The most medial PFP was dissected from the hind feet of young rats (4 months old, n = 6) and aged rats (24 months old, n = 6). Histological structure and cellular senescence of PFP were analyzed stereologically and histomorphometrically. Immunohistochemistry of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) was also performed on PFP tissue sections. Compared with young rats, the thickness of epidermis, dermis and septa of the PFP were significantly reduced in the aged rats. The total volume of adipose tissue in the PFP of aged rats was only about 65% of that in the young rats. The microvascular density and the number of fat pad units (FPU), a cluster of adipocytes enclosed by elastin septa, in the PFP were unchanged in the aged rats. In the aged rats, the number of adipocytes per FPU was reduced but the number of simple adipocyte clusters, without surrounding septa, was increased. The shift of the types of adipocyte clusters in the aged PFP was accompanied by degradation of elastin fibers and increased expression of MMP9. In conclusion, the PFP, particularly the elastic septa, degenerates significantly in aged rats and this may contribute to the pathology of PFP-related diseases. PMID:24033117

  16. Relationships between Rodent White Adipose Fat Pads and Human White Adipose Fat Depots

    PubMed Central

    Chusyd, Daniella E.; Wang, Donghai; Huffman, Derek M.; Nagy, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue (WAT) development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of WAT. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent WAT as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat. PMID:27148535

  17. Environmental effects and characterization of the Egyptian radioactive well logging calibration pad facility.

    PubMed

    Al Alfy, Ibrahim Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    A set of ten radioactive well-logging calibration pads were constructed in one of the premises of the Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA), Egypt, at 6th October city. These pads were built for calibrating geophysical well-logging instruments. This calibration facility was conducted through technical assistance and practical support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and (ARCN). There are five uranium pads with three different uranium concentrations and borehole diameters. The other five calibration pads include one from each of the following: blank, potassium, thorium, multi layers and mixed. More than 22 t of various selected Egyptian raw materials were gathered for pad construction from different locations in Egypt. Pad's site and the surrounding area were spectrometrically surveyed before excavation for the construction process of pad-basin floor. They yielded negligible radiation values which are very near to the detected general background. After pad's construction, spectrometric measurements were carried out again in the same locations when the exposed bore holes of the pads were closed. No radioactivity leakage was noticed from the pads. Meanwhile, dose rate values were found to range from 0.12 to 1.26 mS/y. They were measured during the opening of bore holes of the pads. These values depend mainly upon the type and concentration of the pads as well as their borehole diameters. The results of radiospectrometric survey illustrate that the specification of top layers of the pads were constructed according to international standards. PMID:24140880

  18. 21 CFR 890.5740 - Powered heating pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered heating pad. 890.5740 Section 890.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5740 Powered...

  19. 21 CFR 890.5740 - Powered heating pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered heating pad. 890.5740 Section 890.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5740 Powered...

  20. 21 CFR 890.5740 - Powered heating pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered heating pad. 890.5740 Section 890.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5740 Powered...

  1. 21 CFR 890.5740 - Powered heating pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered heating pad. 890.5740 Section 890.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5740 Powered...

  2. 13. WALKWAY FROM LAUNCHING PAD TO CABLE TUNNEL STAIRWELL, ALSO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WALKWAY FROM LAUNCHING PAD TO CABLE TUNNEL STAIRWELL, ALSO SHOWING A PROTECTIVE BERM AT TOP LEFT, AND FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0545 AT TOP RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing Control Blockhouse, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 21 CFR 890.5740 - Powered heating pad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered heating pad. 890.5740 Section 890.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5740 Powered...

  4. Mobile Perspectives: On iPads--Why Mobile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawelek, Mary Ann; Spataro, Mary; Komarny, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Along with their students, faculty have become co-learners and pioneers in the classroom. With no models to work from, they have had to explore, practice, and discover the iPad's potential for expanding learning. Given the recent and rapidly growing access to a dazzling array of intellectual technologies, faculty and staff at Seton Hill, a liberal…

  5. International Perspectives on Literacy Learning with iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Tiffany L.; Fisher, Douglas; Lapp, Diane; Rowsell, Jennifer; Simpson, Alyson; Scott, Ruth McQuirter; Walsh, Maureen; Ciampa, Katia; Saudelli, Mary Gene

    2015-01-01

    This article profiles the use of the iPad in classroom literacy activities in three instructional environments: Toronto, Canada; San Diego, United States; and Sydney, Australia. The two-year, qualitative study included observational fieldwork filming students' interactions with tablets in the midst of literacy events. Students in each context used…

  6. Silicon nanoparticle-functionalized fiberglass pads for sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Mantey, Kevin; Nayfeh, Munir H.; Al-Hreish, Bahjat; Boparai, Jack; Kumar, Ashok; Stephenson, Larry D.; Nelson, Andrew J.; Alrokayan, Salman A.; Abu-Salah, Khalid M.

    2011-03-15

    We used wet treatment to immobilize luminescent silicon nanoparticles on industrial glass fibers to impart optical and chemical functions to the fiber. Carpets or pads consisting of thousands of fibers are processed in parallel, enhancing the sensitivity of detection and the sampled volume. Treated pads exhibit strong luminescence, characteristic of the luminescence of the particles; showing no shift, broadening, or reduction of quantum efficiency. We demonstrate that drawing material by the pad due to physical adsorption can be reversed. We also demonstrate that allylamine can be covalently attached by photoinduced irradiation reactions, which results in imprinting the amine emission spectrum, providing spectral recognition. The imprint accompanied with a blue-shifting of the luminescence spectrum of the probe, allowing examination of the effect of termination on the nanoparticle structure. The shift is found to be consistent with an increase in the bandgap of the Si nanoparticle and is consistent with Quantum Monte Carlo calculations. In addition to sampling, the nano probe pad has the potential to enable a variety of biomedical applications through subsequent attachment.

  7. STS-102 Discovery lifts off from Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Space Shuttle Discovery rivals the rising sun as it blasts off from Launch Pad 39B at dawn on mission STS-102. . Liftoff occurred at 6:42:09 EST for this eighth flight to the International Space Station.

  8. STS-102 Discovery lifts off from Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - As Space Shuttle Atlantis clears Launch Pad 39B, the sun peers over the horizon of the Atlantic Ocean. . Liftoff of Discovery on mission STS-102 occurred at 6:42:09 EST for the eighth flight to the International Space Station.

  9. The pad readout electronics of the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Cartwright, S.L.; Friedman, J.I.; Fuess, S.; Gonzalez, S.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Kendall, H.W.; Lath, A.; Lyons, T.; Osborne, L.S.; Rosenson, L.; Schneekloth, U.; Taylor, F.E.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Williams, D.C.; Yamartino, J.M. ); Byers, B.L.; Escalera, J.; Gioumousis, A.; Gray, R.; Horelick, D.; Kharakh, D.; Messner, R.L.; Moss, J.; Zdark

    1990-08-01

    The design of the pad readout electronics of the Warm Iron Calorimeter for the SLD detector at SLAC, consisting of about 9000 analog channels, is described. Results of various tests performed during the construction, installation and commissioning of the electronics mounted on the detector are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  10. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF LAUNCH PAD B SHOWING (LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW OF LAUNCH PAD B SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT) MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE, CONSTRUCTION CRANE, NEW CONCRETE FLAME DEFLECTORS AND FLUME, AND UMBILICAL MAST; VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  11. 20. GENERAL VIEW OF LAUNCH PAD B SHOWING UMBILICAL MAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GENERAL VIEW OF LAUNCH PAD B SHOWING UMBILICAL MAST CENTER AND NEW BLAST BERM FOR NEW TANK FARM AT RIGHT VIEW TO NORTH. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. RS-88 Rocket Engine Tested for Pad Abort Escape System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In this photo, an RS-88 development rocket engine is being test fired at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, in support of the Pad Abort Demonstration (PAD) test flights for NASA's Orbital Space Plane (OSP). The tests could be instrumental in developing the first crew launch escape system in almost 30 years. Paving the way for a series of integrated PAD test flights, the engine tests support development of a system that could pull a crew safely away from danger during liftoff. A series of 16 hot fire tests of a 50,000-pound thrust RS-88 rocket engine were conducted, resulting in a total of 55 seconds of successful engine operation. The engine is being developed by the Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power unit of the Boeing Company. Integrated launch abort demonstration tests in 2005 will use four RS-88 engines to separate a test vehicle from a test platform, simulating pulling a crewed vehicle away from an aborted launch. Four 156-foot parachutes will deploy and carry the vehicle to landing. Lockheed Martin is building the vehicles for the PAD tests. Seven integrated tests are plarned for 2005 and 2006.

  13. RS-88 Rocket Engine Tested for Pad Abort Escape System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photo gives an overhead look at an RS-88 development rocket engine being test fired at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, in support of the Pad Abort Demonstration (PAD) test flights for NASA's Orbital Space Plane (OSP). The tests could be instrumental in developing the first crew launch escape system in almost 30 years. Paving the way for a series of integrated PAD test flights, the engine tests support development of a system that could pull a crew safely away from danger during liftoff. A series of 16 hot fire tests of a 50,000-pound thrust RS-88 rocket engine were conducted, resulting in a total of 55 seconds of successful engine operation. The engine is being developed by the Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power unit of the Boeing Company. Integrated launch abort demonstration tests in 2005 will use four RS-88 engines to separate a test vehicle from a test platform, simulating pulling a crewed vehicle away from an aborted launch. Four 156-foot parachutes will deploy and carry the vehicle to landing. Lockheed Martin is building the vehicles for the PAD tests. Seven integrated tests are plarned for 2005 and 2006.

  14. 6. View, flare and oxygen burner pad near southwest side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View, flare and oxygen burner pad near southwest side of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking northeast. Uphill and to the left of the flare is the Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D) and the Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Day of Launch Profile Selection for Pad Abort Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    A day of launch selection approach that involves choosing from an array of pitch profiles of varying loft was analyzed with the purpose of reducing the risk of a land landing failure during a pad abort. It was determined that selecting from three pitch profiles can reduce the number of waterline abort performance requirement failures approximately in half without compromising other performance metrics.

  16. STS-107 Columbia on Launch Pad 39A after rollout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Columbia sits on Launch Pad 39A, atop the Mobile Launcher Platform. The STS-107 research mission comprises experiments ranging from material sciences to life sciences, plus the Fast Reaction Experiments Enabling Science, Technology, Applications and Research (FREESTAR) that incorporates eight high priority secondary attached shuttle experiments. Mission STS-107 is scheduled to launch Jan. 16, 2003.

  17. Cost Beneftt Analysts of LH2 PadB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mott, Brittany

    2013-01-01

    This analysis is used to evaluate, from a cost and benefit perspective, potential outcomes when replacing the pressurization switches and the pressurization system to meet the needs of the LH2 storage system at Pad B. This also includes alternatives, tangible and intangible benefits, and the results of the analysis.

  18. The floating cardiac fat pad-sign of occult pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Claire; Bokhari, S A Jamal

    2016-08-01

    Pneumothoraces are a possible sequela of chest trauma with potential morbidity and mortality if not recognized and treated promptly. A portable supine chest radiograph is frequently the first radiologic study performed in the setting of trauma. While large pneumothoraces can be readily recognized on these radiographs, smaller pneumothoraces are missed in up to 15 % of trauma patients. There are many radiographic signs of occult pneumothoraces, and we are presenting a new radiographic sign of occult pneumothorax. The floating cardiac fat pad sign occurs when pleural air collects anteriorly and superiorly in the most non-dependent portion of the chest lifting the pericardial fat pad off the diaphragm. Lung markings are still seen surrounding the pericardial fat pad due to the inflated lower lobe of the lung resting dependently. Rapid and accurate identification of pneumothoraces is critical but often difficult on chest radiographs. Although there are many existing radiographic signs for identification of pneumothorax, prospective identification of small pneumothoraces is still relatively poor. Here, we describe an additional sign which aides in the detection of pneumothoraces, the floating cardiac fat pad. When present, this should prompt further evaluation with chest CT or upright chest radiograph. PMID:27250975

  19. Prevent P.A.D.: Know Your Numbers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the progression of P.A.D.," she adds. African Americans at Risk African Americans have a particularly high prevalence of risk factors ... have high blood pressure, hypertension, and diabetes. Further, African Americans, especially women, tend toward obesity and inactivity. The ...

  20. The Importance of Managing iPads in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Today, corporate users are not the only ones rapidly embracing mobile tablets for daily use--this transition has spilled over into the education sector. Schools have begun incorporating mobile devices such as iPads and other tablets into their curriculum. While this trend brings new and exciting educational opportunities, administrators and…

  1. 7. OVERALL VIEW OF LAUNCH PAD, SHOWING HELIPAD AT LAUNCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OVERALL VIEW OF LAUNCH PAD, SHOWING HELIPAD AT LAUNCH AREA, WHEN VIEWED WITH NEGATIVE NO. CA-57-8(BELOW), LOOKING NORTH. BASKETBALL COURT IN BACKGROUND Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Ereaders, the iPad--Is That All There Is?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankes, R. David

    2010-01-01

    The device industry is blowing a great opportunity to revolutionize reading. At the Consumer Electronics Show in January, a dozen or more ebook readers and tablets were trotted out as the wave of the future. Since then, Apple has revealed the iPad, Sony has started shipping a touchscreen version of its eBook, and Spring Design has started shipping…

  3. Teaching, Learning, and Living with iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Tablet computers, engaging and dynamic teaching and learning tools, are increasingly prevalent in K-12 schools and university settings. To help music educators make informed technology choices for their classrooms, this article contains preservice teachers' reflections on how they used iPads to enhance their musicianship, teacher preparation,…

  4. Re-Imagine Your Library with iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Chicago Public Schools librarians have discovered that iPads engage students in developing their reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills while expressing their creativity. Their librarians embarked on a year-long experiment with the mobile devices that inspired them to completely reinvent the way they teach. This article presents tips…

  5. CONCRETE PAD AND SUSPENSION BRIDGE TOWERS FOR CABLES FORMERLY SUPPORTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONCRETE PAD AND SUSPENSION BRIDGE TOWERS FOR CABLES FORMERLY SUPPORTING THE SUSPENSION BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Using the iPad in a Sport Education Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinelnikov, Oleg A.

    2012-01-01

    The latest advances in technology are inevitably making their way into schools and gymnasiums across the country. This article provides a descriptive account of how one physical education teacher incorporated the use of an iPad in a middle-school volleyball sport education season. The salient structural elements of sport education, such as…

  7. Approximate Solution for Choked Flow in Gas Seal Pads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Previous analyses of high pressure seals have considered adiabatic flow with friction but neglected effects of seal rotation. Most of this work analyzed a one-dimensional flow field. This works well to calculate stiffness and leakage of full circular seals, either face seals or annular ring seals. However, it cannot provide accurate results for a rectangular seal pad with its strongly two-dimensional flow field and its reliance on hydrodynamic forces to maintain a full fluid film. On the other hand, solutions of Reynolds lubrication equation have been obtained for the two-dimensional flow in a seal pad. But these solutions do not account for choking which occurs at high seal pressure ratios, nor do they consider the pressure loss that occurs in the entrance region of the flow field. The aim of the present work is to build on the Reynolds equation solution by use of an approximate choked flow analysis. This will account for the pressure losses in the flow entrance region, ensure that fluid velocities remain subsonic, and enable fluid inertial effects within the pad film to be accounted for. Results show that, in general, fluid inertia acts to decrease pad film load capacity and leakage, and increase film stiffness.

  8. Your P.A.D. Checklist | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Peripheral Artery Disease Your P.A.D. Checklist Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table ... and reduce your risk of peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.). That can start by making sure ...

  9. TID Test Results for 4th Generation iPad(TradeMark)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guertin, S. M.; Allen, G. R.; McClure, S. S.; LaBel, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    TID testing of 4th generation iPads is reported. Of iPad subsystems, results indicate that the charging circuitry and display drivers fail at lowest TID levels. Details of construction are investigated for additional testing of components.

  10. The effect and clinical application of homemade tracheotomy incision nursing pads.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yachun; Xu, Li; Du, Kun; Zhang, Jiajun

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effect and clinical application of the homemade tracheotomy incision nursing pads. 83 patients suffering tracheotomy were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was treated with the homemade tracheotomy incision nursing pads, and the control group was treated with the traditional tracheotomy nursing pads. Subsequently, the number of nursing pads used in 2 weeks, tracheotomy incision bacterial colonies and the comfort of patient between the two groups of pads was compared. The number of nursing pads used by the experimental group was smaller than the control group, and the tracheotomy incision bacterial colonies in the experimental group were fewer than the control group (P < 0.01). However, the differences observed for the skin irritation and gas permeability between the two groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Thus, the results show that the effect of homemade tracheotomy incision nursing pads is greater compared to the traditional nursing pads. PMID:24633484

  11. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  12. Arachnids Secrete a Fluid over Their Adhesive Pads

    PubMed Central

    Peattie, Anne M.; Dirks, Jan-Henning; Henriques, Sérgio; Federle, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Background Many arachnids possess adhesive pads on their feet that help them climb smooth surfaces and capture prey. Spider and gecko adhesives have converged on a branched, hairy structure, which theoretically allows them to adhere solely by dry (solid-solid) intermolecular interactions. Indeed, the consensus in the literature is that spiders and their smooth-padded relatives, the solifugids, adhere without the aid of a secretion. Methodology and Principal Findings We investigated the adhesive contact zone of living spiders, solifugids and mites using interference reflection microscopy, which allows the detection of thin liquid films. Like insects, all the arachnids we studied left behind hydrophobic fluid footprints on glass (mean refractive index: 1.48–1.50; contact angle: 3.7–11.2°). Fluid was not always secreted continuously, suggesting that pads can function in both wet and dry modes. We measured the attachment forces of single adhesive setae from tarantulas (Grammostola rosea) by attaching them to a bending beam with a known spring constant and filming the resulting deflection. Individual spider setae showed a lower static friction at rest (26%±2.8 SE of the peak friction) than single gecko setae (Thecadactylus rapicauda; 96%±1.7 SE). This may be explained by the fact that spider setae continued to release fluid after isolation from the animal, lubricating the contact zone. Significance This finding implies that tarsal secretions occur within all major groups of terrestrial arthropods with adhesive pads. The presence of liquid in an adhesive contact zone has important consequences for attachment performance, improving adhesion to rough surfaces and introducing rate-dependent effects. Our results leave geckos and anoles as the only known representatives of truly dry adhesive pads in nature. Engineers seeking biological inspiration for synthetic adhesives should consider whether model species with fluid secretions are appropriate to their design goals

  13. 40 CFR 265.441 - Assessment of existing drip pad integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assessment of existing drip pad integrity. 265.441 Section 265.441 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 265.441 Assessment of existing drip pad integrity. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 264.571 - Assessment of existing drip pad integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assessment of existing drip pad integrity. 264.571 Section 264.571 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 264.571 Assessment of existing drip pad integrity. (a) For each...

  15. Use of Doceri Software for iPad in Online Delivery of Chemistry Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverberg, Lee J.; Tierney, John; Bodek, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Doceri software for iPad is useful for both synchronous online and asynchronous online delivery of chemistry course content. Using the Doceri wireless connection between the iPad and a personal computer that is running Adobe Connect, online synchronous instruction can be accomplished in which drawings can be completed by hand on the iPad. For…

  16. A Fluopol-ABPP HTS Assay to Identify PAD Inhibitors†‡

    PubMed Central

    Knuckley, Bryan; Jones, Justin E.; Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Slack, Jessica; Causey, Corey P.; Brown, Steven J.; Rosen, Hugh; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Thompson, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Protein Arginine Deiminase (PAD) activity is dysregulated in numerous diseases, e.g., Rheumatoid Arthritis. Herein we describe the development of a fluorescence polarization-Activity Based Protein Profiling (fluopol-ABPP) based high throughput screening assay that can be used to identify PAD-selective inhibitors. Using this assay, streptonigrin was identified as a potent, selective, and irreversible PAD4 inactivator. PMID:20740228

  17. 40 CFR 265.441 - Assessment of existing drip pad integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assessment of existing drip pad integrity. 265.441 Section 265.441 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 265.441 Assessment of existing drip pad integrity. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 264.571 - Assessment of existing drip pad integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assessment of existing drip pad integrity. 264.571 Section 264.571 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 264.571 Assessment of existing drip pad integrity. (a) For each...

  19. 77 FR 50508 - Brain-Pad, Inc; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Brain-Pad, Inc; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below. Write ``Brain-Pad, File No. 122 3073'' on your comment, and file your... must receive it on or before September 17, 2012. Write ``Brain-Pad, File No. 122 3073'' on your...

  20. High performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) for the sensitive determination of hyaluronan oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Rothenhöfer, Martin; Grundmann, Marco; Bernhardt, Günther; Matysik, Frank-Michael; Buschauer, Armin

    2015-04-15

    High performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) was optimized for the analysis of oligosaccharides derived from the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan. Using this sensitive approach, the separation of oligosaccharides consisting of two (molecular weight ca. 0.8 kDa) up to 25-30 (molecular weight: ca. 9.5-11.4 kDa) disaccharide moieties was possible. Standard oligosaccharides (comprising 2-4 repetitive disaccharides) were detectable at very low amounts of 0.2-0.3 pmol (20-30 nM). Including 10 min of column equilibration, a complex mixture of low molecular weight hyaluronan can be analyzed within 40 min. The HPAEC method was successfully applied to the study of the size-dependency of both the action of bovine testicular hyaluronidase (BTH) and the precipitation of hyaluronan by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), a physicochemical reaction often used for the determination of hyaluronan and hyaluronidase activity. PMID:25768984