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Sample records for 24-hour urinary calcium

  1. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286–4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the

  2. The association of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to salt with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aim Salt reduction efforts usually have a strong focus on consumer education. Understanding the association between salt consumption levels and knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt should provide insight into the likely effectiveness of education-based programs. Methods A single 24-hour urine sample and a questionnaire describing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was obtained from 306 randomly selected participants and 113 volunteers from a regional town in Australia. Results Mean age of all participants was 55 years (range 20–88), 55% were women and mean 24-hour urinary salt excretion was 8.8(3.6) g/d. There was no difference in salt excretion between the randomly selected and volunteer sample. Virtually all participants (95%) identified that a diet high in salt can cause serious health problems with the majority of participants (81%) linking a high salt diet to raised blood pressure. There was no difference in salt excretion between those who did 8.7(2.1) g/d and did not 7.5(3.3) g/d identify that a diet high in salt causes high blood pressure (p = 0.1). Nor was there a difference between individuals who believed they consumed “too much” 8.9(3.3) g/d “just the right amount” 8.4(2.6) g/d or “too little salt” 9.1(3.7) g/d (p = 0.2). Likewise, individuals who indicated that lowering their salt intake was important 8.5(2.9) g/d vs. not important 8.8(2.4) g/d did not have different consumption levels (p = 0.4). Conclusion The absence of a clear association between knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt and actual salt consumption suggests that interventions focused on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours alone may be of limited efficacy. PMID:24708561

  3. Urinary electrolyte excretion in 24 hours and blood pressure in the INTERSALT Study. I. Estimates of reliability. The INTERSALT Cooperative Research Group.

    PubMed

    Dyer, A R; Shipley, M; Elliott, P

    1994-05-01

    This is the first of two reports dealing with the reliability of measurements of 24-hour urinary electrolyte excretion and blood pressure and estimates of electrolyte-blood pressure associations in INTERSALT, an international study of the relations of electrolyte excretion and other factors to blood pressure, involving more than 10,000 persons from 52 centers in 32 countries. This first report describes methods for estimating reliability, taking into account age and sex, and provides estimates for several urinary variables, blood pressure, and pulse rate. The second report (Am J Epidemiol 1994; 139:940-51) uses these estimates of reliability and multivariate procedures to correct multiple regression coefficients from regressions of blood pressure on 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion, body mass index, and alcohol intake for "regression dilution bias." Age- and sex-adjusted estimates of reliability were computed from data on 805 INTERSALT participants with repeat measurements. These estimates ranged from 0.37 to 0.40 for 24-hour urinary sodium, from 0.47 to 0.52 for potassium, from 0.32 to 0.36 for the sodium:potassium ratio, from 0.64 to 0.69 for calcium, from 0.59 to 0.65 for creatinine, from 0.49 to 0.57 for urinary volume, from 0.49 to 0.51 for magnesium, from 0.58 to 0.62 for pulse, from 0.69 to 0.74 for systolic blood pressure, and from 0.63 to 0.67 for diastolic blood pressure. In addition, estimates of within- and between-person covariances among electrolytes indicated that about half of the observed covariance for sodium and potassium excretion in a single 24-hour urine collection was due to within-person covariation in excretion. PMID:8166143

  4. Moderate alcohol consumption and 24-hour urinary levels of melatonin in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low overnight urinary melatonin metabolite concentrations have been associated with increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Women's Alcohol Study was a controlled feeding study to test the effects of low to moderate alcohol intake on potential risk factors for...

  5. Moderate Alcohol Consumption and 24-Hour Urinary Levels of Melatonin in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mahabir, S.; Baer, D. J.; Stevens, R. G.; Albert, P. S.; Dorgan, J. F.; Kesner, J. S.; Meadows, J. W.; Shields, R.; Taylor, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Low overnight urinary melatonin metabolite concentrations have been associated with increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Women's Alcohol Study was a controlled feeding study to test the effects of low to moderate alcohol intake on potential risk factors for breast cancer including serum and urinary levels of hormones and other biomarkers. Previously, we observed significant increases in concentrations of serum estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in participants after consumption of 15 or 30 g (one or two drinks) of alcohol per day. Objective: In the present analysis, we evaluated the relationship of alcohol consumption with 24-h urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-SMT) concentration (micrograms per 24 h). Design and Participants: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 51) consumed a controlled diet plus each of three treatments (a nonalcoholic placebo beverage or 15 or 30 g alcohol/d) during three 8-wk periods in random order under conditions of weight maintenance. Measures: 6-SMT was measured in 24-h urine samples that were collected at entry into the study (baseline) and at the midpoint (4 wk) and end (8 wk) of each of the three diet periods. Results: Concentration of 6-SMT was not significantly modified by the alcohol treatment after adjustment for body mass index, hours of sleep, daylight hours, and baseline level of 6-SMT. Conclusions: These results suggest that low to moderate daily alcohol consumption does not significantly affect 24-h urinary levels of melatonin among healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:22013099

  6. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables

  7. Effect of current and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder on 24-hour urinary catecholamines and cortisol: results from the Mind Your Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Whooley, Mary A.; Neylan, Thomas C.; Otte, Christian; Cohen, Beth E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and several other chronic illnesses. Alterations in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in PTSD might contribute to these associations but findings regarding SNS and HPA activity in PTSD are heterogeneous. We measured 24-hour urinary catecholamines and cortisol in a large cohort of adult outpatients recruited from 2 Veterans Affairs medical centers. 24-hour urinary norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and cortisol were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. Lifetime and current PTSD were assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale using DSM-IV-TR criteria. Out of 613 participants, 199 (32.5%) had current PTSD, 100 (16.3%) had lifetime but not current PTSD, and 314 (51.2%) never had PTSD. Patients with current PTSD had significantly higher norepinephrine secretion compared to those without PTSD. Patients in the lifetime PTSD group exhibited lower cortisol values compared to those without PTSD. Participants who never had PTSD showed the lowest norepinephrine and the highest cortisol values. All results remained stable when controlling for potentially confounding variables. This study provides evidence for increased norepinephrine secretion and decreased cortisol in PTSD. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether these changes contribute to adverse health outcomes in patients with PTSD. PMID:25459895

  8. Variability of Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenol A in Spot Samples, First Morning Voids, and 24-Hour Collections

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lee-Yang; Bishop, Amber M.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is widespread. After exposure, BPA is rapidly metabolized and eliminated in urine. Therefore, there is considerable within-person and between-person variability of BPA concentrations in spot urine samples. However, no information exists on the within-day variability of urinary BPA concentrations. Objectives: We examined the between-person and within-person and between-day and within-day variability in the urinary BPA concentrations of eight adults who collected all voids for 1 week to investigate the impact of sampling strategy in the exposure assessment of BPA using spot, first morning, or 24-hr urine collections. Methods: We determined the urinary concentrations of BPA using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results: The between-day and within-person variability was the primary contributor to the total variance both for first morning voids (77%) and 24-hr urine collections (88%). For the spot collections, we observed considerable within-day variance (70%), which outweighed the between-person (9%) and between-day and within-person (21%) variances. Conclusions: Regardless of the type of void (spot, first morning, 24-hr collection), urinary BPA concentrations for a given adult changed considerably—both within a day and for the 7 days of the study period. Single 24-hr urine collections accurately reflect daily exposure but can misrepresent variability in daily exposures over time. Of interest, when the population investigated is sufficiently large and samples are randomly collected relative to meal ingestion times and bladder emptying times, the single spot–sampling approach may adequately reflect the average exposure of the population to BPA. PMID:21406337

  9. Estimate of the time zero lung burden of depleted uranium in Persian Gulf War veterans by the 24-hour urinary excretion and exponential decay analysis.

    PubMed

    Durakovic, Asaf; Horan, Patricia; Dietz, Leonard A; Zimmerman, Isaac

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of depleted uranium (DU) in the respiratory system of Allied Forces Gulf War Veterans. Mass spectrometry (thermal ionization mass spectrometry) analysis of 24-hour urinary excretion of DU isotopes in five positive (238U/235U > 191.00) and six negative (238U/235U > 138.25) veterans was utilized in the mathematical estimation of the pulmonary burden at the time of exposure. A minimum value for the biological half-life of ceramic DU oxide in the lungs was derived from the Battelle report of the minimum dissolution half-time in simulated interstitial lung fluid corresponding to 3.85 years. The average DU concentration was 3.27 x 10(-5) mg per 24 hours in DU-positive veterans and 1.46 x 10(-8) mg in DU-negative veterans. The estimated lung burden was 0.34 mg in the DU-positive and 0.00015 mg in the DU-negative veterans. Our results provide evidence that the pulmonary concentration of DU at time zero can be quantitated as late as 9 years after inhalational exposure. PMID:12943033

  10. Urinary calcium excretion in postmenopausal African American women

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, John F.; Shieh, Albert; Mikhail, Mageda; Islam, Shahidul

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to develop a reference range for urine calcium excretion (both 24-hour and fasting) for African American women compared to White women. In addition, the variables that determine urine calcium excretion were identified. Material: Data were analyzed for baseline studies of healthy postmenopausal volunteers who participated in seven separate studies conducted at one site. Methods: Some studies included fasting urine Ca/Cr and others 24-hour urine calcium excretion. 24-hour urine calcium was considered with and without correction for urinary creatinine excretion. Calcium was measured initially by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and more recently by an automated method (ADVIA 2400 Chemistry System). Results: Participants were considered healthy based on history and physical and routine laboratory studies. Those screened who had a history of nephrolithiasis were excluded. A reference range for 24-hour urine calcium and fasting urine calcium/creatinine was developed. Reference intervals of 11 – 197 mg/24-hour urine calcium excretion and of 0.007 – 0.222 of fasting Ca/Cr were found for African American women compared to 21 – 221 mg/24 hours and 0.019 – 0.264 in White women, respectively. Urine creatinine excretion was higher in African Americans consistent with their higher muscle mass. Conclusion: Urine calcium excretion is lower in postmenopausal African American than White women. The reference range developed should be considered in the diagnosis of hypocalciuric states and may also be useful in the diagnosis of hypercalciuria. PMID:26226948

  11. Intersalt: an international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results for 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion. Intersalt Cooperative Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The relations between 24 hour urinary electrolyte excretion and blood pressure were studied in 10,079 men and women aged 20-59 sampled from 52 centres around the world based on a highly standardised protocol with central training of observers, a central laboratory, and extensive quality control. Relations between electrolyte excretion and blood pressure were studied in individual subjects within each centre and the results of these regression analyses pooled for all 52 centres. Relations between population median electrolyte values and population blood pressure values were also analysed across the 52 centres. Sodium excretion ranged from 0.2 mmol/24 h (Yanomamo Indians, Brazil) to 242 mmol/24 h (north China). In individual subjects (within centres) it was significantly related to blood pressure. Four centres found very low sodium excretion, low blood pressure, and little or no upward slope of blood pressure with age. Across the other 48 centres sodium was significantly related to the slope of blood pressure with age but not to median blood pressure or prevalence of high blood pressure. Potassium excretion was negatively correlated with blood pressure in individual subjects after adjustment for confounding variables. Across centres there was no consistent association. The relation of sodium to potassium ratio to blood pressure followed a pattern similar to that of sodium. Body mass index and heavy alcohol intake had strong, significant independent relations with blood pressure in individual subjects. PMID:3416162

  12. Influence of hydrochlorothiazide on urinary calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in healthy young adult female domestic shorthaired cats.

    PubMed

    Hezel, Alisha; Bartges, Joseph W; Kirk, Claudia A; Cox, Sherry; Geyer, Nicole; Moyers, Tammy; Hayes, Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    Hydrochlorothiazide (1 mg/kg PO q12h) or placebo was administered to healthy cats for 2 weeks in a masked, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study, and 24-hour urine samples were collected. When cats received hydrochlorothiazide, 24-hour urine volume, ammonia, chloride, creatinine, magnesium, oxalic acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium were significantly higher than when cats received placebo. Hydrochlorothiazide was associated with significantly lower urinary saturation for calcium oxalate, but no difference was found in 24-hour urine calcium and citrate, urinary saturation for struvite, or blood ionized calcium. Hydrochlorothiazide decreased urinary saturation for calcium oxalate and could be useful in managing cats with calcium oxalate uroliths. Results of this study, however, should not be extrapolated to cats that form calcium oxalate uroliths. PMID:18183543

  13. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Anita; Bonny, Olivier; Guessous, Idris; Suter, Paolo M.; Conen, David; Erne, Paul; Binet, Isabelle; Gabutti, Luca; Gallino, Augusto; Muggli, Franco; Hayoz, Daniel; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. Design, settings, participants, & measurements Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root–transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dependent variable with a focus on month-specific vitamin D tertiles and serum calcium in the Swiss Survey on Salt Study. Results In total, 624 men and 669 women were studied with mean ages of 49.2 and 47.0 years, respectively (age range=15–95 years). Mean urinary calcium excretion was higher in men than in women (183.05 versus 144.60 mg/24 h; P<0.001). In adjusted models, the association (95% confidence interval) of square root urinary calcium excretion with protein–corrected serum calcium was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.34) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in women and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, −0.11 to 1.29) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in men. Men in the third 25(OH)D3 tertile had higher square root urinary calcium excretion than men in the first tertile (0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 1.63 mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter), and the corresponding association was 0.32 (95% confidence interval, −0.22 to 0.85) mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter in women. These sex differences were more marked under conditions of high urinary sodium or urea excretions. Conclusions There was a positive association of serum calcium with urinary calcium excretion in women but not men. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 was associated with urinary calcium excretion in men but not women. These results suggest important sex differences in the hormonal and dietary control of urinary calcium excretion. PMID:25518946

  14. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fluid (dehydration) Any type of x-ray exam with dye (contrast material) within 3 days before the urine test Fluid from the vagina that gets into the urine Severe emotional stress Strenuous exercise Urinary tract infection

  15. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... test results: Dehydration Any type of x-ray exam with dye (contrast material) within 3 days before the urine test Fluid from the vagina that gets into the urine Emotional stress Heavy exercise Urinary tract infection

  16. Relationships Between Blood Pressure and 24-Hour Urinary Excretion of Sodium and Potassium by Body Mass Index Status in Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liuxia; Bi, Zhenqiang; Tang, Junli; Wang, Linhong; Yang, Quanhe; Guo, Xiaolei; Cogswell, Mary E; Zhang, Xiaofei; Hong, Yuling; Engelgau, Michael; Zhang, Jiyu; Elliott, Paul; Angell, Sonia Y; Ma, Jixiang

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the impact of overweight/obesity on sodium, potassium, and blood pressure associations using the Shandong-Ministry of Health Action on Salt Reduction and Hypertension (SMASH) project baseline survey data. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in 1948 Chinese adults aged 18 to 69 years. The observed associations of sodium, potassium, sodium-potassium ratio, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were stronger in the overweight/obese population than among those of normal weight. Among overweight/obese respondents, each additional standard deviation (SD) higher of urinary sodium excretion (SD=85 mmol) and potassium excretion (SD=19 mmol) was associated with a 1.31 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.37-2.26) and -1.43 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -2.23 to -0.63) difference in SBP, and each higher unit in sodium-potassium ratio was associated with a 0.54 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.75) increase in SBP. The association between sodium, potassium, sodium-potassium ratio, and prevalence of hypertension among overweight/obese patients was similar to that of SBP. Our study indicated that the relationships between BP and both urinary sodium and potassium might be modified by BMI status in Chinese adults. PMID:26332433

  17. LC-MS-MS Measurements of Urinary Creatinine and the Application of Creatinine Normalization Technique on Cotinine in Smokers' 24 Hour Urine

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Hongwei; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Xiaotao; Song, Dongkui; Tang, Gangling; Hu, Qingyuan

    2012-01-01

    A simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of creatinine in human urine. The analysis was carried out on an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column (2.1 × 150 mm, 3.5 μm). The mobile phase was 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile (50/50, v/v). Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 1–2000.0 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantification of 0.99 ng/mL. The intra- and interday precision (RSD) values were below 3%. The method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of creatinine in Chinese smokers and nonsmokers. The total cotinine in 24 h urine and cotinine : creatinine ratio were also positively associated (Pearson R = 0.942, P < 0.0001). However, cotinine : creatinine ratio varied significantly across smoking groups for the difference of individual. 24 h urinary cotinine was more appropriate for expressing correlation with tar than cotinine : creatinine ratio. PMID:23209947

  18. Influence of prednisolone on urinary calcium oxalate and struvite relative supersaturation in healthy young adult female domestic shorthaired cats.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Nicole; Bartges, Joseph W; Kirk, Claudia A; Cox, Sherry; Hezel, Alisha; Moyers, Tammy; Hayes, Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    Prednisolone (10 mg PO q24h) or placebo was administered to healthy cats for 2 weeks in a masked, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study, and 24-hour urine samples were collected. When cats received prednisolone, 24-hour urine pH was lower and 24-hour urine excretion of creatinine, magnesium, phosphate, and potassium was higher than when cats received placebo. No significant difference was found in urinary relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate (CaOx) or struvite between treatment groups. Prednisolone administration did not induce diuresis, nor was it associated with increased calcium excretion or urinary saturation for CaOx in these healthy cats. Results of this study, however, should not be extrapolated to cats that form CaOx uroliths associated with idiopathic hypercalcemia. PMID:18183542

  19. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in Victoria, Australia, using 24-hour urine collections. Secondary aims were to identify the dietary sources of sodium and potassium, examine the association between these electrolytes and cardiovascular risk factors, and assess children’s taste preferences and saltiness perception of manufactured foods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of schoolchildren attending primary schools in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed one 24-hour urine collection, which was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Completeness of collections was assessed using collection time, total volume, and urinary creatinine. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed to assess dietary intake. Other data collected included blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumference. Children were also presented with high and low sodium variants of food products and asked to discriminate salt level and choose their preferred variant. Parents provided demographic information and information on use of discretionary salt. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sodium and potassium intakes. Linear and logistic regression models with clustered robust standard errors will be used to assess the association between electrolyte intake and health outcomes (blood pressure and body mass index/BMI z-score and waist circumference) and to assess differences in taste preference and discrimination between high and low sodium foods, and correlations between

  20. 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ... by: Brent Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University ...

  1. Proposal of RAS-diuretic vs. RAS-calcium antagonist strategies in high-risk hypertension: insight from the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure profile and central pressure.

    PubMed

    Kario, Kazuomi

    2010-01-01

    I here propose an individualized renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitor-based combination therapy with calcium-channel blockers (CCBs) or with diuretics, based on the 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure (BP) profiles and central pressure in relation to the target organ damage in high-risk hypertensive patients. For high-risk patients with increased circulating volume, such as that caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD) or congestive heart failure (CHF), who are likely to exhibit a non-dipper/riser pattern of nocturnal BP fall, diuretics are recommended in combination with a RAS inhibitor to reduce nocturnal BP preferentially. For high-risk patients with arterial diseases such as cardiovascular disease and increased arterial stiffness, who are likely to exhibit exaggerated BP variability, such as morning BP surge and day-to-day BP variability, a CCB is recommended for use in combination with a RAS inhibitor to reduce BP variability and central BP. In particular, bedtime dosing of a RAS inhibitor targeting sleep-early morning activation of RAS may be particularly effective for cardiorenal protection. PMID:20728424

  2. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  3. Role of 1,25-Dihydroxy Vitamin D3 and Parathyroid Hormone in Urinary Calcium Excretion in Calcium Stone Formers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Yun, Seok Joong; Shin, Kyung-Sub; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To find out the possible role of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and parathyroid hormone (PTH) as intrinsic factors in urinary calcium stone formers (SFs), we investigated their relationship with serum and urinary biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods A total of 326 calcium SFs (male: 204, female: 122) were enrolled and underwent outpatient metabolic evaluations including 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTH as well as serum and 24-hour urinary biochemical parameters. As control, 163 age- and sex-matched (2:1) individuals (non-SFs) who have never urinary stone episode were included. Results 1,25(OH)2D3 level was positively correlated with urinary calcium excretion (r=0.347, p<0.001). The hypercalciuric group and recurrent SFs had higher serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels than the normocalciuric group (p<0.001) and first SFs (p=0.050). In the adjusted multiple linear regression analysis, serum 1,25(OH)2D3 level (β=0.259, p<0.001) and serum PTH level (β=-0.160, p<0.001) were significantly correlated with urinary calcium excretion. The patients in highest tertile of 1,25(OH)2D3 had a more than 3.1 fold risk of hypercalciuria than those in the lowest tertile (odds ratio=3.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.431-6.888, p=0.004). No correlation was observed between PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3 (R=0.005, p=0.929) in calcium SFs, while a negative correlation was found in controls (R=-0.269, p=0.001). Conclusion 1,25(OH)2D3 was closely correlated with urinary calcium excretion, and high 1,25(OH)2D3 levels were detected in the hypercalciuric group and in recurrent SFs. However, 1,25(OH)2D3 was not correlated with PTH in calcium SFs. These findings suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 might be important intrinsic factor for altered calcium regulation in SFs. PMID:25048492

  4. Demographic, Dietary, and Urinary Factors and 24-h Urinary Calcium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Higher urinary calcium is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis. This study delineated associations between demographic, dietary, and urinary factors and 24-h urinary calcium. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Cross-sectional studies were conducted of 2201 stone formers (SF) and 1167 nonstone formers (NSF) in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (men) and Nurses' Health Studies I and II (older and younger women). Results: Median urinary calcium was 182 mg/d in men, 182 mg/d in older women, and 192 mg/d in younger women. Compared with NSF, urinary calcium as a fraction of calcium intake was 33 to 38% higher in SF (P values ≤0.01). In regression analyses, participants were combined because associations with urinary calcium were similar in each cohort and in SF and NSF. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of calcium intake excreted 18 mg/d more urinary calcium than those in the lowest (P trend =0.01). Caffeine and family history of nephrolithiasis were positively associated, whereas urinary potassium, thiazides, gout, and age were inversely associated, with urinary calcium. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartiles of urinary magnesium, sodium, sulfate, citrate, phosphorus, and volume excreted 71 mg/d, 37 mg/d, 44 mg/d, 61 mg/d, 37 mg/d, and 24 mg/d more urinary calcium, respectively, than participants in the lowest (P values trend ≤0.01). Conclusions: Intestinal calcium absorption and/or negative calcium balance is greater in SF than NSF. Higher calcium intakes at levels typically observed in free-living individuals are associated with only small increases in urinary calcium. PMID:19820135

  5. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  6. A comparison between 24-hour and 2-hour urine collection for the determination of proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Somanathan, N; Farrell, T; Galimberti, A

    2003-07-01

    Proteinuria is one of the fundamental criteria for the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia with quantitative assessment based on the 24-hour urine protein estimation as the gold standard. This study was undertaken to determine whether a 2-hour protein estimation correlated with that of a formal 24-hour collection. Thirty women with proteinuric hypertension were recruited. There was significant correlation between the 2-hour and 24-hour urine protein levels (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.76 (P 0.000). A positive 2-hour test was associated more closely with significant levels of 24-hour proteinuria than dipstick analysis alone. We conclude from this study that a random 2-hour sample could be used for the initial assessment of proteinuria and so avoid the delay associated with 24-hour quantification of urinary protein. PMID:12881076

  7. Recruiting Strategy and 24-Hour Biomonitoring of Paraquat in Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Kee; Tagles, Hector Duarte; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lee, Kiyoung; Schenker, Marc B.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to recruit agricultural workers in Costa Rica to participate in a 24-hour urine collection for paraquat exposure assessment and to compare the 24-hour sampling to end-of-shift sampling. The authors recruited 187 handlers and 54 nonhandlers from coffee, banana, and palm oil plantations. The completeness of 24-hour urine samples collected (a total of 393 samples) was confirmed by questionnaire and urinary creatinine level. For a subset of 12 samples, the absorbed paraquat level was determined in 24-hours and end-of-shift spot urine samples. The participation rate for handlers was ~90%. The completeness of 24-hour urine collections was verified as the overall average of creatinine levels from 393 urines (1.11 ± 0.50 g/L). A total of 92.4% to 96.7% of urine samples were considered within the acceptable range of urinary creatinine, whereas 94.7% of the samples were described as “complete” from the questionnaire. Measured creatinine correlated well to predicted values (r = .327, p = .0024, 95% CI .12–.51). Detected paraquat levels in spot urine samples had a sensitivity of 96.9% at the high specificity of 100% compared to 24-hour urine samples as the gold standard. There was a significant (p < .0001) correlation between spot and 24-hour urine paraquat levels (r = .7825, 95% CI .61–.88). The recruiting strategy was successful in getting 24-hour urine samples from a farm worker population. Comparison between the paraquat levels in spot and 24-hour urine samples demonstrated that for this compound, end-of-shift spot urine samples would be an appropriate substitute for 24-hour collections. PMID:19064412

  8. Difference in 24-Hour Urine Composition between Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Adults without Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jing; Duan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Zhijian; Yuan, Jian; Wan, Shaw P.; Zeng, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetic patients are more likely to develop kidney stones than the general population. The underlying mechanisms for this disparity remain to be elucidated. Little is known about the relationship between urine composition and diabetes mellitus in non-stone-forming individuals. We sought to examine the differences in the 24-hour (24-h) urine composition between diabetic and non-diabetic adults who were not stone formers. Methods A convenience sample of 538 individuals without a history of nephrolithiasis, gout, hyperparathyroidism, or gastroenteric diseases participated in this study. The 24-h urine profiles of 115 diabetic adults were compared with those of 423 non-diabetic adults. Diabetes was defined by self-reported physician diagnosis or medication use. All participants were non-stone formers confirmed by urinary tract ultrasonography. Participants provided a fasting blood sample and a single 24-h urine collection for stone risk analysis. Student’s t-test was used to compare mean urinary values. Linear regression models were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, fasting serum glucose, serum total cholesterol, estimated creatinine clearance rate and urinary factors. Results Univariable analysis showed that the diabetic participants had significantly higher 24-h urine volumes and lower urine calcium and magnesium excretions than non-diabetic participants (all P < 0.05). After multivariate adjustment, no significant differences in 24-h urine composition were observed between diabetic and non-diabetic participants except for a slightly increased 24-h urine volume in diabetic participants (all P > 0.05). The main limitation of this study is that the convenience samples and self-reported data may have been sources of bias. Conclusion Our data showed that there were no differences in 24-h urine composition between diabetic and non-diabetic adults who are not stone formers. The reason for it might be the improved glycemic control in

  9. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  10. HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND 24-HOUR MINIMUM HEART RATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heart rate variability (HRV) indices based on 24-hour electrocardiograph recordings have been used in clinical research studies to assess the aggregate activity of the autonomic nervous system. While 24-hour HRV is generally considered non-invasive, use in research protocols typically involves cons...

  11. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  12. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  13. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  14. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  15. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  16. Calcium oxalate crystal growth in human urinary stones

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.M.; Johnson, F.B.

    1981-01-01

    Calcium oxalate stones are very common and increasing. Crystal growth is no less important than the crystal nucleation in the pathogenesis of stone formation. The crystal growth was studied in human calcium oxalate stones by a combined electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The main mode of weddellite growth was interpenetration twinning of tetrahedral bipyramids. Bipyramids may form as initial crystal seeds, develop from anhedral crystals (crystals which lack flat symmetric faces) of spherular or mulberry shape, develop on the surface of preformed bipyramids by spiral dislocation mechanisms, or develop on whewellite crystal by heterogeneous nucleation and epitaxy. Heterogeneous nucleations of whewellite on weddellite, and calcium apatite on whewellite were also observed. Whewellite grew mainly by parallel twinning. Interpenetration twinning was exceptional. Transformation of anhedral to euhedral (completely bounded by flat faces that are set ar fixed angles to one another) whewellite occurred by parallel fissurations followed by brick wall like stacking of the crystals, while euhedral transformation of weddellite occurred by protrusion of bipyramids frm anhedral crystal surface. Occasionally, an evidence of crystal dissolution was noted. Although an aggregation of crystals is believed to play a pivotal role in stone nidus formation, growth in size of the formed crystals, and twinning and epitactic crystal intergrowth apparently play a significant role in the obstructive urinary stone formation.

  17. [Either calcium carbonate or sevelamer decreases urinary oxalate excretion in chronic renal failure patients].

    PubMed

    Caravaca, F; Ruiz, A B; Escola, J M; Hernández Gallego, R; Cerezo, I; Fernández, N; Barroso, S; Martín, M V

    2007-01-01

    The rate of oxalate absorbed from intestine is highly influenced by calcium intake in healthy subjects. It is unknown whether commonly used phosphate binders modify intestinal absorption and renal excretion of oxalate in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This study aims to determine if calcium carbonate or sevelamer influences on urinary oxalate excretion. Twenty patients with CKD (stage 4 and 5 pre-dialysis) were included. Two treatment (1500 mg of calcium carbonate or 2400 mg of sevelamer), two-period (21 days each), crossover study with balanced assignment of the order of administration, and two washout periods were the main characteristics of this study design. Laboratory analyses in each phase included: serum creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, bicarbonate, total cholesterol, and 24 h urinary excretion of oxalate, creatinine, and urea. Creatinine clearance, protein catabolic rate (PNNA), total urinary oxalate excretion, and urinary oxalate / creatinine ratio were determined. Seventeen patients completed both treatment sequences. Total urinary oxalate excretion and urinary oxalate / creatinine ratios decreased significantly with respect to washout periods either after sevelamer or calcium carbonate treatment. The decrease in urinary oxalate excretion was greater after calcium carbonate (41.2+/-17.4%) than after sevelamer treatment (30.4+/-23.8%). There were not significant changes in renal function or PNNA values throughout the study periods. In conclusion, either calcium carbonate or sevelamer significantly reduces urinary oxalate excretion in CKD patients. Further studies will be needed to ascertain whether the type of phosphate binder influences on the accumulation of oxalate in CKD patients. PMID:17944584

  18. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work. PMID:8899576

  19. Effect of dietary oxalate and calcium on urinary oxalate and risk of formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Massey, L K; Roman-Smith, H; Sutton, R A

    1993-08-01

    Dietary restriction of oxalate intake has been used as therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Although urinary oxalate is derived predominantly from endogenous synthesis, it may also be affected by dietary intake of oxalate and calcium. The risk of increasing urinary oxalate excretion by excessive consumption of dietary oxalate is greatest in individuals with a high rate of oxalate absorption, both with and without overt intestinal disease. Although oxalate-rich foods enhanced excretion of urinary oxalate in normal volunteers, the increase was not proportional to the oxalate content of the food. Only eight foods--spinach, rhubarb, beets, nuts, chocolate, tea, wheat bran, and strawberries--caused a significant increase in urinary oxalate excretion. Restriction of dietary calcium enhances oxalate absorption and excretion, whereas an increase in calcium intake may reduce urinary oxalate excretion by binding more oxalate in the gut. This review of the literature indicates that initial dietary therapy for stone-forming individuals can be limited to the restriction of foods definitely shown to increase urinary oxalate. The effects of oxalate-restricted diets on urinary oxalate should be evaluated by means of laboratory analyses of urine composition. Subsequent long-term therapy can be recommended if beneficial results are obtained from oxalate restriction at an appropriate calcium intake. PMID:8335871

  20. Chapter 4: 24-hour recall and diet record methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two methods described in this chapter, the 24-hour dietary recall (24hdr) and the food record (FR) method, are the currently preferred methods of dietary intake assessment, and are based on foods and amounts actually consumed by an individual on one or more specific days. This minimizes some sou...

  1. The 24 Hours before Hospitalization: Factors Related to Suicide Attempting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, John A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Psychiatric inpatients (N=59) were interviewd concerning psychological and environmental events that occurred in the 24 hours prior to their hospitalization. Suicide attempters were more likely to have used alcohol or marijuana and less likely to have contacted a health care professional than suicide ideators, even when past history of suicide…

  2. Breast milk intake: 12 hour versus 24 hour assessment.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, M; Pittard, W

    1982-11-01

    Letter to the editor commenting on "Clinical and field studies of human lactation: methodological considerations," by Brown et al. The point is made that in test-weighing infants to estimate breast milk intake, culture related breastfeeding practices must be studied before a 12 hour test period is used to estimate intake for a complete 24 hour period. In western cultures milk intake between 7 am and 7 pm was found to differ significantly from intake between 7 pm and 7 am, whereas in a Bangladesh study milk intake during the 2 12 hour periods was comparable. PMID:7137079

  3. The effect of phototherapy on urinary calcium excretion in term neonates.

    PubMed

    Asl, Afshin Safaei; Zarkeshl, Marjaneh; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Maleknejad, Shohreh; Hagikhani, Kaveh

    2016-05-01

    Phototherapy is the most common, most effective, and least dangerous treatment method for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and is the treatment of the first choice for neonatal icterus. Hypocalcemia is one of the lesser-known complications of phototherapy. Some studies have shown a relationship between increased urinary calcium excretion and phototherapy-induced hypocalcemia. We aimed to assess the effect of phototherapy on urinary calcium excretion in term neonates. This before-after study was performed on 80 term neonates having hyper- bilirubinemia referred to the 17(th) Shahrivar Hospital, Rasht, Guilan Province, Northern Iran, over a one-year period from May 2013 to May 2014. Electrocardiography was performed to measure QTc in all neonates at admission and 48 h after phototherapy. Blood and urine samples were taken from all neonates before and 48 h after phototherapy. Phototherapy was performed using four lamps with similar wavelengths from a distance of 20 cm. The serum and urinary calcium and sodium levels and urinary creatinine level before and after phototherapy were measured and compared. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 16. The mean age of the study subjects was 7.01 ± 4.13 days. We did not find any significant difference between urinary calcium levels (P = 0.0001), urinary creatinine levels (P = 0.954), or the calcium/creatinine ratio (P = 0.086) before and after phototherapy. The neonates' mean ± standard deviation plasma as well as urinary sodium levels differed before and after phototherapy; the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.658). Phototherapy might increase urinary calcium excretion although it does not cause hypocalcemia. PMID:27215239

  4. [Isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex from the "24-hour bath"].

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Murakami, K; Ishii, N; Kwon, H H

    2000-01-01

    The "24-HOUR BATH" is an apparatus which circulates the bath water, keeps it clean and warm, and makes it possible to take a bath at any time during the day or night. It consists of apparatus for cleaning (sponge or mesh filter and filter material), heating (ceramic heater), and sterilizing (UV lamp). Recently, three cases of skin disease due to M. avium infection in private homes, in which "24-HOUR BATH" water was suspected to be the source of infection, have been reported. We attempted to isolate M. avium complex from the water (32 specimens), sponge filter (29 specimens), and filter material (32 specimens) of the "24-HOUR BATH". One hundred-ml samples of bath water, and 50-ml samples of rinse from a sponge filter or filter material were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 20 min. Sediment was suspended in distilled water and a smear was prepared, and then digested and decontaminated with 2% sodium hydroxide. The processed specimens were cultured on 2% Ogawa medium containing ofloxacin (1 microgram/ml) and ethambutol (2.5 micrograms/ml) for 8 weeks at 37 degrees C. Positive smears were 3 (9.4%), 25 (86.2%) and 25 (78.1%) specimens from the water, sponge and filter material, respectively. A few bacterial clumps were observed, especially in the sponge specimens. The number of positive culture was 5 (15.6%), 24 (82.8%) and 25 (78.1%) from the water, sponge and filter material, respectively. Among them the number of Runyon's Group III-positive cultures was 5 (100%), 22 (91.7%) and 20 (80%) in the water, sponge, and filter material specimens, respectively. In most cases, cultures were positive for both the sponge and filter material specimens. All of the Group III mycobacteria were smooth, grew at 28, 37, 42, and 45 degrees C, negative for niacin, nitrate reductase, semiquantitative catalase, urease and Tween80 hydrolysis, and positive for 68 degrees C catalase. All of the strains reacted with M. avium complex AccuProbe and M. avium AccuProbe, but none of the strains reacted

  5. Tasimelteon for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, D N

    2015-01-01

    Tasimelteon (Hetlioz®), a melatonin receptor agonist, is the first, and, at the time of the publication, the only drug to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder (non-24). This circadian rhythm disorder occurs most commonly in blind individuals without light perception, and it results from their inability to entrain to the 24-hour photoperiod, although the indication does not specify a particular patient population. Non-24 is characterized by a persistent cycle of nighttime insomnia and daytime sleepiness, alternating with asymptomatic periods depending on an individual's degree of circadian rhythm synchronization with the photoperiod at any particular time. Phase II clinical trials in healthy individuals confirmed the circadian phase-shifting potential of tasimelteon. Phase III trials in totally blind subjects diagnosed with non-24 demonstrated the efficacy of tasimelteon in reducing both nighttime wakefulness and daytime napping. Physiologic monitoring revealed that tasimelteon resulted in a higher proportion of individuals becoming entrained to the 24-hour cycle compared with placebo. Safety assessments indicated that tasimelteon is well tolerated, with the most common adverse events being headache, alanine aminotransferase elevation, nightmares or unusual dreams, and upper respiratory or urinary tract infections. Tasimelteon is available as a capsule in a single 20-mg dose and it must be obtained through Vanda Pharmaceutical's HetliozSolutions program with dispensing through a specialty pharmacy. Safety studies in blind individuals diagnosed with non-24 are ongoing and a future clinical trial with Smith-Magenis syndrome patients is planned. PMID:25685859

  6. Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations

    PubMed Central

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Erickson, Stephen B.; Rule, Andrew D.; Enders, Felicity; Lieske, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many patients cannot effectively increase water intake and urine volume to prevent urinary stones. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, blocks water reabsorption in the collecting duct and should reduce urinary supersaturation (SS) of stone forming solutes, but this has never been proven. Materials and Methods We conducted a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 adult calcium urinary stone formers stratified as majority calcium oxalate(CaOx, n=10) or calcium phosphate(CaP, n=11). Patients received tolvaptan 45 mg/day or placebo for 1 week, followed by a washout week and crossover to tolvaptan or placebo for week 3. A 24h urines was collected at the end of weeks 1 and 3. Results Tolvaptan vs. placebo decreased urinary osmolality (204±96 vs 529±213 mOsm/kg, P<0.001) and increased urinary volume (4.8±2.9 vs 1.8±0.9 L, P<0.001). The majority of urinary solute excretion rates including sodium and calcium did not significantly change, although oxalate secretion slightly increased (23±8 to 15±8 mg/24h, P = 0.009). Urinary CaOx SS (−0.01±1.14 vs 0.95±0.87 DG, P<0.001), CaP SS (−1.66±1.17 vs −0.13±1.02 DG, P<0.001) and Uric Acid SS (−2.05±4.05 vs −5.24±3.12 DG, P=0.04) all dramatically decreased. Effects did not differ between CaOx and CaP groups (P>0.05 for all interactions). Conclusions Tolvaptan increases urine volume and decreases urinary SS in calcium stone formers. Further study is needed to determine if long term use of V2 receptor antagonists results in fewer stone events. PMID:26598423

  7. Self-Renewal and Differentiation Capacity of Urine-Derived Stem Cells after Urine Preservation for 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yingai; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Leng, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobo; Liu, Hong; Atala, Anthony; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite successful approaches to preserve organs, tissues, and isolated cells, the maintenance of stem cell viability and function in body fluids during storage for cell distribution and transportation remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize urine-derived stem cells (USCs) after optimal preservation of urine specimens for up to 24 hours. A total of 415 urine specimens were collected from 12 healthy men (age range 20–54 years old). About 6×104 cells shed off from the urinary tract system in 24 hours. At least 100 USC clones were obtained from the stored urine specimens after 24 hours and maintained similar biological features to fresh USCs. The stored USCs had a “rice grain” shape in primary culture, and expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, high telomerase activity, and normal karyotypes. Importantly, the preserved cells retained bipotent differentiation capacity. Differentiated USCs expressed myogenic specific proteins and contractile function when exposed to myogenic differentiation medium, and they expressed urothelial cell-specific markers and barrier function when exposed to urothelial differentiation medium. These data demonstrated that up to 75% of fresh USCs can be safely persevered in urine for 24 hours and that these cells stored in urine retain their original stem cell properties, indicating that preserved USCs could be available for potential use in cell-based therapy or clinical diagnosis. PMID:23349776

  8. The elementome of calcium-based urinary stones and its role in urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Krishna; Killilea, David W; Kapahi, Pankaj; Kahn, Arnold J; Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L

    2015-10-01

    Urolithiasis affects around 10% of the US population with an increasing rate of prevalence, recurrence and penetrance. The causes for the formation of most urinary calculi remain poorly understood, but obtaining the chemical composition of these stones might help identify key aspects of this process and new targets for treatment. The majority of urinary stones are composed of calcium that is complexed in a crystalline matrix with organic and inorganic components. Surprisingly, mitigation of urolithiasis risk by altering calcium homeostasis has not been very effective. Thus, studies to identify other therapeutic stone-specific targets, using proteomics, metabolomics and microscopy techniques, have been conducted, revealing a high level of complexity. The data suggest that numerous metals other than calcium and many nonmetals are present within calculi at measurable levels and several have distinct distribution patterns. Manipulation of the levels of some of these elemental components of calcium-based stones has resulted in clinically beneficial changes in stone chemistry and rate of stone formation. The elementome--the full spectrum of elemental content--of calcium-based urinary calculi is emerging as a new concept in stone research that continues to provide important insights for improved understanding and prevention of urinary stone disease. PMID:26334088

  9. The elementome of calcium-based urinary stones and its role in urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Krishna; Killilea, David W.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Kahn, Arnold J.; Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2016-01-01

    Urolithiasis affects around 10% of the US population with an increasing rate of prevalence, recurrence and penetrance. The causes for the formation of most urinary calculi remain poorly understood, but obtaining the chemical composition of these stones might help identify key aspects of this process and new targets for treatment. The majority of urinary stones are composed of calcium that is complexed in a crystalline matrix with organic and inorganic components. Surprisingly, mitigation of urolithiasis risk by altering calcium homeostasis has not been very effective. Thus, studies to identify other therapeutic stone-specific targets, using proteomics, metabolomics and microscopy techniques, have been conducted, revealing a high level of complexity. The data suggest that numerous metals other than calcium and many nonmetals are present within calculi at measurable levels and several have distinct distribution patterns. Manipulation of the levels of some of these elemental components of calcium-based stones has resulted in clinically beneficial changes in stone chemistry and rate of stone formation. The elementome—the full spectrum of elemental content—of calcium-based urinary calculi is emerging as a new concept in stone research that continues to provide important insights for improved understanding and prevention of urinary stone disease. PMID:26334088

  10. Antilithic effects of extracts from Urtica dentata hand on calcium oxalate urinary stones in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ming; Zhang, Shasha; Lu, Jingli; Li, Lulu; Hou, Wenrui; Xie, Mingxing; Zeng, Ying

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the potential antilithic effects of a traditional Chinese medicine Urtica dentata Hand (UDH) in experimental rats and screened the optimal extract of UDH as a possible therapeutic agent for kidney stones. The rat model of urinary calcium oxalate stones was induced by intragastric (i.g.) administration of 2 mL of 1.25% ethylene glycol (EG) and 1% ammonium chloride (AC) for 28 days and was confirmed by Color Doppler ultrasound imaging. The rats in different experimental groups were then intragastrically given petroleum ether extract (PEE), N-butanol extract (NBE), aqueous extract (AqE) of UDH, Jieshitong (positive control drug), and saline, respectively. Treatment with NBE significantly reduced the elevated levels of urinary calcium, uric acid, phosphate, as well as increased urinary output. Accordingly, the increased calcium, oxalate levels and the number of calcium oxalate crystals deposits were remarkably reverted in the renal tissue of NBE-treated rats. In addition, NBE also prevented the impairment of renal function to decrease the contents of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. Taken together, these data suggest that NBE of UDH has a beneficial effect on calcium oxalate urinary stones in rats by flushing the stones out and protecting renal function. PMID:22038359

  11. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work–social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns. PMID:23957268

  12. [Necessity of a 24-hour system of blood transfusion testing].

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    The preventive effects of a 24-hour system of blood transfusion testing on mistyping of transfused blood was examined. Blood transfusion tests have been performed by blood transfusion technologists during working hours and by physicians at other times. In March 2000, we introduced a system in which technologists perform blood transfusion tests after working hours. Technologists of the Blood Transfusion Unit and Central Clinical Laboratory perform the test jointly, and column agglutination technology was introduced as the test method. A computer system setup exclusively for the testing was also introduced to perform computer cross-matching. Since transfusion error is likely to occur during emergency blood transfusion, a manual was established to prioritize safety. After introduction of the system, mistyping that may have been caused by inaccurate blood test results markedly decreased, confirming the usefulness of this system for prevention of mistyping. In addition, transfusion errors also decreased in wards and the improved system increased the safety of the entire medical care system. The frequency of mistyping was about 1% when physicians performed blood typing, showing the importance of clinical technologists for blood transfusion tests. PMID:12652691

  13. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Geoffrey L.; Zaharieva, Dessi; Basset, Fabien A.; Hynes, Zach

    2016-01-01

    Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (Tc) and cognitive test battery (CTB) performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature). Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold) were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease Tc after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5–1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance. PMID:27478839

  14. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation.

    PubMed

    Taber, Michael J; Hartley, Geoffrey L; McGarr, Gregory W; Zaharieva, Dessi; Basset, Fabien A; Hynes, Zach; Haman, Francois; Pinet, Bernard M; DuCharme, Michel B; Cheung, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (T c) and cognitive test battery (CTB) performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature). Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold) were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease T c after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5-1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance. PMID:27478839

  15. The effects of a two-year randomized, controlled trial of whey protein supplementation on bone structure, IGF-1, and urinary calcium excretion in older postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kun; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A; Devine, Amanda; Solah, Vicky; Binns, Colin W; Prince, Richard L

    2011-09-01

    The effects of dietary protein on bone structure and metabolism have been controversial, with evidence for and against beneficial effects. Because no long-term randomized, controlled studies have been performed, a two-year study of protein supplementation in 219 healthy ambulant women aged 70 to 80 years was undertaken. Participants were randomized to either a high-protein drink containing 30 g of whey protein (n = 109) or a placebo drink identical in energy content, appearance, and taste containing 2.1 g of protein (n = 110). Both drinks provided 600 mg of calcium. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric (DXA) hip areal bone mineral density (aBMD), 24-hour urinary calcium excretion, and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured at baseline and at 1 and 2 years. Quantitative computed tomographic (QCT) hip volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and a femoral neck engineering strength analysis were undertaken at baseline and at 2 years. Baseline average protein intake was 1.1 g/kg of body weight per day. There was a significant decrease in hip DXA aBMD and QCT vBMD over 2 years with no between-group differences. Femoral neck strength was unchanged in either group over time. The 24-hour urinary calcium excretion increased significantly from baseline in both groups at 1 year but returned to baseline in the placebo group at 2 years, at which time the protein group had a marginally higher value. Compared with the placebo group, the protein group had significantly higher serum IGF-1 level at 1 and 2 years (7.3% to 8.0%, p < .05). Our study showed that in protein-replete healthy ambulant women, 30 g of extra protein increased IGF-1 but did not have beneficial or deleterious effects on bone mass or strength. The effect of protein supplementation in populations with low dietary protein intake requires urgent attention. PMID:21590739

  16. Preparation and results of a 24-hour orbital flight.

    PubMed

    Titov, G S

    1963-01-01

    The space age presents man with unprecedented opportunities for discovery and for cooperative endeavors to benefit all mankind. My flight of August 6-7, 1961 was conducted for the purpose of determining whether man can stay and work effectively and whether all systems of the spaceship can operate successfully during a period of 24 hours in space. The flight of Vostok II represents an experimental step in a logical sequence which included the first earth orbiting flight of USSR citizen Yuri A. Gagarin. Preparation for the flight included the study of theoretical and applied subjects, testing in various kinds of apparatus which provide acceleration, heat and isolation experience, brief airborne weightless flights and parachute landings, in addition to extensive training in a real spacecraft having simulators for normal and emergency contingencies of space flight. The actual flight was therefore carried out with a sense of confidence and familiarity and with continuous close radio contact with ground centers from whom my fellow cosmonauts served as spokesmen. Sequential boosters totaling 600 000 kg thrust placed the 4731 kg spaceship into a perfect orbit varying in altitude from 178-246 km in a plane 64 degrees 58' inclined to the equator. The spaceship made 17 orbits around the earth landing 25 hours, 18 minutes after take-off. The cabin had full atmospheric pressure and a comfortable habitability which could be extended for 10 days. I was able to maneuver the spaceship and perform many other control functions, make observations and take pictures of the earth and its cloud cover, eat meals and sleep all with good efficiency. I experienced mild symptoms suggestive of seasickness which were aggravated by head turning, ameliorated by sleep and entirely relieved by resumption of g-loading during descent. Altogether analyses of the physical and structural performance of the spaceship and the continuously monitored physiological responses of the pilot indicate that all

  17. The variability and dietary dependence of urinary oxalate excretion in recurrent calcium stone formers.

    PubMed

    Brown, J M; Stratmann, G; Cowley, D M; Mottram, B M; Chalmers, A H

    1987-07-01

    Twenty-two recurrent calcium stone formers had 24-h urinary oxalate excretions on their home diets which were significantly greater than those of 30 normal subjects (0.48 +/- 0.23 mmol/d; mean +/- SD compared with 0.31 +/- 0.11; P less than 0.01). The stone formers also demonstrated marked day to day variability in oxalate excretion indicating that a single normal urinary oxalate measurement did not exclude significant hyperoxaluria at other times. On a hospital diet containing 1000 mg calcium per day, urinary oxalate excretion fell significantly from 0.48 +/- 0.23 mmol/d to 0.32 +/- 0.12; P less than 0.01. As the urinary calcium excretion in and out of hospital was similar, it seems unlikely that low calcium intake at home was responsible for the hyperoxaluria. All patients had recurrent symptomatic stone disease and had been advised to avoid foods rich in oxalate. Whilst poor compliance is a possible explanation for the variability in oxalate excretion, we believe it is more likely that there is an inadvertent intake of oxalogenic precursors in their diet. As normal subjects do not demonstrate hyperoxaluria on similar home diets, stone formers may have a metabolic defect in the handling of these precursors. PMID:3662388

  18. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Killilea, David W.; Westropp, Jodi L.; Shiraki, Ryoji; Mellema, Matthew; Larsen, Jennifer; Kahn, Arnold J.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease. PMID:26066810

  19. Effect of dietary caffeine and theophylline on urinary calcium excretion in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Whiting, S J; Whitney, H L

    1987-07-01

    The chronic effects of dietary caffeine or theophylline on urinary calcium excretion were investigated in the adult male rat. When caffeine was added at two concentrations, 0.75 and 1.50 g/kg diet, 24-h urinary calcium excretion rose 300 and 450% on d 7, and 200 and 330% on d 14, respectively. There were no changes in the 24-h urinary excretion of phosphate, sulfate, sodium and cAMP nor did urine volume change. The high dose of caffeine was compared to an equimolar dose of theophylline (1.39 g/kg diet) in both Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats. Urinary calcium excretion in theophylline-treated rats was significantly greater than in caffeine-treated rats on all sampling days and in both strains of rat; the calciuric effect lasted at least 22 d. When rats were given indomethacin (3.3 mg/kg diet) the calciuria induced by caffeine and theophylline was abolished, and sodium excretion in all groups was reduced by 35-50%, but urine volume was unchanged. The calciuria of methylxanthine feeding may result from a prostaglandin-mediated process distinct from diuresis. PMID:3612301

  20. Screening for proteinuria in a rheumatology clinic: comparison of dipstick testing, 24 hour urine quantitative protein, and protein/creatinine ratio in random urine samples.

    PubMed

    Ralston, S H; Caine, N; Richards, I; O'Reilly, D; Sturrock, R D; Capell, H A

    1988-09-01

    Measurements of protein/creatinine ratio in 'spot' urine samples were compared with measurements of 24 hour quantitative proteinuria and side room 'dipstick' testing in 104 samples from 90 patients presenting consecutively to a rheumatology unit. Linear regression analysis showed a highly significant correlation between the random urinary protein/creatinine ratio and total protein excretion in 24 hour urine samples (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001, y = 6.55x + 0.04). Although an approximation of 24 hour urinary protein excretion could have been made from the regression line: 24 hour urine protein = 6.55 x protein/creatinine ratio + 0.04 (g/l), there was a wide scatter of values, particularly in patients with greater than 1 g/24 h urinary protein excretion. Nevertheless, significant proteinuria (greater than 300 mg/24 h) could have been confirmed or excluded with a sensitivity and specificity of 97% by adopting random protein/creatinine values of less than 0.04 as 'normal'. Specificity and sensitivity could have been increased to 100%, however, by excluding patients with values lying between 0.01 and 0.10 as all the false negatives (n = 3) and false positives (n = 3) lay within this range. In comparison, dipstick testing, although 100% sensitive, had a poor specificity due to the high false positive rate (40/83 (48%] in patients with 1+ to 3+ readings. Assessment of random urinary protein/creatinine ratio may obviate the need for 24 hour urine collections in the initial assessment of suspected proteinuria. A wider application of this technique seems indicated in view of the obvious advantages in terms of cost, time, and patient convenience. PMID:3263087

  1. Aspartame ingestion increases urinary calcium, but not oxalate excretion, in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, U N; Dumoulin, G; Henriet, M T; Regnard, J

    1998-01-01

    Aspartame is the artificial sweetener most extensively used as a substitute for glucose or sucrose in the food industry, particularly in soft drinks. As glucose ingestion increases calciuria and oxaluria, the two main determinants of urinary calcium-oxalate saturation, we considered it worthwhile to determine whether aspartame ingestion also affects calcium-oxalate metabolism. Our study compares the effects of the ingestion of similarly sweet doses of aspartame (250 mg) and glucose (75 g) on calcium and oxalate metabolisms of seven healthy subjects. Urinary calcium excretion increased after the intake of both aspartame (+86%; P < 0.01) and glucose (+124%; P < 0.01). This may be due to the rise in calcemia observed after both aspartame (+2.2%; P < 0.05) and glucose ingestion (+1.8%; P < 0.05). The increased calcemia may be linked to the decrease in phosphatemia that occurred after both aspartame (P < 0.01) and glucose (P < 0.01) load. Aspartame did not alter glycemia or insulinemia, whereas glucose intake caused striking increases in both glycemia (+59%; P < 0.001) and insulinemia (+869%; P < 0.01). Although insulin was considered the main calciuria-induced factor after glucose load, it is unlikely that this mechanism played a role with aspartame. Urinary oxalate excretion did not change after aspartame, whereas it increased (+27%; P < 0.05) after glucose load. Thus, as aspartame induced a similar increase in calciuria as did glucose but, conversely, no change in oxaluria, substituting glucose by aspartame in soft drinks may appear to be of some potential benefit. PMID:9435435

  2. Caffeine does not entrain the circadian clock but improves daytime alertness in blind patients with non-24-hour rhythms

    PubMed Central

    St. Hilaire, Melissa A.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective/Background Totally blind individuals are highly likely to suffer from Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder due to a failure of light to reset the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. In this outpatient case series, we investigated whether daily caffeine administration could entrain the circadian pacemaker in non-entrained blind patients to alleviate symptoms of non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder. Patients/Methods Three totally blind males (63.0 ± 7.5 years old) were studied at home over ~4 months. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) rhythms were measured for 48 h every 1–2 weeks. Participants completed daily sleep–wake logs, and rated their alertness and mood using nine-point scales every ~2–4 h while awake on urine sampling days. Caffeine capsules (150 mg per os) were self-administered daily at 10 a.m. for approximately one circadian beat cycle based on each participant's endogenous circadian period τ and compared to placebo (n = 2) or no treatment (n = 1) in a single-masked manner. Results Non-24-h aMT6s rhythms were confirmed in all three participants (τ range = 24.32–24.57 h). Daily administration of 150 mg caffeine did not entrain the circadian clock. Caffeine treatment significantly improved daytime alertness at adverse circadian phases (p < 0.0001) but did not decrease the occurrence of daytime naps compared with placebo. Conclusions Although caffeine was able to improve daytime alertness acutely and may therefore provide temporary symptomatic relief, the inability of caffeine to correct the underlying circadian disorder means that an entraining agent is required to treat Non-24-Hour Sleep–Wake Disorder in the blind appropriately. PMID:25891543

  3. Ocean tide loading effects on 24 hour GPS height estimates and resulting time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, N. T.; Stewart, M. P.

    2003-04-01

    GPS data from continuously operating GPS receivers are usually made available on a daily basis in 24 hour data files, so it is convenient for the user to adopt 24 hour data processing sessions. Time series are often then formed from the discrete 24 hour solutions, used for such applications as crustal deformation monitoring or high quality coordinate determination. When heights are estimated, ocean tide loading is a systematic error source that must be considered. Since the principal ocean tide loading effects have periods close to 12 and 24 hours respectively, it has been suggested from previous works that if models for ocean tide loading are not applied when processing GPS data as 24 hour sessions, at worst a small increase in the variance of the height time series will result. This paper further investigates the effects of ocean tide loading on 24 hour GPS height estimates and resulting time series, by considering a year of both simulated and real data from sites in Australia, at which the ocean tide loading effects differ substantially. The effect of each of the individual constituents is also considered. The role of the tropospheric delay mitigation strategy is addressed, regarding the effect on the height estimates when ocean tide loading effects are modelled or ignored.

  4. 24-hour central blood pressure and intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes in untreated subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bednarek, Agnieszka; Jankowski, Piotr; Olszanecka, Agnieszka; Windak, Adam; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recently, 24-hour monitoring of central systolic blood pressure (SBP) has become available. However, the relation between end-organ damage and the 24-hour central SBP profile and variability has not so far been analyzed. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relation between 24-hour central SBP, 24-hour central SBP profile as well as central SBP short-term variability and parameters of cardiac and vascular intermediate phenotypes. Methods: The study group consisted of 50 patients with newly diagnosed, untreated hypertension (age 40.4 ± 11.5 years, 35 men) and 50 normotensive subjects (age 38.3 ± 12.0 years, 35 men). Applanation tonometry of the radial artery and the “n-point forward moving average” method were used to determine 24-hour central SBP. Each study participant underwent echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography. Results: 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime central SBP was related to left ventricle end-diastole diameter (p < 0.05), left ventricular mass index (p < 0.001), relative wall thickness (p < 0.05), E/E’ ratio (p < 0.01), and left atrium volume (p < 0.01). The nocturnal central SBP fall was not related to any of the mentioned parameters, whereas parameters of short-term variability were related to IMT in hypertensives only (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The present study showed that 24-hour central SBP is related to intermediate cardiac phenotypes as assessed by echocardiography whereas short-term central SBP variability is mainly related to vascular phenotype as determined by IMT. PMID:25628959

  5. Insights about serum sodium behavior after 24 hours of continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Thiago Gomes; Martins, Cassia Pimenta Barufi; Mendes, Pedro Vitale; Besen, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro; Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Park, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratorial factors associated with serum sodium variation during continuous renal replacement therapy and to assess whether the perfect admixture formula could predict 24-hour sodium variation. Methods Thirty-six continuous renal replacement therapy sessions of 33 patients, in which the affluent prescription was unchanged during the first 24 hours, were retrieved from a prospective collected database and then analyzed. A mixed linear model was performed to investigate the factors associated with large serum sodium variations (≥ 8mEq/L), and a Bland-Altman plot was generated to assess the agreement between the predicted and observed variations. Results In continuous renal replacement therapy 24-hour sessions, SAPS 3 (p = 0.022) and baseline hypernatremia (p = 0.023) were statistically significant predictors of serum sodium variations ≥ 8mEq/L in univariate analysis, but only hypernatremia demonstrated an independent association (β = 0.429, p < 0.001). The perfect admixture formula for sodium prediction at 24 hours demonstrated poor agreement with the observed values. Conclusions Hypernatremia at the time of continuous renal replacement therapy initiation is an important factor associated with clinically significant serum sodium variation. The use of 4% citrate or acid citrate dextrose - formula A 2.2% as anticoagulants was not associated with higher serum sodium variations. A mathematical prediction for the serum sodium concentration after 24 hours was not feasible. PMID:27410407

  6. The Road Ahead to Continuous 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure Monitoring in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Kaweh

    2014-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only treatable risk factor for glaucoma. Yet, current glaucoma management usually relies on single IOP measurements during clinic hours despite the fact that IOP is a dynamic parameter with individual rhythms. Single IOP measurements underpin all major clinical guidelines on treatment of glaucoma. Other potentially informative parameters, such as IOP fluctuations and peak IOP, have been neglected, and effects of IOP-lowering interventions on such measures are largely unknown. The search for continuous 24-hour IOP monitoring started over 50 years ago, but only recent technological advances have provided clinician-researchers with devices for continuous IOP monitoring. Herein, we discuss innovative approaches with permanent and temporary devices for 24-hour IOP monitoring, such as a contact lens sensor. Despite being in their infancy, these devices may soon enable clinicians to use 24-hour IOP data to improve glaucoma management and reduce the glaucoma-related burden of disease. PMID:25279129

  7. Microtensile bond strength of resin-resin interfaces after 24-hour and 2-month soaking.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Curry; Boberick, Kenneth G; Winkler, Sheldon

    2007-01-01

    Evaluate the bond strengths of denture base-repair materials to minimize recurrent failure rate. Use microtensile bond strength (muTBS) testing to evaluate the interfacial bonding strength of 6 commercial denture repair materials after 24-hour and 12-month soaking. Blocks of poly(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) and Triad were fabricated, fractured, and repaired. Twenty bars (1 x 1 x 30 mm) per group were sectioned from each block parallel to the long axis and approximately 90 degrees to the resin-resin repair interface and stored before muTBS testing in a servo-hydraulic tensile-testing machine. Intact PMMA and Triad bars that had been soaked for 24 hours and 12 months were tested for reference. The 24-hour repair strengths for PMMA ranged from 52% to 84% of original strength. Soaking for 12 months resulted in a 20% decrease in strength for the PMMA control. The 12-month repair strengths for PMMA ranged from 43% to 74% of the 12-month soaked material strength. Triad repair tested 35% of original strength after soaking for 24 hours. Permabond (cyanoacrylate) to PMMA tested 47% of original strength after 24 hours of soaking and 26% of the 12-month soaked material strength. Permabond to Triad tested 30% of original strength after 24 hours of soaking. Permabond and Triad showed a 100% adhesive mode of failure. All other materials tested exhibited either an adhesive mode of failure at the denture base-repair-material interface or a complex cohesive failure within the repair-material interface. The muTBS approach can be used to analyze the resin-resin interface of repaired acrylics. The relatively small standard deviations make the muTBS approach attractive. In this study, muTBS was used to evaluate the repair strength of 6 denture repair materials enabling clinicians to make clinical judgments regarding the strongest repair bond available. PMID:17987865

  8. Potential contribution of optional urease-positive bacteria to idiopathic urinary calcium stone formation. II. Microlith formation kinetics in a fermenter model of the urinary tract infected by optional urease-positive microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Leusmann, D B; Sabinski, F

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the effects of weak to moderate urease hydrolysis by optional urease-positive microorganisms in an artificial urine model enriched with calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate in respect of calcium stone formation. The incubation experiments were performed using a discontinuously running fermenter device to simulate the urinary system. The kinetics of cell division rates, pH and ammonium ion production were measured and correlated to crystallite appearance in the incubation medium. Qualitative analyses of the sediments revealed apatite. Investigations using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the matrix effect of bacterial glycoproteins. It was shown that initiation of calcium oxalate stone formation is in all probability equally determined by matrix effects and by heteronuclear crystallization if the urinary tract is infected by optional urease-positive bacteria. When urinary inorganic phosphate is present, calcium phosphate nidi are always initially formed, and may subsequently be coated by calcium oxalate. PMID:8740975

  9. The Three-Continent, 24-Hour Help Desk: An Academic First?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Describes Follow the Sun, a computer help-desk service that takes advantage of time differences around the world to permit four universities (University of Colorado Boulder, Australia's Macquarie and Newcastle universities, and the London School of Economics) to share services and provide 24-hour support to users. (EV)

  10. Oropharyngeal 24-Hour pH Monitoring in Children With Airway-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Mesallam, Tamer A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diagnosis and clinical presentation of pediatric laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is still controversial. The aims of this work were to study the possibility of performing 24-hour oropharyngeal pH monitoring for children in the outpatient clinic setup and to explore the results of this test in correlation to airway-related problems. Methods In this descriptive qualitative study, 26 children suffering from airway-related problems were included. Oropharyngeal 24-hour pH monitoring was performed for all subjects in the outpatient clinic setting. The distribution of airway diagnoses among the study group was studied versus the results of the pH monitoring. Results There were 16 males and 10 females participated in the study with a mean age of 6.88 (SD, ±5.77) years. Thirty-five percent of the patients were under the age of 3 years (range, 11 months to 3 years). Eight-five percent of the patients tolerated the pH probe insertion and completed 24-hour of pH recording. Laryngomalacia and subglottic stenosis (SGS) were more frequently reported in the positive LPR patients (77%). Conclusion Oropharyngeal 24-hour pH monitoring can be conducted for children in the outpatient setup even in young age children below 3 years old. Among the positive LPR group, SGS and laryngomalacia were the most commonly reported airway findings. PMID:27090271

  11. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  12. 24-Hour Access: Responding to Students' Need for Late Library Hours at the University of Denver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Bethany B.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Denver's Penrose Library saw a substantial increase in use as a result of several new and enhanced services over a six-year period. In turn, longer operating hours and increased staffing for a 24-hours-a-day, five-days-a-week (24 x 5) operating schedule was funded. This case study analyzes student need for longer library hours…

  13. Mood-Dependent Cognitive Change in a Man with Bipolar Disorder Who Cycles Every 24 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Dominic; Mansell, Warren

    2008-01-01

    A case study of a bipolar patient whose mood changes every 24 hours is described to illustrate the changes in cognitive processing and content during different phases of bipolar disorder. The participant completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks on 4 separate occasions: twice when depressed and twice when manic. Depression tended to be…

  14. Factors affecting crystallization, dispersion, and aggregation of calcium oxalate monohydrate in various urinary environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christmas, Kimberly Gail

    The mechanisms for the formation of kidney stones are not well understood. One possible mechanism is the formation of aggregates in the nephron tubules of the kidneys. However, altering the urinary environment may be a method to help prevent the recurrence of the formation of kidney stones. The primary inorganic constituent found in kidney stones of North American patients is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). In this research, studies on the effect of mixing rate on COM precipitation showed that rapid mixing compared to slow mixing produced smaller particle sizes and a narrower particle size distribution due to the more uniform supersaturation level. The findings are consistent with the general contention that mixing directly influences nucleation rate while mixing rate has relatively little influence over rate of growth in precipitation processes. Screening and central composite experimental designs are used to determine the effect of various factors on the aggregation and dispersion characteristics of previously grown calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals in artificial urinary environments of controlled variables. The variables examined are pH, calcium, oxalate, pyrophosphate, citrate, and protein concentrations in ultrapure water and artificial urine. Optical density measurements, zeta potential analysis, particle size analyzer, optical microscopy, AFM force measurements, protein adsorption, and ions and small molecule adsorption have been used to assess the state of aggregation and dispersion of the COM crystals and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in such a complex system. The data indicate that our model protein, mucin, acts as a dispersant. This is attributed to steric hindrance resulting from the adsorbed mucoprotein. Oxalate, however, promotes aggregation. Interesting interactions between protein and oxalate along with protein and citrate are observed. Such interactions (synergistic or antagonistic) are found to depend on the concentrations of

  15. Seasonal changes of 24-hour intraocular pressure rhythm in healthy Shanghai population

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jingyi; Xiao, Ming; Xu, Huan; Fang, Shaobin; Chen, Xu; Kong, Xiangmei; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythms in winter and summer in the healthy population of Shanghai, China. This is a cross-sectional study in which 24-hour IOP measurements were taken for all eligible healthy volunteers in winter and summer, respectively, and the temperature, hours of sunlight (sunlight time), and circulatory parameters, including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, were also recorded. The 24-hour IOP curves and IOP parameters (mean, peak, trough, and fluctuation of IOP together with the diurnal-to-nocturnal IOP change) in winter and summer were obtained and compared. The magnitude of IOP changes from summer to winter was also calculated. A total of 29 participants (58 eyes), 14 (48.28%) male and 15 (51.72%) female, aged 43.66 ± 12.20 (19–61) years, were considered eligible for this study. Generally, IOP decreased progressively before noon, increased notably in the nocturnal period, and peaked at 12:00 am in winter and at 2:00 am in summer. The pattern of 24-hour IOP in winter and summer was significantly different (P = 0.002). The average IOPs from 4:00 pm to 8:00 am, except for 6:00 am, were significantly higher in winter (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were shown after adjusting for temperature and/or sunlight time. From summer to winter, the extent of IOP increase was mostly around 0 to 3 mm Hg, and the IOPs increased more significantly in the nocturnal period than in the diurnal period (P = 0.05). The 24-hour IOP rhythms were different in winter and summer, with higher IOP level in winter. Temperature and sunlight time, which are independent of heart rate and blood pressure, affected the 24-hour IOP rhythms in healthy people in Shanghai, China. Further investigations are expected for the rhythm of some endogenous substance secretion and the inner mechanism of regulation of IOP. PMID:27495076

  16. Seasonal changes of 24-hour intraocular pressure rhythm in healthy Shanghai population.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jingyi; Xiao, Ming; Xu, Huan; Fang, Shaobin; Chen, Xu; Kong, Xiangmei; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythms in winter and summer in the healthy population of Shanghai, China.This is a cross-sectional study in which 24-hour IOP measurements were taken for all eligible healthy volunteers in winter and summer, respectively, and the temperature, hours of sunlight (sunlight time), and circulatory parameters, including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, were also recorded. The 24-hour IOP curves and IOP parameters (mean, peak, trough, and fluctuation of IOP together with the diurnal-to-nocturnal IOP change) in winter and summer were obtained and compared. The magnitude of IOP changes from summer to winter was also calculated.A total of 29 participants (58 eyes), 14 (48.28%) male and 15 (51.72%) female, aged 43.66 ± 12.20 (19-61) years, were considered eligible for this study. Generally, IOP decreased progressively before noon, increased notably in the nocturnal period, and peaked at 12:00 AM in winter and at 2:00 AM in summer. The pattern of 24-hour IOP in winter and summer was significantly different (P = 0.002). The average IOPs from 4:00 PM to 8:00 AM, except for 6:00 AM, were significantly higher in winter (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were shown after adjusting for temperature and/or sunlight time. From summer to winter, the extent of IOP increase was mostly around 0 to 3 mm Hg, and the IOPs increased more significantly in the nocturnal period than in the diurnal period (P = 0.05).The 24-hour IOP rhythms were different in winter and summer, with higher IOP level in winter. Temperature and sunlight time, which are independent of heart rate and blood pressure, affected the 24-hour IOP rhythms in healthy people in Shanghai, China. Further investigations are expected for the rhythm of some endogenous substance secretion and the inner mechanism of regulation of IOP. PMID:27495076

  17. [24-hour blood pressure measurement in normal pregnancy in hypertensive pregnant patients].

    PubMed

    Rath, W; Schrader, J; Guhlke, U; Buhr-Schinner, H; Haupt, A; Kramer, A; Kuhn, W

    1990-08-01

    Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in 17 normotensive and 19 preeclamptic pregnant women. The normotensive women showed a significant nightly decline in their systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In contrast, the preeclamptic women demonstrated either an attenuated circadian rhythm or no circadian rhythm at all. This result was even more pronounced in patients with severe hypertension, some of whom had a nocturnal increase in blood pressure in spite of being treated with antihypertensive drugs in an evening dose. The lack of nocturnal blood pressure decrease was also found 24 hours post partum. In summary, these results suggest that preeclamptic women are endangered by hypertensive emergencies mostly during the night. Therefore blood pressure controls should be extended into the night, and antihypertensive drugs should also be given in a sufficient evening dose. PMID:2214601

  18. [Identification of paroxysmal, transient arrhythmias: Intermittent registration more efficient than the 24-hour Holter monitoring].

    PubMed

    Hendrikx, Tijn; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Sandström, Herbert; Persson, Mats; Hörnsten, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Many patients suffer from palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. These patients are often referred for Holter ECG (24 hour), although the sensitivity for detecting arrhythmias is low. A new method, short intermittent regular and symptomatic ECG registrations at home, might be a convenient and more sensitive alternative also suitable for primary health care. In this case report we present a patient who had contacted health care several times during a seven year period for paroxysmal palpitations. Routine examination with 24 hour Holter ECG and event recorder did not result in a diagnosis. Using intermittent handheld ECG registration at home, a paroxysmal supraventricular arrhythmia was diagnosed. Further investigation revealed that the patient had a concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. PMID:25584602

  19. Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces urinary biomarkers of fumonisin B1 exposure in rats and humans

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, A.; Johnson, N.M.; Strey, A.; Taylor, J.F.; Marroquin-Cardona, A.; Mitchell, N.J.; Afriyie-Gyawu, E.; Ankrah, N.A.; Williams, J.H.; Wang, J.S.; Jolly, P.E.; Nachman, R.J.; Phillips, T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is often a co-contaminant with aflatoxin (AF) in grains and may enhance AF’s carcinogenicity by acting as a cancer promoter. Calcium montmorillonite (i.e. NovaSil, NS) is a possible dietary intervention to help decrease chronic aflatoxin exposure where populations are at risk. Previous studies show that an oral dose of NS clay was able to reduce AF exposure in a Ghanaian population. In vitro analyses from our laboratory indicated that FB1 (like aflatoxin) could also be sorbed onto the surfaces of NS. Hence, our objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of NS clay to reduce urinary FB1 in a rodent model and then in a human population highly exposed to AF. In the rodent model, male Fisher rats were randomly assigned to either, FB1 control, FB1 + 2% NS or absolute control group. FB1 alone or with clay was given as a single dose by gavage. For the human trial, participants received NS (1.5 or 3 g day−1) or placebo (1.5 g day−1) for 3 months. Urines from weeks 8 and 10 were collected from the study participants for analysis. In rats, NS significantly reduced urinary FB1 biomarker by 20% in 24 h and 50% after 48 h compared to controls. In the humans, 56% of the urine samples analyzed (n = 186) had detectable levels of FB1. Median urinary FB1 levels were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by > 90% in the high dose NS group (3 g day−1) compared to the placebo. This work indicates that our study participants in Ghana were exposed to FB1 (in addition to AFs) from the diet. Moreover, earlier studies have shown conclusively that NS reduces the bioavailability of AF and the findings from this study suggest that NS clay also reduces the bioavailability FB1. This is important since AF is a proven dietary risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans and FB1 is suspected to be a dietary risk factor for HCC and esophageal cancer in humans. PMID:22324939

  20. Circadian Polymorphisms in Night Owls, in Bipolars, and in Non-24-Hour Sleep Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Klimecki, Walter T.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Rex, Katharine M.; Murray, Sarah S.; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J.; Loving, Richard T.; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F.; Poceta, J. Steven; Jamil, Shazia M.; Kline, Lawrence E.; Kelsoe, John R.

    2014-01-01

    People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression. PMID:25395965

  1. Recovery of amplitude integrated electroencephalographic background patterns within 24 hours of perinatal asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    van Rooij, L G M; Toet, M; Osredkar, D; van Huffelen, A C; Groenendaal, F; de Vries, L S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the time course of recovery of severely abnormal initial amplitude integrated electroencephalographic (aEEG) patterns (flat trace (FT), continuous low voltage (CLV), or burst suppression (BS)) in full term asphyxiated neonates, in relation to other neurophysiological and neuroimaging findings and neurodevelopmental outcome. Methods: A total of 190 aEEGs of full term infants were reviewed. The neonates were admitted within 6 hours of birth to the neonatal intensive care unit because of perinatal asphyxia, and aEEG recording was started immediately. In all, 160 infants were included; 65 of these had an initial FT or CLV pattern and 25 an initial BS pattern. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed using a full neurological examination and the Griffiths' mental developmental scale. Results: In the FT/CLV group, the background pattern recovered to continuous normal voltage within 24 hours in six of the 65 infants (9%). All six infants survived the neonatal period; one had a severe disability, and five were normal at follow up. In the BS group, the background pattern improved to normal voltage in 12 of the 25 infants (48%) within 24 hours. Of these infants, one died, five survived with moderate to severe disability, two with mild disability, and four were normal. The patients who did not recover within 24 hours either died in the neonatal period or survived with a severe disability. Conclusion: In this study there was a small group of infants who presented with a severely abnormal aEEG background pattern within six hours of birth, but who achieved recovery to a continuous normal background pattern within the first 24 hours. Sixty one percent of these infants survived without, or with a mild, disability. PMID:15846017

  2. Patients in 24-hour home care striving for control and safety

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This article concerns Swedish patients receiving 24-hour home care from health care assistants (HC assistants) employed by the municipality. Home care is a complex interactive process involving the patient, family, HC assistants as well as professional care providers. Previous studies exploring patient perspectives on home care have been based mainly on patient interviews. In contrast, the present study took a broad perspective on patients’ experiences and thoughts by combining field observations on care situations with patient and HC assistant interviews. The aim of the study presented in this article was to promote a new and broadened understanding of patients receiving 24-hour home care by constructing a theoretical model to illuminate their main concern. Methods Field observations and semi-structured interviews were conducted with four patients receiving 24-hour home care and their HC assistants. Grounded theory methodology was used. Results The core process identified was Grasping the lifeline, which describes compensatory processes through which patients strived for control and safe care when experiencing a number of exposed states due to inadequate home care. Patients tried to take control by selecting their own HC assistants and sought safe hands by instructing untrained HC assistants in care procedures. When navigating the care system, the patients maintained contacts with professional care providers and coordinated their own care. When necessary, a devoted HC assistant could take over the navigating role. The results are illuminated in a theoretical model. Conclusions The results accentuate the importance to patients of participating in their own care, especially in the selection of HC assistants. The model illustrates some challenging areas for improvement within the organisation of 24-hour home care, such as personnel continuity and competence, collaboration, and routines for acute care. Furthermore, it may be used as a basis for reflection

  3. Mechanical properties of direct and indirect composites after storage for 24 hours and 10 months

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Paula Barbosa; Brandt, William Cunha; Neves, Ana Christina Claro; Cunha, Leonardo Gonçalves; Silva-Concilio, Lais Regiane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diametral tensile strength (DTS) and Knoop hardness (KH) of direct (Filtek Z350-3M/ESPE and Charisma-Heraeus Kulzer) and indirect composites (Sinfony-3M/ESPE and Signum-Heraeus Kulzer) kept in storage for two periods of time, 24 hours and 10 months, in distilled water. Methods: Twenty-five specimens of each material were prepared. DTS (n=10) was tested using a universal testing machine (Versat, model 2000) at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. KH (n=5) was measured using Knoop micro-hardness (HMV-2000; 50 gf for 15 s). All tests were performed 24 hours after polymerization and after 10 months of storage in distilled water at 37°C. The data were statistically analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA and t-Student (P=.05). Results: Filtek Z350, Sinfony, and Signum showed higher DTS values than Charisma after 24 hours. After storage, Sinfony and Signum showed higher DTS values because the storage did not influence the DTS values of the indirect composites. Filtek Z350 showed higher KH values after 24 hours and after storage than other composites; the storage influenced the KH of all composites except Sinfony. Conclusion: Storage for 10 months did not influence the properties of the indirect composite Sinfony. In general, the indirect composites showed higher DTS values than direct composites, especially after 10 months storage. The direct composite Filtek Z350 obtained the highest KH values regardless of storage. PMID:23407869

  4. Analogue step-by-step DC component eliminator for 24-hour PPG signal monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pilt, Kristjan; Meigas, Kalju; Lass, Jaanus; Rosmann, Mart; Kaik, Jüri

    2007-01-01

    For applications where PPG signal AC component needs to be measured without disturbances in its shape and recorded digitally with high digitalization accuracy, the step-by-step DC component eliminator is developed. This paper describes step-by-step DC component eliminator, which is utilized with analogue comparator and operational amplifier. It allows to record PPG signal without disturbances in its shape in 24-hours PPG signal monitoring system. The experiments with PPG signal have been carried out. PMID:18002130

  5. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  6. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  7. A New Method to Make 24-Hour Urine Collection More Convenient: A Validity Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. This study proposes a novel urine collection device that can divide each urine collection into 20 parts and store and cool just one part. The aim of the current study is to compare measured biomarkers from the proposed urine collection device to those of conventional 24-hour sampling method. We also hypothesized that the new method would significantly increase patients' adherence to the timed urine collection. Methods. Two 24-hour urine samples with the conventional method and with the new automated urine collection device that uses just one-twentieth of each void were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers. Urine parameters including volume, creatinine, and protein levels were compared between the two methods and the agreement of two measurements for each subject was reported through Bland-Altman plots. Results. Our results confirmed that for all three variables, there is a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between the two measurements and high degree of agreement could be seen in Bland-Altman plots. Moreover, more subjects reported the new method as “more convenient” for 24-hour urine collection. Conclusions. Our results clearly indicate that a fixed proportion of each void may significantly reduce the urine volume in timed collections and this, in turn, may increase subjects' adherence to this difficult sampling. PMID:24963405

  8. Phase II trial of cyclophosphamide, leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil 24-hour infusion and tamoxifen in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Eckel, F; Lersch, C; Lippl, F; Assmann, G; Schulte-Frohlinde, E

    2000-09-01

    Leucovorin modulates the cytotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the treatment of cancer. 24-hour infusion of 5-FU has been shown to enhance antitumor activity in colorectal cancer compared to bolus infusion. According to experimental data cyclophosphamide and tamoxifen may enhance the effectiveness of leucovorin and 5-FU. A phase II trial was initiated to evaluate the effect of a combination of low-dose cyclophosphamide (C), leucovorin (L), 5-FU (F) and tamoxifen (T) (CLFT) in advanced pancreatic cancer. Fifty patients were treated monthly with 300 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide and weekly with 500 mg/m2 leucovorin followed by a 24-hour infusion of 2000 mg/m2 5-FU and tamoxifen 20 mg bid. Three patients had a partial response (6%), two a minor response (4%) and 32 (64%) no change of disease. The median survival time was 8.5 months for all patients, the median time to progression of disease was 4.6 months and the 1-year survival rate was 28%. CLFT was fairly well tolerated. These data suggest that biochemical modulation of 24-hour infusional 5-FU with leucovorin together with cyclophosphamide and tamoxifen has some positive effects in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:11144522

  9. [Formula creatinine clearance as a substitute for 24-hour creatine clearance in children with kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Aufricht, C; Balbisi, A; Gerdov, C; Müller, T; Lothaller, M A; Balzar, E

    1995-01-01

    Despite many theoretical advantages, formula-creatininclearance (Schwartz et al, Journal of Pediatrics 1976) has not found broad clinical acceptance in everyday pediatric patient care. In this study we report our results of long term observations (11.7 +/- 6.8 (1.7-24.8) months) of measured and computed creatininclearance in 27 children after renal transplantation (15 boys, 12 girls, mean age 14.5 +/- 4.2 (5.5-20) years) at the Kinderdialyse of the Universitäts-Kinderklinik of Vienna. We found a wide scattered correlation between the measured and computed creatininclearance values with a 90% confidence interval between -30% to +60% of the 24 hour creatininclearance. Formula creatininclearance (SD 17.8%) was markedly better reproducable than the 24 hour creatininclearancethe (SD 37.8%), the intraindividuell collecting error (36.1%) was almost twice the interindividuell "coefficient" error (20.27%). We therefore conclude that the 24 hour creatininclearance is by far not as accurate as the complexity of the procedure pretends and support broad clinical acceptance for the formula creatininclearance. PMID:7752601

  10. Impact of diet on 24-hour intragastric pH profile in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Damkel, Cornelia; Snyder, Alice; Uhlig, Albrecht; Coenen, Manfred; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2015-01-01

    An electrode incorporated into a polyethylene hose was introduced under endoscopic control into the stomach of six fasting adult horses for long-lasting pH measurements. The intragastric pH was recorded every four seconds for a period of 24 hours. The Warmblood horses were assigned randomly to receive hay ad libitum (H group); 1.5 kg hay/100 kg BW/day and 1 kg concentrate/100 kg BW/ day (C group) or protocol C plus 75 g pectin-lecithin supplement/100 kg BW/day (P group). The horses were adapted to each diet for 14 days. The 24-hour median pH value for protocol H (2.69) was significantly lower compared to protocol C (3.35) and P (3.44) (p < 0.05). The horses in protocol P had a significant higher percentage (40.1 %) of 24-hour intragastric pH values ≥ 4 than in protocol C (36.2 %) or in protocol H (25.3 %) (p < 0.05). PMID:26591378

  11. The comparative effects of feeding ammonium carbonate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride on urinary calcium excretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Whiting, S J; Cole, D E

    1987-11-01

    When either sulfate or chloride is added to the diet, the resulting acid load causes a rise in urinary calcium excretion. There is, however, the possibility that sulfate, which has been shown to complex renal tubular calcium, will further decrease renal calcium reabsorption and thus produce a greater calciuria than chloride. Because addition of a fixed cation (e.g., sodium) to the diet may also stimulate calciuresis, experiments were conducted using metabolizable ammonium to minimize cation effects. Ammonium salts of sulfate, chloride, and carbonate (control) were added to the diets of male rats at 0.3 mequiv./g weight of diet. Twenty-four hour excretion rates of calcium, sulfate, chloride, and net acid were measured at various intervals up to 1 month. As expected, the chloride and sulfate diets were both associated with significantly elevated urine calcium and net acid excretion as compared with controls. However, those fed sulfate exhibited significantly less calcium and acid excretion and absorbed a smaller proportion of the anion load than those given chloride. In a second experiment, the amounts of supplemental sulfate and chloride were adjusted so that total absorptions were similar. At 2 weeks, both calcium and acid excretions in the fixed anion groups were no longer significantly different. Thus, in chronic feeding trials, there appears to be no measurable difference in the calciuretic properties of sulfate and chloride anions. PMID:3449184

  12. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... the 2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' 74 FR 58688... Federal Regulations DC District of Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR... EPA finalized designations for the 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS (74 FR 58688, November 13, 2009), the...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1990 - Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1990 Section 52.1990 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) EPA approves the portion of...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1990 - Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1990 Section 52.1990 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) EPA approves the portion of...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1990 - Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1990 Section 52.1990 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1990 Interstate Transport for the 2006 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS. (a) EPA approves the portion of...

  16. 24-Hour Measurement of Gastric pH in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sammon, Alastair M.; Ndebia, Eugene J.; Umapathy, Ekambaram; Iputo, Jehu E.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have established norms of 24-hour gastric pH profiles for western countries. This study was designed to establish the pattern for a rural African population with a high incidence of oesophageal cancer. Methods. After lower oesophageal manometry a probe was placed 10 cm distal to the lower oesophageal sphincter. We carried out 24-hour ambulatory monitoring of gastric pH on 59 healthy subjects. This was satisfactorily completed on 26 female and 18 male (age 21–64, median 35) subjects in the Transkei region of South Africa. Results. The mean 24 hour gastric pH was 2.84 and the mean night-time pH was 3.7. 40 volunteers recorded a night-time pH reaching over 4. 33 volunteers recorded a night-time pH over 7. Night-time alkalinisation was present for 136.4 minutes (25th centile 22.8, 75th centile 208.1) at pH4 or over, and 79.3 (2.5, 122.7) minutes at pH7 or over. Episodes of rapid alkaline rise were 17 (10, 47). 21.1% of these occurred while supine. 35 of 36 tested subjects were positive for H. pylori IgG. Conclusion. Gastric alkalinisation is common in Transkei, at a higher pH than that reported in other studies, and is sustained longer. Nighttime alkalinisation is frequent. This suggests a high level of duodenogastric reflux. PMID:25861260

  17. Bioenergetical and Cardiac Adaptations of Pilots to a 24-Hour Team Kart Race.

    PubMed

    Durand, Sylvain; Ripamonti, Michael; Rahmani, Abderrahmane; Beaune, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate (HR) response in kart pilots to successive driving bouts during a 24-hour team race. Eight adult male pilots (22.8 ± 4.1 years) participated to a team 24-hour speedway kart race in Le Mans (France). They alternatively piloted a 390 cm kart. Each relay was 45 minutes long and each pilot performed 4 relays. For each pilot, mean speeds were calculated from lap-to-lap duration recordings using a telemetric infrared timing device. Heart rate values were recorded continuously on 5-second intervals using a portable cardiometric device. Total energy expenditure (EET) and physical activity ratio (PAR) were determined by accelerometry. To pilot a kart during 45 minutes at a mean speed around 62 km·h induces a 300-kcal EET, corresponding to a 5.6-Mets PAR. This effort is responsive for a 73 b·min increase in HR, from 84.1 ± 7.6 to 157.4 ± 11.0 b·min (82% maximal heart rate intensity). However, during this relay period, HR values seemed independent to mean speed performance and bioenergetical values. Thus, in the context of the 24-hour team race, the variability in effort made during each relay and relay succession did not alter bioenergetical adaptation of pilots to kart driving. The high EE and HR values would be better explained by both emotional stress and environmental constraints such as speedway configuration and vibrations. The way how these factors specifically influence bioenergetical demand, and their relative importance, has to be specified to optimize training procedure and recommendations. PMID:25029011

  18. Evaluation of Intradermal and Subcutaneous Infusion Set Performance Under 24-Hour Basal and Bolus Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McVey, Elaine; Keith, Steven; Herr, Joshua K.; Sutter, Diane; Pettis, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study sought to assess the function and delivery reliability of intradermal (ID) infusion sets used with commercial insulin pumps. Method: Healthy subjects (n = 43) were randomized to either ID or subcutaneous (SC) arms, and received basal/bolus placebo delivery for 24 hours. Subjects received 4 of 8 infusion set combinations (ID: microneedle design A or B, with 2 pump brands [Animas or MiniMed]; SC: Teflon Quickset or steel Rapid-D, Animas pump only, with or without overtaping) and were evaluated for pump occlusion alarms, fluid leakage, pain, and tissue tolerability. A novel algorithm was developed to determine flow consistency based on fluid pressure, and the duration and occurrence rate for periods of unalarmed but interrupted flow (“silent occlusions’”) were compared. Results: ID delivery was successfully maintained over the 24-hour infusion period. The number of silent occlusions was lower for ID microneedle cannula design B than A (P < .01) and lower for Rapid-D SC device compared to Quick-set (P = .03). There was no significant difference in the number of occlusion alarms between the ID and SC devices with the Animas pump. However, the pumps tested with ID devices had significantly different alarm rates (MiniMed 29.5%, Animas 0%, P < .001). Leakage and tissue tolerability were comparable across devices. Conclusion: The ID infusion set reliably delivered diluent for an extended 24-hour period in healthy subjects and was well tolerated. Silent occlusion flow interruptions could be detected in both ID and SC infusion sets using a proprietary algorithm. This algorithm is a promising method for quantitatively evaluating infusion set flow performance. PMID:26319228

  19. Implementation of a 24-Hour Pharmacy Service with Prospective Medication Review in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Linda; Claudio-Saez, Maria; Halim, Qazi; Marshall, Lewis; Hayes-Quinn, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is reported that more than 128 million patients are seen in emergency departments (EDs) annually. Patient overcrowding had been associated with an increased occurrence of medication errors. Purpose: Due to increased patient volume and the need for improved patient safety, a 24-hour pharmacy service was established for our institution’s ED. The purpose of the study is to quantify and demonstrate the impact of a 24-hour pharmacy service in an urban ED. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at a regional level 1 trauma center. The study period occurred between December 2012 and July 2013. The following variables were quantified and analyzed: number of medication orders reviewed, number of intravenous medications compounded, and number of clinical interventions that were recommended by the ED pharmacy team (EDPT) and accepted by ED clinicians. Results: A total of 3,779 medication orders were reviewed by the EDPT. Of these orders, 3,482 (92%) were prospectively reviewed. A total of 3,068 (81.2%) and 711 (18.8%) orders were reviewed for the adult and pediatric ED, respectively. During the study period, the EDPT procured 549 intravenous admixtures and conducted 642 clinical interventions. Most of the interventions involved providing drug information for physicians and nurses (45.9%), adjusting drug dosages (21.1%), and recommending antimicrobial therapy (15.1%). Conclusion: The implementation of a 24-hour pharmacy service at our institution was an innovative practice that increased the role of pharmacists in the ED. The EDPT conducted prospective medication review, procured intravenous admixtures from a sterile environment, and provided therapeutic recommendations for the ED interdisciplinary team. PMID:25717209

  20. Treating allergic conjunctivitis: A once-daily medication that provides 24-hour symptom relief

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Jack; Donnenfeld, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is a common ocular inflammatory manifestation of allergen exposure in sensitized individuals. Signs and symptoms of AC can decrease quality of life, interfere with productivity, and lead to considerable economic burden. Consistent suppression of conjunctival inflammation is necessary for managing AC, but currently available medications require frequent administration and exhibit limited duration of action. Methods: In this review, we summarized AC pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment options as well as their limitations. Findings from the literature were discussed in the context of the unmet need for a once-daily medication with sustained 24-hour effectiveness. Results: Topical pharmacologic treatments are the most common approach for managing extant AC; however, most available medications require multiple daily instillations. Dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizing agents are currently considered first-line therapeutics for AC because they provide acute relief of signs and symptoms and block persistent inflammation to promote regression of AC. Recent studies of a newly-developed, higher-concentration formulation of a dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizer have demonstrated that this formulation provides a 24-hour duration of action with once-daily dosing. Conclusions: Dual-acting AC medications exhibit a high degree of overall effectiveness and are well tolerated for chronic use. A newly available once-daily medication that manages signs and symptoms of AC for a full 24 hours may be considered a treatment of choice for patients experiencing seasonal or perennial AC. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01743027 and NCT01479374 PMID:27466061

  1. Comparison of observation level versus 24-hour average atmospheric loading corrections in VLBI analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, D. S.; van Dam, T. M.

    2009-04-01

    Variations in the horizontal distribution of atmospheric mass induce displacements of the Earth's surface. Theoretical estimates of the amplitude of the surface displacement indicate that the predicted surface displacement is often large enough to be detected by current geodetic techniques. In fact, the effects of atmospheric pressure loading have been detected in Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinate time series [van Dam et al., 1994; Dong et al., 2002; Scherneck et al., 2003; Zerbini et al., 2004] and very long baseline interferometery (VLBI) coordinates [Rabble and Schuh, 1986; Manabe et al., 1991; van Dam and Herring, 1994; Schuh et al., 2003; MacMillan and Gipson, 1994; and Petrov and Boy, 2004]. Some of these studies applied the atmospheric displacement at the observation level and in other studies, the predicted atmospheric and observed geodetic surface displacements have been averaged over 24 hours. A direct comparison of observation level and 24 hour corrections has not been carried out for VLBI to determine if one or the other approach is superior. In this presentation, we address the following questions: 1) Is it better to correct geodetic data at the observation level rather than applying corrections averaged over 24 hours to estimated geodetic coordinates a posteriori? 2) At the sub-daily periods, the atmospheric mass signal is composed of two components: a tidal component and a non-tidal component. If observation level corrections reduce the scatter of VLBI data more than a posteriori correction, is it sufficient to only model the atmospheric tides or must the entire atmospheric load signal be incorporated into the corrections? 3) When solutions from different geodetic techniques (or analysis centers within a technique) are combined (e.g., for ITRF2008), not all solutions may have applied atmospheric loading corrections. Are any systematic effects on the estimated TRF introduced when atmospheric loading is applied?

  2. Urinary Magnesium, Calcium, and Phosphorus to Creatinine Ratios of Healthy Elementary School Lebanese Children.

    PubMed

    El Mallah, Carla; Ghattas, Hala; Shatila, Dareen; Francis, Sirine; Merhi, Karina; Hlais, Sani; Toufeili, Imad; Obeid, Omar

    2016-04-01

    Urinary magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) excretions are known to vary greatly between populations due to dietary habits, physical activity, mineral content of water, climate, genetics, and race. Thus, it is essential to determine the normal values in each population in order to assess the status as well as to diagnose any possible abnormality of metabolisms especially hypercalciuria. A study was conducted to determine urinary Mg/creatinine (Cr), Ca/Cr, and P/Cr ratios of healthy Lebanese elementary schoolchildren. Using a multi-stage cluster sampling at district, school, and class levels, a sample of 1403 children (781 boys and 622 girls), from 26 different schools, was selected. Non-fasting morning urine samples and anthropometric data were collected and analyzed. The mean Mg/Cr, Ca/Cr, and P/Cr ratios were 0.122 ± 0.075 mg/mg (0.568 ± 0.348 mM/mM), 0.084 ± 0.101 mg/mg (0.237 ± 0.286 mM/mM), and 0.692 ± 0.417 mg/mg (2.527 ± 1.524 mM/mM), respectively, with no significant difference between boys and girls (P = 0.706, 0.161, and 0.604; respectively). The 95th percentile of Mg/Cr, Ca/Cr, and P/Cr ratios fluctuated with age, showing a sharp decrease in Ca/Cr and P/Cr at the age of 10. The mean Mg/Cr, Ca/Cr, and P/Cr ratios were comparable to those of similar age groups in other populations. The 95th percentiles of Mg/Cr, Ca/Cr, and P/Cr ratios were 0.26 mg/mg (1.23 mM/mM), 0.27 mg/mg (0.76 mM/mM), and 1.48 mg/mg (5.40 mM/mM), respectively. These values can be used as cutoffs to detect abnormalities in these three minerals' metabolisms among healthy Lebanese children. PMID:26306589

  3. Pulse wave velocity 24-hour monitoring with one-site measurements by oscillometry

    PubMed Central

    Posokhov, Igor N

    2013-01-01

    This review describes issues for the estimation of pulse wave velocity (PWV) under ambulatory conditions using oscillometric systems. The difference between the principles of measuring the PWV by the standard method and by oscillometry is shown, and information on device validation studies is summarized. It was concluded that currently oscillometry is a method that is very convenient to use in the 24-hour monitoring of the PWV, is relatively accurate, and is reasonably comfortable for the patient. Several indices with the same principles as those in the analysis of blood pressure in ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure, namely the assessment of load, variability, and circadian rhythm, are proposed. PMID:23549868

  4. [Program for early detection of illness level in foals during the first 24 hours of life].

    PubMed

    Bostedt, H; Hospes, R; Herfen, K

    1997-11-01

    Basing on exact investigations of normal behaviour and abnormalities in newborn and up to 24 hours old foals a program for evaluation, comprehending exogeniously judgable criteria, was developed. It aims at a quick recognition of aberrations in behaviour. The program includes a score, which allows early diagnosis of even subtile abnormalities. As a result, a veterinary surgeon should be consulted if the score exposes a critical situation, so that therapy can be started in time. Furthermore informations about investigations on blood-glucose- and immunoglobulin-G-concentration in relation to neonatal foal diseases are given. PMID:9451764

  5. Intermittent short ECG recording is more effective than 24-hour Holter ECG in detection of arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patients report symptoms of palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. These patients are often referred for 24-hour Holter ECG, although the sensitivity for detecting relevant arrhythmias is comparatively low. Intermittent short ECG recording over a longer time period might be a convenient and more sensitive alternative. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of 24-hour Holter ECG with intermittent short ECG recording over four weeks to detect relevant arrhythmias in patients with palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. Methods Design: prospective, observational, cross-sectional study. Setting: Clinical Physiology, University Hospital. Patients: 108 consecutive patients referred for ambiguous palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. Interventions: All individuals underwent a 24-hour Holter ECG and additionally registered 30-second handheld ECG (Zenicor EKG® thumb) recordings at home, twice daily and when having cardiac symptoms, during 28 days. Main outcome measures: Significant arrhythmias: atrial fibrillation (AF), paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), atrioventricular (AV) block II–III, sinus arrest (SA), wide complex tachycardia (WCT). Results 95 patients, 42 men and 53 women with a mean age of 54.1 years, completed registrations. Analysis of Holter registrations showed atrial fibrillation (AF) in two patients and atrioventricular (AV) block II in one patient (= 3.2% relevant arrhythmias [95% CI 1.1–8.9]). Intermittent handheld ECG detected nine patients with AF, three with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) and one with AV-block-II (= 13.7% relevant arrhythmias [95% CI 8.2–22.0]). There was a significant difference between the two methods in favour of intermittent ECG with regard to the ability to detect relevant arrhythmias (P = 0.0094). With Holter ECG, no symptoms were registered during any of the detected arrhythmias. With intermittent ECG, symptoms were registered during half of the arrhythmia

  6. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:25883059

  7. Impaired Compensation for Salt-Induced Urinary Calcium Loss in a Space Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navidi, Meena; Harper, J. S.; Evans, J.; Fung, P.; Wolinsky, I.; Arnaud, S. B.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The loss of urinary calcium (UCa) induced by high sodium (HiNa) diets is compensated for by an increase in net intestinal Ca absorption (abs.). To determine the capacity of the intestine to absorb Ca in a space flight model in which the formation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-D) is suppressed, we induced Ca loss with HiNa diets (8%) and restricted dietary Ca (0.2%). In 200 g rats with hind limbs unloaded by tail suspension (S), we examined intestinal Ca abs. by direct measurement in the duodenum (everted gut sac or S/M), vitamin D receptors (VDR) and Ca balance. We also measured serum ionized calcium (ICa), pH, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25D. PTH was related to ICa (r = -0.44, p is less than 0.02), pH (r = -0.47, p is less than 0.02) and %Ca abs. (r = -0.40, p is less than 0.05). 1,25-D was related to %Ca abs. (r = 0.60, p is less than 0.001) but not VDR or S/M. Effects of the model were lower serum 1,25-D (110 +/- 59 vs. 199 +/- 80 pg/ml, p is less than 0.005), %Ca abs. (83 +/- 6.9 vs. 93 +/- 3.2, p is less than 0.03) and Ca balance (27 +/- 0.2 vs. 30 +/- 0.3 mg/d, p is less than 0.001) in S than controls (C). The HiNa diet increased UCa excretion from 2 to 13% of dietary Ca. Responses to HiNa diets, compared to normal Na, revealed no differences in 1,25-D, Ca abs. or VDR. Ca balances were lower in HiNa (27 +/- 0.3 vs. 30 +/- 0.4 mg/d, p is less than 0.001) in spite of higher Ca intakes. The failure of S rats fed HiNa diets to increase Ca abs. in response to Na-induced Ca loss appears to be related to suppressed 1,25-D in the space flight model, the cause of which remains obscure.

  8. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. PMID:27525110

  9. Comparison of 3 different anesthetic techniques on 24-hour recovery after otologic surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Jellish, W S; Leonetti, J P; Fahey, K; Fury, P

    1999-03-01

    Intravenous propofol anesthesia is better than inhalational anesthesia for otologic surgery, but cost and intraoperative movement make this technique prohibitive. This study compares a propofol sandwich anesthetic with a total propofol or inhalational anesthetic for otologic surgery to determine which produces the best perioperative conditions and least expense. One hundred twenty patients undergoing ear surgery were randomly chosen to receive an anesthetic with either isoflurane (INHAL), total propofol (TPROP), or propofol used in conjunction with isoflurane (PSAND). Postoperative wakeup and the incidence and severity of nausea, vomiting, and pain were compared among groups. Antiemetic administration and discharge times from recovery and the hospital were also compared. The groups were similar, but anesthesia times were longer in the INHAL group. Emergence from anesthesia after PSAND or TPROP was more rapid than after INHAL. Recovery during the next 24 hours was associated with less nausea and vomiting with PSAND than with INHAL. The cost of the PSAND anesthetic was similar to that of INHAL, and both were less than TPROP. PSAND anesthesia may be similar to TPROP and better than INHAL for otologic procedures. PSAND was less expensive than TPROP and produced a similar recovery profile and antiemetic effect in the 24-hour period after surgery. PMID:10064647

  10. Regional Neurodegeneration and Gliosis Are Amplified by Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Repeated at 24-Hour Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Amanda Nicholle; Saatman, Kathryn Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Most traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) that occur every year are classified as ‘mild’. Individuals involved in high-risk activities may sustain multiple mild TBIs. We evaluated the acute physiological and histopathological consequences of mild TBI in a mouse model, comparing sham injury, single impact, or 5 impacts at a 24- or 48-hour inter-injury interval. A single closed skull impact resulted in bilateral gliosis in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex that was proportional to impact depth. Midline impact, at a depth just above the threshold to induce transient unconsciousness, produced occasional axonal injury and degenerating neurons accompanied by astrogliosis in the entorhinal cortex and cerebellum. Mild TBI repeated every 24 hours resulted in bilateral hemorrhagic lesions in the entorhinal cortex along with significantly increased neurodegeneration and microglial activation despite diminished durations of apnea and unconsciousness with subsequent impacts. Astrogliosis and diffusely distributed axonal injury were also observed bilaterally in the cerebellum and the brainstem. When the interval between mild TBIs was increased to 48 hours, the pathological consequences were comparable to a single TBI. Together, these data suggest that in mice the brain remains at increased risk for damage for 24 hours after mild TBI despite reduced acute physiological responses to subsequent mild impacts. PMID:25232942

  11. Physician-pharmacist co-management and 24-hour blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ziqian; Ernst, Michael E; Ardery, Gail; Xu, Yinghui; Carter, Barry L

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare indices of 24-hour blood pressure (BP) following a physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention and to describe the associated changes in antihypertensive medications. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective, cluster-randomized clinical trial conducted in 6 family medicine clinics randomized to co-managed (n=3 clinics, 176 patients) or control (n=3 clinics, 198 patients) groups. Mean ambulatory systolic BP (SBP) was significantly lower in the co-managed vs the control group: daytime BP 122.8 mm Hg vs 134.4 mm Hg (P<.001); nighttime SBP 114.8 mm Hg vs 123.7 mm Hg (P<.001); and 24-hour SBP 120.4 mm Hg vs 131.8 mm Hg (P<.001), respectively. Significantly more drug changes were made in the co-managed than in the control group (2.7 vs 1.1 changes per patient, P<.001), and there was greater diuretic use in co-managed patients (79.6% vs 62.6%, P<.001). Ambulatory BPs were significantly lower for the patients who had a diuretic added during the first month compared with those who never had a diuretic added (P<.01). Physician-pharmacist co-management significantly improved ambulatory BP compared with the control group. Antihypertensive drug therapy was intensified much more for patients in the co-managed group. PMID:23614849

  12. Sleep in healthy elderly subjects: a 24-hour ambulatory polysomnographic study.

    PubMed

    Gigli, G L; Placidi, F; Diomedi, M; Maschio, M; Silvestri, G; Scalise, A; Marciani, M G

    1996-04-01

    It is still debated whether the deterioration of the sleep pattern, frequently reported by elderly subjects, is due only to aging per se. Other factors associated with aging or modifications of biological rhythms could also be involved. Elderly subjects frequently complain of daytime sleepiness, but it is not clear whether this actually represents a return to a polyphasic structure of sleep, or only a consequence of a disturbed night sleep. Ten healthy, independent and active elderly subjects (age > 72 years) were elevated by means of 24-hour ambulatory polysomnography. Findings of nocturnal sleep were compared with sleep of the same group in the 24-hour period and with sleep of young healthy controls. We observed a fragmentation of nocturnal sleep, but a fairly good representation of stages and a preservation of cyclicity. Except for three cases, with early or late times of sleep onset and wake-up, sleep disruption did not seem to be related to modification of circadian rhythms. Only three subjects presented undesired daytime naps, whereas the others either did not show daytime sleep at all, or were used to having their siesta after lunch since their young adulthood. In normal aging, daytime sleep does not constitute a social problem. Ambulatory polysomnography is a valid alternative to laboratory recordings in the identification of daytime sleep. PMID:8734563

  13. Deviation of innate circadian period from 24 hours reduces longevity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Libert, Sergiy; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Pointer, Kelli; Pletcher, Scott D.; Guarente, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Summary The variation of individual lifespans, even in highly inbred cohorts of animals and under strictly controlled environmental conditions, is substantial and not well understood. This variation in part could be due to epigenetic variation, which later affects the animal’s physiology and ultimately longevity. Identification of the physiological properties that impact health and lifespan is crucial for longevity research and the development of anti-aging therapies. Here we measured individual circadian and metabolic characteristics in a cohort of inbred F1 hybrid mice and correlated these parameters to their lifespans. We found that mice with innate circadian periods close to 24 hours (revealed during 30 days of housing in total darkness) enjoyed nearly 20% longer lifespans than their littermates, which had shorter or longer innate circadian periods. These findings show that maintenance of a 24 hour intrinsic circadian period is a positive predictor of longevity. Our data suggest that circadian period may be used to predict individual longevity and that processes that control innate circadian period affect aging. PMID:22702406

  14. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sarah C; Gauthier, Angela C; Liu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. PMID:27525110

  15. A Compute Perspective: Delivering Decision Support Products in 24 Hours from the Airborne Snow Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, P.; Mattmann, C. A.; Painter, T. H.; Seidel, F. C.; Trangsrud, A.; Hart, A. F.; Goodale, C. E.; Boardman, J. W.; Heneghan, C.; Verma, R.; Khudikyan, S.; Boustani, M.; Zimdars, P. A.; Horn, J.; Neely, S.

    2013-12-01

    The JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) must process 100s of GB of raw data to 100s of Terabytes of derived data in 24 hour Near Real Time (NRT) latency in a geographically distributed mobile compute and data-intensive processing setting. ASO provides meaningful information to water resource managers in the Western US letting them know how much water to maintain; or release, and what the prospectus of the current snow season is in the Sierra Nevadas. Providing decision support products processed from airborne data in a 24 hour timeframe is an emergent field and required the team to develop a novel solution as this process is typically done over months. We've constructed a system that combines Apache OODT; with Apache Tika; with the Interactive Data Analysis (IDL)/ENVI programming environment to rapidly and unobtrusively generate, distribute and archive ASO data as soon as the plane lands near Mammoth Lakes, CA. Our system is flexible, underwent several redeployments and reconfigurations, and delivered this critical information to stakeholders during the recent "Snow On" campaign March 2013 - June 2013. This talk will take you through a day in the life of the compute team from data acquisition, delivery, processing, and dissemination. Within this context, we will discuss the architecture of ASO; the open source software we used; the data we stored; and how it was delivered to its users. Moreover we will discuss the logistics, system engineering, and staffing that went into the developing, deployment, and operation of the mobile compute system.

  16. Acute respiratory distress induced by repeated saline lavage provides stable experimental conditions for 24 hours in pigs.

    PubMed

    Muellenbach, Ralf M; Kredel, Markus; Zollhoefer, Bernd; Bernd, Zollhoefer; Johannes, Amelie; Kuestermann, Julian; Schuster, Frank; Schwemmer, Ulrich; Wurmb, Thomas; Wunder, Christian; Roewer, Norbert; Brederlau, Jörg

    2009-04-01

    Surfactant depletion is most often used to study acute respiratory failure in animal models. Because model stability is often criticized, the authors tested the following hypotheses: Repeated pulmonary lavage with normal saline provides stable experimental conditions for 24 hours with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 300 mm Hg. Lung injury was induced by bilateral pulmonary lavages in 8 female pigs (51.5 +/- 4.8 kg). The animals were ventilated for 24 hours (PEEP: 5 cm H2O; tidal volume: 6 mL/kg; respiratory rate: 30/min). After 24 hours the animals were euthanized. For histopathology slides from all pulmonary lobes were obtained. Supernatant of the bronchoalveolar fluid collected before induction of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and after 24 hours was analyzed. A total of 19 +/- 6 lavages were needed to induce ARDS. PaO2/FiO2 ratio and pulmonary shunt fraction remained significantly deteriorated compared to baseline values after 24 hours (P < .01). Slight to moderate histopathologic changes were detected. Significant increases of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 were observed after 24 hours (P < .01). The presented surfactant depletion-based lung injury model was associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and fulfilled the criteria of acute ling injury (ALI) for 24 hours. PMID:19337905

  17. Nanouric acid or nanocalcium phosphate as central nidus to induce calcium oxalate stone formation: a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study on urinary nanocrystallites

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Xue, Jun-Fa; Xu, Meng; Gui, Bao-Song; Wang, Feng-Xin; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to accurately analyze the relationship between calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formation and the components of urinary nanocrystallites. Method High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction, fast Fourier transformation of HRTEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed to analyze the components of these nanocrystallites. Results The main components of CaOx stones are calcium oxalate monohydrate and a small amount of dehydrate, while those of urinary nanocrystallites are calcium oxalate monohydrate, uric acid, and calcium phosphate. The mechanism of formation of CaOx stones was discussed based on the components of urinary nanocrystallites. Conclusion The formation of CaOx stones is closely related both to the properties of urinary nanocrystallites and to the urinary components. The combination of HRTEM, fast Fourier transformation, selected area electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy could be accurately performed to analyze the components of single urinary nanocrystallites. This result provides evidence for nanouric acid and/or nanocalcium phosphate crystallites as the central nidus to induce CaOx stone formation. PMID:25258530

  18. Association between Sleep Duration and 24-Hour Urine Free Cortisol in the MrOS Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Madhu N.; Blackwell, Terri; Redline, Susan; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Neylan, Thomas C.; Stone, Katie L.

    2013-01-01

    Context Short sleep duration is associated with adverse health outcomes, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. It has been postulated that short sleep duration may elevate cortisol levels, but studies have had conflicting results. It is unclear whether these differing findings may be due to methodological issues, such as assessment of sleep duration. Specifically, objective versus subjective methods of measuring habitual sleep duration may account for the conflicting results found in epidemiological studies. Objective Our goal was to determine whether habitual sleep duration, measured objectively (by actigraphy) and subjectively (by self-report), was associated with 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), a measure of integrated cortisol secretion. Our secondary goal was to determine whether slow wave sleep (SWS, determined by polysomnography) was associated with 24-hour UFC. Design/Setting Cross sectional study of community dwelling older men. Patients/Participants 325 men (mean age = 76.6 years, SD = 5.5) from the Portland site of the MrOS Sleep Study, who underwent 24-hour urine collection, polysomnography, actigraphy and sleep questionnaire. Primary Outcome 24-hour UFC. Results In this study of community dwelling older men, self-reported sleep duration was inversely related to 24-hour UFC levels. Participants reporting <5 hours of habitual sleep had an adjusted mean 24-hour UFC of 29.8 ug, compared to 28.0 ug in participants reporting >5 to <8 hours of sleep 25.5 ug in those reporting >8 hours of habitual sleep. However, sleep duration determined by actigraphy was not associated with 24-hour UFC in either univariable or multivariable regression models. SWS was not associated with 24-hour UFC. Conclusion Objectively measured (i.e., actigraphic) sleep duration is not associated with 24-hour UFC in these community dwelling older men. This finding, together with prior studies, suggests that elevated levels of integrated cortisol secretion is not the

  19. [Circadian variations in rat serum and urinary calcium and phosphorus. Reflections on the Ca/PO4 ratio].

    PubMed

    Gaggi, R; Bartolomei, N; David, M; Ghelfi, C; Ceresi, E

    1978-01-01

    Daily variations of serum and urine calcium and phosphate were determined in young and adult rats of both sexes. The animals were maintained in natural conditions of illumination and feeding ad libitum. The twenty-four hour rhythm of the serum levels and urinary excretion of these electrolytes in male rats is confirmed. This rhythm is markedly modified in young females and less in adult females. Evidence for a circadian rhythm of the Ca/PO4 ratio appears in all groups of rats. The rhythms of serum and urine Ca/PO4 rations are similar in all experimental groups. PMID:555322

  20. Pattern of 24 hour intragastric acidity in active duodenal ulcer disease and in healthy controls.

    PubMed Central

    Merki, H S; Fimmel, C J; Walt, R P; Harre, K; Röhmel, J; Witzel, L

    1988-01-01

    Twenty four hour intragastric acidity was measured by continuous recording using intragastric combined glass electrodes in 46 duodenal ulcer patients within 48 hours of endoscopic confirmation of active ulceration. Acidity during predefined time periods was compared with that measured in 40 healthy controls without gastrointestinal disease: it was significantly higher in duodenal ulcer patients at all times, but 25% of ulcer patients had median 24 hour acidity within the interquartile range of the normal group. During the evening (18,00 to 22,00 h) ulcer patients had considerable acidity with a median of 39.8 (63.1-31.6) mmol/l (interquartile range) compared with 5.6 (22.3-0.4) mmol/l of controls. It is suggested that antisecretory treatment be directed to decrease this period of unbuffered acidity, as well as during the night, which is presently considered of prime importance. PMID:3209116

  1. The Effects of 24-hour Sleep Deprivation on the Exploration-Exploitation Trade-off

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Brian D.; Maddox, W. Todd; Bowen, Christopher; Savarie, Zachary R.; Matthews, Michael D.; Markman, Arthur B.; Schnyer, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has a complex set of neurological effects that go beyond a mere slowing of mental processes. While cognitive and perceptual impairments in sleep deprived individuals are widespread, some abilities remain intact. In an effort to characterize these effects, some have suggested an impairment of complex decision making ability despite intact ability to follow simple rules. To examine this trade-off, 24-hour total sleep deprived individuals performed two versions of a resource acquisition foraging task, one in which exploration is optimal (to succeed, abandon low value, high saliency options) and another in which exploitation is optimal (to succeed, refrain from switching between options). Sleep deprived subjects exhibited decreased performance on the exploitation task compared to non-sleep deprived controls, yet both groups exhibited increased performance on the exploratory task. These results speak to previous neuropsychological work on cognitive control. PMID:21686036

  2. After 24-hour scrub, another tower rollback for the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    As tower rollback begins, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for the second launch attempt at 4:04 p.m. EST. The original launch was scrubbed on Feb. 6 for 24 hours. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  3. Tasimelteon: A Review in Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder in Totally Blind Individuals.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2016-05-01

    Tasimelteon (Hetlioz(®)) is a dual melatonin receptor agonist indicated for the treatment of Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder (Non-24) (free-running disorder). In two randomized, double-masked, multicentre, phase III trials, totally blind individuals with Non-24 who received oral tasimelteon 20 mg once nightly were significantly more likely than those receiving placebo to entrain the circadian pacemaker (the SET trial) and maintain entrainment (the RESET trial). Sleep/wake parameters and functioning were also improved with tasimelteon. Oral tasimelteon was generally well tolerated in totally blind patients with Non-24. In conclusion, tasimelteon is a useful drug for the treatment of Non-24 in totally blind individuals. PMID:27003694

  4. Setting Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for 1 hour or 24 hour contingency exposures to airborne chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Hector D.; Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Since the early years of the manned space program, NASA has developed and used exposure limits called Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) to help protect astronauts from airborne toxicants. Most of these SMACS are based on an exposure duration of 7 days, since this is the duration of a 'typical' mission. A set of 'contingency SMACs' is also being developed for scenarios involving brief (1-hour or 24- hour) exposures to relatively high levels of airborne toxicants from event-related 'contingency' releases of contaminants. The emergency nature of contingency exposures dictates the use of different criteria for setting exposure limits. The NASA JSC Toxicology Group recently began a program to document the rationales used to set new SMACs and plans to review the older, 7-day SMACs. In cooperation with the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology, a standard procedure has been developed for researching, setting, and documenting SMAC values.

  5. Fasting for 24 Hours Heightens Reward from Food and Food-Related Cues

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Jameason D.; Goldfield, Gary S.; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E.; Doucet, Éric

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We examined the impact of a 24 hour complete fast (vs. fed state) on two measures of food reward: 1) ‘wanting’, as measured by response to food images and by the relative-reinforcing value of food (RRV), and 2) ‘liking’, as measured by response to food images and the hedonic evaluation of foods consumed. Methods Utilizing a randomized crossover design, 15 subjects (9 male; 6 female) aged 28.6±4.5 yrs with body mass index 25.3±1.4 kg/m2 were randomized and counterbalanced to normal feeding (FED) and 24-hour fast (FASTED) conditions. Trait characteristics were measured with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. Two computer tasks measured food reward: 1) RRV progressive ratio task, 2) explicit ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire, LFPQ). Also measured were ad libitum energy intake (EI; buffet) and food ‘liking’ (visual analogue scale) of personalized stimuli. Results There were no significant anthropometric changes between conditions. Appetite scores, hedonic ratings of ‘liking’, and ad libitum EI all significantly increased under the FASTED condition (p<0.05). Under the FASTED condition there were significant increases in the RRV of snack foods; similarly, explicit ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ significantly increased for all food categories. ‘Liking’ of sweet foods remained high across-meals under FASTED, but savory foods decreased in hedonic saliency. Conclusion Relative to a fed state, we observed an increase in hedonic ratings of food, the rewarding value of food, and food intake after a 24 hr fast. Alliesthesia to food and food cues is suggested by heightened hedonic ratings under the FASTED condition relative to FED. PMID:24454949

  6. A 24-Hour Study of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary Axes in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nambron, Rajasree; Costelloe, Seán J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hill, Nathan R.; Frost, Chris; Watt, Hilary C.; Hindmarsh, Peter; Björkqvist, Maria; Warner, Thomas T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Huntington’s disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Patients exhibit other symptoms including sleep and mood disturbances, muscle atrophy and weight loss which may be linked to hypothalamic pathology and dysfunction of hypothalamo-pituitary axes. Methods We studied neuroendocrine profiles of corticotropic, somatotropic and gonadotropic hypothalamo-pituitary axes hormones over a 24-hour period in controlled environment in 15 healthy controls, 14 premanifest and 13 stage II/III Huntington’s disease subjects. We also quantified fasting levels of vasopressin, oestradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free total thyroxine, prolactin, adrenaline and noradrenaline. Somatotropic axis hormones, growth hormone releasing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like factor binding protein-3 were quantified at 06:00 (fasting), 15:00 and 23:00. A battery of clinical tests, including neurological rating and function scales were performed. Results 24-hour concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone did not differ significantly between the Huntington’s disease group and controls. Daytime growth hormone secretion was similar in control and Huntington’s disease subjects. Stage II/III Huntington’s disease subjects had lower concentration of post-sleep growth hormone pulse and higher insulin-like growth factor-1:growth hormone ratio which did not reach significance. In Huntington’s disease subjects, baseline levels of hypothalamo-pituitary axis hormones measured did not significantly differ from those of healthy controls. Conclusions The relatively small subject group means that the study may not detect subtle perturbations in hormone concentrations. A targeted study of the somatotropic axis in larger cohorts may be warranted. However, the lack

  7. The effect of Operation 24 Hours on reducing collision in the City of Edmonton.

    PubMed

    Halim, Siana; Jiang, Heming

    2013-09-01

    In the City of Edmonton, in order to reduce the prevalence of collisions, the Operation 24 Hours program (OPS24) was developed by using existing police and transportation services resources. The program uses traditional manned police speed enforcement method, which are supplemented by traffic safety messages displayed on permanent and mobile dynamic messaging signs (DMS). In this paper, collision data analysis was performed by looking at the daily number of collisions from 2008 to 2011 that covers 28 Operation 24 Hours (OPS24) events. The objective of the collision data analysis is to analyze if there is a reduction in collision frequencies after OPS24 was held and examined how long the collision reduction effect last. Weather factors such as temperature, thickness of snow, and wind gust have been considered by many as a great influence on collision occurrences, especially in a city with long and cold winter such as Edmonton. Therefore, collision modeling was performed by considering these external weather factors. To analyze the linear and periodic trend of different collision types (injury, fatal, and property damage only (PDO)) and examine the influence of weather factors on collisions, negative binomial time series model that accounts for seasonality and weather factors was used to model daily collision data. The modeling also considered collision proportion to account for missing traffic volume data; the Gaussian time series model that accounts for seasonality and weather factors was used to model collision proportion. To estimate the collision trend and test for changes in collision levels before/after OPS24, interrupted time series model with segmented regression was used. While for estimating how long the effect of the OPS24 last, change point method was applied. PMID:23727551

  8. Heart rate variability and arrhythmic patterns of 24-hour Holter electrocardiography among Nigerians with cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Adebayo, Rasaaq Ayodele; Ikwu, Amanze Nkemjika; Balogun, Michael Olabode; Akintomide, Anthony Olubunmi; Ajayi, Olufemi Eyitayo; Adeyeye, Victor Oladeji; Mene-Afejuku, Tuoyo Omasan; Bamikole, Olaniyi James; Ogunyemi, Suraj Adefabi; Ajibare, Adeola Olubunmi; Oketona, Omolola Abiodun

    2015-01-01

    Background Facilities for Holter electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring in many Nigerian hospitals are limited. There are few published works in Nigeria on the use of 24-hour Holter ECG in cardiac arrhythmic evaluation of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Objective To study the clinical indications, arrhythmic pattern, and heart rate variability (HRV) among subjects referred for 24-hour Holter ECG at our Cardiac Care Unit. Methods Three-hundred and ten patients (134 males and 176 females) were studied consecutively over a 48-month period using Schiller type (MT-101) Holter ECG machine. Results Out of the 310 patients reviewed, 134 were males (43.2%) and 176 were females (56.8%). The commonest indication for Holter ECG was palpitation followed by syncope in 71 (23%) and 49 (15.8%) of subjects, respectively. Premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex were the commonest types of arrhythmia in 51.5% and 15% subjects, respectively. Ventricular arrhythmia was more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy patients (85.7%). The HRV of subjects with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy, using standard deviation of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds), were 107.32±49.61, 79.15±49.15, and 66.50±15.54, respectively. The HRV, using standard deviation of averages of normal to normal intervals average (milliseconds), of patients with palpitation, stroke, and diabetes mellitus with autonomic neuropathy were 77.39±62.34, 57.82±37.05, and 55.50±12.71, respectively. Conclusion Palpitation and syncope were the commonest indications for Holter ECG among our subjects. The commonest arrhythmic patterns were premature ventricular complex and premature atrial complex, with ventricular arrhythmia being more prevalent in dilated cardiomyopathy. There was a reduction in HRV in patients with stroke and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. PMID:26170685

  9. Effects of exenatide and liraglutide on 24-hour glucose fluctuations in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Jo; Yamakawa, Tadashi; Taguri, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Hirohisa; Shigematsu, Erina; Suzuki, Jun; Morita, Satoshi; Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-03-31

    We evaluated the influence of short-term treatment with exenatide twice daily or liraglutide once daily on daily blood glucose fluctuations in 40 patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by sulfonylureas. The patients in a multicenter, open-label trial were randomly assigned to receive add-on exenatide (10 μg/day, n = 21) or add-on liraglutide (0.3-0.9 mg/day, n = 19), and underwent 24-hour continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring. There was no significant between-group difference in glucose fluctuations during the day, as assessed by calculating mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) and standard deviation (SD). However, the mean blood glucose levels at 3 hours after breakfast and dinner were significantly lower in the exenatide group than the liraglutide group (breakfast: 127.3 ± 24.1 vs. 153.4 ± 28.7 mg/dL; p = 0.006, dinner: 108.7 ± 17.3 vs. 141.9 ± 24.2 mg/dL; p < 0.001). In contrast, mean blood glucose levels and their SD were significantly lower between 0000 h and 0600 h in the liraglutide group than the exenatide group (average glucose: 126.9 ± 27.1 vs. 107.1 ± 24.0 mg/dL; p = 0.029, SD: 15.2 ± 10.5 vs. 8.7 ± 3.8; p = 0.020). Both groups had similar glucose fluctuations despite differences in 24-hour blood glucose profiles. Therefore, each of these agents may have advantages or disadvantages and should be selected according to the blood glucose profile of the patient. PMID:26743240

  10. Urinary calcium excretion in non-lactating dairy cows in relation to intake of fat-coated rice bran.

    PubMed

    Martín-Tereso, J; Derks, M; van Laar, H; Mulder, K; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

    2010-02-01

    At calving, many older cows fail to compensate the sudden demand of calcium by an adequate activation of intestinal absorption. This results in a variable degree of hypocalcaemia. Reducing intestinal availability of calcium during the close-up period can prevent milk fever. Fat-coated rice bran (FCRB) was investigated for its potential to reduce Ca availability in pre-calving cows. Fat-coated rice bran was incubated in situ to estimate ruminal degradation of dry matter and phytic acid. Also, seven dry multiparous dairy cows were used for a feeding trial in three periods of approximately 1 week each: P1: adaptation; P2: feeding of 2 kg of FCRB and P3: withdrawal of FCRB. Feed intake was recorded and daily urine samples were analysed for pH, Ca and creatinine. The bypass fraction of phytic acid (passage rate: 5%/h) was 30%. Fat-coated rice bran depressed dry matter intake in P2, resulting in a lower Ca intake. In P2 urine pH and calcium excretion were lower. Daily calcium excretion decreased after introduction of FCRB, peaked after withdrawal and dropped 2 days later. Changes in urinary Ca excretion by feeding FCRB indicate that FCRB affected Ca homeostasis in dry multiparous dairy cows. PMID:19364378

  11. Theoretical modeling of the urinary supersaturation of calcium salts in healthy individuals and kidney stone patients: Precursors, speciation and therapeutic protocols for decreasing its value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Allen L.; Allie-Hamdulay, Shameez; Jackson, Graham E.; Durbach, Ian

    2013-11-01

    BackgroundSupersaturation (SS) of urinary salts has been extensively invoked for assessing the risk of renal stone formation, but precursors have often been ignored. Our objectives were to establish by computer modeling, which urinary components are essential for calculating reliable SS values, to investigate whether unique equilibrium processes occur in the urine of stone formers (SF) which might account for their higher SS levels relative to healthy controls (N), to determine the relative efficacies of three different, widely-used protocols for lowering urinary SS of calcium salts and to examine the influence of precursors.

  12. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    PubMed

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  13. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  14. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited – A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P.; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light–dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (“master clock”) of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli (“zeitgebers”), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5–0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy

  15. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited - A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light-dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus ("master clock") of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli ("zeitgebers"), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5-0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy might have

  16. Personal best marathon time and longest training run, not anthropometry, predict performance in recreational 24-hour ultrarunners.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2011-08-01

    In recent studies, a relationship between both low body fat and low thicknesses of selected skinfolds has been demonstrated for running performance of distances from 100 m to the marathon but not in ultramarathon. We investigated the association of anthropometric and training characteristics with race performance in 63 male recreational ultrarunners in a 24-hour run using bi and multivariate analysis. The athletes achieved an average distance of 146.1 (43.1) km. In the bivariate analysis, body mass (r = -0.25), the sum of 9 skinfolds (r = -0.32), the sum of upper body skinfolds (r = -0.34), body fat percentage (r = -0.32), weekly kilometers ran (r = 0.31), longest training session before the 24-hour run (r = 0.56), and personal best marathon time (r = -0.58) were related to race performance. Stepwise multiple regression showed that both the longest training session before the 24-hour run (p = 0.0013) and the personal best marathon time (p = 0.0015) had the best correlation with race performance. Performance in these 24-hour runners may be predicted (r2 = 0.46) by the following equation: Performance in a 24-hour run, km) = 234.7 + 0.481 (longest training session before the 24-hour run, km) - 0.594 (personal best marathon time, minutes). For practical applications, training variables such as volume and intensity were associated with performance but not anthropometric variables. To achieve maximum kilometers in a 24-hour run, recreational ultrarunners should have a personal best marathon time of ∼3 hours 20 minutes and complete a long training run of ∼60 km before the race, whereas anthropometric characteristics such as low body fat or low skinfold thicknesses showed no association with performance. PMID:21642857

  17. Continuous 24 hour ambulatory monitoring of intragastric pH in man.

    PubMed

    Kapur, B K; Howlett, P J; Kenyon, N G; Lunt, M J; Mills, J G; Smallwood, R H; Wilson, A J; Bardhan, K D

    1987-05-01

    A system has been developed which permits continuous 24 hour ambulatory recording of intragastric pH under near-physiological conditions. The system utilises a Cecar combination pH electrode connected through a pre-amplifier to an Oxford Medical Systems Medilog 4-24 cassette recorder, and the pH recorded continuously on to tape. The data is replayed at high speed, digitised and then analysed. Sources of error included system drift, system noise and the effect of changes in electrode environment due to saliva, food, loss of fluid contact, temperature variations and electrode time constant. These were found to be small. In contrast, the major changes in pH detected reflect real changes at the electrode tip. These changes can be recorded by the system. Developments in electronics and improvements in both the size and quality of pH electrodes, over the past few decades, has enabled intragastric pH recordings to be made with greater ease. However, a large number of investigators still assess gastric acidity by infrequent, intermittent sampling of gastric secretion through a naso-gastric tube. This new ambulatory system is a significant improvement and its versatility allows studies in acid secretion physiology, pharmacology and pathophysiology. PMID:3595080

  18. The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Implications for practitioners, professionals, and organizations.

    PubMed

    Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Copeland, Jennifer L; Fowles, Jonathon; Zehr, Lori; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    The new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth emphasize the integration of all movement behaviours that occur over a whole day (i.e., light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep). These guidelines shift the paradigm away from considering each behaviour in isolation. This concept of the "whole day matters" not only calls for a change in thinking about movement but also for redevelopment of dissemination and implementation practice. Past guideline launch activities largely have aimed to create awareness through passive dissemination strategies (e.g., Website posts, distribution of print resources). For the integrated guidelines to have public health impact, we must move beyond dissemination and raising of awareness to implementation and behaviour change. Shifting this focus requires new, innovative approaches to intervention, including interdisciplinary collaboration, policy change, and refocused service provision. The purpose of this paper is to identify practitioners, professionals, and organizations with potential to disseminate and/or implement the guidelines, discuss possible implementation strategies for each of these groups, and describe the few resources being developed and those needed to support dissemination and implementation efforts. This discussion makes readily apparent the need for a well-funded, comprehensive, long-term dissemination, implementation, and evaluation plan to ensure uptake and activation of the guidelines. PMID:27306438

  19. [The diagnostic impact and limitations of 24 hour pH monitoring with multichannel intraluminal impedance].

    PubMed

    Korszun, Karolina; Dyrla, Przemysław; Wojtuń, Stanisław; Gil, Jerzy

    2014-08-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a result of reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus. Gastroscopy is often the first examination performed in GERD diagnosis. Some patients have macroscopic lesions, namely erosions, in the esophagus above the cardia of stomach. It enables to diagnose gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, many patients have no macroscopic lesions of the esophageal mucosa in endoscopy. That is why 24-hour pH monitoring with multichannel intraluminal impedance is the gold standard in diagnosis establishing of GERD and make feasible to distinguish acid, weakly acid and nonacid reflux and its correlation with reported symptoms. Impedance-pH is used to establish diagnosis of GERD, in patient qualification to anti-reflux surgery, to find the cause of not efficient reflux disease treatment as well as the cause of extra-esophageal symptoms of reflux disease. During impedance-pH test catheter connected with the recorder is placed in patient's esophagus. Recorded data is analyzed with the computer program. The examination is safe, the only complication that can occur is nasal bleeding, which can be a result of mucosa damage caused while catheter implementation. Nowadays disposable catheters are used, that excludes the risk of catheter related infection. On the basis of pH-impedance results it is possible to divide patients into 3 groups: patients with functional heartburn, patients with esophageal hypersensitivity and abnormal esophageal acid exposure. This classification is very helpful in the choice of treatment - antireflux surgery, proton pump inhibitor or prokinetic therapy. PMID:25252438

  20. Evaluation study of the California Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program: 24-hour food recall data.

    PubMed

    Del Tredici, A M; Joy, A B; Omelich, C L; Laughlin, S G

    1988-02-01

    The California Expanded Food and Nutrition Education program (EFNEP) Evaluation Study evaluated the effectiveness of the California program. The eating habits of 683 persons were studied in a group receiving EFNEP instruction (355 participants) and a control group (328 participants) that received no instruction. The 24-hour food recall was used to assess eating habits using the Synectics method. At the beginning of the study, there were no differences in food recall scores between the EFNEP and the control groups. After 6 months of instruction in the EFNEP group, there was a significant increase in food recall score for that group and no change in the control group. The improvements observed in the EFNEP group resulted from increased intakes from the milk, protein, and fruit and vegetable food groups. The program characteristics that led to those changes were determined to be in the length of the EFNEP visit, the number of EFNEP visits, and the EFNEP instruction topics. These results show that the California EFNEP is effective in producing significant changes in the eating habits of the low-income individuals it serves. PMID:3339205

  1. Electrodes for 24 hours pH monitoring--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    McLauchlan, G; Rawlings, J M; Lucas, M L; McCloy, R F; Crean, G P; McColl, K E

    1987-08-01

    Three pH electrodes in clinical use were examined--(1) antimony electrode with remote reference electrode (Synectics 0011), (2) glass electrode with remote reference electrode (Microelectrodes Inc. MI 506) and (3) combined glass electrode with integral reference electrode (Radiometer GK2801C). In vitro studies showed that both glass electrodes were similar and superior to the antimony electrode with respect to response time, drift, and sensitivity. The effect of the siting of the reference electrode on the recorded pH was examined in five human volunteers. The pH reading using a remote skin reference electrode was higher by a mean of 0.3 pH units (range 0.0-0.6) in the stomach, lower by 0.65 pH units (0.5-0.8) in the duodenum and lower by 0.3 pH units (0.0-0.6) in the oesophagus than that simultaneously obtained with an intraluminal reference electrode. Buccal reference electrodes gave similar readings to skin. Combined reference and glass pH electrodes are recommended for 24-hour ambulatory pH monitoring. PMID:3666560

  2. Depressive Symptoms and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans: The SABPA Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Lespérance, François; Harvey, Brian H.; Malan, Nico T.; Malan, Leoné

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances in circadian rhythm might play a central role in the neurobiology of depression. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and 24-hour ambulatory BP in a sample of 405 (197 black and 208 Caucasian) urbanized African teachers aged 25 to 60 yrs (mean 44.6 ± 9.6 yrs). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-administered 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). After adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, participants with severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15) had higher odds of hypertension defined from ambulatory BP and/or use of antihypertensive medication (odds ratio = 2.19, 95% CI, 1.00–4.90) in comparison to participants with no symptoms. Compared to Caucasians with no depressive symptoms, those with severe symptoms had blunted nocturnal systolic BP drop of 4.7 mmHg (95% CI, −0.5 to 10.0, P = 0.07). In summary, depressive symptoms were associated with the circadian BP profile in black and Caucasian Africans. PMID:22028954

  3. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust launches on time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Flames sear the pristine blue sky behind the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft after the 4:04:15 p.m. launch from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. A 24- hour scrub postponed the launch from the originally scheduled date of Feb. 6. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  4. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust waits for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the late morning light at Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Cananveral Air Station, the fixed utility tower (right) casts a long shadow across the base of the Boeing Delta II rocket (left) waiting to launch the Stardust spacecraft. After a 24-hour scrub, the new targeted launch time is 4:04 p.m. EST. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  5. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust waits for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    After a 24-hour postponement, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for its scheduled launch at 4:04 p.m. EST. Umbilical lines (at top) still attached to the fixed utility tower (at right) feed electricity, air conditioning and coolants for the Stardust spacecraft inside the fairing (enclosing the upper stage) before launch. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  6. Age and individual sleep characteristics affect cognitive performance in anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift.

    PubMed

    Tadinac, Meri; Sekulić, Ante; Hromatko, Ivana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Ivancić, Romina

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown that both shift work and sleep deprivation have an adverse influence on various aspects of human cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to explore changes in cognitive functioning and subjective sleepiness of anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift. Twenty-six anesthesiology residents completed a set of psychological instruments at the beginning and at the end of the shift, as well as a questionnaire regarding information about the shift, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and Circadian Type Questionnaire. There was a significant decline in cognitive performance measured by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test after the shift. The effect was stronger in older participants and in those with high scores on rigidity of sleep scale and low scores on the ability to overcome sleepiness scale. There were no differences in the digits forward test (a measure of concentration), while digits backward test (a measure of working memory) even showed an improved performance after the shift. Although participants reported being significantly sleepier after the shift, the subjective sleepiness did not correlate with any of the objective measures of cognitive performance. In conclusion, the performance in short tasks involving concentration and working memory was not impaired, while performance in long-term and monotone tasks declined after sleep deprivation, and the magnitude of this decline depended on the specific individual characteristics of sleep and on age Surprisingly, age seemed to have an important impact on cognitive functions after shift work even in the relatively age-homogeneous population of young anesthesiology residents. PMID:24974663

  7. Importance of all movement behaviors in a 24 hour period for overall health.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Carson, Valerie; Gray, Casey E; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-12-01

    Physical inactivity and childhood obesity are well-recognized public health concerns that are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes. Historically, the benefits of physical activity (e.g., moderate-to-vigorous physical activity-MVPA) to overall health have dominated discussions and emerging evidence indicates that a broader, more integrated approach is needed to better understand and address current public health crises. Existing guidelines for children and youth around the world only focus on MVPA, and recently sedentary behavior, despite an accumulating body of evidence showing that light-intensity physical activity (LPA) such as walking can provide important health benefits. Furthermore, there is accumulating support for the importance of adequate sleep and that these behaviors moderate the health impact of each other. Ignoring the other components of the movement continuum (i.e., sleep, sedentary time, LPA) while focusing efforts exclusively on MVPA (accounting for <5% of the time in a 24 h period) limits the potential to optimize the health benefits of movement behaviors. In order to address this limitation, experts in Canada are currently developing the world's first Integrated 24 Hour Movement Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth to help advance an integrated healthy active living agenda that has the potential to significantly improve the overall health and well-being of children and youth. PMID:25485978

  8. [Ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure monitoring in patients with resistant hypertension].

    PubMed

    Sznajderman, M; Popławska, W; Cybulska, I; Niegowska, J; Makowiecka-Cieśla, M; Baranowski, R

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of 24-hour blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitoring in patients with "resistant" hypertension. 30 patients (44.1 +/- 9.9 years) with diastolic BP 100 mm Hg or more in spite of treatment with three or more antihypertensive drugs were studied. Ambulatory recording of BP and HR was performed by means of Del Mar Avionics monitoring system 9000. Mean recording time was 21.5 hours and mean number of measurements during one recording--56.7. Mean ambulatory systolic and diastolic BP values were significantly lower than mean value of three casual measurements (146.0 +/- 24.6 vs 171.5 +/- 21.2 mm Hg for systolic and 97.2 +/- 11.3 vs 110.4 +/- 7.5 mm Hg for diastolic BP p less than 0.01) In 14 (46.6%) systolic BP and in 10 patients (33.3%) diastolic BP were normal. The patients with normal and abnormal ambulatory BP recordings did not differ in regard to age and mean clinic BP levels. However, patients with abnormal ambulatory BP recordings were more often overweight and showed a greater frequency of left ventricular hypertrophy and family history of hypertension and its complications. The results of the study show that ambulatory BP monitoring may be of value in assessing the response to antihypertensive treatment in patients with so called resistant hypertension as judged on the basis of clinic pressure. PMID:2074634

  9. Accuracy of commercial 24-hour electrocardiogram analyzers for quantitation of total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Salerno, D M; Granrud, G; Hodges, M

    1987-12-01

    The accuracy of 2 commercial 24-hour electrocardiogram analyzers was tested for quantitation of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs). Scanner 1 was the Cardiodata Systems Mark III and scanner 2 was the Avionics Trendsetter DCG VII. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic recordings from 19 consecutive ambulatory patients with frequent VPCs were analyzed by each device. Results were compared with those from hand counts of complete printouts of each of the 19 recordings. For total VPCs, scanner 1 had an average error of 13% (range 0 to 58%) and scanner 2 had an average error of 24% (range (1 to 80%). Scanner 1 had an error of more than 10% for 9 of the 19 recordings and scanner 2 more than 10% for 11 of the 19 recordings. For paired VPCs, scanner 1 had a mean error of 23% (range 4 to 77%), and scanner 2 of 56% (range 34 to 79%). For nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, scanner 1 had an average error of 20% (range 8 to 41%) and scanner 2 had an error of 56% (range 34 to 78%). Thus, when recordings from consecutive ambulatory patients with frequent VPCs were analyzed, neither device was consistently accurate for quantitation of total VPCs. Both analyzers had an unacceptable error for quantitation of repetitive VPCs. All currently available devices may have comparably large errors. This possibility is confirmed by recalculation of the reported data from a third scanner. PMID:2446488

  10. Obtaining liver tridimensional scaffold through the decellularization of rabbit whole liver in 24 hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Schliamser; Ayelen, Rinaldi; Romina, Comin; Alba Nelly, Borchert; Adrian, Nari Gustavo; Alicia, Salvatierra Nancy; Mariana Paula, Cid

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, we development a new protocol for liver decellularization in which the hole decellularization was reached over 24 h. Introduction: the availability of transplantable livers is not sufficient to fulfill the current demand for grafts, with the search for therapeutic alternatives having generated different lines of research, one of which is the use of decellularized three-dimensional biological matrices and subsequent cell seeding to obtain a functional organ. Objective: to produce a decellularization protocol from rabbit liver to generate a three-dimensional matrixin which the time period involved didn't pass 24 h. Methods: The decellularization is obtained through the use of water and SDS (0,1-0,3 %), after freezing at -80 degrees, is the best alternative of different physical and/or chemical mechanisms to break down organ cells and leave only the extracellular matriz. After 24 h of retrograde perfusion, a decellularized translucent matrix was generated. To evaluate if the decellularization protocol was successful, with the extracellular matrix being preserved, we carried out histological (light microscopy) and biochemical (DNA quantification) studies. Results: the decellularization process was verified by macroscopic observation of the organ using microscopic observation corroborated the macroscopic results, with the hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining showing no cells or nuclear material. In addition, the DNA quantification was less than 10% in the decellularized liver compared to control. Finally,the time taken to develop the decellularization protocol was less than 24 hours.

  11. Association between Diurnal Variation of Ozone Concentration and Stroke Occurrence: 24-Hour Time Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Myung-Hoon; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Kim, Young-Seo; Ko, Yong; Kim, Young-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Increasing ozone concentrations have been known to damage human health and ecosystems. Although ozone tends to display diurnal variation, most studies have reported only on the association between daily ozone concentrations and ischemic stroke occurrence on the same day, or with a 1-day lag. We investigated the effect of the diurnal variation of ozone on ischemic stroke occurrence during the same day. Methods We included a consecutive series of 1,734 patients from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2014, at a single tertiary hospital in Seoul, South Korea. We evaluated differences between temperature and pollutants at the time of stroke onset for each time interval and averaged those parameters across the 7-year study period. Results During the interval from 13:00 to 16:59, we found a positive association between ischemic stroke occurrence and ozone concentration relative to other time periods. Upper median ozone levels from 13:00 to 16:59 were positively correlated with ischemic stroke (odds ratio, 1.550; 95% confidence intervals, 1.220 to 1.970; P = <0.001) when compared with lower median levels. Conclusions The results show diurnal patterns of ischemic stroke occurrence based on upper and lower median ozone levels for a 24-hour period, which extends understanding of the association between stroke occurrence and environmental influences. PMID:27015421

  12. Deep venous thrombophlebitis: detection with 4-hour versus 24-hour platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Ponto, J.A.; Kimball, D.A.; Frey, E.E.; Ahmed, F.; Coughlan, J.D.; Jensen, K.C.

    1987-11-01

    Thirty-one nonheparinized patients with suspected deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT) underwent contrast venography and indium-111 platelet scintigraphy (In-111 PS). Venography permitted identification of acute DVT in 12 of 31 cases (39%). One additional patient was considered to have acute DVT despite nonconclusive venography results. In-111 PS results were positive at 4 hours in nine of 13 cases (69%) and at 24 hours in 12 of 13 cases (92%). Two of four patients with false-negative 4-hour In-111 PS studies had received warfarin. Thus, the sensitivity of 4-hour In-111 PS in patients not receiving anticoagulants was 82%. Venography results were negative for acute DVT in 18 cases, and 4-hour In-111 PS studies were negative or equivocal in each. In-111 PS is an alternative to contrast venography for detecting acute DVT. If 4-hour In-111 PS results are positive, anticoagulation can be initiated. Delayed images are necessary if the 4-hour images are negative or equivocal.

  13. Severe community-acquired pneumonia: timely management measures in the first 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Phua, Jason; Dean, Nathan C; Guo, Qi; Kuan, Win Sen; Lim, Hui Fang; Lim, Tow Keang

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) range from 17 to 48 % in published studies.In this review, we searched PubMed for relevant papers published between 1981 and June 2016 and relevant files. We explored how early and aggressive management measures, implemented within 24 hours of recognition of severe CAP and carried out both in the emergency department and in the ICU, decrease mortality in severe CAP.These measures begin with the use of severity assessment tools and the application of care bundles via clinical decision support tools. The bundles include early guideline-concordant antibiotics including macrolides, early haemodynamic support (lactate measurement, intravenous fluids, and vasopressors), and early respiratory support (high-flow nasal cannulae, lung-protective ventilation, prone positioning, and neuromuscular blockade for acute respiratory distress syndrome).While the proposed interventions appear straightforward, multiple barriers to their implementation exist. To successfully decrease mortality for severe CAP, early and close collaboration between emergency medicine and respiratory and critical care medicine teams is required. We propose a workflow incorporating these interventions. PMID:27567896

  14. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m2, had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab® device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens® algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for “24-hour”, “awake”, and “asleep” periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects. PMID:24812515

  15. A 24-HOUR AMBULATORY ECG MONITORING IN ASSESSMENT OF QT INTERVAL DURATION AND DISPERSION IN ROWERS WITH PHYSIOLOGICAL MYOCARDIAL HYPERTROPHY

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Z.F.; Bilalova, R.R.; Tsibulkin, N.A.; Almetova, R.R.; Mudarisova, R.R.; Ahmetov, I.I.

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial hypertrophy (MH) due to cardiac pathology is characterized by an increase in QT interval duration and dispersion, while the findings for exercise-induced myocardial hypertrophy are contradictory. The majority of published research findings have not explored this relationship, but there have only been a few conducted studies using 24-hour ECG monitoring. The aim of the study was to determine the QT interval duration and dispersion in short-term and 24-hour ECG in endurance athletes with myocardial hypertrophy and without it. Methods: A total of 26 well-trained rowers underwent a resting 12-lead ECG, 24-hour ECG monitoring and echocardiography. Results: Athletes with MH (n = 7) at rest did not show any increase in QTc interval duration and dispersion, or mean and maximal QTc duration in Holter monitoring compared to athletes without MH (n = 19). Left ventricular mass was not significantly correlated with any QTc characteristics. Furthermore, athletes with MH had significantly longer mean QT (P = 0.01) and maximal QT (P = 0.018) intervals in Holter monitoring and higher 24-hour heart rate variability indexes due to stronger vagal effects. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that athlete's heart syndrome with myocardial hypertrophy as a benign phenomenon does not lead to an increase in QT interval duration, or increases in maximal and mean duration in a 24-hour ECG. An increase in QT interval duration in athletes may have an autonomic nature. PMID:24744494

  16. Urinary Calcium and Oxalate Excretion in Healthy Adult Cats Are Not Affected by Increasing Dietary Levels of Bone Meal in a Canned Diet

    PubMed Central

    Passlack, Nadine; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A), 18.5 (B) and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C) and 16.1 (A), 17.6 (B) and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C). Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between), and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox), the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals. PMID:23940588

  17. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and 24-Hour Blood Pressure Pattern Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, William B.; Kutner, Michael; Ouslander, Joseph G.; Bliwise, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Background To examine the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and 24-hour blood pressure (BP) pattern among community-dwelling older adults. Methods A convenience sample of 70 community-dwelling older adults, recruited from senior housing, community centers, and learning centers, were admitted to General Clinical Research Center, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Ga. Information regarding demographic and clinical history was obtained using questionnaires. Twenty-four–hour BP monitoring in supine position was performed using Spacelabs model 20207. Breathing during sleep was monitored with the use of a modified sleep recording system (Embletta, PDS), which monitors nasal and oral airflow, chest and abdominal movements, and pulse oximetry. Night time–daytime (night-day) BP ratio (average night-time BP divided by daytime BP) was calculated both for systolic and diastolic BPs. Results Sixty-nine participants, mean age 74.9 ± 6.4 years (41 [57%] women), completed the study. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 13 ± 13 per hour of sleep, and 20 participants (29%) had AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep, indicating moderate to severe SDB. Moderate to severe SDB (AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep) was significantly associated with nocturnal hypertension, whereas there was no statistically significant difference in wake-time BP between those with and without moderate to severe SDB. Stepwise multiple regressions showed that AHI independently predicted increased night-day systolic and night-day diastolic BP ratio, even after controlling for nocturia frequency. Conclusions The results indicate increased BP load associated with increased AHI in this group of older adults. This increased BP load may contribute to increased hypertension-related morbidity and disease burden. PMID:19196901

  18. Usability of a smartphone food picture app for assisting 24-hour dietary recall: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Benjamin T.; Bilgiç, Pelin; Orr, Barron J.; Suzuki, Asuka; Kim, Angela Sarah; Merchant, Nirav C.; Roe, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The Recaller app was developed to help individuals record their food intakes. This pilot study evaluated the usability of this new food picture application (app), which operates on a smartphone with an embedded camera and Internet capability. SUBJECTS/METHODS Adults aged 19 to 28 years (23 males and 22 females) were assigned to use the Recaller app on six designated, nonconsecutive days in order to capture an image of each meal and snack before and after eating. The images were automatically time-stamped and uploaded by the app to the Recaller website. A trained nutritionist administered a 24-hour dietary recall interview 1 day after food images were taken. Participants' opinions of the Recaller app and its usability were determined by a follow-up survey. As an evaluation indicator of usability, the number of images taken was analyzed and multivariate Poisson regression used to model the factors determining the number of images sent. RESULTS A total of 3,315 food images were uploaded throughout the study period. The median number of images taken per day was nine for males and 13 for females. The survey showed that the Recaller app was easy to use, and 50% of the participants would consider using the app daily. Predictors of a higher number of images were as follows: greater interval (hours) between the first and last food images sent, weekend, and female. CONCLUSIONS The results of this pilot study provide valuable information for understanding the usability of the Recaller smartphone food picture app as well as other similarly designed apps. This study provides a model for assisting nutrition educators in their collection of food intake information by using tools available on smartphones. This innovative approach has the potential to improve recall of foods eaten and monitoring of dietary intake in nutritional studies. PMID:25861429

  19. To Compare the Microleakage Among Experimental Adhesives Containing Nanoclay Fillers after the Storages of 24 Hours and 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinasab, Seyed Mostafa; Atai, Mohammad; Alavi, Bagher

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the microleakage among experimental adhesives containing nanoclay fillers after the storages of 24 hours and 6 months. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on extracted human molars with the occlusal margins located in enamel and the cervical margins in cementum. Phosphoric acid was applied to the enamel and dentin margins.Subsequently, the cavities were treated using four groups of experimental adhesive systems and restored with a resin composite. Adper Single Bond® was used as control group. After 24- hour and 6- month storages, the samples were subjected to thermocycling shocks and then immersed in silver nitrate as well as developer solution and finally evaluated for leakage. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Based on Kruskal –Wallis test, significant differences were found between groups regarding microleakage. The Mann- Whitney test showed that Leakage was significantly lower in Adper Single Bond® compared to the other groups in dentinal margins after 24 hours and 6 months and in enamel margins after 6 months. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test showed that the enamel leakage in experimental adhesives was significantly lower than dentinal leakage after 24 hours as well as enamel leakage in Adper Single Bond and adhesive with 0.5% PMAA-g-nanoclay was significantly lower than dentinal margins after storage period of 6 months. Conclusion: All the experimental adhesives were effective in reducing enamel leakage after 24 hours, but were not effective in reducing dentinal leakage after 24 hours as well as in enamel and dentinal leakage after a 6-month storage. No improvement was observed in the microleakage in dentin in both short (24 hrs) and long times (6 months). The high microleakage in the adhesives is probably attributed to the high concentration of HEMA in the recipe of the bonding agent. PMID:21566692

  20. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. Results: The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. Conclusion: The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses

  1. Tasimelteon (Hetlioz™): A New Melatonin Receptor Agonist for the Treatment of Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bonacci, Janene M; Venci, Jineane V; Gandhi, Mona A

    2015-10-01

    In January 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration approved tasimelteon (Hetlioz™), a melatonin-receptor agonist for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder. This article provides an overview of the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetic properties, as well as the clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of tasimelteon. Relevant information was identified through a comprehensive literature search of several databases using the key words tasimelteon, Non-24-hour Sleep-Wake disorder, Non-24, and melatonin. Further information was obtained from the tasimelteon package insert, fda.gov, clinicaltrials.gov, briefing materials provided by Vanda Pharmaceuticals, and posters from scientific meetings. PMID:25092604

  2. Characterisation of sleep in intensive care using 24-hour polysomnography: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many intensive care patients experience sleep disruption potentially related to noise, light and treatment interventions. The purpose of this study was to characterise, in terms of quantity and quality, the sleep of intensive care patients, taking into account the impact of environmental factors. Methods This observational study was conducted in the adult ICU of a tertiary referral hospital in Australia, enrolling 57 patients. Polysomnography (PSG) was performed over a 24-hour period to assess the quantity (total sleep time: hh:mm) and quality (percentage per stage, duration of sleep episode) of patients' sleep while in ICU. Rechtschaffen and Kales criteria were used to categorise sleep. Interrater checks were performed. Sound pressure and illuminance levels and care events were simultaneously recorded. Patients reported on their sleep quality in ICU using the Richards Campbell Sleep Questionnaire and the Sleep in Intensive Care Questionnaire. Data were summarised using frequencies and proportions or measures of central tendency and dispersion as appropriate and Cohen's Kappa statistic was used for interrater reliability of the sleep data analysis. Results Patients' median total sleep time was 05:00 (IQR: 02:52 to 07:14). The majority of sleep was stage 1 and 2 (medians: 19 and 73%) with scant slow wave and REM sleep. The median duration of sleep without waking was 00:03. Sound levels were high (mean Leq 53.95 dB(A) during the day and 50.20 dB(A) at night) and illuminance levels were appropriate at night (median <2 lux) but low during the day (median: 74.20 lux). There was a median 1.7 care events/h. Patients' mean self-reported sleep quality was poor. Interrater reliability of sleep staging was highest for slow wave sleep and lowest for stage 1 sleep. Conclusions The quantity and quality of sleep in intensive care patients are poor and may be related to noise, critical illness itself and treatment events that disturb sleep. The study highlights the

  3. Contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. P.; Goodman, H. O.; Assimos, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate excreted in urine has a significant impact on calcium oxalate supersaturation and stone formation. Dietary oxalate is believed to make only a minor (10 to 20%) contribution to the amount of oxalate excreted in urine, but the validity of the experimental observations that support this conclusion can be questioned. An understanding of the actual contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion is important, as it is potentially modifiable. METHODS: We varied the amount of dietary oxalate consumed by a group of adult individuals using formula diets and controlled, solid-food diets with a known oxalate content, determined by a recently developed analytical procedure. Controlled solid-food diets were consumed containing 10, 50, and 250 mg of oxalate/2500 kcal, as well as formula diets containing 0 and 180 mg oxalate/2500 kcal. Changes in the content of oxalate and other ions were assessed in 24-hour urine collections. RESULTS: Urinary oxalate excretion increased as dietary oxalate intake increased. With oxalate-containing diets, the mean contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion ranged from 24.4 +/- 15.5% on the 10 mg/2500 kcal/day diet to 41.5 +/- 9.1% on the 250 mg/2500 kcal/day diet, much higher than previously estimated. When the calcium content of a diet containing 250 mg of oxalate was reduced from 1002 mg to 391 mg, urinary oxalate excretion increased by a mean of 28.2 +/- 4.8%, and the mean dietary contribution increased to 52.6 +/- 8.6%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that dietary oxalate makes a much greater contribution to urinary oxalate excretion than previously recognized, that dietary calcium influences the bioavailability of ingested oxalate, and that the absorption of dietary oxalate may be an important factor in calcium oxalate stone formation.

  4. Accuracy and Usefulness of Select Methods for Assessing Complete Collection of 24-Hour Urine: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    John, Katherine A; Cogswell, Mary E; Campbell, Norm R; Nowson, Caryl A; Legetic, Branka; Hennis, Anselm J M; Patel, Sheena M

    2016-05-01

    Twenty-four-hour urine collection is the recommended method for estimating sodium intake. To investigate the strengths and limitations of methods used to assess completion of 24-hour urine collection, the authors systematically reviewed the literature on the accuracy and usefulness of methods vs para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) recovery (referent). The percentage of incomplete collections, based on PABA, was 6% to 47% (n=8 studies). The sensitivity and specificity for identifying incomplete collection using creatinine criteria (n=4 studies) was 6% to 63% and 57% to 99.7%, respectively. The most sensitive method for removing incomplete collections was a creatinine index <0.7. In pooled analysis (≥2 studies), mean urine creatinine excretion and volume were higher among participants with complete collection (P<.05); whereas, self-reported collection time did not differ by completion status. Compared with participants with incomplete collection, mean 24-hour sodium excretion was 19.6 mmol higher (n=1781 specimens, 5 studies) in patients with complete collection. Sodium excretion may be underestimated by inclusion of incomplete 24-hour urine collections. None of the current approaches reliably assess completion of 24-hour urine collection. PMID:26726000

  5. Population Pharmacokinetic Model Characterizing 24-Hour Variation in the Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Midazolam in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    van Rongen, A; Kervezee, L; Brill, MJE; van Meir, H; den Hartigh, J; Guchelaar, H-J; Meijer, JH; Burggraaf, J; van Oosterhout, F

    2015-01-01

    Daily rhythms in physiology may affect the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate 24-hour variation in the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A substrate midazolam. Oral (2 mg) and intravenous (1 mg) midazolam was administered at six timepoints throughout the 24-hour period in 12 healthy volunteers. Oral bioavailability (population mean value [RSE%] of 0.28 (7.1%)) showed 24-hour variation that was best parameterized as a cosine function with an amplitude of 0.04 (17.3%) and a peak at 12:14 in the afternoon. The absorption rate constant was 1.41 (4.7%) times increased after drug administration at 14:00. Clearance (0.38 L/min (4.8%)) showed a minor 24-hour variation with an amplitude of 0.03 (14.8%) L/min and a peak at 18:50. Simulations show that dosing time minimally affects the concentration time profiles after intravenous administration, while concentrations are higher during the day compared to the night after oral dosing, reflecting considerable variation in intestinal processes. PMID:26380154

  6. Population Pharmacokinetic Model Characterizing 24-Hour Variation in the Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Midazolam in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    van Rongen, A; Kervezee, L; Brill, Mje; van Meir, H; den Hartigh, J; Guchelaar, H-J; Meijer, J H; Burggraaf, J; van Oosterhout, F

    2015-08-01

    Daily rhythms in physiology may affect the pharmacokinetics of a drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate 24-hour variation in the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A substrate midazolam. Oral (2 mg) and intravenous (1 mg) midazolam was administered at six timepoints throughout the 24-hour period in 12 healthy volunteers. Oral bioavailability (population mean value [RSE%] of 0.28 (7.1%)) showed 24-hour variation that was best parameterized as a cosine function with an amplitude of 0.04 (17.3%) and a peak at 12:14 in the afternoon. The absorption rate constant was 1.41 (4.7%) times increased after drug administration at 14:00. Clearance (0.38 L/min (4.8%)) showed a minor 24-hour variation with an amplitude of 0.03 (14.8%) L/min and a peak at 18:50. Simulations show that dosing time minimally affects the concentration time profiles after intravenous administration, while concentrations are higher during the day compared to the night after oral dosing, reflecting considerable variation in intestinal processes. PMID:26380154

  7. Physical and Mental Health of Patients Immediately After Discharge From Intensive Care Unit and 24 Hours Later

    PubMed Central

    Momennasab, Marzieh; Ghahramani, Tahereh; Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Zand, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Monitoring the health status of patients discharged from intensive care units is a crucial method of service evaluation. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the physical and mental health status of patients immediately after discharge from the ICU and 24 hours later. Patients and Methods: This descriptive comparative study was conducted on 104 patients discharged from the ICUs of a referral trauma center in Shiraz, Southwest Iran. Physical parameters, including respiratory rate, need for supplemental oxygen, heart rate, blood pressure, and need for cardiac monitoring, were assessed. Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) was used for mental health evaluation. The mental and physical status of patients were assessed before ICU discharge and 24 hours later; data were recorded in information forms and were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 17. Results: At the time of discharge, the respiratory rate of 28% of the participants was more than 24 minutes, and 95.2% received supplemental oxygen. However, after 24 hours these values decreased to 10% and 21.6%, respectively. The mean heart rate and systolic blood pressure were within the normal range at both time points. Additionally, 63% of the patients had anxiety scores above 11 at both time points, reflecting high anxiety. The number of patients who reported depression increased from 58.7% at ICU discharge to 69.6% after 24 hours. Conclusions: Despite the considerable improvement in most of the patients’ physical condition in the first 24 hours after discharge from ICU, a significant number of them remain at risk for the development of adverse effects from this transition. The high prevalence of mental health disorders in these patients reveals the necessity to conduct follow-up consultations. PMID:27218059

  8. Value of 24-hour Delayed Film of Barium Enema for Evaluation of Colon Transit Function in Young Children with Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ha Yeong; Son, Jae Sung; Park, Hye Won; Kwak, Byung Ok; Kim, Hyeong Su; Bae, Sun Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims A colon transit time test using radio-opaque markers (CTTRM) is considered the gold standard for evaluating colon transit function. A 24-hour delayed film of barium enema (BE) has been used as a supplementary method in structural evaluations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a 24-hour delayed BE film for assessing colon transit function in young children with constipation. Methods In total, 93 children with constipation who performed both single-contrast BE and CTTRM were enrolled in this study. Of these, the data from 70 children were analyzed (males 33, females 37; mean age [range], 5.63 ± 2.94 [2–14] years). The basic principle of the study is “velocity = distance/time”. Time values were identified in both studies, and the colon length and distance of barium movement were measured on the 24-hour delayed BE film. Thus, colon transit velocity values could be calculated using both methods. The correlation between colon transit velocity using a 24-hour delayed BE film versus CTTRM was analyzed statistically. Results Median value (interquartile range) of colon transit velocity using CTTRM was 1.57 (1.07–2.89) cm/hr, and that using BE of that was 1.58 (0.94–2.07) cm/hr. The Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.438 (P < 0.001) for the overall group. The correlation was strongest in children younger than 4 years (r = 0.537, P = 0.032). Conclusions Although the correlation between BE and CTTRM was not very strong, the 24-hour delayed BE film could provide broad information about colon transit function in young children, especially those under 4 years who usually cannot undergo CTTRM. PMID:26979249

  9. Microleakage of Two Self-Adhesive Cements in the Enamel and Dentin After 24 Hours and Two Months

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Kalantar Motamedi, Mojdeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Microleakage is a main cause of restorative treatment failure. In this study, we compared occlusal and cervical microleakage of two self-adhesive cements after 24 hours and two months. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, class II inlay cavities were prepared on 60 sound human third molars. Composite inlays were fabricated with Z100 composite resin. The teeth were randomly assigned to six groups. RelyX-Arc (control), RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem were used for the first three groups and specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The same cements were used for the remaining three groups, but the specimens were stored for 2 months. The teeth were subjected to 500 thermal cycles (5°C and 55°C) and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then sectioned mesiodistally and dye penetration was evaluated in a class II cavity with occlusal and cervical margins using X20 magnification stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: After 24 hours, cements had significant differences only in cervical margin microleakage (P=0.0001) and microleakage of RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was significantly more than that of RelyX-Arc (both P=0.0001). Cervical microleakage in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was greater than occlusal (P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively). Microleakage was not significantly different between the occlusal and cervical margins after 2 months. Conclusion: Cervical microleakage was greater than occlusal in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem after 24h. The greatest microleakage was reported for the cervical margin of RelyX-Unicem after 24 hours. PMID:25584053

  10. Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces urinary biomarkers of fumonisin B1 exposure in rats and humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is often a co-contaminant with aflatoxin (AF) in grains and may enhance AF’s carcinogenicity by acting as a cancer promoter. An oral dose of calcium montmorillonite clay (i.e. NovaSil, NS) was able to reduce aflatoxin exposure in a Ghanaian population at risk. In vitro...

  11. Changes in platelet morphology and function during 24 hours of storage.

    PubMed

    Braune, S; Walter, M; Schulze, F; Lendlein, A; Jung, F

    2014-01-01

    aggregates could be visualized microscopically. After four hours, first debris and very small aggregates occurred. After 24 hours, platelet aggregates and also debris progressively increased. In accordance to this, the CASY system revealed an increase of platelet aggregates (up to 90 μm diameter) with increasing storage time. The percentage of CD62P positive platelets and PF4 increased significantly with storage time in resting PRP. When soluble ADP was added to stored PRP samples, the number of activatable platelets decreased significantly over storage time. The present study reveals the importance of a consequent standardization in the preparation of WB and PRP. Platelet morphology and function, particularly platelet reactivity to adherent or soluble agonists in their surrounding milieu, changed rapidly outside the vascular system. This knowledge is of crucial interest, particularly in the field of biomaterial development for cardiovascular applications, and may help to define common standards in the in vitro hemocompatibility testing of biomaterials. PMID:25227196

  12. Irregular 24-hour Activity Rhythms and the Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Shahmir; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Lim, Andrew S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms – near 24-hour intrinsic biological rhythms – modulate many aspects of human physiology and hence disruption of circadian rhythms may have an important impact on human health. Experimental work supports a potential link between irregular circadian rhythms and several key risk factors for cardiovascular disease including hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, collectively termed the metabolic syndrome. While several epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between shift-work and the components of the metabolic syndrome in working-age adults, there is a relative paucity of data concerning the impact of non-occupational circadian irregularity in older women and men. To address this question, we studied 7 days of actigraphic data from 1137 older woman and men participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based cohort study of the chronic conditions of aging. The regularity of activity rhythms was quantified using the nonparametric interdaily stability metric, and was related to the metabolic syndrome and its components obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. More regular activity rhythms were associated with a lower odds of having the metabolic syndrome (OR=0.69, 95%CI=0.60–0.80, p=5.8×10−7), being obese (OR=0.73, 95%CI=0.63–0.85, p=2.5×10−5), diabetic (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.65–0.90, p=9.3×10−4), hypertensive (OR=0.78, 95%CI=0.66–0.91, p=2.0×10−3), or dyslipidemic (OR=0.82, 95%CI=0.72–0.92, p=1.2×10−3). These associations were independent of differences in objectively measured total daily physical activity or rest, and were not accounted for by prevalent coronary artery disease, stroke, or peripheral artery disease. Moreover, more regular activity rhythms were associated with lower odds of having cardiovascular disease (OR=0.83; 95%CI=0.73–0.95, p=5.7×10−3), an effect that was statistically mediated by the metabolic syndrome. We conclude that irregular activity

  13. Measurement of urinary calcium using AT89C51RD2 microcontroller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelamegam, P.; Jamaludeen, A.; Rajendran, A.; Raghunathan, R.

    2009-04-01

    A simple and inexpensive absorption technique for determination of calcium ion in urine samples is developed, comprising a light emitting diode (650 nm) as the light source and photodiode as the detector with AT89C51RD2 microcontroller. The design of the system and details of interface, calibration, and procedure of operation are explained in this paper. Software is developed to monitor sample processing and to display the results in liquid crystal display screen. With 15 μl sample volume, a linear output is obtained in the range of 2.5-7.5 mM calcium with a detection limit of 0.06 mM. Interferences from other cations such as monovalent ion and divalent ion are investigated in the expected range, which are normally present in clinical samples, and absorption changes over the pH range of 3-12 are also determined. This system has been demonstrated successfully for the successive assay of calcium in urine samples, with the results comparing well to those achieved and in good agreement with values obtained with the current clinical spectrophotometric method at 95% of confidence level.

  14. Changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of running and cycling on changes in hydration status and body composition during a 24-hour race have been described previously, but data for 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers are missing. The present study investigated changes in foot volume, body composition, and hydration status in male and female 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers. Methods We compared in 49 (37 men and 12 women) 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers) changes (Δ) in body mass (BM). Fat mass (FM), percent body fat (%BF) and skeletal muscle mass (SM) were estimated using anthropometric methods. Changes in total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid (ECF) and intracellular fluid (ICF) were determined using bioelectrical impedance and changes in foot volume using plethysmography. Haematocrit, plasma [Na+], plasma urea, plasma osmolality, urine urea, urine specific gravity and urine osmolality were measured in a subgroup of 25 ultra-MTBers (16 men and 9 women). Results In male 24-hour ultra-MTBers, BM (P < 0.001), FM (P < 0.001), %BF (P < 0.001) and ECF (P < 0.05) decreased whereas SM and TBW did not change (P > 0.05). A significant correlation was found between post-race BM and post-race FM (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). In female ultra-MTBers, BM (P < 0.05), %BF (P < 0.05) and FM (P < 0.001) decreased, whereas SM, ECF and TBW remained stable (P > 0.05). Absolute ranking in the race was related to Δ%BM (P < 0.001) and Δ%FM in men (P < 0.001) and to Δ%BM (P < 0.05) in women. In male ultra-MTBers, increased post-race plasma urea (P < 0.001) was negatively related to absolute ranking in the race, Δ%BM, post-race FM and Δ%ECF (P < 0.05). Foot volume remained stable in both sexes (P > 0.05). Conclusions Male and female 24-hour ultra-MTBers experienced a significant loss in BM and FM, whereas SM remained stable. Body weight changes and increases in plasma urea do not reflect a change in body hydration status. No oedema

  15. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): A Self-Completed 24 Hour Dietary Recall for Children

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Tom; Islam, Noemi; Douglass, Deirdre; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Cullen, Karen W.; Subar, Amy F.

    2012-01-01

    The Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4(FIRSSt4), is a web-based 24 hour dietary recall (24hdr) self-administered by children based on the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24) (a self-administered 24hdr for adults). The food choices in FIRSST4 are abbreviated to include only those reported by children in U.S. national surveys; and detailed food probe questions are simplified to exclude those that children could not be expected to answer (for example questions regarding food preparation and added fats). ASA24 and FIRSSt4 incorporate 10,000+ food images with up to eight images per food to assist in portion size estimation. This paper reviews the formative research conducted during the development of FIRSSt4. When completed, FIRSSt4 will be hosted and maintained for investigator use on the National Cancer Institute’s ASA24 website. PMID:22616645

  16. Dipstick Spot urine pH does not accurately represent 24 hour urine PH measured by an electrode

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Mohamed; Sarkissian, Carl; Jianbo, Li; Calle, Juan; Monga, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To determine whether spot urine pH measured by dipstick is an accurate representation of 24 hours urine pH measured by an electrode. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed urine pH results of patients who presented to the urology stone clinic. For each patient we recorded the most recent pH result measured by dipstick from a spot urine sample that preceded the result of a 24-hour urine pH measured by the use of a pH electrode. Patients were excluded if there was a change in medications or dietary recommendations or if the two samples were more than 4 months apart. A difference of more than 0.5 pH was considered an inaccurate result. Results A total 600 patients were retrospectively reviewed for the pH results. The mean difference in pH between spot urine value and the 24 hours collection values was 0.52±0.45 pH. Higher pH was associated with lower accuracy (p<0.001). The accuracy of spot urine samples to predict 24-hour pH values of <5.5 was 68.9%, 68.2% for 5.5 to 6.5 and 35% for >6.5. Samples taken more than 75 days apart had only 49% the accuracy of more recent samples (p<0.002). The overall accuracy is lower than 80% (p<0.001). Influence of diurnal variation was not significant (p=0.588). Conclusions Spot urine pH by dipstick is not an accurate method for evaluation of the patients with urolithiasis. Patients with alkaline urine are more prone to error with reliance on spot urine pH. PMID:27286119

  17. 24-hour evaluation of dental plaque bacteria and halitosis after consumption of a single placebo or dental treat by dogs.

    PubMed

    Jeusette, Isabelle C; Román, Aurora Mateo; Torre, Celina; Crusafont, Josep; Sánchez, Nuria; Sánchez, Maria C; Pérez-Salcedo, Leire; Herrera, David

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether consumption of a single dental treat with specific mechanical properties and active ingredients would provide a 24-hour effect on dental plaque bacteria and halitosis in dogs. ANIMALS 10 dogs of various breeds from a privately owned colony that had received routine dental scaling and polishing 4 weeks before the study began. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 placebo or dental treat first. A 4-week washout period was provided, and then dogs received the opposite treatment. Oral plaque and breath samples were collected before and 0.5, 3, 12, and 24 hours after treat consumption. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) concentration was measured in breath samples. Total aerobic, total anaerobic, Porphyromonas gulae, Prevotella intermedia-like, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum bacterial counts (measured via bacterial culture) and total live bacterial counts, total live and dead bacterial counts, and bacterial vitality (measured via quantitative real-time PCR assay) were assessed in plaque samples. RESULTS Compared with placebo treat consumption, dental treat consumption resulted in a significant decrease in breath VSCs concentration and all plaque bacterial counts, without an effect on bacterial vitality. Effects of the dental treat versus the placebo treat persisted for 12 hours for several bacterial counts and for 24 hours for breath VSCs concentration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although clinical benefits should be investigated in larger scale, longer-term studies, results of this study suggested that feeding the evaluated dental treat may help to decrease oral bacterial growth in dogs for 12 hours and oral malodor for 24 hours. A feeding interval of 12 hours is therefore recommended. PMID:27227499

  18. Reliability and Predictive Validity of Caloric Intake Measures from the 24-Hour Dietary Recalls of Homebound Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanhui; Roth, David L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Locher, Julie L.

    2010-01-01

    24-hour dietary recalls are used frequently to study homebound older adults’ eating behaviors. However, the reliability and predictive validity of this method have not been established in this population. The purpose of this study is to examine whether homebound older adults provide reliable and valid measures of total caloric intake in 24-hour dietary recalls. 230 homebound older adults were interviewed in their homes using a questionnaire to assess eating behaviors and factors that could affect those behaviors. Participants completed three 24-hour dietary recalls at baseline and again at 6-month follow-up. Two sub-samples were identified for analyses. For participants who were not hospitalized during the 6-month interval and had their weight measured at both assessments (n = 52), sufficient test-retest reliability of caloric intake was observed (r = 0.59); but caloric intake deficiencies relative to estimated energy requirements did not predict actual weight loss (r = 0.08). When this sample was supplemented with 91 participants who experienced any adverse event (weight loss of 2.5% or more, hospitalization, institutionalization, or mortality) in the 6-month period (n = 143), adverse events were more likely to occur for those with insufficient caloric intake (odds ratio = 3.49, p = .009), and in White participants compared to African American participants (odds ratio = 3.13, p=0.016). Adequate test-retest reliability of the 24-hour dietary recall was demonstrated, but additional research with larger samples and longer follow-up intervals are needed to better evaluate the predictive validity of caloric intake measures for this population. PMID:20430140

  19. HOW RELIABLE IS 24 HOUR SERUM LITHIUM LEVEL AFTER A TEST DOSE OF LITHIUM IN PREDICTING OPTIMAL LITHIUM DOSE?

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, K.; Shaji, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY 57% of a group of 35 patients treated with Lithium Carbonate at dosages predicted by the nomogram suggested by Cooper et al (1973) failed to reach therapeutic levels of serum lithium. This finding casts serious doubts on the usefulness of the claim by Cooper et al (1973 & 1976) that 24 hour serum lithium level after a test dose of 600 mg. lithium can predict the daily lithium dose. PMID:21927360

  20. Comparing food intake using the Dietary Risk Assessment with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls and the 7-Day Dietary Recall.

    PubMed

    Olendzki, B; Hurley, T G; Hebert, J R; Ellis, S; Merriam, P A; Luippold, R; Rider, L; Ockene, I S

    1999-11-01

    The Dietary Risk Assessment (DRA) is a brief dietary assessment tool used to identify dietary behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease. Intended for use by physicians and other nondietitians, the DRA identifies healthful and problematic dietary behaviors and alerts the physician to patients who require further nutrition counseling. To determine the relative validity of this tool, we compared it to the 7-Day Dietary Recall (an instrument developed to assess intake of dietary fat) and to the average of 7 telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls. Forty-two free-living subjects were recruited into the study. The 7-Day Dietary Recall and DRA were administered to each subject twice, at the beginning and the end of the study period, and the 24-hour recalls were conducted during the intervening time period. Correlation coefficients were computed to compare the food scores derived from the 3 assessment methods. Correlations between the DRA and 7-Day Dietary Recall data were moderate (r = .47, on average, for postmeasures); correlations between the DRA and 24-hour recalls were lower. The ability of the DRA to assess dietary fat consumption and ease of administration make it a clinically useful screening instrument for the physician when counseling patients about dietary fat reduction. PMID:10570682

  1. [Exercise tolerance in angina patients 3 and 24 hours after administration of a new delayed-action preparation of metoprolol].

    PubMed

    Giusti, C; Verdecchia, P; Pentimone, F; Regoli, F; Cordoni, M; Bongini, A M

    1981-01-01

    To assess the duration of improved exercise tolerance by metoprolol given in a new sustained-release formulation, 40 in-patients affected by stable exercise-induced angina pectoris received single-blind placebo in day 1 and thereafter, in double-blind cross-over once daily administration, metoprolol RETARD 100 mg and 200 mg in days 3 and 5. Symptom-limited cycloergometric exercise tests were performed at 3 and 24 hours after placebo and after each of the two doses of metoprolol RETARD. Duration of exercise, maximal workload and total work performed did significantly increase at 3 and 24 hours after metoprolol RETARD 100 mg (P less than 0.01) and 200 mg (P less than 0.01), without any significant difference between the two doses. Peak systolic arterial pressure and heart rate were lowered by metoprolol RETARD 200 mg at 3 (P less than 0.01) and 24 (P less than 0.01) hours, whereas only the peak heart rate at 3 hours was lowered (P less than 0.05) by the 100 mg dose. It is concluded that in patients with stable exercise-induced angina pectoris, metoprolol RETARD 200 mg appears to be able to increase exercise tolerance and to reduce exercise-induced myocardial oxygen consumption throughout 24 hours period. This may justify a once daily dosing schedule of the 200 mg dose, aimed at improving patient compliance. PMID:7343379

  2. Flow cytometric comparison of platelets from a whole blood and finger-prick sample: impact of 24 hours storage.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Albe C; Stander, Andre; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the validity and laboratory utility of flow cytometry when analyzing platelet activation by studying CD41, CD42b, CD62P and CD63. We compare flow cytometry results from citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples directly after collection and also after storing both a finger-prick and whole-blood sample for 24 hours. Citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples were taken from three healthy individuals on two occasions, and a total of 60,000 cells were analyzed for each of the four phycoerythrin-labeled monoclonal antibodies. Half of each sample was analyzed immediately after sampling while the other half was kept in the fridge at 6 °C for 24 hours before analysis. No significant difference was found between the sampling methods or the period of time before analysis. Results therefore suggest that an appropriately prepared finger-prick sample can be used for platelet function analysis, and samples can be stored for 24 hours in the fridge at 6 °C before analysis. PMID:23320994

  3. Assessment of 24-hours Aldosterone Administration on Protein Abundances in Fluorescence-Sorted Mouse Distal Renal Tubules by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas B; Pisitkun, Trairak; Hoffert, Jason D; Jensen, Uffe B; Fenton, Robert A; Praetorius, Helle A; Knepper, Mark A; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Aldosterone exerts multiple long-term effects in the distal renal tubules. The aim of this study was to establish a method for identifying proteins in these tubules that change in abundance by only 24-hours aldosterone administration. Methods Mice endogenously expressing green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in the connecting tubule and cortical collecting ducts were treated with a subcutaneous injection of 2.0 mg/kg aldosterone or vehicle (n=5), and sacrificed 24 hours later. Suspensions of single cells were obtained enzymatically, and eGFP positive cells were isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Samples of 100 μg proteins were digested with trypsin and labeled with 8-plex iTRAQ reagents and processed for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results FACS yielded 1.4 million cells per mouse. The LC-MS/MS spectra were matched to peptides by the SEQUEST search algorithm, which identified 3002 peptides corresponding to 506 unique proteins of which 20 significantly changed abundance 24-hours after aldosterone injection. Conclusion We find the method suitable and useful for studying hormonal effects on protein abundance in distal tubular segments. PMID:23428628

  4. Modification by food of the calcium absorbability and physicochemical effects of calcium citrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    The food-calcium (Ca) interaction was examined in 12 healthy women (mean age 38 years) maintained on a constant metabolic diet. They underwent three phases of study, comprised of control (no Ca), Ca citrate (1 g Ca/day) during meals, and Ca citrate separately from meals. Each phase was 7 days in length and two 24-hour urine samples were collected on days 6 and 7. The rise from the control phase in urinary Ca was slightly more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals than without (68 and 62%, respectively). The fall in urinary phosphorus was equivalent at about 25% between Ca citrate phases. The rise in urinary citrate and pH and the decline in urinary ammonium were more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals; however, the changes were small or nonsignificant. The urinary saturation of Ca oxalate, brushite or monosodium urate did not differ between the two Ca citrate phases. There was a nonsignificant rise in serum iron during Ca citrate phases. The results suggest that: 1) dissolution and absorption of Ca citrate might be slightly greater when given with food than without; 2) that the ability of Ca citrate to attenuate crystallization of stone-forming Ca salts in urine is not modified by food; and 3) that Ca citrate may not impair iron absorption from food.

  5. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... of calcium dietary supplements are carbonate and citrate. Calcium carbonate is inexpensive, but is absorbed best when taken ... antacid products, such as Tums® and Rolaids®, contain calcium carbonate. Each pill or chew provides 200–400 mg ...

  6. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 version, for youth aged 9 to 11 Years: A validation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites using a quasiexperimental design. In one s...

  7. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CLEANING: 24 HOUR FOOD DIARY (HAND ENTRY) (UA-D-40.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the SOP is to define the particular steps involved in cleaning the electronic data generated from data entry of the 24 Hour Food Diary. The procedure was developed to use during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: data; cleaning; 24 hour ...

  8. Arrhythmias Seen in Baseline 24-Hour Holter ECG Recordings in Healthy Normal Volunteers During Phase 1 Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Hingorani, Pooja; Karnad, Dilip R; Rohekar, Prashant; Kerkar, Vaibhav; Lokhandwala, Yash Y; Kothari, Snehal

    2016-07-01

    Regulatory agencies encourage sponsors to submit 24-hour ambulatory ECG data for assessing cardiac safety of new drugs, and some arrhythmias, hitherto considered rare, have been observed in some early-phase studies. Interpretation of these observations is difficult given the dearth of published data on the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias seen during 24-hour continuous ECG monitoring in healthy volunteers (HV) from clinical trials. We analyzed drug-free ambulatory ECG recordings from 1273 HV (1000 males, 273 females; age 18-65 years) from 22 phase 1 studies that were analyzed in a core ECG laboratory; all subjects had normal screening ECGs. Supraventricular arrhythmias such as supraventricular premature complexes were observed in 60.8% of healthy volunteers, supraventricular tachycardia in 2.2%, and atrial fibrillation in 0.1%. Ventricular arrhythmias included premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) in 43.4%, >200 PVCs per 24 hours in 3.3%, multifocal PVCs in 5.3%, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in 0.7%, and accelerated idioventricular rhythm in 0.3%. Bradyarrhythmias included sinus pause >3 seconds in 0.3%, and second-degree AV block in 2.4%. Complete heart block and torsades de pointes were not seen in any subject. Based on the observed incidence, we estimated the maximum number of healthy subjects in whom these arrhythmias may be seen as a matter of chance in studies with smaller sample sizes if the study drug has no arrhythmogenic effect. Our results and these estimates could help interpret whether cardiac arrhythmias observed in early-phase studies are due to chance or possibly are a drug effect. PMID:26626443

  9. Developing a Method to Test the Validity of 24 Hour Time Use Diaries Using Wearable Cameras: A Feasibility Pilot

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Paul; Thomas, Emma; Doherty, Aiden; Harms, Teresa; Burke, Órlaith; Gershuny, Jonathan; Foster, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Self-report time use diaries collect a continuous sequenced record of daily activities but the validity of the data they produce is uncertain. This study tests the feasibility of using wearable cameras to generate, through image prompted interview, reconstructed 'near-objective' data to assess their validity. 16 volunteers completed the Harmonised European Time Use Survey (HETUS) diary and used an Autographer wearable camera (recording images at approximately 15 second intervals) for the waking hours of the same 24-hour period. Participants then completed an interview in which visual images were used as prompts to reconstruct a record of activities for comparison with the diary record. 14 participants complied with the full collection protocol. We compared time use and number of discrete activities from the diary and camera records (using 10 classifications of activity). In terms of aggregate totals of daily time use we found no significant difference between the diary and camera data. In terms of number of discrete activities, participants reported a mean of 19.2 activities per day in the diaries, while image prompted interviews revealed 41.1 activities per day. The visualisations of the individual activity sequences reveal some potentially important differences between the two record types, which will be explored at the next project stage. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using wearable cameras to reconstruct time use through image prompted interview in order to test the concurrent validity of 24-hour activity time-use budgets. In future we need a suitably powered study to assess the validity and reliability of 24-hour time use diaries. PMID:26633807

  10. Axial Diffusivity of the Corona Radiata at 24 Hours Post-Stroke: A New Biomarker for Motor and Global Outcome.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Eric; Amor-Sahli, Mélika; Perlbarg, Vincent; Pires, Christine; Crozier, Sophie; Galanaud, Damien; Valabregue, Romain; Yger, Marion; Baronnet-Chauvet, Flore; Samson, Yves; Dormont, Didier; Rosso, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Fractional anisotropy (FA) is an effective marker of motor outcome at the chronic stage of stroke yet proves to be less efficient at early time points. This study aims to determine which diffusion metric in which location is the best marker of long-term stroke outcome after thrombolysis with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 24 hours post-stroke. Twenty-eight thrombolyzed patients underwent DTI at 24 hours post-stroke onset. Ipsilesional and contralesional FA, mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities values were calculated in different Regions-of-Interest (ROIs): (1) the white matter underlying the precentral gyrus (M1), (2) the corona radiata (CoRad), (3) the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and (4) the cerebral peduncles (CP). NIHSS scores were acquired at admission, day 1, and day 7; modified Rankin Scores (mRS) at 3 months. Significant decreases were found in FA, MD, and AD of the ipsilesional CoRad and M1. MD and AD were also significantly lower in the PLIC. The ratio of ipsi and contralesional AD of the CoRad (CoRad-rAD) was the strongest diffusion parameter correlated with motor NIHSS scores on day 7 and with the mRS at 3 months. A Receiver-Operator Curve analysis yielded a model for the CoRad-rAD to predict good outcome based on upper limb NIHSS motor scores and mRS with high specificity and sensitivity. FA values were not correlated with clinical outcome. In conclusion, axial diffusivity of the CoRad from clinical DTI at 24 hours post-stroke is the most appropriate diffusion metric for quantifying stroke damage to predict outcome, suggesting the importance of early axonal damage. PMID:26562509

  11. The Relationship Between 24-Hour Symptoms and COPD Exacerbations and Healthcare Resource Use: Results from an Observational Study (ASSESS).

    PubMed

    Miravitlles, Marc; Worth, Heinrich; Soler-Cataluña, Juan José; Price, David; De Benedetto, Fernando; Roche, Nicolas; Godtfredsen, Nina S; van der Molen, Thys; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Padullés, Laura; Ribera, Anna

    2016-10-01

    This observational study assessed the relationship between nighttime, early-morning and daytime chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms and exacerbations and healthcare resource use. COPD symptoms were assessed at baseline in patients with stable COPD using a standardised questionnaire during routine clinical visits. Information was recorded on exacerbations and healthcare resource use during the year before baseline and during a 6-month follow-up period. The main objective of the analysis was to determine the predictive nature of current symptoms for future exacerbations and healthcare resource use. 727 patients were eligible (65.8% male, mean age: 67.2 years, % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 52.8%); 698 patients (96.0%) provided information after 6 months. Symptoms in any part of the day were associated with a prior history of exacerbations (all p < 0.05) and nighttime and early-morning symptoms were associated with the frequency of primary care visits in the year before baseline (both p < 0.01). During follow-up, patients with baseline symptoms during any part of the 24-hour day had more exacerbations than patients with no symptoms in each period (all p < 0.05); there was also an association between 24-hour symptoms and the frequency of primary care visits (all p ≤ 0.01). Although there was a significant association between early-morning and daytime symptoms and exacerbations during follow-up (both p < 0.01), significance was not maintained when adjusted for potential confounders. Prior exacerbations were most strongly associated with future risk of exacerbation. The results suggest 24-hour COPD symptoms do not independently predict future exacerbation risk. PMID:26983349

  12. Axial Diffusivity of the Corona Radiata at 24 Hours Post-Stroke: A New Biomarker for Motor and Global Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Eric; Amor-Sahli, Mélika; Perlbarg, Vincent; Pires, Christine; Crozier, Sophie; Galanaud, Damien; Valabregue, Romain; Yger, Marion; Baronnet-Chauvet, Flore; Samson, Yves; Dormont, Didier; Rosso, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Fractional anisotropy (FA) is an effective marker of motor outcome at the chronic stage of stroke yet proves to be less efficient at early time points. This study aims to determine which diffusion metric in which location is the best marker of long-term stroke outcome after thrombolysis with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 24 hours post-stroke. Twenty-eight thrombolyzed patients underwent DTI at 24 hours post-stroke onset. Ipsilesional and contralesional FA, mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities values were calculated in different Regions-of-Interest (ROIs): (1) the white matter underlying the precentral gyrus (M1), (2) the corona radiata (CoRad), (3) the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and (4) the cerebral peduncles (CP). NIHSS scores were acquired at admission, day 1, and day 7; modified Rankin Scores (mRS) at 3 months. Significant decreases were found in FA, MD, and AD of the ipsilesional CoRad and M1. MD and AD were also significantly lower in the PLIC. The ratio of ipsi and contralesional AD of the CoRad (CoRad-rAD) was the strongest diffusion parameter correlated with motor NIHSS scores on day 7 and with the mRS at 3 months. A Receiver-Operator Curve analysis yielded a model for the CoRad-rAD to predict good outcome based on upper limb NIHSS motor scores and mRS with high specificity and sensitivity. FA values were not correlated with clinical outcome. In conclusion, axial diffusivity of the CoRad from clinical DTI at 24 hours post-stroke is the most appropriate diffusion metric for quantifying stroke damage to predict outcome, suggesting the importance of early axonal damage. PMID:26562509

  13. Intracrystalline Proteins Promote Dissolution of Urinary Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Cultured Renal Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Phulwinder K.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Fleming, David E.; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm; Ryall, Rosemary L.

    2007-04-01

    We have proposed that internalized calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals containing intracrystalline proteins would be vulnerable to intracellular dissolution. The aims of this study were (1) to measure non-uniform strain and crystallite size in CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystals containing increasing amounts of intracrystalline crystal matrix extract (CME) and (2) to compare the rates of crystal dissolution in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCKII) cells. CME was isolated by demineralization of COM crystals generated from human urine. Cold and 14C-oxalate-labelled COM crystals were precipitated from ultrafiltered urine containing CME at final concentrations of 0-5mg/L. Non-uniform strain and crystallite size were determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with Rietveld whole-pattern peak fitting and profile analysis, and the protein content of the crystals was analyzed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting for prothrombin fragment 1. Radiolabeled crystals were added to MDCKII cells and dissolution was expressed as radioactive label released into the medium relative to that in the crystals at zero time. Non-uniform strain increased and crystallite size decreased proportionally with rising CME concentration, reaching saturation between approximately 1 and 5 mg/L, and demonstrating unequivocally the inclusion of increasing quantities of proteins in the crystals. This was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Crystal dissolution also followed saturation kinetics. These findings were confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), which showed that the degree of crystal degradation increased relative to CME concentration. We conclude that intracrystalline proteins enhance intracellular dissolution of CaOx crystals and thus may provide a natural defense against stone pathogenesis.

  14. Aldosterone-to-Renin Ratio Is Associated With Reduced 24-Hour Heart Rate Variability and QTc Prolongation in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grübler, Martin R.; Kienreich, Katharina; Gaksch, Martin; Verheyen, Nicolas; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó.; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; März, Winfried; Schmid, Johannes; Oberreither, Eva-Maria; Wetzel, Julia; Catena, Cristiana; Sechi, Leonardo A.; Pieske, Burkert; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pilz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aldosterone is considered to exert direct effects on the myocardium and the sympathetic nervous system. Both QT time and heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) are considered to be markers of arrhythmic risk and autonomous dysregulation. In this study, we investigated the associations between aldosterone, QT time, and HRV in patients with arterial hypertension. We recruited 477 hypertensive patients (age: 60.2 ± 10.2 years; 52.3% females) with a mean systolic/diastolic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) value of 128 ± 12.8/77.1 ± 9.2 mmHg and with a median of 2 (IQR: 1–3) antihypertensive agents. Patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Department of Internal Medicine of the Medical University of Graz, Austria. Blood samples, 24-hour HRV derived from 24-hour blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and ECG's were obtained. Plasma aldosterone and plasma renin concentrations were measured by means of a radioimmunoassay. Twenty-four-hour urine specimens were collected in parallel with ABPM. Mean QTc was 423.3 ± 42.0 milliseconds for males and 434.7 ± 38.3 milliseconds for females. Mean 24H-HR and 24H-HRV was 71.9 ± 9.8 and 10.0 ± 3.6 bpm, respectively. In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, ABPM, and current medication, aldosterone to active renin ratio (AARR) was significantly associated with the QTc interval, a marker for cardiac repolarization abnormalities (mean = 426 ± 42.4 milliseconds; β-coefficient = 0.121; P = 0.03) as well as with the 24-hour heart rate variability a surrogate for autonomic dysfunction (median = 9.67 [IQR = 7.38–12.22 bpm]; β-coefficient = −0.133; P = 0.01). In hypertensive patients, AARR is significantly related to QTc prolongation as well as HRV. Further studies investigating the effects of mineralocorticoid receptor blocker and aldosterone synthase inhibitors on QTc and HRV are warranted

  15. Sensitivity to calcium intake in calcium stone forming patients.

    PubMed

    Heilberg, I P; Martini, L A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Ramos, O L; Schor, N

    1996-01-01

    The absorptive or renal origin of hypercalciuria can be discriminated using an acute oral calcium load test (ACLT). Of 86 patients with calcium oxalate kidney stones, 28 (23%) were found to be hypercalciuric (HCa) and 58 (67%) normocalciuric (NCa) on their customary free diet, containing 542 +/- 29 mg/day (mean +/- SE) of calcium. Since the apparently normal 24-hour calcium excretion of many calcium stone formers (CSF) may be due to a combination of high calcium absorption with moderately low calcium intake, all patients were investigated by ACLT. Of 28 HCa patients, 13 (46%) were classified as absorptive (AH) and 15 (54%) as renal hypercalciuria (RH). Of the 58 NCa patients, 38 (65%) presented features of intestinal hyperabsorption and were therefore designated as AH-like, and 20 (35%) as RH-like. To further elucidate the role of dietary calcium in these CSF, a chronic calcium load test (CCLT), consisting of 1 g/day of oral Ca for 7 days, was designed. A positive response to the CCLT was considered to occur when urinary calcium (uCa) was > or = 4 mg/ kg/24 h on the 7th day. Among NCa patients, 29% of AH-like subjects responded to the CCLT and 71% did not; 50% of RH-like subjects also responded and 50% did not. In HCa patients, 85% of AH and 67% of RH subjects maintained uCa > or = 4 mg/kg/24 h after the CCLT and 15% of AH and 23% of RH subjects did not. However, a significant additional increase in mean uCa was not observed among HCa patients. All patients were submitted to a second evaluation of fasting calciuria (Ca/Cr). A modification of this parameter was noticed in 89% of RH-like and 78% of RH patients. In conclusion, these data suggest the presence of subpopulations of patients sensitive or not to calcium intake, regardless of whether the acute response to a calcium overload test suggested AH or RH. The CCLT disclosed dietary hypercalciuria in 21/58 (36%) of previously NCa patients. In these NCa patients, the ACLT may be replaced by the CCLT. The distinction

  16. Comparison of Interviewer-Administered and Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recalls in 3 Diverse Integrated Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Frances E; Dixit-Joshi, Sujata; Potischman, Nancy; Dodd, Kevin W; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Kushi, Lawrence H; Alexander, Gwen L; Coleman, Laura A; Zimmerman, Thea P; Sundaram, Maria E; Clancy, Heather A; Groesbeck, Michelle; Douglass, Deirdre; George, Stephanie M; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Subar, Amy F

    2015-06-15

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls provide high-quality intake data but have been prohibitively expensive for large epidemiologic studies. This study's goal was to assess whether the web-based Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24) performs similarly enough to the standard interviewer-administered, Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) 24-hour dietary recall to be considered a viable alternative. In 2010-2011, 1,081 adults from 3 integrated health systems in Detroit, Michigan; Marshfield, Wisconsin; and Kaiser-Permanente Northern California participated in a field trial. A quota design ensured a diverse sample by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Each participant was asked to complete 2 recalls and was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 protocols differing by type of recall and administration order. For energy, the mean intakes were 2,425 versus 2,374 kcal for men and 1,876 versus 1,906 kcal for women by AMPM and ASA24, respectively. Of 20 nutrients/food groups analyzed and controlling for false discovery rate, 87% were judged equivalent at the 20% bound. ASA24 was preferred over AMPM by 70% of the respondents. Attrition was lower in the ASA24/AMPM study group than in the AMPM/ASA24 group, and it was lower in the ASA24/ASA24 group than in the AMPM/AMPM group. ASA24 offers the potential to collect high-quality dietary intake information at low cost with less attrition. PMID:25964261

  17. Modeling of 24-hour glucose and insulin profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with biphasic insulin aspart.

    PubMed

    Røge, Rikke M; Klim, Søren; Kristensen, Niels R; Ingwersen, Steen H; Kjellsson, Maria C

    2014-07-01

    Insulin therapy for diabetes patients is designed to mimic the endogenous insulin response of healthy subjects and thereby generate normal blood glucose levels. In order to control the blood glucose in insulin-treated diabetes patients, it is important to be able to predict the effect of exogenous insulin on blood glucose. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model for glucose homoeostasis describing the effect of exogenous insulin would facilitate such prediction. Thus the aim of this work was to extend the previously developed integrated glucose-insulin (IGI) model to predict 24-hour glucose profiles for patients with Type 2 diabetes following exogenous insulin administration. Clinical data from two trials were included in the analysis. In both trials, 24-hour meal tolerance tests were used as the experimental setup, where exogenous insulin (biphasic insulin aspart) was administered in relation to meals. The IGI model was successfully extended to include the effect of exogenous insulin. Circadian variations in glucose homeostasis were assessed on relevant parameters, and a significant improvement was achieved by including a circadian rhythm on the endogenous glucose production in the model. The extended model is a useful tool for clinical trial simulation and for elucidating the effect profile of new insulin products. PMID:24446385

  18. The impact of kidney transplantation on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Min; Ahn, Seung Won; Bae, Myoung Nam; Choi, Bum Soon; Park, Cheol Whee; Kim, Yong-Soo; Yang, Chul Woo; Chung, Byung Ha

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we prospectively investigated the impact of kidney transplantation (KT) on the status of hypertension, including circadian rhythm in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and office BP measurement in 48 patients before and 1 year after KT. According to the nocturnal reduction in systolic BP (ΔSBP), the patients were divided into dippers, non-dippers, and reverse dippers. After KT, the mean BP value in office BP and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring did not change, but the proportion of patients taking anti-hypertensive drugs and the pill number significantly decreased. In contrast, the mean ΔSBP significantly decreased, and the proportion of non-dippers and reverse dippers did not decrease. Decrease in ΔSBP after KT was associated with inferior allograft function during follow-up. Our study suggests that KT improved the overall BP level, but it did not affect abnormal circadian rhythm in ESRD patients. PMID:26051924

  19. QTc interval prolongation in HIV-infected patients: a case–control study by 24-hour Holter ECG recording

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aim of the study was to assess QTc interval by a 24-hour ECG recording in a group of HIV-infected individuals with a basal prolonged QTc. The risk factors associated with QTc prolongation and the indices of cardiovascular autonomic control were also evaluated. Methods A case–control study was performed using as cases 32 HIV-infected patients with prolonged (>440 msec) QTc interval as assessed by Holter ECG, and as controls 64 HIV-infected subjects with normal QTc interval. Autonomic function was evaluated by heart rate variability analysis during 24-hour recording. Results Duration of HIV disease was significantly longer among cases than among controls (p=0.04). Waist/hip ratio was also higher among cases than among controls (p=0.05). Frequency domain analysis showed the absence of physiologic decrease of low frequency (LF) in the night period in both cases and controls. The LF night in cases showed a statistically significant reduction when compared with controls (p=0.007). Conclusions In our study group, QTc interval prolongation was associated with a longer duration of HIV infection and with a greater waist/hip ratio. HIV patients with QTc interval prolongation and with a longer duration of HIV infection were more likely to have an impairment of parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac component. PMID:23259665

  20. Enhanced carotid-cardiac baroreflex response and elimination of orthostatic hypotension 24 hours after acute exercise in paraplegics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelke, K. A.; Shea, J. D.; Doerr, D. F.; Convertino, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that an acute bout of maximal exercise can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension consequent to prolonged wheelchair confinement, we evaluated heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure responses during 15 minutes of 70 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) in 10 paraplegic subjects 24 hours after arm crank exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, and during a control (no exercise) conditions. Additionally, the carotid baroreceptor stimulus-cardiac response relationship was determined by measurement of R-R interval during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses. One week separated the treatment conditions. The maximum slope of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response was increased (p = 0.049) by exercise (6.2 +/- 1.7 msec/mmHg) compared to control (3.3 +/- 0.6). During control HUT, HR increased from 61 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 7 bpm (p = 0.001) while SBP decreased from 118 +/- 5 to 106 +/- 9 mmHg (p = 0.025). During HUT 24 hours after exercise, HR increased from 60 +/- 2 to 90 +/- 4 bpm (p = 0.001), but the reduction in SBP was essentially eliminated (116 +/- 5 to 113 +/- 5 mmHg).

  1. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... body stores more than 99 percent of its calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and keep them ... in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with soft bones that you eat, such as canned sardines and ...

  2. 24-hour care programs.

    PubMed

    Hergenrader, R

    1996-06-01

    Twenty-four-hour care programs, which combine group health programs with workers' compensation and disability benefits, hold considerable potential for cost savings and greater efficiency. This article explains these programs and uses a care history to show the savings they can achieve. PMID:10157798

  3. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a day, such as: Creatinine Sodium Potassium Nitrogen Protein This test may also be done if ... disease Potassium urine test Sodium urine test Urea nitrogen urine test Urination - excessive amount Urine output - decreased ...

  4. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... a blockage of blood vessels, or other causes Multiple myeloma Healthy people may have higher than normal urine ... Distal Hemolytic anemia Macroglobulinemia of Waldenstrom Microalbuminuria test Multiple myeloma Nephrotic syndrome Proximal Wilson disease Update Date 11/ ...

  5. A 24-hour Approach to the Study of Health Behaviors: Temporal Relationships between Waking Health Behaviors and Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Leah A.; Kline, Christopher E.; Rothenberger, Scott D.; Krafty, Robert T.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Zheng, Huiyong; Hall, Martica H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although sleep is often associated with waking health behaviors (WHB) such as alcohol consumption, caffeine use, smoking, and exercise, the causal direction of these relationships is unclear. Purpose The present study used time-series data to examine the temporal dynamics of WHB and sleep characteristics in participants of the SWAN Sleep Study. Methods 303 women completed daily assessments of WHB and wore wrist actigraphs to measure sleep characteristics for the duration of the study (Mean=29.42 days, SD=6.71). Results Vector autoregressive modeling revealed that weekly patterns of sleep and WHB best predicted subsequent sleep and WHB, suggesting that the associations between WHB and sleep persist beyond their immediate influence. Some WHB predicted some subsequent sleep characteristics, but sleep did not predict subsequent WHB. Conclusions These novel findings provide insight into the temporal dynamics of 24-hour behaviors and encourage consideration of both sleep and WHB in health promotion and behavior change efforts. PMID:24043549

  6. Ultra-Rapid dUT1 Measurements on Japan-Fennoscandian Baselines - Application to 24-hour Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuzaka, Shigeru; Kurihara, Shinobu; Sekido, Mamoru; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rudiger; Ritakari, Jouko; Wagner, Jan

    2010-01-01

    GSI, NICT, OSO, and MRO have been engaged in Ultra-rapid dUT1 experiments since 2007 aiming at the technological possibility of real-time dUT1 results using the e-VLBI technique. We have already successfully determined dUT1 in less than four minutes after the end of an experimental Intensive session in 2008, and at present we routinely get the results within 30 minutes for regular Intensives. In 2009 we applied the technique to 24-hour sessions and continuously obtained dUT1 values by processing and analyzing Tsukuba Onsala data in near real-time. It showed a detailed behavior of UT1 variations, which could be very valuable for scientific study as well as for precise prediction of UT1-UTC.

  7. Tolvaptan Prolongs Blockage of the Vasopressin Type II Receptor Over 24 Hours in Responders With Stage D Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Komuro, Issei

    2016-01-01

    The urine aquaporin-2 (U-AQP2) level relative to the plasma arginine vasopressin (P-AVP) level is a novel predictor of the responsiveness to the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) antagonist tolvaptan (TLV). However, little has been reported about the concentration-time profile of U-AQP2 after TLV treatment. We evaluated 24 patients with decompensated stage D heart failure (HF) who had received 3.75 mg/day of TLV on a de novo basis for > 7 days to treat congestion refractory to conventional diuretics. Seventeen patients were TLV-responders, whose 24-hour urine volume (UV) increased after TLV initiation; the other 7 patients were TLV-non-responders. The U-AQP2 of the TLV-responders, corrected for the urine creatinine concentration, decreased significantly at 4 hours after TLV administration without returning to the day-1 morning level on the morning of day-7. The TLV-non-responder U-AQP2 levels remained low even before the TLV treatment. On the morning of day-7, the TLV-responder U-AQP2/P-AVP ratio was comparable to that of the TLV-non-responders. Among 18 patients (11 responders and 7 non-responders), the day-7 TLV trough concentration was 64 ± 62 ng/mL and was negatively correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). TLV has antagonistic effects on the V2R over 24 hours in TLV-responders with advanced heart failure and chronic kidney disease, probably due to persistently elevated blood TLV concentration. The unresponsiveness to TLV in the TLV-non-responders is not attributable to malabsorption. PMID:26742881

  8. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... milligrams) of calcium each day. Get it from: Dairy products. Low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, and cottage ... lactase that helps digest the sugar (lactose) in dairy products, and may have gas, bloating, cramps, or ...

  9. Prognostic Value of the 24-Hour Neurological Examination in Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke: A post hoc Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled Stroke Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Frankel, Michael; Jovin, Tudor G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early prognostication of long-term outcomes following ischemic stroke can facilitate medical decision-making. We hypothesized that the 24-hour National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) predicts 3-month clinical outcomes in anterior circulation stroke. Methods Secondary analyses of the Interventional Management of Stroke 3 (IMS3) and intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) for acute ischemic stroke [National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) IV tPA] trials were performed. In participants with documented 24-hour NIHSS and 3-month Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), the predictive power of the 24-hour NIHSS and 24-hour NIHSS improvement for 3-month outcomes [mRS 0-2 and Barthel Index (BI) ≥95] was assessed. Percentages of good outcome (mRS 0-2 or BI ≥95) at 3, 6, and 12 months and mean quality of life (EQ5D™) index at 3 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were compared. Results The majority of the study participants were included (IMS3 n = 587/656, NINDS IV tPA n = 619/624). The 24-hour NIHSS was correlated with 3-month mRS (R = 0.73) with excellent predictive power for mRS 0-2 [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.91] and BI ≥95 (AUC = 0.9) in both cohorts. A model with the 24-hour NIHSS alone correctly classified 82-84% of patients in both cohorts. The percentages of good outcomes at 3-12 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were similar in both cohorts. mRS 0-2 was achieved by 75.6-77.7% of patients with 24-hour NIHSS ≤11 but by only 1.4-3.6% with 24-hour NIHSS ≥20. The EQ5D index at 3 months varied among NIHSS 0-4 (mean 0.86 ± 0.16), 5-11 (0.77 ± 0.18), and 12-19 (0.59 ± 0.26) quartiles. Conclusions The 24-hour NIHSS strongly predicts long-term stroke outcomes and is associated with quality of life. Its easy availability, reliability, and validity support its use as an early prognostic marker and surrogate of clinical outcome in ischemic stroke. PMID:27051408

  10. The prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers, 24-hour ultra-runners and multi-stage ultra-mountain bikers in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in two 24-hour mountain bike (MTB) (R1,R2), one 24-hour running (R3) and one multi-stage MTB (R4) races held in the Czech Republic in a cluster of four cross-sectional studies. Methods In 27 ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers), 12 ultra-runners, and 14 multi-stage MTBers, fluid intake, changes (Δ) in body mass, hematocrit, plasma volume, plasma [Na+], plasma [K+], plasma osmolality, urine [Na+], urine [K+], urine specific gravity, urine osmolality, K+/Na+ ratio in urine, transtubular potassium gradient and glomerular filtration rate were measured and calculated. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and symptoms of EAH were recorded using post-race questionnaires. Results Of the 53 finishers, three (5.7%) developed post-race EAH, thereof one (3.7%) ultra-MTBer, one (8.3%) ultra-runner and one (7.1%) multi-stage MTBer. Plasma [Na+] decreased significantly (p < 0.001) only in R4. Urine osmolality (R1, R3, R4 p < 0.001; R2 p < 0.05) and glomerular filtration rate (p < 0.001) increased, and body mass decreased in all races (p < 0.05). Δ body mass was inversely related to the number of kilometers achieved (p < 0.001) in R2 where better ultra-MTBers tended to lose more weight. Δ body mass (p < 0.001) and %Δ body mass (p = 0.05) were positively related to lower post-race plasma [Na+] in R3 that was associated with increased loss in body mass. Fluid intake was positively related to race performance in R1 and R2 (R1: p = 0.04; R2: p = 0.01) where ultra-MTBers in R1 and R2 who drank more finished ahead of those who drank less. Post-race plasma [Na+] was negatively associated with race performance in ultra-MTBers in R2 (p < 0.05), similarly ultra-runners in R3 (p < 0.05) where finishers with more kilometres had lower post-race plasma [Na+]. Conclusions The prevalence of EAH in the Czech Republic was no higher compared to existing reports on ultra-endurance athletes in other countries

  11. The paradoxical role of urinary macromolecules in the aggregation of calcium oxalate: a further plea to increase diuresis in stone metaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Baumann, J M; Affolter, B

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to get information on aggregation (AGN) of urinary calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx) which seems to occur in stone formation despite a protecting coat of urinary macromolecules (UMs). CaOx crystallization was directly produced in urine, control and albumin solution by Ox titration and was spectrophotometrically followed. A rapid decrease of optical density indicating AGN was absent in 14 of 15 freshly voided urines of 5 healthy controls. However, in the presence of UM-coated hydroxyapatite all urines with relative high sodium concentration, being an indicator of concentrated urine, showed a pronounced AGN which was abolished when these urines were diluted. Albumin relatively found to be an inhibitor of AGN showed after temporary adsorption on Ca Phosphate (CaP) massive self-AGN and changed to a promoter of CaOx AGN. Self-AGN after adsorption on surfaces especially of CaP, being an important compound of Randall's plaques, can thus explain this paradoxical behavior of UMs. Aggregated UMs probably bridge zones of electrostatic repulsion between UM-coated crystals with identical electrical surface charge. These zones extend by urine dilution which decreases ionic strength. Diminution of urinary concentration by increasing diuresis seems, therefore, to be important in stone metaphylaxis. PMID:26920852

  12. Mean 24-hours sympathetic nervous system activity decreases during head-down tilted bed rest but not during microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Nj; Heer, M.; Ivanova, K.; Norsk, P.

    Sympathetic nervous system activity is closely related to gravitational stress in ground based experiments. Thus a high activity is present in the standing-up position and a very low activity is observed during acute head-out water immersion. Adjustments in sympathetic activity are necessary to maintain a constant blood pressure during variations in venous return. Head-down tilted bed rest is applied as a model to simulate changes observed during microgravity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that mean 24-hours sympathetic activity was low and similar during space flight and in ground based observation obtained during long-term head-down tilted bed rest. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline was measured by a radioenzymatic technique as an index of muscle sympathetic activity and thrombocyte noradrenaline and adrenaline were measured as indices of mean 24-hours sympathoadrenal activity. Previous results have indicated that thrombocyte noradrenaline level has a half-time of 2 days. Thus to reflect sympathetic activity during a specific experiment the study period must last for at least 6 days and a sample must be obtained within 12 hours after the experiment has ended. Ten normal healthy subjects were studied before and during a 14 days head-down tilted bed rest as well as during an ambulatory study period of a similar length. The whole experiment was repeated while the subjects were on a low calorie diet. Thrombocyte noradrenaline levels were studied in 4 cosmonauts before and within 12 hours after landing after more than 7 days in flight. Thrombocyte noradrenaline decreased markedly during the head-down tilted bed rest (p<0.001), whereas there were no significant changes in the ambulatory study. Plasma noradrenaline decreased in the adaptation period but not during the intervention. During microgravity thrombocyte noradrenaline increased in four cosmonauts and the percentage changes were significantly different in cosmonauts and in subjects

  13. Potassium Bicarbonate Supplementation Lowers Bone Turnover and Calcium Excretion in Older Men and Women: A Randomized Dose-Finding Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Harris, Susan S; Palermo, Nancy J; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Shea, M Kyla; Fielding, Roger A; Ceglia, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The acid load accompanying modern diets may have adverse effects on bone and muscle metabolism. Treatment with alkaline salts of potassium can neutralize the acid load, but the optimal amount of alkali is not established. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of two doses of potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) compared with placebo on biochemical markers of bone turnover, and calcium and nitrogen (N) excretion. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 244 men and women age 50 years and older were randomized to placebo or 1 mmol/kg or 1.5 mmol/kg of KHCO3 daily for 3 months; 233 completed the study. The primary outcomes were changes in 24-hour urinary N-telopeptide (NTX) and N; changes in these measures were compared across the treatment groups. Exploratory outcomes included 24-hour urinary calcium excretion, serum amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP), and muscle strength and function assessments. The median administered doses in the low-dose and high-dose groups were 81 mmol/day and 122 mmol/day, respectively. When compared with placebo, urinary NTX declined significantly in the low-dose group (p =0.012, after adjustment for baseline NTX, gender, and change in urine creatinine) and serum P1NP declined significantly in the low-dose group (p =0.004, adjusted for baseline P1NP and gender). Urinary calcium declined significantly in both KHCO3 groups versus placebo (p < 0.001, adjusted for baseline urinary calcium, gender, and changes in urine creatinine and calcium intake). There was no significant effect of either dose of KHCO3 on urinary N excretion or on the physical strength and function measures. KHCO3 has favorable effects on bone turnover and calcium excretion and the lower dose appears to be the more effective dose. Long-term trials to assess the effect of alkali on bone mass and fracture risk are needed. PMID:25990255

  14. Dietary quality varies according to data collection instrument: a comparison between a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; de Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes; De Cnop, Mara Lima; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Coura, Camila Pinheiro; Brito, Alessandra Page; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the agreement between the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R), estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and multiple 24-hour recalls (24h-R). The Wilcoxon paired test, partial correlations (PC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman method were used. The total BHEI-R scores and its components ("total fruits", "whole fruits", "total vegetables", "integral cereals", "saturated fat", "sodium", and "energy intake derived from solid fat, added sugar, and alcoholic beverages") were statistically different, with the ICC and PC indicating poor concordance and correlation. The mean concordance estimated for the total BHEI-R and its components varied from 68% for "integral cereals" to 147% for "whole fruits". The suitable concordance limits were violated for most of the components of the BHEI-R. Poor concordance was observed between the BHEI-R estimated by the FFQ and by multiple 24h-R, which indicated a strong reliability of the BHEI-R on the instrument used to collect information on food consumption. PMID:26910251

  15. Relative prognostic value of rest thallium-201 imaging, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; Nestico, P.F.; Heo, J.; Unwala, A.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-07-01

    Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.

  16. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support. PMID:27398166

  17. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support. PMID:27398166

  18. An Analysis of 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Data using Orthonormal Polynomials in the Linear Mixed Model

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Lloyd J.; Simpson, Sean L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in clinical practice and observational epidemiological studies has grown considerably in the past 25 years. ABPM is a very effective technique for assessing biological, environmental, and drug effects on blood pressure. Objectives In order to enhance the effectiveness of ABPM for clinical and observational research studies via analytical and graphical results, developing alternative data analysis approaches using modern statistical techniques are important. Methods The linear mixed model for the analysis of longitudinal data is particularly well-suited for the estimation of, inference about, and interpretation of both population (mean) and subject-specific trajectories for ABPM data. We propose using a linear mixed model with orthonormal polynomials across time in both the fixed and random effects to analyze ABPM data. Results We demonstrate the proposed analysis technique using data from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study, a multicenter, randomized, parallel arm feeding study that tested the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. Conclusions The linear mixed model is relatively easy to implement (given the complexity of the technique) using available software, allows for straight-forward testing of multiple hypotheses, and the results can be presented to research clinicians using both graphical and tabular displays. Using orthonormal polynomials provides the ability to model the nonlinear trajectories of each subject with the same complexity as the mean model (fixed effects). PMID:24667908

  19. Therapeutic effect of Xue Niao An on glyoxylate-induced calcium oxalate crystal deposition based on urinary metabonomics approach

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhongjiang; Chen, Wei; Gao, Songyan; Su, Li; Li, Na; Wang, Li; Lou, Ziyang; Dong, Xin; Guo, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The anti-nephrolithiasis effect of Xue Niao An (XNA) capsules is explored by analyzing urine metabolic profiles in mouse models, with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). An animal model of calcium oxalate crystal renal deposition was established in mice by intra-abdominal injection of glyoxylate. Then, treatment with XNA by intra-gastric administration was performed. At the end of the study, calcium deposition in kidney was measured by Von Kossa staining under light microscopy, and the Von Kossa staining changes showed that XNA significantly alleviated the calcium oxalate crystal deposition. Meanwhile, urine samples for fifteen metabolites, including amino acids and fatty acids, with significant differences were detected in the calcium oxalate group, while XNA treatment attenuated metabolic imbalances. Our study indicated that the metabonomic strategy provided comprehensive insight on the metabolic response to XNA treatment of rodent renal calcium oxalate deposition. PMID:25411524

  20. Tamm-Horsfall protein in recurrent calcium kidney stone formers with positive family history: abnormalities in urinary excretion, molecular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Markus; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Zipperle, Ljerka; Hess, Bernhard

    2007-04-01

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) powerfully inhibits calcium oxalate crystal aggregation, but structurally abnormal THPs from recurrent calcium stone formers may promote crystal aggregation. Therefore, increased urinary excretion of abnormal THP might be of relevance in nephrolithiasis. We studied 44 recurrent idiopathic calcium stone formers with a positive family history of stone disease (RCSF(fam)) and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (C). Twenty-four-hour urinary THP excretion was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Structural properties of individually purified THPs were obtained from analysis of elution patterns from a Sepharose 4B column. Sialic acid (SA) contents of native whole 24-h urines, crude salt precipitates of native urines and individually purified THPs were measured. THP function was studied by measuring inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation in vitro (pH 5.7, 200 mM sodium chloride). Twenty-four-hour urine excretion of THP was higher in RCSF(fam) (44.0 +/- 4.0 mg/day) than in C (30.9 +/- 2.2 mg/day, P = 0.015). Upon salt precipitation and lyophilization, elution from a Sepharose 4B column revealed one major peak (peak A, cross-reacting with polyclonal anti-THP antibody) and a second minor peak (peak B, not cross-reacting). THPs from RCSF(fam) eluted later than those from C (P = 0.021), and maximum width of THP peaks was higher in RCSF(fam )than in C (P = 0.024). SA content was higher in specimens from RCSF(fam) than from C, in native 24-h urines (207.5 +/- 20.4 mg vs. 135.2 +/- 16.1 mg, P = 0.013) as well as in crude salt precipitates of 24-h urines (10.4 +/- 0.5 mg vs. 7.4 +/- 0.9 mg, P = 0.002) and in purified THPs (75.3 +/- 9.3 microg/mg vs. 48.8 +/- 9.8 microg/mg THP, P = 0.043). Finally, inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal aggregation by 40 mg/L of THP was lower in RCSF(fam) (6.1 +/- 5.5%, range -62.0 to +84.2%) than in C (24.9 +/- 6.0%, range -39.8 to +82.7%), P = 0.022, and only 25 out of 44 (57%) THPs from RCSF

  1. Under-reporting of Energy Intake from 24-hour Dietary Recalls in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kye, Seunghee; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Lee, Soon-Young; Lee, Jiyoon; Kim, Bok Hee; Suh, Hee-Jae; Moon, Hyun-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Chronic degenerative diseases are closely related to daily eating habits, nutritional status, and, in particular, energy intake. In clarifying these relationships it is very important for dietary surveys to report accurate information about energy intake. This study attempted to identify the prevalence of the under-reporting of energy intake and its related characteristics based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in the years 2007–2009. Methods The present study analyzed dietary intake data from 15,133 adults aged ≥19 years using 24-hour dietary recalls. Basal metabolic rates were calculated from the age- and gender-specific equations of Schofield and under-reporting was defined as an energy intake <0.9, represented by the ratio of energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate. Results Under-reporters (URs) accounted for 14.4% of men and 23.0% of women and the under-reporting rate was higher in the age group 30–49 years for both men and women. The results from an analysis of the age-specific socioeconomic characteristics of participants classified as URs showed that under-reporting was high in women living alone and in women with only elementary school education or no education. The results from an analysis of the health-specific characteristics of URs showed that a large proportion of URs had poor self-rated health or were obese, or both, compared with non-URs. The proportion of participants who consumed less than the estimated average requirements for nutrients was significantly higher in URs compared with non-URs. Conclusion The under-reporting of energy intake was associated with age, gender, education level, income level, household status (single-person or multi-person), self-rated health, physical activity, and obesity. PMID:24955317

  2. Variants in the LEPR gene are nominally associated with higher BMI and lower 24 hour energy expenditure in Pima Indians

    PubMed Central

    Traurig, Michael; Perez, Jessica; Ma, Lijun; Bian, Li; Kobes, Sayuko; Hanson, Robert L.; Knowler, William C.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Bogardus, Clifton; Baier, Leslie J.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been used to search for susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes and obesity in the Pima Indians, a population with high a prevalence of both diseases. In these studies, a variant (rs2025804) in the LEPR gene was nominally associated with BMI in 1082 subjects (P=0.03 adjusted for age, sex, birth year, and family membership). Therefore the LEPR and leptin overlapping transcript (LEPROT) genes were selected for further sequencing and genotyping in larger population-based samples for association analyses with obesity-related phenotypes. Selected variants (n=80) spanning these genes were genotyped in a sample of full-heritage Pima Indians (n=2842) and several common variants including rs2025804 were nominally associated with BMI (P=0.05-0.003 adjusted for age, sex, birth year, and family membership). Four common tag variants associated with BMI in the full-heritage Pima Indian sample were genotyped in a second sample of mixed-heritage Native Americans (n=2969) and 3 of the variants showed nominal replication (P=0.03-0.006 adjusted as above and additionally for Indian heritage). Combining both samples provided the strongest evidence for association (adjusted P=0.0003-0.0001). A subset of these individuals (n=403) had been metabolically characterized for predictors of obesity and the BMI risk alleles for the variants tagged by rs2025804 were also associated with lower 24 hour energy expenditure as assessed in a human respiratory chamber (P=0.0007 adjusted for age, sex, fat mass, fat free mass, activity, and family membership). We conclude that common non-coding variation in the LEPR gene is associated with higher BMI and lower energy expenditure in Native Americans. PMID:22810975

  3. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of bisphenol A: Evidence against sublingual absorption following ingestion in soup.

    PubMed

    Teeguarden, Justin G; Twaddle, Nathan C; Churchwell, Mona I; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Seryak, Liesel M; Doerge, Daniel R

    2015-10-15

    Extensive first-pass metabolism of ingested bisphenol A (BPA) in the gastro-intestinal tract and liver restricts blood concentrations of bioactive BPA to <1% of total BPA in humans and non-human primates. Absorption of ingested BPA through non-metabolizing tissues of the oral cavity, recently demonstrated in dogs, could lead to the higher serum BPA concentrations reported in some human biomonitoring studies. We hypothesized that the extensive interaction with the oral mucosa by a liquid matrix, like soup, relative to solid food or capsules, might enhance absorption through non-metabolizing oral cavity tissues in humans, producing higher bioavailability and higher serum BPA concentrations. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24hour period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. Absorption of d6-BPA was rapid (t1/2=0.45h) and elimination of the administered dose was complete 24h post-ingestion, evidence against any tissue depot for BPA. The maximum serum d6-BPA concentration was 0.43nM at 1.6h after administration and represented <0.3% of total d6-BPA. Pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacokinetic model simulations, and the significantly faster appearance half-life of d6-BPA-glucuronide compared to d6-BPA (0.29h vs 0.45h) were evidence against meaningful absorption of BPA in humans through any non-metabolizing tissue (<1%). This study confirms that typical exposure to BPA in food produces picomolar to subpicomolar serum BPA concentrations in humans, not nM concentrations reported in some biomonitoring studies. PMID:25620055

  4. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Carson, Valerie; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dinh, Thy; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Gray, Casey E; Gruber, Reut; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; LeBlanc, Claire; Okely, Anthony D; Olds, Timothy; Pate, Russell R; Phillips, Andrea; Poitras, Veronica J; Rodenburg, Sophie; Sampson, Margaret; Saunders, Travis J; Stone, James A; Stratton, Gareth; Weiss, Shelly K; Zehr, Lori

    2016-06-01

    Leaders from the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, content experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children and youth aged 5-17 years respect the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period). The development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and systematic reviews of evidence informing the guidelines were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Four systematic reviews (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, integrated behaviours) examining the relationships between and among movement behaviours and several health indicators were completed and interpreted by expert consensus. Complementary compositional analyses were performed using Canadian Health Measures Survey data to examine the relationships between movement behaviours and health indicators. A stakeholder survey was employed (n = 590) and 28 focus groups/stakeholder interviews (n = 104) were completed to gather feedback on draft guidelines. Following an introductory preamble, the guidelines provide evidence-informed recommendations for a healthy day (24 h), comprising a combination of sleep, sedentary behaviours, light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Proactive dissemination, promotion, implementation, and evaluation plans have been prepared in an effort to optimize uptake and activation of the new guidelines. Future research should consider the integrated relationships among movement behaviours, and similar integrated guidelines for other age groups should be developed. PMID:27306437

  5. The association of resting state heart rate variability and 24-hour blood pressure variability in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Julian F; Sollers, John J; Clamor, Annika; Koenig, Julian; Hagglund, Kristofer J

    2016-02-15

    Patients with high cervical complete spinal cord injuries (tetraplegia) sustain damage to the autonomic neural pathways that influence cardiovascular functioning and produce variability in the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). In non-injured individuals, an inverse relationship exists between resting autonomic control of the heart (as evidenced by HR variability (HRV)) and BP variability (BPV). This study examined the relationship between HRV, BP and BPV in individuals with tetraplegic (n=10) and paraplegic (n=10) spinal cord injuries, and a group of healthy controls (n=14). Resting HRV at baseline and 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements were collected from electrocardiogram measures of each participant. HRV was quantified using time- and frequency-domain measures. The standard deviation of the BP measurements was used as an index of BPV. Multivariate analyses of variance were performed to examine group differences for laboratory-based and 24-h dependent variables. The MANOVAs for HRV parameters (λ(14,50)=.352, p=.010, η(2)=.407) and for BP indices and HR (λ(16,48)=.318, p=.013, η(2)=.436) were significant. Furthermore, in line with existing evidence, we found that vagally mediated HRV was inversely related to BPV in healthy controls. However, this relationship did not hold for the tetraplegia group (ρ<|.42|), and mixed results were found for the paraplegia group (e.g., ρ<|.29| for time domain HRV, ρ>|.65| for low-frequency power). These results support the conclusion that the damage to the spinal sympathetic pathways to the heart found in people with tetraplegia causes a significant disruption in baroreflex control of BP. PMID:26810517

  6. Urinary excretion of magnesium and calcium as an index of absorption is not affected by lactose intake in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Brink, E J; van Beresteijn, E C; Dekker, P R; Beynen, A C

    1993-05-01

    The effect of lactose on the urinary excretion of Mg and Ca, as an index of absorption, was studied in a double-blind, crossover study during three 1-week periods. Twenty-four healthy, lactose-tolerant, adult volunteers maintained their habitual diets with the exception that all lactose-containing dairy products in the diet were replaced by 600 g/d of three specially prepared dairy products. These products were based on either lactose-enriched cow's milk or lactose-enriched, lactase (EC 3.2.1.23)-treated cow's milk, with or without added Mg, and were given in turn during 1 week. Lactose intake was increased by 127 mmol/d (46 g/d) while taking the lactose-enriched products. While taking the Mg-enriched products, Mg intake was increased by 2.8 mmol/d (69 mg/d) which was equivalent to 17% of the habitual Mg intake. Apart from the lactose and Mg intake, nutrient intake was comparable during the three dietary periods. Urinary excretions of Mg and Ca were used as indicators for their absorption. Mg supplementation significantly increased urinary Mg excretion by 0.97 mmol/d (equivalent to an increase of 18%, P < 0.001), indicating that urinary Mg excretion is a valid indicator for intestinal Mg absorption. Hydrolysis of lactose did not affect urinary excretion of Mg and Ca, which implies that lactose intake does not affect the absorption of Mg and Ca in healthy adults. PMID:8329360

  7. Jack Healy Remembers - Anecdotal Evidence for the Origin of the Approximate 24-hour Urine Sampling Protocol Used for Worker Bioassay Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2008-10-01

    The origin of the approximate 24-hour urine sampling protocol used at Hanford for routine bioassay is attributed to an informal study done in the mid-1940s. While the actual data were never published and have been lost, anecdotal recollections by staff involved in the initial bioassay program design and administration suggest that the sampling protocol had a solid scientific basis. Numerous alternate methods for normalizing partial day samples to represent a total 24-hour collection have since been proposed and used, but no one method is obviously preferred.

  8. Induction of renal senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) expression by testosterone and its contribution to urinary calcium absorption in male rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Po-Han; Jian, Cai-Yun; Chou, Jou-Chun; Chen, Chien-Wei; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Soong, Christina; Hu, Sindy; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Wang, Paulus S; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of androgen, mainly testosterone, in the expression of renal senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) in male rats. We found that the renal SMP30 expression was up-regulated by endogenous testosterone stimulation during puberty. Interestingly, androgen-deficient orchidectomized (ORX) rats exhibited lower SMP30 mRNA and protein expression in the kidney, and that was restored by testosterone propionate (TP) replacement. Abrogation of androgen receptor (AR) activity by co-treatment with flutamide abolished testosterone-induced SMP30 expression in the kidney as well as in the NRK52E cells. However, SMP30 expression was unaltered in the liver of ORX rats. We also showed a positive correlation between renal SMP30 expression and plasma testosterone level during the aging process. TP-induced SMP30 expression in ovariectomized (OVX) rats was observed and was an evidence to explain the gender difference of SMP30 levels. Immunofluorescence assay showed that renal SMP30 was specifically expressed in the proximal tubular segments of the kidney. The urinary Ca(2+) level was increased in both ORX and male aging rats. Taken together, our results indicate a novel role of testosterone in regulating SMP30 expression specifically in the kidney to contribute to urinary calcium absorption. PMID:27553527

  9. Induction of renal senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) expression by testosterone and its contribution to urinary calcium absorption in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Po-Han; Jian, Cai-Yun; Chou, Jou-Chun; Chen, Chien-Wei; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Soong, Christina; Hu, Sindy; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Wang, Paulus S.; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of androgen, mainly testosterone, in the expression of renal senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) in male rats. We found that the renal SMP30 expression was up-regulated by endogenous testosterone stimulation during puberty. Interestingly, androgen-deficient orchidectomized (ORX) rats exhibited lower SMP30 mRNA and protein expression in the kidney, and that was restored by testosterone propionate (TP) replacement. Abrogation of androgen receptor (AR) activity by co-treatment with flutamide abolished testosterone-induced SMP30 expression in the kidney as well as in the NRK52E cells. However, SMP30 expression was unaltered in the liver of ORX rats. We also showed a positive correlation between renal SMP30 expression and plasma testosterone level during the aging process. TP-induced SMP30 expression in ovariectomized (OVX) rats was observed and was an evidence to explain the gender difference of SMP30 levels. Immunofluorescence assay showed that renal SMP30 was specifically expressed in the proximal tubular segments of the kidney. The urinary Ca2+ level was increased in both ORX and male aging rats. Taken together, our results indicate a novel role of testosterone in regulating SMP30 expression specifically in the kidney to contribute to urinary calcium absorption. PMID:27553527

  10. Perfusion-CT - Can We Predict Acute Pancreatitis Outcome within the First 24 Hours from the Onset of Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Pieńkowska, Joanna; Gwoździewicz, Katarzyna; Skrobisz-Balandowska, Katarzyna; Marek, Iwona; Kostro, Justyna; Szurowska, Edyta; Studniarek, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is still a significant clinical problem which is associated with a highly mortality. The aim of this study was the evaluation of prognostic value of CT regional perfusion measurement performed on the first day of onset of symptoms of AP, in assessing the risk of developing severe form of acute pancreatitis. Material and Methods 79 patients with clinical symptoms and biochemical criteria indicative of acute pancreatitis (acute upper abdominal pain, elevated levels of serum amylase and lipase) underwent perfusion CT within 24 hours after onset of symptoms. The follow-up examinations were performed after 4–6 days to detect progression of the disease. Perfusion parameters were compared in 41 people who developed severe form of AP (pancreatic and/or peripancreatic tissue necrosis) with parameters in 38 consecutive patients in whom course of AP was mild. Blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time and permeability surface area product were calculated in the three anatomic pancreatic subdivisions (head, body and tail). At the same time the patient's clinical status was assessed by APACHE II score and laboratory parameters such as CRP, serum lipase and amylase, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP and bilirubin were compared. Results Statistical differences in the perfusion parameters between the group of patients with mild and severe AP were shown. Blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time were significantly lower and permeability surface area product was significantly higher in patients who develop severe acute pancreatitis and presence of pancreatic and/or peripancreatic necrosis due to pancreatic ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of evaluated on admission severity of pancreatitis assessed using APACHE II score and laboratory tests. Conclusions CT perfusion is a very useful indicator for prediction and selection patients in early stages of acute pancreatitis who are at risk of

  11. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Urinary Incontinence What Is Urinary Incontinence? Urinary incontinence means a person leaks urine by ... about what you can do. Types of Urinary Incontinence There are different types of urinary incontinence. Stress ...

  12. Characterization of pulmonary protein profiles in response to zinc oxide nanoparticles in mice: a 24-hour and 28-day follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Jen-Kun; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Lai, Ching-Huang; Jones, Tim P; BéruBé, Kelly A; Hong, Gui-Bing; Ho, Kin-Fai; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are recognized to cause systemic disorders, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the time-dependent differences that occur after exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanistic differences at 24 hours and 28 days after the exposure of BALB/c mice to ZnONPs via intratracheal instillation. An isobaric tag for the relative and absolute quantitation coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the differential protein expression, biological processes, molecular functions, and pathways. A total of 18 and 14 proteins displayed significant changes in the lung tissues at 24 hours and 28 days after exposure, respectively, with the most striking changes being observed for S100-A9 protein. Metabolic processes and catalytic activity were the main biological processes and molecular functions, respectively, in the responses at the 24-hour and 28-day follow-up times. The glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway was continuously downregulated from 24 hours to 28 days, whereas detoxification pathways were activated at the 28-day time-point after exposure. A comprehensive understanding of the potential time-dependent effects of exposure to ZnONPs was provided, which highlights the metabolic mechanisms that may be important in the responses to ZnONP. PMID:26251593

  13. VALIDATION OF THREE FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRES AND 24-HOUR RECALLS WITH SERUM CAROTENOID LEVELS IN A SAMPLE OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN ADULTS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The validity of self-reported fruit and vegetable intake in minority populations has not been adequately established. In this study, the authors examined the association of three food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour dietary recalls with serum carotenoid levels. Approximately 1,000 Africa...

  14. Validation of the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall for children (ASA24-Kids) among 9- to 11-year-old youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty-nine children in two sites participated in the study. In one site, trained staff observed and recorded types and portions of foods and drinks consumed by ...

  15. Identifying nutrients that are under-reported by an automated 24-hour dietary recall method in overweight and obese women after weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underreporting of energy intake by 15-50% is a common problem in dietary assessment. Evidence suggests overweight/obese respondents are more likely to under-report than normal weight. This study compared Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24)-reported dietary intake to true intake in ove...

  16. Normal values of 24-hour ambulatory esophageal impedance-pH monitoring in a rural South African cohort of healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Ndebia, E J; Sammon, A M; Umapathy, E; Iputo, J E

    2016-05-01

    There are no data on 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring in African populations. The purpose of this study was to provide the normal values of esophageal impedance and pH monitoring in a rural African populations. South African healthy rural participants were recruited and underwent 24 hours of esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. The median and the 95th percentiles of the total reflux episodes were 49 and 97, respectively, of which the corresponding number of acidic, weakly acidic, and weakly alkaline reflux were 15 and 55, 17 and 51, and 8 and 36, respectively. The compositions of the total reflux were 5 and 21 for liquid, 27 and 72 for mixed, and 10 and 39 for gas reflux, respectively. The median bolus clearance was 18 seconds and the median bolus exposure was 14 minutes/24 hours. The proximal extent was 6%. The 95th percent time of esophageal exposure to acid was 8.6 in 24 hours. Female and overweight participants were associated with an increased number of reflux events. There were more reflux episodes, and of which, more were weakly alkaline compared with previous similar studies. The findings provide reference values of gastroesophageal reflux for a South African rural population. PMID:25721534

  17. 24-HOUR DIFFUSIVE SAMPLING OF 1,3-BUTADIENE IN AIR ONTO CARBONPAK X SOLID ADSORBENT WITH THEMAL DESORPTION/GC/MS ANALYSIS - FEASIBILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffusive sampling of 1,3-butadiene for 24 hours onto the graphitic adsorbent Carbopack X contained in a stainless steel tube badge (6.3 mm OD, 5 mm ID, and 90 mm in length) with analysis by thermal desorption/GC/MS has been evaluated in controlled tests. A test matrix of 42 tr...

  18. Characterization of pulmonary protein profiles in response to zinc oxide nanoparticles in mice: a 24-hour and 28-day follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Jen-Kun; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Lai, Ching-Huang; Jones, Tim P; BéruBé, Kelly A; Hong, Gui-Bing; Ho, Kin-Fai; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are recognized to cause systemic disorders, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the time-dependent differences that occur after exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanistic differences at 24 hours and 28 days after the exposure of BALB/c mice to ZnONPs via intratracheal instillation. An isobaric tag for the relative and absolute quantitation coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the differential protein expression, biological processes, molecular functions, and pathways. A total of 18 and 14 proteins displayed significant changes in the lung tissues at 24 hours and 28 days after exposure, respectively, with the most striking changes being observed for S100-A9 protein. Metabolic processes and catalytic activity were the main biological processes and molecular functions, respectively, in the responses at the 24-hour and 28-day follow-up times. The glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway was continuously downregulated from 24 hours to 28 days, whereas detoxification pathways were activated at the 28-day time-point after exposure. A comprehensive understanding of the potential time-dependent effects of exposure to ZnONPs was provided, which highlights the metabolic mechanisms that may be important in the responses to ZnONP. PMID:26251593

  19. 49 CFR 375.607 - What must I do if I am able to tender a shipment for final delivery more than 24 hours before a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What must I do if I am able to tender a shipment... INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Transportation of Shipments § 375.607 What must I do if I am able to tender a shipment for final delivery more than 24 hours before a specified date?...

  20. The effect of low level radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in operators during 24-hour shifts.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, K; Israel, M; Mihaylov, S

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long term exposure to low level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in satellite station operators during 24-hour shifts. Twelve male operators at a satellite station for TV communications and space research were studied during 24-hour shifts. Dosimetric evaluation of the exposure was carried out and showed low level exposure with specific absorption of 0.1127 J.kg-1. A control group of 12 unexposed male operators with similar job task and the same shift system were studied, too. The 11-oxycorticosteroids (11-OCS), adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed by spectrofluorimetric methods on 3-hour intervals during the 24-hour shifts. The data were analyzed by tests for interindividual analysis, Cosinor analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant increase in the 24-hour excretion of 11-OCS and disorders in its circadian rhythm, manifested by increase in the mesor, decrease in the amplitude and shift in the acrophase were found in the exposed operators. The changes in the excretion rates of the catecholamines were significant and showed greater variability of both variables. The long term effect of the exposure to low-level RF EM radiation evoked pronounced stress reaction with changes in the circadian rhythm of 11-OCS and increased variability of catecholamines secretion. The possible health hazards associated with observed alteration in the stress system need to be clarified by identification of their significance and prognostic relevance. PMID:12096679

  1. The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24): A resource for researchers, clinicians, and educators from the National Cancer Institute

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) provide high-quality dietary intake data with minimal bias, making them the preferred tool for monitoring the diets of populations and, increasingly, for studying diet and disease associations. Traditional 24HDRs, however, are...

  2. Combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation in vitamin D inadequate patients with urolithiasis: Impact on hypercalciuria and de novo stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Hesswani, Charles; Noureldin, Yasser A.; Elkoushy, Mohamed A.; Andonian, Sero

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the effect of combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation (VDCS) on urinary calcium excretion and de novo stone formation in vitamin D inadequate (VDI) urolithiasis patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of VDI patients (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D <75 nmol/L) followed at a tertiary stone centre between September 2009 and December 2014. VDI patients with history of urolithiasis, who were placed on VDCS for abnormal bone mineral density or hyperoxaluria, were included. Hypercalciuric patients and patients on thiazide diuretics were excluded. Metabolic stone workup and two 24-hour urine collections were performed before and after VDCS. Results: In total, we included 34 patients, with a mean age of 54.8 years and a mean body mass index of 25.7 kg/m2. After VDCS, there was a significant increase in the mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (52.0 vs. 66.4 nmol/L, p < 0.001) and the mean urinary calcium excretion (3.80 vs. 5.64 mmol/d, p < 0.001). Eight (23.5%) patients developed de novo hypercalciuria. After a median follow-up of 39 (range: 7–60) months, 50% of hypercalciuric patients developed stones compared with 11.5% of non-hypercalciuric patients (p = 0.038). Conclusion: This study showed a significant effect of combined VDCS on mean urinary calcium excretion, de novo hypercalciuria, and stone development in VDI patients with history of urolithiasis. Therefore, VDI urolithiasis patients receiving VDCS are advised to have monitoring with 24-hour urine collections and imaging studies. Although small, our sample size was good enough to validate the statistical outcomes. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26788229

  3. KIDNEY STONE INCIDENCE AND METABOLIC URINARY CHANGES AFTER MODERN BARIATRIC SURGERY: REVIEW OF CLINICAL STUDIES, EXPERIMENTAL MODELS, AND PREVENTION STRATEGIES

    PubMed Central

    Canales, Benjamin K.; Hatch, Marguerite

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has been associated with increased metabolic kidney stone risk and post-operative stone formation. A MEDLINE search, performed for articles published between January 2005 and November 2013, identified 24 pertinent studies containing 683 bariatric patients with 24-hour urine profiles, 6,777 bariatric patients with kidney stone incidence, and 7,089 non-stone forming controls. Of all procedures reviewed, only Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was linked to post-operative kidney stone development, increasing stone incidence two-fold in non-stone formers (8.5%) and four-fold in patients with previous stone history (16.7%). High quality evidence from 7 studies (n=277 patients) before and after RYGB identified the following post-RYGB urinary lithogenic risk factors: 30% reduction in urine volume (the main driver of urinary crystal saturation), 40% reduction in urinary citrate (a potent stone inhibitor), and 50% increase in urinary oxalate (a stone promotor). Based on this, a summary of strategies to reduce calcium oxalate stone risk following RYGB is provided. Furthermore, recent experimental RYGB studies are assessed for insights into the pathophysiology of oxalate handling, and the literature in gut anion (oxalate) transport is reviewed. Finally, as a potential probiotic therapy for hyperoxaluria, primary data from our laboratory is presented, demonstrating a 70% reduction in urinary oxalate levels in four experimental RYGB animals after colonization with Oxalobacter formigines, a non-pathogenic gut commensal that uses oxalate as an energy source. Overall, urine profiles and kidney stone risk following bariatric surgery appear modifiable by dietary adjustments, appropriate supplementation, and lifestyle changes. For hyperoxaluria resistant to dietary oxalate restriction and calcium binding, well-designed human investigations are needed to identify additional means of lowering urinary oxalate, such as Oxalobacter colonization or empiric pyridoxine therapy

  4. Effect of dietary water intake on urinary output, specific gravity and relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and struvite in the cat.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Catherine M F; Hawthorne, Amanda; Colyer, Alison; Stevenson, Abigail E

    2011-10-01

    It has been reported that daily fluid intake influences urinary dilution, and consequently the risk of urolithiasis in human subjects and dogs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of dietary moisture on urinary parameters in healthy adult cats by comparing nutritionally standardised diets, varying only in moisture content. A total of six cats were fed a complete dry food (6.3 % moisture) hydrated to 25.4, 53.2 and 73.3 % moisture for 3 weeks in a randomised block cross-over design. Urinary specific gravity (SG), urine volume, water drunk and total fluid intake were measured daily; relative supersaturation (RSS) for calcium oxalate (CaOx) and struvite was calculated using the SUPERSAT computer program. Cats fed the 73.3 % moisture diet produced urine with a significantly lower SG (P < 0.001) compared with diets containing 53.2 % moisture or lower. Mean RSS for CaOx was approaching the undersaturated zone (1.14 (sem 0.21); P = 0.001) for cats fed the diet with 73.3 % moisture and significantly lower than the 6.3 % moisture diet (CaOx RSS 2.29 (sem 0.21)). The effect of diet on struvite RSS was less clear, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Total fluid intake was significantly increased (P < 0.001) in the 73.3 % moisture diet (144.7 (SEM 5.2) ml, or 30 ml/kg body weight per d) compared with the 6.3 % (103.4 (SEM 5.3) ml), 25.4 % (98.6 (SEM 5.3) ml) and 53.3 % (104.7 (SEM 5.3) ml) moisture diets, despite voluntary water intake decreasing as dietary moisture intake increased. Cats fed the 73.3 % moisture diet had a higher total daily fluid intake resulting in a more dilute urine with a lower risk of CaOx when compared with the lower-moisture diets. PMID:22005408

  5. A Novel Aerosol Foam Formulation of Calcipotriol and Betamethasone Has No Impact on HPA Axis and Calcium Homeostasis in Patients With Extensive Psoriasis Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Taraska, Victoria; Tuppal, Raj; Olesen, Martin; Bang Pedersen, Claus; Papp, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fixed combination calcipotriol 50 µg/g (Cal; as hydrate) plus betamethasone 0.5 mg/g (as dipropionate; BD) has been formulated in an innovative aerosol foam. Objective: To assess systemic safety of Cal/BD aerosol foam. Methods: In a multicentre, single-arm, open-label, maximal-use systemic-exposure trial, adult patients with moderate to severe, extensive psoriasis (15%-30% of body surface area, including ≥30% of scalp) applied Cal/BD foam once daily. Endpoints were week 4 abnormal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge test and change in albumin-corrected serum calcium, 24-hour urinary calcium excretion, and urinary calcium-creatinine ratio. Results: 35 patients reaching week 4 exhibited normal ACTH responses. At week 4, changes in calcium homeostasis were minor and not clinically relevant; no patients experienced elevations above normal. Disease severity generally improved, and 49% of patients achieved treatment success according to the Physician’s Global Assessment of Disease Severity. Conclusion: No clinically relevant HPA axis or calcium homeostasis impact was observed with 4 weeks of once-daily Cal/BD foam in patients with extensive psoriasis vulgaris. PMID:26224733

  6. [Do cows drink calcium?].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Lechner, S; Plate, I; Heidemann, B

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how well cows drink the Propeller calcium drink, and it's effect on blood calcium concentration. Drinking was tested in 120 cows right after calving, before cows drank anything else. 60 cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or 20 liters of water. Cows drank the Propeller as good as water. 72% of all cows drank all 20 liters, 18% drank on average 8.2 liters and 10% drank less than 1 liter. Blood calcium concentration was studied in 16 cows right after calving. Eight cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or no calcium drink. Blood calcium significantly increased ten minutes after Propeller intake and stayed significantly elevated for 24 hours. Without calcium drink blood calcium levels decreased significantly. Advantages of the new Propeller calcium drink over calcium gels or boli could be that cows now drink calcium themselves and that the Propeller increases blood calcium concentration rapidly and long lasting. PMID:18429501

  7. Lithogenic activity as a factor to consider in the metabolic evaluation of patients with calcium lithiasis.

    PubMed

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Cano-Garcia, Maria Del Carmen; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic evaluation is important in high-risk patients with a history of urinary calculi, in order to prevent recurrence. This study aimed to compare patients with calcium calculi and mild lithogenic activity with those with moderate to severe lithogenic activity. Patients with moderate to severe activity had higher levels of urinary calcium level (271.9 mg/24h versus 172.1 mg/24 h, P < .001), uric acid (612.3 mg/24 h versus 528.9 mg/24h, P = .008), and fasting calcium-creatinine ratio (0.16 versus 0.12, P = .001) compared to those with mild lithogenic activity. No association was observed between lithogenic factors in 24-hour urine and mild lithogenic activity in multivariable analysis. We initially thought that in patients who develop recurrent calculi after 5 years or who have mild lithogenic activity, complete metabolic evaluation would not be necessary. However, based on our study findings, it may be important to conduct further studies assessing the lithogenic activity. PMID:26552354

  8. Nerve-released acetylcholine contracts urinary bladder smooth muscle by inducing action potentials independently of IP3-mediated calcium release.

    PubMed

    Nausch, Bernhard; Heppner, Thomas J; Nelson, Mark T

    2010-09-01

    Nerve-released ACh is the main stimulus for contraction of urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM). Here, the mechanisms by which ACh contracts UBSM are explored by determining Ca(2+) and electrical signals induced by nerve-released ACh. Photolysis of caged inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) evoked Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Electrical field stimulation (20 Hz) induced Ca(2+) waves within the smooth muscle that were present only during stimulus application. Ca(2+) waves were blocked by inhibition of muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) with atropine and depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), and therefore likely reflect activation of IP(3) receptors (IP(3)Rs). Electrical field stimulation also increased excitability to induce action potentials (APs) that were accompanied by Ca(2+) flashes, reflecting Ca(2+) entry through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs) during the action potential. The evoked Ca(2+) flashes and APs occurred as a burst with a lag time of approximately 1.5 s after onset of stimulation. They were not inhibited by blocking IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) waves, but by blockers of mAChRs (atropine) and VDCCs (diltiazem). Nerve-evoked contractions of UBSM strips were greatly reduced by blocking VDCCs, but not by preventing IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) signaling with cyclopiazonic acid or inhibition of PLC with U73122. These results indicate that ACh released from nerve varicosities induces IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) waves during stimulation; but contrary to expectations, these signals do not appear to participate in contraction. In addition, our data provide compelling evidence that UBSM contractions evoked by nerve-released ACh depend on increased excitability and the resultant Ca(2+) entry through VDCCs during APs. PMID:20573989

  9. (1)H-NMR analysis of the human urinary metabolome in response to an 18-month multi-component exercise program and calcium-vitamin-D3 supplementation in older men.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, John R; Gooley, Paul R; Nahid, Amsha; Tull, Dedreia L; McConville, Malcolm J; Kukuljan, Sonja; Nowson, Caryl A; Daly, Robin M; Ebeling, Peter R

    2014-11-01

    The musculoskeletal benefits of calcium and vitamin-D3 supplementation and exercise have been extensively studied, but the effect on metabolism remains contentious. Urine samples were analyzed by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy from participants recruited for an 18-month, randomized controlled trial of a multi-component exercise program and calcium and vitamin-D3 fortified milk consumption. It was shown previously that no increase in musculoskeletal composition was observed for participants assigned to the calcium and vitamin-D3 intervention, but exercise resulted in increased bone mineral density, total lean body mass, and muscle strength. Retrospective metabolomics analysis of urine samples from patients involved in this study revealed no distinct changes in the urinary metabolome in response to the calcium and vitamin-D3 intervention, but significant changes followed the exercise intervention, notably a reduction in creatinine and an increase in choline, guanidinoacetate, and hypoxanthine (p < 0.001, fold change > 1.5). These metabolites are intrinsically involved in anaerobic ATP synthesis, intracellular buffering, and methyl-balance regulation. The exercise intervention had a marked effect on the urine metabolome and markers of muscle turnover but none of these metabolites were obvious markers of bone turnover. Measurement of specific urinary exercise biomarkers may provide a basis for monitoring performance and metabolic response to exercise regimes. PMID:25198310

  10. Effects of Dietary Phosphate and Calcium Intake on Fibroblast Growth Factor-23

    PubMed Central

    van Ittersum, Frans J.; Büttler, Rahel M.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; ter Wee, Piet M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Little is known about the influence of dietary phosphate intake on fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and its subsequent effects on vitamin D levels. This study addresses changes in intact FGF23 (iFGF23) and C-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23), phosphaturia, and levels of vitamin D on high and low phosphate and calcium intake. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Ten healthy subjects adhered to a diet low or high in phosphate and calcium content for 36 hours each with a 1-week interval during which subjects adhered to their usual diet. Serum phosphate, calcium, vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and FGF23 levels (cFGF23 and iFGF23) were measured several times a day. Phosphate, calcium, and creatinine excretion was measured in 24-hour urine on all study days. Results Serum phosphate levels and urinary phosphate increased during high dietary phosphate intake (from 1.11 to 1.32 mmol/L, P < 0.0001 and 21.6 to 28.8 mmol/d, P = 0.0005, respectively). FGF23 serum levels increased during high dietary phosphate/calcium intake (cFGF23 from 60 to 72 RU/ml, P < 0.001; iFGF23 from 33 to 37 ng/L, P = 0.003), whereas PTH declined. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) showed an inverse relation with FGF23. Conclusions Variation in dietary phosphate and calcium intake induces changes in FGF23 (on top of a circadian rhythm) and 1,25D blood levels as well as in urinary phosphate excretion. These changes are detectable the day after the change in the phosphate content of meals. Higher FGF23 levels are associated with phosphaturia and a decline in 1,25D levels. PMID:21030580

  11. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared to the written-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared to the written-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written-assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared to the current written record based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared to either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

  12. Ambulatory 24-hour cardiac oxygen consumption and blood pressure-heart rate variability: effects of nebivolol and valsartan alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Joseph L; Khan, Safi U; Saleem, Osman; Osmond, Peter J

    2015-07-01

    We compared an angiotensin receptor blocker (valsartan; VAL), a beta-blocker (nebivolol; NEB) and the combination of NEB/VAL with respect to 24-hour myocardial oxygen consumption (determined by 24-hour ambulatory heart rate-central systolic pressure product [ACRPP]) and its components. Subjects with hypertension (systolic blood pressure >140 or diastolic blood pressure >90; n = 26) were studied in a double-blinded, double-dummy, forced-titration, crossover design with 3 random-order experimental periods: VAL 320 mg, NEB 40 mg, and NEB/VAL 320/40 mg daily. After 4 weeks of each drug, ambulatory pulse wave analysis (MobilOGraph) was performed every 20 minutes for 24 hours. All three treatments resulted in nearly identical brachial and central systolic blood pressures. NEB alone or in combination with VAL resulted in lower ACRPP (by 11%-14%; P < .001 each) and heart rate (by 18%-20%; P < .001 each) compared with VAL, but stroke work (ACRPP per beat) was lower with VAL. Relative and adjusted variability (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of heart rate were also lower with NEB and NEB/VAL than VAL. Results in African Americans, the majority subpopulation, were similar to those of the entire treatment group. We conclude that the rate-slowing effects of NEB cause ambulatory cardiac myocardial oxygen consumption to be lower with NEB monotherapy or NEB/VAL combination therapy than with VAL monotherapy. NEB/VAL is not superior to NEB alone in controlling heart rate, blood pressure, or ACRPP. Heart rate variability but not ACRPP variability is reduced by NEB or the combination NEB/VAL. There is no attenuation of beta-blocker-induced rate-slowing effects of in African Americans. PMID:26116459

  13. Decreased striatal dopamine release underlies increased expression of long-term synaptic potentiation at corticostriatal synapses 24 hours after 3-nitropropionic acid induced chemical hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Akopian, Garnik; Crawford, Cynthia; Beal, M. Flint; Cappelletti, Maurand; Jakowec, Michael W.; Petzinger, Giselle M.; Zheng, Ling; Gheorghe, Stacey L.; Reichel, Carmela M.; Chow, Robert; Walsh, John P

    2008-01-01

    The striatum is particularly sensitive to the irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehyrdrogenase 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP). In the present study we examined early changes in behavior and dopamine and glutamate synaptic physiology created by a single systemic injection of 3-NP in Fischer 344 rats. Hind limb dystonia was seen 2 hours after 3-NP injections and rats performed poorly on balance beam and rota-rod motor tests 24 hours later. Systemic 3-NP increased NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at corticostriatal synapses over the same time period. The 3-NP induced corticostriatal LTP was not due to increased NMDA receptor number or function, since 3-NP did not change MK-801 binding or NMDA/AMPA receptor current ratios. The LTP seen 24 hours after 3-NP was D1 receptor-dependent and reversed by exogenous addition of dopamine or a D2 receptor agonist to brain slices. High performance liquid chromatography and fast scan cyclic voltammetry revealed a decrease in dopamine content and release in rats injected 24 hours earlier with 3-NP, and much like the enhanced LTP, dopamine changes were reversed by 48 hours. Tyrosine hydroxylase expression was not changed and there was no evidence of striatal cell loss at 24–48 hours after 3-NP exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats showed similar physiological responses to systemic 3-NP, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Thus, 3-NP causes significant changes in motor behavior marked by parallel changes in striatal dopamine release and corticostriatal synaptic plasticity. PMID:18799690

  14. Clinical study of urinary excretion of Ga-67

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Ibuka, K.; Hashizume, T.; Noguchi, A.; Kojima, J.; Sasakuma, F.; Ishigami, S. )

    1990-04-01

    Ga-67 urinary excretion was examined in 59 patients. The 72-hour urinary excretion rate ranged from 4.3 to 67.8% of the injected dose. Within the first 24 hours, 60.9% of the 72-hour urinary excretion was excreted. There was no significant difference in the Ga-67 urinary excretion rate between males and females, nor between the Ga-67 positive and negative cases. A significant negative correlation was found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and the unsaturated iron binding capacity. Notably, four patients with hyperferremia, which was considered secondary to leukemia and/or chemotherapy or liver cirrhosis, excreted more than 46.8% of Ga-67 within 72 hours. A significant negative correlation was also found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and age. Urinary excretion of Ga-67 may be related to the glomerular filtration rate, which decreases with age.

  15. Treatment of burns in the first 24 hours: simple and practical guide by answering 10 questions in a step-by-step form

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose. PMID:22583548

  16. Estimation of 24-hour thyroid uptake of I-131 sodium iodide using a 5-minute uptake of technetium-99m pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.J.; Croft, B.Y.; Brookeman, V.A.; Teates, C.D. )

    1990-02-01

    The authors have developed a method to estimate the 24-hour sodium iodide thyroid uptake based on a 5-minute Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake using the equation: Estimated Iodide Uptake = 17.72*In(Pertechnetate Uptake) + 30.40. This estimation has a correlation coefficient of 0.90. It is based on a data pool of 44 patients who underwent I-131 and Tc-99m studies within 2 weeks of each other from 1978-1988, with established diagnoses as follows: 12 euthyroid, 6 hyperthyroid with multinodular goiters, 15 hyperthyroid with diffuse goiters, 4 with subacute thyroiditis, and 7 unknown. The population consisted of 30 women and 14 men with a mean age of 52.0 +/- 17.5 years; this sample was screened for use of thyroid hormone, propylthiouracil, and radiographic contrast. The authors believe this estimation method is of value whenever a 24-hour iodide uptake is desired, and where speed and minimizing radiation dose are factors. This method is strongly recommended for thyroid uptake evaluation before I-131 therapy.

  17. [THE INFLUENCE OF CYTOFLAVIN AND CARDIOXIPIN ON THE PARAMETERS OF 24-HOUR ARTERIAL PRESSURE MONITORING IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC CEREBRAL CIRCULATION INSUFFICIENCY, ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA].

    PubMed

    Vodop'ianova, O A; Moiseeva, I Ia; Rodina, O P; Kustikova, I N; Antropova, N V

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study of the influence of cytoflavin and cardioxipin on the parameters of 24-hour arterial pressure monitoring in 56 patients with chronic cerebral circulation insufficiency, arterial hypertension and hypercholesterolemia included 32 women and 24 men aged 42-72 years divided into 3 groups matchedfor the stage of diseases, age, sex, severity of AH, total cholesterol level, and antihypertensive therapy. Patients of group 1 were treated without cytoflavin and cardioxipin. Those in group 2 received daily i/v droplet infusion of 10 mg/kg cardioxipin (20-30 droplets/min). Patients of group 3 were given daily i/v droplet infusion of 10 ml cytoflavin in 200 ml 0.9% sodium chloride solution for 10 days. 24-hour arterial pressure monitoring was used to estimate the influence of the two drugs on systolic and diastolic pressure, its daily rhythm, AP variability and frequency of elevation. The study showed that both therapeutic modalities improved daily AP rhythm as manifested in a significant increase of the number of patients with the dipper rhythm and a decrease in the number of systolic/diastolic non-dipper patients. Moreover cytoflavin significantly decreased the number of systolic over-dippers compared with control group. PMID:26117922

  18. Prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients receiving CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery

    PubMed Central

    Siriphuwanun, Visith; Punjasawadwong, Yodying; Lapisatepun, Worawut; Charuluxananan, Somrat; Uerpairojkit, Ketchada

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) within 24 hours of receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery. Patients and methods A retrospective cohort study approved by the Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai University Hospital Ethical Committee. Data used were taken from records of 751 cardiac arrest patients who received their first CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery between January 1, 2003 and October 31, 2011. The reviewed data included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status classification, anesthesia information, the timing of cardiac arrest, CPR details, and outcomes at 24 hours after CPR. Univariate and polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to determine prognostic factors associated with the outcome variable. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results The outcomes at 24 hours were death (638/751, 85.0%), survival with complications (73/751, 9.7%), and survival without complications (40/751, 5.3%). The prognostic factors associated with death were: age between 13–34 years (OR =3.08, 95% CI =1.03–9.19); ASA physical status three and higher (OR =6.60, 95% CI =2.17–20.13); precardiopulmonary comorbidity (OR =3.28, 95% CI =1.09–9.90); the condition of patients who were on mechanical ventilation prior to receiving anesthesia (OR =4.11, 95% CI =1.17–14.38); surgery in the upper abdominal site (OR =14.64, 95% CI =2.83–75.82); shock prior to cardiac arrest (OR =6.24, 95% CI =2.53–15.36); nonshockable electrocardiography (EKG) rhythm (OR =5.67, 95% CI =1.93–16.62); cardiac arrest occurring in postoperative period (OR =7.35, 95% CI =2.89–18.74); and duration of CPR more than 30 minutes (OR =4.32, 95% CI =1.39–13.45). The prognostic factors associated with survival with complications were being greater

  19. Urinary incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of bladder control; Uncontrollable urination; Urination - uncontrollable; Incontinence - urinary ... Causes of urinary incontinence include: Blockage in the urinary system Brain or nerve problems Dementia or other mental health problems that make ...

  20. Studies on human urinary arylamidases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raina, P. N.; Ellis, S.

    1975-01-01

    Human urinary protein was found to contain enzymes that hydrolyze leucyl-, alanyl-, and glycyl-prolyl-beta-naphthylamides. The kinetic constants of these enzymes were determined and their chemical properties studied. The pH optima for the hydrolysis of the various naphthylamides were also determined. Glycyl-prolyl-arylaminade was inhibited by Co(2+) and Mn(2+), while two other arylamidases were slightly activated by Co(2+). p-Chloromercuriphenyl-sulfonate and puromycin significantly inhibited leucyl and alanyl arylamidases. The mean values for 24-hour urinary output for leucyl-, alanyl-, and glycyl-prolyl arylamidases in normal human male subjects were 4.32, 9.97, and 2.2 units, respectively.

  1. Hyperammonemia in Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Kato, Ken; Kitao, Akihito; Kosami, Koki; Minami, Kensuke; Yahata, Shinsuke; Fukui, Miho; Okayama, Masanobu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated the incidence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections and explored the utility of urinary obstruction relief and antimicrobial administration to improve hyperammonemia. Methods This was an observational study. Subjects were patients who were diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized between June 2008 and June 2009. We measured plasma ammonia levels on admission in patients who were clinically diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized. We assessed each patient's level of consciousness on admission using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and performed urine and blood cultures. We also assessed hearing prior to hospitalization using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS). In cases with high ammonia levels on admission, plasma ammonia and GCS were measured 24 hours and 5–7 days later. Results Sixty-seven candidates were enrolled; of these, 60 cases (89.6%) with bacterial cell counts ≥104 CFU/mL were studied. Five cases (8.3%) presented with high plasma ammonia levels. Cases with hyperammonemia were significantly more likely to present with low GCS scores and urinary retention rate. All five cases received antimicrobial therapy with an indwelling bladder catheter to relieve urinary retention. The case 5 patient died shortly after admission due to complicated aspiration pneumonia; in the remaining cases, plasma ammonia levels were rapidly normalized and the level of consciousness improved. Conclusions The occurrence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections is not rare. The cause of hyperammonemia is urinary retention obstruction. Therefore, along with antimicrobial administration, relief of obstruction is important for the treatment of hyperammonemia caused by this mechanism. PMID:26292215

  2. New Advantage 24 contraceptive gel claims 24-hour effectiveness. But proposed FDA rule could put N-9 products to the test.

    PubMed

    1995-04-01

    Advantage 24 is a new contraceptive gel that makes use of bioadhesive technology to offer 24 hours of protection relying on the spermicide nonoxynol-9 (N-9) in lower concentrations. If a proposed US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rule is enforced N-9 may be examined closely. The manufacturer, Whitehall-Robins Healthcare in New Jersey, stopped production of the Today contraceptive sponge because of the costs of complying with FDA standards. The Advantage 24 gel costs twice as much as the sponge. It is made in Switzerland and distributed by an Illinois company. Any vaginal contraceptive containing N-9 would be approved by the FDA as long as it complied with guidelines laid down in an FDA monograph. However, the registration of the gel could not be confirmed. The product uses a bioadhesive technology concept that natural substances adhere to epithelial and mucosal tissues in the body. Polycarbofil is mixed with water, N-9, and mineral oil to create an emulsion that allows for a time-release mechanism, but at any given time only 2 mg of N-9 is available to kill sperm. The final formula for Advantage 24 is 52.5 mg per dose. Too much N-9 can be toxic, as demonstrated by the Today sponge, which contained 1000 mg of N-9. In Kenya prostitutes using it frequently experienced 3 times as many genital lesions as those using a placebo. A study of Advantage 24 by a Miami laboratory involved 250 women, 22-45 years old, who had had prior tubal ligations. When the gel was applied 15-30 minutes before intercourse the efficacy rate was 98%; it was 91% for those applying it 12 hours before; and it was 86% when the gel was applied 24 hours ahead of time. FDA compliance officers are intrigued about the claim that the gel lasts 24 hours. However, if the claim is held up by research data, women will have an easily available, portable, efficient, aesthetic, and highly effective contraceptive. PMID:12347026

  3. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): Comparison of a Mobile Phone Digital Entry App for Dietary Data Collection With 24-Hour Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Sarah; Giannelli, Valentina; Yap, Megan LH; Tang, Lie Ming; Roy, Rajshri; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Hebden, Lana; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background The electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA), a digital entry food record mobile phone app, was developed to measure energy and nutrient intake prospectively. This can be used in monitoring population intakes or intervention studies in young adults. Objective The objective was to assess the relative validity of e-DIA as a dietary assessment tool for energy and nutrient intakes using the 24-hour dietary recall as a reference method. Methods University students aged 19 to 24 years recorded their food and drink intake on the e-DIA for five days consecutively and completed 24-hour dietary recalls on three random days during this 5-day study period. Mean differences in energy, macro-, and micronutrient intakes were evaluated between the methods using paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and correlation coefficients were calculated on unadjusted, energy-adjusted, and deattenuated values. Bland-Altman plots and cross-classification into quartiles were used to assess agreement between the two methods. Results Eighty participants completed the study (38% male). No significant differences were found between the two methods for mean intakes of energy or nutrients. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.79 (mean 0.68). Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement between the methods but without obvious bias. Cross-classification into same or adjacent quartiles ranged from 75% to 93% (mean 85%). Conclusions The e-DIA shows potential as a dietary intake assessment tool at a group level with good ranking agreement for energy and all nutrients. PMID:26508282

  4. Demand and characteristics of a psychiatric 24-hour emergency service performed by mandatory rotation of licensed psychiatrists in Swiss primary care

    PubMed Central

    Chmiel, Corinne; Rosemann, Thomas; Senn, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate characteristics of and satisfaction with psychiatric 24-hour emergency primary care performed by mandatory rotation of licensed psychiatrists as a viable baseline for possible reorganizational measures. Methods This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study (November 2010–April 2011). The number of patient–psychiatrist encounters, modes of contact, and patient and psychiatrist characteristics were assessed. Diagnoses were coded with ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10). Results From 167 duty episodes, 74 (44%) were recorded. Of the psychiatrists (n=44), 52% were female, and mean age (standard deviation) was 49.9 (5.2) years. The median number of encounters per episode was 4 (interquartile range 0–8), mainly in the evenings. Demand for “face-to-face” (direct) patient visits was significantly more common (64.0%) than practice (1.3%) or telephone consultations (34.7%). In 83.8%, psychiatrists judged the encounter as adequate at the patient’s location. A total of 43 different diagnoses were recorded: mainly schizophrenic disorders (23.9%), suicidal behavior (15.2%), and acute stress reactions (10.3%). Psychiatrists felt burdened by services (62.5%): in 39.2%, they felt threatened; and in 6.8%, violence occurred. In 32.4%, bills were not paid for. If services were optional, 45.2% would participate. Conclusion Our findings indicate justified demand for direct mobile patient visits, suggesting that emergency care should be multifaceted, and sole provision of psychiatric care at stationed emergency facilities may not always be appropriate. Reorganization of 24-hour emergency services should carefully evaluate patient and provider’s needs before changing established structures. PMID:24707172

  5. Correlation of Occupational Stress Index with 24-hour Urine Cortisol and Serum DHEA Sulfate among City Bus Drivers: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mia Chihya; Lu, Luo; Tai, John Jen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The questionnaire of occupational stress index (OSI) has been popular in the workplace, and it has been tailored for bus drivers in Taiwan. Nevertheless, its outcomes for participants are based on self-evaluations, thus validation by their physiological stress biomarker is warranted and this is the main goal of this study. Methods A cross-sectional study of sixty-three city bus drivers and fifty-four supporting staffs for comparison was conducted. Questionnaire surveys, 24-hour urine cortisol testing, and blood draws for dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) testing were performed. The measured concentrations of these biological measures were logarithmically transformed before the statistical analysis where various scores of stressor factors, moderators, and stress effects of each OSI domain were analyzed by applying multiple linear regression models. Results For drivers, the elevated 24-hour urine cortisol level was associated with a worker's relationship with their supervisor and any life change events in the most recent 3 months. The DHEA-S level was higher in drivers of younger age as well as drivers with more concerns relating to their salary and bonuses. Non-drivers showed no association between any stressor or satisfaction and urine cortisol and blood DHEA-S levels. Conclusion Measurements of biomarkers may offer additional stress evaluations with OSI questionnaires for bus drivers. Increased DHEA-S and cortisol levels may result from stressors like income security. Prevention efforts towards occupational stress and life events and health promotional efforts for aged driver were important anti-stress remedies. PMID:22953199

  6. Validation of the BPLab® 24-hour blood pressure monitoring system in a pediatric population according to the 1993 British Hypertension Society protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ledyaev, Mikhail Y; Stepanova, Olga V; Ledyaeva, Anastasia M

    2015-01-01

    Background Automatic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) is a basic procedure performed in adults with arterial hypertension, but ABPM monitors have become widely used in pediatric practice only recently. The main problem is the lack of common normative data sets for ABPM in children and the small number of appropriate monitors that can be used for analysis of the 24-hour BP profile in this age group. The aim of this study was to validate the BPLab® ABPM monitor according to the 1993 British Hypertension Society (BHS-93) protocol, as well as to work out solutions regarding the feasibility of this device in pediatric practice. Methods Our study included 30 children of both sexes and aged 5–15 years, ie, “older” children according to the BHS-93 protocol. Before starting the study, we obtained ethical approval from the regional scientific ethics committee. All participants and their parents signed their written consent for participation in the study. The data were simultaneously obtained by three experts, who had completed a noninvasive BP measurement training course. BP values were measured using the Korotkoff auscultatory method (Phase I for systolic BP and Phase V for diastolic BP). Discrepancies in the systolic and diastolic BP measurements (n=180; 90 for each expert) were analyzed according to the criteria specified in the BHS-93 protocol. Results The device was graded “A” for both systolic BP and diastolic BP according to the criteria of the BHS-93 protocol. Conclusion The BPLab ABPM device may be recommended for extensive pediatric use. PMID:25674018

  7. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    SciTech Connect

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2011-05-15

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  8. Prediction of Appropriate Shocks Using 24-Hour Holter Variables and T-Wave Alternans After First Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation in Patients With Ischemic or Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Seegers, Joachim; Bergau, Leonard; Expósito, Pascal Muñoz; Bauer, Axel; Fischer, Thomas H; Lüthje, Lars; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Friede, Tim; Zabel, Markus

    2016-07-01

    In patients treated with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), prediction of both overall survival and occurrence of shocks is important if improved patient selection is desired. We prospectively studied the predictive value of biomarkers and indexes of cardiac and renal function and spectral microvolt T-wave alternans testing and 24-hour Holter variables in a population who underwent first ICD implantation. Consecutive patients in sinus rhythm with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy scheduled for primary or secondary prophylactic ICD implantation were enrolled. Exercise microvolt T-wave alternans and 24-hour Holter for number of ventricular premature contractions (VPCs), deceleration capacity, heart rate variability, and heart rate turbulence were done. Death of any cause and first appropriate ICD shock were defined as end points. Over 33 ± 15 months of follow-up, 36 of 253 patients (14%) received appropriate shocks and 39 of 253 patients (15%) died. Only 3 of 253 patients (1%) died after receiving at least 1 appropriate shock. In univariate analyses, New York Heart Association class, ejection fraction, N-terminal pro brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), renal function, ICD indication, deceleration capacity, heart rate variability, and heart rate turbulence were predictive of all-cause mortality and VPC number and deceleration capacity predicted first appropriate shock. NT-proBNP (≥1,600 pg/ml) was identified as the only independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.0, confidence interval 1.3 to 7.3, p = 0.014). In contrast, VPC number predicted appropriate shocks (hazard ratio 2.3, confidence interval 1.0 to 5.5, p = 0.047) as the only independent risk marker. In conclusion, NT-proBNP is a strong independent predictor of mortality in a typical prospective cohort of newly implanted patients with ICD, among many electrocardiographic and clinical variables studied. Number of VPCs was identified as a predictor of appropriate shocks

  9. Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

    2014-03-11

    This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for

  10. Shortening the retention interval of 24-hour dietary recalls increases fourth-grade children’s accuracy for reporting energy and macronutrient intake at school meals

    PubMed Central

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Royer, Julie A.; Hardin, James W.; Mackelprang, Alyssa J.; Smith, Albert F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate information about children’s intake is crucial for national nutrition policy and for research and clinical activities. To analyze accuracy for reporting energy and nutrients, most validation studies utilize the conventional approach which was not designed to capture errors of reported foods and amounts. The reporting-error-sensitive approach captures errors of reported foods and amounts. Objective To extend results to energy and macronutrients for a validation study concerning retention interval (elapsed time between to-be-reported meals and the interview) and accuracy for reporting school-meal intake, the conventional and reporting-error-sensitive approaches were compared. Design and participants/setting Fourth-grade children (n=374) were observed eating two school meals, and interviewed to obtain a 24-hour recall using one of six interview conditions from crossing two target periods (prior-24-hours; previous-day) with three interview times (morning; afternoon; evening). Data were collected in one district during three school years (2004–2005; 2005–2006; 2006–2007). Main outcome measures Report rates (reported/observed), correspondence rates (correctly reported/observed), and inflation ratios (intruded/observed) were calculated for energy and macronutrients. Statistical analyses performed For each outcome measure, mixed-model analysis of variance was conducted with target period, interview time, their interaction, and sex in the model; results were adjusted for school year and interviewer. Results Conventional approach — Report rates for energy and macronutrients did not differ by target period, interview time, their interaction, or sex. Reporting-error-sensitive approach — Correspondence rates for energy and macronutrients differed by target period (four P-values<0.0001) and the target-period by interview-time interaction (four P-values<0.0001); inflation ratios for energy and macronutrients differed by target period (four P

  11. Stimulation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels inhibits neurogenic contraction of human bladder from patients with urinary symptoms and reverses acetic acid-induced bladder hyperactivity in rats.

    PubMed

    La Fuente, José M; Fernández, Argentina; Cuevas, Pedro; González-Corrochano, Rocío; Chen, Mao Xiang; Angulo, Javier

    2014-07-15

    We have analysed the effects of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BK) stimulation on neurogenic and myogenic contraction of human bladder from healthy subjects and patients with urinary symptoms and evaluated the efficacy of activating BK to relief bladder hyperactivity in rats. Bladder specimens were obtained from organ donors and from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Contractions elicited by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and carbachol (CCh) were evaluated in isolated bladder strips. in vivo cystometric recordings were obtained in anesthetized rats under control and acetic acid-induced hyperactive conditions. Neurogenic contractions of human bladder were potentiated by blockade of BK and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK) but were unaffected by the blockade of intermediate calcium-activated potassium channels (IK). EFS-induced contractions were inhibited by BK stimulation with NS-8 or NS1619 or by SK/IK stimulation with NS309 (3µM). CCh-induced contractions were not modified by blockade or stimulation of BK, IK or SK. The anti-cholinergic agent, oxybutynin (0.3µM) inhibited either neurogenic or CCh-induced contractions. Neurogenic contractions of bladders from BPH patients were less sensitive to BK inhibition and more sensitive to BK activation than healthy bladders. The BK activator, NS-8 (5mg/kg; i.v.), reversed bladder hyperactivity induced by acetic acid in rats, while oxybutynin was ineffective. NS-8 did not significantly impact blood pressure or heart rate. BK stimulation specifically inhibits neurogenic contractions in patients with urinary symptoms and relieves bladder hyperactivity in vivo without compromising bladder contractile capacity or cardiovascular safety, supporting its potential therapeutic use for relieving bladder overactivity. PMID:24747752

  12. Control of bleeding by silk ligation and diathermy coagulation during tonsillectomy: A comparison of efficacy of the two techniques in the first 24 hours after surgery

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Khurshid; Ahmad, Rafiq; Khan, Muneeb

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the relative efficacy of silk ligation and diathermy coagulation techniques in controlling bleeding during tonsillectomy in the first 24 hours. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Department of ENT, Khalifa Gul Nawaz Teaching Hospital, Bannu and this department related consultants’ private clinics from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. The study included 180 cases. All patients included were having history of recurrent, acute tonsillitis, with more than 6–7 episodes in one year, five episodes per year for two years, or three episodes per year for three years. All the surgeries were performed by dissection method. Haemostasis during the procedure was secured by either ligation with silk 1 or using diathermy. The results were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 for windows. Results: A total of180 cases were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 5 to 40 years with the mean age of 15.56 years and a std.deviation of +/- 8.24. The male to female ratio was 1.25:1. The number of hemorrhages occurring was greater in the ‘diathermy coagulation’ group as compared to the ‘silk ligation’ group. However, the observed difference was statistically insignificant (p >.05). Conclusion: Primary haemorrhage occurring during tonsillectomy is a serious threat and control of bleeding during the procedure should therefore be meticulous. Both suture ligation and coagulation diathermy for control of bleeders during the procedure by dissection method are equally effective. PMID:26430438

  13. A Day in the Life of Millisecond Pulsar J1713+0747: Limits on Timing Precision Over 24 Hours and Implications for Gravitational Wave Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolch, Timothy; Bailes, M.; Bassa, C.; Bhat, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Champion, D.; Chatterjee, S.; Cognard, I.; Cordes, J. M.; Crowter, K.; Demorest, P.; Finn, L. S.; Fonseca, E.; Hessels, J.; Hobbs, G.; Janssen, G.; Jones, G.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Keith, M.; Kramer, M.; Kraus, A.; Lam, M. T.; Lazarus, P.; Lazio, J.; Lee, K.; Levin, L.; Liu, K.; Lorimer, D.; Manchester, R. N.; McLaughlin, M.; Palliyaguru, N.; Perrodin, D.; Petroff, E.; Rajwade, K.; Rankin, J. M.; Ransom, S. M.; Rosenblum, J.; Roy, J.; Shannon, R.; Stappers, B.; Stinebring, D.; Stovall, K.; Teixeira, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; van Straten, W.; Verbiest, J.; Zhu, W.

    2014-01-01

    A 24-hour global observation of millisecond radio pulsar J1713+0747 was undertaken by the International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA) collaboration as an effort to better quantify sources of noise in this object, which is regularly timed for the purpose of detecting gravitational waves (GWs). Given an 8-year timing RMS of 30ns, it is regarded as one of the best precision clocks in the PTA. However, sources of timing noise visible on timescales longer than the usual 20-30min biweekly observation may nonetheless be present. Data from the campaign were taken contiguously with the Parkes, Arecibo, Green Bank, GMRT, LOFAR, Effelsberg, WSRT, Lovell, and Nancay radio telescopes. The combined pulse times-of-arrival provide an estimate of the absolute noise floor, in other words, what unaccounted sources of timing noise impede an otherwise simple sqrt(N) improvement in timing precision, where N is the number of pulses in a single observing session. We present first results of specific phenomena probed on the unusual timescale of tens of hours, in particular interstellar scattering (ISS), and discuss the degree to which ISS affects precision timing. Finally, we examine single pulse information during selected portions of the observation and determine the degree to which the pulse jitter of J1713+0747 varies throughout the course of the day-long dataset.

  14. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Exploring the perceptions of stakeholders regarding their acceptability, barriers to uptake, and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Guy; White, Lauren; Riazi, Negin; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    Engaging stakeholders in the development of guidelines and plans for implementation is vital. The purpose of this study was to examine stakeholders' (parents, teachers, exercise professionals, paediatricians, and youth) perceptions of the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth ("Movement Guidelines"). Stakeholders (n = 104) engaged in semi-structured focus groups or interviews to discuss the perceived acceptability of the guidelines, potential barriers to implementation, and preferred methods and messengers of dissemination. A thematic analysis was conducted. Overall, there was consistent support across all stakeholder groups, with the exception of youth participants, for the Movement Guidelines. Stakeholders identified a range of barriers to the uptake of the guidelines including concerns with accurately defining key terms such as "recreational" screen time; everyday challenges such as financial and time constraints; and the possibility of the Movement Guidelines becoming just another source of stress and guilt for already busy and overwhelmed parents. Participants identified a range of recommended methods and messengers for future dissemination. School and medical settings were the most commonly recommended settings through which dissemination efforts should be delivered. Overall, participants representing a range of stakeholder groups were receptive to the new Movement Guidelines and endorsed their value. In complementing the Movement Guidelines, messaging and resources will need to be developed that address common concerns participants had regarding their dissemination and implementation. PMID:27306436

  15. Tele-ECG and 24-hour physician support over telephone for rural doctors can help early treatment of acute myocardial infarction in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Vivek, Chauhan; Vikrant, Kanwar

    2016-04-01

    We observed that many patients of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were reaching our hospital out of the 12 hour window period for thrombolysis. This led to poor patient outcomes. There were multiple reasons for the delay, prominent among them was lack of diagnostic facilities in the rural health care centers. We therefore planned a Tele-Electrocardiography (Tele-ECG) based pilot project in Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh in India, which was funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research. The intention was to reduce the pre-hospital delay in AMI by enabling the rural doctors of Kangra using Tele-ECG facility and a 24-hour physician support to manage patients of AMI. We did a baseline knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) assessment study of the doctors in our intervention centers to understand their needs. The data obtained through the KAP study was an eye opener for us and justifies the need for a Tele-ECG facility for rural doctors in India. PMID:26187625

  16. Computer simulation of the effect of dDAVP with saline loading on fluid balance after 24-hour head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R. S.; Simanonok, K. E.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid loading (FL) before Shuttle reentry is a countermeasure currently in use by NASA to improve the orthostatic tolerance of astronauts during reentry and postflight. The fluid load consists of water and salt tablets equivalent to 32 oz (946 ml) of isotonic saline. However, the effectiveness of this countermeasure has been observed to decrease with the duration of spaceflight. The countermeasure's effectiveness may be improved by enhancing fluid retention using analogs of vasopressin such as lypressin (LVP) and desmopressin (dDAVP). In a computer simulation study reported previously, we attempted to assess the improvement in fluid retention obtained by the use of LVP administered before FL. The present study is concerned with the use of dDAVP. In a recent 24-hour, 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) study involving seven men, dDAVP was found to improve orthostatic tolerance as assessed by both lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and stand tests. The treatment restored Luft's cumulative stress index (cumulative product of magnitude and duration of LBNP) to nearly pre-bedrest level. The heart rate was lower and stroke volume was marginally higher at the same LBNP levels with administration of dDAVP compared to placebo. Lower heart rates were also observed with dDAVP during stand test, despite the lower level of cardiovascular stress. These improvements were seen with only a small but significant increase in plasma volume of approximately 3 percent. This paper presents a computer simulation analysis of some of the results of this HDT study.

  17. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... you risk getting rashes, sores, skin infections and urinary tract infections. Also, you may find yourself avoiding friends and ... elderly and may be a sign of a urinary tract infection or an overactive bladder. Overflow incontinence This type ...

  18. Urinary Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Urinary Dysfunction Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction ... dysfunction is normal following initial therapy for localized prostate cancer. But it’s important to realize that not all ...

  19. Urinary catheters

    MedlinePlus

    ... that you use a catheter if you have: Urinary incontinence (leaking urine or being unable to control when ... Surgery Bladder Diseases Spinal Cord Injuries Urethral Disorders Urinary Incontinence Urine and Urination Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  20. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2001-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon. similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale. are examined using two near term. "high leverage" technologies-liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass. or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow. has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat-essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller. more affordable. easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased

  1. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited--The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    1998-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, "high leverage" technologies--liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Ironrich volcanic glass, or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way, LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging front the engine's choked sonic throat--essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased

  2. 2001: A Space Odyssey Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2003-01-01

    The prospects for 24 hour commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, high leverage technologies: liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and lunar-derived oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass, or orange soil, discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4 percent oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an afterburner into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat, essentially scramjet propulsion in reverse. By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that big engine performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or in-line Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an expendable mode initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased payload is

  3. External Beam Radiotherapy Plus 24-Hour Continuous Infusion of Gemcitabine in Unresectable Pancreatic Carcinoma: Long-Term Results of a Phase II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mattiucci, Gian C.; Morganti, Alessio G.; Valentini, Vincenzo; Ippolito, Edy; Alfieri, Sergio; Antinori, Armando; Crucitti, Antonio; D'Agostino, Giuseppe R.; Di Lullo, Liberato; Luzi, Stefano; Mantini, Giovanna; Smaniotto, Daniela; Doglietto, Gian B.; Cellini, Numa

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of gemcitabine-based chemoradiation (CT-RT) in treating patients (pts) affected by locally advanced pancreatic cancers (LAPC). Methods and Materials: Weekly gemcitabine (100 mg/m{sup 2}) was given as a 24-hour infusion during the course of three-dimensional radiotherapy (50.4 Gy to the tumor, 39.6 Gy to the nodes). After CT-RT, pts received five cycles of sequential chemotherapy with gemcitabine (1000 mg/m{sup 2}; 1, 8, q21). Response rate was assessed according to World Health Organization criteria 6 weeks after the end of CT-RT. Local control (LC), time to progression (TTP), metastases-free survival (MFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by the Kaplan Meier method. Results: Forty pts (male/female 22/18; median age 62 years, range, 36-76) were treated from 2000 to 2005. The majority had T4 tumour (n = 34, 85%), six pts (15%) had T3 tumour. Sixteen pts (40%) were node positive at diagnosis. Grade 3-4 acute toxicity was observed in 21 pts (52.5%). Thirty pts (75%) completed the treatment schedule. A clinical response was achieved in 12 pts (30%). With a median follow-up of 76 months (range, 32-98), 2-year LC was 39.6% (median, 12 months), 2-year TTP was 18.4% (median, 10 months), and 2-year MFS was 29.7% (median, 10 months). Two-year OS (25%; median, 15.5 months) compared with our previous study on 5-fluorouracil-based CT-RT (2.8%) was significantly improved (p <0.001). Conclusions: Gemcitabine CT-RT seems correlated with improved outcomes. Healthier patients who are likely to complete the treatment schedule may benefit most from this therapy.

  4. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  5. Effects of ranitidine and cisapride on acid reflux and oesophageal motility in patients with reflux oesophagitis: a 24 hour ambulatory combined pH and manometry study.

    PubMed

    Inauen, W; Emde, C; Weber, B; Armstrong, D; Bettschen, H U; Huber, T; Scheurer, U; Blum, A L; Halter, F; Merki, H S

    1993-08-01

    The effect of ranitidine and cisapride on acid reflux and oesophageal motility was investigated in 18 patients with endoscopically verified erosive reflux oesophagitis. Each patient was treated with placebo, ranitidine (150 mg twice daily), and ranitidine (150 mg twice daily) plus cisapride (20 mg twice daily) in a double blind, double dummy, within subject, three way cross over design. Oesophageal acidity and motility were monitored under ambulatory conditions for 24 hours on the fourth day of treatment, after a wash out period of 10 days during which patients received only antacids for relief of symptoms. Acid reflux was monitored by a pH electrode located 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter. Intraoesophageal pressure was simultaneously recorded from four transducers placed 20, 15, 10, and 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter. Upright reflux was three times higher than supine reflux (median (range) 13.3 (3.7-35.0)% v 3.7 (0-37.6)% of the time with pH < 4.0, p < 0.01, n = 18). Compared with placebo, ranitidine decreased total reflux (from 10.0 (3.2-32.6)% to 6.4 (1.2-22.9)%, p < 0.01), upright reflux (p < 0.05), supine reflux (p < 0.001), and postprandial reflux (p < 0.01), but did not affect oesophageal motility. The combination of ranitidine with cisapride further diminished the acid reflux found with ranitidine--that is, cisapride led to an additional reduction of total reflux (from 6.4 (1.2-22.9)% to 3.7 (1.0-12.7)%, p < 0.01), supine reflux (p < 0.05), and postprandial reflux (p < 0.05). Cisapride also reduced both the number (p<0.01) and duration (p<0.05) of reflux episodes and significantly increased amplitude, duration, and propagation velocity of oesophageal contractions (p<0.05) but did not affect the number of contractions. The findings show that the 30% reduction of oesophageal acid exposure achieved by a conventional dose of ranitidine (150 mg twice daily) can be improved to more than 60% by combination with cisapride (20 mg twice daily

  6. Sex and age-related differences in performance in a 24-hour ultra-cycling draft-legal event – a cross-sectional data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the sex and age-related differences in performance in a draft-legal ultra-cycling event. Methods Age-related changes in performance across years were investigated in the 24-hour draft-legal cycling event held in Schötz, Switzerland, between 2000 and 2011 using multi-level regression analyses including age, repeated participation and environmental temperatures as co-variables. Results For all finishers, the age of peak cycling performance decreased significantly (β = −0.273, p = 0.036) from 38 ± 10 to 35 ± 6 years in females but remained unchanged (β = −0.035, p = 0.906) at 41.0 ± 10.3 years in males. For the annual fastest females and males, the age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged at 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years, respectively. For all female and male finishers, males improved significantly (β = 7.010, p = 0.006) the cycling distance from 497.8 ± 219.6 km to 546.7 ± 205.0 km whereas females (β = −0.085, p = 0.987) showed an unchanged performance of 593.7 ± 132.3 km. The mean cycling distance achieved by the male winners of 960.5 ± 51.9 km was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the distance covered by the female winners with 769.7 ± 65.7 km but was not different between the sexes (p > 0.05). The sex difference in performance for the annual winners of 19.7 ± 7.8% remained unchanged across years (p > 0.05). The achieved cycling distance decreased in a curvilinear manner with advancing age. There was a significant age effect (F = 28.4, p < 0.0001) for cycling performance where the fastest cyclists were in age group 35–39 years. Conclusion In this 24-h cycling draft-legal event, performance in females remained unchanged while their age of peak cycling performance decreased and performance in males improved while their age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged. The annual fastest females and males were 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years old, respectively. The sex

  7. Composition of urinary calculi related to urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, M; Tokunaga, S; Nakashima, T; Yamaguchi, K; Orito, M; Hisazumi, H

    1992-09-01

    The composition of 3,084 urinary calculi was determined using an infrared spectrophotometer. Mixed calcium oxalate-calcium phosphate stones were most frequently implicated. Of the urinary calculi analyzed 199 were associated with urinary tract infection. Escherichia coli was most frequently isolated (43 strains) and urease-producing organisms, such as Proteus mirabilis, were cultured from 40 patients. The core culture of 20 staghorn calculi yielded 15 isolates from 14 stones. There were 13 identical species isolated from the urine and stone specimens of 13 patients (65%), including 7 strains of P. mirabilis. These results suggest that cultures of urine specimens of urolithiasis patients, especially those with staghorn calculi, may help to elucidate the bacteriology of the stones. PMID:1507358

  8. Impact of Aging on Urinary Excretion of Iron and Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Pfrimer, Karina; Micheletto, Rutinéia Fátima; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Padovan, Gilberto João; Moriguti, Julio Cesar; Ferriolli, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    PROJECT Data about the influence of aging on urinary excretion of iron and zinc are scarce. The objective of the present study was to compare the concentration of zinc and iron in the urine of healthy elderly subjects and younger adults. PROCEDURE Seven healthy elderly subjects and seven younger adults were selected and submitted to biochemical, clinical, and nutritional tests. After a fasting period, 12-hour urine was collected for the determination of iron and zinc concentrations by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS Urinary zinc and iron concentrations of the elderly subjects were not significantly different from that of younger adults. However, the total zinc and iron urinary clearance in 24 hours for the elderly was significantly higher compared with that of younger adults. CONCLUSION There is an increase in urinary iron and zinc clearance with aging. The values reported in this manuscript may be used as references in future studies. PMID:24932105

  9. Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of vitamins, minerals and nitrogen by Eskimos.

    PubMed

    Ellestad-Sayed, J; Hildes, J A; Schaefer, O; Lobban, M C

    1975-12-01

    In 1971-1972, urines were collected over 24 hours from ambulatory Iglooligmiut who ranged in age from 6 to 76 years. Collections were made every 3-4 months over a calendar year. The mean of each individual's two to four collections was used as the best estimate of that person's average daily excretion for nitrogen, thiamin, riboflavin, N'-methylnicotinamide, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. The excretion of the three B vitamins by all age groups was high when compared with interpretive standards. Urea nitrogen comprised 80-90% of total nitrogen excreted by all age groups. Twenty-four-hour mineral excretions did not differ with age and sex group except that adult men excreted significantly more phosphorus. Urinary urea nitrogen and phosphorus were linearly related, suggesting that they have a common source; namely, meat. Winter was generally the season of lowest excretion of the nutrients assayed. Since these nutrients are available from imported foods, particularly during the winter, it would appear that even in the winter the Iglooligmiut are more dependent on hunting and fishing for sources of these nutrients than on the well-stocked commercial grocery outlets. PMID:803002

  10. [Effect of a diet containing calcium pantothenate on urinary vitamin excretion and on the liver and kidney total pantothenic acid level in rats].

    PubMed

    Lhuissier, M; Bringer, M

    1988-01-01

    Four groups of five adult rats weighing 310 g received during 20 days a diet containing 0, 1.68, 16.8 or 168 mumol of pantothenic acid per kg of diet. The daily urinary vitamin excretion was, in nmol per day: 32 +/- 8, 32 +/- 4, 180 +/- 23 and 2,100 +/- 91, respectively (mean +/- SEM). Liver and kidney pantothenic acid content was the same in all groups, in nmol per g of fresh tissue: 300 +/- 36 and 190 +/- 6, respectively (mean +/- SEM, n = 20). PMID:2978017

  11. Elevation of urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein after cardiac catheterization related to cardiovascular events

    PubMed Central

    Kamijo-Ikemori, Atsuko; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Sugaya, Takeshi; Matsui, Katsuomi; Hisamichi, Mikako; Shibagaki, Yugo; Miyake, Fumihiko; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Contrast medium (CM) induces tubular hypoxia via endothelial damage due to direct cytotoxicity or viscosity. Urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) increases along with tubular hypoxia and may be a detector of systemic circulation injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of detecting increases in urinary L-FABP levels due to administration of CM, as a prognostic biomarker for cardiovascular disease in patients without occurrence of CM-induced nephropathy undergoing cardiac catheterization procedure (CCP). Methods Retrospective longitudinal analyses of the relationship between urinary L-FABP levels and occurrence of cardiovascular events were performed (n=29). Urinary L-FABP was measured by ELISA before CCP, and at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after CCP. Results Urinary L-FABP levels were significantly higher at 12 hours (P<0.05) and 24 hours (P<0.005) after CCP compared with before CCP, only in the patients with occurrence of cardiovascular events (n=17), but not in those without cardiovascular events (n=12). The parameter with the largest area under the curve (0.816) for predicting the occurrence of cardiovascular events was the change in urinary L-FABP at 24 hours after CCP. The difference in urinary L-FABP levels (ΔL-FABP ≥11.0 μg/g creatinine) between before CCP and at 24 hours after CCP was a risk factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 4.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.27–19.13; P=0.021). Conclusion Measurement of urinary L-FABP before CCP and at 24 hours after CCP in patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction may be an important indicator for risk stratification of onset of cardiovascular events. PMID:26316797

  12. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Buendia Jimenez, Inmaculada; Richardot, Pascaline; Picard, Pascaline; Lepicard, Eve M.; De Meo, Michel; Talaska, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume <1 L and osmolality >700 mOsmol/kg). Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN) on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary. PMID:26357419

  13. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can happen to anyone, but it becomes more common with age. Women experience ...

  14. Diet and calcium stones.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J; Norman, R W

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on the dietary modification of urinary risk factors as a means of reducing the likelihood of recurrent stone formation and to develop practical dietary recommendations that might be useful to this end. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published from 1983 to 1990. Additional references were selected from the bibliographies of identified articles. STUDY SELECTION: Nonrandomized trials and retrospective reviews were included because of a paucity of randomized controlled trials. DATA SYNTHESIS: Information on the dietary intake of calcium, oxalate, protein, sodium and fibre and on alcohol and fluid intake was used to develop practical guidelines on dietary modification. CONCLUSION: Dietary modification plays an important role in the reduction of urinary risk factors in patients with calcium stone disease of the urinary tract. As an initial form of prevention attention should be directed toward moderating the intake of calcium, oxalate, protein, sodium and alcohol and increasing the intake of fibre and water. Future research should include an assessment of the long-term reduction of dietary and urinary risk factors and the rates of recurrence of calcium stones. PMID:1310430

  15. Comparison of the Antialbuminuric Effects of L-/N-type and L-type Calcium Channel Blockers in Hypertensive Patients with Diabetes and Microalbuminuria: The Study of Assessment for Kidney Function by Urinary Microalbumin in Randomized (SAKURA) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Katsuayuki; Ueshima, Kenji; Tanaka, Sachiko; Kosugi, Shinji; Sato, Tosiya; Matsuoka, Hiroaki; Nakao, Kazuwa; Fujita, Toshiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To clarify whether the L-/N-type calcium channel blocker (CCB) cilnidipine is more renoprotective than the L-type CCB amlodipine in patients with early-stage diabetic nephropathy. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, open-labeled, randomized trial, the antialbuminuric effects of cilnidipine and amlodipine were examined in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitor-treated patients with hypertension (blood pressure [BP]: 130-180/80-110 mmHg), type 2 diabetes, and microalbuminuria (urinary albumin to creatinine [Cr] ratio [UACR]: 30-300 mg/g). Results: Patients received cilnidipine (n = 179, final dose: 10.27 ± 4.13 mg/day) or amlodipine (n = 186, 4.87 ± 2.08 mg/day) for 12 months. Cilnidipine and amlodipine equally decreased BP. The UACR values for the cilnidipine and amlodipine groups were 111.50 ± 138.97 and 88.29 ± 63.45 mg/g, respectively, before treatment and 107.93 ± 130.23 and 89.07 ± 97.55 mg/g, respectively, after treatment. The groups showed similar changes for the natural logarithm of the UACR, serum Cr, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Conclusions: Cilnidipine did not offer greater renoprotection than amlodipine in RAS inhibitor-treated hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. PMID:23935398

  16. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    PubMed

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values <0.040). Similar inverse associations were observed for paraxanthine and theophylline. Adjusted night-time systolic blood pressure in the first (lowest), second, third, and fourth (highest) quartile of paraxanthine urinary excretions were 110.3, 107.3, 107.3, and 105.1 mm Hg, respectively (P trend <0.05). No associations of urinary excretions with diastolic blood pressure were generally found, and theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure. PMID:25489060

  17. Surface aggregation of urinary proteins and aspartic acid-rich peptides on the faces of calcium oxalate monohydrate investigated by in situ force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, M L; Qiu, S R; Hoyer, J R; Casey, W H; Nancollas, G H; De Yoreo, J J

    2008-05-28

    The growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), osteopontin (OPN), and the 27-residue synthetic peptides (DDDS){sub 6}DDD and (DDDG){sub 6}DDD [where D = aspartic acid and X = S (serine) or G (glycine)] was investigated via in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that these three growth modulators create extensive deposits on the crystal faces. Depending on the modulator and crystal face, these deposits can occur as discrete aggregates, filamentary structures, or uniform coatings. These proteinaceous films can lead to either the inhibition or increase of the step speeds (with respect to the impurity-free system) depending on a range of factors that include peptide or protein concentration, supersaturation and ionic strength. While THP and the linear peptides act, respectively, to exclusively increase and inhibit growth on the (-101) face, both exhibit dual functionality on the (010) face, inhibiting growth at low supersaturation or high modulator concentration and accelerating growth at high supersaturation or low modulator concentration. Based on analyses of growth morphologies and dependencies of step speeds on supersaturation and protein or peptide concentration, we argue for a picture of growth modulation that accounts for the observations in terms of the strength of binding to the surfaces and steps and the interplay of electrostatic and solvent-induced forces at crystal surface.

  18. Calcium bioavailability from calcium fortified food products.

    PubMed

    Kohls, K

    1991-08-01

    The calcium balance of 12 presumed healthy human young adult subjects was assessed. Subjects consumed a constant laboratory-controlled diet supplemented with one of four calcium-fortified food products: orange juice (OJ), milk (M), experimental pasteurized processed cheese (T), soda (S), or a calcium carbonate plus vitamin D tablet (CC). Study length was 6 weeks with seven-day experimental periods (2-days allowed for adjustment with 5-days combined for purposes of analysis). All urine and fecal samples were collected by the subjects for the duration of the study. Blood samples were drawn at the end of each experimental period. Urine and fecal calcium contents were determined. Blood samples were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase. Results of this study indicate a higher fecal calcium content (mg/day) when subjects consumed CC and T, and when subjects consumed self-selected diets, than when given S, M, or OJ. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly lower when subjects consumed OJ than when they consumed M, T, or their self-selected diets. A significantly larger positive calcium balance was demonstrated when subjects consumed OJ as compared to T. Fecal transmit time did not vary significantly. Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly lower when subjects consumed T than when they consumed self-selected diets. PMID:1765836

  19. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  20. Urinary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, P. R.

    1971-01-01

    The present incidence, clinical features and classification of urinary tuberculosis are discussed. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment. The indications for surgical intervention are reviewed and procedures briefly described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5169185

  1. Urinary Retention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bladder does not empty completely. A health care provider performs this test during an office visit. The patient often receives ... urodynamic tests to diagnose urinary retention. The health care provider will perform these tests during an office visit. For tests that use ...

  2. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults Making Your Wishes Known Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Urinary Incontinence Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  3. Rapid screening assay for calcium bioavailability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Luhrsen, K.R.; Hudepohl, G.R.; Smith, K.T.

    1986-03-01

    Calcium bioavailability has been studied by numerous techniques. The authors report here the use of the gamma emitting isotope of calcium (/sup 47/Ca) in a whole body retention assay system. In this system, calcium sources are administered by oral gavage and subsequent counts are determined and corrected for isotopic decay. Unlike iron and zinc retention curves, which exhibit a 2-3 day equilibration period, calcium reaches equilibration after 24 hours. Autoradiographic analysis of the femurs indicate that the newly absorbed calcium is rapidly distributed to the skeletal system. Moreover, the isotope is distributed along the entire bone. Comparisons of calcium bioavailability were made using intrinsic/extrinsic labeled milk from two species i.e. rat and goat as well as CaCO/sub 3/. In addition, extrinsic labeled cow milk was examined. In the rat, the extrinsic labeled calcium from milk was better absorbed than the intrinsic calcium. This was not the case in goat milk or the calcium carbonate which exhibited no significant differences. Chromatographic analysis of the labeled milk indicates a difference in distribution of the /sup 47/Ca. From these data, the authors recommend the use of this assay system in calcium bioavailability studies. The labeling studies and comparisons indicate caution should be used, however, in labeling techniques and species milk comparison.

  4. Investigation of cattle methane production and emission over a 24-hour period using measurements of δ13C and δD of emitted CH4 and rumen water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, R. S.; Tyler, S. C.; Kurihara, M.; Yagi, K.

    2001-07-01

    We have conducted a series of experiments to determine the effects different diets, including the addition of unsaturated fatty acids, had on isotopic signatures of CH4 emissions from dairy cattle. Measurements of emitted δ13CH4, δ13CO2, and δD-CH4 were made on gases collected over a 24-hour period from animal chambers containing individual Holstein cows. Some measurements of δD-H2O from samples collected directly from the rumen were also made. We observed variation in δ13CH4 values with time after feeding and a correlation in δ13C between emitted gases and diet. The average δ13CH4 value, which includes all samples of emitted gases, was -70.6±4.9‰ (n = 57). Measurements of δD-CH4 over the 24-hour sampling period had an average value of -357.8±15.0‰ (n = 56). These δD measurements are among the lightest reported for CH4 produced by cattle. Our cattle data indicate that hydrogen incorporated into the CH4 produced by CO2 reduction in high H2 concentration environments is fractionated to a greater degree than that incorporated in systems with relatively low H2 conditions, such as wetlands. Our results support bacterial studies that have demonstrated large hydrogen fractionation in high H2 concentration systems during methanogenesis.

  5. Validity of urinary monoamine assay sales under the “spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model”

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Uncini, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Spot baseline urinary monoamine assays have been used in medicine for over 50 years as a screening test for monoamine-secreting tumors, such as pheochromocytoma and carcinoid syndrome. In these disease states, when the result of a spot baseline monoamine assay is above the specific value set by the laboratory, it is an indication to obtain a 24-hour urine sample to make a definitive diagnosis. There are no defined applications where spot baseline urinary monoamine assays can be used to diagnose disease or other states directly. No peer-reviewed published original research exists which demonstrates that these assays are valid in the treatment of individual patients in the clinical setting. Since 2001, urinary monoamine assay sales have been promoted for numerous applications under the “spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model”. There is no published peer-reviewed original research that defines the scientific foundation upon which the claims for these assays are made. On the contrary, several articles have been published that discredit various aspects of the model. To fill the void, this manuscript is a comprehensive review of the scientific foundation and claims put forth by laboratories selling urinary monoamine assays under the spot baseline urinary neurotransmitter testing marketing model. PMID:21912487

  6. [Urinary calculi and infection].

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete

  7. Toys Remain Viral Playground for 24 Hours

    MedlinePlus

    ... a toy's surface at typical indoor temperatures and humidity levels. Specifically, they tested the ability of so- ... East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). At 60 percent relative humidity, 1 percent of the virus remained infectious on ...

  8. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePlus

    ... at both ionized calcium and calcium attached to proteins. You may need to have a separate ionized calcium test if you have factors that increase or decrease total calcium levels. These may include abnormal blood levels ...

  9. Chelatable lead body burden (by calcium-disodium EDTA) and blood lead concentration in man

    SciTech Connect

    Brangstrup Hansen, J.P.; Dossing, M.; Paulev, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    The chelatable part of lead body burden was measured in 32 workers and seven office workers after an infusion test with CaNa/sub 2/EDTA. The workers had been exposed to lead at a lead and zinc processing unit for one to three years (mean one year). There was good correlation (r = 0.87) between blood lead and chelatable urinary lead excretion described by the equation y = 0 07.10/sup 0.46 x/. From this equation it can be predicted that the generally accepted limit value for chelatable urinary lead excretion, 0.42 ..mu..mol/mmol CaNa/sub 2/EDTA administered per 24 hours (3.1 ..mu..mol/24 hours or 650 ..mu..g/24 hours), corresponds to a blood lead concentration (PbB) of 1.7 ..mu..mol/l (or 35 ..mu..g/100 ml), which is lower than the commonly accepted limit value of 2.9 ..mu..mol/1 (or 60..mu..g/100 ml) for occupationally lead-exposed persons. There was a better correlation between the chelatable lead excretion and the urinary ALA-excretion (r = 0.45; p < 0.001) than between PbB and the urinary ALA-excretion (r = 0.26; p > 0.05).

  10. Effects of oral administration of a calcium-containing gel on serum calcium concentration in postparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Queen, W G; Miller, G Y; Masterson, M A

    1993-02-15

    Various nutritious nutritional-supplement gels are being marketed for use in veterinary medicine. This study was designed to determine whether serum calcium, phosphorous, or magnesium concentrations were different between cows given a gel containing calcium chloride as its active ingredient (treated) and cows given inert carrier gel (control). The study revealed a significant (P < 0.01) increase in serum total calcium concentration within 5 minutes of administration of a calcium gel given to cows within 1 hour of parturition. Serum total calcium concentration had returned to baseline value by 24 hours after calcium gel administration. Serum inorganic phosphorus concentration also increased significantly (P < 0.05) after treatment. Significant changes in serum magnesium concentrations were not detected. PMID:8449800

  11. Stress urinary incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... you urinate. Urinalysis to check for urinary tract infection. Urinary stress test: You stand with a full bladder ... out of the bed or chair Unpleasant odors Urinary tract infections Vaginal discharge The condition may get in the ...

  12. Novel description of the 24-hour circadian rhythms of brachial versus central aortic blood pressure and the impact of blood pressure treatment in a randomized controlled clinical trial: The Ambulatory Central Aortic Pressure (AmCAP) Study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bryan; Lacy, Peter S; Baschiera, Fabio; Brunel, Patrick; Düsing, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    Elevated brachial blood pressure (BP) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and predicts morbidity and mortality in humans. Recently, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and assessment of central aortic BP have been introduced to improve BP phenotyping. The Ambulatory Central Aortic Pressure (AmCAP) study combines these approaches and describes, for the first time, the diurnal patterns of simultaneously measured 24-hour ambulatory brachial and central pressures in a prespecified substudy embedded within a clinical trial of BP lowering in patients with hypertension. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory brachial and central pressure measurements were acquired using a tonometer mounted into the articulating strap of a wristwatch-like device (BPro) in 171 participants with hypertension recruited into the ASSERTIVE (AliSkiren Study of profound antihypERtensive efficacy in hyperTensIVE patients) trial. Participants were randomly assigned to BP lowering with either aliskiren 300 mg QD or telmisartan 80 mg QD for 12 weeks. Ambulatory brachial and central BP was measured in all participants both at baseline and at study end. Brachial and central BP both demonstrated typical diurnal patterns with lower pressures at night. However, night time was associated with smaller reductions in central relative to brachial pressure and decreased pulse pressure amplification (P<0.0001 for both). These effects were not modulated after BP lowering and were maintained after adjustment for day and night-time BP and heart rate (P=0.02). This study demonstrates that brachial and central pressure show different diurnal patterns, which are not modulated by BP-lowering therapy, with relatively higher night-time central pressures. These novel data indicate that night-time central BP may provide prognostic importance and warrants further investigation. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00865020. PMID:23630950

  13. Effects of calcium chloride and calcium sulfate in an oral bolus given as a supplement to postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sampson, J D; Spain, J N; Jones, C; Carstensen, L

    2009-01-01

    An oral calcium bolus (Bovikalc, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica) supplying calcium to dairy cows in the form of calcium chloride and calcium sulfate was evaluated to determine the effect on calcium homeostasis immediately after calving. Cows in the treatment group received one bolus immediately after calving and a second bolus 12 hours later. Control cows received no calcium supplementation. Blood was analyzed for ionized calcium, and urine was collected for urinary pH determination. Postpartum supplementation with the Bovikalc bolus significantly increased serum ionized calcium levels and decreased urine pH values. PMID:20037967

  14. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  15. Changes in Urinary and Serum Levels of Novel Biomarkers after Administration of Gadolinium-based Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Mawad, Habib; Laurin, Louis-Philippe; Naud, Jean-François; Leblond, François A.; Henley, Nathalie; Vallée, Michel; Pichette, Vincent; Leblanc, Martine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of our study is to describe the changes in urinary and serum levels of novel biomarkers after gadolinium contrast administration in patients with normal renal function. METHODS We measured four biomarkers in 28 volunteers: interleukin-18 (IL-18), N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and cystatin C. Urinary and serum samples were collected at 0, 3, and 24 hours following gadolinium administration. RESULTS Baseline serum creatinine was 57.8 ± 34.5 µmol/L and remained stable. Urinary IL-18 levels increased significantly at three hours (10.7 vs. 7.3 ng/mg creatinine; P < 0.05). Similarly, urinary NAG levels increased significantly at three hours (3.9 vs. 2.2 IU/mg creatinine; P < 0.001). For both these markers, the difference was no longer significant at 24 hours. No statistically significant differences were observed for urinary and serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels and for serum cystatin C levels. CONCLUSIONS Urinary IL-18 and NAG levels increased transiently after administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents in patients with normal renal function. PMID:27398022

  16. Calcium Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent; Bird, Gary S.; Putney, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium signaling results from a complex interplay between activation and inactivation of intracellular and extracellular calcium permeable channels. This complexity is obvious from the pattern of calcium signals observed with modest, physiological concentrations of calcium-mobilizing agonists, which typically present as sequential regenerative discharges of stored calcium, a process referred to as calcium oscillations. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the underlying mechanism of calcium oscillations through the power of mathematical modeling. We also summarize recent findings on the role of calcium entry through store-operated channels in sustaining calcium oscillations and in the mechanism by which calcium oscillations couple to downstream effectors. PMID:21421924

  17. Estimation of urinary aldosterone using thin-layer chromatography and fluorimetry.

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, D; Martin, H; Tyler, C M

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To develop a fluorimetric method for the estimation of urinary aldosterone; to establish a normal range in 24 hour and overnight urine samples; and to investigate the use of overnight urines for detecting hyperaldosteronism. METHODS--Essential steps include hydrolysis of the 18 conjugate to release aldosterone and its oxidation with Benedict's solution, followed by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel and development of fluorescence on the plate with sulphuric acid. RESULTS--There was a linear correlation between the amount of aldosterone and the area under the peak on the chromatogram. The mean intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation were 4.4% and 6.8%, respectively. The mean aldosterone excretion in 67 adults was 15.7 (SD 8.1) nmol/24 hours. The mean overnight excretion in 65 adults was 2.6 (1.4) nmol/8 hours. The method detected raised concentrations in patients with primary and secondary aldosteronism. CONCLUSIONS--This technique provides an accurate means of assaying urinary aldosterone. Overnight estimations seem to be as effective as 24 hour assays for identifying patients with hyperaldosteronism. PMID:8282834

  18. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Our ePublications > Urinary tract infection fact sheet ePublications Urinary tract infection fact sheet Print this fact sheet Urinary tract ... a doctor find out if I have a urinary tract infection (UTI)? To find out if you have a ...

  19. The effect of variable calcium and very low calcium diets on human calcium metabolism. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of a very low calcium diet, with variable high and low protein intake, on the dynamics of calcium metabolism and the mechanism of calciuretics, are examined. The experiment, using male subjects, was designed to study the role of intestinal calcium absorption on urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of production of endogeneously secreted calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The study showed an average of 70% fractional absorption rate during very low calcium intake, and that a decrease in renal tubular reabsorption of calcium is responsible for calciuretic effects of high protein intake. The study also indicates that there is a tendency to develop osteoporosis after long periods of low calcium intake, especially with a concurrent high protein intake.

  20. Effects of microgravity on urinary osteopontin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyer, J. R.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Liu, H.; Whitson, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Increased risk of renal stone formation during space flight has been linked primarily to increased calcium excretion from bone demineralization induced by space flight. Other factors contributing to increased risk include increased urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation, while urinary citrate, magnesium and volume are all decreased. The aim of this study was to increase the predictive value of stone risk profiles for crew members during space flight by evaluating the excretion of urinary protein inhibitors of calcium crystallization so that more comprehensive stone risk profiles could relate mineral saturation to the concentrations of inhibitor proteins. Levels of urinary osteopontin (uropontin) are reported in a series of 14 astronauts studied before, during, and after space flights. During space flight, a compensatory increase in uropontin excretion was not observed. However, the uropontin excretion of a majority of astronauts was increased during the period after space flight and was maximal at 2 wk after landing. The downward shift in the molecular size of uropontin observed in samples obtained during space flight was shown to result from storage at ambient temperature during flight, rather than an effect of microgravity on uropontin synthesis.

  1. The Relationship of the Increase in the 'Time of the Earth Day,' from 18 Hours to 24 Hours, to the Increase in the Size of the Earth, Using the Laws of the Conservation of Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimorelli, S. A.; Samuels, C.

    2010-12-01

    There are three articles, by others, which discuss the increase in the Earth's day, from 18 hours to 24 hours, over a period of time of about a billion years. One article refers to Striations in the Substructure of Coral, C.T. Scrutton, et al, 1965. Another article refers to the Laws of the Conservation of Momentum, as related to the relationship of the Earth and the Moon, the lunar tides, the reduction of the Earth year from 481 days to our present 365.25 days, and an increase in the lunar orbit time from 20 days to 28 days. The third article is based on the dates of tidal sediment deposits, tidalites, C. P. Sonett, et al, in the late 1980's. In this paper, we explain how the Earth's Day could have increased from 18 hours to 24 hours, as related to the Laws of Conservation of Momentum (L). Wherein we use the simple formulation from the Law of the Conservation of Angular Momentum, L=Iω, in which I=Moment of Inertia and ω=Angular Velocity; for which we assume the earth to be a perfect sphere, for which I=0.4MR2, where M and R are the Mass and radius of the earth, respectively. We evaluate the radius of the earth over a time period of several billion years, during which time the earth's angular momentum, L=Iω, is conserved. In this formulation, we show a growth in the size of the earth; and present a curve, using just three points in time, which indicates that the rate of growth is increasing over time. The first point is from about 4.5 billion years ago, the second point is from about 1 billion years ago, and the third point represents present day, with an average growth of about 1mm per year. Although evidence has been presented, by others, showing circumferential growth at the Red Sea and in the Atlantic Ocean, at about 1.5cm per year, total. However, no proof of reduction in the size of the Earth has been shown to occur in the Pacific, or anywhere else, including in references to subduction. Some might say that the subduction is occurring at the rim of the

  2. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  3. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... best treatment for the most common type of kidney stone , which is made of calcium. This type of ... the kidneys into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production ...

  4. Effective cross-over to granisetron after failure to ondansetron, a randomized double blind study in patients failing ondansetron plus dexamethasone during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, R; de Boer, A C; vd Linden, G H M; Stoter, G; Sparreboom, A; Verweij, J

    2001-01-01

    In view of the similarity in chemical structure of the available 5HT3-receptor antagonists it is assumed, whilst these agents all act at the same receptor, that failure to one agent would predict subsequent failure to all 5HT3-receptor antagonists. We conducted a randomized double blind trial of granisetron 3 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg versus continued treatment with ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg in patients with protection failure on ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Of 40 eligible patients, 21 received ondansetron + dexamethasone and 19 received granisetron + dexamethasone. We found a significant benefit from crossing-over to granisetron after failure on ondansetron. Of the 19 patients who crossed over to granisetron, 9 patients obtained complete protection, whereas this was observed in 1 of the 21 patients continuing ondansetron, P = 0.005. These results indicate that there is no complete cross-resistance between 5HT3-receptor antagonists, and that patients who have acute protection failure on one 5HT3-receptor antagonist should be offered cross-over to another 5HT3-receptor antagonist. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11710819

  5. Prognosis in threatened abortion: a comparison between predictions made by sonar urinary hormone assays and clinical judgement.

    PubMed

    Duff, G B

    1975-11-01

    One hundred patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of threatened abortion were assessed by means of sonar, urinary oestrogen, pregnanediol and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) assays and clinical examination. Assay of oestrogen excretion was the most accurate (86-5 per cent) in predicting the ultimate outcome of pregnancy, but did not give as much information as sonar examination which gave an accurate prognosis in 84 per cent of cases and was much quicker to perform The reasons for the sonar failures are discussed. Assay of urinary pregnanediol excretion gave an accurate indication of outcome in 74 per cent of cases and 24-hour urinary HCG in 70 per cent although random urinary HCG estimations provided an accurate prediciton in only 54-5 per cent of cases. Clinical examination presented the usual difficulties in assessing uterine size and predicting abortion from the amount of bleeding and pain. PMID:1191599

  6. Integrated exposure assessment of sewage workers to genotoxicants: an urinary biomarker approach and oxidative stress evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sewage workers are exposed to multiple chemicals among which many are suspected genotoxicants. Therefore, they might incur DNA damage and oxidative stress. We aimed to explore integrated urinary biomarkers, assessing the overall urine genotoxicity by in vitro comet and micronucleus assays and measuring urinary 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine. Methods During three consecutive working days, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds were sampled in workplace air of 34 sewage and 30 office workers, as indicators of airborne exposure. The last day, subjects collected their 24 hours urine. Genotoxicity of urinary extracts was assessed by comet and micronucleus assays on a HepG2 cell line. Using competitive enzymatic immunoassay we evaluated the 24 hours urinary 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion. Benzo(a)pyrene toxicity equivalent factors and inhalation unit risk for Benzo(a)pyrene and benzene were used to give an estimate of cancer risk levels. Results Workplace air concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. 23.7 [range 2.4-104.6] ng.m-3 for fluoranthene) and volatile organic compounds (e.g. 19.1 ± 2.9 [standard error] μ.m-3 for benzene) were elevated in sewage compared to office workplaces (P < 0.01) and corresponded to an increased lifetime cancer risk. The urinary extracts of sewage workers showed higher genotoxicity (P < 0.001) than office workers. Conclusions The integrated and non-specific urinary biomarkers of exposure showed that sewage workers experience exposure to mixtures of genotoxicants in the workplace. PMID:21435260

  7. Comparison of validity of food group intake by food frequency questionnaire between pre- and post- adjustment estimates derived from 2-day 24-hour recalls in combination with the probability of consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Woo; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Kim, Jeongseon

    2012-01-01

    Validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) utilising a short-term measurement method is challenging when the reference method does not accurately reflect the usual food intake. In addition, food group intake that is not consumed on daily basis is more critical when episodically consumed foods are related and compared. To overcome these challenges, several statistical approaches have been developed to determine usual food intake distributions. The Multiple Source Method (MSM) can calculate the usual food intake by combining the frequency questions of an FFQ with the short-term food intake amount data. In this study, we applied the MSM to estimate the usual food group intake and evaluate the validity of an FFQ with a group of 333 Korean children (aged 3-6 y) who completed two 24-hour recalls (24HR) and one FFQ in 2010. After adjusting the data using the MSM procedure, the true rate of non-consumption for all food groups was less than 1% except for the beans group. The median Spearman correlation coefficients against FFQ of the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and the MSM-adjusted data were 0.20 (range: 0.11 to 0.40) and 0.35 (range: 0.14 to 0.60), respectively. The weighted kappa values against FFQ ranged from 0.08 to 0.25 for the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and from 0.10 to 0.41 for the MSM-adjusted data. For most food groups, the MSM-adjusted data showed relatively stronger correlations against FFQ than raw 2-d 24HRs data, from 0.03 (beverages) to 0.34 (mushrooms). The results of this study indicated that the application of the MSM, which was a better estimate of the usual intake, could be worth considering in FFQ validation studies among Korean children. PMID:22938437

  8. Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007374.htm Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension To use the sharing features on ... may be because other problems are causing your urinary incontinence. Over time, some or all of the leakage ...

  9. [Infection and urinary lithiasis].

    PubMed

    Bruyere, F; Traxer, O; Saussine, C; Lechevallier, E

    2008-12-01

    Urinary infection is a risk factor for lithiasis. Urinary tract infection is a factor of gravity of urinary stone. The stone can exist before the infection which colonizes the stone, infected stone. The infection can be the cause of the stone, infectious stone (struvite stone). Infectious stones can be secondary to a non urinary infectious agent, oxalobacter formigenes (OF) and nanobacteria. The first-line treatment of struvite stone is percutaneous surgery. Perioperative antibiotics, renal urines and stone cultures are obligatory. PMID:19033073

  10. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Wastney, Meryl E.; OBrien, Kimberly O.; Lane, Helen W.

    1999-01-01

    Bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight, threatening to limit the duration of human space missions. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after extended-duration missions. The hypotheses to be tested in this project are that space flight alters calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism, and that calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism will return to baseline within days to weeks of return to Earth. These hypotheses will be evidenced by elevated rates of bone mineral resorption and decreased bone mineral deposition, decreased absorption of dietary calcium, altered calcitropic endocrine profiles, elevated excretion of calcium in urine and feces, and elevated excretion of markers of bone resorption. The second hypothesis will be evidenced by return of indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism to preflight levels within days to weeks of return to Earth. Studies will be conducted on International Space Station astronauts before, during, and after extended-duration flights. Measurements of calcium kinetics, bone mass, and endocrine/biochemical markers of bone and calcium homeostasis will be conducted. Kinetic studies utilizing dual isotope tracer kinetic studies and mathematical modeling techniques will allow for determination of bone calcium deposition, bone calcium resorption, dietary calcium absorption and calcium excretion (both urinary and endogenous fecal excretion). These studies will build upon preliminary work conducted on the Russian Mir space station. The results from this project will be critical for clarifying how microgravity affects bone and calcium homeostasis, and will provide an important control point for assessment of countermeasure efficacy. These results are expected to aid in developing countermeasures for bone loss, both for space crews and for individuals on Earth who have metabolic bone diseases.

  11. Direct radioimmunoassay of urinary estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronides during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Stanczyk, F Z; Miyakawa, I; Goebelsmann, U

    1980-06-15

    Assays which measure immunoreactive metabolites of the major urinary estrogens directly are described, and their applicability to ovulation detection methods is discussed. The immunoreactive materials measured were estrone glucuronide (E1G), estradiol-3-glucuronide (E2-3G), estradiol-17beta-glucuronide (E2-17G), estriol-3-glucuronide (E3-3G), estriol-16alpha-glucuronide, and pregnanediol-3alpha-glucuronide (Pd-3G); these estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronide fractions were measured in portions of 24-hour and overnight samples of urine collected daily from 7 women throughout 1 menstrual cycle. The urinary excretions were correlated with daily serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone. The usual serum changes were noted preovulatorily in all 7 women, who were therefore considered ovulatory. 24-hour and overnight urinary excretion patterns of the estrogen glucuronides were similar to the serum estradiol pattern, and of the 5 estrogen glucuronide fractions, E2-17G showed the earliest and steepest ascending slope of preovulatory estrogen surge. Therefore, E2-17G is most suitable estrogen fraction for predicting ovulation. Pd-3G rose in parallel with progesterone serum levels and was markedly elevated 2-3 days after the midcycle luteinizing hormone peak; therefore, because milligram quantities of Pd-3G are excreted daily in urine, measurements of this glucuronide are most useful for ovulation detection by a simple immunochemical or enzymatic technique (dipstick). PMID:7386528

  12. Male urinary incontinence and the urinary sheath.

    PubMed

    Smart, Clare

    This article addresses the assessment and management of male incontinence with a specific focus on the use of the male external catheter (MEC) or urinary sheath. Education and expertise when dealing with a man with urinary incontinence, as well as a tactful and sensitive attitude towards this embarrassing problem, are essential for a successful outcome. The urinary sheath is often perceived by nurses and patients as a difficult product to master and is prone to failure owing to incorrect fitting and management. With correct usage it can make a great difference to a patient's quality of life and avoid problems often associated with urinary catheters and pads such as urinary infection and skin excoriation. Detailed assessment of the patient as well as his suitability for the MEC is essential for a successful outcome. PMID:24820510

  13. Analysis of urinary stone based on a spectrum absorption FTIR-ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asyana, V.; Haryanto, F.; Fitri, L. A.; Ridwan, T.; Anwary, F.; Soekersi, H.

    2016-03-01

    This research analysed the urinary stone by measuring samples using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection spectroscopy and black box analysis. The main objective of this study is to find kinds of urinary stone and determine a total spectrum, which is a simple model of the chemical and mineral composition urinary stone through black box analysis using convolution method. The measurements result showed that kinds of urinary stone were pure calcium oxalate monohydrate, ion amino acid calcium oxalate monohydrate, a mixture of calcium oxalate monohydrate with calcium phosphate, a mixture of ion amino acid calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate,pure uric acid, ion amino acid uric acid, and a mixture of calcium oxalate monohydrate with ion amino acid uric acid. The results of analysis of black box showed characteristics as the most accurate and precise to confirm the type of urinary stones based on theregion absorption peak on a graph, the results of the convolution, and the shape of the total spectrum on each urinary stones.

  14. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies. PMID:25805105

  15. Nutrition in calcium nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis due to genetic and environmental factors. The importance of social and health effects of nephrolithiasis is further highlighted by the strong tendency to relapse of the disease. Long-term prospective studies show a peak of disease recurrence within 2–3 years since onset, 40-50% of patients have a recurrence after 5 years and more than 50-60% after 10 years. International nutritional studies demonstrated that nutritional habits are relevant in therapy and prevention approaches of nephrolithiasis. Water, right intake of calcium, low intake of sodium, high levels of urinary citrate are certainly important for the primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. In this review is discussed how the correction of nutritional mistakes can reduce the incidence of recurrent nephrolithiasis. PMID:23634702

  16. [Antibacterial activity of essential oils on microorganisms isolated from urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rogério Santos; Sumita, Tânia Cristina; Furlan, Marcos Roberto; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Ueno, Mariko

    2004-04-01

    The antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC) Stapf., and Salvia officinalis, L.) was assessed on bacterial strains derived from 100 urine samples. Samples were taken from subjects diagnosed with urinary tract infection living in the community. Microorganisms were plated on Müller Hinton agar. Plant extracts were applied using a Steers replicator and petri dishes were incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Salvia officinalis, L. showed enhanced inhibitory activity compared to the other two herbs, with 100% efficiency against Klebsiella and Enterobacter species, 96% against Escherichia coli, 83% against Proteus mirabilis, and 75% against Morganella morganii. PMID:15122392

  17. Parathyroid and Calcium Status in Patients with Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Meenu; Abrol, Pankaj

    2010-01-01

    Thirty patients with thalassemia major receiving repeated blood transfusion were studied to see their serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium status. Serum PTH, serum and 24 h urinary calcium, and serum alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, and albumin-corrected calcium levels were determined. Half of these patients, in addition to transfusion, were also supplemented with vitamin D (60,000 IU for 10d) and calcium (1500 mg/day for 3 months). Serum PTH, and serum and 24 h urinary calcium concentrations of the patients receiving transfusions were found to be significantly reduced while their serum alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, and albumin-corrected calcium levels were not significantly altered when compared to the respective mean values for the control group. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation significantly increased their serum PTH and calcium levels. Supplementations also increased urinary excretion of calcium. The results thus suggest that patients with thalassemia have hypoparathyroidism and reduced serum calcium concentrations that in turn were improved with vitamin D and calcium supplementation. PMID:21966110

  18. Ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium intake variations: effects on calcium, phosphorus and magnesium utilization by human adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kies, C.; Brennan, M.A.; Parks, S.K.; Stauffer, D.J.; Wang, H.Y.; Young, S.F.; Fox, H.M.

    1986-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding two levels of ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and ascorbic acid on the apparent utilization of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium by healthy, human adult subjects. During 4 randomly-arranged experimental periods of 7 days each, a laboratory-controlled diet alone or with supplements of ascorbic acid, dicalcium phosphate or magnesium oxide was fed to the 18 subjects. Results indicated that ascorbic acid supplementation tended to reduce urinary phosphorus loss and to slightly increase fecal phosphorus loss so that overall phosphorus balances became more positive. Conversely, under these conditions, urinary calcium losses were little affected but fecal calcium losses were increased resulting in an overall decrease in calcium balance with ascorbic acid supplementation. Ascorbic acid supplementation resulted in decreased urine and fecal losses of magnesium and more positive magnesium balances. Magnesium supplementation resulted in more positive calcium and phosphorus balances as did calcium phosphate supplementation on magnesium balance.

  19. The otolaryngologic manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): a clinical investigation of 225 patients using ambulatory 24-hour pH monitoring and an experimental investigation of the role of acid and pepsin in the development of laryngeal injury.

    PubMed

    Koufman, J A

    1991-04-01

    Occult (silent) gastroesophageal reflux disease (GER, GERD) is believed to be an important etiologic factor in the development of many inflammatory and neoplastic disorders of the upper aerodigestive tract. In order ot test this hypothesis, a human study and an animal study were performed. The human study consisted primarily of applying a new diagnostic technique (double-probe pH monitoring) to a population of otolaryngology patients with GERD to determine the incidence of overt and occult GERD. The animal study consisted of experiments to evaluate the potential damaging effects of intermittent GER on the larynx. Two hundred twenty-five consecutive patients with otolaryngologic disorders having suspected GERD evaluated from 1985 through 1988 are reported. Ambulatory 24-hour intraesophageal pH monitoring was performed in 197; of those, 81% underwent double-probe pH monitoring, with the second pH probe being placed in the hypopharynx at the laryngeal inlet. Seventy percent of the patients also underwent barium esophagography with videofluoroscopy. The patient population was divided into seven diagnostic subgroups: carcinoma of the larynx (n = 31), laryngeal and tracheal stenosis (n = 33), reflux laryngitis (n = 61), globus pharyngeus (n = 27), dysphagia (n = 25), chronic cough (n = 30), and a group with miscellaneous disorders (n = 18). The most common symptoms were hoarseness (71%), cough (51%), globus (47%), and throat clearing (42%). Only 43% of the patients had gastrointestinal symptoms (heartburn or acid regurgitation). Thus, by traditional symptomatology, GER was occult or silent in the majority of the study population. Twenty-eight patients (12%) refused or could not tolerate pH monitoring. Of the patients undergoing diagnostic pH monitoring, 62% had abnormal esophageal pH studies, and 30% demonstrated reflux into the pharynx. The results of diagnostic pH monitoring for each of the subgroups were as follows (percentage with abnormal studies): carcinoma (71

  20. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production of ... Milk-alkali syndrome Proximal renal tubular acidosis Rickets Sarcoidosis Vitamin D Update Date 5/3/2015 Updated ...

  1. Efficacy of Physiotherapy for Urinary Incontinence following Prostate Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bakuła, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    The study enrolled 81 with urinary incontinence following radical prostate-only prostatectomy for prostatic carcinoma. The patients were divided into two groups. The patients in Group I were additionally subdivided into two subgroups with respect to the physiotherapeutic method used. The patients of subgroup IA received a rehabilitation program consisting of three parts. The patients of subgroup IB rehabilitation program consist of two parts. Group II, a control group, had reported for therapy for persistent urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy but had not entered therapy for personal reasons. For estimating the level of incontinence, a 1-hour and 24-hour urinary pad tests, the miction diary, and incontinence questionnaire were used, and for recording the measurements of pelvic floor muscles tension, the sEMG (surface electromyography) was applied. The therapy duration depended on the level of incontinence and it continued for not longer than 12 months. Superior continence outcomes were obtained in Group I versus Group II and the difference was statistically significant. The odds ratio for regaining continence was greater in the rehabilitated Group I and smaller in the group II without the rehabilitation. A comparison of continence outcomes revealed a statistically significant difference between Subgroups IA versus IB. The physiotherapeutic procedures applied on patients with urine incontinence after prostatectomy, for most of them, proved to be an effective way of acting, which is supported by the obtained results. PMID:24868546

  2. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the human body. It helps build and protect your teeth ... absorb calcium. You can get vitamin D from sunlight exposure to your skin and from your diet. Ask your provider whether ...

  3. Dual energy micro CT SkyScan 1173 for the characterization of urinary stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitri, L. A.; Asyana, V.; Ridwan, T.; Anwary, F.; Soekersi, H.; Latief, F. D. E.; Haryanto, F.

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the composition of urinary stones is an essential part to determine suitable treatments for patients. The aim of this research is to characterize the urinary stones by using dual energy micro CT SkyScan 11173. This technique combines high-energy and low- energy scanning during a single acquisition. Six human urinary stones were scanned in vitro using 80 kV and 120 kV micro CT SkyScan 1173. Projected images were produced by micro CT SkyScan 1173 and then reconstructed using NRecon (in-house software from SkyScan) to obtain a complete 3D image. The urinary stone images were analysed using CT analyser to obtain information of internal structure and Hounsfield Unit (HU) values to determine the information regarding the composition of the urinary stones, respectively. HU values obtained from some regions of interest in the same slice are compared to a reference HU. The analysis shows information of the composition of the six scanned stones obtained. The six stones consist of stone number 1 (calcium+cystine), number 2 (calcium+struvite), number 3 (calcium+cystine+struvite), number 4 (calcium), number 5 (calcium+cystine+struvite), and number 6 (calcium+uric acid). This shows that dual energy micro CT SkyScan 1173 was able to characterize the composition of the urinary stone.

  4. Calcium Imaging of AM Dyes Following Prolonged Incubation in Acute Neuronal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Morley, John W.; Tapson, Jonathan; Breen, Paul P.; van Schaik, André

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-imaging is a sensitive method for monitoring calcium dynamics during neuronal activity. As intracellular calcium concentration is correlated to physiological and pathophysiological activity of neurons, calcium imaging with fluorescent indicators is one of the most commonly used techniques in neuroscience today. Current methodologies for loading calcium dyes into the tissue require prolonged incubation time (45–150 min), in addition to dissection and recovery time after the slicing procedure. This prolonged incubation curtails experimental time, as tissue is typically maintained for 6–8 hours after slicing. Using a recently introduced recovery chamber that extends the viability of acute brain slices to more than 24 hours, we tested the effectiveness of calcium AM staining following long incubation periods post cell loading and its impact on the functional properties of calcium signals in acute brain slices and wholemount retinae. We show that calcium dyes remain within cells and are fully functional >24 hours after loading. Moreover, the calcium dynamics recorded >24 hrs were similar to the calcium signals recorded in fresh tissue that was incubated for <4 hrs. These results indicate that long exposure of calcium AM dyes to the intracellular cytoplasm did not alter the intracellular calcium concentration, the functional range of the dye or viability of the neurons. This data extends our previous work showing that a custom recovery chamber can extend the viability of neuronal tissue, and reliable data for both electrophysiology and imaging can be obtained >24hrs after dissection. These methods will not only extend experimental time for those using acute neuronal tissue, but also may reduce the number of animals required to complete experimental goals. PMID:27183102

  5. Urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lauren N; Anger, Jennifer T

    2014-01-01

    Urinary incontinence affects women of all ages. History, physical examination, and certain tests can guide specialists in diagnosing stress urinary incontinence, urgency urinary incontinence, and mixed urinary incontinence. First line management includes lifestyle and behavior modification, as well as pelvic floor strength and bladder training. Drug therapy is helpful in the treatment of urgency incontinence that does not respond to conservative measures. In addition, sacral neuromodulation, intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA injections, and posterior tibial nerve stimulation can be used in select patient populations with drug refractory urgency incontinence. Midurethral synthetic slings, including retropubic and transobturator approaches, are safe and efficacious surgical options for stress urinary incontinence and have replaced more invasive bladder neck slings that use autologous or cadaveric fascia. Despite controversy surrounding vaginal mesh for prolapse, synthetic slings for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence are considered safe and minimally invasive. PMID:25225003

  6. Management of calcium channel antagonist overdose.

    PubMed

    Salhanick, Steven D; Shannon, Michael W

    2003-01-01

    -release product should be observed in a monitored setting for 12 hours, while those who ingest a sustained-release preparation should be observed for no less than 24 hours. Charcoal should be given to the asymptomatic patient with a history of calcium channel antagonist overdose. PMID:12534324

  7. Is there an association between fibromyalgia and below-normal levels of urinary cortisol?

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo–Álvarez, Silvia; Bocos–Terraz, Julia Pilar; Bancalero–Flores, Jose Luis; Pavón–Romero, Lenin; Serrano–Ostariz, Enrique; de Miquel, Cayetano Alegre

    2008-01-01

    Background Adynamia in fibromyalgia (FM) may be an expression of a functional deficit of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and be associated with below-normal levels of urinary cortisol. Our aim was to demonstrate that urinary cortisol was lower in patients with FM than in healthy subjects. Findings We measured urinary cortisol levels for a sample of 47 women aged 29 to 64 years (mean age 53 years), diagnosed with FM 2–3 years previously, and compared the results with those for a control sample of 58 healthy women of a similar age. Samples of 24-hour urine were appropriately collected and levels of urinary cortisol were measured using the fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The mean cortisol value for the women with FM was 65.40 ± 27.10 μg/L, significantly lower than the mean cortisol level for the control group, at 90.83 ± 38.17 μg/L (p < 0.001). Conclusion Our study confirms that women with FM have significantly lower urinary cortisol levels than healthy women. PMID:19102778

  8. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePlus

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... can usually be found and treated before the kidneys become infected. If your doctor treats a urinary tract infection early and ... Tips on preventing urinary tract infections Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. Drinking cranberry juice may also help ...

  10. Pelvic Static Magnetic Stimulation to Control Urinary Incontinence in Older Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Marianne C.; Davies, Elizabeth A.; Thalib, Lukman; Griffiths, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the efficacy of non-invasive static magnetic stimulation (SMS) of the pelvic floor compared to placebo in the treatment of women aged 60 years and over with urinary incontinence for 6 months or more. Subjects and Methods A single-blinded randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Subjects were excluded if they had an implanted electronic device, had experienced a symptomatic urinary tract infection, or had commenced pharmacotherapy for the same in the previous 4 weeks, or if they were booked for pelvic floor or gynecological surgery within the next 3 months. Once written consent was obtained, subjects were randomly assigned to the active SMS group (n=50) or the placebo group (n=51). Treatment was an undergarment incorporating 15 static magnets of 800–1200 Gauss anterior, posterior, and inferior to the pelvis for at least 12 hours a day for 3 months. Placebo was the same protocol with inert metal disks replacing the magnets. Primary outcome measure was cessation of incontinence as measured by a 24-hour pad test. Secondary outcomes were frequency and severity of symptoms as measured by the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire (BFLUTS-SF), the Incontinence Severity Index, a Bothersomeness Visual Analog scale, and a 24-hour bladder diary. Data were collected at baseline and 12 weeks later. Results There were no statistically significant differences between groups in any of the outcome measures from baseline to 12 weeks. Initial evidence of subjective improvement in the treatment group compared to the placebo group was not sustained with sensitivity analysis. Conclusion This study found no evidence that static magnets cure or decrease the symptoms of urinary incontinence. Additional work into the basic physics of the product and garment design is recommended prior to further clinical trials research. PMID:21817123

  11. [Clinical significance of urinary enzymes in diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Morita, E; Kaizu, K; Uriu, K; Eto, S

    1990-06-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of urinary enzyme activity in patients with diabetes mellitus. Patients were divided into two groups: group A - 102 outpatients, group B-23 inpatients. Spot urine samples before breakfast from group A and aliquots of 24-hours urine collections at 4 degrees C from group B were used. Urinary enzyme activities (N-acetyl- beta-D-glucosaminidase: NAG, alkaline phosphatase: ALP, leucine aminopeptidase: LAP, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase: gamma-GTP) were determined by spectrophotometric assay, rate assay, Tuppy method and Orlowski method, respectively. 1) In group A, the percentage of the cases which showed higher than the normal range (NAG: 1.3-8.7, ALP: 4.2-17.7, LAP: 0-22.9 U/g. cer.) was 42.2% in NAG, 21.6% in ALP, and 8.8% in LAP. In a multiple regression analysis, the predictor variables which contributed to NAG were HbA1c, age, urinary protein and the one that contributed to ALP, LAP, gamma-GTP was urinary beta 2-microglobulin. 2) In group B, 87% of NAG was above the normal range (Mean +/- 2 SD; 4.8 +/- 3.9 U/day). There was no difference in the NAG activity between patients with and without nephropathy. The percent of high activities of ALP, LAP and gamma-GTP were 17%, 17%, 4%, respectively. Most of them were patients with nephropathy. There were correlations among ALP, LAP and gamma-GTP, though no correlation existed between NAG and the other three enzymes. These results suggested: 1) NAG reflects lysosomal dysfunction of both glomerular and proximal tubular epithelial cells which may be caused by poor glycemic control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1975116

  12. Calcium and nitrogen balance, experiment M007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whedon, G. D.; Lutwak, L.; Neuman, W. F.; Lachance, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    The collection of data on the response of the skeletal and muscular systems to 14-day space flights was evaluated for loss of calcium, nitrogen, and other metabolically related elements. Considerable interindividual variability was demonstrated in all experimental factors that were measured. Calcium balance became less positive and urinary phosphate excretion increased substantially in flight despite a reduction in phosphate intake. Patterns of excretion of magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride were different for each subject, and, in part, could be correlated with changes in adrenocortical steroid production. The principal hormonal change was a striking decrease during flight in the urinary excretion of 17-hydroxycortocosteroids. Dermal losses of calcium, magnesium, sulfate, and phosphate were insignificant during all three phases.

  13. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation. PMID:25433503

  14. Quantitation of proteinuria with urinary protein/creatinine ratios and random testing with dipsticks in nephrotic children.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, C; Zilleruelo, G; Freundlich, M; Strauss, J

    1990-02-01

    We examined the relative feasibility of using random urinary dipstick testing and urinary protein/creatinine ratios in the quantitation of proteinuria. Sixty-four children with relapsing nephrotic syndrome, ranging in age from 1 1/2 to 16 years, contributed 145 timed urine collections and 150 random specimens, which were analyzed by urinary protein dipstick, quantitation of protein and creatinine, or both. Total protein excretion was expressed as grams per surface area per day and the urinary protein/creatinine ratio as milligrams of protein per milligram of creatinine. Degrees of proteinuria were designated as physiologic (less than 0.1 gm/m2/day), intermediate (greater than 0.1 and less than 1.0 gm/m2/day), or nephrotic (greater than 1.0 gm/m2/day). The log regression analysis of the 24-hour urinary protein/creatinine ratio (y) and total protein excretion (x) was highly significant (r = 0.97; p less than 0.001). The upper and lower confidence limits of the urinary protein/creatinine ratio (1.0 and 0.1, respectively) closely approximated the designations for nephrotic and physiologic proteinuria, respectively. These values were therefore used to classify degrees of proteinuria by the urine protein/creatinine ratio. The validity of these tests was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value, and compared with that of random testing by urinary dipstick. The urinary protein/creatinine ratio offered good reliability as a test for classifying degrees of proteinuria and accurately predicting nephrotic and physiologic proteinuria. The random dipstick testing was reliable only when results were distinctly positive and when sensitivity and specificity were low. The error in the total protein excretion value that was imposed by collection errors with high and low variations in the creatinine value (57% of samples) was largely corrected by normalization of the data by log transformation. When controlled for creatinine excretion, linear regression analysis

  15. [Can examination of spontaneous urine samples adequately replace 24-hour-urine samples for determining excretory rate of various lithogenic and inhibitory substances in metabolic evaluation of kidney calculi patients?].

    PubMed

    Brändle, E; Melzer, H; Gomez-Anson, B; Flohr, P; Kleinschmidt, K; Sieberth, H G; Hautmann, R E

    1996-03-01

    The gold standard for metabolic evaluation of stone-forming patients is the 24-h urine specimen. Recently, some authors have suggested that for routine metabolic evaluation spot urine samples are as valuable as the 24-h urine specimen. The purpose of our study, was to determine the value of the spot urine sample in comparison with the 24-h urine specimens. Eighty-eight healthy volunteers on different diets were investigated (32 vegetarians, 12 body-builders without protein concentrates, 28 body-builders on protein concentrates, and 16 subjects on a regular European diet). Using 24-h specimens, excretion rates of oxalate, calcium, sodium and potassium were determined. The concentration ratio of these electrolytes to creatinine was calculated for spot urine samples. A highly significant correlation between the excretion rates and the results of the spot urine samples was found for all parameters. However, the correlations showed considerable variations. On the other hand, we were able to show that creatinine excretion is highly dependent on daily protein intake, body weight and glomerular filtration rate. This leads to a considerable inter- and intraindividual variation in creatinine excretion. This variation of the creatinine excretion is the major cause for the variation in the results of spot urine samples. It is concluded that spot urine samples are an inadequate substitute for the 24-h urine specimen and that the 24-h urine specimen is still the basis for metabolic evaluation in stone patients. PMID:8650847

  16. Auditing urinary catheter care.

    PubMed

    Dailly, Sue

    Urinary catheters are the main cause of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections among inpatients. Healthcare staff can reduce the risk of patients developing an infection by ensuring they give evidence-based care and by removing the catheter as soon as it is no longer necessary. An audit conducted in a Hampshire hospital demonstrated there was poor documented evidence that best practice was being carried out. Therefore a urinary catheter assessment and monitoring tool was designed to promote best practice and produce clear evidence that care had been provided. PMID:22375340

  17. Origin of Urinary Oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Ross P.; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2007-04-01

    Urinary oxalate is mostly derived from the absorption of ingested oxalate and endogenous synthesis. The breakdown of vitamin C may also contribute small amounts to the urinary oxalate pool. The amount of oxalate absorbed is influenced by the oxalate content of the diet, the concentrations of divalent cations in the gut, the presence of oxalate-degrading organisms, transport characteristics of the intestinal epithelium, and other factors associated with the intestinal environment. Knowledge of pathways associated with endogenous oxalate synthesis is limited. Urinary oxalate excretion can be modified using strategies that limit dietary oxalate absorption and the ingestion of oxalogenic substrates such as hydroxyproline.

  18. Calcium antagonists.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Ehud; Messerli, Franz H

    2004-01-01

    Calcium antagonists were introduced for the treatment of hypertension in the 1980s. Their use was subsequently expanded to additional disorders, such as angina pectoris, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Raynaud phenomenon, pulmonary hypertension, diffuse esophageal spasms, and migraine. Calcium antagonists as a group are heterogeneous and include 3 main classes--phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and dihydropyridines--that differ in their molecular structure, sites and modes of action, and effects on various other cardiovascular functions. Calcium antagonists lower blood pressure mainly through vasodilation and reduction of peripheral resistance. They maintain blood flow to vital organs, and are safe in patients with renal impairment. Unlike diuretics and beta-blockers, calcium antagonists do not impair glucose metabolism or lipid profile and may even attenuate the development of arteriosclerotic lesions. In long-term follow-up, patients treated with calcium antagonists had development of less overt diabetes mellitus than those who were treated with diuretics and beta-blockers. Moreover, calcium antagonists are able to reduce left ventricular mass and are effective in improving anginal pain. Recent prospective randomized studies attested to the beneficial effects of calcium antagonists in hypertensive patients. In comparison with placebo, calcium antagonist-based therapy reduced major cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death significantly in elderly hypertensive patients and in diabetic patients. In several comparative studies in hypertensive patients, treatment with calcium antagonists was equally effective as treatment with diuretics, beta-blockers, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. From these studies, it seems that a calcium antagonist-based regimen is superior to other regimens in preventing stroke, equivalent in preventing ischemic heart disease, and inferior in preventing congestive heart failure

  19. Calcium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... of calcium dietary supplements include calcium citrate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate is the more expensive form of ... the body on a full or empty stomach. Calcium carbonate is less expensive. It is absorbed better by ...

  20. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. You may have a UTI if you notice Pain or burning when you ...

  2. Percutaneous urinary procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lingeman JE. Surgical management of upper urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et ... CC, Nakada SY. Treatment selection and outcomes: renal calculi. Urol Clin North Am . 2007;34(3):409- ...

  3. [Recurrent urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infection involves mainly women and exhibits an ecological as well as economical risk. 4% of all urinary tract infection are recurrent and usually secondary to general or local abnormalities. A multidisciplinary medical and surgical team (urology, nephrology, bacteriology, infectious disease) best performs diagnosis and treatment as well as rules out reversible etiology. Treatment relies on behavioral changes before offering cranberry products and/or antibioprophylaxis if necessary. PMID:25362782

  4. [Pitfalls in measuring urinary proteins: age-related changes in urinary creatinine excretion that affect the urine protein/creatinine ratio].

    PubMed

    Yuno, Tomoji; Hisada, Yukimasa; Nishimura, Yasuyuki

    2011-02-01

    Knowing the amount of protein excreted in the urine is important in determining the severity and activity of renal diseases. In general, screening tests have been carried out using the urine dipstick. However, there are limitations in determining the amount of urinary protein excretion using qualitative tests for protein in spot urine samples due to the concentration and dilution of urine. Therefore, when using spot urine samples, it is helpful to calculate the urine protein/creatinine ratio (P/C) by simultaneous measurement of urinary creatinine for determining daily protein excretion. We examined P/C measurements using the dipstick method in 22,718 subjects who visited our hospital for health examinations. The results showed positive rates for qualitative urinary protein (1 + and more) of 4.2% for males and 2.7% for females. Also positive rates for P/C (150 mg/g.cre and more) were found of 7.7% for males and 10.2% for females. The results showed a reversal of positive rates for males and females compared with the results of qualitative urinary protein. In addition, P/C showed a higher positive rate in 70 years old or older both for males and females. The distribution of urinary creatinine levels simultaneously measured by dipstick method showed that the percentage of diluted urine with urinary creatinine level less than 50 mg/dL was 6.8% for males and 18.3% for females overall. Females showed a higher rate and the percentage tended to increase with age both for males and females. From these results, it was suggested that changes in urinary creatinine excretion with age that affect the P/C ratio are large. We then measured the albumin excretion rate in the 24-hour urine as well as examined the correlation between the urinary creatinine concentration and albumin index with regard to age and sex in 1,280 diabetic patients. The results showed that daily urinary creatinine excretion overall in males, overall in females, in males over 80 years old and in females over

  5. [Urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Hörl, W H

    2011-09-01

    Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended. PMID:21850538

  6. Calcium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... as thyroid disease , parathyroid disorder , malabsorption , cancer, or malnutrition An ionized calcium test may be ordered when ... albumin , which can result from liver disease or malnutrition , both of which may result from alcoholism or ...

  7. Calcium Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Sarcopenia Skeletal Rare Disorders Data & Publications Facts and Statistics Vitamin D map Fracture Risk Map Hip Fracture ... Training Courses Working Groups Regional Audits Reports Facts and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What ...

  8. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels. These may include abnormal blood levels of albumin or immunoglobulins. Normal Results Children: 4.8 to ... 2016:chap 245. Read More Acute kidney failure Albumin - blood (serum) test Bone tumor Calcium blood test ...

  9. Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, M M H; Rashid, I S; Qinna, N A; Jaber, A M; Badwan, A A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3 formed by three main elements: carbon, oxygen, and calcium. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world (most notably as limestone), and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. CaCO3 exists in different polymorphs, each with specific stability that depends on a diversity of variables. PMID:26940168

  10. Advanced Diabetic Nephropathy with Nephrotic Range Proteinuria: A Pilot Study of the Long-Term Efficacy of Subcutaneous ACTH Gel on Proteinuria, Progression of CKD, and Urinary Levels of VEGF and MCP-1

    PubMed Central

    Tumlin, J. A.; Galphin, C. M.; Rovin, B. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is able to reduce proteinuria in nondiabetic glomerulopathies through activation of melanocortin receptors (MCR) expressed in the podocyte. To determine the efficacy of ACTH, we conducted a randomized, open-label pilot trial of ACTH gel in patients with advanced diabetic nephropathy. Study Design. Twenty-three (23) patients with diabetic nephropathy were randomized to daily subcutaneous (SQ) injections of 16 or 32 units of ACTH gel for six months. Outcome. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients achieving a complete remission (<300 mg/24 hours) within 6 months. Exploratory endpoints included the percentage of partial (50% reduction) remissions, changes in Cr, and urinary cytokine markers. Results. After 6 months of ACTH gel therapy, 8 of 14 (57%) patients achieved a complete (n = 1) or partial (n = 7) remission. In the low-dose ACTH gel group (16 units), urinary protein fell from 6709 + 953 to 2224 + 489 mg/24 hrs (P < 0.001). In contrast, 2 of 6 patients in the 32-unit group achieved partial remission, but aggregate proteinuria (5324 + 751 to 5154 + 853 mg/24 hours) did not change. Urinary VEGF increased from 388 to 1346 pg/mg urinary creatinine (P < 0.02) in the low-dose group but remained unchanged in the high-dose group. Conclusion. ACTH gel stabilizes renal function and reduces urinary protein for up to 6 months after treatment. The ClinTrials.gov identifier is NCT01028287. PMID:24159603

  11. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  12. Calcium Hydroxylapatite

    PubMed Central

    Yutskovskaya, Yana Alexandrovna; Philip Werschler, WM.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite is one of the most well-studied dermal fillers worldwide and has been extensively used for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial lines and folds and to replenish lost volume. Objectives: To mark the milestone of 10 years of use in the aesthetic field, this review will consider the evolution of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine, provide a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach, and examine how the unique properties of calcium hydroxylapatite provide it with an important place in today’s market. Methods: This article is an up-to-date review of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine along with procedures for its use, including a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach by three expert injectors. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxylapatite is a very effective agent for many areas of facial soft tissue augmentation and is associated with a high and well-established safety profile. Calcium hydroxylapatite combines high elasticity and viscosity with an ability to induce long-term collagen formation making it an ideal agent for a global facial approach. PMID:25610523

  13. Urinary trimethylselenonium excretion by the rat: effect of level and source of selenium-75

    SciTech Connect

    Nahapetian, A.T.; Janghorbani, M.; Young, V.R.

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore in rats the urinary metabolites of selenium (Se), by using (/sup 75/Se)selenomethionine, (/sup 75/Se)selenocystine, and (/sup 75/Se)selenite, and to assess the effects of low and high levels of Se intake on trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) excretion in urine. Male adult rats were adapted for 6 weeks to a commercial rat laboratory stock diet (0.25 ppm Se). They were then starved for 24 hours and given an oral dose of either low (16 micrograms Se/kg body weight) or high (1500 micrograms Se/kg body weight) Se as the test Se compounds. Appearance of radioactivity in TMSe and non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine was monitored for 48 hours. About 40% of the /sup 75/Se dose was excreted in urine. TMSe was the major urinary Se metabolite at high, and a minor urinary Se metabolite at low dose levels of Se and for all three Se test compounds. At least 80% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 26-42% of the orally administered /sup 75/Se were excreted as non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine under the latter condition. It is hypothesized that at a requirement intake of Se either a trace or no TMSe is excreted in urine, and it becomes a major excretory metabolite of Se when the dietary trace mineral intake exceeds a requirement level, probably serving as a means of detoxification.

  14. Urinary isoflavonoid excretion as a biomarker of dietary soy intake during two randomized soy trials.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yukiko; Beckford, Fanchon; Franke, Adrian A; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated urinary isoflavonoid excretion as a biomarker of dietary isoflavone intake during two randomized soy trials (13-24 months) among 256 premenopausal women with a total of 1,385 repeated urine samples. Participants consumed a high-soy diet (2 servings/day) and a low-soy diet (<3 servings/week), completed 7 unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls, and donated repeated urine samples, which were analyzed for isoflavonoid excretion by liquid chromatography methods. We computed Spearman correlation coefficients and applied logistic regression to estimate the area under the curve. Median overall daily dietary isoflavone intakes at baseline, during low- and high-soy diet were 2.3, 0.2, and 60.4 mg aglycone equivalents, respectively. The corresponding urinary isoflavonoid excretion values were 0.4, 1.0, and 32.4 nmol/mg creatinine. Across diets, urinary isoflavonoid excretion was significantly associated with dietary isoflavone intake (rs=0.51, AUC=0.85; p<0.0001) but not within diet periods (rs=0.05-0.06, AUC=0.565-0.573). Urinary isoflavonoid excretion is an excellent biomarker to discriminate between low- and high-soy diets across populations, but the association with dietary isoflavone intake is weak when the range of soy intake is small. PMID:24901088

  15. Direct radioimmunoassay of urinary estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronides during the menstrual cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Stanczyk, F.Z.; Miyakawa, I.; Goebelsmann, U.

    1980-06-15

    Assays measuring immunoreactive estrone glucuronide (E/sub 1/G), estradiol-3-glucuronide (E/sub 2/-3G), estradiol-17..beta..-glucuronide (E/sub 2/-17G), estriol-3-glucuronide (E/sub 3/-3G), estriol-16..cap alpha..-glucuronide (E/sub 3/-16G), and pregnanediol-3..cap alpha..-glucuronide (Pd-3G) directly in diluted urine were developed and validated. These estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronide fractions were measured in aliquots of 24-hour and overnight samples of urine collected daily from seven women for one menstrual cycle. Urinary hormone excretion was correlated with daily serum estradiol (E/sub 2/), progesterone (P), and lutenizing hormonee (LH) levels. A sharp midcycle LH peak preceded by a preovulatory rise in serum E/sub 2/ and followed by luteal phase serum P levels were noted in each of the seven apparently ovulatory cycles. Twenty-four-hour and overnight urinary excretion patterns of estrogen glucuronides were similar to those of serum E/sub 2/. Of the five estrogen glucuronide fractions tested, excretion of E/sub 2/-17G exhibited the earliest and steepest ascending slope of the preovulatory estrogen surge and correlated best with serum E/sub 2/ levels. Urinary excretion of E/sub 1/-G, E/sub 2/-3G, and E/sub 3/-16G also showed an early and steep preovulatory rise and preceded that of E/sub 3/-3G, whereas urinary excretion of E/sub 3/-3G exhibited the poorest correlation with serum E/sub 2/ concentrations. The urinary excretion of Pd-3G rose parallel to serum P levels and was markedly elevated 2 to 3 days after the midcycle LH peak in both 24-hour and overnight collections of urine. These results indicate that among the urinary estrogen conjugate fractions tested, E/sub 2/-17G is the one that most suitably predicts ovulation.

  16. Urinary trimethylselenonium excretion by the rat: effect of level and source of /sup 75/Se

    SciTech Connect

    Nahapetian, A.T.; Janghorbani, M.; Young, V.R.

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore in rats the urinary metabolites of selenium (Se), by using (/sup 75/Se)selenomethionine, (/sup 75/Se)selenocystine, and (/sup 75/Se)selenite, and to assess the effects of low and high levels of Se intake on trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) excretion in urine. Male adult rats were adapted for 6 weeks to a commercial rat laboratory stock diet (0.25 ppm Se). They were then starved for 24 hours and given an oral dose of either low (16 micrograms Se/kg body weight) or high (1500 micrograms Se/kg body weight) Se as the test Se compounds. Appearance of radioactivity in TMSe and non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine was monitored for 48 hours. About 40% of the /sup 75/Se dose was excreted in urine. TMSe was the major urinary Se metabolite (57-69% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 16-25% of oral /sup 75/Se dose) at high, and a minor urinary Se metabolite (10% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 3-4% of oral /sup 75/Se dose) at low dose levels of Se and for all three Se test compounds. At least 80% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 26-42% of the orally administered /sup 75/Se were excreted as non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine under the latter condition. It is hypothesized that at a requirement intake of Se either a trace or no TMSe is excreted in urine, and it becomes a major excretory metabolite of Se when the dietary trace mineral intake exceeds a requirement level, probably serving as a means of detoxification.

  17. Urine risk factors in children with calcium kidney stones and their siblings

    PubMed Central

    Bergsland, Kristin J.; Coe, Fredric L.; White, Mark D.; Erhard, Michael J.; DeFoor, William R.; Mahan, John D.; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Asplin, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium nephrolithiasis in children is increasing in prevalence and tends to be recurrent. Although children have a lower incidence of nephrolithiasis than adults, its etiology in children is less well understood; hence treatments targeted for adults may not be optimal in children. To better understand metabolic abnormalities in stone forming children, we compared chemical measurements and the crystallization properties of 24-hour urine collections from 129 stone formers matched to 105 non-stone forming siblings and 183 normal, healthy children with no family history of stones; all aged 6 to 17 years. The principal risk factor for calcium stone formation was hypercalciuria. Stone formers have strikingly higher calcium excretion along with high supersaturation for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, and a reduced distance between the upper limit of metastability and supersaturation for calcium phosphate, indicating increased risk of calcium phosphate crystallization. Other differences in urine chemistry that exist between adult stone formers and normal individuals such as hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, abnormal urine pH and low urine volume were not found in these children. Hence, hypercalciuria and a reduction in the gap between calcium phosphate upper limit of metastability and supersaturation are crucial determinants of stone risk. This highlights the importance of managing hypercalciuria in children with calcium stones. PMID:22358148

  18. Urinary pH as a Risk Factor for Stone Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2007-04-01

    A high urinary pH is main risk factor for the calcium phosphate stone formation; however, its pathophysiologic mechanism has not been fully understood. The introduction of Topiramate in the treatment of various neurological disorders has been complicated by metabolic acidosis, significant hypocitraturia, elevated urinary pH, and calcium phosphate stone formation. This model provides a probe to investigate the pathophysiologic mechanism of calcium phosphate stone formation and perhaps to develop appropriate countermeasures in the future. On the other hand an unduly acidic urine predisposes one to uric acid nephrolithiasis. Our recent investigation linking low urinary pH, and defective renal ammoniagenesis to insulin resistance provides new knowledge to unfold the pathophysiology of uric acid nephrolithiasis. The metabolic profile leading to uric acid stone may emerge as one of the components of metabolic syndrome.

  19. Urinary Adiponectin Excretion

    PubMed Central

    von Eynatten, Maximilian; Liu, Dan; Hock, Cornelia; Oikonomou, Dimitrios; Baumann, Marcus; Allolio, Bruno; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Morcos, Michael; Campean, Valentina; Amann, Kerstin; Lutz, Jens; Heemann, Uwe; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bierhaus, Angelika; Humpert, Per M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Markers reliably identifying vascular damage and risk in diabetic patients are rare, and reports on associations of serum adiponectin with macrovascular disease have been inconsistent. In contrast to existing data on serum adiponectin, this study assesses whether urinary adiponectin excretion might represent a more consistent vascular damage marker in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adiponectin distribution in human kidney biopsies was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and urinary adiponectin isoforms were characterized by Western blot analysis. Total urinary adiponectin excretion rate was measured in 156 patients with type 2 diabetes who had a history of diabetic nephropathy and 40 healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Atherosclerotic burden was assessed by common carotid artery intima-media-thickness (IMT). RESULTS A homogenous staining of adiponectin was found on the endothelial surface of glomerular capillaries and intrarenal arterioles in nondiabetic kidneys, whereas staining was decreased in diabetic nephropathy. Low-molecular adiponectin isoforms (∼30–70 kDa) were detected in urine by Western blot analysis. Urinary adiponectin was significantly increased in type 2 diabetes (7.68 ± 14.26 vs. control subjects: 2.91 ± 3.85 μg/g creatinine, P = 0.008). Among type 2 diabetic patients, adiponectinuria was associated with IMT (r = 0.479, P < 0.001) and proved to be a powerful independent predictor of IMT (β = 0.360, P < 0.001) in multivariable regression analyses. In a risk prediction model including variables of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study coronary heart disease risk engine urinary adiponectin, but not the albumin excretion rate, added significant value for the prediction of increased IMT (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS Quantification of urinary adiponectin excretion appears to be an independent indicator of vascular damage potentially identifying an increased risk for vascular events. PMID:19509019

  20. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland) can cause lower urinary tract disease in cats. Although they are much less common causes, FLUTD ... your veterinarian about the best diet for your cat. Many commercial diets are acceptable, but some urinary ...

  1. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of surgeries that help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ... sling procedures are done to treat stress urinary incontinence. Before discussing surgery, your doctor will have you ...

  2. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007376.htm Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures To use the sharing features ... are types of surgeries that help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ...

  3. Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000134.htm Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge To use the sharing features ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al; Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  4. MedlinePlus: Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also in Spanish Stress incontinence Also in Spanish Suprapubic catheter care Also in Spanish Urge incontinence Also in ... catheterization - male Skin care and incontinence Stress incontinence Suprapubic catheter care Urge incontinence Urinary catheters Urinary catheters - what ...

  5. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education FAQs Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence FAQ166, July 2014 ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  6. Effect of zinc supplements on the intestinal absorption of calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, H.; Rubio, N.; Kramer, L.; Norris, C.; Osis, D.

    1987-02-01

    Pharmacologic doses of zinc are widely used as zinc supplements. As calcium and zinc may compete for common absorption sites, a study was carried out on the effect of a pharmacologic dose of zinc on the intestinal absorption of calcium in adult males. The analyzed dietary zinc intake in the control studies was normal, averaging 14.6 mg/day. During the high zinc study, 140 mg zinc as the sulfate was added daily for time periods ranging from 17 to 71 days. The studies were carried out during both a low calcium intake averaging 230 mg/day and during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day. Calcium absorption studies were carried out during the normal and high zinc intake by using an oral tracer dose of Ca-47 and determining plasma levels and urinary and fecal excretions of Ca-47. The study has shown that, during zinc supplementation, the intestinal absorption of calcium was significantly lower during a low calcium intake than in the control study, 39.3% vs 61% respectively, p less than 0.001. However, during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day, the high zinc intake had no significant effect on the intestinal absorption of calcium. These studies have shown that the high zinc intake decreased the intestinal absorption of calcium during a low calcium intake but not during a normal calcium intake.

  7. The increased risk of urinary stone disease in betel quid chewers.

    PubMed

    Allen, Siân E; Singh, Sadmeet; Robertson, William G

    2006-08-01

    The chewing of betel quid is a common practice in many countries of the world, particularly in Southeast Asia. The quid consists of a preparation of areca nut, betel leaf and calcium hydroxide "lime" paste ("chuna"). For the first time, we present a study that links its use to urinary stone disease. Eight patients (seven male and one female) who presented to our Stone Unit with recurrent urinary stones were included in the study. All were from the Indian subcontinent and were found to regularly chew betel. The patients underwent metabolic screening including blood, random urine and 24-h urine tests, quantitative chemical analysis of their calculi (where possible) and each completed a 7-day Diet Diary on his/her free, home diet. The study demonstrated a high incidence of hypercalciuria, a tendency to pass an alkaline urine and low urinary citrate excretion among the patients. Together these urinary risk factors increase the probability of developing both calcium phosphate-containing and calcium oxalate-containing stones. In support of this hypothesis, the patients were found to form stones consisting mainly of calcium phosphate but mixed with calcium oxalate. It is concluded that the use of calcium hydroxide "chuna" in the betel quid is the major contributor to the cause of urinary stones in its users. Moreover, the development of urinary lithiasis in such patients may be a precursor to milk-alkali syndrome in those individuals whose chewing habit is more extensive than in the patients in this study and who do not seek to decrease their habit over the long term. PMID:16534642

  8. Calcium and bones

    MedlinePlus

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  9. Get Enough Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  10. Calcium carbonate overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  11. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  12. Stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Heit, Michael

    2004-09-01

    Stress urinary incontinence, the complaint of involuntary leakage during effort or exertion, occurs at least weekly in one third of adult women. The basic evaluation of women with stress urinary incontinence includes a history, physical examination, cough stress test, voiding diary, postvoid residual urine volume, and urinalysis. Formal urodynamics testing may help guide clinical care, but whether urodynamics improves or predicts the outcome of incontinence treatment is not yet clear. The distinction between urodynamic stress incontinence associated with hypermobility and urodynamic stress incontinence associated with intrinsic sphincter deficiency should be viewed as a continuum, rather than a dichotomy, of urethral function. Initial treatment should include behavioral changes and pelvic floor muscle training. Estrogen is not indicated to treat stress urinary incontinence. Bladder training, vaginal devices, and urethral inserts also may reduce stress incontinence. Bulking agents reduce leakage, but effectiveness generally decreases after 1-2 years. Surgical procedures are more likely to cure stress urinary incontinence than nonsurgical procedures but are associated with more adverse events. Based on available evidence at this time, colposuspension (such as Burch) and pubovaginal sling (including the newer midurethral synthetic slings) are the most effective surgical treatments. PMID:15339776

  13. Urinary Tract Infections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  14. [Urinary catheter biofilm infections].

    PubMed

    Holá, V; Růzicka, F

    2008-04-01

    Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient. PMID:18578409

  15. Acid diet (high meat protein) effects on calcium metabolism and bone health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose of review: Update recent advancements regarding the effect of high animal protein on calcium utilization and bone health. Recent findings: Increased potential renal acid load resulting from a high protein (meat) intake has been closely associated with increased urinary calcium excretion. How...

  16. Strontium Substitution for Calcium in Lithogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Blaschko, Sarah D.; Chi, Thomas; Miller, Joe; Flechner, Lawrence; Fakra, Sirine; Kapahi, Pankaj; Kahn, Arnold; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Strontium has chemical similarity to calcium, which enables the replacement of calcium by strontium in biomineralization processes. Incorporating strontium into human bone and teeth has been studied extensively but little research has been performed of the incorporation of strontium into urinary calculi. We used synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption techniques to examine the presence of strontium in different types of human kidney stones. Materials and Methods Multiple unique human stone samples were obtained via consecutive percutaneous nephrolithotomies/ureteroscopies. A portion of each stone was sent for standard laboratory analysis and a portion was retained for x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption measurements. X-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption measurements determined the presence, spatial distribution and speciation of strontium in each stone sample. Results Traditional kidney stone analyses identified calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid and cystine stones. X-ray fluorescence measurements identified strontium in all stone types except pure cystine. X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping of the samples revealed co-localization of calcium and strontium. X-ray absorption measurements of the calcium phosphate stone showed strontium predominately present as strontium apatite. Conclusions Advanced x-ray fluorescence imaging identified strontium in all calcium based stones, present as strontium apatite. This finding may be critical since apatite is thought to be the initial nidus for calcium stone formation. Strontium is not identified by standard laboratory stone analyses. Its substitution for calcium can be reliably identified in stones from multiple calcium based stone formers, which may offer opportunities to gain insight into early events in lithogenesis. PMID:23260568

  17. The Interaction between Enterobacteriaceae and Calcium Oxalate Deposits

    PubMed Central

    Barr-Beare, Evan; Saxena, Vijay; Hilt, Evann E.; Thomas-White, Krystal; Schober, Megan; Li, Birong; Becknell, Brian; Hains, David S.; Wolfe, Alan J.; Schwaderer, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of calcium oxalate crystals and deposits in UTI pathogenesis has not been established. The objectives of this study were to identify bacteria present in pediatric urolithiasis and, using in vitro and in vivo models, to determine the relevance of calcium oxalate deposits during experimental pyelonephritis. Methods Pediatric kidney stones and urine were collected and both cultured and sequenced for bacteria. Bacterial adhesion to calcium oxalate was compared. Murine kidney calcium oxalate deposits were induced by intraperitoneal glyoxalate injection and kidneys were transurethrally inoculated with uropathogenic Escherichia coli to induce pyelonephritis Results E. coli of the family Enterobacteriaceae was identified in patients by calcium oxalate stone culture. Additionally Enterobacteriaceae DNA was sequenced from multiple calcium oxalate kidney stones. E. coli selectively aggregated on and around calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals. Mice inoculated with glyoxalate and uropathogenic E. coli had higher bacterial burdens, increased kidney calcium oxalate deposits and an increased kidney innate immune response compared to mice with only calcium oxalate deposits or only pyelonephritis. Conclusions In a murine model, the presence of calcium oxalate deposits increases pyelonephritis risk, likely due to preferential aggregation of bacteria on and around calcium oxalate crystals. When both calcium oxalate deposits and uropathogenic bacteria were present, calcium oxalate deposit number increased along with renal gene transcription of inner stone core matrix proteins increased. Therefore renal calcium oxalate deposits may be a modifiable risk factor for infections of the kidney and urinary tract. Furthermore, bacteria may be present in calcium oxalate deposits and potentially contribute to calcium oxalate renal disease. PMID:26448465

  18. Usefulness of urinary growth hormone (GH) measurement for evaluating endogenous GH secretion in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Mauri, M; Picó, A M; Alfayate, R; Dominguez, J R; Cámara, R; Miralles, C

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between urinary growth hormone (u-GH) and spontaneous 24-hour plasma GH secretion in 15 acromegalic patients. To measure u-GH, we have developed a method based on concentrating the sample by centrifugal ultrafiltration and then performing an immunoradiometric assay using commercially available reagents. u-GH correlated well with the integrated concentration of plasma GH (r = 0.66, p < 0.02). Additionally, u-GH excretion in acromegalic patients was significantly higher than in the control group (190 +/- 100 vs. 3.89 +/- 0.56 pg/min, mean +/- SEM, p < 0.001). Immunoreactive u-GH showed the same elution pattern in Sephadex G-75 as standard or labeled hGH, proving that the substance measured in urine is authentic GH. In conclusion, u-GH appears to be a simple, noninvasive and inexpensive test for evaluating GH secretion in active acromegaly. PMID:8406334

  19. Urinary sodium or potassium excretion and blood pressure in adults of Shandong province, China: preliminary results of the SMASH project.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Guo, Xiaolei; Ma, Jixiang; Zhang, Jiyu; Tang, Junli; Yan, Liuxia; Xu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaofei; Ren, Jie; Lu, Zilong; Zhang, Gaohui; Dong, Jing; Xu, Aiqiang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the urinary electrolyte excretion and assess the relationship between dietary sodium or potassium intake and blood pressure within a population of 18-69 adults in Shandong province, China. Random samples of 2184 adults enrolled in the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt reduction and Hypertension project were collected from 20 countries or districts. Electrolyte intake was estimated by 24-hour urine collections, and urinary volume or creatinine was measured to estimate the accuracy of the collection. Anthropometry was measured with standard procedures. Regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. The mean sodium excretion was 241.8 ± 7.9 mmol among men and 222.3 ± 7.9 mmol among women, respectively. The 24-hour average potassium excretion was 39.9 ± 0.9 and 41.8 ± 1.1 mmol, respectively. Some resident and geographic differences were found for 24-hour urinary electrolyte. Regression analysis showed increments of 1.15 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.67 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure per gram increment in urinary sodium excretion. For each increment of 1-g potassium excretion per day, there was a decrement of 0.81 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.76 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure. The highest blood pressure was observed in the group with lowest potassium and the highest sodium excretion, which was 13.6 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 7.3 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure difference from group with highest potassium excretion and lowest sodium excretion (P < .0001 for interaction). The Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt reduction and Hypertension project results show a substantially higher sodium excretion and a lower potassium excretion than recommended in Shandong adults. The sodium or potassium intake is positively association with blood pressure. These results support the recommended approaches to lower the risk of

  20. Idiopathic hypercalciuria and formation of calcium renal stones.

    PubMed

    Coe, Fredric L; Worcester, Elaine M; Evan, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    The most common presentation of nephrolithiasis is idiopathic calcium stones in patients without systemic disease. Most stones are primarily composed of calcium oxalate and form on a base of interstitial apatite deposits, known as Randall's plaque. By contrast some stones are composed largely of calcium phosphate, as either hydroxyapatite or brushite (calcium monohydrogen phosphate), and are usually accompanied by deposits of calcium phosphate in the Bellini ducts. These deposits result in local tissue damage and might serve as a site of mineral overgrowth. Stone formation is driven by supersaturation of urine with calcium oxalate and brushite. The level of supersaturation is related to fluid intake as well as to the levels of urinary citrate and calcium. Risk of stone formation is increased when urine citrate excretion is <400 mg per day, and treatment with potassium citrate has been used to prevent stones. Urine calcium levels >200 mg per day also increase stone risk and often result in negative calcium balance. Reduced renal calcium reabsorption has a role in idiopathic hypercalciuria. Low sodium diets and thiazide-type diuretics lower urine calcium levels and potentially reduce the risk of stone recurrence and bone disease. PMID:27452364

  1. Nutrient intake and urine composition in calcium oxalate stone-forming dogs: comparison with healthy dogs and impact of dietary modification.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Abigail E; Blackburn, Judith M; Markwell, Peter J; Robertson, William G

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient intake and urine composition were analyzed in calcium oxalate (CaOx)stone-forming and healthy control dogs to identify factors that contribute to CaOx urolithiasis. Stone-forming dogs had significantly lower intake of sodium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus and significantly higher urinary calcium and oxalate concentrations, calcium excretion, and CaOx relative supersaturation (RSS). Feeding a diet used in the treatment of canine lower urinary tract disease for 1 month was associated with increased intake of moisture, sodium, and fat; reduced intake of potassium and calcium; and decreased urinary calcium and oxalate concentrations, calcium excretion, and CaOx RSS. No clinical signs of disease recurrence were observed in the stone-forming dogs when the diet was fed for an additional 11 months. The results suggest that hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria contribute to the formation of CaOx uroliths in dogs and show that dietary modifications can alter this process. PMID:15578454

  2. Dietary Predictors of Urinary Environmental Biomarkers in young girls, BCERP, 2004–7

    PubMed Central

    Mervish, Nancy; McGovern, Kathleen J.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Pinney, Susan M.; Windham, Gayle C.; Biro, Frank M.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Silva, Manori J.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposures of children to phthalates, parabens, and bisphenol-A (BPA) are of concern because of their hormonal potential. These agents are found in a wide range of foods and packaging. We investigated whether intake of certain foods predict exposures to these chemicals in young girls. Methods Among 1101 girls (6–8 years at enrollment) from the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Program (BCERP) study, we measured urinary exposure biomarkers for phthalates, parabens, and BPA and assessed dietary intake using 24-hour recall 2–4 times. We examined the average daily servings of major and minor food groups categorized as 0- <0.5, 0.5 – < 1 and ≥ 1 servings per day. Items included dairy, eggs, fats, fish, fruit, single grains, meat, non-poultry meats, pasta, poultry and vegetables. Covariate-adjusted least squares geometric means and 95% confidence intervals of creatinine-corrected phthalate and phenol metabolite concentrations in urine were calculated in relation to food intake. Results Grains, flour and dry mixes and total fish consumption were positively associated with BPA and the sum of four di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) urinary metabolite concentrations. Non-fresh vegetables and poultry were both positively associated with BPA and paraben urinary concentrations. Fats, oils and poultry consumption were positively associated with BPA. Whole-fat dairy consumption was associated with ΣDEHP. Conclusions Some foods may contribute to child exposures to certain chemicals, and this may constitute modifiable means to reduce these environmental exposures. PMID:24906063

  3. The 24-Hour Job Machine: Computerized Applicant Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedman, Lisa W.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of computerized job applicant systems is described and compared to that of computerized banking systems; the characteristics of such systems in the future, especially for minimizing data entry and maximizing accessibility, are then outlined and illustrated with the Carnegie-Mellon University system. (MSE)

  4. Collection of a 24-Hour Urine Specimen (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Licensed Materials from any location via the Internet. b. STANDALONE WORKSTATION: A standalone subscription permits multiple ... computer. A Standalone Workstation license does not include Internet access to the Licensed Materials. c. INSTITUTIONAL SUBSCRIPTION: ...

  5. Boerhaave's syndrome: Experience with patients presenting later than 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Amit; Porwal, Manish; Khandeparkar, Jagdish

    2015-01-01

    Boerhaave's syndrome is the most sinister cause of esophageal perforation. Clinical presentation is vague. Diagnostic delays are frequent. As condition is rare therefore no consensus exists on management. A wide variety of management options are described in literature, each with its advantages and disadvantages. We present our experience of managing these cases which presented after 24 hr. Of onset of symptoms with emphasis on primary reinforced repair as first line surgical option. PMID:27522739

  6. Nutrition habits in 24-hour mountain bike racers.

    PubMed

    Chlíbková, Daniela; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Tomášková, Ivana; Chadim, Vlastimil; Shortall, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    We investigated seventy-four ultra-mountain bikers (MTBers) competing in the solo category in the first descriptive field study to detail nutrition habits and the most common food before during and after the 24 hour race using questionnaires. During the race, bananas (86.5%), energy bars (50.0%), apples (43.2%) and cheese (43.2%) were the most commonly consumed food, followed by bread (44.6%), rice (33.8%) and bananas (33.8%) after the race. Average fluid intake was 0.5 ± 0.2 l/h. The main beverage was isotonic sports drink (82.4%) during and pure water (66.2%) after the race. The most preferred four supplements in the four weeks before, the day before, during and after the race were vitamin C (35.1%), magnesium (44.6%), magnesium (43.2%) and branched-chain amino acids (24.3%), respectively. Total frequency of food intake (30.6 ± 10.5 times/24 hrs) was associated with fluid intake (r = 0.43, P = 0.04) and both were highest at the beginning of the race and lower during the night hours and the last race segment in a subgroup of twenty-three ultra-MTBers. Supplement intake frequency (6.8 ± 8.4 times/24 hrs) was highest during the night hours and lower at the beginning and end of the race. Elevated food and fluid intake among participants tracked across all race segments (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the nutrition strategy employed by ultra-MTBers was similar to those demonstrated in previous studies of ultra-cyclists with some exceptions among selected individuals. PMID:25674455

  7. Elimination of 24-hour continuous medical resident duty in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Hamadani, Fadi; Deckelbaum, Dan; Shaheen, Mohammed; Sauvé, Alexandre; Dumitra, Sinziana; Ahmed, Najma; Latulippe, Jean-François; Balaa, Fady; Walsh, Mark; Fata, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Summary In 2012 Quebec limited continuous in-hospital duty to 16 consecutive hours for all residents regardless of postgraduate (PGY) level. The new restrictions in Quebec appeared to have a profound, negative effect on the quality of life of surgical residents at McGill University and a perceived detrimental effect on the delivery of surgical education and patient care. Here we discuss the results of a nationwide survey that we created and distributed to general surgery residents across Canada to capture and compare their perceptions of the changes to duty hour restrictions. PMID:26574704

  8. Sun Blasts 6 CMEs in 24 Hour Period

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie from the chronograph on board the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), shows the sun's atmosphere – the corona – from September 17 to September 20. The sun let loose with at ...

  9. A 24-hour remote surveillance system for terrestrial wildlife studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W., Jr.; Ryman, W.E.; Kepler, C.B.; Hardy, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The configuration, components, specifications and costs of a state-of-the-art closed-circuit television system with wide application for wildlife research and management are described. The principal system components consist of color CCTV camera with zoom lens, pan/tilt system, infrared illuminator, heavy duty tripod, coaxial cable, coaxitron system, half-duplex equalizing video/control amplifier, timelapse video cassette recorder, color video monitor, VHS video cassettes, portable generator, fuel tank and power cable. This system was developed and used in a study of Mississippi sandhiIl Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) behaviors during incubation, hatching and fledging. The main advantages of the system are minimal downtime where a complete record of every event, its time of occurrence and duration, are permanently recorded and can be replayed as many times as necessary thereafter to retrieve the data. The system is particularly applicable for studies of behavior and predation, for counting individuals, or recording difficult to observe activities. The system can be run continuously for several weeks by two people, reducing personnel costs. This paper is intended to provide biologists who have litte knowledge of electronics with a system that might be useful to their specific needs. The disadvantages of this system are the initial costs (about $9800 basic, 1990-1991 U.S. dollars) and the time required to playback video cassette tapes for data retrieval, but the playback can be sped up when litte or no activity of interest is taking place. In our study, the positive aspects of the system far outweighed the negative.

  10. Rethinking the Youth Weight Debate: The 24 Hour Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Graham; Biggs, Sarah; Agley, Daniel; Dollman, James; Lushington, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Approaches to weight management have traditionally focussed on caloric intake versus caloric expenditure. Despite a range of interventions based on these approaches, the proportion of overweight children and adolescents continues to rise. There are increasing indications that other factors, such as sleep duration, may be at play. This commentary…

  11. Attenuated sympathetic nerve responses after 24 hours of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Mazhar H.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Leuenberger, Urs A.; Davidson, William R Jr; Ray, Chester A.; Gray, Kristen S.; Hogeman, Cynthia S.; Sinoway, Lawrence I.

    2002-01-01

    Bed rest reduces orthostatic tolerance. Despite decades of study, the cause of this phenomenon remains unclear. In this report we examined hemodynamic and sympathetic nerve responses to graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) before and after 24 h of bed rest. LBNP allows for baroreceptor disengagement in a graded fashion. We measured heart rate (HR), cardiac output (HR x stroke volume obtained by echo Doppler), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during a progressive and graded LBNP paradigm. Negative pressure was increased by 10 mmHg every 3 min until presyncope or completion of -60 mmHg. After bed rest, LBNP tolerance was reduced in 11 of 13 subjects (P <.023), HR was greater (P <.002), cardiac output was unchanged, and the ability to augment MSNA at high levels of LBNP was reduced (rate of rise for 30- to 60-mmHg LBNP before bed rest 0.073 bursts x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); after bed rest 0.035 bursts x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); P < 0.016). These findings suggest that 24 h of bed rest reduces sympathetic nerve responses to LBNP.

  12. Effect of dietary calcium and magnesium on experimental renal tubular deposition of calcium oxalate crystal induced by ethylene glycol administration and its prevention with phytin and citrate.

    PubMed

    Ebisuno, S; Morimoto, S; Yoshida, T; Fukatani, T; Yasukawa, S; Ohkawa, T

    1987-01-01

    Oral administration of ethylene glycol to rats, and the resultant intratubular depositions of microcrystals of calcium oxalate were studied investigating the influences of dietary calcium or magnesium and assessing the protective efficacies against the crystallizations by treatment with phytin and sodium citrate. With increase of calcium intake and consequent increase of urinary calcium excretion there was a marked increase in the amount of tubular deposit of calcium oxalate crystal and in the calcium content of renal tissue. Although magnesium deficiency accelerated renal tubular calcium oxalate deposition, the protection against the crystal formation was not observed with excessive dietary magnesium. When rats were fed a high-calcium diet supplemented with phytin, a significant inhibition of the intratubular crystallization was observed. It appeared obvious that a hypocalciuric action of phytin was attributed to the effect of the prevention. There was vigorous protection of crystal formation by treatment with sodium citrate, which correlated with the level of citrate concentration in the drinking water. PMID:3433579

  13. Predictors of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced reduction of urinary albumin excretion in nondiabetic patients.

    PubMed

    van de Wal, Ruud M A; Gansevoort, Ron T; van der Harst, Pim; Boomsma, Frans; Thijs Plokker, H W; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; de Jong, Paul E; van Gilst, Wiek H; Voors, Adriaan A

    2006-11-01

    Urinary albumin excretion is a predictor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We investigated which parameters determine baseline urinary albumin excretion in nondiabetic subjects, without renal disease. In addition, we evaluated the parameters that predict the albuminuria-lowering efficacy of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. In this substudy of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular Endstage Disease Intervention Trial, 384 microalbuminuric patients were included. Patient and biochemical characteristics were obtained at baseline and after 3 months of double-blinded, randomized treatment (fosinopril 20 mg or placebo). Mean age was 51.1+/-11.5 years, and 65.6% were male. Median urinary albumin excretion was 22.2 mg per 24 hours. At baseline, mean arterial pressure (beta(standardized)=0.161; P=0.006), urinary sodium excretion (beta(standardized)=0.154; P=0.011), and estimated renal function were independently associated with albumin excretion. In these predominantly normotensive to prehypertensive subjects, fosinopril reduced albumin excretion by 18.5% versus a 6.1% increase on placebo after 3 months (P<0.001). Fosinopril use and blood pressure reduction independently predicted the change in urinary albumin excretion. Baseline urinary albumin excretion independently predicted the antialbuminuric effect of fosinopril (beta(standardized)=-0.303; P<0.001). In conclusion, at baseline, sodium intake and blood pressure were positively associated with urinary albumin excretion. Fosinopril reduced albuminuria more than might be expected from its blood pressure-lowering effect alone, and this effect was more outspoken in subjects with higher baseline albumin excretion. Based on our data, we hypothesize that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition may result in superior cardiovascular protection when compared with other blood pressure-lowering agents in subjects with higher baseline levels of albuminuria. PMID:17000930

  14. Urinary podocalyxin as a marker of preeclampsia in a Hispanic population

    PubMed Central

    Palacios de Franco, Ylbe; Velazquez, Karina; Segovia, Natalia; Acosta, Carolina; Yanosky, Deborah; Franco Palacios, Ylbe V; Ramos, Amanda; Franco Palacios, Carlos R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is associated with significant materno-fetal morbidity and mortality. Podocyturia due to podocyte damage seems to be associated with the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of urinary podocalyxin as a marker of preeclampsia in a Hispanic population. Methods: 63 patients were studied. 25 patients had preeclampsia/eclampsia (PE-E). 38 patients had normal pregnancies and served as control group. 24 hour proteinuria, urine protein/creatinine (UPC), urinary podocalyxin and perinatal outcomes were measured. A Podocalyxin ELISA test was used to detect podocyturia. Results: Mean age (years), mean±SD was 30.5±5.4 in normal patients vs 30.6±5.8 in PE-E, p=0.98. Median gestational age (weeks) was, 38 (range 21-42) for normal pregnancies and 36 (range 24-40) for patients with PE-E, <0.001. Urine podocalyxin/creatinine on admission (ng/mg), median [IQR] in normal patients was 55.9 [29.4, 74.9] vs 109.7 [63.8, 234.1] in PE-E, p=0.001. After adjusting for admission proteinuria, urinary podocalyxin remained independently associated with preeclampsia: OR=1.0040 (95% CI 1.0003-1.0078), p=0.03. There was low to moderate correlation between UPC and urinary podocalyxin, Spearman’s =0.31, p=0.01. In PE-E, post-partum urine podocalyxin was lower, median [IQR]: 69.7 [32.7, 184.8] p=0.19 vs admission. There was a trend towards more podocyturia and proteinuria in patients with eclampsia, comparing to those with preeclampsia. There was no association observed between podocyturia and neonatal mortality, IUGR or Apgar scores. Conclusions: Significantly higher levels of urinary podocalyxin are seen in preeclampsia/eclampsia. They tend to normalize after delivery. PMID:25057338

  15. The impact of fertilization on the chicken egg yolk plasma and granule proteome 24 hours post-lay at room temperature: capitalizing on high-pH/low-pH reverse phase chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass tag (TMT) technology.

    PubMed

    Padliya, Neerav D; Qian, Meiqian; Mimi Roy, Sushmita; Chu, Patrick; Zheng, Haiyan; Tess, Alex; Dariani, Maghsoud; Hariri, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Chicken egg yolk is a rich source of nutrients providing high quality proteins, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids and antioxidants. Chicken egg yolk, recovered from whole egg within 24 hours post-lay has been utilized as a starting material in the preparation of a dietary supplement that has been demonstrated to lead to gains in muscle mass in a human clinical study. Further, an oil derived from chicken egg yolk has been utilized as a topical agent to treat third degree burn injury. The molecular changes that take place in fertilized, chicken egg yolk during the first 24 hours post-lay are not well understood. By studying how the protein composition of egg yolk varies with fertility status, one can utilize this knowledge to develop egg yolk-based products that have been optimized for specific applications. In this study, a direct quantitative comparison was made between the proteome of fertilized chicken egg yolk and the proteome of unfertilized chicken egg yolk, both maintained at 20 °C and analyzed within 24 hours post-lay. Egg yolk proteins from each fertility state were digested with trypsin, labeled with distinct chemical labels (tandem mass tag reagents) and then combined in a 1 : 1 ratio. A TMT-labeled tryptic digest derived from chicken egg yolk proteins (fertilized and unfertilized) was separated using high-pH/low-pH reverse-phase chromatography and analyzed using mass spectrometry. 225 protein identifications were made from this TMT-labeled tryptic digest based on a minimum of 2 unique peptides observed per protein. 9 proteins increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk and 9 proteins decreased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk. Some proteins that increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk play an important role in angiogenesis (pleiotrophin, histidine rich glycoprotein) and defense against pathogens (mannose-binding lectin, β-defensin 11, serum amyloid P-component, ovostatin

  16. Urinary Tract Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Kołodziej, Anna; Krajewski, Wojciech; Dołowy, Łukasz; Hirnle, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Recently, occurrence of urinary tract endometriosis (UTE) is more frequently diagnosed. According to literature, it refers to approximately 0.3 to even 12% of all women with endometriosis. The pathogenesis of UTE has not been clearly explained so far. The actually proposed hypotheses include embryonic, migration, transplantation, and iatrogenic theory. Most frequently UTE affects bladder, less often ureters and kidneys. One-third of patients remains asymptomatic or exhibits only minor manifestations. In symptomatic patients main complaints include dysuria, urinary urgency, and/or frequency, painful micturition, and burning sensation in the urethra and discomfort in the retropubic area. Treatment of UTE is challenging and can be pharmacological, surgical or can be a combination of both methods. In this paper we present a review of the literature concerning the UTE, its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26341760

  17. Potential etiologic role of brushite in the formation of calcium (renal) stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Charles Y. C.

    1981-05-01

    Brushite may play an important regulatory role in the formation of calcium -containing renal stones. The urinary environment from patients with hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis is typically supersaturated and shows an increased propensity for the spontaneous nucleation of brushite. Brushite has been identified in "stone-forming" urine and in stones. This crystalline phase may undergo phase transformation to hydroxyapatite or cause heterogeneous nucleation or epitaxial growth of calcium oxalate. Thus, brushite may also participate in the formation of stones of hydroxypatite or calcium oxalate.

  18. Effects of calcium hydroxide addition on the physical and chemical properties of a calcium silicate-based sealer

    PubMed Central

    KUGA, Milton Carlos; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro; SANT'ANNA-JÚNIOR, Arnaldo; KEINE, Kátia Cristina; FARIA, Gisele; DANTAS, Andrea Abi Rached; GUIOTTI, Flávia Angélica

    2014-01-01

    Recently, various calcium silicate-based sealers have been introduced for use in root canal filling. The MTA Fillapex is one of these sealers, but some of its physicochemical properties are not in accordance with the ISO requirements. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the flowability, pH level and calcium release of pure MTA Fillapex (MTAF) or containing 5% (MTAF5) or 10% (MTAF10) calcium hydroxide (CH), in weight, in comparison with AH Plus sealer. Material and Methods The flowability test was performed according to the ISO 6876:2001 requirements. For the pH level and calcium ion release analyses, the sealers were placed individually (n=10) in plastic tubes and immersed in deionized water. After 24 hours, 7 and 14 days, the water in which each specimen had been immersed was evaluated to determine the pH level changes and calcium released. Flowability, pH level and calcium release data were analyzed statistically by the ANOVA test (α=5%). Results In relation to flowability: MTAF>AH Plus>MTAF5>MTAF10. In relation to the pH level, for 24 h: MTAF5=MTAF10=MTAF>AH Plus; for 7 and 14 days: MTAF5=MTAF10>MTAF>AH Plus. For the calcium release, for all periods: MTAF>MTAF5=MTAF10>AH Plus. Conclusions The addition of 5% CH to the MTA Fillapex (in weight) is an alternative to reduce the high flowability presented by the sealer, without interfering in its alkalization potential. PMID:25025558

  19. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. PMID:26177232

  20. Urinary excretions of 34 dietary polyphenols and their associations with lifestyle factors in the EPIC cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Achaintre, David; Rothwell, Joseph A; Rinaldi, Sabina; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Leitzmann, Michael; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Auffret, Aurélie; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin

    2016-01-01

    Urinary excretion of 34 dietary polyphenols and their variations according to diet and other lifestyle factors were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 475 adult participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study. A single 24-hour urine sample was analysed for each subject from 4 European countries. The highest median levels were observed for phenolic acids such as 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (157 μmol/24 h), followed by 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, ferulic, vanillic and homovanillic acids (20-50 μmol/24 h). The lowest concentrations were observed for equol, apigenin and resveratrol (<0.1 μmol/24 h). Urinary polyphenols significantly varied by centre, followed by alcohol intake, sex, educational level, and energy intake. This variability is largely explained by geographical variations in the diet, as suggested by the high correlations (r > 0.5) observed between urinary polyphenols and the intake of their main food sources (e.g., resveratrol and gallic acid ethyl ester with red wine intake; caffeic, protocatechuic and ferulic acids with coffee consumption; and hesperetin and naringenin with citrus fruit intake). The large variations in urinary polyphenols observed are largely determined by food preferences. These polyphenol biomarkers should allow more accurate evaluation of the relationships between polyphenol exposure and the risk of chronic diseases in large epidemiological studies. PMID:27273479

  1. [The effect of dopaminergic stimulation and inhibition on the urinary excretion of aldosterone and kallikrein in spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    PubMed

    Minuz, P; Gangi, F; Degan, M; Lechi, C; Delva, P; Lechi, A

    1983-10-30

    The effect on the electrolyte balance of a dopaminergic agonist (bromocriptine) and an antagonist (metoclopramide) and their effect on renal aldosterone and kallikrein excretion were investigated. Ten normotensive Wistar rats and ten spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-Wistar Kioto) were treated with BCR (4 mg/Kg weight b.i.d.) for 4 days; after a week of pharmacological wash-out they received MCP (0,5 mg/Kg weight b.i.d.) for 4 days. Before and after treatment and at the 2nd and 4th day of each treatment diuresis, urinary excretion of aldosterone, kallikrein, sodium, potassium and proteins were measured. During the 24-hour urine collections the rats were kept in separate metabolic cages with free access to food and water. Kallikrein urinary excretion was lower in SHR than in normotensive rats under basal conditions (p 0.05); urinary sodium, potassium, proteins and sodium/potassium rate were also reduced in SHR. After treatment with bromocriptine a further reduction in urinary kallikrein excretion was observed in SHR. After MCP all the parameters were unchanged both in normotensive rats and in SHR, but SHR showed a significant correlation between aldosterone and kallikrein excretion (p less than 0,001); in this condition it seems that in SHR the control exerted by aldosterone on kallikrein excretion is greater than the one exerted by dopamine. It may indicate a defect of the natriuretic and vasodilator dopaminergic system in spontaneously hypertensive rats. PMID:6559080

  2. Urinary excretions of 34 dietary polyphenols and their associations with lifestyle factors in the EPIC cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Achaintre, David; Rothwell, Joseph A.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Leitzmann, Michael; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Auffret, Aurélie; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin

    2016-01-01

    Urinary excretion of 34 dietary polyphenols and their variations according to diet and other lifestyle factors were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 475 adult participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study. A single 24-hour urine sample was analysed for each subject from 4 European countries. The highest median levels were observed for phenolic acids such as 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (157 μmol/24 h), followed by 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, ferulic, vanillic and homovanillic acids (20–50 μmol/24 h). The lowest concentrations were observed for equol, apigenin and resveratrol (<0.1 μmol/24 h). Urinary polyphenols significantly varied by centre, followed by alcohol intake, sex, educational level, and energy intake. This variability is largely explained by geographical variations in the diet, as suggested by the high correlations (r > 0.5) observed between urinary polyphenols and the intake of their main food sources (e.g., resveratrol and gallic acid ethyl ester with red wine intake; caffeic, protocatechuic and ferulic acids with coffee consumption; and hesperetin and naringenin with citrus fruit intake). The large variations in urinary polyphenols observed are largely determined by food preferences. These polyphenol biomarkers should allow more accurate evaluation of the relationships between polyphenol exposure and the risk of chronic diseases in large epidemiological studies. PMID:27273479

  3. [Urinary complications after anorectal surgery].

    PubMed

    Iusuf, T; Sârbu, V; Cristache, C; Popescu, R; Botea, F; Panait, L

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of urinary complications after various anorectal operations was studied in a group of 273 patients. The overall prevalence of urinary complications was 26.7%; most of these complications affected men between 41 and 50, mainly after hemorrhoidectomy. In 10.6% of patients, bladder catheterization was needed. These urinary complications result from nervous reflexes originating from the anus and determined by the operative trauma and/or rectal distinction. In the treatment of these urinary complications, the role of the muses is essential for reassuring the patients. Parasympathomimetic drugs are often efficient. Urinary catheterization must be delayed until the 18th hour. Fluid restriction may be useful to prevent urinary retention. PMID:14870531

  4. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

  5. Induced urinary crystal formation as an analytical strategy for the prediction and monitoring of urolithiasis and other metabolism-related disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Crystal formation reflects the entire composition of the surrounding solution. In case of urolithiasis, induced crystal formation in native urine has led to the development of the Bonn-Risk-Index (BRI), a valuable tool to quantify an individual's risk of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. If the progression of a disease is associated with characteristic changes in the activities of urinary components, this leads to an altered urinary crystallisation capacity. Therefore, the results of induced urinary crystal formation can be used to detect and monitor any disease linked to the altered urinary composition. Since crystal formation inherently takes into account the entire urinary composition, the influence of the disease on individual urinary parameters does not have to be known in order to monitor the consequent pathologic alterations. In this paper, we review the background of urinary crystal formation analysis and describe its established application in urolithiasis monitoring as well as potential further fields of clinical application. PMID:25206937

  6. Effects of magnesium deficiency on intratubular calcium oxalate formation and crystalluria in hyperoxaluric rats.

    PubMed

    Rushton, H G; Spector, M

    1982-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that magnesium deficiency accelerates renal tubular calcium oxalate monohydrate deposition in rats on chronic hyperoxaluric, lithogenic protocols. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of magnesium deficiency on intratubular calcium oxalate formation in rats from the 1st day of administration of a hyperoxaluric agent. The objectives were to delineate early ultrastructural features of the formation, mechanisms of retention, and development of renal tubular crystal deposits and to characterize the crystalluria in rats on the hyperoxaluric/hypomagnesuric protocol. Intratubular calcium oxalate monohydrate deposits were found in magnesium deficient rats after only 24 hours of ad libitum administration of 1 per cent ethylene glycol drinking water. Animals on regular food diet did not display renal tubular deposition after 11 days of ethylene glycol administration. Strand- and sheet-like organic material emanating from the luminal wall of the tubules was adherent to the crystals, thereby serving to immobilize them within the tubule. Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals predominated in the urines of hyperoxaluric/hypomagnesuric animals with intratubular deposits while dihydrate crystals were the primary constituent of urines from rats administered ethylene glycol alone (no intratubular deposition). The results support the supposition that under certain conditions magnesium deficiency is a significant risk factor for intrarenal calcium oxalate deposition and stone formation. Furthermore the identification of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystalluria may be an important indicator of the propensity toward intranephronic calcium oxalate formation and urolithiasis. PMID:7062446

  7. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  8. Calcium source (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  9. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  10. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  11. Urinary extracellular microvesicles: isolation methods and prospects for urinary proteome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danqi; Sun, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Extracellular microvesicles (EVs) are membranous vesicles, which are released from diverse cells. These EVs have also been found in a wide range of body fluids. The cargo of EVs, including proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids, can be stably preserved in EVs. Researchers have found that EVs can mediate intercellular communication by shuttling the cargo components. Therefore, EVs can be used for the identification of disease-specific biomarkers. As one class of EVs, urinary exosomes can reflect the status of the renal system. Moreover, urinary exosome analysis can minimize the interference of high abundant proteins in the whole urine sample. Therefore, urinary exosomes have gained much attention in recent years. In this review, we present a comprehensive summary of urinary exosome studies in recent years, including collection, storage, and isolation methods. The normal and disease proteomic analyses of urinary exosomes are also presented. Thus, this review may provide a valuable reference for future research. PMID:24962155

  12. [Urinary antimicrobial prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Nathanson, S; Deschênes, G

    2002-05-01

    Antibiotics are usually used to prevent childhood recurrent urinary tract infections: cystitis or pyelonephritis. The mechanism of action of these antibiotics, although imperfectly known, seems to be double: the antibiotic acts by its bactericidal effect, but also probably for minimal concentrations by reducing adhesion capability of bacteria to the urothelium. The most commonly used molecules are cotrimoxazole, trimethoprime, pivmecillinam, cefaclor and nalidixic acid. However all have not been studied rigorously as for their prophylactic capacity, and in particular very little is known for patients presenting with vesico-ureteral reflux. PMID:12053547

  13. Urogynecologic conditions: urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Robert; Garely, Alan D

    2015-03-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI), the leakage of urine, is a condition that frequently goes untreated. There are many different types of UI, including stress and urge UI, and the etiology is multifactorial. Diagnosis can be made with a pertinent history, including use of a questionnaire; a pelvic examination; and direct observation. Additional testing can include physical maneuvers to elicit stress leakage and urodynamic studies. Treatment ranges from pelvic floor exercise to surgical support of the pelvic floor for stress UI and, typically, behavioral therapy and/or pharmacotherapy, starting with antimuscarinic drugs, for urge UI. PMID:25756372

  14. Urinary tuberculosis: modern issues.

    PubMed

    Wise, Gilbert J

    2009-07-01

    Tuberculosis remains an epidemic that affects one third of the world's population. The persistence of this disease is caused by a large pool of immune-compromised and lower socioeconomic populations. The advent of rapid transportation and migration has contributed to the persistence of this disease in developed and less developed nations. The emergence of drug-resistant strains has added an additional factor for the pervasiveness of tuberculosis. The genitourinary system is a primary target for hematogenous infections. This paper reviews the contemporary issues that affect the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tuberculosis. PMID:19570494

  15. Urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Wang, Alina; Nizran, Parminder; Malone, Michael A; Riley, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Clinical presentation helps differentiate between upper and lower urinary tract infections (UTIs). UTIs are classified as either complicated or uncomplicated. A complicated UTI is associated with an underlying condition that increases the risk of failing therapy. Primary laboratory tests for UTIs consist of urinalysis and urine culture. The most common pathogen for uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis is Escherichia coli. Nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are first-line therapies for acute uncomplicated cystitis. Decisions regarding antibiotic agents should be individualized based on patients' allergies, tolerability, community resistance rates, cost, and availability. PMID:23958364

  16. Prosthetic urinary sphincter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, C. R.; Smyly, H. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A pump/valve unit for controlling the inflation and deflation of a urethral collar in a prosthetic urinary sphincter device is described. A compressible bulb pump defining a reservoir was integrated with a valve unit for implantation. The valve unit includes a movable valve member operable by depression of a flexible portion of the valve unit housing for controlling fluid flow between the reservoir and collar; and a pressure sensing means which operates the valve member to relieve an excess pressure in the collar should too much pressure be applied by the patient.

  17. The Impact of Creatinine Clearance Rate, Daily Urinary Albumin, and Their Joint Effect on Predicting Death in Diabetic Inpatients After Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I-Te; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Lin, Shih-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Renal clearance function and urinary albumin excretion are important markers for diabetic nephropathy. We assessed whether the creatinine clearance rate (CCR) and daily urinary albumin (DUA) excretion, which both require 24-hour urine data, are better predictors of mortality in diabetic inpatients compared with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin–creatinine ratio (ACR). We enrolled 1011 patients who were hospitalized due to poor glucose control, and collected clinical information, including 24-hour urine data, from their medical records. We determined the mortality rate after discharge by examining the national registry data in Taiwan. The subjects had a median follow-up of 6.5 years (interquartile range between 3.5 and 9.6 years). Subjects with a CCR < 60 mL/min and a DUA ≥ 300 mg/d had the highest mortality rate, with a hazard ratio of 3.373 (95% confidence interval = 2.469–4.609), compared with the mortality rate in subjects with a CCR ≥ 60 mL/min and a DUA < 300 mg/d. In terms of predicting mortality in diabetic inpatients, ACR had a similar sensitivity to DUA (40.3% versus 38.0%), but eGFR provided lower sensitivity than CCR (54.5% versus 66.5%). Creatinine clearance rate and DUA have an additive effect on predicting mortality in diabetic inpatients after discharge. Moreover, CCR is a more sensitive predictor of mortality than eGFR. Therefore, determining CCR using 24-hour urine data, as well as either ACR or DUA, should provide better prediction of mortality in diabetic nephropathy patients. PMID:26871846

  18. Decrease in T Cell Activation and Calcium Flux during Clinorotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, Clarence; Holtzclaw, J. David

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of altered gravitational environments on T cell activation. We isolated human, naive T cells (CD3+CD14-CD19-CD16-CD56-CD25-CD69-CD45RA-) following IRB approved protocols. These purified T cells were then incubated with 6 mm polystyrene beads coated with OKT3 (Ortho Biotech, Raritan, NJ) and antiCD28 (Becton Dickinson (BD), San Jose, CA) at 37 C for 24 hours. Antibodies were at a 1:1 ratio and the bead-to-cell ratio was 2:1. Four incubation conditions existed: 1) static or "1g"; 2) centrifugation at 10 relative centrifugal force (RCF) or "10g"; 3) clinorotation at 25 RPM (functional weightlessness or "0g"); and 4) clinorotation at 80 RPM ("1g" plus net shear force approx.30 dynes/sq cm). Following incubation, T cells were stained for CD25 expression (BD) and intracellular calcium (ratio of Fluo4 to Fura Red, Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR) and analyzed by flow cytometry (Coulter EPICS XL, Miami, FL). Results: Static or "1g" T cells had the highest level of CD25 expression and intracellular calcium. T cells centrifuged at 10 RCF ("10g") had lower CD25 expression and calcium levels compared to the static control. However, cells centrifuged at 10 RCF had higher CD25 expression and calcium levels than those exposed to 24 RPM clinorotation ("0g"). T cells exposed to 24 RPM clinorotation had lower CD25 expression, but the approximately the same calcium levels than T cells exposed to 80 RPM clinorotation. These data suggest that stress-activated calcium channel exist in T cells and may play a role during T cell activation.

  19. Urinary Sulfur Metabolites Associate with a Favorable Cardiovascular Risk Profile and Survival Benefit in Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Pasch, Andreas; Westendorp, Welmoet H.; Navis, Gerjan; Brink, Elizabeth J.; Gans, Reinold O.B.; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, Stephan J.L.

    2014-01-01

    In post-transplant conditions, sulfur may be protective by intermediate conversion to hydrogen sulfide and thiosulfate. However, sulfate, the end product of sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs), contributes to metabolic acid load and may adversely influence acid-base homeostasis. We investigated the association of urinary sulfur metabolites with cardiometabolic parameters in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and analyzed their predictive capacity for mortality. We studied urinary sulfate and thiosulfate excretion in 24-hour urine samples from 707 RTRs at a median 5.4 years (interquartile range, 1.9 to 12.2) after transplantation as well as from 110 controls. Diet was assessed for SAA content and various risk factors were measured. Urinary sulfate was similar, whereas thiosulfate was higher in RTRs versus controls. SAA intake was lower in RTRs compared with controls and correlated with sulfate but not thiosulfate excretion. Sulfate beneficially associated with eGFR, net acid excretion, systolic BP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide, and proteinuria (all P≤0.01). Thiosulfate beneficially associated with eGFR, serum acidity, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (all P≤0.001). During a median 27 months (interquartile range, 22–36) of follow-up, 47 RTRs died. After adjustment for age, sex, and eGFR, hazard ratios for mortality were 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 0.92; P<0.001) for urinary sulfate and 0.60 (95% confidence interval, 0.41 to 0.59; P=0.01) for thiosulfate. Thus, despite the association of urinary sulfate with metabolic acid load, urinary sulfate and thiosulfate beneficially associated with survival in RTRs, possibly by influencing cardiovascular parameters. Intervention studies with exogenous sulfur are warranted to elucidate mechanisms underlying these promising associations in RTRs. PMID:24511127

  20. [Clinical effect of LM-001, prostaglandin synthetic inhibitor, on pain from urinary tract stone and vesical urgency after operation of the bladder or prostate].

    PubMed

    Nakano, E; Yoshioka, T; Matsuda, M; Sonoda, T; Yano, H; Ihara, Y; Kuroda, H; Kishimoto, T; Sakurai, T; Uchida, K

    1990-05-01

    Clinical effect of LM-001, a prostaglandin synthetic inhibitor developed from a drug delivery system, was evaluated in 54 patients with pain from urinary tract stones (stone pain) and 32 with vesical urgency after an operation on bladder or prostate. LM-001, felbinac ethyl incorporated in lipid microsphere, wes intravenously administered at the onset of stone pain or vesical urgency. Of 54 with stones and 32 with urgency, 53 and 29 were eligible for response, respectively. The symptoms improved or disappeared in some cases just after the administration and in the majority of patients within 15 minutes, in 49 of 53 patients with stone pain. Further, the effectiveness lasted over 24 hours in 26 of the 49 responding to this agent. On one hand, improvement or disappearance of vesical urgency was recognized in 25 of 29 patients, and the effectiveness was observed shortly after injection in 16 and lasted over 24 hours in 13 cases. Toxicities of this drug were investigated in 54 patients with stone pain and 32 with urinary urgency. Side effects consisted of pain at the injection site in 4, a slight fall of blood pressure in 1, slight visual disturbance in 1, body heat sensation in 1, leukocytosis in 3 and elevation of alkaline phosphatase in 1. These symptoms were transient and disappeared without use of any agent. LM-001 is concluded to be a useful drug for controlling stone pain and vesical urgency since an immediate effect, long durability and high response rates were obtained without severe side PMID:2399865

  1. [The role of gastro-intestinal tract in the calcium absorption].

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Akiko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2015-11-01

    Calcium is associated with various functions of clinical importance. Its unique distribution;low intracellular and high extracellular concentration, is crucial for the neuro-muscular function. Calcium is also indispensable for the vascular contraction and blood coagulation. Thus, circulating calcium concentration must be strictly maintained within a narrow range, for which parathyroid hormone(PTH), vitamin D, and calcitonin contribute. Food-derived protein-bound calcium must be first released in the acidic condition. Thus, gastric acid is essential for the effective calcium absorption. Intestinal calcium absorption occurs via both active transport and passive transport. For the former, such molecules as transient receptor potential vanilloid type 6(TRPV6), calbindin 9k, and Ca²⁺-ATPase contribute. In the adult, calcium absorption rate is approximately 30% under the ordinary condition. Lower calcium intake is associated with increased calcium absorption and decreased urinary excretion. In the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese, calcium requirement is determined based on factorial method. Recommended Dietary Allowance(RDA)for calcium ranges from 600-800 mg/day for adult. However, the average calcium intake is far lower than Estimated Average Requirement(EAR). Thus, an effort to increase the calcium intake, rather than considering the detailed calcium absorption rate, is most essential in Japan. PMID:26503863

  2. Can the manipulation of urinary pH by beverages assist with the prevention of stone recurrence?

    PubMed

    Siener, Roswitha

    2016-02-01

    The formation of various types of stones in the urinary tract is strongly influenced by urinary pH. An acidic urinary pH promotes the crystallization of uric acid and cystine, respectively. Moreover, changes in systemic acid-base homeostasis alter urinary excretion of citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium oxalate stone formation. The effect of beverages on urinary pH and citrate excretion is mainly determined by the presence of bicarbonate and citrate. The bicarbonate content of mineral water can replace alkalization therapy with potassium citrate and contribute to urine inhibitory power by increasing urinary pH and citrate excretion. Citrus juices are rich sources of citrate. Oral citrate is absorbed in the intestine and nearly completely metabolized to bicarbonate, providing an alkali load, which in turn increases urinary pH and citrate excretion. However, data from observational and interventional studies on the effect of different types of citrus juices on the risk of urinary stone formation are conflicting. In conclusion, favourable changes in urinary pH and citrate excretion can be attained by various beverages. However, the long-term efficacy of certain beverages for the recurrence prevention of different types of stones has yet to be determined. PMID:26614113

  3. Urinary Mineral Concentrations in European Pre-Adolescent Children and Their Association with Calcaneal Bone Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements.

    PubMed

    Van den Bussche, Karen; Herrmann, Diana; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kourides, Yiannis A; Lauria, Fabio; Marild, Staffan; Molnár, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Sioen, Isabelle; On Behalf Of The Dedipac Consortium

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates differences and associations between urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal bone measures assessed by quantitative ultrasonography (QUS) in 4322 children (3.1-11.9 years, 50.6% boys) from seven European countries. Urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal QUS parameters differed significantly across countries. Clustering revealed a lower stiffness index (SI) in children with low and medium urinary mineral concentrations, and a higher SI in children with high urinary mineral concentrations. Urinary sodium (uNa) was positively correlated with urinary calcium (uCa), and was positively associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation and SI after adjustment for age, sex and fat-free mass. Urinary potassium (uK) was negatively correlated with uCa but positively associated with speed of sound after adjustment. No association was found between uCa and QUS parameters after adjustment, but when additionally adjusting for uNa, uCa was negatively associated with SI. Our findings suggest that urinary mineral concentrations are associated with calcaneal QUS parameters and may therefore implicate bone properties. These findings should be confirmed in longitudinal studies that include the food intake and repeated measurement of urinary mineral concentrations to better estimate usual intake and minimize bias. PMID:27164120

  4. Urinary Mineral Concentrations in European Pre-Adolescent Children and Their Association with Calcaneal Bone Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements †

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bussche, Karen; Herrmann, Diana; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kourides, Yiannis A.; Lauria, Fabio; Marild, Staffan; Molnár, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A.; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Sioen, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates differences and associations between urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal bone measures assessed by quantitative ultrasonography (QUS) in 4322 children (3.1–11.9 years, 50.6% boys) from seven European countries. Urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal QUS parameters differed significantly across countries. Clustering revealed a lower stiffness index (SI) in children with low and medium urinary mineral concentrations, and a higher SI in children with high urinary mineral concentrations. Urinary sodium (uNa) was positively correlated with urinary calcium (uCa), and was positively associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation and SI after adjustment for age, sex and fat-free mass. Urinary potassium (uK) was negatively correlated with uCa but positively associated with speed of sound after adjustment. No association was found between uCa and QUS parameters after adjustment, but when additionally adjusting for uNa, uCa was negatively associated with SI. Our findings suggest that urinary mineral concentrations are associated with calcaneal QUS parameters and may therefore implicate bone properties. These findings should be confirmed in longitudinal studies that include the food intake and repeated measurement of urinary mineral concentrations to better estimate usual intake and minimize bias. PMID:27164120

  5. Potassium citrate decreases urine calcium excretion in patients with hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Hernandez, Natalia; Shoag, Jonathan; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2016-04-01

    Two previous studies (<10 patients each) have demonstrated that alkali therapy may reduce urine calcium excretion in patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The hypothesized mechanisms are (1) a decrease in bone turnover due to systemic alkalinization by the medications; (2) binding of calcium by citrate in the gastrointestinal tract; (3) direct effects on TRPV5 activity in the distal tubule. We performed a retrospective review of patients on potassium citrate therapy to evaluate the effects of this medication on urinary calcium excretion. A retrospective review was performed of a metabolic stone database at a tertiary care academic hospital. Patients were identified with a history of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and hypocitraturia who were on potassium citrate therapy for a minimum of 3 months. 24-h urine composition was assessed prior to the initiation of potassium citrate therapy and after 3 months of therapy. Patients received 30-60 mEq potassium citrate by mouth daily. Inclusion criterion was a change in urine potassium of 20 mEq/day or greater, which suggests compliance with potassium citrate therapy. Paired t test was used to compare therapeutic effect. Twenty-two patients were evaluated. Mean age was 58.8 years (SD 14.0), mean BMI was 29.6 kg/m(2) (SD 5.9), and gender prevalence was 36.4% female:63.6% male. Mean pre-treatment 24-h urine values were as follows: citrate 280.0 mg/day, potassium 58.7 mEq/day, calcium 216.0 mg/day, pH 5.87. Potassium citrate therapy was associated with statistically significant changes in each of these parameters-citrate increased to 548.4 mg/day (p < 0.0001), potassium increased to 94.1 mEq/day (p < 0.0001), calcium decreased to 156.5 mg/day (p = 0.04), pH increased to 6.47 (p = 0.001). Urine sodium excretion was not different pre- and post-therapy (175 mEq/day pre-therapy versus 201 mEq/day post-therapy, p = NS). Urinary calcium excretion decreased by a mean of 60 mg/day on potassium citrate therapy-a nearly 30

  6. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Intrinsic Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders: Advanced Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (ASWPD), Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD), Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (N24SWD), and Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (ISWRD). An Update for 2015

    PubMed Central

    Auger, R. Robert; Burgess, Helen J.; Emens, Jonathan S.; Deriy, Ludmila V.; Thomas, Sherene M.; Sharkey, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review and meta-analyses (where appropriate) were performed and the GRADE approach was used to update the previous American Academy of Sleep Medicine Practice Parameters on the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders. Available data allowed for positive endorsement (at a second-tier degree of confidence) of strategically timed melatonin (for the treatment of DSWPD, blind adults with N24SWD, and children/ adolescents with ISWRD and comorbid neurological disorders), and light therapy with or without accompanying behavioral interventions (adults with ASWPD, children/adolescents with DSWPD, and elderly with dementia). Recommendations against the use of melatonin and discrete sleep-promoting medications are provided for demented elderly patients, at a second- and first-tier degree of confidence, respectively. No recommendations were provided for remaining treatments/ populations, due to either insufficient or absent data. Areas where further research is needed are discussed. Citation: Auger RR, Burgess HJ, Emens JS, Deriy LV, Thomas SM, Sharkey KM. Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: advanced sleep-wake phase disorder (ASWPD), delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD), non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD), and irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder (ISWRD). An update for 2015. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1199–1236. PMID:26414986

  7. Mesoscale crystallization of calcium phosphate nanostructures in protein (casein) micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thachepan, Surachai; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    Aqueous micelles of the multi-protein calcium phosphate complex, casein, were treated at 60 °C and pH 7 over several months. Although partial dissociation of the micelles into 12 nm sized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/protein nanoparticles occurred within a period of 14 days, crystallization of the ACP nanoclusters into bundles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanofilaments was not observed until after 12 weeks. The HAP nanofilaments were formed specifically within the partially disrupted protein micelles suggesting a micelle-mediated pathway of mesoscale crystallization. Similar experiments using ACP-containing synthetic micelles prepared from β-casein protein alone indicated that co-aligned bundles of HAP nanofilaments were produced within the protein micelle interior after 24 hours at temperatures as low as 35 °C. The presence of Mg2+ ions in the casein micelles, as well as a possible synergistic effect associated with the multi-protein nature of the native aggregates, could account for the marked inhibition in mesoscale crystallization observed in the casein micelles compared with the single-component β-casein constructs.Aqueous micelles of the multi-protein calcium phosphate complex, casein, were treated at 60 °C and pH 7 over several months. Although partial dissociation of the micelles into 12 nm sized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)/protein nanoparticles occurred within a period of 14 days, crystallization of the ACP nanoclusters into bundles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanofilaments was not observed until after 12 weeks. The HAP nanofilaments were formed specifically within the partially disrupted protein micelles suggesting a micelle-mediated pathway of mesoscale crystallization. Similar experiments using ACP-containing synthetic micelles prepared from β-casein protein alone indicated that co-aligned bundles of HAP nanofilaments were produced within the protein micelle interior after 24 hours at temperatures as low as 35 °C. The presence of Mg2+ ions in

  8. Prevention of urinary catheter incrustations by acetohydroxamic acid.

    PubMed

    Burns, J R; Gauthier, J F

    1984-09-01

    Acetohydroxamic acid was administered in 5 patients to determine its effect in reducing urinary catheter incrustations. All patients had chronic indwelling catheters that required frequent changes because of severe incrustations and catheter occlusion. Incrustations were analyzed chemically for calcium, magnesium, ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus. The degree of incrustation before and during acetohydroxamic acid therapy was compared in each patient and was decreased significantly (average 81 per cent) during therapy (p less than 0.05). Catheter changes were required less frequently during therapy in all patients. Acetohydroxamic acid is effective in preventing catheter incrustations and should be considered in patients with this problem. PMID:6381758

  9. Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joe M.; Just, Allan C.; Williams, Paige L.; Smith, Kristen W.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben (MP), propyl-paraben (PP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24 hours and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval [CI]:41%, 216%) than non-users, while their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI:2%, 62%). Women using/cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI:98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy. PMID:24149971

  10. The loss of circadian rhythmicity of urinary solute excretion in idiopathic stone formers.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, H; Vaidyanathan, S; Wangoo, D; Thind, S K; Nath, R; Malakondaiah, G C; Krishan, K

    1989-10-01

    Circadian rhythmicity in urinary volume and excretion of creatinine, calcium, oxalate, uric acid and phosphate was studied in 15 idiopathic stone formers and in 17 control subjects who were age-matched, related adult males, living in the same house and engaged in similar occupations to those of the stone patients, but who had no clinically obvious stone disease. Three-hourly urine samples were collected and creatinine, calcium, oxalate, uric acid and inorganic phosphate were estimated. The time series of data were analysed by cosinor rhythmometry. Circadian rhythmicity has been described in urinary volume and urinary excretion of creatinine, calcium, oxalate, uric acid and inorganic phosphate in normal subjects, but it was not detected in the stone formers. The control subjects exhibited a circadian rhythmicity only in urinary volume and creatinine excretion. Thus they occupied a position midway between healthy adults, who exhibit circadian rhythmicity in all of the above parameters, and the stone formers, who appear to have lost it altogether. PMID:2819381

  11. When you have urinary incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... rub baking soda into the stain, and then vacuum off the baking powder. You can also use ... management of urinary incontinence: behavioral and pelvic floor therapy, urethral and pelvic devices. In: Wein AJ, ed. ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... that obstructs the flow of urine—a kidney stone or enlarged prostate, for example—is at risk ... the urinary tract, such as an obstructive kidney stone or prostate enlargement that squeezes the urethra. Health ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... more serious infection that reaches the kidneys. continue Bacteria Are to Blame UTIs are usually caused by ... as soon as possible. previous continue Battling the Bacteria Only your health care provider can treat urinary ...

  14. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  15. AB196. Multivariate analyses of urinary calculi composition: a 13-year single-center study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiong; Liu, Chunyu; Xu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence and prevalence of urinary stone are increasing throughout the world. Compared with the past, urolithiasis compositions by patient demographics are strikingly different. Furthermore, recent clinical studies implied that seasonal cyclicity might influence the distribution of stone composition. Methods We sought to determine the trends in pathogenesis of urolithiasis based on urinary stone analyses. A total of 2,383 eligible urinary stone samples from different patients between 2002 and 2014 in our center were collected. Infrared spectroscopy was used for urinary calculi analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship of urinary calculi composition and calendar month (season), gender and age in North China during the past 13 years. Results Calcium containing calculi were the most frequent with an overall incidence of 84.1%. Calcium phosphate (CaP) or magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) stones were more frequent in females, while monohydrate calcium oxalate (COM), dihydrate calcium oxalate (COD) or uric acid (UA) stones were more common in males. Older individuals were associated with an increased risk of UA stones and a decreased risk of COD, CaP or cystine stones. Additionally, from 2002 to 2014, the frequency of COD and MAP stone increased, whereas the trend of CaP, UA and cystine stones decreased. However, calendar month (season) was not significantly associated with differences in composition. Conclusions This study provides a picture of the present distribution of urolithiasis compositions in China. From 2002 to 2014, age and gender were significantly associated with stone composition, whereas calendar month not.

  16. Argus T® versus Advance® Sling for postprostatectomy urinary incontinence: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Lima, João Paulo Cunha; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima; Bezerra, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To compare the results of two slings, Argus T® and Advance®, for the treatment of postprostatectomy urinary incontinence (PPUI). Material and Methods: From December 2010 to December 2011, 22 patients with PPUI were randomized as follows: 11 (mean age 62.09(±5.30)) underwent treatment with Advance® and 11 (mean age 62.55(±8.54)) with Argus T®. All patients were evaluated preoperatively with urodynamic testing, quality of life questionnaire (ICIQ-SF), voiding diary and 24-hour pad test. Exclusion criteria were: neurological diseases, severe detrusor overactivity and urethral stenosis. Evaluation was performed at 6, 12 and 18 months after the surgery. After implantation of the Argus T® sling, patients who experienced urine leakage equal to or greater than the initial volume underwent adjustment of the sling tension. Results were statistically analyzed using the Fisher’s test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Friedman’s non-parametric test or the Mann-Whitney test. Results Significant improvement of the 24-hour pad test was observed with the Argus T® sling (p=0.038) , With regard to the other parameters, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Removal of the Argus T® device due to perineal pain was performed in one patient (9%). Despite non uniform results, both devices were considered useful to improve quality of life (ICIQ-SF): Argus T® (p=0.018) and Advance® (p=0.017). Conclusions Better results were observed in the 24h pad test and in levels of satisfaction with the Argus T® device. Both slings contributed to improve quality of life (ICIQ-SF), with acceptable side effects. PMID:27286117

  17. Absolute bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and urinary excretion of the novel antimigraine agent almotriptan in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Jansat, Josep M; Costa, Joan; Salvà, Pau; Fernandez, Francisco J; Martinez-Tobed, Antonio

    2002-12-01

    Absolute bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and urinary excretion of almotriptan, a novel 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist, were studied in 18 healthy males following single intravenous (i.v.) (3 mg), subcutaneous (s.c.) (6 mg), and oral (25 mg) doses. Volunteers received each dose in a randomized sequence separated by a 7-day washout. Blood and urine samples for pharmacokinetic evaluations were taken for up to 24 hours after dosing. The disposition kinetics of almotriptan after i.v. and s.c. administration showed biphasic decline described by a two-compartment model. The fastest disposition phase was well observed, although estimates of the rate constant showed high variability. After s.c. administration of almotriptan, the bioavailability was 100% with a time to maximum plasma concentration (tmax) of 5 to 15 minutes, whereas after oral administration, the bioavailability was about 70% with a tmax of 1.5 to 3.0 hours. No significant differences were observed between administration routes in the elimination half-life (t(1/2), obtaining mean values ranging from 3.4 to 3.6 hours. The volume of distribution, total clearance, and t(1/2) indicated that almotriptan was extensively distributed and rapidly cleared from the body irrespective of dose or route of administration. The primary route of elimination was renal clearance (approximately 50%-60% of total body clearance). About 65% of the i.v. and s.c. dose and 45% of the oral dose were excreted unchanged in urine in 24 hours, with nearly 90% of this in the first 12 hours. Renal clearance was approximately 2- to 3-fold that of the glomerular filtration rate in man, suggesting that almotriptan is eliminated in part by renal tubular secretion. PMID:12463724

  18. Urinary conduits in gynecologic oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, K.C.; Copeland, L.J.; Gershenson, D.M.; Saul, P.B.; Wharton, J.T.; Rutledge, F.N.

    1986-05-01

    Over an 11-year period (1971 to 1981), 212 urinary conduit surgeries were performed by the Department of Gynecology at the University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston. The urinary diversions were performed as part of the pelvic exenteration operation in 154 patients, for radiation injury in 48 patients, and for palliation of disease recurrence in ten patients. Ninety-three percent had prior pelvic radiotherapy. Various segments of the gastrointestinal tract were used, including the ileum (102), sigmoid colon (99), transverse colon (four), jejunum (four), and others (three). Fifty percent of abnormal preoperative intravenous pyelograms reverted to normal after urinary diversion. Revision of the stoma was required in 6%. Other complications included infection (18%), renal loss (17%), and urinary leaks and fistulae (3%). The overall perioperative mortality was 7%, decreasing from 11% in the first five years to 3% during the last six years. Ureteral stents were routinely used. When selecting a segment of bowel for a urinary conduit, both tissue quality and mobility are important. Mortality and morbidity of urinary conduit surgery continues to decrease with experience.

  19. Differences in Urinary Stone Composition according to Body Habitus

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji Yun; Doo, Seung Whan; Lee, Kwang Woo; Kim, Jun Mo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We analyzed differences in urinary stone composition according to body mass index (BMI). Materials and Methods Between January 2007 and December 2010, 505 ureteral or renal stones were collected from 505 patients who underwent surgical intervention. Data on patient age, gender, BMI, urinary pH, and stone composition were collected. Results The patients' mean age was 49.2 years (range, 20 to 83 years). Of the 505 patients, 196 (38.7%) had calcium oxalate (CO) stones, 172 (33.9%) had mixed calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate (COP) stones, 72 (14.2%) had calcium phosphate (CP) stones, 50 (9.8%) had uric acid (UA) stones, and 15 (2.9%) had struvite stones. We excluded struvite stones in the statistical analysis because of the small number of patients; a total of 490 patients were included in this study. In the multinomial logistic regression analysis, obesity was found to be associated with UA stones compared with COP stones (odds ratio [OR] 3.488; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.732-7.025; p<0.001) and CP stones (OR 2.765; 95% CI 1.222-6.259; p=0.015). Similar results were observed for CO stones compared with COP stones (OR 2.682; 95% CI 1.727-4.164; p<0.001) and CP stones (OR 2.126; 95% CI 1.176-3.843; p<0.013). Conclusions Obesity was associated with UA and CO stones compared with the occurrence of COP and CP stones. PMID:22025958

  20. Relationship between urinary and serum growth hormone and pubertal status.

    PubMed Central

    Crowne, E C; Wallace, W H; Shalet, S M; Addison, G M; Price, D A

    1992-01-01

    Urinary growth hormone (uGH) excretion and serum growth hormone concentrations have been compared in three groups of children. Group 1 consisted of 21 children who had had cranial irradiation as part of their treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; group 2, 18 normal children; and group 3, 12 boys with constitutional delay in growth and puberty who were in early puberty. Children in groups 1 and 2 each had a 24 hour serum growth hormone profile (sampling every 20 minutes) and concurrent urine collection. The 12 boys in group 3 had a total of 21 profiles (sampling every 15 minutes for 12 hours) and concurrent urine collections. In the prepubertal children (n = 17), in both groups 1 and 2, there was a significant correlation between mean serum growth hormone and total uGHng/g creatinine. There were also significant correlations between total uGHng/g creatinine and both peak serum growth hormone and mean amplitude of the pulses in the growth hormone profile. In the pubertal children (n = 22), in groups 1 and 2, whether combined or in separate groups, there was no significant correlation between total uGHng/g creatinine and mean serum growth hormone, peak serum growth hormone, or mean amplitude of the pulses in the growth hormone profile. In group 3 there were significant correlations between total uGHng/g creatinine and both the mean serum growth hormone and mean amplitude of the pulses in the profile. Therefore uGH estimations appear to correlate well with serum growth hormone profiles in children who are prepubertal or in early puberty, but not in those further advanced in pubertal development. These results may reflect a variation in the renal handling of growth hormone during pubertal development. uGH estimation may be an unreliable screening investigation for growth hormone sufficiency in mid to late puberty. PMID:1739346

  1. Structural characterization and vibrational studies of human urinary stones from Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocademir, Mustafa; Baykal, Abdulhadi; Kumru, Mustafa; Tahmaz, M. Lutfu

    2016-05-01

    Seven human urinary stones were collected from urinary bladders of patients hailing from Istanbul, Turkey. Their XRD, EDX, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra as well as SEM images have been recorded to determine their chemical compositions, morphologies, crystal structures, and crystallite sizes. XRD and vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) analyses indicate that six out of the seven stones have identical contents. The ratios of organic and inorganic contents of the stones have been determined by their thermogravimetric analyses. The stones have been found to contain calcium oxalate monohydrate and apatite as the major components.

  2. Structural characterization and vibrational studies of human urinary stones from Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kocademir, Mustafa; Baykal, Abdulhadi; Kumru, Mustafa; Tahmaz, M Lutfu

    2016-05-01

    Seven human urinary stones were collected from urinary bladders of patients hailing from Istanbul, Turkey. Their XRD, EDX, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra as well as SEM images have been recorded to determine their chemical compositions, morphologies, crystal structures, and crystallite sizes. XRD and vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) analyses indicate that six out of the seven stones have identical contents. The ratios of organic and inorganic contents of the stones have been determined by their thermogravimetric analyses. The stones have been found to contain calcium oxalate monohydrate and apatite as the major components. PMID:26890204

  3. Experimental models of renal calcium stones in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Bilbault, Héloïse; Haymann, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    In human nephrolithiasis, most stones are containing calcium and are located within urinary cavities; they may contain monohydrate calcium oxalate, dihydrate calcium oxalate and/or calcium phosphates in various proportion. Nephrolithiasis may also be associated with nephrocalcinosis, i.e., crystal depositions in tubular lumen and/or interstitium, an entity which suggests specific pathological processes. Several rodents models have been developed in order to study the pathophysiology of intrarenal crystal formation. We review here calcium rodent models classified upon the presence of nephrolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis. As rodents are not prone to nephrolithiasis, models require the induction of a long standing hypercalciuria or hyperoxaluria (thus explaining the very few studies reported), conversely to nephrocalcinosis which may occur within hours or days. Whereas a nephrotoxicity leading to tubular injury and regeneration appears as a critical event for crystal retention in nephrocalcinosis models, surprisingly very little is known about the physiopathology of crystal attachment to urothelium in nephrolithiasis. Creating new models of nephrolithiasis especially in different genetic mice strains appears an important challenge in order to unravel the early mechanisms of urinary stone formation in papilla and fornices. PMID:26981444

  4. Experimental models of renal calcium stones in rodents.

    PubMed

    Bilbault, Héloïse; Haymann, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-01

    In human nephrolithiasis, most stones are containing calcium and are located within urinary cavities; they may contain monohydrate calcium oxalate, dihydrate calcium oxalate and/or calcium phosphates in various proportion. Nephrolithiasis may also be associated with nephrocalcinosis, i.e., crystal depositions in tubular lumen and/or interstitium, an entity which suggests specific pathological processes. Several rodents models have been developed in order to study the pathophysiology of intrarenal crystal formation. We review here calcium rodent models classified upon the presence of nephrolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis. As rodents are not prone to nephrolithiasis, models require the induction of a long standing hypercalciuria or hyperoxaluria (thus explaining the very few studies reported), conversely to nephrocalcinosis which may occur within hours or days. Whereas a nephrotoxicity leading to tubular injury and regeneration appears as a critical event for crystal retention in nephrocalcinosis models, surprisingly very little is known about the physiopathology of crystal attachment to urothelium in nephrolithiasis. Creating new models of nephrolithiasis especially in different genetic mice strains appears an important challenge in order to unravel the early mechanisms of urinary stone formation in papilla and fornices. PMID:26981444

  5. Calcium and Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your weekly shopping list. Produce Serving Size Estimated Calcium* Collard greens, frozen 8 oz 360 mg ... Oranges 1 whole 55 mg Seafood Serving Size Estimated Calcium* Sardines, canned with bones 3 oz 325 ...

  6. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  7. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  8. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It is a prescription pain medicine used to relieve symptoms of arthritis . Fenoprofen calcium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  9. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human body. Bones, like other tissues in the body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their ...

  10. Urinary Vitamin D Binding Protein and KIM-1 Are Potent New Biomarkers of Major Adverse Renal Events in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Chaykovska, Lyubov; Heunisch, Fabian; von Einem, Gina; Alter, Markus L.; Hocher, Carl-Friedrich; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Dschietzig, Thomas; Kretschmer, Axel; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin-D-binding protein (VDBP) is a low molecular weight protein that is filtered through the glomerulus as a 25-(OH) vitamin D 3/VDBP complex. In the normal kidney VDBP is reabsorbed and catabolized by proximal tubule epithelial cells reducing the urinary excretion to trace amounts. Acute tubular injury is expected to result in urinary VDBP loss. The purpose of our study was to explore the potential role of urinary VDBP as a biomarker of an acute renal damage. Method We included 314 patients with diabetes mellitus or mild renal impairment undergoing coronary angiography and collected blood and urine before and 24 hours after the CM application. Patients were followed for 90 days for the composite endpoint major adverse renal events (MARE: need for dialysis, doubling of serum creatinine after 90 days, unplanned emergency rehospitalization or death). Results Increased urine VDBP concentration 24 hours after contrast media exposure was predictive for dialysis need (no dialysis: 113.06 ± 299.61ng/ml, n = 303; need for dialysis: 613.07 ± 700.45 ng/ml, n = 11, Mean ± SD, p<0.001), death (no death during follow-up: 121.41 ± 324.45 ng/ml, n = 306; death during follow-up: 522.01 ± 521.86 ng/ml, n = 8; Mean ± SD, p<0.003) and MARE (no MARE: 112.08 ± 302.00ng/ml, n = 298; MARE: 506.16 ± 624.61 ng/ml, n = 16, Mean ± SD, p<0.001) during the follow-up of 90 days after contrast media exposure. Correction of urine VDBP concentrations for creatinine excretion confirmed its predictive value and was consistent with increased levels of urinary Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) and baseline plasma creatinine in patients with above mentioned complications. The impact of urinary VDBP and KIM-1 on MARE was independent of known CIN risk factors such as anemia, preexisting renal failure, preexisting heart failure, and diabetes. Conclusions Urinary VDBP is a promising novel biomarker of major contrast induced nephropathy-associated events 90 days after contrast media

  11. Calcium and magnesium disorders.

    PubMed

    Goff, Jesse P

    2014-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a clinical disorder that can be life threatening to the cow (milk fever) and predisposes the animal to various other metabolic and infectious disorders. Calcium homeostasis is mediated primarily by parathyroid hormone, which stimulates bone calcium resorption and renal calcium reabsorption. Parathyroid hormone stimulates the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to enhance diet calcium absorption. High dietary cation-anion difference interferes with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone. Hypomagnesemia reduces tissue response to parathyroid hormone. PMID:24980727

  12. Calcium and Mitosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  13. Female urinary incontinence rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, P

    2004-08-01

    Pelvic floor rehabilitation (PFR) is an important and recommended strategy for the treatment of many urogynecological disorders including urinary incontinence (UI). The recognised pioneer of PFR is the American gynecologist Arnold Kegel who, over 50 years ago, proposed pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME) to prevent and/or treat female UI. Kegel's techniques were successfully used by others too, but as the years passed these techniques sank into unjustified oblivion. In the 1980s in Europe the medical world's interest in PFME techniques gained ground, contemporaneously with functional electrical stimulation (FES) and biofeedback (BFB). As a general rule, the least invasive and least dangerous procedure for the patient should be the first choice, and behavioural and rehabilitative techniques should be considered as the first line of therapy for UI. The behavioural approaches in women with UI and without cognitive deficits are tailored to the patient's underlying problem, such as bladder training or retraining (BR) for urge UI. BR has many variations but generally consists of education, scheduled voiding, and positive reinforcements. The rehabilitative approaches comprise BFB, FES, PFME, and vaginal cones (VC). BFB allows the subject to modify the unconscious physiological events, while FES is aimed at strengthening perineal awareness, increasing the tone and trophism of the pelvic floor, and inhibiting detrusor overactivity. PFME play an extremely important role in the conservative treatment of UI and overactive bladder, and many studies have demonstrated their effectiveness. Many authors have used the different methods for PFR in a heterogeneous manner: the best results were obtained when protocols requiring the contemporary use of 2 or more techniques were followed. PMID:15377984

  14. Palliative urinary conduit diversion in cases of intolerable urinary discomfort

    SciTech Connect

    Lyndrup, J.; Sorensen, B.L.

    1983-12-01

    Fifteen patients with incurable gynecological cancers, all primary radiation treated and all having severe urinary discomfort due to urinary tract injuries were retrospectively examined after urinary conduit diversion. All have been followed-up until termination or until all survivors had lived for 6 months after the operation. Twelve of the 15 were discharged from the hospital, 10 of whom survived the first 6 months. Of those discharged 82% of the cumulated sum of postoperative observations days was spent out of the hospital. At the end of the observation period nine patients had been supplied with a colostomy as well, thus having double stomas. All six patients still alive declared in retrospect that given the choice again, they would still be willing to undergo the operation.

  15. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the roles of calcium and vitamin D in bone health. Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling and it also affects bone mass through its impact on the remodeling rate. Typically, about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and ...

  16. Calcium and bones

    MedlinePlus

    Bone strength and calcium ... or if your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ... injury. As you age, your body still needs calcium to keep your bones dense and strong. Most experts recommend at least ...

  17. Bacterial biofilms in patients with indwelling urinary catheters.

    PubMed

    Stickler, David J

    2008-11-01

    Bacteria have a basic survival strategy: to colonize surfaces and grow as biofilm communities embedded in a gel-like polysaccharide matrix. The catheterized urinary tract provides ideal conditions for the development of enormous biofilm populations. Many bacterial species colonize indwelling catheters as biofilms, inducing complications in patients' care. The most troublesome complications are the crystalline biofilms that can occlude the catheter lumen and trigger episodes of pyelonephritis and septicemia. The crystalline biofilms result from infection by urease-producing bacteria, particularly Proteus mirabilis. Urease raises the urinary pH and drives the formation of calcium phosphate and magnesium phosphate crystals in the biofilm. All types of catheter are vulnerable to encrustation by these biofilms, and clinical prevention strategies are clearly needed, as bacteria growing in the biofilm mode are resistant to antibiotics. Evidence indicates that treatment of symptomatic, catheter-associated urinary tract infection is more effective if biofilm-laden catheters are changed before antibiotic treatment is initiated. Infection with P. mirabilis exposes the many faults of currently available catheters, and plenty of scope exists for improvement in both their design and production; manufacturers should take up the challenge to improve patient outcomes. PMID:18852707

  18. [Infection-induced urinary stones].

    PubMed

    Bichler, K-H; Eipper, E; Naber, K

    2003-01-01

    Infection stones make up approximately 15% of urinary stone diseases and are thus an important group. These stones are composed of struvite and/or carbonate apatite. The basic precondition for the formation of infection stones is a urease-positive urinary tract infection. Urease is necessary to split urea into ammonia and CO(2). As a result, ammonia ions can form and at the same time alkaline urine develops, both being preconditions for the formation of struvite and carbonate apatite crystals. When these crystals are deposited infection stones form. Pathogenetically, various risk factors play a role: urinary obstruction, neurogenic bladder, dRTA, and MSK. If these infections are not treated and the stones are not removed, the kidney will be damaged. Modern methods are available for stone removal, e.g., ESWL and/or instrumental urinary stone removal. Here, especially less invasive methods are preferable. Any treatment must be adjusted to the patient individually. Patients should be examined frequently for recurrent urinary tract infections and stone recurrences, and new infections must be resolutely treated. Good therapy and prophylaxis are possible with present-day treatment modalities. PMID:12574884

  19. Catheter associated urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection attributed to the use of an indwelling urinary catheter is one of the most common infections acquired by patients in health care facilities. As biofilm ultimately develops on all of these devices, the major determinant for development of bacteriuria is duration of catheterization. While the proportion of bacteriuric subjects who develop symptomatic infection is low, the high frequency of use of indwelling urinary catheters means there is a substantial burden attributable to these infections. Catheter-acquired urinary infection is the source for about 20% of episodes of health-care acquired bacteremia in acute care facilities, and over 50% in long term care facilities. The most important interventions to prevent bacteriuria and infection are to limit indwelling catheter use and, when catheter use is necessary, to discontinue the catheter as soon as clinically feasible. Infection control programs in health care facilities must implement and monitor strategies to limit catheter-acquired urinary infection, including surveillance of catheter use, appropriateness of catheter indications, and complications. Ultimately, prevention of these infections will require technical advances in catheter materials which prevent biofilm formation. PMID:25075308

  20. Occupational cadmium exposure and calcium excretion, bone density, and osteoporosis in men.

    PubMed

    Nawrot, Tim; Geusens, Piet; Nulens, Tom S; Nemery, Benoit

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to cadmium has been associated with osteoporosis and fracture risk in women and the elderly, but studies in middle-aged men are lacking. In 83 male (ex)workers (mean age 45 years; range 24 to 64 years) in a radiator factory using cadmium-containing solder, we investigated the association between urinary cadmium excretion (as an index of lifetime body burden); bone mineral density (BMD) in the distal forearm, hip, and lumbar spine (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); and urinary calcium excretion. Geometric mean urinary cadmium concentration was 1.02 microg/g of creatinine (5th to 95th percentile 0.17 to 5.51 microg/g). BMD was negatively correlated with urinary exposure to cadmium. The partial correlation coefficients (r) adjusted for age, body-mass index, and current smoking were -0.30 (p = .008) for BMD in the forearm, -0.27 (p = .017) in the hip, and -0.17 (p = .15) in the spine. Urinary calcium correlated positively (r = 0.23, p = .044) with the urinary cadmium excretion. Adjusted for the same covariates, the risk of osteoporosis (defined as a T-score below -2.5 in at least one measured bone site) increased dose dependently. Compared with the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium, the risks were 4.8- and 9.9-fold higher in the middle and highest tertiles, respectively. Only four (5%) men had evidence of renal tubular dysfunction (beta(2)-microglobulin > 300 microg/g of creatinine). Even in the absence of renal tubular dysfunction, occupational exposure to cadmium is associated in men with lower BMD values, a higher risk of having osteoporosis, and a higher urinary calcium excretion, suggesting a direct osteotoxic effect of cadmium. PMID:20200937

  1. Treatment of calcium nephrolithiasis in the patient with hyperuricosuria.

    PubMed

    Arowojolu, Omotayo; Goldfarb, David S

    2014-12-01

    Nearly one-third of patients with calcium stones have hyperuricosuria. In vitro studies and clinical trials have investigated the relationship between uric acid and calcium stones, but the association between hyperuricosuria and calcium stone formation in patients is still being debated. Uric acid appears to cause salting out of calcium oxalate in human urine. However, the importance of this in vitro phenomenon to the proposed association is not supported in cross-sectional observational studies. A small placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial showed that allopurinol decreased the rate of recurrent calcium oxalate calculi in patients with hyperuricosuria and normocalciuria. An assessment of the effect of combination therapy of allopurinol with indapamide showed no additive effect. Allopurinol may have antioxidant effects that are responsible for its reducing calcium stone formation, which are independent of xanthine oxidase inhibition. In addition, a newer xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, febuxostat, may also be effective in the prevention of calcium stones, as it reduces urinary uric acid excretion. PMID:24687403

  2. Drug-Induced Urinary Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Matlaga, Brian R; Shah, Ojas D; Assimos, Dean G

    2003-01-01

    Urinary calculi may be induced by a number of medications used to treat a variety of conditions. These medications may lead to metabolic abnormalities that facilitate the formation of stones. Drugs that induce metabolic calculi include loop diuretics; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; and laxatives, when abused. Correcting the metabolic abnormality may eliminate or dramatically attenuate stone activity. Urinary calculi can also be induced by medications when the drugs crystallize and become the primary component of the stones. In this case, urinary supersaturation of the agent may promote formation of the calculi. Drugs that induce calculi via this process include magnesium trisilicate; ciprofloxacin; sulfa medications; triamterene; indinavir; and ephedrine, alone or in combination with guaifenesin. When this situation occurs, discontinuation of the medication is usually necessary. PMID:16985842

  3. Factors affecting crystal precipitation from urine in individuals with long-term urinary catheters colonized with urease-positive bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Sunil; Suller, Marc T E; Stickler, David J; Feneley, Roger C L

    2006-06-01

    Weekly urinalysis was conducted for 12 weeks on a group of 21 long-term catheter users with confirmed catheter encrustation and urinary tract colonization with urease-positive bacteria, in order to explore the cause of considerable variation in the severity of encrustation between sufferers. The rapidity of catheter blockage correlated significantly with the pH above which crystals precipitated from urine (the nucleation pH) but not the pH of the voided urine itself. Linear regression showed the nucleation pH to be significantly predicted by a combination of urinary calcium and magnesium concentrations, with calcium being the more influential variable. Reducing the rate of catheter encrustation could be achieved by lowering the urinary concentration of calcium and magnesium, which may only require catheter users to increase their fluid intake. PMID:16453146

  4. A combined qualitative and quantitative procedure for the chemical analysis of urinary calculi

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkinson, A.

    1971-01-01

    A better understanding of the physico-chemical principles underlying the formation of calculus has led to a need for more precise information on the chemical composition of stones. A combined qualitative and quantitative procedure for the chemical analysis of urinary calculi which is suitable for routine use is presented. The procedure involves five simple qualitative tests followed by the quantitative determination of calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphate, and oxalate. These data are used to calculate the composition of the stone in terms of calcium oxalate, apatite, and magnesium ammonium phosphate. Analytical results and derived values for five representative types of calculi are presented. PMID:5551382

  5. Urinary catheters - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... 303:2172-2181. Payne CK. Conservative management of urinary incontinence: behavioral and pelvic floor therapy, urethral and pelvic ... review: randomized, controlled trials of nonsurgical treatments for urinary incontinence in women. Ann Intern Med . 2008;148:459- ...

  6. Urinary excretion values in 2-day food-deprived, unrestrained chimpanzees.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnew, J. J.; Sabbot, I. M.; Hoshizaki, T.; Mandell, A. J.; Spooner, C. E.; Marcus, I.; Adey, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the baseline 24-hr urinary excretion values in the young, unrestrained chimpanzee, and also changes in urinary values, if any, induced by the two-day food deprivation stress. Urine was analyzed for volume, osmolarity, creatinine, creatine, urea nitrogen, 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), calcium, and inorganic phosphorus. Significant increases due to food deprivation stress were observed for volume, creatine, urea nitrogen, 17-OHCS, VMA, and phosphorus values, with significant decreases in osmolarity and calcium. All values approached normal levels by the second poststress day. No significant changes were observed in creatinine. A comparison is drawn between human and chimpanzee adaptation to stress.

  7. The role of micronutrients in the risk of urinary tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Golabek, Tomasz; Bukowczan, Jakub; Sobczynski, Robert; Leszczyszyn, Jaroslaw; Chlosta, Piotr L

    2016-04-01

    Prostate, bladder and kidney cancers remain the most common urological malignancies worldwide, and the prevention and treatment of these diseases pose a challenge to clinicians. In recent decades, many studies have been conducted to assess the association between supplementation with selected vitamins and elements and urinary tract tumour initiation and development. Here, we review the relationship between vitamins A, B, D, and E, in addition to calcium, selenium, and zinc, and the risk of developing prostate, kidney and bladder cancer. A relatively consistent body of evidence suggests that large daily doses of calcium (> 2,000 mg/day) increase the risk of prostate cancer. Similarly, supplementation with 400 IU/day of vitamin E carries a significant risk of prostate cancer. However, there have been many conflicting results regarding the effect of these nutrients on kidney and bladder neoplasms. Moreover, the role of other compounds in urinary tract carcinogenesis needs further clarification. PMID:27186192

  8. Urinary cadmium and beta2-microglobulin: correlation with nutrition and smoking history (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Kowal, N.E.

    1988-01-01

    Urinary cadmium and beta2-microglobulin concentrations from approximately 1000 samples from the general adult U.S. population, collected as part of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey II (NHANES II), were related to nutritional and smoking history of the individuals. Urinary cadmium concentration was negatively correlated with dietary iron (significance level of 0.0065), negatively correlated with dietary calcium (significance level of less than 0.0001), and significantly (level of less than 0.001) higher in past or present smokers than in those who had never smoked. The results suggest increased cadmium absorption in the presence of low dietary intake of iron, low dietary intake of calcium, and cigarette smoking in the general population of the United States.

  9. The role of micronutrients in the risk of urinary tract cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bukowczan, Jakub; Sobczynski, Robert; Leszczyszyn, Jaroslaw; Chlosta, Piotr L.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate, bladder and kidney cancers remain the most common urological malignancies worldwide, and the prevention and treatment of these diseases pose a challenge to clinicians. In recent decades, many studies have been conducted to assess the association between supplementation with selected vitamins and elements and urinary tract tumour initiation and development. Here, we review the relationship between vitamins A, B, D, and E, in addition to calcium, selenium, and zinc, and the risk of developing prostate, kidney and bladder cancer. A relatively consistent body of evidence suggests that large daily doses of calcium (> 2,000 mg/day) increase the risk of prostate cancer. Similarly, supplementation with 400 IU/day of vitamin E carries a significant risk of prostate cancer. However, there have been many conflicting results regarding the effect of these nutrients on kidney and bladder neoplasms. Moreover, the role of other compounds in urinary tract carcinogenesis needs further clarification. PMID:27186192

  10. [Pathophysiology, diagnosis and conservative therapy in calcium kidney calculi].

    PubMed

    Hess, B

    2003-02-01

    Annual incidences of kidney stones are about 0.1-0.4% of the population, and lifetime prevalences in the USA and Europe range between 8 and 15%. Kidney stones occur more frequently with increasing age and among men. Within ten years, the disease usually recurs in more than 50% of patients. Nowadays, about 85% of all kidney stones contain calcium salts (calcium oxalate and/or calcium phosphate) as their main crystalline components. Because human urine is commonly supersaturated with respect to calcium salts as well as to uric acid, crystalluria is very common, i.e. healthy people excrete up to ten millions of microcrystals every day. Recurrent stone formers appear to excrete lower amounts or structurally defective forms of crystallization inhibitors which allows for the formation of large crystal aggregates as precursors of stones. Alternatively, crystal adhesion to urothelial surfaces may be enhanced in stone formers. Medical treatment of renal colic is based on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, because prostaglandins appear to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of pain during ureteral obstruction. In addition, centrally acting analgesics such as pethidine-HCl may be required in many cases. The administration of high amounts (3-4 liters/day) of intravenous fluids should be abandoned, since it may raise intraureteral pressure whereby pain increases and kidney pelvis or fornices may rupture. All first-stone formers should undergo a simple basic evaluation, including stone analysis (x-ray diffraction or infrared spectrometry), serum values of ionized calcium (alternatively: total calcium and albumin) and creatinine, urinalysis and repeated measurements of fasting urine pH in order to detect urinary acidification disorders or low urine pH. In high-risk patients with as first stone episode (i.e. strongly positive family history, inflammatory bowel disease, short-bowel syndrome, nephrocalcinosis, bilateral stones, hypercalcemia, renal tubular acidosis, airline

  11. Mathematical model to estimate risk of calcium-containing renal stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pietrzyk, R. A.; Feiveson, A. H.; Whitson, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Astronauts exposed to microgravity during the course of spaceflight undergo physiologic changes that alter the urinary environment so as to increase the risk of renal stone formation. This study was undertaken to identify a simple method with which to evaluate the potential risk of renal stone development during spaceflight. METHOD: We used a large database of urinary risk factors obtained from 323 astronauts before and after spaceflight to generate a mathematical model with which to predict the urinary supersaturation of calcium stone forming salts. RESULT: This model, which involves the fewest possible analytical variables (urinary calcium, citrate, oxalate, phosphorus, and total volume), reliably and accurately predicted the urinary supersaturation of the calcium stone forming salts when compared to results obtained from a group of 6 astronauts who collected urine during flight. CONCLUSIONS: The use of this model will simplify both routine medical monitoring during spaceflight as well as the evaluation of countermeasures designed to minimize renal stone development. This model also can be used for Earth-based applications in which access to analytical resources is limited.

  12. A longitudinal study of calcium homeostasis during human pregnancy and lactation and after resumption of menses.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, L D; Fung, E B; Halloran, B P; Turnlund, J R; Van Loan, M D; Cann, C E; King, J C

    1998-04-01

    To clarify the role of the intestine, kidney, and bone in maintaining calcium homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation and after the resumption of menses, a longitudinal comparison was undertaken of 14 well-nourished women consuming approximately 1200 mg Ca/d. Measurements were made before conception (prepregnancy), once during each trimester of pregnancy (T1, T2, and T3), early in lactation at 2 mo postpartum (EL), and 5 mo after resumption of menses. Intestinal calcium absorption was determined from the enrichment of the first 24-h urine sample collected after administration of stable calcium isotopes. Bone mineral of the total body and lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computerized tomography, respectively. Twenty-four-hour urine and fasting serum samples were analyzed for calcium, calcitropic hormones, and biochemical markers of bone turnover. Despite an increase in calcium intake during pregnancy, true percentage absorption of calcium increased from 32.9+/-9.1% at prepregnancy to 49.9+/-10.2% at T2 and 53.8+/-11.3% at T3 (P < 0.001). Urinary calcium increased from 4.32+/-2.20 mmol/d at prepregnancy to 6.21+/-3.72 mmol/d at T3 (P < 0.001), but only minor changes in maternal bone mineral were detected. At EL, dietary calcium and calcium absorption were not significantly different from that at prepregnancy, but urinary calcium decreased to 1.87+/-1.22 mmol/d (P < 0.001) and trabecular bone mineral density of the spine decreased to 147.7+/-21.2 mg/cm3 from 162.9+/-25.0 mg/cm3 at prepregnancy (P < 0.001). Calcium absorption postmenses increased nonsignificantly to 36.0+/-8.1% whereas urinary calcium decreased to 2.72+/-1.52 mmol/d (P < 0.001). We concluded that fetal calcium demand was met by increased maternal intestinal absorption; early breast-milk calcium was provided by maternal renal calcium conservation and loss of spinal trabecular bone, a loss that was recovered postmenses. PMID:9537616

  13. Does Potassium Citrate Medical Therapy Increase the Risk of Calcium Phosphate Stone Formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitao, Victor; Haleblian, George E.; Robinson, Marnie R.; Pierre, Sean A.; Sur, Roger L.; Preminger, Glenn M.

    2007-04-01

    Potassium citrate has been extensively used in the treatment of recurrent nephrolithiasis. Recent evidence suggests that it may contribute to increasing urinary pH and, as such, increase the risk of calcium phosphate stone formation. We performed a retrospective review of our patients to further investigate this phenomenon.

  14. The level of serum ionised calcium, aspartate aminotransferase, insulin, glucose, betahydroxybutyrate concentrations and blood gas parameters in cows with left displacement of abomasum.

    PubMed

    Sen, I; Ok, M; Coskun, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine concentrations of serum glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), insulin, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOH) and ionised calcium (Ica) in dairy cows with left displaced abomasum (LDA) and to compare these parameters before and after surgical correction of LDA. Eighteen Swiss-Holstein dairy cows with LDA were used in this study. Clinically healthy post parturient cows (n: 10) from a local dairy farm were used as control group. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein from all the cows. Surgery was performed in cows with LDA. Blood samples from cows with LDA were collected 24 hours after surgery. The abomasum was repositioned followed by an omentopexy. Six of the 18 cows with LDA had clinical ketosis as detected with urine dipstick. The mean concentrations of insulin, BOH, glucose and AST in cows with LDA at admission time were increased compared with the healthy cows. But the mean concentration of ICa at admission time was slightly decreased compared with healthy cows. The mean BOH concentration was decreased 24 hours following surgery compared with values on admission time. However, the mean serum AST levels were increased both at admission time and 24 hours after surgery compared with healthy cows. The levels of blood gas parameters in cows with LDA were not significantly different in comparison with healthy cows, although hyperbasemia in six of 18 cows with LDA was determined. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that serum insulin, glucose, AST and BOH levels were increased in dairy cows with LDA. Serum BOH and ICa levels were decreased 24 hours after surgery compared with values on admission time. All cows with LDA used in this study had subclinical/clinical ketosis. We could say that ketosis might be a risk factor for the displacement of the abomasum. PMID:17203740

  15. [Urinary oestriol excretion and the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid in Bogota (2600 m) I. Normal pregnancy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sobrevilla, L A; Cristina Peña, M; Jaramillo, R

    1980-01-01

    We have studied 22 pregnancies in order to establish normal values for the urinary oestriol excretion in Bogotá, a city 2600 metres above sea level. The study subjects were normal pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic of the Hospital San José de Bogotá, and belong to a racially mixed community of medium to low socio-economic level. In the study, new born weight was found low (mean +/- SEM 2.97 +/-0.06 kg) while placental weight was high (0.6 +/- 0.02 kg) with a high placenta/newborn ratio. Maternal hemoglobin was elevated (12.8 +/- 0.2g/100 ml) reflecting the effect of altitude. In 66 determinations, oestriol excretion was more than 4mg/24 hours from week 31 to 36 and of more than 5 mg/24 hours from week 35 to 40. The decreased excretion of oestriol most likely reflects impaired intrauterine fetal growth, and is probably related to nutrional, racial and socio-economic factors as well as to the altitude. In five normal term pregnancies studied, the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio was of 2 or more and amniotic fluid creatinine was also elevated, indicating maturity of the pulmonary and renal enzyme systems of the fetus. PMID:7389997

  16. [Urinary tract infection associated with urinary calculi. 1. The significance of urinary tract infection in urinary calculi].

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, H; Okada, Y; Yoshida, O; Arai, Y; Tomoyoshi, T

    1989-05-01

    We investigated 158 cases of urinary stones (infection stones 56, metabolic stones 102) with special reference to pyuria, bacteriuria, stone culture and urease activities of isolated bacteria. Abacterial pyuria was noted in 9 out of 49 (18%) infection stones and in 53 of 77 (69%) metabolic stones. Bacteriuria was noted in 79% of the infection stones and 26% of the metabolic stones. Sixty-seven percent of the infection stones were infected with mainly urea splitting bacteria such as Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus. Twenty-three percent of metabolic stones were also infected. Though E. coli, a non-urea splitting bacteria, was isolated most frequently from metabolic stones, urease positive Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas were also isolated. Bacteria within stones could be predicted on the basis of urine culture results of only 20 of 41 infection stones and 8 of 24 metabolic stones. These facts are useful for selection of some antibiotics in the treatment of urinary tract infections associated with urinary calculi. Urinary infections of urea splitting bacteria in infection stones are thought to be initial factors of stone formation and those of non-urea splitting bacteria are to be superimposed. However, urea splitting bacteria in metabolic stones may convert them into infection stones in future. PMID:2801372

  17. [Multiple calcium oxalate stone formation in a patient with glycogen storage disease type I (von Gierke's disease) and renal tubular acidosis type I: a case report].

    PubMed

    Kanematsu, A; Segawa, T; Kakehi, Y; Takeuchi, H

    1993-07-01

    A case of multiple urinary stones in a patient with glycogen storage disease type 1 (GSD-1) is reported. In spite of the presence of hyperuricemia, these stones did not consist of uric acid, but mainly of calcium oxalate. Laboratory studies revealed distal renal tubular acidosis and hypocitraturia, but no significant abnormality in calcium metabolism. We discussed the mechanism of calcium stone formation in our case, and its prophylactic treatment by oral administration of citrate compound. PMID:8362684

  18. Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Elsa; Pereira, José; Corbusier, Florence; Demeter, Pieter; Bali, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of an inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder in a 31 year-old woman. She presented at the emergency room with low abdominal pain and urinary symptoms. Abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and revealed asymmetric thickening of the urinary bladder wall. Cystoscopy with urinary cytology revealed a benign nature of the process. The patient underwent partial cystectomy and the pathologic examination of the specimen revealed an inflammatory pseudotumor. We reviewed the clinical, imaging and pathological features of the inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder and discussed its differential diagnosis. PMID:25926919

  19. Renal Control of Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chonchol, Michel; Levi, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels. Renal regulation of these ions occurs through glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and/or secretion and is therefore an important determinant of plasma ion concentration. Under physiologic conditions, the whole body balance of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium is maintained by fine adjustments of urinary excretion to equal the net intake. This review discusses how calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are handled by the kidneys. PMID:25287933

  20. The influence of scale inhibitors on calcium oxalate

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.S.

    1999-11-01

    Precipitation of calcium oxalate is a common occurrence in mammalian urinary tract deposits and in various industrial processes such as paper making, brewery fermentation, sugar evaporation, and tannin concentration. Between pH 3.5 to 4.5 the driving force for calcium oxalate precipitation increases almost by three fold. It is a complicated process to predict both the nature of a deposit and at which stage of a multi-effect evaporator a particular mineral will deposit, as this depends on temperature, pH, total solids, and kinetics of mineralization. It is quite a challenge to inhibit calcium oxalate precipitation in the pH range of 4--6. Al{sup 3+} ions provide excellent threshold inhibition in this pH range and can be used to augment traditional inhibitors such as polyphosphates and polycarboxylates.