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Sample records for 24-hour urinary excretion

  1. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations: the INTERSALT study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie; Cogswell, Mary E; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

    2013-06-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984-1987 at the ages of 20-59 years from 29 North American and European samples. Participants were randomly assigned to test or validation data sets. Equations derived from casual urinary sodium concentration and other variables in the test data were applied to the validation data set. Correlations between observed and estimated 24-hour sodium excretion were 0.50 for individual men and 0.51 for individual women; the values were 0.79 and 0.71, respectively, for population samples. Bias in mean values (observed minus estimated) was small; for men and women, the values were -1.6 mmol per 24 hours and 2.3 mmol per 24 hours, respectively, at the individual level and -1.8 mmol per 24 hours and 2.2 mmol per 24 hours, respectively, at the population level. Proportions of individuals with urinary 24-hour sodium excretion above the recommended levels were slightly overestimated by the models. Casual urine specimens may be a useful, low-burden, low-cost alternative to 24-hour urine collections for estimation of population sodium intakes; ongoing calibration with study-specific 24-hour urinary collections is recommended to increase validity.

  2. Estimation of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Moo-Yong; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Sung-Joon; Gu, Namyi; Nah, Deuk-Young; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Cho, Eun-Joo; Sung, Ki-Chul

    2014-06-20

    The present study evaluated the reliability of equations using spot urine (SU) samples in the estimation of 24-hour urine sodium excretion (24-HUNa). Equations estimating 24-HUNa from SU samples were derived from first-morning SU of 101 participants (52.4 ± 11.1 years, range 24-70 years). Equations developed by us and other investigators were validated with SU samples from a separate group of participants (n = 224, 51.0 ± 10.9 years, range 24-70 years). Linear, quadratic, and cubic equations were derived from first-morning SU samples because these samples had a sodium/creatinine ratio having the highest correlation coefficient for 24-HUNa/creatinine ratio (r = 0.728, p < 0.001). In the validation group, the estimated 24-HUNa showed significant correlations with measured 24-HUNa values. The estimated 24-HUNa by the linear, quadratic, and cubic equations developed from our study were not significantly different from measured 24-HUNa, while estimated 24-HUNa by previously developed equations were significantly different from measured 24-HUNa values. The limits of agreement between measured and estimated 24-HUNa by six equations exceeded 100 mmol/24-hour in the Bland-Altman analysis. All equations showed a tendency of under- or over-estimation of 24-HUNa, depending on the level of measured 24-HUNa. Estimation of 24-HUNa from single SU by equations as tested in the present study was found to be inadequate for the estimation of an individual's 24-HUNa.

  3. Effect of metoprolol on 24-hour urinary excretion of adrenal steroids and kallikrein in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Fritschka, E.; Gotzen, R.; Kittler, R.; Schöneshöfer, M.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of fifteen patients with essential hypertension over four weeks using the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocking agent, metoprolol, resulted in a decrease in 24 h urinary excretion of kallikrein and aldosterone along with a decrease in plasma renin activity. There was no significant change in 24 h excretion rates of the free adrenal steroids deoxycorticosterone, 18-OH-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, cortisol or 18-OH-corticosterone during treatment, which were not significantly different from excretion rates of normal males, thus excluding inhibitory effects of adrenal steroids on urinary kallikrein activity. A positive correlation was found between plasma renin activity and urinary excretion of kallikrein during the control period and after 2 weeks on metoprolol, supporting the assumption of a preserved link between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the renal excretion of kallikrein in these patients. The decrease in kallikrein excretion during beta 1-adrenoceptor blockade in patients with essential hypertension may be explained by a reduction in sympathetic tone and by reduced activity of the renin-aldosterone system. PMID:6367871

  4. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables

  5. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion is increased in rats after 24 hours of exposure to vertical 50 Hz, 100 {micro}T magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, J.; Nagy, N.; Thuroczy, G.; Szabo, L.D.

    1997-05-01

    The effect of exposure to a 50 Hz, vertical magnetic field on the excretion of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) of rats was studied in a self-controlled experiment. Ten male Wistar rats were kept under 9:15 h light:dark conditions in metabolic cages. The rats were exposed to 1.0 or 100 {micro}T flux density for 24 h. The excretion of aMT6s, which is the primary metabolite of melatonin in the urine, did not show a statistically significant decrease, as measured by {sup 125}I radioimmunoassay, during or after magnetic field exposure of rats to either flux density. At 100 {micro}T flux density, the increase of aMT6s excretion on the day after exposure was statistically significant (P < .02), compared with the value under exposure, but was not significant compared with the baseline values before exposure.

  6. Validity of a self-administered diet history questionnaire for assessment of sodium and potassium: comparison with single 24-hour urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, S; Yanagibori, R; Amano, K

    1998-06-01

    We developed a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) for use in prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and validated it by comparison with single 24-h urinary excretion of sodium (Na) and potassium (K). The subjects were 154 male and 69 female freshmen university students. Mean intakes (mmol/day) assessed by DHQ and the urinary excretion of Na were 196 and 165 respectively for men and 179 and 136 respectively for women. Those of K were 61.5 and 43.9 respectively for men and 56.8 and 41.6 respectively for women. The ratios of urinary excretion to dietary intake of Na were 0.97 in men and 0.84 in women. Those of K were 0.78 in men and 0.80 in women. The results for both Na and K were reasonable, except for Na in men. When Pearson correlation was examined between dietary and urinary Na and K, no significant correlations for Na in men (r=0.14) or women (r=0.23, p=0.06), or significant correlations for K in men (r=0.34, p<0.001) or women (r=0.40, p<0.001) were observed. The results suggest a reasonable ability to estimate a subject mean for Na in women, K in both sexes, and individual level for K for both sexes. The validity for individual level for Na intake is not conclusive because the duration of urine collection was too short.

  7. Iodine Excretion in 24-hour Urine Collection and Its Dietary Determinants in Healthy Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Uechi, Ken; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Since seaweed is a common component of the Japanese diet, iodine intake in Japanese is expected to be high. However, urinary iodine excretion, measured using 24-hour urine samples, and its dietary determinants are not known. Methods Apparently healthy adults aged 20 to 69 years living in 20 areas throughout Japan were recruited in February and March, 2013. Urinary iodine excretion was evaluated using 24-hour urine collected from 713 subjects (362 men and 351 women), and the difference among age groups was assessed. The association between dietary intake of food groups and urinary iodine excretion was assessed among 358 subjects who completed a semi-weighed 4-day diet record (DR) and urine collection. The correlations between iodine intake and iodine excretion were also evaluated, and correlation coefficients were calculated for iodine intake in the DR of the overlapping day or the DR 1 day before and after urine collection. Results Median iodine excretion in 24-hour urine was 365 µg, and excretion was significantly higher in older subjects. Iodine intake estimated by the DRs was significantly correlated with urinary iodine excretion when DRs and urine collection were obtained on the same day (r = 0.37). After adjustment for confounding factors, iodine excretion was significantly associated with intakes of kelp and soup stock from kelp and fish. Conclusions Although multiple measurements for urinary iodine are required to confirm our results, this study showed the current iodine status of healthy Japanese adults. The results suggest that kelp and fish are the main contributors to Japanese iodine status measured by 24-hour urine. PMID:27374137

  8. 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion test

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium is in your diet Whether your kidneys work properly The condition being diagnosed Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor ...

  9. Agreement between 24-hour salt ingestion and sodium excretion in a controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Lerchl, Kathrin; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Rauh, Manfred; Goller, Ulrike; Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F; Beck, Luis; Agureev, Alexander; Larina, Irina; Baranov, Victor; Morukov, Boris; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Vassilieva, Galina; Wabel, Peter; Vienken, Jörg; Kirsch, Karl; Johannes, Bernd; Krannich, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Accurately collected 24-hour urine collections are presumed to be valid for estimating salt intake in individuals. We performed 2 independent ultralong-term salt balance studies lasting 105 (4 men) and 205 (6 men) days in 10 men simulating a flight to Mars. We controlled dietary intake of all constituents for months at salt intakes of 12, 9, and 6 g/d and collected all urine. The subjects' daily menus consisted of 27 279 individual servings, of which 83.0% were completely consumed, 16.5% completely rejected, and 0.5% incompletely consumed. Urinary recovery of dietary salt was 92% of recorded intake, indicating long-term steady-state sodium balance in both studies. Even at fixed salt intake, 24-hour urine collection for sodium excretion (UNaV) showed infradian rhythmicity. We defined a ±25 mmol deviation from the average difference between recorded sodium intake and UNaV as the prediction interval to accurately classify a 3-g difference in salt intake. Because of the biological variability in UNaV, only every other daily urine sample correctly classified a 3-g difference in salt intake (49%). By increasing the observations to 3 consecutive 24-hour collections and sodium intakes, classification accuracy improved to 75%. Collecting seven 24-hour urines and sodium intake samples improved classification accuracy to 92%. We conclude that single 24-hour urine collections at intakes ranging from 6 to 12 g salt per day were not suitable to detect a 3-g difference in individual salt intake. Repeated measurements of 24-hour UNaV improve precision. This knowledge could be relevant to patient care and the conduct of intervention trials.

  10. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in Victoria, Australia, using 24-hour urine collections. Secondary aims were to identify the dietary sources of sodium and potassium, examine the association between these electrolytes and cardiovascular risk factors, and assess children’s taste preferences and saltiness perception of manufactured foods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of schoolchildren attending primary schools in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed one 24-hour urine collection, which was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Completeness of collections was assessed using collection time, total volume, and urinary creatinine. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed to assess dietary intake. Other data collected included blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumference. Children were also presented with high and low sodium variants of food products and asked to discriminate salt level and choose their preferred variant. Parents provided demographic information and information on use of discretionary salt. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sodium and potassium intakes. Linear and logistic regression models with clustered robust standard errors will be used to assess the association between electrolyte intake and health outcomes (blood pressure and body mass index/BMI z-score and waist circumference) and to assess differences in taste preference and discrimination between high and low sodium foods, and correlations between

  11. Correlations of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in 8 hour and 24 hour urinary samples determined by dual column gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sjölin, K E; Nyholm, K K

    1980-05-01

    The correlations of beta-aminoisobutyric acid values in 8 hour and 24 hour urinary samples from 23 healthy persons were determined. beta-AIB in the 8 hour urinary samples was measured by gas chromatography and the 24 hour excretion was calculated from the results of three 8 hour determinations. Simultaneous determinations of urinary creatinine were performed by Jaffe's reaction. Based on the 8 hour values of urinary beta-AIB the results demonstrated a constant excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid within the 24 hour periods in both low and high excretors. The precision in distinguishing low and high 24 hour excretors of beta-AIB by using 8 hour values was 91%. If 8 hour values of beta-AIB were related to creatinine the same precision for this calculated ratio was 96.5%. However, for high excretors of beta-AIB, failures were 24.5% by using the 8 hour excretion of beta-AIB as indicator, but only 6.5% by using the ratio.

  12. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with higher ratio of 24-hour urinary sodium to potassium in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2009-09-01

    Information on the relationship of neighborhood characteristics to objective indicators of dietary intake is extremely limited. The aim of this observational cross-sectional study was to examine the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium in a population with a high ratio of urinary sodium to potassium. Subjects were 1,032 female Japanese dietetics students aged 18 to 22 years, residing in 293 municipalities in Japan. Neighborhood SES index was defined by seven municipal-level variables, namely unemployment, household overcrowding, poverty, education, income, home ownership, and vulnerable groups, with an increasing index signifying increasing neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Urinary excretion of sodium and potassium was estimated from a single 24-hour urine sample. Neighborhood SES index was not significantly associated with 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium (mean value for each quartile of neighborhood SES: 133.5, 135.2, 126.5, and 141.7 mmol/day, respectively; P for trend 0.10) or potassium (mean value for each quartile: 43.5, 42.2, 38.4, and 42.5 mmol/day, respectively; P for trend 0.44). However, neighborhood SES index was significantly positively associated with the ratio of 24-hour urinary sodium to potassium (mean value for each quartile: 3.14, 3.28, 3.37, and 3.41, respectively; P for trend 0.03). This significant association remained after adjustment for household SES variables (mean value for each quartile: 3.15, 3.35, 3.29, and 3.41, respectively; P for trend 0.04). Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with higher ratio of 24-hour urinary sodium to potassium in young Japanese women.

  13. A comparison of overnight and 24 hour collection to measure urinary catecholamines.

    PubMed

    White, I R; Brunner, E J; Barron, J L

    1995-02-01

    The period of urine collection used to measure excretion of catecholamines varies in epidemiological practice. We set out to compare overnight with 24 hour collection. Twenty-four subjects each collected urine for 24 hours, with the overnight urine being separately collected. The correlation of overnight and 24 hour catecholamines was highest when both measures were standardised for creatinine excretion and when creatinine excretion was adjusted for urine flow rate. The observed correlations were 0.74 for dopamine, 0.81 for noradrenaline and 0.54 for adrenaline. The use of overnight collections may therefore require a sample size up to 1.5 times as large (for noradrenaline) or 3.4 times as large (for adrenaline) to achieve the same power as with 24 hour collections. However, the figures given exaggerate the advantage of 24 hour collections if these incorporate measurement errors that are not present in overnight collections.

  14. Urinary saturation and risk factors for calcium oxalate stone disease based on spot and 24-hour urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yoshihide; Yonou, Hiroyuki; Hokama, Sanehiro; Oda, Masami; Morozumi, Makoto; Sugaya, Kimio

    2003-09-01

    In 222 random spot urine specimens, the calcium concentration and calcium oxalate saturation [DG(CaOx)] were significantly higher among stone formers than among non-stone formers, while the citrate and creatinine-corrected citrate concentrations were lower. In 188 24-hour urine specimens, magnesium excretion was lower among stone formers than non-stone formers, while the creatinine-corrected calcium concentration and DG(CaOx) were higher. Among stone formers, there was no gender difference in the urinary concentrations of calcium, oxalate, citrate, magnesium, and DG(CaOx), but the creatinine-corrected calcium, citrate, and magnesium concentrations were higher in women, as well as 24-hour citrate excretion. The levels of calcium and oxalate have a major influence on DG(CaOx), while citrate and magnesium levels have a minor influence. DG(CaOx) was correlated with calcium and oxalate excretion, as well as with the creatinine-corrected calcium and oxalate concentrations. Approximately 5% of 24-hour urine specimens showed critical supersaturation, 80% showed metastable supersaturation, and 15% were unsaturated. Hypercalciuria or hyperoxaluria was fairly common (30% and 40%) in critically supersaturated urine, while it was less common (22.4% and 8.6%) in metastably supersaturated urine and was not detected in unsaturated urine. Hypocitraturia and/or hypomagnesiuria was more common (63.8-80%) at any saturation. The urinary calcium, oxalate, and citrate concentrations, as well as the creatinine-corrected calcium, oxalate, citrate, and magnesium concentrations and DG(CaOx), showed a significant correlation between 57 paired early morning spot urine and 24-hour urine specimens. The creatinine-corrected calcium and citrate concentrations of the early morning urine specimens were significantly correlated with the levels of calcium and citrate excretion in the paired 24-hour urine specimens. In conclusion, no parameter other than urinary saturation gives more than a vague

  15. Urinary zinc excretion in infancy.

    PubMed

    Sievers, E; Oldigs, H D; Dörner, K; Schaub, J

    1990-03-01

    In view of the conflicting data on urinary Zn excretion in infancy we investigated the possible influence of contamination, collecting methods, nutrition (human milk versus formula) and longitudinal changes during the first 16 weeks of life. Methodical investigation showed that special attention is necessary to avoid contamination due to the use of Zn-containing baby creams in the genital region. The sampling device for collection should include the smallest area of skin possible and the use of Zn-containing baby creams has to be avoided both during the collection and at least 24 hours prior to urine collection. Previous fractional urine sampling of the collecting method to be evaluated proves that erroneously high values are not obtained at the beginning of collection. Midstream urinary samples reduce the possibility of contamination. Increased urinary excretion was shown in pre-term infants under theophylline or coffeine medication. The median daily urinary Zn excretion in healthy breast-fed term infants declined significantly from 0.063 (0.027-0.111) mg per kg body weight at the age of 2 weeks to 0.018 (0.004-0.059) mg per kg body weight at the age of 16 weeks. Comparable values for formula-fed term infants were 0.029 (0.025-0.063) mg per kg body weight initially and 0.025 (0.007-0.059) mg per kg body weight at the end of the study. These values can be used as reference values for the urinary Zn excretion of healthy infants.

  16. Clinical study of urinary excretion of Ga-67

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Ibuka, K.; Hashizume, T.; Noguchi, A.; Kojima, J.; Sasakuma, F.; Ishigami, S. )

    1990-04-01

    Ga-67 urinary excretion was examined in 59 patients. The 72-hour urinary excretion rate ranged from 4.3 to 67.8% of the injected dose. Within the first 24 hours, 60.9% of the 72-hour urinary excretion was excreted. There was no significant difference in the Ga-67 urinary excretion rate between males and females, nor between the Ga-67 positive and negative cases. A significant negative correlation was found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and the unsaturated iron binding capacity. Notably, four patients with hyperferremia, which was considered secondary to leukemia and/or chemotherapy or liver cirrhosis, excreted more than 46.8% of Ga-67 within 72 hours. A significant negative correlation was also found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and age. Urinary excretion of Ga-67 may be related to the glomerular filtration rate, which decreases with age.

  17. [Microalbuminuria and urinary albumin excretion in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Tagle, Rodrigo; González, Fernando; Acevedo, Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Microalbuminuria is a new tool in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Microalbuminuria is an easily measured biomarker in a urine sample. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in first morning urine sample correlates with 24 hours urinary albumin excretion, but it is easier to obtain, and can identify hypertensive or diabetic patients with high risk for cardiovascular events. Therapeutic interventions such as renin angiotensin system blockade have demonstrated their usefulness in reducing urinary albumin excretion in clinical studies. It would be advisable to incorporate urinary albumin to creatinine ratio to the routine clinical monitoring of patients with cardiovascular risk, such as those with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

  18. Prognostic Significance of Initial Serum Albumin and 24 Hour Daily Protein Excretion before Treatment in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Hong; Hsu, Shun-Neng; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Lin, Chin; Chang, Ping-Ying; Chen, Yeu-Chin; Ho, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Renal failure is a common morbidity in multiple myeloma (MM). Although proteinuria has been increasingly reported in malignancies, it is not routinely used to refine risk estimates of survival outcomes in patients with MM. Here we aimed to investigate initial serum albumin and 24-hour daily protein excretion (24-h DPE) before treatment as prognostic factors in patients with MM. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 102 patients with myeloma who were ineligible for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation between October 2000 and December 2012. Initial proteinuria was assessed before treatment by quantitative analysis of 24-hour urine samples. The demographic and laboratory characteristics, survival outcome, and significance of pre-treatment 24-h DPE and albumin in the new staging system of MM were analyzed. Pre-treatment proteinuria (>300 mg/day) was present in 66 patients (64.7%). The optimal cut-off value of 24-h DPE before treatment was 500 mg/day. Analysis of the time-dependent area under the curve showed that the serum albumin and 24-h DPE before treatment were better than 24-h creatinine clearance rate and β2-microglobulin. A subgroup analysis showed that an initial excess proteinuria (24-h DPE ≥ 500 mg) was associated with poor survival status (17.51 vs. 34.24 months, p = 0.002). Furthermore, initial serum albumin was an independent risk factor on multivariate analysis (<2.8 vs. ≥ 2.8, hazard ratio = 0.486, p = 0.029). Using the A-DPE staging system, there was a significant survival difference among patients with stage I, II, and III MM (p < 0.001). Initial serum albumin and 24-h DPE before treatment showed significant prognostic factors in patients with MM, and the new A-DPE staging system may be utilized instead of the International Staging System. Its efficacy should be evaluated by further large prospective studies.

  19. The relatively poor correlation between random and 24-hour urine protein excretion in patients with biopsy-proven glomerular diseases.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Marie C; Reich, Heather N; Nelson, Peter J; Adler, Sharon G; Cattran, Daniel C; Appel, Gerald B; Gipson, Debbie S; Kretzler, Matthias; Troost, Jonathan P; Lieske, John C

    2016-11-01

    Random urine protein creatinine ratios are used to estimate 24-hour urine protein excretion, which is considered a diagnostic gold standard. However, few studies are available of the sensitivity and specificity of this estimation in patients with glomerular proteinuria. To clarify this, we measured the urine protein and creatinine centrally in random and 24-hour urine collections at biopsy and longitudinally every 6 months in individuals participating in the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) cohort with glomerular disease. In the initial developmental cohort, 302 patients had same day random and 24-hour samples with a total of 827 paired measurements across all visits. The protein excretion (g/day) was higher in adult than pediatric patients. The correlation between the random urine protein creatinine ratio and 24-hour urine protein excretion was moderate in both groups (r of 0.60 and 0.67, respectively). However, the log10 transformation of values strengthened correlations in both groups (r of 0.85 and 0.82, respectively). Associations were moderately stronger among obese patients. Prediction equations were developed and validated in 232 unique cases from NEPTUNE (R(2) of 0.65). Thus, in patients with glomerular disease and proteinuria, the urine protein creatinine ratio correlates only moderately with 24-hour urine protein excretion. However an estimating equation was developed to derive 24-hour urine protein excretion from random urine protein creatinine ratio values with improved precision. The long-term prognostic value of log10-transformed random protein creatinine ratios values requires future study.

  20. Determination of and correlation between urine protein excretion and urine protein-to-creatinine ratio values during a 24-hour period in healthy horses and ponies.

    PubMed

    Uberti, Benjamin; Eberle, D Bernard; Pressler, Barrak M; Moore, George E; Sojka, Janice E

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To determine whether urine protein-to-creatinine (UP:C) ratio assessment provides an estimate of urine protein excretion (UPE) over a 24-hour period in horses and ponies, establish a preliminary UP:C ratio reference range, and determine UP:C ratio variation over time in healthy equids. ANIMALS-11 female horses and 6 female ponies. PROCEDURES-Urine was collected from all equids at 4-hour intervals for 24 hours. Total 24-hour UPE (mg of protein/kg of body weight) and UP:C ratio were determined; these variables were also assessed in aliquots of urine collected at 4-hour intervals. On 2 additional days, urine samples were also obtained from 6 horses (1 sample/horse/d) to determine day-to-day variation in UP:C ratio. Correlation between 4-hour or 24-hour UPE and UP:C ratio values was assessed. Reference ranges for 24-hour UPE, 24-hour UP:C ratio, and 4-hour UP:C ratios were calculated as central 95th percentiles of observed values. RESULTS-Mean 24-hour UPE (4.28 +/- 2.99 mg/kg) and 24-hour UP:C ratio (0.0 to 0.37) had excellent correlation (R = 0.826; P < 0.001) in both horses and ponies; analysis of 4-hour data also revealed good correlation (R = 0.782; P < 0.001) with these variables. Calculated UPE and UP:C ratio reference ranges were similar to established ranges in other species. Day-to-day variability in UP:C ratio was minimal, and all results were within the reference range calculated by use of the 24-hour urine samples. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Assessment of the UP:C ratio appears to be a reliable method for estimating 24-hour UPE in horses and ponies.

  1. Excretion of beta-carbolines harman and norharman in 24-hour urine of chronic alcoholics during withdrawal and controlled abstinence.

    PubMed

    Wodarz, N; Wiesbeck, G A; Rommelspacher, H; Riederer, P; Böning, J

    1996-06-01

    Animal experiments suggest that endogenous substances that could result from the interaction between neurotransmitters (dopamine and indoleamines) and ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde might be involved in the pathogenesis and maintenance of alcohol dependence. Therefore, aromatic beta-carbolines (norharman and harman) were investigated repeatedly in 24-hr urine of 13 male severe alcoholics without any psychiatric comorbidity during a controlled inpatient abstention program of up to 8 weeks. Harman excretion was approximately 2-fold above levels in control subjects, with a steady decline after 3 weeks of abstinence and lower levels in patients with a longer duration of alcohol dependence. Severity of withdrawal symptoms and actual feelings of anxiety/depression were negatively associated with urinary harman excretion. Positive associations could be established with daily ethanol consumption the month before admission and the score on the scale "reward dependence" according to Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Moreover, patients without alcohol-dependent first-degree relatives and higher "reward dependence" exhibited an increased excretion of harman. Therefore, harman levels might characterize a distinct subgroup of alcoholic patients, who in part resemble the so-called type l alcoholics of Cloninger. However, this awaits further study in a larger number of individuals. In contrast, norharman excretion was elevated up to 6-fold, compared with nonalcoholics over 6 to 8 weeks of controlled abstention. No correlations to demographic or clinical variables could be observed. Therefore, increased norharman levels might be proposed as a "residual marker" or a trait variable. Whether the observed changes are specific markers of at least certain aspects of alcoholism or dependence remain to be elucidated.

  2. Urinary calcium excretion in postmenopausal African American women

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, John F.; Shieh, Albert; Mikhail, Mageda; Islam, Shahidul

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to develop a reference range for urine calcium excretion (both 24-hour and fasting) for African American women compared to White women. In addition, the variables that determine urine calcium excretion were identified. Material: Data were analyzed for baseline studies of healthy postmenopausal volunteers who participated in seven separate studies conducted at one site. Methods: Some studies included fasting urine Ca/Cr and others 24-hour urine calcium excretion. 24-hour urine calcium was considered with and without correction for urinary creatinine excretion. Calcium was measured initially by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and more recently by an automated method (ADVIA 2400 Chemistry System). Results: Participants were considered healthy based on history and physical and routine laboratory studies. Those screened who had a history of nephrolithiasis were excluded. A reference range for 24-hour urine calcium and fasting urine calcium/creatinine was developed. Reference intervals of 11 – 197 mg/24-hour urine calcium excretion and of 0.007 – 0.222 of fasting Ca/Cr were found for African American women compared to 21 – 221 mg/24 hours and 0.019 – 0.264 in White women, respectively. Urine creatinine excretion was higher in African Americans consistent with their higher muscle mass. Conclusion: Urine calcium excretion is lower in postmenopausal African American than White women. The reference range developed should be considered in the diagnosis of hypocalciuric states and may also be useful in the diagnosis of hypercalciuria. PMID:26226948

  3. Moderate alcohol consumption and 24-hour urinary levels of melatonin in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low overnight urinary melatonin metabolite concentrations have been associated with increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Women's Alcohol Study was a controlled feeding study to test the effects of low to moderate alcohol intake on potential risk factors for...

  4. Variability of Urinary Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolite in General Population and Comparison of Spot, First-Morning, and 24-Hour Void Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C.; Lewin, Michael D; Porter, Erin N; Trinidad, Debra A; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G; Sjödin, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Urinary hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) are commonly used in biomonitoring to assess exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Similar to other biologically non-persistent chemicals, OH-PAHs have relatively short biological half-lives (4.4–35 hours). Little information is available on their variability in urinary concentrations over time in non- occupationally exposed subjects. This study was designed to (i) study the variability of 9 urinary OH-PAH metabolite concentrations over time and (ii) calculate sample size requirements for future epidemiological studies based on spot urine, first morning void and 24-hour void sampling. Individual urine samples (n = 427) were collected during one week from 8 non-occupationally exposed adults. We recorded the time and volume of each urine excretion, dietary details, and the driving activities of the participants. Within subjects, the coefficients of variation (CV) for the wet-weight concentration of OH-PAHs in all samples ranged from 45% to 297%; creatinine adjustment reduced the CV to 19–288% (p < 0.001; paired t-test). The simulated 24-hour void concentrations were the least variable measure, with CVs ranging 13–182% for the 9 OH-PAHs. Within-day variability contributed on average 84%, and between-day variability accounted for 16% of the total variance of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of 1-PYR levels were 0.55 for spot urine samples, 0.60 for first-morning voids, and 0.76 for 24-hour voids, indicating a high degree of correlation between urine measurements collected from the same subject over time. Sample size calculations were performed to estimate the number of subjects needed for detecting differences in geometric mean at a statistical power of 80% for spot urine, first-morning, and 24-hour void sampling. These data will aid in the design of future studies of PAHs and possibly other biologically non-persistent chemicals and the interpretation of

  5. The effect of low level radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in operators during 24-hour shifts.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, K; Israel, M; Mihaylov, S

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long term exposure to low level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in satellite station operators during 24-hour shifts. Twelve male operators at a satellite station for TV communications and space research were studied during 24-hour shifts. Dosimetric evaluation of the exposure was carried out and showed low level exposure with specific absorption of 0.1127 J.kg-1. A control group of 12 unexposed male operators with similar job task and the same shift system were studied, too. The 11-oxycorticosteroids (11-OCS), adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed by spectrofluorimetric methods on 3-hour intervals during the 24-hour shifts. The data were analyzed by tests for interindividual analysis, Cosinor analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant increase in the 24-hour excretion of 11-OCS and disorders in its circadian rhythm, manifested by increase in the mesor, decrease in the amplitude and shift in the acrophase were found in the exposed operators. The changes in the excretion rates of the catecholamines were significant and showed greater variability of both variables. The long term effect of the exposure to low-level RF EM radiation evoked pronounced stress reaction with changes in the circadian rhythm of 11-OCS and increased variability of catecholamines secretion. The possible health hazards associated with observed alteration in the stress system need to be clarified by identification of their significance and prognostic relevance.

  6. Cross sectional longitudinal study of spot morning urine protein:creatinine ratio, 24 hour urine protein excretion rate, glomerular filtration rate, and end stage renal failure in chronic renal disease in patients without diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Ruggenenti, P.; Gaspari, F.; Perna, A.; Remuzzi, G.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the protein:creatinine ratio in spot morning urine samples is a reliable indicator of 24 hour urinary protein excretion and predicts the rate of decline of glomerular filtration rate and progression to end stage renal failure in non-diabetic patients with chronic nephropathy. DESIGN: Cross sectional correlation between the ratio and urinary protein excretion rate. Univariate and multivariate analysis of baseline predictors, including the ratio and 24 hour urinary protein, of decline in glomerular filtration rate and end stage renal failure in the long term. SETTING: Research centre in Italy. SUBJECTS: 177 non-diabetic outpatients with chronic renal disease screened for participation in the ramipril efficacy in nephropathy study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of decline in filtration rate evaluated by repeated measurements of unlabelled iohexol plasma clearance and rate of progression to renal failure. RESULTS: Protein:creatinine ratio was significantly correlated with absolute and log transformed 24 hour urinary protein values (P = 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively.) Ratios also had high predictive value for rate of decline of the glomerular filtration rate (univariate P = 0.0003, multivariate P = 0.004) and end stage renal failure (P = 0.002 and P = 0.04). Baseline protein:creatinine ratios and rate of decline of the glomerular filtration rate were also significantly correlated (P < 0.0005). In the lowest third of the protein:creatinine ratio (< 1.7) there was 3% renal failure compared with 21.2% in the highest third (> 2.7) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Protein:creatinine ratio in spot morning urine samples is a precise indicator of proteinuria and a reliable predictor of progression of disease in non-diabetic patients with chronic nephropathies and represents a simple and inexpensive procedure in establishing severity of renal disease and prognosis. PMID:9501711

  7. Urinary oxalate excretion in urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, T.; Belzer, T.; Blau, N.; Hoppe, B.; Sidhu, H.; Leumann, E.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate urinary oxalate excretion in children with urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis and to classify hyperoxaluria (HyOx).
METHODS—A total of 106 patients were screened. In those in whom the oxalate: creatinine ratio was increased, 24 hour urinary oxalate excretion was measured. Liver biopsy and/or genomic analysis was performed if primary hyperoxaluria (PH) was suspected. Stool specimens were examined for Oxalobacter formigenes in HyOx not related to PH type 1 or 2 (PH1, PH2) and in controls.
RESULTS—A total of 21 patients screened had HyOx (>0.5 mmol/24 h per 1.73 m2); they were classified into five groups. Eleven had PH (PH1 in nine and neither PH1 nor PH2 in two). Six had secondary HyOx: two enteric and four dietary. Four could not be classified. Seven patients had concomitant hypercalciuria. Only one of 12 patients was colonised with O formigenes compared to six of 13controls.
CONCLUSIONS—HyOx is an important risk factor for urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis in children, and can coexist with hypercalciuria. A novel type of PH is proposed. Absence of O formigenes may contribute to HyOx not related to PH1.

 PMID:10735843

  8. Estimated amount of 24-hour urine sodium excretion is positively correlated with stomach and breast cancer prevalence in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yong Chul; Koo, Ho Seok; Oh, Se Won; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the association between the prevalence of cancer, particularly stomach cancer, and the amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion estimated from spot urine specimens. The study included 19,083 subjects who took part in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey between 2009 and 2011. The total amount of urine sodium excreted in a 24-hr period was estimated by using two equations based on the values for spot urine sodium and creatinine. In subjects who had an estimated 24-hr urine sodium excretion of more than two standard deviations above the mean (group 2), the prevalence of stomach cancer was higher than in subjects with lower 24-hr sodium excretion (group 1). By using the Tanaka equation to estimate it, the prevalence of stomach cancer was 0.6% (114/18,331) in group 1, whereas it was 1.6% (9/568) in group 2 (P=0.006). By using the Korean equation, the prevalence was 0.6% (115/18,392) in group 1, and 1.6% in group 2 (8/507) (P=0.010). By using the Tanaka equation, breast cancer in women is more prevalent in group 2 (1.9%, 6/324) than group 1 (0.8%, 78/9,985, P=0.039). Higher salt intake, as defined by the estimated amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion, is positively correlated with a higher prevalence of stomach or breast cancer in the Korean population.

  9. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and CKD Progression.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Mills, Katherine T; Appel, Lawrence J; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Lee, Belinda T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Porter, Anna; Makos, Gail; Weir, Matthew R; Hamm, L Lee; Kusek, John W

    2016-04-01

    CKD is a major risk factor for ESRD, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Whether dietary sodium and potassium intake affect CKD progression remains unclear. We prospectively studied the association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with CKD progression and all-cause mortality among 3939 patients with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured using three 24-hour urine specimens, and CKD progression was defined as incident ESRD or halving of eGFR. During follow-up, 939 CKD progression events and 540 deaths occurred. Compared with the lowest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (<116.8 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (≥194.6 mmol/24 h) were 1.54 (1.23 to 1.92) for CKD progression, 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for all-cause mortality, and 1.43 (1.18 to 1.73) for the composite outcome of CKD progression and all-cause mortality after adjusting for multiple covariates, including baseline eGFR. Additionally, compared with the lowest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (<39.4 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios for the highest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (≥67.1 mmol/24 h) were 1.59 (1.25 to 2.03) for CKD progression, 0.98 (0.71 to 1.35) for all-cause mortality, and 1.42 (1.15 to 1.74) for the composite outcome. These data indicate that high urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with increased risk of CKD progression. Clinical trials are warranted to test the effect of sodium and potassium reduction on CKD progression.

  10. Contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. P.; Goodman, H. O.; Assimos, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate excreted in urine has a significant impact on calcium oxalate supersaturation and stone formation. Dietary oxalate is believed to make only a minor (10 to 20%) contribution to the amount of oxalate excreted in urine, but the validity of the experimental observations that support this conclusion can be questioned. An understanding of the actual contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion is important, as it is potentially modifiable. METHODS: We varied the amount of dietary oxalate consumed by a group of adult individuals using formula diets and controlled, solid-food diets with a known oxalate content, determined by a recently developed analytical procedure. Controlled solid-food diets were consumed containing 10, 50, and 250 mg of oxalate/2500 kcal, as well as formula diets containing 0 and 180 mg oxalate/2500 kcal. Changes in the content of oxalate and other ions were assessed in 24-hour urine collections. RESULTS: Urinary oxalate excretion increased as dietary oxalate intake increased. With oxalate-containing diets, the mean contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion ranged from 24.4 +/- 15.5% on the 10 mg/2500 kcal/day diet to 41.5 +/- 9.1% on the 250 mg/2500 kcal/day diet, much higher than previously estimated. When the calcium content of a diet containing 250 mg of oxalate was reduced from 1002 mg to 391 mg, urinary oxalate excretion increased by a mean of 28.2 +/- 4.8%, and the mean dietary contribution increased to 52.6 +/- 8.6%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that dietary oxalate makes a much greater contribution to urinary oxalate excretion than previously recognized, that dietary calcium influences the bioavailability of ingested oxalate, and that the absorption of dietary oxalate may be an important factor in calcium oxalate stone formation.

  11. Value of random urinary homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid levels in the diagnosis and management of patients with neuroblastoma: comparison with 24-hour urine collections.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, M; Morris, C L; Ramnaraine, M L; Bowers, L D; Krivit, W

    1985-02-01

    Urinary homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) levels were determined in random samples and in 24-hour collections from 13 patients with neuroblastoma and 22 patients without neuroblastoma. Random sample levels were compared with levels in 24-hour collections and showed a positive correlation of 95% for HVA (N = 59) and 93% for VMA (N = 52). No false positives or false negatives occurred using random samples for diagnosis. Nonneuroblastoma (normal) HVA (N = 126) and VMA (N = 119) levels are reported for different age groups. Sequential random HVA and VMA determinations in patients with neuroblastoma during and after therapy are shown. Random urinary HVA and VMA levels are shown to be adequate for utilization in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma and sequential determinations of random HVA and VMA are shown to be helpful in the follow-up of those patients.

  12. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    PubMed

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values <0.040). Similar inverse associations were observed for paraxanthine and theophylline. Adjusted night-time systolic blood pressure in the first (lowest), second, third, and fourth (highest) quartile of paraxanthine urinary excretions were 110.3, 107.3, 107.3, and 105.1 mm Hg, respectively (P trend <0.05). No associations of urinary excretions with diastolic blood pressure were generally found, and theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure.

  13. Effect of current and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder on 24-hour urinary catecholamines and cortisol: results from the Mind Your Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Whooley, Mary A.; Neylan, Thomas C.; Otte, Christian; Cohen, Beth E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and several other chronic illnesses. Alterations in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in PTSD might contribute to these associations but findings regarding SNS and HPA activity in PTSD are heterogeneous. We measured 24-hour urinary catecholamines and cortisol in a large cohort of adult outpatients recruited from 2 Veterans Affairs medical centers. 24-hour urinary norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and cortisol were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. Lifetime and current PTSD were assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale using DSM-IV-TR criteria. Out of 613 participants, 199 (32.5%) had current PTSD, 100 (16.3%) had lifetime but not current PTSD, and 314 (51.2%) never had PTSD. Patients with current PTSD had significantly higher norepinephrine secretion compared to those without PTSD. Patients in the lifetime PTSD group exhibited lower cortisol values compared to those without PTSD. Participants who never had PTSD showed the lowest norepinephrine and the highest cortisol values. All results remained stable when controlling for potentially confounding variables. This study provides evidence for increased norepinephrine secretion and decreased cortisol in PTSD. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether these changes contribute to adverse health outcomes in patients with PTSD. PMID:25459895

  14. Measurement of urinary mercury excretion by atomic absorption in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew; Marks, Vincent

    1973-01-01

    Taylor, A., and Marks, V. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 293-296. Measurement of urinary excretion by atomic absorption in health and disease. Excretion of mercury was measured by a cold-vapour atomic absorption technique on samples of urine from five groups of people having varying exposure to mercury. Serial investigations of up to 14 days were carried out on eight subjects to determine the temporal relationship between exposure and excretion. Subjects with no exposure excreted 0-10 μg mercury per gramme creatinine. Similar values were found in laboratory staff and men assembling hollow cathode lamps. Excretion of mercury by dental workers was significantly increased. No correlation between exposure and excretion of mercury was seen in the subjects investigated. The significance of measuring urinary excretion in the detection of mercury intoxication is discussed. The suggestion is made that urinary mercury excretion of more than 20 μg/g creatinine or 40 μg mercury per 24 hours should be considered evidence of recent or remote exposure to mercury. It is concluded that measurement of urinary mercury excretion is important in revealing those persons who may ultimately develop symptoms of toxicity. PMID:4723792

  15. Decrease in Urinary Creatinine Excretion in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tynkevich, Elena; Flamant, Martin; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Metzger, Marie; Thervet, Eric; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Vrtovsnik, François; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Stengel, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. Methods We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) by 51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. Results Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3±3.1 to 12.1±3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20±0.03 to 0.15±0.04 mmol/kg/24 h) in men, with mGFR falling from ≥60 to <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, and from 9.6±1.9 to 7.6±2.5 (0.16±0.03 to 0.12±0.03) in women. In addition to mGFR, an older age, diabetes, and lower levels of body mass index, proteinuria, and protein intake assessed by urinary urea were associated with lower mean urinary creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53±0.12 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28±0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. Conclusions Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass. PMID:25401694

  16. Establishing normal plasma and 24-hour urinary biochemistry ranges in C3H, BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice following acclimatization in metabolic cages.

    PubMed

    Stechman, Michael J; Ahmad, Bushra N; Loh, Nellie Y; Reed, Anita A C; Stewart, Michelle; Wells, Sara; Hough, Tertius; Bentley, Liz; Cox, Roger D; Brown, Steve D M; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2010-07-01

    Physiological studies of mice are facilitated by normal plasma and 24-hour urinary reference ranges, but variability of these parameters may increase due to stress that is induced by housing in metabolic cages. We assessed daily weight, food and water intake, urine volume and final day measurements of the following: plasma sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, cholesterol and glucose; and urinary sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, glucose and protein in 24- to 30-week-old C3H/HeH, BALB/cAnNCrl and C57BL/6J mice. Between 15 and 20 mice of each sex from all three strains were individually housed in metabolic cages with ad libitum feeding for up to seven days. Acclimatization was evaluated using general linear modelling for repeated measures and comparison of biochemical data was by unpaired t-test and analysis of variance (SPSS version 12.0.1). Following an initial 5-10% fall in body weight, daily dietary intake, urinary output and weight in all three strains reached stable values after 3-4 days of confinement. Significant differences in plasma glucose, cholesterol, urea, chloride, calcium and albumin, and urinary glucose, sodium, phosphate, calcium and protein were observed between strains and genders. Thus, these results provide normal reference values for plasma and urinary biochemistry in three strains housed in metabolic cages and demonstrate that 3-4 days are required to reach equilibrium in metabolic cage studies. These variations due to strain and gender have significant implications for selecting the appropriate strain upon which to breed genetically-altered models of metabolic and renal disease.

  17. Dietary and Lifestyle Factors and Medical Conditions Associated with Urinary Citrate Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Eric N.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Lower urinary citrate excretion is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis and associated with metabolic acidosis and higher prevalence of hypertension and insulin resistance. This study sought to quantify the independent predictors of urinary citrate excretion in population-based cohorts. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A cross-sectional study of 2561 individuals from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and Nurses’ Health Studies I and II who provided two 24-hour urine collections was conducted. Dietary data were ascertained from the semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Lifestyle and disease data were derived from responses to biennial questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression was used to quantify the predictors of urinary citrate excretion. Results After adjusting for age, urinary creatinine, dietary, and other factors, higher intake of nondairy animal protein (per 10 g/d; −20 mg/d; 95% confidence interval [−29 to −11]), higher body mass index (per 1 kg/m2; −4 mg/d; [−6 to −2]), and history of nephrolithiasis (−57 mg/d; [−79 to −36]), hypertension (−95 mg/d; [−119 to −71]), gout (−104 mg/d; [−155 to −54]), and thiazide use (−34 mg/d; [−68 to −1]) were independently associated with lower 24-hour urinary citrate excretion. Higher intake of potassium (per 1000 mg/d; 53 mg/d; [33 to 74]), higher urinary sodium (per 100 mEq/d; 56 mg/d; [31 to 80]), and history of diabetes (61 mg/d; [21 to 100]) were independently associated with higher citrate excretion. Conclusions Several dietary and lifestyle factors and medical conditions are independently associated with urinary citrate excretion. PMID:23449767

  18. Urinary Excretion of Antidiuretic Hormone in Man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that urinary excretion of ADH can be detected readily and quantitated accurately. The ADH excretion in normal subjects is inhibited following the administration of a water load and stimulated following water deprivation. It appears that measurement of ADH excretion in man provides a means of quantitating alterations in neurohypophyseal ADH secretion. By determining not only the basal excretion of ADH but also the response to such physiological influences as water loading and dehydration, it becomes possible to study the dynamics of ADH release. Thus, the ability to extract ADH efficiently from urine combined with a sensitive and specific technique for determination of ADH concentration allows the exploration of regulatory systems for ADH control in the normal state as well as the etiological role of altered ADH secretion in clinical disorders of water balance.

  19. Estimated 24-hour urine sodium excretion is correlated with blood pressure in Korean population: 2009-2011 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jieun; Lee, Jeonghwan; Koo, Ho Seok; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    No large-scale studies have investigated the association between salt intake and hypertension in Korean population. To investigate the relationship of blood pressure to salt consumption, we analyzed data from 19,476 participants in the 2009-2011 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES). Urinary sodium excretion over 24-hr (24HUNa) was estimated from spot urine tests using Tanaka's equation. The study subjects were stratified into hypertensive and normotensive groups. Hypertensive participants (n=6,552, 33.6%) had higher estimated 24HUNa, 150.4±38.8 mEq/day, than normotensive participants, 140.5±34.6 mEq/day (P<0.001). The association between 24HUNa and blood pressure outcomes was not affected by adjustment for other risk factors for hypertension (odds ratio 0.001; 95% confidence interval 0.001-0.003; P<0.001). Increases in 24HUNa of 100 mEq/day were associated with a 6.1±0.3/2.9±0.2 mmHg increase in systolic/diastolic blood pressure in all participants. This effect was stronger in hypertensive participants (increase of 8.1±0.5/3.4±0.3 mmHg per 100 mEq/day) and smaller in normotensive participants (2.9±0.3/1.3±0.2 mmHg). These results support recommendations for low salt intake in Korean population to prevent and control adverse blood pressure levels.

  20. [Clinical study of 38 cases of pheochromocytoma --correlation between the instability of intraoperative blood pressure and 24-hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid].

    PubMed

    Onuki, Tatsuaki; Yamagishi, Takuya; Teranishi, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Koutaro; Kondo, Keiichi; Nakaigawa, Noboru; Saito, Kazuo; Noguchi, Kazumi; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2007-07-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of chromaffin tissues most commonly arising from the adrenal medulla. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 38 patients with pheochromocytoma who underwent surgical treatment between 1977 and 2004 at our Yokohama City University Medical Center and Yokohama City University Hospital. Twenty two patients (57.9%) were females and 16 (42.1%) were males. The most frequent symptoms were headache (58%). One patient had bilateral adrenal tumors and pathological examination revealed malignant pheochromocytoma. Six patients had an extra-adrenal tumor and in 2 patients the tumor occurred in the urinary bladder. Twelve patients (31.6%) had sustained hypertension, 21 patients (55.3%) had paroxysmal hypertension and 5 patients (13.1%) remained normotensive. The 24-h urinary total metanephrines and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) were the most sensitive biochemical tests for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. The sensitivity of urinary total metanephrines was 92.0% for all the patients and was 92.3% for the patients without paroxysmal hypertension. Fifteen patients had intraoperative hypertensive reactions in the surgical manipulation or hypotension after tumor resection. This group had more urinary excretion of VMA before surgery, compared with that with stable intraoperative blood pressure (p < 0.005).

  1. Effect of chloroquine on the urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Ilo, Cajetan E; Ezejiofor, Ndidi A; Agbakoba, Nneka; Brown, Sinye A; Maduagwuna, Chinonye A; Agbasi, Patrick U; Orisakwe, Orish E; Orisakweph, Orish E

    2008-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is an inexpensive antibacterial, whereas chloroquine is an inexpensive antimalarial. The coadministration of chloroquine and ciprofloxacin is easily encountered because both drugs are commonly prescribed to patients in the tropics. Five healthy male volunteers aged 19 to 31 years who were not taking any of the prescribed medications and who had no sensitivity to either ciprofloxacin or chloroquine each received 500 mg ciprofloxacin orally with 250 mL of water, and after a 2-week washout period, 500 mg ciprofloxacin plus 600 mg chloroquine was administered orally with 250 mL of water after providing informed consent. A urine sample (7 mL) was collected just before taking the drug at 8:00 AM representing 0 hour and continued afterward at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours the next day. The samples were stored at -20 degrees C until analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentrations by diffusion through agar technique were used for the assay of urine ciprofloxacin. The rate of ciprofloxacin excretion and cumulative urine ciprofloxacin were significantly increased. The coadministration of chloroquine increased the cumulative urinary concentration and excretion rate of ciprofloxacin.

  2. Urinary magnesium excretion and risk of hypertension: the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Michel M; Gansevoort, Ron T; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E; Feskens, Edith J M; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2013-06-01

    Observational studies on dietary or circulating magnesium and risk of hypertension have reported weak-to-modest inverse associations, but have lacked measures of actual dietary uptake. Urinary magnesium excretion, an indicator of intestinal magnesium absorption, may provide a better insight in this association. We examined 5511 participants aged 28 to 75 years free of hypertension in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study, a prospective population-based cohort study. Circulating magnesium was measured in plasma and urinary magnesium in two 24-hour urine collections, both at baseline. Incident hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic, or initiation of antihypertensive medication. During a median follow-up of 7.6 years (interquartile range, 5.0-9.3 years), 1172 participants developed hypertension. The median urinary magnesium excretion was 3.8 mmol/24 hour (interquartile range, 2.9-4.8 mmol/24 hour). Urinary magnesium excretion was associated with risk of hypertension in an inverse log-linear fashion, and this association remained after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, parental history of hypertension, and urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and calcium. Each 1-unit increment in ln-transformed urinary magnesium excretion was associated with a 21% lower risk of hypertension after multivariable adjustment (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.88). No associations were observed between circulating magnesium and risk of hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of men and women, urinary magnesium excretion was inversely associated with risk of hypertension across the entire range of habitual dietary intake.

  3. Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption.

    PubMed

    Meharg, A A; Williams, P N; Deacon, C M; Norton, G J; Hossain, M; Louhing, D; Marwa, E; Lawgalwi, Y; Taggart, M; Cascio, C; Haris, P

    2014-11-01

    Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ∼40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed that there was considerable variation (up to 13-fold) for an individual's total arsenic urine content, and that there was a time dependent variation in urinary total arsenic content. This calls into question the robustness of routinely used first pass/spot check urine sampling for arsenic analysis.

  4. PLasma half-life and urinary excretion of cyclophosphamide in children.

    PubMed

    Sladek, N E; Priest, J; Doeden, D; Mirocha, C J; Pathre, S; Krivit, W

    1980-01-01

    The plasma half-life and urinary excretion of cyclophosphamide were determined in 13 children who had various malignancies and/or who were being prepared for bone marrow transplantation. Disappearance from the plasma following iv infusion over a 1-2 hour period was first-order. Urinary excretion was maximal during the first 8 hours after administration and was essentially complete in 24 hours. The plasma half-life in children not receiving known inducers of hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxygenase activity or cyclophosphamide in the 3-week period prior to each determination ranged from 145 to 390 minutes. These values are lower than those ordinarily found in adult patients. The fraction of the total dose excreted in the urine as the parent compound ranged from 4% to 27%. Repeated administration of cyclophosphamide at approximately 30-60 day intervals did not appear to alter its plasma half-life but did appear to increase its urinary excretion. Daily administration of cyclophosphamide (approximately 50 mg/kg/day x 2 or 4) significantly decreased its plasma half-life and urinary excretion suggesting that it may reversibly induce its own metabolism.

  5. Urinary trimethylselenonium excretion by the rat: effect of level and source of selenium-75

    SciTech Connect

    Nahapetian, A.T.; Janghorbani, M.; Young, V.R.

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore in rats the urinary metabolites of selenium (Se), by using (/sup 75/Se)selenomethionine, (/sup 75/Se)selenocystine, and (/sup 75/Se)selenite, and to assess the effects of low and high levels of Se intake on trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) excretion in urine. Male adult rats were adapted for 6 weeks to a commercial rat laboratory stock diet (0.25 ppm Se). They were then starved for 24 hours and given an oral dose of either low (16 micrograms Se/kg body weight) or high (1500 micrograms Se/kg body weight) Se as the test Se compounds. Appearance of radioactivity in TMSe and non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine was monitored for 48 hours. About 40% of the /sup 75/Se dose was excreted in urine. TMSe was the major urinary Se metabolite at high, and a minor urinary Se metabolite at low dose levels of Se and for all three Se test compounds. At least 80% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 26-42% of the orally administered /sup 75/Se were excreted as non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine under the latter condition. It is hypothesized that at a requirement intake of Se either a trace or no TMSe is excreted in urine, and it becomes a major excretory metabolite of Se when the dietary trace mineral intake exceeds a requirement level, probably serving as a means of detoxification.

  6. Urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid excretion in thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Fessas, Ph.; Koniavitis, A.; Zeis, P. M.

    1969-01-01

    The quantity of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) excreted in the urine of patients with an intact spleen suffering from thalassaemia major appears to be proportional to the number of the circulating normoblasts and inversely proportional to the haemoglobin level. After splenectomy only minute amounts of BAIB are excreted. Transfusion constantly, but temporarily, reduces urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid. Other anaemic but non-thalassaemic patients may excrete low levels. Images PMID:5776546

  7. Urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid excretion in thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Fessas, P; Koniavitis, A; Zeis, P M

    1969-03-01

    The quantity of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) excreted in the urine of patients with an intact spleen suffering from thalassaemia major appears to be proportional to the number of the circulating normoblasts and inversely proportional to the haemoglobin level. After splenectomy only minute amounts of BAIB are excreted. Transfusion constantly, but temporarily, reduces urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid. Other anaemic but non-thalassaemic patients may excrete low levels.

  8. Urinary trimethylselenonium excretion by the rat: effect of level and source of /sup 75/Se

    SciTech Connect

    Nahapetian, A.T.; Janghorbani, M.; Young, V.R.

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore in rats the urinary metabolites of selenium (Se), by using (/sup 75/Se)selenomethionine, (/sup 75/Se)selenocystine, and (/sup 75/Se)selenite, and to assess the effects of low and high levels of Se intake on trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) excretion in urine. Male adult rats were adapted for 6 weeks to a commercial rat laboratory stock diet (0.25 ppm Se). They were then starved for 24 hours and given an oral dose of either low (16 micrograms Se/kg body weight) or high (1500 micrograms Se/kg body weight) Se as the test Se compounds. Appearance of radioactivity in TMSe and non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine was monitored for 48 hours. About 40% of the /sup 75/Se dose was excreted in urine. TMSe was the major urinary Se metabolite (57-69% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 16-25% of oral /sup 75/Se dose) at high, and a minor urinary Se metabolite (10% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 3-4% of oral /sup 75/Se dose) at low dose levels of Se and for all three Se test compounds. At least 80% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 26-42% of the orally administered /sup 75/Se were excreted as non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine under the latter condition. It is hypothesized that at a requirement intake of Se either a trace or no TMSe is excreted in urine, and it becomes a major excretory metabolite of Se when the dietary trace mineral intake exceeds a requirement level, probably serving as a means of detoxification.

  9. Urinary catecholamines in essential hypertension: results of 24-hour urine catecholamine analyses from patients in the Medical Research Council trial for mild hypertension and from matched controls.

    PubMed

    Brown, M J; Causon, R C; Barnes, V F; Brennan, P; Barnes, G; Greenberg, G

    1985-10-01

    Four consecutive 24-h urine samples were collected from 134 male and 134 female placebo-treated patients in the Medical Research Council Trial for Mild Hypertension. Similar samples were collected from age and sex-matched normotensive controls. On the fourth day noradrenaline excretion was 22.05 +/- 1.01 nmol/mmol creatinine in the hypertensives compared with 22.22 +/- 1.16 nmol/mmol creatinine in the controls. Adrenaline excretion on the same day was 6.13 +/- 0.33 nmol/mmol creatinine in the hypertensive subjects compared with 6.32 +/- 0.38 nmol/mmol creatinine in the controls. There was no significant difference for either catecholamine between the two groups. However, in the control group there was a highly significant correlation between excretion of adrenaline and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.218, p = 0.0004) and between noradrenaline excretion and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.200, p = 0.001). Catecholamine excretion and blood pressure were not significantly correlated in the hypertensive patients. There were no significant correlations in either group between catecholamine excretion and heart rate, caffeine intake, nicotine consumption or the Bortner self-assessment score of personality type. This study has found no evidence of elevated sympathoadrenal activity in mild hypertensives. The correlations in the control group may reflect the role of sympathoadrenal activity in acute fluctuations in blood pressure or may suggest that the level of blood pressure within the 'normal' range depends in part on the level of sympathoadrenal activity.

  10. A comparison of biochemical tests for pheochromocytoma: measurement of fractionated plasma metanephrines compared with the combination of 24-hour urinary metanephrines and catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Sawka, Anna M; Jaeschke, Roman; Singh, Ravinder J; Young, William F

    2003-02-01

    We compared the diagnostic efficacy of fractionated plasma metanephrine measurements to measurements of 24-h urinary total metanephrines and catecholamines in outpatients tested for pheochromocytoma at Mayo Clinic Rochester from January 1, 1999, until November 27, 2000. Catecholaminesecreting tumors were histologically proven. The sensitivity of fractionated plasma metanephrines was 97% (30 of 31 patients), compared with a sensitivity of 90% (28 of 31) for urinary total metanephrines and catecholamines (P = 0.63). The specificity of fractionated plasma metanephrines was 85% (221 of 261), compared with 98% (257 of 261; P < 0.001) for urinary measurements. The likelihood ratios for positive tests were 6.3 (95% confidence interval, 4.7 to 8.5) for fractionated plasma metanephrines and 58.9 (95% confidence interval, 22.1 to 156.9) for urinary total metanephrines and catecholamines. An adrenal pheochromocytoma was missed by urinary testing in two patients with familial syndromes and one asymptomatic patient with an incidentally discovered adrenal mass. An extra-adrenal paraganglioma was missed by plasma testing in one patient. In conclusion, measurements of 24-h urinary total metanephrines and catecholamines yield fewer false-positive results, an attribute preferred for testing low-risk patients, but fractionated plasma metanephrine measurements may be preferred in high-risk patients with familial endocrine syndromes.

  11. Increased urinary excretion of thioether in new rubber workers

    PubMed Central

    Kilpikari, I; Savolainen, H

    1982-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary excretion of thioether before starting work and in the early work period in a rubber factory was measured in urine samples collected after one, two to four, and five or more months of starting work. The study population consisted of 84 new workers. The urinary excretion of thioether decreased after one month's exposure and increased thereafter up to five months. Measurement of urinary thioethers in groups of new workers is therefore informative of exposure to alkylating agents only after several months from starting work. This effect may be mediated by the induction of the pertinent metabolic pathway. PMID:7138800

  12. Assessment of the diurnal variations in urinary homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acid excretion for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, M; Robison, L L; Maynard, R C; Ramnaraine, M L; Krivit, W

    1985-06-01

    The diurnal variation of urinary homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) was studied in neuroblastoma patients and in a control group. Urinary HVA and VMA levels in four sequential 6-hour urine collections within a 24-hour period were compared. HVA and VMA levels were expressed in microgram/mg of urinary creatinine (UCr) and in mg/6h specimens. No statistically significant variations between the four time intervals were found when expressed in microgram/mg UCr or mg/6h. The small variations that exist in the excretion of HVA and VMA during different periods of the day are due to variations in renal excretion rather than variations in production. The results from this study indicate that a random urine sample should be as good as a 24-hour collection for diagnosis and follow-up of neural crest tumors.

  13. Reduction in urinary prostaglandin excretion in the premenstrual syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, A; Modena, F; Calò, L; Cantaro, S; Avogadro, A; Nardo, G; Cerutti, R

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study some factors involved in renal handling of salt and water in the premenstrual syndrome (PMS), in which salt and water retention is frequently observed. In 18 women with PMS and in 18 healthy women we studied the levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, aldosterone, prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2 alpha and kallikrein in urinary samples collected during the luteal phase. There was no difference between the two groups regarding sodium, aldosterone and kallikrein urinary excretion. In the PMS group there was a significant reduction in urinary excretion of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2 alpha with respect to the control group. At multivariate analysis sodium urinary excretion proved not to be the same as the model validated in healthy women. There may be different renal handling of water and electrolytes during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in women with PMS.

  14. Quantitative studies of human urinary excretion of uropontin.

    PubMed

    Min, W; Shiraga, H; Chalko, C; Goldfarb, S; Krishna, G G; Hoyer, J R

    1998-01-01

    Uropontin is the urinary form of osteopontin, an aspartic acid-rich phosphorylated glycoprotein. Uropontin has been previously shown to be a potent inhibitor of the nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and the binding of these crystals to renal epithelial cells. Quantitative data defining the excretion of this protein are necessary to determine its role in urinary stone formation. In the present studies, we determined uropontin excretion rates of normal humans. Urine samples were obtained under conditions of known dietary intake from young adult human volunteers with no history, radiographic or laboratory evidence of renal disease. Urinary concentrations of uropontin were measured by a sensitive ELISA employing an affinity purified polyclonal antiserum to uropontin. Thirteen normal subjects ingested a constant diet providing 1 gram of calcium, 1 gram of phosphorus, 150 mEq of sodium and 1 gram of protein per kilogram of body wt per day during an eight day study period. The relationship of urinary volume to uropontin excretion was assessed by varying fluid intake on the last four days of the study to change the mean urine volume/24 hr by > 500 ml. Urine collected in six hour aliquots for eight days was analyzed for uropontin by ELISA, and for calcium, and creatinine. Daily uropontin excretion of 13 individual subjects was 3805 +/- 1805 micrograms/24 hr (mean +/- 1 SD). The mean urinary levels (1.9 micrograms/ml) detected in the present study are sufficient for inhibition of crystallization; our previous studies have demonstrated that the nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and their binding to renal cells in vitro are inhibited by this concentration of purified uropontin. In contrast to the regular pattern of diurnal variation of calcium excretion seen in most subjects, uropontin excretion showed no regularity of diurnal variation and was not directly related to either calcium or creatinine excretion or changes in

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of plasma free metanephrines in a seated position compared with 24-hour urinary metanephrines in the investigation of pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Lee, Ji In; Cho, Yoon Young; Lee, Soo Youn; Kim, Jung Han; Jung, Byong Chang; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Min, Yong-Ki; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic efficacy of free metanephrines in plasma samples drawn in the seated position compared with 24-h urinary metanephrines in detecting pheochromocytomas in Asian patients. This prospective study was conducted at Samsung Medical Center between May 2010 and July 2011. The study contained 245 subjects, including 28 patients with histologically-proven pheochromocytoma, 44 with histologically-proven non-pheochromocytoma, 112 controls suspected of having tumors but with negative investigations during two or more years of follow-up, and 45 healthy normotensive volunteers. Plasma-free metanephrines were measured by LC-MS/MS. The cut-off values with optimal sensitivity and specificity for plasma metanephrine and plasma normetanephrine were 0.33 nmol/L and 0.61 nmol/L, respectively. Both the plasma metanephrines measurement and urinary metanephrines measurement had a sensitivity of 96.4% (p = 1.00). However, the urinary metanephrines measurement was significantly more specific than the plasma metanephrines measurement (94.2% vs. 75.6%; p < 0.001). When we applied cut-off values based on BMI, specificity improved from 75.6% to 87.2%, with a comparable gain in sensitivity. From a diagnostic perspective, measurement of free metanephrines in plasma drawn in the seated position is highly sensitive but insufficiently specific when compared with measurement of 24-h urinary fractionated metanephrines. The specificity may be improved by applying cut-off values based on BMI. We suggest that free metanephrines in plasma drawn from seated position can also be used as an initial screening test to ensure that pheochromocytomas are not missed in Asian patients.

  16. Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Deckert, T.; Yokoyama, H.; Mathiesen, E.; Rønn, B.; Jensen, T.; Feldt-Rasmussen, B.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Jensen, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion precedes development of atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes independently of conventional atherogenic risk factors and of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN: Cohort study with 11 year follow up. SETTING: Diabetes centre in Denmark. SUBJECTS: 259 patients aged 19-51 with insulin dependent diabetes of 6-34 years' duration and without atherosclerotic vascular disease or diabetic nephropathy at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline variables: urinary albumin excretion, blood pressure, smoking habits, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor. End point: atherosclerotic vascular disease assessed by death certificates, mailed questionnaires, and hospital records. RESULTS: Thirty patients developed atherosclerotic vascular disease during follow up of 2457 person year. Elevated urinary albumin excretion was significantly predictive of atherosclerotic vascular disease (hazard ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.18) per 5 mg increase in 24 hour urinary albumin excretion, P = 0.002). Predictive effect was independent of age; sex; blood pressure; smoking; serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor; level of haemoglobin A(lc); insulin dose, duration of diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy (hazard ratio 1.04 (1.01 to 1.08) per 5 mg increase PMID:8611873

  17. Urinary Albumin Excretion and Vascular Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion is a marker of CV risk. There are only few data on urinary albumin excretion in RA patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate urinary albumin excretion in RA patients and analyze, whether there is an association between urinary albumin excretion and vascular function as measured by the augmentation index (AIx). In a total of 341 participants (215 with RA, 126 without RA) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined and the AIx was measured. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test was used to cluster patient groups whose distributions of ACR can be considered to be equal. A crude analysis showed a median ACR of 6.6 mg/g in the RA group and 5.7 mg/g in patients without RA (P > 0.05). In order to account for diabetes (DM) we formed 4 distinct patient groups. Group 1: RA-/DM- (n = 74); group 2: RA+/DM- (n = 195); group 3: RA-/DM+ (n = 52); group 4: RA+/DM+ (n = 20). Clustering of these groups revealed two distinct patient groups: those without RA and DM, and those with either RA or DM or both. The latter group showed statistically significant higher ACR (median 8.1 mg/g) as the former (median 4.5 mg/g). We found no significant correlation between AIx and ACR. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with RA or DM or both is higher than in subjects without RA and DM. This can be seen as a sign of vascular alteration and increased CV risk in these patients. PMID:26955238

  18. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY ARSENIC ON URINARY ARSENIC METABOLITE EXCRETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influence of Dietary Arsenic on Urinary Arsenic Metabolite Excretion

    Cara L. Carty, M.S., Edward E. Hudgens, B.Sc., Rebecca L. Calderon, Ph.D., M.S.P.H., Richard Kwok, M.S.P.H., Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch/HSD, NHEERL/US EPA; David J. Thomas, Ph.D., Pharmacokinetics...

  19. Lowering urinary oxalate excretion to decrease calcium oxalate stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary modifications should be considered as a first line approach in the treatment of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The amounts of oxalate and calcium consumed in the diet are significant factors in the development of the disease due to their impact on urinary oxalate excretion. There are a number of strategies that can be employed to reduce oxalate excretion. The consumption of oxalate-rich foods should be avoided and calcium intake adjusted to 1000–1200 mg/day. To encourage compliance it should be emphasized to patients that they be vigilant with this diet as a deviation in any meal or snack could potentially result in significant stone growth. The evidence underlying these two modifications is outlined and other strategies to reduce urinary oxalate excretion are reviewed. PMID:26614109

  20. Increased urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in engine room personnel exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R; Moen, B; Ovrebo, S; Bleie, K; Skorve, A; Hollund, B; Tagesson, C

    2004-01-01

    Background: Previous investigations indicate that engine room personnel on ships are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from oil and oil products, with dermal uptake as the major route of exposure. Several PAH are known carcinogens and mutagens. Aims: To investigate the urinary excretion of a marker for oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxy-guanosine (8OHdG), in engine room personnel, and to study the association between 8OHdG and 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP), a biological marker for PAH exposure. Methods: Urine samples were collected from engine room personnel (n = 36) on 10 Swedish and Norwegian ships and from unexposed controls (n = 34) with similar age and smoking habits. The exposure to oils, engine exhaust, and tobacco smoke 24 hours prior to sampling was estimated from questionnaires. The urinary samples were frozen for later analyses of 8OHdG and 1OHP by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Excretion in urine of 8OHdG (adjusted to density 1.022) was similar for controls (mean 18.0 nmol/l, n = 33), and for those who had been in the engine room without skin contact with oils (mean 18.7 nmol/l, n = 15). Engine room personnel who reported skin contact with oil had increased excretion of 8OHdG (mean 23.2 nmol/l, n = 19). The difference between this group and the unexposed controls was significant. The urinary levels of ln 1OHP and ln 8OHdG were significantly correlated, and the association was still highly significant when the effects of smoking and age were accounted for in a multiple regression analysis. Conclusion: Results indicate that exposure to PAH or possibly other compounds from skin contact with oils in engine rooms may cause oxidative DNA damage. PMID:15258276

  1. Urinary potassium excretion and risk of developing hypertension: the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study.

    PubMed

    Kieneker, Lyanne M; Gansevoort, Ron T; Mukamal, Kenneth J; de Boer, Rudolf A; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; Joosten, Michel M

    2014-10-01

    Previous prospective cohort studies on the association between potassium intake and risk of hypertension have almost exclusively relied on self-reported dietary data, whereas repeated 24-hour urine excretions, as estimate of dietary uptake, may provide a more objective and quantitative estimate of this association. Risk of hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or initiation of blood pressure-lowering drugs) was prospectively studied in 5511 normotensive subjects aged 28 to 75 years not using blood pressure-lowering drugs at baseline of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study. Potassium excretion was measured in two 24-hour urine specimens at baseline (1997-1998) and midway during follow-up (2001-2003). Baseline median potassium excretion was 70 mmol/24 h (interquartile range, 57-85 mmol/24 h), which corresponds to a dietary potassium intake of ≈91 mmol/24 h. During a median follow-up of 7.6 years (interquartile range, 5.0-9.3 years), 1172 subjects developed hypertension. The lowest sex-specific tertile of potassium excretion (men: <68 mmol/24 h; women: <58 mmol/24 h) had an increased risk of hypertension after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.37), compared with the upper 2 tertiles (Pnonlinearity=0.008). The proportion of hypertension attributable to low potassium excretion was 6.2% (95% confidence interval, 1.7%-10.9%). No association was found between the sodium to potassium excretion ratio and risk of hypertension after multivariable adjustment. Low urinary potassium excretion was associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension. Dietary strategies to increase potassium intake to the recommended level of 90 mmol/d may have the potential to reduce the incidence of hypertension.

  2. Urinary pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in patients with low grade urothelial tumours. Relations between excretion and tumour recurrence.

    PubMed

    Nyholm, K K; Sjolin, K E; Wolf, H; Hammer, M; Knudsen, J; Stahl, D; Nielsen, H R

    1976-05-01

    The simultaneous 24 hours excretion of pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in the urine from patients treated for low grade urothelial tumours has been determined and related to tumour recurrence inside of 6 months after the determinations. The results of 53 assays in 39 patients without clinical signs of recurrence at the time of the detrmination showed a high excretion of pseudouridine in 53% and of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in 28.5% of the assays. Recurrences appeared more often after a high urinary pseudouridine (53.5%) than after a low, but the difference was not statistically significant (p more than 0.05) and more often after a low urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid (52.5%) than after a high (p less than 0.01). The highest incidence of recurrence was in patients with a simultaneously high urinary pseudouridine and a low urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid. Seventy per cent of these excretion patterns were from patients, who developed a recurrence before 6 months (p less than 0.002).

  3. Urinary selenium excretion in patients with cervical uterine cancer.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, M; Gaudry, A; Revel, G; Martínez, T; Cabrera, L

    2001-02-01

    In this work, we report on a relationship between urinary selenium and the development of cervical uterine cancer. A simple chemical method was developed to concentrate trace amounts of selenium from relatively large urine samples by use of small activated carbon filters. When these filters are irradiated with thermal neutrons, selenium can be determined either by 77mSe (t1/2 = 17.5 s) or 75Se (t1/2 = 120 d). In this article, we report the results for 82 urine samples from women with cervical uterine cancer in several stages of development and from healthy controls. These results show a statistically significant increase of selenium excretion in cancer patients as compared to controls. Urinary selenium excretion is highest for patients in the intermediate stages of the disease.

  4. Fecal and urinary excretion of six iodothyronines in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, J.J. III; Sapin, V.

    1987-11-01

    Fecal and urinary excretion rates of six iodothyronines were assessed in the rat maintained under normal steady state physiological conditions, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of control of normal thyroid hormone economy and metabolism. Groups of young adult male rats were injected with trace doses of T4, T3, rT3, 3,3'-diiodothyronine (T2), 3',5'-T2, or 3'-monoiodothyronine, each labeled with /sup 125/I, and feces and urine were collected separately for up to 10 days. Pooled fecal pellets were homogenized in saline, extracted in ethanol, evaporated under vacuum, and reconstituted in NaOH. Fecal extracts and urine were chromatographed on Sephadex G25 columns under conditions providing quantitative separations of components of interest. A new technique was also developed, based on a model of the in vitro extraction and measurement process, to correct chromatographic results for possible variable recoveries and possible artifactious degradation of radioactively labeled components. No iodothyronines or their conjugates were excreted in urine; all radioactivity was in the form of iodide. In feces, about 30% of the (/sup 125/I)T3 injected was excreted as T3; and 24% of the (/sup 125/I)T4 injected was excreted as T4, plus 4% as T3. Together, these results imply that about 24% of endogenous T4 production is excreted as T4 and 76% is irreversibly metabolized; and for T3, about 30% of endogenous T3 production is excreted as T3 and 70% is degraded. For the nonhormonal iodothyronines, about 6% of injected monoiodothyronine, 3% of injected 3',5'-T2, 2% of injected 3,3'-T2, and less than 1% of injected rT3 were excreted in feces as such, indicating that these substances are nearly completely deiodinated in vivo. Very little (1-7%) iodide was excreted as such in feces, which also were devoid of measurable conjugates.

  5. 24-hour urine copper test

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated with providing a urine sample. Alternative Names Quantitative urinary copper Images Copper urine test References McPherson ... for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis ...

  6. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  7. Skin surface lipid composition, acne, pubertal development, and urinary excretion of testosterone and 17-ketosteroids in children.

    PubMed

    Pochi, P E; Strauss, J S; Downing, D T

    1977-11-01

    Fifty-two children, age 5-10, from acne-prone families, were studied for a period of 1 year to examine the interrelationship between sebum, acne, pubertal development, and urinary steroid excretion. In each of the subjects, 30 boys and 22 girls, the composition of forehead skin lipid was determined 4 times yearly by thin-layer chromatography, with measurement of triglycerides, diglycerides, free fatty acids, wax esters, squalene, cholesterol, and cholesterol esters. Twice yearly, examination was made of the presence or absence of acne, pubertal maturation and the 24-hour urinary excretion of testosterone as determined by radioimmunnoassay, and of total 17-ketosteroids, dehydroepiandrosterone, androsterone, and etiocholanolone, as determined by paper chromatography. The relative amount of sebaceous lipids was positively correlated with age of the subjects (wax esters p less than .001, squalene p less than .05), as was the triglyceride-diglyceride component (p less than .05). No significant correlation was seen with the fatty acids. Acne, primarily comedonal, occurred in 27/52 subjects (15 girls, 12 boys) and was associated with higher sebum values. One-half of the children with acne had no signs of pubertal development. A significantly positive correlation was observed between the relative amount of sebaceous lipid and the urinary excretion of 17-ketosteroids, androsterone, and etiocholanolone in both sexes, and of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in boys. The development of acne in children is an early pubertal event, often evident before other signs of pubertal maturation, and it is associated with an increase in sebum and in the urinary excretion of androgenic steroids.

  8. Intake and urinary excretion of sodium chloride under varying conditions of effort and environment heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, E.; Adar, R.; Tennenbaum, J.; Kesten, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intake and urinary excretion of sodium were investigated in a group of young, healthy and acclimated men. The sodium excretions of workers and of machinists in the engine rooms of a ship were also investigated.

  9. Plasma pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of hexamethylene bisacetamide metabolites.

    PubMed

    Egorin, M J; Zuhowski, E G; Cohen, A S; Geelhaar, L A; Callery, P S; Van Echo, D A

    1987-11-15

    In order to further understand the clinical toxicities of hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) and to allow appropriate in vitro studies, we developed a suitable gas chromatographic assay and quantified plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of four metabolites which we had previously identified in urine of patients receiving 5-day HMBA infusions at 4.8-43.2 g/m2/day. 6-Acetamidohexanoic acid (AcHA) was the major plasma metabolite and reached steady state concentration (Css) by 24 h. AcHA Css increased from 0.12 +/- 0.02 (SD) mM at 4.8 g/m2/day to 0.72 mM at 43.2 g/m2/day. The Css AcHA:Css HMBA ratio decreased with increasing HMBA dosage. At dosages below 24 g/m2/day plasma Css of N-acetyl-1,6-diaminohexane (NADAH), the initial metabolite of HMBA, were below the limit of detection of our assay. With HMBA infusions of 24, 33.6, and 43.2 g/m2/day, Css of NADAH were 0.16 +/- 0.05, 0.14 +/- 0.06, and 0.19 +/- 0.04 mM, respectively. Css NADAH:Css HMBA ratios at 24, 33.6, and 43.2 g/m2/day were 0.18 +/- 0.06, 0.08 +/- 0.02, and 0.31 +/- 0.05, respectively. Plasma Css of 1,6-diaminohexane and 6-aminohexanoic acid were below the limit of detection of our assay. Each patient's urinary excretion of NADAH, AcHA, and 1,6-diaminohexane was consistent from day to day. The fraction of dose excreted in urine as AcHA was not affected by HMBA dosage and accounted for 12.7 +/- 3.9% of the daily dose. The percentage of daily HMBA dose accounted for by excretion of NADAH decreased with increasing HMBA dosage (10.8 +/- 6.0% at 4.8 g/m2/day to 4.2 +/- 1.2% at 33.6 g/m2/day). Urinary excretion of 1,6-diaminohexane always accounted for less than 3% of the daily dose. Our results indicate that: (a) plasma concentrations of AcHA alone cannot explain the degree of acidosis observed with toxic doses of HMBA; (b) NADAH is present in plasma at concentrations that we have found to cause differentiation in vitro; and (c) the probable rate-limiting step in HMBA metabolism is the initial

  10. Investigation of urinary excretion of hydroxyethyl starch and dextran by uhplc-hrms in different acquisition modes.

    PubMed

    Esposito, S; Deventer, K; Giron, A J; Roels, K; Herregods, L; Verstraete, A; Van Eenoo, P

    2014-06-01

    Plasma volume expanders (PVEs) such as hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and dextran are misused in sports because they can prevent dehydration and reduce haematocrit values to mask erythropoietin abuse. Endogenous hydrolysis generates multiple HES and dextran oligosaccharides which are excreted in urine. Composition of the urinary metabolic profiles of PVEs varies depending on post-administration time and can have an impact on their detectability. In this work, different mass spectrometry data acquisition modes (full scan with and without in-source collision-induced dissociation) were used to study urinary excretion profiles of HES and dextran, particularly by investigating time-dependent detectability of HES and dextran urinary oligosaccharide metabolites in post-administration samples. In-source fragmentation yielded the best results in terms of limit of detection (LOD) and detection times, whereas detection of HES and dextran metabolites in full scan mode with no in-source fragmentation is related to recent administration (< 24 hours). Urinary excretion studies showed detection windows for HES and dextran respectively of 72 and 48 hours after administration. Dextran concentrations were above the previously proposed threshold of 500 µg · mL(-1) for 12 hours. A "dilute-and-shoot" method for the detection of HES and dextran in human urine by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-high resolution Orbitrap™ mass spectrometry was developed for this study. Validation of the method showed an LOD in the range of 10-500 µg · mL(-1) for the most significant HES and dextran metabolites in the different modes. The method allows retrospective data analysis and can be implemented in existing high-resolution mass spectrometry-based doping control screening analysis.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF URINARY EXCRETION OF HYDROXYETHYL STARCH AND DEXTRAN BY UHPLC-HRMS IN DIFFERENT ACQUISITION MODES

    PubMed Central

    Deventer, K.; Giron, A.J.; Roels, K.; Herregods, L.; Verstraete, A.; Van Eenoo, P.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma volume expanders (PVEs) such as hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and dextran are misused in sports because they can prevent dehydration and reduce haematocrit values to mask erythropoietin abuse. Endogenous hydrolysis generates multiple HES and dextran oligosaccharides which are excreted in urine. Composition of the urinary metabolic profiles of PVEs varies depending on post-administration time and can have an impact on their detectability. In this work, different mass spectrometry data acquisition modes (full scan with and without in-source collision-induced dissociation) were used to study urinary excretion profiles of HES and dextran, particularly by investigating time-dependent detectability of HES and dextran urinary oligosaccharide metabolites in post-administration samples. In-source fragmentation yielded the best results in terms of limit of detection (LOD) and detection times, whereas detection of HES and dextran metabolites in full scan mode with no in-source fragmentation is related to recent administration (< 24 hours). Urinary excretion studies showed detection windows for HES and dextran respectively of 72 and 48 hours after administration. Dextran concentrations were above the previously proposed threshold of 500 µg · mL−1 for 12 hours. A “dilute-and-shoot” method for the detection of HES and dextran in human urine by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-high resolution Orbitrap™ mass spectrometry was developed for this study. Validation of the method showed an LOD in the range of 10-500 µg · mL−1 for the most significant HES and dextran metabolites in the different modes. The method allows retrospective data analysis and can be implemented in existing high-resolution mass spectrometry-based doping control screening analysis. PMID:24899772

  12. Validity of 24-hour dietary recall interviews conducted among volunteers in an adult working community.

    PubMed

    Kahn, H A; Whelton, P K; Appel, L J; Kumanyika, S K; Meneses, J L; Hebert, P R; Woods, M

    1995-11-01

    There is considerable uncertainty regarding the validity of dietary data collected from free-living populations. Nevertheless, few attempts have been made to validate dietary assessment instruments. To address this issue, we compared average daily protein intake estimated from 24-hour dietary recall interviews to protein intake estimated from urinary nitrogen excretion in 24-hour samples. Among 244 community-dwelling adults who volunteered for a hypertension study, men (n = 139) overreported dietary protein intake by 12 to 19%. In contrast, women (n = 105) reported a dietary protein intake almost exactly in agreement with estimates based on urinary nitrogen levels. Thin men reported about one-third more protein intake than was reflected in their urinary nitrogen measurements. Our results suggest that the accuracy of dietary recall estimates may vary across subgroups of the population. Additional information from sufficiently large validation studies would be helpful in determining the role of dietary assessment instruments which are already in wide use in epidemiologic research. Until such information is obtained, doubts will remain regarding the validity of inferences drawn from nutritional epidemiologic studies.

  13. Urinary excretions of 34 dietary polyphenols and their associations with lifestyle factors in the EPIC cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Achaintre, David; Rothwell, Joseph A.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Leitzmann, Michael; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Auffret, Aurélie; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin

    2016-01-01

    Urinary excretion of 34 dietary polyphenols and their variations according to diet and other lifestyle factors were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 475 adult participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study. A single 24-hour urine sample was analysed for each subject from 4 European countries. The highest median levels were observed for phenolic acids such as 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (157 μmol/24 h), followed by 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, ferulic, vanillic and homovanillic acids (20–50 μmol/24 h). The lowest concentrations were observed for equol, apigenin and resveratrol (<0.1 μmol/24 h). Urinary polyphenols significantly varied by centre, followed by alcohol intake, sex, educational level, and energy intake. This variability is largely explained by geographical variations in the diet, as suggested by the high correlations (r > 0.5) observed between urinary polyphenols and the intake of their main food sources (e.g., resveratrol and gallic acid ethyl ester with red wine intake; caffeic, protocatechuic and ferulic acids with coffee consumption; and hesperetin and naringenin with citrus fruit intake). The large variations in urinary polyphenols observed are largely determined by food preferences. These polyphenol biomarkers should allow more accurate evaluation of the relationships between polyphenol exposure and the risk of chronic diseases in large epidemiological studies. PMID:27273479

  14. Elevated urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid and exposure to inorganic lead.

    PubMed

    Farkas, W R; Fischbein, A; Solomon, S; Buschman, F; Borek, E; Sharma, O K

    1987-01-01

    beta-Aminoisobutyric acid (beta-AIB), a normal degradation product of thymine, a constituent of DNA and, to a lesser extent, of transfer RNA, is excreted in low levels in human urine. We found that a group of iron workers occupationally exposed to inorganic lead excreted high levels of urinary beta-AIB. Elevated urinary excretion of beta-AIB was also observed in marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, that received lead acetate in drinking water. Our results suggest that increased urinary excretion of beta-AIB could stem from damage to DNA on exposure to lead.

  15. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Růzicka, M; Stríbrná, J; Englis, M; Lánská, V; Skibová, J; Peregrin, J

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of albumin (UEalb), IgG and beta-2 microglobulin was investigated at a 3 hour-interval in a control group (C) of healthy subjects, in 30 patients with renovascular hypertension (RVH), and in 16 patients with essential hypertension (EH). Mean UEalb in RVH was significantly higher than in C. A significant direct correlation was demonstrated between diastolic blood pressure and UEalb (p < 0.01). Microalbuminuria (MA) > or = 30 micrograms.min-1 was found in about 18% of RVH patients; it was higher than 16.7 micrograms.min-1 in approx. 31%. These results did not substantially differ from those obtained in patients with EH. The cause for increased UEalb in hypertensive patients may be functional, haemodynamic changes, or structural ones. In either case, MA indicates renal injury, and these patients should be given increased attention when monitoring their blood pressure and when selecting antihypertensive drugs.

  16. Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Sayaka; Suzuki, Yayoi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women. Frequent detection of parabens and their metabolite indicated that exposure takes place daily for pregnant Japanese women. The estrogenic potency of PP was 20 times higher than those of the other 3 parabens for the present subjects when both abundance in the urine and the relative estrogenic activity of each compound was considered. Detection of free parabens suggested dermal exposure, probably from their inclusion in personal care products. No statistical association was found between the anogenital index (birth weight-adjusted AGD) of male offspring and the concentrations of any parabens in the urine of the mothers suggesting that the parabens were not apparently estrogenically active at the exposure level of the present subjects.

  17. Urinary potassium excretion and sodium sensitivity in blacks.

    PubMed

    Aviv, Abraham; Hollenberg, Norman K; Weder, Alan

    2004-04-01

    Based on racial differences in urinary potassium excretion and responses to diuretics, we present a model suggesting that a major cause of sodium sensitivity in blacks is an augmented activity of the Na-K-2Cl cotransport in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. This would result in an increased ability to conserve not only sodium but also water, and an upward and rightward shift in the operating point of tubuloglomerular feedback, which may cause an increase in the glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure and predilection to glomerular injury with and without hypertension. In this sense, the biological implication of sodium sensitivity in blacks and in humans in general has ramifications above and beyond salt-evoked increase in blood pressure.

  18. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  19. Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Nicolli, Annamaria; Chiara, Federica; Gambalunga, Alberto; Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Trevisan, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The urinary excretion rate is calculated based on short-term, defined time sample collections with a known sample mass, and this measurement can be used to remove the variability in urine concentrations due to urine dilution. Adjustment to the urinary excretion rate of hippuric acid was evaluated in 31 healthy volunteers (14 males and 17 females). Urine was collected as short-term or spot samples and tested for specific gravity, creatinine and hippuric acid. Hippuric acid values were unadjusted or adjusted to measurements of specific gravity, creatinine or urinary excretion rate. Hippuric acid levels were partially independent of urinary volume and urinary flow rate, in contrast to specific gravity and creatinine, which were both highly dependent on the hippuric acid level. Accordingly, hippuric acid was independent on urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion. Unadjusted and adjusted values for specific gravity or creatinine were generally closely correlated, especially in spot samples. Values adjusted to the urinary excretion rate appeared well correlated to those unadjusted and adjusted to specific gravity or creatinine values. Thus, adjustment of crude hippuric acid values to the urinary excretion rate is a valid procedure but is difficult to apply in the field of occupational medicine and does not improve the information derived from values determined in spot urine samples, either unadjusted or adjusted to specific gravity and creatinine. PMID:25019265

  20. High sodium intake increases the urinary excretion of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine but fails to alter the urinary excretion of dopamine and amine metabolites in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Coelho, M A; Pestana, M; Soares-da-Silva, P

    1996-12-01

    1. The present study has examined the daily urinary excretion of L-DOPA, dopamine and its metabolites (DOPAC, 3-MT and HVA) during normal salt (NS) and high salt(HS) diets. 2. Daily urinary excretion of L-DOPA, DA, DOPAC, 3-MT and HVA during the 4-day period of NS diet averaged, respectively, 7.6 +/- 0.4, 71 +/- 5, 217 +/- 22, 570 +/- 90 and 1217 +/- 110 nmol/kg/day. The slight increase in the urinary excretion of DA, DOPAC and 3-MT (16% to 42% increase), when rats were fed a HS diet, did not achieve statistical significance. 3. In contrast, the urinary levels of L-DOPA during the HS diet period (11 +/- 1 nmol/kg/day) were found to be significantly higher than during the NS diet period; the maximal increase in the urinary excretion of L-DOPA (93% increase) was observed in the first day and then a progressive decline was observed towards the end of the HS intake period. 4. During the first 5 days of the HS intake period, the urine output of noradrenaline (NA) was found to increase (27% to 83%) and then to progressively decline to baseline values (13.5 +/- 0.7 nmol/ kg/day). Urinary excretion of adrenaline (AD) during the HS intake period was found to increase (72% to 146%); the mean daily urinary excretion of AD during the NS diet period averaged 2.5 +/- 0.4 nmol/ kg/day. NS and DA contents in the kidney of rats on a NS diet were not significantly different from that of rats in a HS diet. 6. It is concluded that long-term HS intake in Wistar rats fail to change the urinary excretion of DA and of its metabolites (DOPAC, 3-MT and HVA). Furthermore, the discrepant profile in the urinary excretion of L-DOPA and DA during HS intake might be related to a reduction in the tubular uptake of the amino acid, rather than reflecting a decrease in its decarboxylation.

  1. Nitrogen dioxide exposure and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline and desmosine

    SciTech Connect

    Adgate, J.L.; Reid, H.F.; Morris, R.; Helms, R.W.; Berg, R.A.; Hu, P.C.; Cheng, P.W.; Wang, O.L.; Muelenaer, P.A.; Collier, A.M. )

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between average and peak personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline and desmosine was investigated in a population of preschool children and their mothers. Weekly average personal nitrogen dioxide exposures for subjects who resided in homes with one or more potential nitrogen dioxide source (e.g., a kerosene space heater, gas stove, or tobacco smoke) ranged between 16.3 and 50.6 ppb (30.6 and 95.1 micrograms/m3) for children and between 16.9 and 44.1 ppb (12.8 and 82.9 micrograms/m3) for mothers. In these individuals, the hydroxyproline-to-creatinine and desmosine-to-creatinine ratios were unrelated to personal nitrogen dioxide exposure--even though continuous monitoring documented home nitrogen dioxide concentration peaks of 100-475 ppb lasting up to 100 h in duration. Significantly higher hydroxyproline-to-creatinine and desmosine-to-creatinine ratios were observed in children, compared with mothers (p < .001 and .003, respectively).

  2. Persistence of urinary excretion products of benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Uziel, M.; Haglund, R.; White, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Persistence of DNA-adducts has been observed in a variety of experimental circumstances and has been suggested as one potential mechanism for explaining the long-term delay before expression of proliferative disease. In this concept, a stable DNA-adduct, which is a remnant of a prior exposure in a nondividing cell, would not express the genotoxic effect until the cells were stimulated to divide, and thus explain the long-term delay in expression of cancer. An alternative view of the observation of persistent DNA-adducts, described in this communication, is the continuing replenishment of DNA adducts by formation and turnover of these adducts from exposure to a constant supply of the ultimate carcinogenic species derived from a prior exposure. It is of interest to note that virtually all experiments where ''persistent'' adducts have been observed have been high dose exposures. During the course of experiments designed to develop improved methods for detection of DNA adducts and related derivatives derived from polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), we observed that there was a continuous excretion of urinary derivatives of the injected benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) beyond the initial burst of detoxification. This report describes the time dependent distribution of those derivatives in blood, urine, feces, and at the site of injection. 11 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. [Urinary oestriol excretion and the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid in Bogota (2600 m) I. Normal pregnancy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sobrevilla, L A; Cristina Peña, M; Jaramillo, R

    1980-01-01

    We have studied 22 pregnancies in order to establish normal values for the urinary oestriol excretion in Bogotá, a city 2600 metres above sea level. The study subjects were normal pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic of the Hospital San José de Bogotá, and belong to a racially mixed community of medium to low socio-economic level. In the study, new born weight was found low (mean +/- SEM 2.97 +/-0.06 kg) while placental weight was high (0.6 +/- 0.02 kg) with a high placenta/newborn ratio. Maternal hemoglobin was elevated (12.8 +/- 0.2g/100 ml) reflecting the effect of altitude. In 66 determinations, oestriol excretion was more than 4mg/24 hours from week 31 to 36 and of more than 5 mg/24 hours from week 35 to 40. The decreased excretion of oestriol most likely reflects impaired intrauterine fetal growth, and is probably related to nutrional, racial and socio-economic factors as well as to the altitude. In five normal term pregnancies studied, the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio was of 2 or more and amniotic fluid creatinine was also elevated, indicating maturity of the pulmonary and renal enzyme systems of the fetus.

  4. D-penicillamine does not increase urinary bismuth excretion in patients treated with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate.

    PubMed

    Nwokolo, C U; Pounder, R E

    1990-10-01

    Twenty-four urinary bismuth excretion was measured in five patients who had been treated with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate, before and after single 1 g oral dose of D-penicillamine. Before dosing with D-penicillamine, the median 24 h urinary bismuth output was 55 micrograms 24 h-1 (range 17-156 micrograms 24 h-1) and following dosing with D-penicillamine the median 24 h urinary bismuth output was 53 micrograms 24 h-1 (range 12-156 micrograms 24 h-1). D-penicillamine does not facilitate the urinary excretion of bismuth, hence it is unsuitable for use as an oral chelator in patients with bismuth intoxication.

  5. Effect of demographics on excretion of key urinary factors related to kidney stone risk

    PubMed Central

    Perinpam, Majuran; Ware, Erin B.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Lieske, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of demographics including age and sex on excretion of four key urinary factors (calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), oxalate (Ox) and uric acid (UA)) related to kidney stone risk. Methods Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected from non-Hispanic white sibships in Rochester, MN. Height, weight, blood pressure, serum creatinine and cystatin C (CC) were measured. Diet was assessed using the Viocare food frequency questionnaire. Effects of demographics and dietary elements on urinary excretions were evaluated in univariate, multivariate, and interaction models that included age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Results Samples were available from 709 individuals. In multivariate models, sex was a significant predictor of all four urinary factors, age was significant for all but UA excretion, and serum creatinine was significant only for Ca and Mg excretion (p<0.05). BMI or weight positively correlated with Mg, Ox and UA excretion (p<0.05). Use of a thiazide diuretic (lower) and dietary protein (higher) were associated with Ca excretion, while dietary Ca was associated with higher Mg excretion. Urinary UA excretion increased with animal protein intake and CC estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and was lower with concurrent loop diuretic use. Significant interaction effects on urinary UA excretion were observed for loop diuretic use and sex, eGFR and sex, age and animal protein intake, and BMI and eGFR (p<0.05). Conclusions Age and sex influence excretion of key urinary factors related to kidney stone risk, and should be taken into account when evaluating kidney stone patients. PMID:26206452

  6. Vanilmandelic acid and homovanillic acid levels in patients with neural crest tumor: 24-hour urine collection versus random sample.

    PubMed

    Gregianin, L J; McGill, A C; Pinheiro, C M; Brunetto, A L

    1997-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor in childhood and is the most frequent neural crest tumor (NCT). More than 90% of the patients excrete high levels of vanilmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the urine. Original biochemical methods for measuring these two metabolites of catecholamines employed a collection of urine for 24 hours to avoid errors related to circadian cycle variations. More recently, attempts have been made to replace the 24-hour collections by random samples (RSs). This has practical advantages particularly for young children. The objective of this study is to assess whether urinary VMA related to urinary creatinine levels can be determined reliably by the method of Pisano et al. from RSs in patients with NCT. The determination of the consumption of VMA in urine stored for prolonged periods of time was also studied. We found a good correlation between the values of metabolites of catecholamines in RSs compared with 24-hour urine collections. There was consumption of VMA in urine samples after storage. We conclude that determination of VMA in RSs of urine by Pisano's method may identify NCT production of catecholamines and that the consumption of these catecholamines is an important factor to consider in the interpretation of values obtained with stored urine specimens.

  7. Urinary excretion of orally administered oxalic acid in saccharin and o-phenylphenol-fed NMRI mice.

    PubMed

    Salminen, E; Salminen, S

    1986-01-01

    Both saccharin and o-phenylphenol have been suggested to be carcinogenic to the urinary bladder in experimental animals, but the mechanism has remained unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary saccharin and o-phenylphenol on the urinary excretion of dietary oxalic acid. Male NMRI mice were gradually adapted to either 3% o-phenylphenol or 5% saccharin in their diet. Having being adapted to these diets for 1 week or after consuming them for 3 months, the animals were fasted for 6 h and given a 2.5-microCi oral dose of U-14C-oxalic acid. Dosed animals were kept in metabolism cages for 48 h to monitor urinary and fecal excretion of the label. Adaptation to dietary o-phenylphenol appeared to increase the urinary excretion of orally administered U-14C-oxalic acid when food and water were available during urinary and fecal collections. Adaptation to dietary saccharin had little effect on urinary oxalate levels when compared to control animals. These results indicate that changes in urinary oxalate levels should be more carefully studied in connection with potential urinary bladder carcinogens to avoid the possibility of bladder irritation by increased urinary oxalate excretion.

  8. The urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline during rheumatoid arthritis therapy with infliximab.

    PubMed

    Ostanek, Lidia; Pawlik, Andrzej; Brzosko, Iwona; Brzosko, Marek; Sterna, Rozalia; Droździk, Marek; Gawrońska-Szklarz, Barbara

    2004-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disease that causes inflammation and joint destruction. As a result of pathological destruction in bone and cartilage, crosslinks in collagen are resorbed more rapidly. This causes a rise in circulating collagen crosslink levels and their urinary excretion. In RA, apart from the crosslink resorption at the site of inflamed joints, there may be increased resorption due to general bone loss associated with disease activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of therapy with infliximab on urinary excretion of pyridinoline (PYD) and deoxypyridinoline (DPYR) as a markers of collagen degradation and its correlation with clinical and biochemical parameters of disease activity. Seventeen patients with active rheumatoid arthritis treated with infliximab were recruited into the study. The therapy resulted in the reduction in the symptoms of RA and urinary excretion of PYD and DPYR. The urinary excretion of PYD correlated with a number of swollen joints, morning stiffness, CRP and ESR. The urinary excretion of DPYR correlated during infliximab therapy with the number of swollen and tender joints and morning stiffness. The measurement of urinary excretion of PYR and DPYR may give insight into bone metabolism and help us to better understand the actual changes in bone and cartilage caused by RA and its treatment.

  9. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  10. The effect of ethanol on the urinary excretion and differential metabolism of folate compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenga, B.H.

    1989-01-01

    In rats chronically fed ethanol and folate-containing diets for 12 weeks, urinary folate excretion was increased. However, no significant tissue depletion was noted unless rats were fed folate deficient diets. In rats fed folate-deficient diets urinary folate excretion was dramatically decreased at two weeks, when tissue folate stores were replete. After 16 weeks of diet treatment, the urinary excretion of an intraperitoneal dose of {sup 3}H-PteGlu was not altered in folate-deficient rats. Although acute ethanol administration (oral or intravenous) increased endogenous folate excretion that of {sup 3}H-PteGlu was not significantly altered, nor was the fractional excretion of {sup 3}H-label. To clarify this effect, the metabolism of {sup 3}H-PteGlu was studied. HPLC analysis of urine showed extensive metabolism of {sup 3}H-PteGlu to other folate substrates. Oral ethanol-treatment increased the fractional excretion of endogenous 5-CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}PteGlu with no increase in urinary excretion or fractional excretion of other {sup 3}H-labeled derivatives. After infusion of tritium labeled 5-CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}PteGlu, ethanol treatment increased the fractional excretion of endogenous and {sup 3}H-5-CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}PteGlu, but not that of other folates. There was rapid uptake of {sup 3}H-label by the kidney with only 10% of the urinary {sup 3}H-label as {sup 3}H-5-CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}PteGlu.

  11. Evaluation of urinary porphyrin excretion in neonates born to mothers exposed to airborne hexachlorobenzene.

    PubMed Central

    Ozalla, Dolores; Herrero, Carmen; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; To-Figueras, Jordi; Toll, Agustí; Sala, Maria; Grimalt, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier; Lecha, Màrius; Sunyer, Jordi

    2002-01-01

    The existence of a link between hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and porphyria cutanea tarda has been known for a long time. However, the epidemiologic data on effects on health caused by prenatal exposure have not provided convincing evidence that HCB alters porphyrin metabolism. Our objectives were to analyze urinary porphyrin excretion and HCB in maternal serum and fetal cord blood in neonates born in a village (Flix) near a chlorinated solvent factory, to detect possible adverse effects in urinary porphyrin excretion caused by prenatal exposure, and to assess their relationship with HCB blood levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Porphyria Unit at a tertiary care facility in Barcelona, Spain, and the Pediatric Unit of the Móra d'Ebre Hospital, the reference hospital of the study area. We included in the study all neonates (n = 68) born in Móra d'Ebre Hospital 1997-1999 and their mothers. We obtained 68 urine specimens of singleton neonates on the third day after birth to test for urinary porphyrin excretion. We obtained 52 fetal cord blood and 56 maternal serum samples for HCB analysis. Total urinary porphyrins were quantified using spectrofluorometry. Porphyrin profile was determined by HPLC. Serum HCB was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. In total population, median HCB levels were 1.08 ng/mL in cord blood and 3.31 ng/mL in maternal serum. Total urinary porphyrin concentration was 37.87 micromol/mol creatinine. Coproporphyrin I and coproporphyrin III were the major porphyrins excreted. We found no positive relationship between urinary porphyrin excretion and HCB levels. However, we observed an association between maternal smoking and coproporphyrin excretion. Although high environmental levels of HCB are reported in the town of Flix, we found no alteration in urinary porphyrin excretion. PMID:11836151

  12. Organic Anion Transporter 5 Renal Expression and Urinary Excretion in Rats with Vascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Hazelhoff, María Herminia; Bulacio, Romina Paula; Torres, Adriana Mónica

    2013-01-01

    It has been described renal damage in rats with vascular calcification. The organic anion transporter 5 (Oat5) is only expressed in kidney, and its urinary excretion was proposed as potential early biomarker of renal injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Oat5 renal expression and its urinary excretion in an experimental model of vascular calcification in comparison with traditional markers of renal injury. Vascular calcification was obtained by the administration of an overdose of vitamin D3 (300,000 IU/kg, b.w., i.m.) to male Wistar rats. Oat5 urinary abundance was evaluated by Western blotting. Traditional markers of renal injury, such as creatinine and urea plasma levels, urinary protein levels, and urinary alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, were determined using commercial kits. Histology was assessed by hematoxylin/eosin staining. Oat5 renal expression was evaluated by Western blotting and by immunohistochemistry. An increased expression of Oat5 in renal homogenates, in apical membranes, and in its urinary excretion was observed in rats with vascular calcification. The traditional parameters used to evaluate renal function were not modified, with the exception of histology. It is possible to postulate the urinary excretion of Oat5 as a potential noninvasive biomarker of renal injury associated with vascular calcification. PMID:24199190

  13. Urinary excretion of vitamin B1, B2, B6, niacin, pantothenic acid, folate, and vitamin C correlates with dietary intakes of free-living elderly, female Japanese.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Tomiko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Shibata, Katsumi

    2010-03-01

    We hypothesized that 24-hour urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins might correlate with their intake in free-living Japanese elderly females aged 70 to 84 years. We performed a cross-sectional study composed of 37 healthy, elderly, Japanese females living freely. All foods and the corresponding weights consumed for 4 consecutive days were recorded accurately. A 24-hour urine sample was collected on the fourth day, and the urinary content of water-soluble vitamins was measured. The urinary levels of all vitamins, except for B(12) (r = 0.01; P = .936), were correlated positively with the mean intake over the recent 4 days (vitamin B1: r = 0.62; P < .001; vitamin B2: r = 0.57; P < .001; vitamin B6: r = 0.37; P < .005; niacin: r = 0.54; P < .001; niacin equivalents: r = 0.54; P < .001; pantothenic acid: r = 0.59; P < .001; folate: r = 0.55; P = .001; and vitamin C: r = 0.53; P < .001). Mean estimated intakes of water-soluble vitamins calculated using urinary concentrations and recovery rates showed 96% to 107% of their 3-day mean intake, except for vitamin B12 (65%). We conclude that urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins, except for B12, reflected their recent intake in free-living Japanese elderly females and could be used as a measure of their intake during the previous few days both for group means and for individual rankings within a group.

  14. Impact of water-induced diuresis on excretion profiles of ethanol, urinary creatinine, and urinary osmolality.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, P; Jones, A W

    1999-01-01

    This article reports the impact of diuresis on urinary excretion of ethanol in seven healthy volunteers who drank 1000 mL of export beer (44 g ethanol) in 30 min and, 120 min later, ingested 500 or 1000 mL of water within 5 min. Urine was voided before drinking started and every 30-60 min for 360 min after the start of drinking. The concentration of ethanol in urine (UAC) was determined by headspace gas chromatography, the creatinine content was determined by Jaffe's method, and osmolality was measured by freezing point depression. Maximum diuresis coincided with the peak UAC and was reached 60-90 min after the end of drinking. The urinary creatinine and osmolality dropped appreciably after drinking beer, and the lowest values coincided with peak diuresis. Creatinine was < 0.2 g/L in 22% of urine specimens, and osmolality was < 200 mOsm/kg in 31% of specimens. Production of urine decreased as UAC entered the postabsorptive phase but increased again after the subjects drank water 120 min after alcohol consumption. The amount of ethanol recovered in urine was 681 mg (standard deviation [SD] 203 mg) corresponding to 1.5% (SD 0.46%) of the dose administered. The concentrations of ethanol in successive voids during the postabsorptive phase were not influenced after subjects drank 500 or 1000 mL of water although diuresis increased and urinary creatinine and osmolality decreased. Measuring UAC provides a reliable way to monitor recent drinking, and unlike the analysis of illicit drugs in urine, the concentrations of ethanol are not influenced by diuresis.

  15. Renal Expression and Urinary Excretion of Na-K-2Cl Cotransporter in Obstructive Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Renal damage due to urinary tract obstruction accounts for up to 30% of acute kidney injury in paediatrics and adults. Bilateral ureteral obstruction (BUO) is associated with polyuria and reduced urinary concentrating capacity. We investigated the renal handling of water and electrolytes together with the renal expression and the urinary excretion of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) after 1 (BUO-1), 2 (BUO-2), and 7 (BUO-7) days of release of BUO. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemical studies showed that NKCC2 expression was upregulated in apical membranes both from BUO-2 and from BUO-7 rats. The apical membrane expression, where NKCC2 is functional, may be sufficient to normalize water, potassium, sodium, and osmolytes tubular handling. NKCC2 abundance in homogenates and mRNA levels of NKCC2 was significantly decreased in almost all groups suggesting a decrease in the synthesis of the transporter. Urinary excretion of NKCC2 was increased in BUO-7 groups. These data suggest that the upregulation in the expression of NKCC2 in apical membranes during the postobstructive phase of BUO could contribute to improving the excretion of sodium and consequently also the excretion of potassium, osmolytes, and water. Moreover, the increase in urinary excretion of NKCC2 in BUO-7 group could be a potential additional biomarker of renal function recovery. PMID:28164127

  16. Urinary excretion of mercury after occupational exposure to mercury vapour and influence of the chelating agent meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA).

    PubMed Central

    Roels, H A; Boeckx, M; Ceulemans, E; Lauwerys, R R

    1991-01-01

    The spontaneous and chelator mediated excretion of mercury in urine was investigated in male subjects occupationally exposed to mercury vapour (alkaline battery and chloralkali plants) who did not exhibit any sign of kidney damage. The time course of the spontaneous elimination of mercury in urine was examined in seven workers (age 22-40) who had been removed from exposure to mercury vapour (average duration of exposure 4.4 years) because their urinary mercury concentrations repeatedly exceeded 100 micrograms/g creatinine. The post exposure observation period started 10 to 29 days after the date of removal and lasted about 300 days (slow HgU elimination phase). For each worker, the kinetics of the spontaneous HgU decline followed a first order process; the biological half life ranged from 69 to 109 days (mean 90 days). The increased urinary excretion of mercury after a single oral administration of 2 g meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was investigated in 16 control workers (group A; age 23 to 49), in 11 workers removed from exposure for at least two years (group B; age 27 to 41), and in 16 workers currently exposed to mercury vapour (group C; age 21 to 58). In group C, the DMSA experiment was repeated twice (three weeks before and three weeks after a holiday) after measures had been taken to reduce the mercury emission. The urinary mercury excretion was significantly higher during the 24 hours after DMSA administration in all groups compared with that in the 24 hours before. The bulk (50-70%) of the DMSA stimulated mercury excretion appeared within the first eight hours. In each group, the amount of mercury (microgram Hg/24h) excreted after DMSA was significantly correlated with that before administration of DMSA. The groups whose exposure had ceased, however, exhibited much higher correlation for coefficients (r=0.97 for group B and 0.86 for group C after three weeks of holiday) than those currently exposed to mercury vapour (r-0.66 for group C before and 9

  17. The quantitative relationship of urinary peptide hydroxyproline excretion to collagen degradation

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Phillip H.; Klein, LeRoy

    1969-01-01

    To determine the quantitative relationship of urinary hydroxyproline peptide excretion to collagen breakdown, known quantities of radioactive hydroxyproline peptides were administered to unlabeled animals and excertion of radioactivity in respiratory carbon dioxide, urine, and feces was measured. The major routes of excretion of collagen peptide metabolites were respiratory carbon dioxide (75%) and urine, as hydroxyproline-containing peptides (25%). Since the predominant urine hydroxyproline peptide linkage is proly-hydroxyproline, L-prolyl-L-hydroxyproline-3H was administered to unlabeled animals. Greater than 80% of the administered dipeptide was excreted in urine, suggesting that this peptide linkage is not hydrolyzed to a significant extent in vivo. These data suggest that urinary hydroxyproline excretion is a “fairly” sensitive indicator of collagen breakdown and can be used at the clinical level to quantitate changes in collagen breakdown. PMID:5765022

  18. Increased Klk9 Urinary Excretion Is Associated to Hypertension-Induced Cardiovascular Damage and Renal Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez-Medela, Ana M.; García-Sánchez, Omar; Quirós, Yaremi; Blanco-Gozalo, Victor; Prieto-García, Laura; Sancho-Martínez, Sandra M.; Romero, Miguel; Duarte, Juan M.; López-Hernández, Francisco J.; López-Novoa, José M.; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early detection of hypertensive end-organ damage and secondary diseases are key determinants of cardiovascular prognosis in patients suffering from arterial hypertension. Presently, there are no biomarkers for the detection of hypertensive target organ damage, most outstandingly including blood vessels, the heart, and the kidneys. We aimed to validate the usefulness of the urinary excretion of the serine protease kallikrein-related peptidase 9 (KLK9) as a biomarker of hypertension-induced target organ damage. Urinary, plasma, and renal tissue levels of KLK9 were measured by the Western blot in different rat models of hypertension, including angiotensin-II infusion, DOCA-salt, L-NAME administration, and spontaneous hypertension. Urinary levels were associated to cardiovascular and renal injury, assessed by histopathology. The origin of urinary KLK9 was investigated through in situ renal perfusion experiments. The urinary excretion of KLK9 is increased in different experimental models of hypertension in rats. The ACE inhibitor trandolapril significantly reduced arterial pressure and the urinary level of KLK9. Hypertension did not increase kidney, heart, liver, lung, or plasma KLK9 levels. Hypertension-induced increased urinary excretion of KLK9 results from specific alterations in its tubular reabsorption, even in the absence of overt nephropathy. KLK9 urinary excretion strongly correlates with cardiac hypertrophy and aortic wall thickening. KLK9 appears in the urine in the presence of hypertension as a result of subtle renal handling alterations. Urinary KLK9 might be potentially used as an indicator of hypertensive cardiac and vascular damage. PMID:26469898

  19. The effect of modified citrus pectin on urinary excretion of toxic elements.

    PubMed

    Eliaz, Isaac; Hotchkiss, Arland T; Fishman, Marshall L; Rode, Dorena

    2006-10-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of modified citrus pectin (MCP) on the urinary excretion of toxic elements in healthy individuals. MCP is a reduced molecular weight pectin (weight-average molar mass = 15,400) that is mostly linear homogalacturonan with a 3.8% degree of esterification and approximately 10% rhamnogalacturonan II based on the presence of 2-keto-3-deoxy-octonic acid. Subjects ingested 15 g of MCP (PectaSol, EcoNugenics Inc., Santa Rosa, California 95407) each day for 5 days and 20 g on day 6. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected on day 1 and day 6 for comparison with baseline. The urine samples were analysed for toxic and essential elements. In the first 24 h of MCP administration the urinary excretion of arsenic increased significantly (130%, p < 0.05). On day 6, urinary excretion was increased significantly for cadmium (150%, p < 0.05). In addition, lead showed a dramatic increase in excretion (560%, p < 0.08). This pilot trial provides the first evidence that oral administration of MCP increases significantly the urinary excretion of toxic metals in subjects with a 'normal' body load of metals. It is suggested that systemic chelation of toxic metals by MCP may in part be attributable to the presence of rhamnogalacturonan II, which has been shown previously to chelate metals.

  20. Abnormal urinary excretion of polyamines in HHH syndrome (hyperornithinemia associated with hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria).

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H; Maekawa, K; Eto, Y

    1990-01-01

    The HHH syndrome (hyperornithinemia associated with hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria) is characterized by a very rare genetic defect of ornithine transport in mitochondrial membrane. We first demonstrated that a patient with HHH syndrome excreted about 6 times higher amount of polyamines in urine than the control when supplemented with high protein diets and ornithine loading. Each urinary polyamine fraction measured by HPLC method in HHH syndrome appears to be increased, as compared with those of the control. These data suggest that increased urinary excretion of polyamines in this syndrome is closely related to overflowing of plasma polyamine due to an ornithine transport defect in the mitochondrial membrane.

  1. Single dose povidone-iodine on thyroid functions and urinary iodine excretion.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Deniz; Teziç, H Tahsin; Zorlu, Pelin; Firat, Serap; Bilaloğlu, Eriş; Kutlu, Alev Oğuz

    2003-08-01

    The effect of single dose povidone-iodine on serum thyrotropin and thyroxine levels and urinary iodine excretion in 30 preterm, 40 full-term newborns and 50 infants at Dr. Sami Ulus Children's Hospital was studied. There was no significant change of thyroid function in any of the groups (p>0.05). Urinary iodine excretion in preterm and full-term groups elevated significantly (p<0.05). The authors conclude that patients who receive single dose povidone-iodine for skin disinfection are not at risk for thyroid disorders.

  2. Assessment of urinary excretion of antimalarial drugs in large-scale chemotherapeutic eradication projects

    PubMed Central

    Bruce-Chwatt, L. J.

    1959-01-01

    Assessment of the urinary excretion of an antimalarial drug is a useful means of checking the amount of drug administered and the regularity of intake. The author describes the various methods available for the qualitative and quantitative estimation of antimalarial drugs in urine and discusses their relative merits, with special reference to their suitability for use in the field. He points out the difficulties involved in estimating the urinary excretion of antimalarials in large-scale chemotherapeutic eradication projects and stress the importance of simplifying testing techniques as far as possible. PMID:13805135

  3. Urinary folate excretion in chronic ethanol- and diet-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, T.D.; McMartin, K.E.; Bairnsfather, L.

    1986-03-05

    Acute ethanol treatment of rats produces a marked increase in urinary folate excretion, which accumulates in correlation with the duration of ethanol treatment. In order to study the role of excess urinary folate excretion in the development of folate deficiency by chronic ethanol feeding, groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for four months on one of the following liquid diets: ethanol, pair-fed control, ethanol minus folic acid, and pair-fed control minus folic acid. A fifth group was provided a control chow diet ad libitum. Blood ethanol levels were generally maintained between 80-150 mg/dl at various times of the day. Decrease in plasma and tissue folate levels occurred within four weeks in all liquid diet groups compared to chow rats and within two weeks for urinary folate levels. Greater effects were generally observed in both folate-deficient groups than in the control or ethanol group. Acute ethanol treatment of rats from the various diet groups produced increases in urinary folate excretion in all groups except the ethanol minus folic acid diet group. When the folate system of rats are compromised by dietary deprivation and/or chronic ethanol treatment, these results suggest that urinary folate excretion is greatly reduced as a conservation measure.

  4. Renal excretion in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after acute exposure to 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, J.B.; Allen, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    COHO SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS KISUTCH) EXPOSED TO AN ACUTE, SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATION OF 3-TRIFLUOROMETHLY 1-4 NITROPHENOL (TFM) EXHIBITED AN INCREASED OUTPUT OF URINE WHEN COMPARED WITH CONTROLS, BUT THE URINARY EXCRETION OF NA, K, CA, MG AND C1 WAS NOT AFFECTED. ABOUT 35 TIMES MORE CONJUGATED TFM THAN FREE TFM WAS EXCRETED DURING THE 24-HOUR STUDY PERIOD.

  5. Urinary {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, and retinol-binding protein levels in general populations in Japan with references to cadmium in urine, blood, and 24-hour food duplicates

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Moon, Chan-Seok; Zhang, Zuo-Wen

    1995-07-01

    Possible cadmium (Cd) exposure-associated changes in urinary levels of low-molecular-weight proteins were studied in nonsmoking and nondrinking female members of the general Japanese population (378 subjects with no known occupational heavy metal exposure) who lived at 19 study sites (all without any known environmental heavy metal pollution) in 13 prefectures throughout Japan. The external Cd dose was evaluated in terms of daily Cd intake via food (Cd-F), whereas Cd levels in blood (Cd-B) and urine (Cd-U) were taken as internal dose indicators. When the subjects were classified according to Cd-F into three groups with {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} (20.4 {mu}g/day as a geometric mean of 97 women), {open_quotes}middle{close_quotes} (35.0 {mu}g/day, 120 women) and {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} (67.0 {mu}g/day, 66 women) exposure, both Cd-B and Cd-U increased in parallel with the changes in Cd-F. However, there were no dose-dependent changes in {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin or retinol-binding protein levels in urine. {alpha}{sub 1}-Microglobulin levels appeared to increase, but the distribution of the cases above the two cutoff levels of 9.6 and 15.8 {mu}g/mg creatinine among the three Cd-F groups did not show any bias. Overall, it was concluded that there was no apparent Cd exposure-associated elevation in urinary low-molecular-weight protein levels in the study population. 41 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Urinary excretion of dietary Maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats.

    PubMed

    van Rooijen, C; Bosch, G; Butré, C I; van der Poel, A F B; Wierenga, P A; Alexander, L; Hendriks, W H

    2016-01-01

    During processing of foods, the Maillard reaction occurs, resulting in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRP). Varying amounts of MRP have been found in commercially processed pet foods. Dietary MRP can be absorbed and contribute to the endogenous pool of MRP and possibly the etiology of age-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine urinary excretion of dietary MRP in cats fed commercial moist and dry foods. A pilot study with 10 cats, conducted to determine the adaptation time required for stable urinary excretion of MRP when changing to a diet with contrasting MRP content, showed an adaptation time of 1 d for all components. In the main study, 6 commercially processed dry and 6 moist diets were fed to 12 adult female cats in 2 parallel randomized, 36-d Latin square designs. The 24-h urine was collected quantitatively using modified litter boxes, and fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine (CML), and lysinoalanine (LAL) were analyzed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) - mass spectrometer. Daily urinary excretion of FL and CML showed a positive relationship with daily intake in the dry ( = 0.03 and < 0.01, respectively) and moist ( < 0.01) foods. For LAL, no significant relationship was observed. Urinary recovery (% ingested) showed a negative relationship with daily intake for FL, CML, and LAL in the dry foods ( < 0.01, < 0.01, and = 0.08, respectively) and for CML and LAL in the moist foods ( < 0.01). The observed increase in urinary excretion with increasing dietary intake indicates that dietary MRP were absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of cats and excreted in the urine. The adaptation time with change in diet indicates a likely effective excretion of MRP. Minimum apparent absorption of FL, CML, and LAL was found to range between 8% and 23%, 25% and 73%, and 6% and 19%, respectively. The observed decrease in urinary recovery suggests a limiting factor in digestion, absorption, metabolism

  7. Moderate alcohol consumption and urinary excretion of magnesium and calcium.

    PubMed

    Rylander, R; Mégevand, Y; Lasserre, B; Amstutz, W; Granbom, S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnesium (Mg) status of male subjects consuming moderate amounts of alcohol (n = 14) in comparison with that of a group of non-consumers of alcohol (n = 10). Plasma ionized Mg levels and total erythrocyte Mg content were determined as well as the excretion of Mg in urine before and after an oral loading test. Intake of Mg via food and water was estimated using a one-week dietary records. The results showed a significantly higher, alcohol dose-related excretion of Mg and Ca (calcium) in the urine after the oral Mg load among consumers of alcohol. Although the study is based on a small number of subjects with differences in smoking habits, it is suggested that alcohol consumption even in moderate amounts could contribute to Mg deficiency.

  8. Results of a quality assurance exercise for urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion.

    PubMed

    Brimble, A; Pennock, C; Stone, J

    1990-03-01

    Urine samples collected from four patients with a mucopolysaccharide storage disease (MPS) and two non-MPS patients were distributed to up to 33 laboratories as a test of their ability to detect abnormal glycosaminoglycan excretion. Seven national reference laboratories made a correct diagnostic assignment to all samples analysed. Qualitative turbidity and spot tests were shown to be unreliable. Failure to identify the excretion pattern occurred when reliance was placed on one-dimensional electrophoresis or thin layer chromatography as the sole method for glycosaminoglycan identification. Two-dimensional electrophoresis appeared to be the method of choice provided that staff had adequate experience in interpretation. Clinically unacceptable delays in analysis were common, with 80% of laboratories taking longer than 10 days to issue a report.

  9. Urinary excretion of morphine and biosynthetic precursors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Grobe, Nadja; Lamshöft, Marc; Orth, Robert G.; Dräger, Birgit; Kutchan, Toni M.; Zenk, Meinhart H.; Spiteller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    It has been firmly established that humans excrete a small but steady amount of the isoquinoline alkaloid morphine in their urine. It is unclear whether it is of dietary or endogenous origin. There is no doubt that a simple isoquinoline alkaloid, tetrahydropapaveroline (THP), is found in human and rodent brain as well as in human urine. This suggests a potential biogenetic relationship between both alkaloids. Unlabeled THP or [1,3,4-D3]-THP was injected intraperitoneally into mice and the urine was analyzed. This potential precursor was extensively metabolized (96%). Among the metabolites found was the phenol-coupled product salutaridine, the known morphine precursor in the opium poppy plant. Synthetic [7D]-salutaridinol, the biosynthetic reduction product of salutaridine, injected intraperitoneally into live animals led to the formation of [7D]-thebaine, which was excreted in urine. [N-CD3]-thebaine was also administered and yielded [N-CD3]-morphine and the congeners [N-CD3]-codeine and [N-CD3]-oripavine in urine. These results show for the first time that live animals have the biosynthetic capability to convert a normal constituent of rodents, THP, to morphine. Morphine and its precursors are normally not found in tissues or organs, presumably due to metabolic breakdown. Hence, only that portion of the isoquinoline alkaloids excreted in urine unmetabolized can be detected. Analysis of urine by high resolution-mass spectrometry proved to be a powerful method for tracking endogenous morphine and its biosynthetic precursors. PMID:20421505

  10. Urinary Excretion of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arellano-Buendía, Abraham Said; García-Arroyo, Fernando Enrique; Cristóbal-García, Magdalena; Loredo-Mendoza, María Lilia; Tapia-Rodríguez, Edilia; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Osorio-Alonso, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that tubular damage precedes glomerular damage in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, we evaluated oxidative stress and urinary excretion of tubular proteins as markers of tubular dysfunction. Methods. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin administration (50 mg/kg). Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD); additionally, expression levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and oxidized protein (OP) were quantified. Whole glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured. Urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), osteopontin (uOPN), and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) was also determined. Results. Diabetic rats showed an increase in uNGAL excretion 7 days following induction of diabetes. Diuresis, proteinuria, albuminuria, creatinine clearance, and GFR were significantly increased by 30 days after induction. Furthermore, there was an increase in both CAT and SOD activity, in addition to 3-NT, 4-HNE, and OP expression levels. However, GPx activity was lower. Serum levels of NGAL and OPN, as well as excretion levels of uNGAL, uOPN, and uNAG, were increased in diabetics. Tubular damage was observed by 7 days after diabetes induction and was further aggravated by 30 days after induction. Conclusion. The tubular dysfunction evidenced by urinary excretion of NGAL precedes oxidative stress during diabetes. PMID:25243053

  11. Increased urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in a Danish family.

    PubMed

    Sjølin, K E

    1988-08-01

    During collection of a control material for determination of urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (beta-AIB), female high excretors were found in four generations in a Danish family. The heredity seemed to be sex related and dominant, unlike previous communications about genetically conditioned high excretors of beta-AIB.

  12. Measured versus modeled dietary arsenic and relation to urinary arsenic excretion and total exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Hartz, Vern; Harris, Robin B.; Burgess, Jefferey L.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) in food and water is a significant public health problem. Person-specific aggregate exposure is difficult to collect, and modeling based on limited food As residue databases is of uncertain reliability. Two, cross-sectional, population exposure studies—the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS)-Arizona and the Arizona Border Survey (ABS)— had a total of 252 subjects with diet, water, and urinary As data. Total As was measured in 24-hour duplicate diet samples and modeled using 24-hour diet diaries in conjunction with several published food surveys of As. Two-stage regression was used to assess the effects of dietary As on urinary total As (uAs): 1) generalized linear mixed models of uAs above versus below the limit of detection (LOD); and 2) restricted models limited to those subjects with uAs > LOD, using bootstrap sampling and mixed models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, ethnicity, current smoking, and As intake from drinking and cooking water. In restricted models, measured and modeled estimates were significant predictors of uAs. Modeled dietary As based on Total Diet Study mean residues greatly underestimated dietary intake. In households with tap water As ≤ 10 ppb, over 93% of total As exposure was attributable to diet. PMID:23321855

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of the urinary albumin: creatinine ratio determined by the CLINITEK Microalbumin and DCA 2000+ for the rule-out of albuminuria in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Guy, Mark; Newall, Ronald; Borzomato, Joanna; Kalra, Philip A; Price, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    An increased urinary albumin excretion (albuminuria) is an established test for the early detection of renal disease and is also recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality in a number of clinical settings. There is an established body of data which shows that a random urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) based on a random urine sample correlates well with 24-hour urinary albumin excretion measurement. However, there is little data to show whether specific point-of-care testing devices can be used to rule-in or rule-out increased urinary albumin excretion in comparison to a 24-hour urinary albumin excretion measurement. This study evaluated the ability to rule-in or rule-out albuminuria in a cohort of patients attending a renal outpatient clinic, using the urinary ACR determined by the CLINITEK Microalbumin (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., Deerfield, US) a semi-quantitative strip test, and by the DCA 2000+ (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc.) a quantitative cassette based test using 3 random urine samples collected within a 24-hour period compared to 24-hour urinary albumin measurement. The CLINITEK system was shown to be a reliable test for ruling out increased urinary albumin excretion with negative likelihood ratios less than 0.05 above the 24-hour urinary albumin excretion rate of 30 mg/24 h (threshold for microalbuminuria), and less than 0.01 above the albumin excretion rate of 100 mg/24 h. The DCA 2000+ system demonstrated similar performance as a rule-out test, with likelihood ratios of less than 0.02 at 24-hour albumin excretion rates above 30 mg/24 h. Both the CLINITEK and DCA 2000+ systems could be used to rule-out increased urinary albumin excretion at the albumin excretion cut-off rate of 30 mg/24 h in this cohort of patients.

  14. Clinical features of two cases of Legionnaires' disease with persistence of Legionella urinary antigen excretion.

    PubMed

    Higa, Futoshi; Fujita, Jiro; Koide, Michio; Haranaga, Shusaku; Tateyama, Masao

    2008-01-01

    The advantages of diagnosing legionellosis by urinary antigen detection are widely recognized, and include early detection, rapidity of testing, and ease of specimen collection. However, the persistence of Legionella urinary antigen excretion has been suggested in some selected patients, although the clinical features of these patients have not yet been clearly described. Here, we describe the clinical features of two patients with Legionnaires' disease with persistence of Legionella urinary antigen excretion (117 days and 247 days). One patient had an underlying disease, adult T-cell leukemia, and the other patient had ulcerative colitis and was receiving oral corticosteroids. Unusual clinical and radiological findings as well as a review of the literature are presented.

  15. Testosterone urinary excretion rate increases during hypergravity in male monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strollo, F.; Barger, L.; Fuller, C.

    2000-01-01

    Real and simulated microgravity impairs T secretion both in animals and in the human. To verify whether hypergravity might enhance T secretion as a consequence of an opposite mechanical effect, 6 male monkeys were centrifuged at 2 G for 3 weeks after a 1 G stabilization period lasting 3 weeks and then taken back to 1 G for 1 week and urine were collected daily for T excretion measurement. Significantly higher level were observed during the initial 2 G phase as compared to pre- and post centrifugation periods and the trend was the same during the remaining 2 G period. This may reflect changes in testicular perfusion rather than endocrine adaptation per se.

  16. Possible parameters in the urinary excretion of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Cawley, C.N.; Lewis, B.A.; Cannon, L.A.

    1985-11-01

    Because of its mobility in both physical and biological systems, tritium is interesting both as a tracer and as an issue in health physics. Because tritium is extremely difficult to contain, it is one of the major radionuclides of concern if released to the environment from nuclear facilities. Relatively very large releases are tolerated because the beta particle has low energy and, therefore, the radioisotope is not a health hazard unless deposited internally. Moreover, on release to the environment, tritium enters the hydrologic cycle and is diluted and dispersed widely through the hydrosphere. It is likely that tritium uptake and loss in humans is more complex than generally believed and may be more functionally related to physiological processes, such as the bicarbonate and electrolyte balances, than to ambient environmental conditions such as temperature. Despite the many uncertainties in the analyses of experimental data on tritium contamination and excretion, it is likely that further investigations will establish both a better understanding of the tritium health hazard and the physiological processes governing excretion and, perhaps, its indefinite recycling through metabolic pools.

  17. The pharmacokinetics, urinary and biliary excretion of pipecuronium bromide.

    PubMed

    Wierda, J M; Szenohradszky, J; De Wit, A P; Zentai, G; Agoston, S; Kakas, M; Kleef, U W; Meijer, D K

    1991-11-01

    The pharmacodynamics and -kinetics of pipecuronium were studied in 12 patients, six of whom received 100 micrograms kg-1 for laryngectomy (Group L), and six who underwent choledochotomy after insertion of the T-drain and were given 50 micrograms kg-1 (Group C). Onset time and clinical duration were 2.3 and 109 min and 2.8 and 39 min in Groups L and C, respectively. All patients could be sufficiently reversed with neostigmine. Terminal half-lives were 101.5 min (Group L) and 179 min (Group C) in a three-exponent decay; the distribution volumes at steady state 0.339 l kg-1 (Group L) and 0.506 l kg-1 (Group C); the plasma clearance 3.4 ml kg-1 min-1 (Group L) and 2.5 ml kg-1 min-1 (Group C). Within 24 h, 38.6% and 37% were excreted unchanged in the urine and 4.4% and 1% as 3-desacetyl pipecuronium in Groups L and C, respectively. Within 24 h only 2% was excreted into the bile in Group C. Distribution volume and terminal half-life in Group C were positively correlated with pre-operative serum aminotransferase levels (P less than 0.005).

  18. Urinary excretion of phytoestrogens and risk of breast cancer among Chinese women in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qi; Franke, Adrian A; Jin, Fan; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Hebert, James R; Custer, Laurie J; Cheng, Jiarong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2002-09-01

    Although the majority of ecological and experimental studies have suggested a potential role of phytoestrogens in breast cancer prevention, findings from epidemiological studies have been inconsistent. Part of the inconsistencies may be attributable to the difficulty in measuring intake levels of phytoestrogens. Overnight urine samples from 250 incident breast cancer cases and their individually matched controls were analyzed for urinary excretion rates of isoflavonoids, mammalian lignans, and citrus flavonoids. The study subjects were a subset of the participants in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study, a large population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai from 1996-1998. To minimize potential influence of treatment on the exposure of interest, urine samples from breast cancer cases were collected before cancer therapy. Urinary excretion of total isoflavonoids and mammalian lignans was substantially lower in breast cancer cases than in controls. The median excretion rate of total isoflavonoids was 13.97 nmol/mg creatinine in cases and 23.09 in controls (P = 0.01), and the median excretion rate of total lignans was 1.77 in cases and 4.16 in controls (P < 0.01). The risk of breast cancer was reduced with increasing excretion of total isoflavonoids (P for trend, 0.04) and total lignans (P for trend, <0.01), with adjusted odds ratios of 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.99) and 0.40 (95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.64) observed for the highest versus the lowest tertile of total isoflavonoid and lignan excretion, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio was 0.28 (95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.50) for women who had a high excretion rate of both total lignans and isoflavonoids compared with those with a low excretion of both groups of phytoestrogens. No association was observed with citrus flavonoids. The results from this study suggest that high intake of certain phytoestrogens may reduce the risk of breast cancer.

  19. Increased urinary excretion of platelet activating factor in mice with lupus nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Macconi, D.; Noris, M.; Benfenati, E.; Quaglia, R.; Pagliarino, G. ); Remuzzi, G. Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo )

    1991-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) is present in urine from humans and experimental animals in normal conditions. Very little is known about changes in PAF urinary excretion under pathologic conditions and no data are available about the origin of PAF in the urine. In the present study we explored the possibility that immunologic renal disease is associated with an increase in PAF urinary excretion using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. To clarify the renal or extrarenal origin of urinary PAF we evaluated whether exogenously administered PAF (1-(1{prime},2{prime}-{sup 3}H)alkyl) is filtered through the glomerulus and excreted in the urine. The results show that: (1) urine from mice with lupus nephritis in the early phase of the disease contained amounts of PAF comparable to those excreted in normal mouse urine, (2) PAF levels increased when animals started to develop high grade proteinuria, (3) after intravenous injection of ({sup 3}H) PAF In nephritic mice, a negligible amount of ({sup 3}H) ether lipid, corresponding to ({sup 3}H)1-alkyl -2-acyl-3-phosphocholine (alkyl-2-acyl-GPC), was recovered from the 24 h urine extract.

  20. Urinary excretion patterns of pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in patients with tumours of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Kvist, E; Sjølin, K E; Iversen, J; Nyholm, K

    1993-01-01

    The preoperative and postoperative values of urinary pseudouridine:creatinine (phi:C) and beta-aminoisobutyric acid:creatinine (beta AIB:C) were estimated, in 192 patients with urothelial tumours of the bladder, 92 of whom had not previously been diagnosed. Urinary phi:C ratio correlated with the grade of tumour cell dysplasia (being highest in dysplasia grade 3), and to a lesser extent with the clinical stage. The treatment had no major influence on the excretion ratios. Decreased ratios, or those within the reference range, were associated with a better prognosis than increased ratios, and if both were increased at the same time the risk for progression of the disease was high. The biological tumour markers pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid may be helpful in the diagnosis of tumours in the upper urinary tract, and in the follow-up of patients with tumours of the bladder.

  1. Secretion of melatonin and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin urinary excretion in functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Chojnacki, Cezary; Poplawski, Tomasz; Klupinska, Grażyna; Blasiak, Janusz; Chojnacki, Jan; Reiter, Russel J

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate blood concentration of melatonin and urinary excretion of its metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-OHMS), in functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS: Ninety individuals were enrolled in the study: 30 in each study group: patients with postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), epigastric pain syndrome (EPS), and controls. Blood samples were drawn at 02:00 and 09:00 h and 24-h urine collection was performed. Serum melatonin and urinary 6-OHMS concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Serum melatonin concentration at night and in the morning was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in PDS patients [at 02:00 h-93.3 pg/mL, quartile range (QR): 79.8-116.2; at 09.00 h-14.3 pg/mL, QR: 7.06-19.0] than in EPS (57.2 pg/mL, QR: 42.6-73.1; 8.1 pg/mL, QR: 4.1-9.3) and control patients (57.7 pg/mL, QR: 51.2-62.5; 8.1 pg/mL, QR: 5.4-10.3). A similar relationship was observed for urinary 6-OHMS excretion. Patients with severe PDS symptoms had a higher melatonin concentration than these with moderate syndromes, whereas patients with severe EPS had a lower urinary 6-OHMS excretion than patients with moderate symptoms. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of melatonin serum concentrations and 24-h urinary 6-OHMS excretion are useful methods for differential diagnosis of various clinical forms of FD. PMID:21677834

  2. Relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation, using urinary excretion

    PubMed Central

    Aswania, O A; Corlett, S A; Chrystyn, H

    1999-01-01

    Aims To determine if a urinary excretion method, previously described for salbutamol, could also indicate the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation from a metered dose inhaler. Method Inhaled (INH), inhaled+oral charcoal (INHC), oral (ORAL) and oral+oral charcoal (ORALC) 20 mg doses of sodium cromoglycate were given via a randomised cross-over design to 11 healthy volunteers trained on how to use a metered dose inhaler. Urine samples were collected at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and up to 24 h post dosing and the sodium cromoglycate urinary concentration was measured using a high performance liquid chromatographic method. Results No sodium cromoglycate was detected in the urine up to 24 h following ORALC dosing. A mean (s.d.) of 3.6 (4.3) μg, 10.4 (10.9) μg and 83.7 (71.1) μg of the ORAL dose was excreted, in the urine, during the 0.5, 1.0 and 24 h post dose collection periods, respectively. Following INH dosing, the renal excretion was significantly higher (P < 0.01) with 32.9 (14.5) μg, 61.2 (28.3) μg and 305.6 (82.3) μg excreted, respectively. The SCG excreted at 0.5, 1.0 and 24 h collection periods following INHC dosing were 26.3 (8.4) μg, 49.3 (18.1) μg and 184.9 (98.4) μg, respectively. There was no significant difference between the excretion rate of sodium cromoglycate following INHC when compared with INH dosing in the first 0.5 and 1.0 h. Conclusions The urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate in the first 0.5 h post inhalation can be used to compare the relative lung deposition of two inhaled products or of the same product using different inhalation techniques. This represents the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation. Similar 24 h urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate can be use to compare the total dose delivered to the body from two different inhalation products/inhalation methods. This represents the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the body

  3. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Chinese Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Ying; Guan, Ke; Su, Yi-Xiang; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2016-10-01

    Limited studies have examined the association between sodium (Na) and potassium (K) levels and the risk of atherosclerosis. This study examined whether higher Na and Na/K levels and low K levels were independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. This community-based cross-sectional study included 3290 subjects (1067 men and 2223 women) 40 to 75 years of age in Guangzhou, China, between 2011 and 2013. Urinary excretion of Na and K were measured from the first morning void, and creatinine-adjusted values were used. The intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid common artery and the carotid bifurcation was measured with high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Dietary K and Na intake and other covariates were obtained by face-to-face interviews. A significant positive association was seen between urinary Na excretion and carotid atherosclerosis after adjustment for age, sex, and other lifestyle covariates. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of urinary Na were 1.32 (1.04-1.66) for carotid plaques, 1.48 (1.18-1.87) for increased common carotid artery IMT, and 1.55 (1.23-1.96) for increased carotid bifurcation IMT (all p-trend < 0.01). A similar positive association was observed between urinary Na/K levels and carotid plaque and increased IMT, and between dietary Na intake and increased bifurcation IMT. Regarding potassium data, we only found a significantly lower presence of carotid plaque (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57-0.91) for quartile 2 (vs. 1) of urinary K. Our findings suggest that higher levels of urinary excretion Na and Na/K are significantly associated with greater presence of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese adults.

  4. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Chinese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Ying; Guan, Ke; Su, Yi-Xiang; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Limited studies have examined the association between sodium (Na) and potassium (K) levels and the risk of atherosclerosis. This study examined whether higher Na and Na/K levels and low K levels were independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. This community-based cross-sectional study included 3290 subjects (1067 men and 2223 women) 40 to 75 years of age in Guangzhou, China, between 2011 and 2013. Urinary excretion of Na and K were measured from the first morning void, and creatinine-adjusted values were used. The intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid common artery and the carotid bifurcation was measured with high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Dietary K and Na intake and other covariates were obtained by face-to-face interviews. A significant positive association was seen between urinary Na excretion and carotid atherosclerosis after adjustment for age, sex, and other lifestyle covariates. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of urinary Na were 1.32 (1.04–1.66) for carotid plaques, 1.48 (1.18–1.87) for increased common carotid artery IMT, and 1.55 (1.23–1.96) for increased carotid bifurcation IMT (all p-trend < 0.01). A similar positive association was observed between urinary Na/K levels and carotid plaque and increased IMT, and between dietary Na intake and increased bifurcation IMT. Regarding potassium data, we only found a significantly lower presence of carotid plaque (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57–0.91) for quartile 2 (vs. 1) of urinary K. Our findings suggest that higher levels of urinary excretion Na and Na/K are significantly associated with greater presence of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese adults. PMID:27706075

  5. Air pollution and urinary thioether excretion in children of Barcelona

    SciTech Connect

    Mallol, J.; Nogues, M.R. )

    1991-06-01

    The polluted environment found in highly industrialized areas and in big cities contains a great quantity of electrophilic (EC) and proelectrophilic (PEC) compounds, which largely contribute to the development of several pathological processes in humans. EC and PEC can be coupled to the cysteine moiety of glutathione spontaneously or by the glutathione S-transferase system (GST), giving nontoxic metabolites that can be eliminated as urinary thioethers (UT). Therefore one approach to establishing the degree of impact of EC and PEC on the human body is the analysis of UT in the population living in polluted environments. The work presented here has been carried out in the city of Barcelona with a group of 50 children living in a polluted area, over a 12-mo period. Our results demonstrate that UT are significantly higher when the amounts of air pollutants (AP) increase; although the level of contamination never exceeded the established safe limits, UT reached values similar to those found in people smoking more than 10 cigarettes/d. These results may contribute to establishing the maximal levels of contamination compatible with a healthy life, on the basis of patterns of true salubrity rather than on political and economic criteria.

  6. Urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in hematological diseases.

    PubMed

    Enkhjargal, Ts; Tserennadmid, Ch

    2004-01-01

    The level of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (beta-AIB), a thymine catabolite, has been measured in urine samples of 160 healthy individuals, 28 patients with renal, 27 patients with cardiovascular and 27 patients with hematological diseases and of 36 tumor patients. No significant difference in the prevalence of high excretors of beta-AIB between patients with cancer, renal and cardiovascular diseases and the healthy group was found, whereas all but two patients with hematological diseases were high excretors. Urinary beta-AIB shows a reverse correlation with the hemoglobin level and erythrocyte count in the cases of anemia, and appears to be directly correlated with the leukocyte count and blast cell content in the cases of leukemia, with its amount decreasing two to five-fold with the return of the hematological markers to normal levels after medicinal treatment. Therefore the beta-AIB concentration in urine may be used in combination with hematological indicators in assessing the disease status and in monitoring of the treatment response.

  7. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion and dietary intake: a cross-sectional analysis in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Padrão, Patrícia; Pinho, Olívia; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the leading cause for heart disease and stroke, for mortality and morbidity worldwide, and a high sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is considered a stronger risk factor for hypertension than sodium alone. Objective This study aims to evaluate sodium and potassium urinary excretion, and assess the food sources of these nutrients in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Design A cross-sectional study with a sample of 250 Portuguese adolescents. Sodium and potassium excretion were measured by one 24-h urinary collection, and the coefficient of creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. Dietary sources of sodium and potassium were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Results Valid urine collections were provided by 200 adolescents (118 girls) with a median age of 14.0 in both sexes (p=0.295). Regarding sodium, the mean urinary excretion was 3,725 mg/day in boys and 3,062 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 9.8% of boys and 22% of girls met the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for sodium intake. Concerning potassium, the mean urinary excretion was 2,237 mg/day in boys and 1,904 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 6.1% of boys and 1.7% of girls met the WHO recommendations for potassium intake. Major dietary sources for sodium intake were cereal and cereal products (41%), meat products (16%), and milk and milk products (11%); and for potassium intake, main sources were milk and milk products (21%), meat products (17%), and vegetables (15%). Conclusions Adolescents had a high-sodium and low-potassium diet, well above the WHO recommendations. Health promotion interventions are needed in order to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake. PMID:27072344

  8. Organic Anion Transporter 5 (Oat5) Urinary Excretion Is a Specific Biomarker of Kidney Injury: Evaluation of Urinary Excretion of Exosomal Oat5 after N-Acetylcysteine Prevention of Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bulacio, Romina Paula; Anzai, Naohiko; Ouchi, Motoshi; Torres, Adriana Mónica

    2015-08-17

    Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. Its main side-effect is nephrotoxicity. It was reported that the organic anion transporter 5 (Oat5) urinary excretion is elevated, implying renal perturbation, when no modifications of traditional markers of renal damage are still observed in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). It was also demonstrated that Oat5 is excreted in urine by the exosomal pathway. This study was designated to demonstrate the specific response of the urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 to kidney injury independently of other cisplatin toxic effects, in order to strengthen Oat5 urinary levels as a specific biomarker of AKI. To accomplish that aim, we evaluated if urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 returns to its basal levels when cisplatin renal damage is prevented by the coadministration of the renoprotective compound N-acetylcysteine. Four days after cisplatin administration, AKI was induced in cisplatin-treated male Wistar rats (Cis group), as it was corroborated by increased urea and creatinine plasma levels. Tubular damage was also observed. In cotreated animals (Cis + NAC group), plasma urea and creatinine concentrations tended to return to their basal values, and tubular damage was improved. Urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 was notably increased in the Cis group, but when renal injury was ameliorated by N-acetylcysteine coadministration, that increase was undetected. So, in this work we observed that urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 was only increased if renal insult is produced, demonstrating its specificity as a renal injury biomarker.

  9. Oral intake of ranitidine increases urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2016-06-01

    The H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, is among the most widely used pharmaceuticals to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcers. While previous studies have demonstrated that amines can form N-nitrosamines when exposed to nitrite at stomach-relevant pH, N-nitrosamine formation from ranitidine, an amine-based pharmaceutical, has not been demonstrated under these conditions. In this work, we confirmed the production of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potent carcinogen, by nitrosation of ranitidine under stomach-relevant pH conditions in vitro We also evaluated the urinary NDMA excretion attributable to ingestion of clinically used ranitidine doses. Urine samples collected from five female and five male, healthy adult volunteers over 24-h periods before and after consumption of 150mg ranitidine were analyzed for residual ranitidine, ranitidine metabolites, NDMA, total N-nitrosamines and dimethylamine. Following ranitidine intake, the urinary NDMA excreted over 24h increased 400-folds from 110 to 47 600ng, while total N-nitrosamines increased 5-folds. NDMA excretion rates after ranitidine intake equaled or exceeded those observed previously in patients with schistosomiasis, a disease wherein N-nitrosamines are implicated as the etiological agents for bladder cancer. Due to metabolism within the body, urinary NDMA measurements represent a lower-bound estimate of systemic NDMA exposure. Our results suggest a need to evaluate the risks attributable to NDMA associated with chronic consumption of ranitidine, and to identify alternative treatments that minimize exposure to N-nitrosamines.

  10. Increasing urinary calcium excretion after ceftriaxone and cephalothin therapy in adults: possible association with urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Otunctemur, Alper; Ozbek, Emin; Polat, Emre Can; Cekmen, Mustafa; Dursun, Murat; Cakir, Suleyman Sami

    2014-04-01

    In children, stone formation after ceftriaxone (CTRX) therapy by increasing calcium excretion was showed in the literature. In this study, we investigated the effect of CTRX, cephalothin (CP) and ampicillin (AS) therapy on urinary calcium excretion in adults. 180 participants included in the study who divided into six equal groups. The groups were; (1) CTRX therapy in stone free patients, (2) CTRX therapy in patients who have urinary stone; (3) CP therapy in stone free patients, (4) CP therapy in patients with urinary stone, (5) AS therapy in stone free patients, (6) AS therapy in patients with urinary stone. The patients received 2 g/day intravenous CTRX, CP and AS for 5 days in all groups respectively. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics and blood biochemistry between the groups. Before and 5 days after the antibiotic therapies, the participants were evaluated by 24-h urinary calcium to creatinine ratio. Results were compared between the groups statistically by ANOVA and Tukey test. After drug therapies in group 2 and 4, the excretion of calcium to creatinine ratio in 24-h urine was more than the other groups. We found that both groups of two drugs therapy with or without stones (groups 1, 2, 3, 4), have significantly increased calcium to creatinine ratio in 24-h urine (p < 0.05). We did not find statistically difference in groups 5 and 6, after AS therapy. As a result of the study, we suggest that the patients who have taken antibiotic therapy with CTRX or CP, have an increased risk for the urolithiasis. In addition, we think that these drugs should be used carefully especially in patients with urolithiasis.

  11. The Kinetics of Urinary Fumonisin B1 Excretion in Humans Consuming Maize-Based Diets

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Ronald T.; Torres, Olga; Showker, Jency L.; Zitomer, Nicholas C.; Matute, Jorge; Voss, Kenneth A.; Gelineau-van Waes, Janee; Maddox, Joyce R.; Gregory, Simon G.; Ashley-Koch, Allison E.

    2013-01-01

    Fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins found in maize. The purpose of this study was to 1) determine the relationship between FB1, FB2 and FB3 intake and urinary excretion in humans, 2) validate a method to isolate urinary FB on C18-SPE cartridges for international shipment, and 3) test the method using samples from Guatemala. Volunteers (n=10) consumed 206 grams/day of tortillas and biscuits prepared from masa flour and a product containing maize flour. Volunteers estimated their daily urine output and samples were analyzed for FB1, FB2 and FB3 and hydrolyzed FB1. Only FB1 was detected in urine suggesting lower absorption of FB2 and FB3. Excretion was highly variable peaking soon after consumption began and decreasing rapidly after consumption stopped. Within five days after consumption ended FB1 was not detected in urine. In a study with eight volunteers, the average total urinary FB1 was 0.5% of the intake. FB1 was detected in 61% (107/177) of the samples collected in Guatemala. The results support the use of urinary FB1 to assess ongoing exposure in population based studies. However, relating the FB1 concentration in urine to dietary intake of FB by individual subjects will be complicated due to inter-individual variability and the rapidity of clearance. PMID:22815244

  12. Daily Intake of Magnesium and its Relation to Urinary Excretion in Korean Healthy Adults Consuming Self-Selected Diets.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Weaver, Connie M

    2017-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is an essential nutrient as a structural constituent of bone and regulator of >300 enzymes. However, studies on intake and urinary excretion of Mg are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Mg intake and its relation to 24-h urinary excretion in healthy adults. Anthropometric measurements and dietary intake by the 24-h recall method were conducted in 80 adults aged 21-69 (average 44.3) years. Urine was collected for 24 h on the day following the dietary survey. Dietary assessment and 24-h urine collection were repeated 3 days later. Daily intake and urinary excretion of Mg were analyzed using Can-Pro and ICP-OES, respectively. The statistical analysis was conducted using SAS program. Mg intake of the subjects was 319 ± 129 mg/day for men and 277 ± 94 mg/day for women and the proportion of subjects who did not meet the estimated average requirement was 50 and 67.5 % for men and women, respectively. Urinary Mg excretion was 30.3 % of the daily Mg intake. Urinary Mg excretion was not significantly correlated with the daily Mg intake. Korean adults are not meeting the recommended intake of Mg, but its urinary excretion suggests homeostasis is not compromised.

  13. Vitamin D repletion does not alter urinary calcium excretion in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Penniston, Kristina L.; Jones, Andrea N.; Nakada, Stephen Y.; Hansen, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate, in a posthoc analysis of a previous study, whether vitamin D repletion in postmenopausal women with insufficient vitamin D increases urinary calcium excretion, as vitamin D therapy might contribute to hypercalciuria and calcium stones in susceptible individuals, and the effect of vitamin D on the risk of urolithiasis warrants attention. Subjects and methods We recruited 18 women at ≥ 5 years after menopause who had vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25(OH)-vitamin D, 16–24 mg/dL). We excluded women with a history of urolithiasis and kidney disease. Women had one calcium absorption study when vitamin D-insufficient, received vitamin D therapy, and completed a second calcium absorption study when vitamin D-replete. We fed subjects meals that mirrored the nutrient composition from self-reported 7-day diet diaries. To measure calcium absorption, we collected urine for 24 h during both visits. Results We achieved vitamin D repletion in all women (25(OH)-vitamin D before and after treatment, 22 and 63 mg/dL, respectively; P < 0.001). The mean calcium intake was 832 mg/day. Residual urine specimens were available for 16 women, allowing a measurement of 24-h urinary calcium. Calcium excretion did not change after vitamin D therapy (212 before vs 195 mg/day after; P = 0.60). Of four women with hypercalciuria (> 247 mg/day), calcium excretion decreased in three (377–312 mg/day, not significant). Conclusion Vitamin D supplementation did not increase the urinary calcium excretion in healthy postmenopausal women. Many stone formers are at risk of premature bone loss, vitamin D insufficiency, or both. Based on the present results we suggest a study of patients with hypercalciuria and nephrolithiasis to determine the risks of vitamin D therapy. PMID:19389005

  14. Urinary excretion of uranium in adult inhabitants of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Malátová, Irena; Bečková, Věra; Kotík, Lukáš

    2016-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine and evaluate urinary excretion of uranium in the general public of the Czech Republic. This value should serve as a baseline for distinguishing possible increase in uranium content in population living near legacy sites of mining and processing uranium ores and also to help to distinguish the proportion of the uranium content in urine among uranium miners resulting from inhaled dust. The geometric mean of the uranium concentration in urine of 74 inhabitants of the Czech Republic was 0.091 mBq/L (7.4 ng/L) with the 95% confidence interval 0.071-0.12 mBq/L (5.7-9.6 ng/L) respectively. The geometric mean of the daily excretion was 0.15 mBq/d (12.4 ng/d) with the 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.20 mBq/d (9.5-16.1 ng/d) respectively. Despite the legacy of uranium mines and plants processing uranium ore in the Czech Republic, the levels of uranium in urine and therefore, also human body content of uranium, is similar to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA. Significant difference in the daily urinary excretion of uranium was found between individuals using public supply and private water wells as a source of drinking water. Age dependence of daily urinary excretion of uranium was not found. Mean values and their range are comparable to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA.

  15. Urinary corticosteroid excretion predicts left ventricular mass and proteinuria in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Freel, E Marie; Mark, Patrick B; Fraser, Robert; Patel, Rajan K; Dargie, Henry G; Connell, John M C; Jardine, Alan G

    2012-09-01

    Blockade of the MR (mineralocorticoid receptor) in CKD (chronic kidney disease) reduces LVMI [LV (left ventricular) mass index] and proteinuria. The MR can be activated by aldosterone, cortisol and DOC (deoxycorticosterone). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of mineralocorticoids on LVMI and proteinuria in patients with CKD. A total of 70 patients with CKD and 30 patients with EH (essential hypertension) were recruited. Patients underwent clinical phenotyping; biochemical assessment and 24 h urinary collection for THAldo (tetrahydroaldosterone), THDOC (tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone), cortisol metabolites (measured using GC-MS), and urinary electrolytes and protein [QP (proteinuira quantification)]. LVMI was measured using CMRI (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging). Factors that correlated significantly with LVMI and proteinuria were entered into linear regression models. In patients with CKD, significant predictors of LVMI were male gender, SBP (systolic blood pressure), QP, and THAldo and THDOC excretion. Significant independent predictors on multivariate analysis were THDOC excretion, SBP and male gender. In EH, no association was seen between THAldo or THDOC and LVMI; plasma aldosterone concentration was the only significant independent predictor. Significant univariate determinants of proteinuria in patients with CKD were THAldo, THDOC, USod (urinary sodium) and SBP. Only THAldo excretion and SBP were significant multivariate determinants. Using CMRI to determine LVMI we have demonstrated that THDOC is a novel independent predictor of LVMI in patients with CKD, differing from patients with EH. Twenty-four hour THAldo excretion is an independent determinant of proteinuria in patients with CKD. These findings emphasize the importance of MR activation in the pathogenesis of the adverse clinical phenotype in CKD.

  16. Comparative microRNA profiling in relation to urinary albumin excretion in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Parthenakis, F I; Marketou, M E; Kontaraki, J E; Maragoudakis, F; Maragkoudakis, S; Nakou, H; Roufas, K; Patrianakos, A; Chlouverakis, G; Malliaraki, N; Vardas, P E

    2016-11-01

    Microalbuminuria is an established early marker of endothelial dysfunction and damage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as essential modulators of cardiovascular physiology and disease. In the present study, we sought an association between the differential expression of related miRNAs in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of untreated patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension and the levels of urinary albumin excretion. We assessed the expression of the miRNAs miRNA-1, miRNA-133a, miRNA-26b, miRNA-208b, miRNA-499 and miRNA-21 in consecutive subjects with untreated newly diagnosed essential hypertension (aged 62.5±9.7 years) and with no indications of other organic heart disease. MiRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 9.8%. miRNA-208b and miRNA-133a were independently correlated with 24-h urinary albumin excretion. More specifically, a strong association was found between the gene expression levels of miRNA-208b in our patients' peripheral blood cells and urinary albumin (r=0.72, P<0.001). A similar association was found for miRNA-133a (r=0.372, P<0.001). In conclusion, miRNA-208b and miRNA-133a show distinct profiling in peripheral blood cells isolated from untreated patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension. Their gene expression levels reveal a strong correlation with urinary albumin excretion levels. Our findings provide new perspectives on the development of a new generation of biomarkers for the better monitoring of end-organ damage in hypertension.

  17. Urinary isothiocyanate excretion, brassica consumption, and gene polymorphisms among women living in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Fowke, Jay H; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Dai, Qi; Shintani, Ayumi; Conaway, C Clifford; Chung, Fung-Lung; Cai, Qiuyin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2003-12-01

    Alternative measures of Brassica vegetable consumption (e.g., cabbage) may clarify the association between Brassica and cancer risk. Brassica isothiocyanates (ITCs) are excreted in urine and may provide a sensitive and food-specific dietary biomarker. However, the persistence of ITCs in the body may be brief and dependent on the activity of several Phase II enzymes, raising questions about the relationship between a single ITC measure and habitual dietary patterns. This study investigates the association between urinary ITC excretion and habitual Brassica consumption, estimated by a food frequency questionnaire, among healthy Chinese women enrolled in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Participants (n = 347) completed a validated food frequency questionnaire querying habitual dietary intake during the prior 5 years and provided a fasting first-morning urine specimen. Genetic deletion of glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1/GSTT1), and single nucleotide substitutions in GSTP1 (A313G) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1: C609T), were identified from blood DNA. Urinary ITC excretion levels were marginally higher with the GSTT1-null or GSTP1-G/G genotypes (P = 0.07, P = 0.05, respectively). Mean habitual Brassica intake was 98.3 g/day, primarily as bok choy, and Brassica intake significantly increased across quartile categories of ITC levels. The association between habitual Brassica intake and urinary ITC levels was stronger among women with GSTT1-null or GSTP1-A/A genotypes, or NQO1 T-allele, and the interaction was statistically significant across GSTP1 genotype. In conclusion, a single urinary ITC measure, in conjunction with markers of Phase II enzyme activity, provides a complementary measure of habitual Brassica intake among Shanghai women.

  18. Response of urinary purine derivatives excretion to different levels of ruminal glucose infusion in heifers.

    PubMed

    Dickhoefer, Uta; Ahnert, Sandra; Schoof, Hartwig; Moritz, Niels; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the response of urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion to increasing levels of intraruminal glucose infusion to evaluate how well this indicator reflects induced changes in microbial crude protein flow. Four rumen-cannulated heifers (482 ± 25 kg body weight) were fed at maintenance energy level with a basal diet (on fresh matter basis) of 4 kg/d hay, 1.5 kg/d concentrate and 60 g/d minerals in two equal meals. The trial comprised a control period (Control I) without glucose infusion followed by four consecutive periods in which all animals received 125 g, 250 g, 500 g or 1000 g/d of glucose, respectively. For this, daily dosages of glucose and urea (90 g/d during all periods) were divided into three portions that were dissolved in water and directly administered into the rumen during morning and afternoon feedings and once during noon. After the highest glucose dosage, a second control period was carried out (Control II). Urinary PD excretion increased with glucose infusion of 125 g/d (71.4 mmol/d) and 1000 g/d (74.2 mmol/d) over the level at Control I (53.9 mmol/d (standard error of the mean (SEM) 3.4; p = 0.012). After withdrawing glucose infusion, PD excretion (79.0 mmol/d) did not return to Control I level (p = 0.001). In contrast, faecal nitrogen (N) excretions linearly increased with incremental glucose infusion (p < 0.001) from 33.9 g/d at Control I to 39.7 g/d (SEM 0.5) at 1000 g/d of glucose and were similar in Control I and II (p = 0.086). The contradicting responses in the excretions of faecal N and urinary PD to increasing glucose infusions highlight the limited accuracy of the PD excretion as a non-invasive indicator when incremental dosages of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates are supplied.

  19. Cortisol-mediated synchronization of circadian rhythm in urinary potassium excretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore-Ede, M. C.; Schmelzer, W. S.; Kass, D. A.; Herd, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Conscious chair-acclimatized squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) studied with lights on (600 lx) from 0800 to 2000 hr daily (LD 12:12) display a prominent circadian rhythm in renal potassium excretion. The characteristics of this rhythm were reproduced in adrenalectomized monkeys by infusing 5 mg cortisol and 0.001 mg aldosterone, or 5 mg cortisol alone, between 0800 and 0900 kr daily. When the timing of cortisol administration (with or without aldosterone) was phase-delayed by 8 hr, the urinary potassium rhythm resynchronized by 80% of the cortisol phase shift, but only after a transient response lasting 3-4 days. With the same daily dose of adrenal steroids given as a continuous infusion throughout each 24 hr, urinary potassium excretion showed free-running oscillations no longer synchronized to the light-dark cycle. These results indicate that the circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol concentration acts as an internal mediator in the circadian timing system, synchronizing a potentially autonomous oscillation in renal potassium excretion to environmental time cues and to other circadian rhythms within the animal.

  20. Protein intake and urinary excretion of protein-derived metabolites in aging female vegetarians and nonvegetarians.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, M E; Beauchene, R E

    1991-08-01

    Relationships among age, protein intake, and urinary excretion of protein-derived metabolites were studied in 125 vegetarian and nonvegetarian women ages 40-92. There were 63 women in the vegetarian (AV) group and 62 women in the nonvegetarian (NV) group. Average daily intakes of energy and total animal and vegetable protein were calculated from 7-day dietary records. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were analyzed for total nitrogen, urea, creatinine, hydroxyproline, and inorganic sulfate. Energy intakes for the two groups were similar. AVs consumed less total and animal protein and more vegetable protein than NVs, even though both groups consumed more than the RDA for protein. No significant differences existed between the groups in the urinary excretion of total nitrogen, urea nitrogen, hydroxyproline, or inorganic sulfate. Energy and protein intakes and total nitrogen excretion were lower in older AVs than in younger AVs, while those of NVs increased between 40 and 55 years of age, and decreased among the older NV women. The relationship between these variables and age in NVs was more accurately described by polynomial rather than linear regression models.

  1. Urinary chromium excretion in response to an insulin challenge is not a biomarker for chromium status.

    PubMed

    Love, Sharifa T; Di Bona, Kristin R; Sinha, Sarmistha Halder; McAdory, DeAna; Skinner, Brittany R; Rasco, Jane F; Vincent, John B

    2013-04-01

    Over 50 years ago, chromium (Cr) was proposed to be an essential trace element; however, recent studies indicate that this status should be removed as the effects of Cr supplementation appear to be pharmacological rather than nutritional. The pharmacological basis for Cr's effects can explain the inability of investigators to discover a biomarker for Cr status. One potential biomarker has not been examined to date. Cr is known to be mobilized in the body in response to insulin (or insulin release in response to a glucose challenge), resulting in an increase in urinary Cr excretion. The magnitude of increase in urinary Cr loss as a function of dietary Cr intake was tested as a potential biomarker for Cr. Zucker lean rats housed in carefully controlled metal-free conditions were provided a series of purified diets containing variable Cr contents (from 16 μg/kg diet to 2,000 μg/kg) for 23 weeks. The 16 μg/kg diet contained less Cr than any diet examined to date. Urine samples were collected before and after insulin and glucose challenges (0, 2, 6, and 12 h postinjection). Urinary Cr levels were analyzed by the standard method of addition using graphite furnace atomic absorption. The rate of urinary Cr loss after a glucose or insulin challenge was found to not be dependent on the Cr content of the rats' diets. Blood iron levels of the rats were also measured to determine if the addition of Cr to the diet altered iron status. The Cr content of the diet was found to have no affect on blood iron levels. Overall, the study demonstrated that insulin-stimulated urinary Cr excretion cannot be used as a biomarker for Cr status.

  2. Dynamics of pregnancy-associated polyomavirus urinary excretion: a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    McClure, Gloria B; Gardner, J Suzette; Williams, Jason T; Copeland, Christina M; Sylvester, Sarah K; Garcea, Robert L; Meinerz, Natalie M; Groome, Lynn J; Vanchiere, John A

    2012-08-01

    Asymptomatic polyomaviruria of pregnancy has been documented in point prevalence studies, but little attention has been given to the dynamics of polyomavirus excretion during pregnancy because of its benign course. We tested the hypothesis that the frequency and/or magnitude of polyomavirus excretion would increase as pregnancy progresses. Urine specimens were obtained prospectively from 179 healthy women during uncomplicated pregnancies and 37 healthy non-pregnant women. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine BK virus (BKV) and JC virus (JCV) viral loads in urine, blood, and rectal and vaginal swabs collected during routine obstetric and gynecologic clinic visits. Asymptomatic urinary shedding of BKV and/or JCV was observed in 384 (48.0%) of 800 specimens from 100 (55.8%) pregnant women. BKV excretion was more common in pregnant than non-pregnant women (41.3% vs. 13.5%, P = 0.0026). The frequency of JCV excretion was no different in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women. The frequency and magnitude of polyomavirus shedding did not vary with gestational age. Post-partum shedding of BKV, but not JCV, rapidly decreased to undetectable levels. Pregnancy-associated BKV excretion begins early in pregnancy and terminates rapidly post-partum. Neither the frequency nor magnitude of BKV or JCV shedding increased with pregnancy progression. Further study into the host factors that regulate pregnancy-associated BKV excretion may allow identification of the host factors that predict susceptibility to BKV-associated diseases in immune compromised patients.

  3. Effect of urinary excretion on the bladder tissue distribution of fluoroquinolones in rats.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shigeru; Yamaoka, Makiko; Deguchi, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate which of blood or urine has the greater effect on bladder tissue concentrations of fluoroquinolones important for the treatment of urinary tract infections by measuring concentrations of fluoroquinolones in the vesical tissue (chemically and immunohistochemically) and intravesical space (chemically). Thirty-minute incubation of isolated rat bladders with fluoroquinolones showed only a 1.9-fold difference in transferability among norfloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin. Intravesical instillation of norfloxacin and sparfloxacin in rats yielded similar vesical tissue distributions. Thus, there were no large differences in vesical tissue transfer among the four fluoroquinolones. The bladder tissue/plasma concentration ratios of norfloxacin (high urinary excretion-type) and sparfloxacin (low urinary excretion-type) at 1 h after a single oral dose (10 mg/kg) to rats were 15.4 and 1.3, respectively. The bladder tissue/plasma concentration ratios of norfloxacin after an intravenous injection (10 mg/kg) to ureter-catheterized and sham-operated rats were 1.36 and 57.8. Thus the bladder tissue distribution was significantly higher in the urine-exposed bladder. Immunohistochemical examination of the vesical tissue localization of norfloxacin in rats given a single intravenous dose revealed the presence of the drug-positive image in the cytoplasm of surface layer cells (both in umbrella and cover cells) of the bladder transitional epithelium. In conclusion, the results suggest that norfloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are excreted into urine and then transferred to the surface layer of the bladder transitional epithelium. Therefore, the urine levels have a greater effect on the vesicle tissue distribution of fluoroquinolones than the plasma levels in rats.

  4. Urinary excretion values in 2-day food-deprived, unrestrained chimpanzees.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnew, J. J.; Sabbot, I. M.; Hoshizaki, T.; Mandell, A. J.; Spooner, C. E.; Marcus, I.; Adey, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the baseline 24-hr urinary excretion values in the young, unrestrained chimpanzee, and also changes in urinary values, if any, induced by the two-day food deprivation stress. Urine was analyzed for volume, osmolarity, creatinine, creatine, urea nitrogen, 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), calcium, and inorganic phosphorus. Significant increases due to food deprivation stress were observed for volume, creatine, urea nitrogen, 17-OHCS, VMA, and phosphorus values, with significant decreases in osmolarity and calcium. All values approached normal levels by the second poststress day. No significant changes were observed in creatinine. A comparison is drawn between human and chimpanzee adaptation to stress.

  5. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  6. Sex-related differences in urinary excretion of egualen sodium in rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Suzaka, H; Miyazaki, H

    2000-01-01

    Egualen sodium (sodium 3-ethyl-7-isopropyl-1-azulenesulfonate 1/3 hydrate) is a new antiulcer drug. There has been no difference observed in absorption between male and female rats, the relative amount of metabolites in male plasma has been higher than that in females, and the excretion ratios of metabolites in males have been significantly higher than those in females. However, the plasma concentration profile of total radioactivity in males has been higher than that in females. To clarify this discrepancy, the renal clearances and plasma concentrations of the unchanged drug and its metabolites were determined. The renal clearance of the unchanged drug in males was 21 times lower than that in females, and the urinary excretions in males and females were 2.1 and 39.5% of dose, respectively. This indicates that the major factor in the sex-related difference observed in the plasma concentration of total radioactivity is due to the difference in the renal clearance of the unchanged drug between the sexes. The results of treatments with probenecid in normal and gonadectomized rats revealed that egualen sodium was mainly excreted into urine by secretion through the renal tubule. Furthermore, the results of treatments with testosterone in rats revealed that the excretion of egualen sodium was highly affected by androgens. These facts indicated that the sex-related difference observed in the plasma concentration of total radioactivity can be attributed to the inhibition of renal tubular secretion of the unchanged drug by androgens. This is the first example of sex-related differences in both metabolism and excretion.

  7. Urinary Excretion of Phenolic Acids by Infants and Children: A Randomised Double-Blind Clinical Assay

    PubMed Central

    Uberos, J.; Fernández-Puentes, V.; Molina-Oya, M.; Rodríguez-Belmonte, R.; Ruíz-López, A.; Tortosa-Pinto, P.; Molina-Carballo, A.; Muñoz-Hoyos, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study, which is part of the ISRCTN16968287 clinical assay, is aimed at determining the effects of cranberry syrup or trimethoprim treatment for UTI. Methods: This Phase III randomised clinical trial was conducted at the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada, Spain) with a study population of 192 patients, aged between 1 month and 13 years. Criteria for inclusion were a background of recurrent UTI, associated or otherwise with vesico-ureteral reflux of any degree, or renal pelvic dilatation associated with urinary infection. Each child was randomly given 0.2 mL/Kg/day of either cranberry syrup or trimethoprim (8 mg/mL). The primary and secondary objectives, respectively, were to determine the risk of UTI and the levels of phenolic acids in urine associated with each intervention. Results: With respect to UTI, the cranberry treatment was non-inferior to trimethoprim. Increased urinary excretion of ferulic acid was associated with a greater risk of UTI developing in infants aged under 1 year (RR 1.06; CI 95% 1.024–1.1; P = 0.001). Conclusions: The results obtained show the excretion of ferulic acid is higher in infants aged under 1 year, giving rise to an increased risk of UTI, for both treatment options. PMID:23641168

  8. Measurement of urinary copper excretion after 48-h d-penicillamine cessation as a compliance assessment in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dzieżyc, Karolina; Litwin, Tomasz; Chabik, Grzegorz; Członkowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of Wilson's disease (WD) with anti-copper agents is effective in most compliant patients. During long-term treatment with chelating agents, a two-day interruption of the treatment should result in normal urinary copper concentrations (<50 μg/dl). The aim of this study was to establish the usefulness of this method as a compliance assessment in these patients. We examined consecutive patients treated with d-penicillamine (DPA) undergoing routine follow-up studies at our center. We performed 24-h urinary copper excretion analysis 48 h after interruption of chelating therapy. Thirty-two patients were enrolled. After DPA cessation, normalization of copper excretion was observed in 91% of reportedly compliant patients. The specificity and sensitivity values of this test were 87% and 77%, respectively. Measurement of 24-h urinary copper excretion after a 48-h interruption of DPA therapy in patients with WD is a reliable method for confirming patients' compliance.

  9. Observation of changes in urinary excretion of thorium in humans following ingestion of a therapeutic soil.

    PubMed

    Höllriegl, V; Greiter, M; Giussani, A; Gerstmann, U; Michalke, B; Roth, P; Oeh, U

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the changes in urinary thorium excretion by humans following ingestion of a therapeutic soil, which contains about 10 ppm of thorium. This well-known healing earth in Germany has been considered as an alternative medicine for diarrhoea and gastric hyper-acidity. Six adult volunteers ingested this therapeutic soil in varying quantities for 1-15 days at levels approximating those described in the package insert of the medicine (10-60 g of soil per day). The subjects ingested about 0.1-0.6 mg of thorium daily, which is 100-600 times higher than the normal daily intake of about 1 microg thorium in Germany. All 24-h urine samples collected from the subjects during pre-ingestion, ingestion and post-ingestion periods of the soil were analyzed for (232)Th using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The measured excretion values varied in a wide range. Apparently, the high thorium amounts administered did not increase the (232)Th excretion in urine as expected, suggesting that this soil ingestion will not result in a considerably higher and harmful uptake of thorium into the human body.

  10. Urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion in man: the role of protein-bound and soluble 3-methylhistidine.

    PubMed

    Huszar, G; Golenwsky, G; Maiocco, J; Davis, E

    1983-05-01

    The influence of dietary meat and meat stock intake on urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine (3MH) was examined in human adults. In the absence of 3MH ingestion for 48 h, the study subjects adjusted to an intrinsic urinary 3MH: creatinine value. If the meat and meat stock-free diet was maintained on subsequent days, only minute diurnal variations occurred, and the values of random urine samples during the day were representative of the 24 h 3MH: creatinine value. The mean 3MH: creatinine value (SD) for a group of adults (n 7) was 0.105 +/- 0.023 (mumol of 3MH/mg creatinine), which is approximately 35% lower than the corresponding value in healthy growing infants (0.148 +/- 0.039) (Seashore et al. 1981). Ingestion of meat soup and meat causes different patterns of urinary excretion of 3MH which are consistent with the finding that meat extracts, such as soup and stock, contain considerable amounts of 3MH. The 3MH contents of beef, chicken and turkey were 3.8 +/- 0.15, 3.0 +/- 0.09 and 2.3 +/- 0.29 mumol/g dry wt meat respectively. All three meats contained a water-soluble 3MH-fraction (% total 3MH: beef 8, chicken 21, turkey 23). Amino acid analysis of the soluble fraction with or without hydrochloric acid hydrolysis demonstrated free 3MH in chicken and turkey (5.2 and 2.8% of the total respectively) but not in beef. Patients undergoing urinary 3MH measurements should maintain a diet that is free not only of solid meats, but also of meat stock. The ingestion of commercial food products (e.g. frozen or canned meals, sauces, pizza, etc.) may impair the validity of such measurements because of their meat-stock content. A dietary regimen is presented which is based on a shorter 12 h urine collection. The shorter collection time is satisfactory in the light of the steady rate of 3MH-excretion after 2 d of a diet free of meat and meat stock.

  11. Arsenic drinking water exposure and urinary excretion among adults in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Meza, Maria Mercedes; Kopplin, Michael J; Burgess, Jefferey L; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine arsenic exposure via drinking water and to characterize urinary arsenic excretion among adults in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2001 to May 2002. Study subjects were from the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico, residents of four towns with different arsenic concentrations in their drinking water. Arsenic exposure was estimated through water intake over 24 h. Arsenic excretion was assessed in the first morning void urine. Total arsenic concentrations and their species arsenate (As V), arsenite (As III), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), and dimethyl arsenic (DMA) were determined by HPLC/ICP-MS. The town of Esperanza with the highest arsenic concentration in water had the highest daily mean intake of arsenic through drinking water, the mean value was 65.5 microg/day. Positive correlation between total arsenic intake by drinking water/day and the total arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.001) was found. Arsenic excreted in urine ranged from 18.9 to 93.8 microg/L. The people from Esperanza had the highest geometric mean value of arsenic in urine, 65.1 microg/L, and it was statistically significantly different from those of the other towns (P < 0.005). DMA was the major arsenic species in urine (47.7-67.1%), followed by inorganic arsenic (16.4-25.4%), and MMA (7.5-15%). In comparison with other reports the DMA and MMA distribution was low, 47.7-55.6% and 7.5-9.7%, respectively, in the urine from the Yaqui Valley population (except the town of Cocorit). The difference in the proportion of urinary arsenic metabolites in those towns may be due to genetic polymorphisms in the As methylating enzymes of these populations.

  12. Urinary excretion of 2,5-hexanedione and peripheral polyneuropathies in workers exposed to hexane

    SciTech Connect

    Governa, M.; Calisti, R.; Coppa, G.; Tagliavento, G.; Colombi, A.; Troni, W.

    1987-01-01

    Forty shoe factory workers who were exposed to hexane were investigated to see if there was a correlation between electroneuromyographic changes indicative of neuropathy and urinary excretion of 2,5-hexanedione. Urinary samples were analyzed for the presence of the metabolic products of n-hexane and its isomers. Electrodiagnostic examination was carried out following the urinary sampling. A rating scale was used to obtain a cumulative numeric index of electrodiagnostic findings. 2,5-Hexanedione and ..gamma..-valerolactone were discovered in all cases, while 2-hexanol was found in 11 cases. 2,5-Hexanedione was the main metabolite in most cases (39 of 40). Only in 1 case was a low level of 2-methyl-2-pentanol detected; 3-methyl-2-pentanol was never detected. Metabolic products of cyclohexane were present in about one-fifth of the cases, while trichloroethanol, a metabolic product of trichloroethylene, was nearly always present, all at very low concentrations. Electromyographic abnormalities significant for early detection of toxic polyneuropathy were found in 14 cases. A statistically significant correlation of the electroneuromyographic scoring on the urinary concentrations of measured metabolites was observed only with 2,5-hexanedione and ..gamma..-valerolactone, both derived from n-hexane. Since ..gamma..-valerolactone is probably not a true metabolite of n-hexane, the authors results support the hypothesis that polyneuropathies in shoemakers are due to 2,5-hexanedione. For practical purposes the urinary concentration of 2,5-hexanedione can serve as a predictive measurement for early detection of neurotoxic lesions at preclinical states.

  13. The factors influencing urinary arsenic excretion and metabolism of workers in steel and iron smelting foundry.

    PubMed

    Shuhua, Xi; Qingshan, Sun; Fei, Wang; Shengnan, Liu; Ling, Yan; Lin, Zhang; Yingli, Song; Nan, Yan; Guifan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the degree of arsenic (As) exposure and the factors influencing urinary As excretion and metabolism, 192 workers from a steel and iron smelting plant, with different type of work in production such as roller, steel smelting, iron smelting and metallic charge preparation, were recruited. Information about characteristics of each subject was obtained by questionnaire and inorganic As (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine were determined. The results showed that steel smelters had significantly higher concentrations of DMA and total As (TAs) than rollers and metallic charge preparation workers, and iron and steel smelters had a higher value of primary methylation index and lower proportion of the iAs (iAs%) than rollers and metallic charge preparation workers. In steel smelters, urinary As level exceeded the biological exposure index (BEI) limit for urinary As of 35 μg/l by 65.52%, and higher than metallic charge preparation workers (35.14%). The individuals consumed seafood in recent 3 days had a higher TAs than the individuals without seafood consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that different jobs, taken Chinese medicine of bezoar and seafood consumption in recent 3 days were significantly associated with urinary TAs exceeded BEI limit value 35 μg/l. Our results suggest that workers in steel and iron smelting plant had a lower level of As exposure, and seafood consumption and taking Chinese medicine of bezoar also could increase the risk of urinary TAs exceeded BEI limit value.

  14. Biological monitoring of hospital pharmacy personnel occupationally exposed to cytostatic drugs: urinary excretion and cytogenetics studies.

    PubMed

    Ensslin, A S; Huber, R; Pethran, A; Römmelt, H; Schierl, R; Kulka, U; Fruhmann, G

    1997-01-01

    For evaluation of the risk borne by hospital pharmacy personnel exposed to antineoplastic agents, the incorporation of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and platinum-containing drugs was quantified by the determination of urinary concentrations. In addition, the induction of micronuclei (MN) and sister-chromatid-exchange (SCE) rates in peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied for correlation with the urinary excretion of cytostatic drugs. Cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide were determined in 24-h urine samples using gas chromatography with electron capture (detection limit 2.5 micrograms/l). Voltammetric analysis enabled the determination of platinum concentrations of 4 ng/l. Heparinized blood (20 ml) was drawn and lymphocytes were cultured for MN and SCE studies. In all, 13 hospital pharmacists and pharmacy technicians regularly involved in the preparation of cytostatic drugs participated in this investigation (7 persons represent a follow-up group). All subjects applied standard safety precautions, including the use of a vertical laminar air-flow hood, protective gowns, and latex gloves. On the day of urine sampling an average of 4,870 mg cyclophosphamide, 5,580 mg ifosfamide, and 504 mg platinum-containing drugs were handled. The excretion of 5 and 9 micrograms cyclophosphamide/l urine was measured in two samples, respectively. An elevated level of urinary platinum was found in one pharmacist (22.3 ng/g creatinine) in comparison with a nonexposed control group. Mean frequencies of MN and SCE did not differ significantly between the drug exposed group and control group. The employees who had incorporated chemotherapeutic agents were part of the follow-up group and, thus, particularly cautious and sensitive to a possible hazard. The results emphasize the necessity of improving personal protection of hospital pharmacy personnel occupationally exposed to cytostatic drugs and support the importance of biological monitoring. In an ongoing project in our department the

  15. Human urinary excretion profile after smoking and oral administration of ( sup 14 C)delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E.; Gillespie, H.K.; Halldin, M.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The urinary excretion profiles of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 1-THC) metabolites have been evaluated in two chronic and two naive marijuana users after smoking and oral administration of ({sup 14}C)delta 1-THC. Urine was collected for five days after each administration route and analyzed for total delta 1-THC metabolites by radioactivity determination, for delta 1-THC-7-oic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography, and for cross-reacting cannabinoids by the EMIT d.a.u. cannabinoid assay. The average urinary excretion half-life of {sup 14}C-labeled delta 1-THC metabolites was calculated to be 18.2 +/- 4.9 h (+/- SD). The excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings were similar to the excretion profile of {sup 14}C-labeled metabolites in the naive users. However, in the chronic users the excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings did not resemble the radioactive excretion due to the heavy influence from previous Cannabis use. Between 8-14% of the radioactive dose was recovered in the urine in both user groups after oral administration. Lower urinary recovery was obtained both in the chronic and naive users after smoking--5 and 2%, respectively.

  16. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  17. Relative lung and systemic bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate inhaled products using urinary drug excretion post inhalation.

    PubMed

    Aswania, Osama; Chrystyn, Henry

    2002-05-01

    The relative lung and systemic bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate following inhalation by different methods have been determined using a urinary excretion pharmacokinetic method. On three separate randomised study days, 7 days apart, subjects inhaled (i) 4x5 mg from an Intal metered dose inhaler (MDI), (ii) 4x5 mg from an MDI attached to a large volume spacer (MDI+SP) and (iii) 20 mg from an Intal Spinhaler (DPI). Urine samples were provided at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 24 h post dose. The mean (S.D.) amount of sodium cromoglycate excreted in the urine during the first 30 min post inhalation was 38.1 (27.5), 222.3 (120.3) and 133.1 (92.2) microg following MDI, MDI+SP and DPI, respectively. The mean ratio (90% confidence interval) of these amounts excreted in the urine over the first 30 min for MDI+SP vs. MDI, DPI vs. MDI and MDI+SP vs. DPI was 801.0 (358.0, 1244; p<0.002)%, 457.0 (244.0, 670.0; p<0.02)% and 262.4 (110.2, 414.5)%, respectively. Similarly for the 24 h cumulative amount of sodium cromoglycate excreted over the 24 h post inhalation the ratios were 375.4 (232.9, 517.9; p<0.005)%, 287.5 (183.4, 391.6; p<0.02)% and 211.4 (88.3, 334.5)%, respectively. The results highlight better lung deposition of sodium cromoglycate from a metered dose inhaler attached to a large volume spacer.

  18. Urinary Acid Excretion Can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and a dietary countermeasure would be ideal. We present here preliminary data from a study where we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crewmembers (n=5) were asked to consume a prescribed diet with either a low (0.3-0.6) or high (1.0-1.3) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K) before and during space flight for 4-d periods. Diets were controlled for energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium. 24-h urine samples were collected on the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions. 24-h urinary acid excretion, which was predicted by dietary potential renal acid load, was correlated with urinary n-telopeptide (NTX, Pearson R = 0.99 and 0.80 for the high and low APro:K sessions, respectively, p<0.001). The amount of protein when expressed as the percentage of total energy (but not as total grams) was also correlated with urinary NTX (R = 0.66, p<0.01). These results, from healthy individuals in a unique environment, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. The study was funded by the NASA Human Research Program.

  19. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to... difference that she is furnished facilities for sleeping. Her time is given to her employer. She is...

  20. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to... difference that she is furnished facilities for sleeping. Her time is given to her employer. She is...

  1. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to... difference that she is furnished facilities for sleeping. Her time is given to her employer. She is...

  2. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to... difference that she is furnished facilities for sleeping. Her time is given to her employer. She is...

  3. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to... difference that she is furnished facilities for sleeping. Her time is given to her employer. She is...

  4. Urinary excretion of N-nitroso compounds in rats fed sodium nitrite and/or hot dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Anwar, Muhammad M; Zahid, Muhammad; Shostrom, Valerie; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2014-10-20

    Nitrite-treated meat is a reported risk factor for colon cancer. Mice that ingested sodium nitrite (NaNO2) or hot dogs (a nitrite-treated product) showed increased fecal excretion of apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC). Here, we investigated for the first time whether rats excrete increased amounts of ANC in their urine after they are fed NaNO2 and/or hot dogs. Rats were treated for 7 days with NaNO2 in drinking water or were fed hot dogs. Their 24 h urine samples were analyzed for ANC by thermal energy analysis on days 1-4 after nitrite or hot dog treatment was stopped. For two rats fed 480 mg NaNO2/L drinking water, mean urinary ANC excretion on days 1-4 was 30, 5.2, 2.5, and 0.8 nmol/day, respectively. For two to eight rats/dose given varied NaNO2 doses, mean urinary ANC output on day 1 increased from 0.9 (for no nitrite) to 37 (for 1000 mg NaNO2/L drinking water) nmol ANC/day. Urine samples of four rats fed 40-60% hot dogs contained 12-13 nmol ANC on day 1. Linear regression analysis showed highly significant correlations between urinary ANC excretion on day 1 after stopping treatment and varied (a) NaNO2 level in drinking water for rats fed semipurified or commercials diet and (b) hot dog levels in the diet. Some correlations remained significant up to 4 days after nitrite treatment was stopped. Urinary output of ANC precursors (compounds that yield ANC after mild nitrosation) for rats fed semipurified or commercial diet was 11-17 or 23-48 μmol/day, respectively. Nitrosothiols and iron nitrosyls were not detected in urinary ANC and ANCP. Excretion of urinary ANC was about 60% of fecal ANC excretion for 1 to 2 days after NaNO2 was fed. Administered NaNO2 was not excreted unchanged in rat urine. We conclude that urinary ANC excretion in humans could usefully be surveyed to indicate exposure to N-nitroso compounds.

  5. High serum lactate level may predict death within 24 hours

    PubMed Central

    Zoubi, Abd Almajid; Kuria, Shiran; Blum, Nava

    2015-01-01

    Background Unexpected death within 24 hours of admission is a real challenge for the clinician in the emergency room. How to diagnose these patients and the right approach to prevent sudden death with 24 hours is still an enigma. The aims of our study were to find the independent factors that may affect the clinical outcome in the first 24 hours of admission to the hospital. Methods We performed a retrospective study defining unexpected death within 24 hours of admission in our Department of Medicine in the last 6 years. We found 43 patients who died within 24 hours of admission, and compared their clinical and biochemical characteristics to 6055 consecutive patients who were admitted in that period of time and did not die within the first 24 hours of admission. The parameters that were used include gender, age, temperature, clinical and laboratory criteria for SIRS, arterial blood lactate, and arterial blood pH. Results Most of the patients who died within 24 hours had sepsis with SIRS. These patients were older (78.6±14.7 vs. 65.2±20.2 years [p<.0001]), had higher lactate levels (8.0±4.8 vs. 2.1±1.8mmol/L [p<.0001]), and lower pH (7.2±0.2 vs. 7.4±0.1 [p<.0001]). Logistic regression analysis found that lactate was the strongest independent parameter to predict death within 24 hours of admission (OR 1.366 [95% CI 1.235–1.512]), followed by old age (OR 1.048 [95% CI 1.048–1.075] and low arterial blood pH (OR 0.007 [CI <0.001–0.147]). When gender was analyzed, pH was not an independent variable in females (only in males). Conclusions The significant independent variable that predicted death within 24 hours of admission was arterial blood lactate level on admission. Older age was also an independent variable; low pH affected only males, but was a less dominant variable. We suggest use of arterial blood lactate level on admission as a bio-marker in patients with suspected sepsis admitted to the hospital for risk assessment and prediction of death within 24

  6. Arsenic levels in the groundwater of Korea and the urinary excretion among contaminated area.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Duck; Choi, Seong-Jin; Choi, Byung-Sun; Lee, Choong-Ryeol; Kim, Heon; Kim, Yong-Dae; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Young-Jo; Kang, Seojin; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water is a main source of human exposure to arsenic. Hence, the determination of arsenic in groundwater is essential to assess its impact on public health. Here, we report arsenic levels in the groundwater of 722 sites covering all six major provinces of Korea. Water was sampled in two occasions (summer, 722 sites and winter, 636 sites) and the arsenic levels were measured with highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method (limit of detection, 0.1 μg/l) to encompass the current drinking water standard (<10 μg/l). Seasonal variation was negligible, but the geographical difference was prominent. Total arsenic in groundwater ranged from 0.1 to 48.4 μg/l. A 88.0-89.0% of sites were <2.0 μg/l and the remaining ones generally did not exceed 10 μg/l (6.4-7.0%, 2.0-4.9 μg/l; 2.4-3.0%, 5.0-9.9 μg/l). However, some areas (1.0-9.2%) exhibited >10 μg/l. Notably, urinary arsenic excretion of people around these regions was markedly higher compared with non-contaminated areas (<5 μg/l) (79.7±5.2 μg/g (N=122) vs 68.4±5.4 μg/g (N=65) creatinine, P=0.052). All stratified analysis also revealed higher urinary excretion, where a statistically significant difference was noted for non-smokers (85.9±12.7 vs 54.0±6.3, P=0.030), suggesting that arsenic-contaminated groundwater may contribute to its systemic exposure.

  7. Urinary excretion of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin in hypertensive and normotensive renal transplant recipients during urinary diluting and concentrating tests.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, B; Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Kornerup, H J; Knudsen, F; Mogensen, C E; Nielsen, A H

    1986-11-01

    Urinary excretion of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin was measured in nine hypertensive and nine normotensive renal transplant recipients and 10 healthy control subjects before and after an oral water load of 20 ml (kg body weight)-1 (study 1) and in eight hypertensive and 11 normotensive renal transplant recipients and 11 healthy control subjects during 24-h water deprivation (study 2). In both studies 1 and 2 urinary albumin excretion was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients that in the normotensive patients and the control subjects (levels before loading; hypertensives: 23.9 micrograms/min (median), range 7.5-58.7; normotensives: 3.4 micrograms/min, range 1.0-49.3; controls: 2.9 micrograms/min, range 1.3-10.3). Urinary albumin excretion was significantly positive correlated to both systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure (for mean blood pressure: rho = 0.625, n = 18, p less than 0.01) in transplanted patients. Albumin excretion tended to increase after water loading and to decrease during water deprivation in all groups. Beta-2-microglobulin excretion was approximately the same in all groups in both studies 1 and 2 and was not correlated to blood pressure. During a follow-up period of at least 18 months, none of the renal transplant recipients developed signs of chronic graft failure. Increased urinary albumin excretion in hypertensive renal transplant recipients thus appears to be caused by increased glomerular permeability that may be due to glomerular damage induced by arterial hypertension corresponding to the findings in essential hypertension.

  8. Tissue accumulation and urinary excretion of Cr in chromium picolinate (CrPic)-supplemented lambs.

    PubMed

    Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Lima, Bárbara Alcântara Ferreira; Braz, Shélida Vasconcelos; Mustafa, Vanessa da Silva; McManus, Concepta; Paim, Tiago do Prado; Campeche, Aline; Gomes, Edgard Franco; Louvandini, Helder

    2016-05-01

    Chromium (Cr) concentrations in liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lymph node, skeletal muscle, bone, testis and urine of lambs were measured to trace the biodistribution and bioaccumulation of Cr after oral supplementation with chromium picolinate (CrPic). Twenty-four Santa Inês lambs were treated with four different concentrations of CrPic: placebo, 0.250, 0.375 and 0.500 mg of CrPic/animal/day for 84 days. The basal diet consisted of Panicum maximum cv Massai hay and concentrate. Cr concentrations were measured by ICP-MS measuring (52)Cr as collected mass. There was a positive linear relationship between dose administered and the accumulation of Cr in the heart, lungs and testis. Urinary excretion of Cr occurred in a time and dose-dependent manner, so the longer or more dietary Cr provided, the greater excretion of the element. As some non-carcass components (such as lungs or heart) are added to bone and visceral meal to feed animals, there is a risk of bioaccumulation and biomagnification due to Cr offered as CrPic in the diet.

  9. Concentrations of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Blood and Urinary Excretion in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Iwakawa, Hiromi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Fukui, Tomiho; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Yukio; Shibata, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood and urinary excretion of 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2DM) and 20 healthy control participants. Macronutrient and vitamin intakes of type 2DM subjects were measured using a weighed food record method. Control participants consumed a semipurified diet for eight days. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine whether significant differences existed in vitamin concentrations in blood independent of age, sex, and other confounding factors. Concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors. Renal clearances of vitamins B6, C, niacin, and folate were significantly higher in type 2DM subjects than in controls. In conclusion, concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors; based on the evidence of increased urinary clearance of these vitamins, the lower levels were likely due to impaired reabsorption processes. PMID:27812289

  10. Variability in metabolism of imipramine and desipramine using urinary excretion data.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Kelley; Ma, Joseph D; Best, Brookie M; Atayee, Rabia S; Morello, Candis M

    2014-01-01

    Variability in imipramine and desipramine metabolism was evaluated using urinary excretion data from patients with pain. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantitate concentrations in urine specimens. Interpatient population contained 600 unique imipramine specimens, whereas intrapatient population had 137 patients with two or more specimens. Normal concentration ranges of imipramine, desipramine and the desipramine/imipramine metabolic ratio (MR) were established, and various factors were tested for MR impact. Geometric mean of imipramine urine concentration was 0.46 mg/g of creatinine, and desipramine was 0.67 mg/g of creatinine. Gender, concomitant known CYP2C19 inhibitor use and urine pH did not affect MR. However, proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) users had a significantly lower mean MR than those without a listed PPI. Early age group (18-36 years) had a significantly higher mean MR than middle (37-66 years) and late (67-90 years) age groups. Approximately one-third were positive for one or more of hydrocodone, oxycodone, hydromorphone or oxymorphone. Patients with no opioids reported in the medication list had a significantly lower geometric mean MR than those with prescribed opioids (1.03 vs. 1.54, P = 0.004). Patients with only one prescribed opioid had a lower MR than those with two or more prescribed opioids. Patients with younger age, prescribed opioids and no listed PPI were more likely to have a higher geometric mean urinary desipramine/imipramine MR.

  11. Effect of Ramipril on Urinary Protein Excretion in Maintenance Renal Transplant Patients Converted to Sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Mandelbrot, D A; Alberú, J; Barama, A; Marder, B A; Silva, H T; Flechner, S M; Flynn, A; Healy, C; Li, H; Tortorici, M A; Schulman, S L

    2015-12-01

    This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of ramipril on urinary protein excretion in renal transplant patients treated with sirolimus following conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor. Patients received ramipril or placebo for up to 6 weeks before conversion and 52 weeks thereafter. Doses were increased if patients developed proteinuria (urinary protein/creatinine ratio ≥0.5); losartan was given as rescue therapy for persistent proteinuria. The primary end point was time to losartan initiation. Of 295 patients randomized, 264 met the criteria for sirolimus conversion (ramipril, 138; placebo, 126). At 52 weeks, the cumulative rate of losartan initiation was significantly lower with ramipril (6.2%) versus placebo (23.2%) (p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed between ramipril and placebo for change in glomerular filtration rate from baseline (p = 0.148) or in the number of patients with biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (13 vs. 5, respectively; p = 0.073). One patient in the placebo group died due to cerebrovascular accident. Treatment-emergent adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of sirolimus and were not potentiated by ramipril co-administration. Ramipril was effective in reducing the incidence of proteinuria for up to 1 year following conversion to sirolimus in maintenance renal transplant patients.

  12. Dose-, route-, and sex-dependent urinary excretion of phenol metabolites in B6C3F, mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, E.M.; Seeley, M.E.; Janszen, D.; Medinsky, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    Phenol is the major oxidized metabolite of benzene, a known human leukemogen and ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Unlike benzene, phenol does not induce tumors in mice following oral exposure; benzene also exhibits sex-related differences in genotoxicity to bone marrow cells that are not observed following phenol administration. We studied the urinary excretion of phenol metabolites in mice as a means to further investigate the metabolic basis for differences in benzene- and phenol-induced toxicity. Male and female B6C3F, mice (n = 3/group) were exposed to 15, 40, 100, or 225 {mu}mol [{sup 14}C]phenol/kg by iv tail vein injection (6 {mu}Ci/mouse). First-pass intestinal metabolism of phenol was evaluated by comparison of urinary excretion of phenol metabolites following iv administration with additional groups of male mice that received the same dose levels by oral gavage. Mice were placed in glass metabolism cages, and urine was collected over dry ice for 48 h. Urinary metabolites were separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and quantified by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Urinary excretion of conjugated metabolites of phenol was dose-dependent in both male and female mice administered phenol by iv injection or gavage. The major urinary metabolites of phenol were phenol sulfate (PS), phenol glucuronide (PG), and hydroquinone glucoronide (HQG). Sulfation was the dominant pathway at all dose levels, but decreased as a percent of the excreted dose with a concomitant increase in glucorodination as the dose level increased. Male mice consistently excreted a higher proportion of phenol as the oxidized conjugated metabolite, HQG, compared to female mice, suggesting that male mice oxidize phenol to hydroquinone more rapidly than female mice. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Prevalence of hypercalciuria and urinary calcium excretion in school-aged children in the province of Tokat

    PubMed Central

    Gül, Ali; Özer, Samet; Yılmaz, Resul; Sönmezgöz, Ergün; Kasap, Tuba; Takçı, Şahin; Karaaslan, Erhan; Önder, Yalçın; Çıtıl, Rıza; Bütün, İlknur; Demir, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Aim Hypercalciuria is an important cause of urinary tract symptoms, and also frequently results in urolithiasis. Urinary calcium excretion varies for geographic areas. We aimed to assess percentiles of urinary calcium excretion and prevalence of hypercalciuria for school-aged children in Tokat (city located in inner northern region of Turkey). Material and Methods One thousand three hundred seventy-five children aged 6 to 18 years were enrolled in the study. Urine samples were obtained randomly. The children’s variables as sex, age, length, and weight were recorded. Urinary calcium and creatinine determined from the urine samples and urinary calcium/creatinine ratios (mg/mg) were calculated. Percentiles of urinary calcium/creatinine ratios were also assessed for each age of the children. Results Six hundred eighty-three of the 1 375 children were girls and 692 were boys. The mean age of the children was 11.68±3.43 years. Some 23.9% of the children were living in rural regions and 76.1% were were living in urban regions. The mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.080±0.24 and the 95th percentile value of the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.278. The hypercalciuria prevalence for school-aged children was 4.7% when the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio value for hypercalciuria was accepted as ≥0.21. The prevalence of hypercalciuria in rural and urban regions was 7.60% and 3.82%, respectively (p<0.05). Hypercalciuria was present in 7 of 141 patients who were obese (4.96%) and 58 of 1 234 patients who were not obese (4.70%) (p>0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of hypercalciuria and urinary calcium excretion vary for different geographic areas, not only for countries. The percentiles of urinary calcium excretion should be assesed for every geographic region and the prevalance of hypercalciuria should be determined with these values. There is controversy as to whether obesity is a risk factor for hypercalciuria. PMID:28123331

  14. Urinary excretion of digoxin-like immunoreactive factor and arginine-vasopressin in rats after several osmotic loads.

    PubMed

    Vargas, F; Andrade, J L; Jódar, E; Castillo, M A; Luna, J D; Haro, J M

    1991-01-01

    Urinary digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and other urinary parameters were investigated under normal conditions and after the i.p. injection of the following solutions: distilled water, isotonic and hypertonic NaCl, NaHCO3, KCl and urea, at a rate of 3 ml/100 g body weight. The measurement of digoxin-like immunoreactivity by two different radioimmunoassays showed that DLIF was stimulated by all volume loads regardless of the presence or absence of osmolar compounds. This dissociation between DLIF and urinary sodium excretion suggests that DLIF may not constitute the natriuretic hormone. Moreover, a dissociation between DLIF and AVP excretion also were found, which speaks against the hypothesis of a common mechanism of stimulation for both substances.

  15. Zea mays L. extracts modify glomerular function and potassium urinary excretion in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, D V O; Xavier, H S; Batista, J E M; de Castro-Chaves, C

    2005-05-01

    Diuretic and uricosuric properties have traditionally been attributed to corn silk, stigma/style of Zea mays L. Although the diuretic effect was confirmed, studies of the plant's effects on renal function or solute excretion were lacking. Thus, we studied the effects of corn silk aqueous extract on the urinary excretion of water, Na+, K+, and uric acid. Glomerular and proximal tubular function and Na+ tubular handling were also studied. Conscious, unrestrained adult male rats were housed in individual metabolic cages (IMC) with continuous urine collection for 5 and 3 h, following two protocols. The effects of 25, 50, 200, 350, and 500 mg/kg body wt. corn silk extract on urine volume plus Na+ and K+ excretions were studied in water-loaded conscious rats (2.5 ml/100 g body wt.) in the IMC for 5 h (Protocol 1). Kaliuresis was observed with doses of 350 (100.42 +/- 22.32-120.28 +/- 19.70 microEq/5 h/100 g body wt.; n = 13) and 500 mg/kg body wt. (94.97+/- 29.30-134.32 +/- 39.98 microEq/5h/100 g body wt.; n = 12; p<0.01), and the latter dose resulted in diuresis as well (1.98 +/- 0.44-2.41 +/- 0.41 ml/5 h/100 g body wt.; n = 12; p<0.05). The effects of a 500 mg/kg body wt. dose of corn silk extract on urine volume, Na+, K+ and uric acid excretions, and glomerular and proximal tubular function, were measured respectively by creatinine (Cler) and Li+ (ClLi) clearances and Na+ tubular handling, in water-loaded rats (5 ml/100 g body wt.) in the IMC for 3 h (Protocol 2). Clcr (294.6 +/- 73.2, n = 12, to 241.7 +/- 48.0 microl/ min/100 g body wt.; n = 13; p<0.05) and the Na+ filtered load (41.9 +/- 10.3, n = 12, to 34.3 +/- .8, n = 13, p<0.05) decreased and ClLi and Na+ excretion were unchanged, while K+ excretion (0.1044 +/- 0.0458, n=12, to 0.2289 +/- 0.0583 microEq/min/100 body wt.; n = 13; p<0.001) increased. For Na+ tubular handling, the fractional proximal tubular reabsorption (91.5 +/- 3.5, n = 12, to 87.5 +/- 3.4%; n = 13; p<0.01) decreased, and both fractional distal

  16. High urinary calcium excretion and genetic susceptibility to hypertension and kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Mente, Andrew; Honey, R John D' A; McLaughlin, John M; Bull, Shelley B; Logan, Alexander G

    2006-09-01

    Increased urinary calcium excretion commonly is found in patients with hypertension and kidney stone disease (KSD). This study investigated the aggregation of hypertension and KSD in families of patients with KSD and hypercalciuria and explored whether obesity, excessive weight gain, and diabetes, commonly related conditions, also aggregate in these families. Consecutive patients with KSD, aged 18 to 50 yr, were recruited from a population-based Kidney Stone Center, and a 24-h urine sample was collected. The first-degree relatives of eligible patients (n = 333) and their spouse were interviewed by telephone to collect demographic and health information. Familial aggregation was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (OR) revealed significant associations between hypercalciuria in patients and hypertension (OR 2.9; 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 6.2) and KSD (OR 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 3.5) in first-degree relatives, specifically in siblings. No significant associations were found in parents or spouses or in patients with hyperuricosuria. Similarly, no aggregation with other conditions was observed. In an independent study of siblings of hypercalciuric patients with KSD, the adjusted mean fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was significantly higher in the hypertensive siblings compared with normotensive siblings (0.60 +/- 0.32 versus 0.46 +/- 0.28 mmol/mmol; P < 0.05), and both sibling groups had significantly higher values than the unselected study participants (P < 0.001). Urinary sodium/creatinine and uric acid/creatinine ratios were not different among the groups. Although an environmental effect cannot be excluded fully, our findings suggest that the disturbance in calcium metabolism in hypertension and KSD has a genetic basis.

  17. Urinary excretion of lipoxin A(4) and related compounds: development of new extraction techniques for lipoxins.

    PubMed

    Romano, Mario; Luciotti, Graziella; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Marinucci, Francesca; Prontera, Cesaria; D'Urbano, Etrusca; Davì, Giovanni

    2002-09-01

    LX are tetraene-containing eicosanoids generated by lipoxygenase (LO) transformation of arachidonic acid (Serhan and Romano, 1995). LX possess potent anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, and temporal biosynthesis of LX, concurrent with spontaneous resolution, has been observed during exudate formation (Levy et al, 2001). Limited results are currently available on the involvement of LX in clinical settings. Recently, a rabbit anti-LXA(4) antiserum has been raised to produce an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for LXA(4) (Levy et al, 1993). Although specific and accurate with isolated cells, this kit has not been tested with complex biological matrix such as urine. Initial attempts to determine urinary excretion of LXA(4) using the LXA(4) ELISA kit were unsuccessful because of high unspecific absorbance readings. In this report, we show that the LXA(4) extraction procedure indicated in the ELISA kit is inadequate for urinary measurements of immunoreactive (i)LXA(4). We present the development of a new extraction technique, more selective for LX, that abolishes background contamination and minimizes the unspecific readings. Using this method, we show for the first time that urine from healthy subjects contain (i)LXA(4) material and identify a urinary tetraene with the physical properties of a LXA(4) metabolite. Although reliable methods have been previously established to quantitate LXA(4) from whole blood (Brezinski et al, 1992), the present extraction technique, which optimizes for LXA(4) recovery from human urine, represents a substantial achievement for LX investigation and may open a new avenue of clinical studies on LXA(4).

  18. [Urinary excretion of steroid hormone and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in normal young adult women].

    PubMed

    Takeyasu, M; Kato, T

    1999-01-01

    The urinary steroid hormone metabolites and the ratio of pregnenetriol (delta 5P3) to pregnanetriol (P3) as indicators of 3 beta HSD activity in the urine of healthy young female were measured by means of capillary gas chromatography. All of the subjects have finished the normal pubertal development, and their adrenal steroid hormone secretion had reached to the stable state. We analyzed the diurnal variation, fluctuation during menstrual cycle and seasonal variation of delta 5P3/P3. We found that the hormone excretion in the urine of the morning during the follicular phase of menstrual cycle was relatively stable, and that the ratio of delta 5P3/P3 correlated highly with that in the total daily urine. In the seasonal variation, the urinary delta 5P3/P3 ratio in the subjects of high urinary DHEA group was relatively high, and that of the low DHEA group was low. Although the difference of delta 5P3/P3 ratio of the both groups was small, but statistically significant. Individual difference in the delta 5P3/P3 ratio was relatively small in comparison with that of the urinary DHEA excretion. About 5% of the all subjects showed marked high value of delta 5P3/P3 ratio. About 80% of the high urinary excretion group showed higher value than the average delta 5P3/P3 ratio. These findings suggest that the normal young female subjects were divided into several groups with regard to the urinary DHEA excretion pattern and delta 5P3/P3 ratio in the urine. Both of them may be a specific individual marker.

  19. Relation between urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid excretion and concentration of lead in the blood of workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Tomokuni, K; Ichiba, M; Mori, K

    1992-05-01

    Urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid (ABA) concentration was determined by fluorometric high performance liquid chromatography in 22 workers occupationally exposed to lead. The urinary excretion of ABA was increased with increasing exposure to lead. The excretion of urinary ABA had a significant correlation with concentration of lead in blood (Pb-B) (r = 0.581), similar to the correlation of Pb-B with urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) concentration (r = 0.563). The determination of urinary ABA concentration in workers exposed to lead, therefore, may offer a new approach for evaluating the health effect of lead.

  20. Urinary excretion of metabolites following a single dermal dose of [14C]methyl parathion in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qare, A W; Abou-Donia, M B

    2000-09-07

    The identification and kinetics of urinary excretion of metabolites of uniformly phenyl-labeled O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate ([14C]methyl parathion) were carried out following a single dermal dose of 10.0 mg (10 microCi)/kg in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at 14-18 days of gestation. Urine was collected at each time interval of 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after dosing. Total p-nitrophenol in the conjugated and non-conjugated metabolites was measured as a marker of methyl parathion exposure. Elimination of radioactivity in the urine was rapid. Of the total 14C urinary excretion, 30% of the dose was excreted within 4 h, while 50 and 90% of the dose were recovered in the urine by 24 and 96 h, respectively. Excretion rate of total radioactivity was 60 microgram methyl parathion equivalent/h (1.4 mg/day). By the end of the 96-h experiment, conjugated and non-conjugated metabolites accounted for 78.1 and 21.9%, respectively. Of the non-conjugated metabolites, p-nitrophenol and O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphate (methyl paraoxon) were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that accounted for 20%, and 1.9% of total urinary excretion, respectively. Appearance and disappearance rate constants of p-nitrophenol in urine were 0.12 and 0.048 microgram/h, respectively. Conjugated metabolites were classified as: glucuronides 12% of urinary excretion, sulfates 3%, hot sulfuric acid hydrolysable residues 47% and 16.1% remained as unidentified water soluble metabolites. Direct hot acid hydrolysis of urine yielded 49% of extractable 14C-radioactivity compared to 62% when hot acid hydrolysis followed the enzymatic hydrolysis. The presence of the conjugated metabolites as the major class of metabolites of the total excretion indicates that determining only unbound p-nitrophenol as a biological marker for methyl parathion exposure underestimates total urinary excretion of p-nitrophenol. Sequential enzymatic and acid hydrolyses of urine prior

  1. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is a potential biomarker for renal damage in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Chen; Hsieh, Song-Chou; Li, Ko-Jen; Wu, Cheng-Han; Lu, Ming-Chi; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Yu, Chia-Li

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been demonstrated to be a novel biomarker in acute and chronic kidney disease. We hypothesized that 24-hour urinary NGAL excretion may be a predictor for renal damage in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Thirty-four SLE patients with renal involvement (SLE-renal group), 8 SLE patients without renal involvement (SLE-nonrenal group), 14 patients with non-SLE autoimmune diseases (disease control or DC group), and 12 healthy volunteers (normal control or NC group) were compared for 24-hour urinary excretion of NGAL and different cytokines. We found that the 24-hour urinary NGAL excretion in the SLE-renal group was higher than that in the SLE-non-renal, DC, and NC groups. However, the excretion of interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-β1, and tumor necrosis factor-α was not different between the SLE-renal and SLE-non-renal groups. Furthermore, NGAL excretion in the SLE-renal group was correlated with serum creatinine levels and creatinine clearance, but not with the SLE Disease Activity Index score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that 24-hour urinary NGAL excretion is a potential biomarker for renal damage in SLE patients, with higher sensitivity and specificity than anti-dsDNA antibody titers.

  2. Urinary excretion of 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid in dystimic/depressed, adult obese women: what correlations to hepatic steatosis?

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Savastano, S; Colao, A; Polichetti, G; Capone, D

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of serotonin at CNS level is influenced by diet. Moreover, insulin resistance is associated with lower serotonin levels. Visceral obesity, strictly linked to hepatic steatosis is specifically associated with mild to severe somatic affective-depressive symptom clusters. Previous data support the view that depression involves serotonergic systems, reflecting low levels of urinary 5- hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The 24-h urinary excretion of 5-HIAA was evaluated in 76 dystimic/depressed, obese/overweight females, divided into two groups, i.e., on a hyper-caloric diet, associated with a life style characterized by leisure time sedentary behavior (LTSB, 35 women), or on a normo-caloric diet, assisted by program-based strategies aimed at promoting physical activity participation (PAP, 41 women). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was carried out to score the severity of dystimia/depression. Anthropometric measures, metabolic indices, severity of hepatic steatosis at sonography and HOMA were studied. Urinary levels of 5-HIAA in controls and PAP groups were comparable with a great overlap, while in the LTSB group the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA was significantly reduced in respect to that of the PAP group and obviously compared to that of the control group, 3.4±1.4 mg/L versus 6.2±2.7 mg/L and 6.4±2.6 mg/L, respectively, ANOVA test, P= 0.001. Among metabolic indices, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid were not able to predict urinary concentrations of 5-HIAA, which were not associated with hepatic steatosis; vice versa, ferritin levels, and mainly HOMA values, were independent predictors of the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA (β=0.235 and 0.45, respectively). Dystimia/depression severity was negatively predicted by urinary 5-HIAA levels in the sense that the highest BDI values were forecast by the lowest values of urinary 5-HIAA (β= -0.72).The importance of measuring the 24-h urinary excretion of 5-HIAA in follow-ups could rely

  3. Reassessment of individual dosimetry of long-lived alpha radionuclides of uranium miners through experimental determination of urinary excretion of uranium.

    PubMed

    Malátová, I; Becková, V; Tomásek, L; Slezáková-Marusiaková, M; Hůlka, J

    2013-04-01

    Urinary excretion of uranium of 40 uranium miners was determined by the high-resolution inductively coupled mass spectrometry method. The concentration of uranium in the urine of the miners was converted to daily excretion of (238)U either under the assumption that the daily urinary excretion is 1.6 l or daily urinary excretion of creatinine is 1.7 g and compared with the excretion of (238)U calculated with a biokinetic model. Input data to the excretion model were derived from personal three- component ALGADE dosemeters, using the component for the estimation of inhalation of long-lived alpha radionuclides. Experimentally found contents of uranium in the urine of uranium miners are generally lower than the modelled ones, which means that the dosimetric approach is conservative. The uncertainty of inhalation intakes, derived from the measurements of filters from personal dosemeters, and the uncertainty of the concentration of uranium in the urine are discussed.

  4. Pharmacokinetic modeling and prediction of plasma pyrrole-imidazole polyamide concentration in rats using simultaneous urinary and biliary excretion data.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Takashi; Aoyama, Takahiko; Yokoe, Tsubasa; Fukasawa, Akiko; Fukuda, Noboru; Ueno, Takahiro; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Nagase, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki

    2009-05-01

    The use of urinary and/or biliary excretion data was considered as an alternative approach if the bioanalytical method lacked the appropriate sensitivity to adequately characterize the serum or plasma concentration-time profile. This approach is used for the analysis of plasma concentration-time profile under the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of various analytical instruments. The objective of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic (PK) model that describes the plasma concentration-time profiles under LLOQ of HPLC using urinary and biliary excretion data. As model compounds, pyrrole (Py)-imidazole (Im) polyamides 1035 (MW, 1035.12) and 1666 (MW, 1665.78) were used. The cumulative urinary excretions of Py-Im polyamides 1035 and 1666 were 72.4+/-11.6 and 4.8+/-0.5% of the administered dose, respectively. The cumulative biliary excretion of Py-Im polyamide 1035 was 4.3+/-0.4% of the administered dose, and Py-Im polyamide 1666 was not detected. The plasma concentration-time profiles of Py-Im polyamide 1035 were adequately described using linear and non-linear output compartments. The developed PK model could be used to describe the plasma concentration profiles using the linear output compartment interpreted as the urine compartment and the non-linear output compartment interpreted as the bile compartment. This PK model will be able to provide a more accurate prediction of the plasma concentration profiles under LLOQ.

  5. Habitual dietary phosphorus intake and urinary excretion in chronic kidney disease patients: a 3-day observational study.

    PubMed

    Salomo, L; Kamper, A-L; Poulsen, G M; Poulsen, S K; Astrup, A; Rix, M

    2016-12-14

    Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate the daily dietary phosphorus intake compared with recommendations in CKD patients and to evaluate the reproducibility of the 24-h urinary phosphorus excretion. Twenty CKD patients stage 3-4 from the outpatient clinic, collected 24-h urine and kept dietary records for 3 consecutive days. The mean daily phosphorus intake was 1367±499, 1642±815 and 1426±706 mg/day, respectively (P=0.57). The mean urinary phosphorus excretion was 914±465, 954±414 and 994±479 mg/day, respectively (P=0.21). In this population of CKD patients stage 3-4 the daily phosphorus intake was above the recommended. Twenty-four-hour urinary phosphorus excretion was reproducible and the data indicate that a single 24-h urine collection is sufficient to estimate the individual phosphorus excretion.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 14 December 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.247.

  6. Interesting Layering of Excreted 18F-FDG in the Urinary Bladder in Patients with Urinary Tract Infection and Distended Bladder.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guohua; Zhang, Wenjie; Jia, Zhiyun; Deng, Houfu

    2015-09-01

    Settling of (18)F-FDG in the bladder is often noted on whole-body PET/CT images, but this phenomenon has never received any careful attention and the mechanism has been unclear. The 2 patients described in this report, one with a T1 pathologic fracture and another with widespread bone and lymph node metastases from an unknown primary tumor, underwent PET/CT. Both had urinary tract infection and a distended bladder during scanning. The interesting layering of (18)F-FDG in the urinary bladder was observed in both patients. The presence of this phenomenon demands careful evaluation of the urine by the clinician, and the mechanism is hypothesized to be slow (18)F-FDG excretion in patients with a distended urinary bladder, resulting in delayed mixing with urine. In addition, urinary tract infection may be a potential cause. Images showing this interesting layering should be interpreted with care.

  7. Influence of renal insufficiency on the pharmacokinetics of cicletanine and its effects on the urinary excretion of electrolytes and prostanoids.

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, N; Geoffroy, J; Pozet, N; Cuisinaud, G; Benzoni, D; Zech, P Y; Sassard, J

    1988-01-01

    1. The kinetics of a single oral dose (300 mg) of cicletanine a new antihypertensive drug with diuretic properties, and its effects on the urinary excretion of electrolytes and of the major stable metabolites of prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 were studied in patients with normal renal function (n = 6), mild (n = 9) and severe (n = 10) renal insufficiency. 2. In normotensive subjects with normal renal function, cicletanine was rapidly and regularly absorbed, its apparent elimination half-life established around 7 h, and both its renal clearance (0.4 ml min-1) and its cumulative renal excretion (0.85% of the administered dose), were low. Mild renal insufficiency did not significantly alter these parameters, while severe renal impairment reduced the renal clearance and the cumulative urinary excretion of cicletanine and increased its apparent elimination half-life (31 h). However the area under the plasma curve was not changed due to reduced plasma concentrations in these patients. 3. Cicletanine induced a rapid and marked (four fold as a mean) increase in the urinary excretion of water, sodium and potassium which lasted for 6 to 10 h, in subjects with normal renal function. Renal insufficiency did not alter the slope of the calculated plasma concentration-effects curves but reduced the maximum effect observed for water, sodium and potassium. 4. A single oral dose of cicletanine did not change the urinary excretion of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha and thromboxane B2 in the three groups of patients studied, the basal values of which being found to be closely related to the creatinine clearance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3358898

  8. The 24 Hours before Hospitalization: Factors Related to Suicide Attempting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, John A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Psychiatric inpatients (N=59) were interviewd concerning psychological and environmental events that occurred in the 24 hours prior to their hospitalization. Suicide attempters were more likely to have used alcohol or marijuana and less likely to have contacted a health care professional than suicide ideators, even when past history of suicide…

  9. 24-hour rhythmicity of seizures in refractory focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Menezes Cordeiro, Inês; Santos, Ana Catarina; Peralta, Rita; Paiva, Teresa; Bentes, Carla

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence of seizures in specific types of epilepsies can follow a 24-hour nonuniform or nonrandom pattern. We described the 24-hour pattern of clinical seizures in patients with focal refractory epilepsy who underwent video-electroencephalography monitoring. Only patients who were candidates for epilepsy surgery with an unequivocal seizure focus were included in the study. A total of 544 seizures from 123 consecutive patients were analyzed. Specific time of seizures were distributed along 3- or 4-hour time blocks or bins throughout the 24-hour period. The mean age of the subjects was 37.7 years, with standard deviation of 11.5 years, median of 37. The majority were females (70/56%). The majority of patients had a seizure focus located in the mesial temporal lobe (102/83%) and in the neocortical temporal lobe (13/11%). The remaining patients had a seizure focus located in the extratemporal lobe (8/6%). The most common etiology was mesial temporal sclerosis (86/69.9%). Nonuniform seizure distribution was observed in seizures arising from the temporal lobe (mesial temporal lobe and neocortical temporal lobe), with two peaks found in both 3- and 4-hour bins: 10:00-13:00/16:00-19:00 and 08:00-12:00/16:00-20:00 respectively (p=0.004). No specific 24-hour pattern was identified in seizures from extratemporal location. The 24-hour rhythmicity of seizure distribution is recognized in certain types of epilepsy, but studies on the topic are scarce. Their replication and validation is therefore needed. Our study confirms the bimodal pattern of temporal lobe epilepsy independently of the nature of the lesion. However, peak times differ between different studies, suggesting that the ambient, rhythmic exogenous factors or environmental/social zeitgebers, may modulate the 24-hour rhythmicity of seizures. Characterization of these 24-hour patterns of seizure occurrence can influence diagnosis and treatment in selected types of epilepsy, such as the case of temporal lobe

  10. Aldosterone Receptor Antagonism Reduces Urinary C-Reactive Protein Excretion in Angiotensin II-Infused, Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Mamalis, Andrew; Navar, L. Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Background Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) may contribute to elevated arterial pressure in Ang II-dependent hypertension. However, the in vivo effects of Ang II and of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism on CRP during Ang II-dependent hypertension have not been examined. In addition, urinary CRP excretion as a method to monitor the progression of Ang II-induced inflammation has not been evaluated. Methods Urine samples were collected from three groups (n = 10/group) of rats: 1) normotensive control, 2) angiotensin II infused (Ang II; 60 ng/min), and 3) Ang II + eplerenone (epl; 25 mg/d). A diet containing epl (0.1 %) was provided after 1 week of Ang II infusion. Results After 28 d, Ang II increased SBP from 136 ± 5 to 207 ± 8 mmHg; this response in SBP was not altered following MR antagonism (215 ± 6 mmHg). Ang II-infusion increased plasma CRP from 14 ± 2 to 26 ± 3 μg/mL and increased urinary CRP excretion nearly 8-fold (143 ± 26 vs 1102 ± 115 ng/d). Treatment with eplerenone reduced plasma CRP by 25 % and urinary immunoreactive CRP (irCRP) by 34 % in Ang II-infused rats suggesting that aldosterone contributes to the CRP-associated inflammatory response in Ang II-dependent hypertension. Conclusions The increase in SBP preceded the increase in irCRP excretion by at least 4 days suggesting that CRP does not significantly contribute to increased arterial blood pressure in Ang II-dependent hypertension. The blockade of MR reduced plasma CRP and urinary irCRP excretion demonstrating the contribution of aldosterone to the Ang II-induced generation of CRP. Furthermore, urinary CRP may serve as a non-invasive index for monitoring cardiovascular inflammation during hypertension. PMID:20161115

  11. Estimation of oxidative DNA damage in man from urinary excretion of repair products.

    PubMed

    Loft, S; Poulsen, H E

    1998-01-01

    DNA is constantly damaged and repaired in living cells. The repair products of the oxidative DNA lesions, i.e. oxidised nucleosides and bases, are poor substrates for the enzymes involved in nucleotide synthesis, are fairly water soluble, and generally excreted into the urine without further metabolism. Among the possible products, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-oxoguanine, thymine glycol, thymidine glycol and, 5-hydroxymethyluracil have so far been identified in urine. It should be emphasised that the excretion of the repair products in urine represents the average rate of damage in the total body whereas the level of oxidised bases in nuclear DNA is a concentration measurement in that specific tissue/cells in the moment of sampling. The rate of oxidative DNA modifications has been studied in humans by means of the repair products as urinary biomarkers, particularly with respect to 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine. The data obtained so far indicate that the important determinants of the oxidative damage rate include tobacco smoking, oxygen consumption and some inflammatory diseases whereas diet composition, energy restriction and antioxidant supplements have but a minimal influence, possibly with the exception of yet unidentified phytochemicals, e.g. from cruciferous vegetables. The data are consistent with the experimentally based notion that oxidative DNA damage is an important mutagenic and apparently carcinogenic factor. However, the proof of a causal relationship in humans is still warranted. In the future the use of biomarkers may provide this evidence and allow further investigations on the qualitative and quantitative importance of oxidative DNA modification and carcinogenesis in man, as well as elucidate possible preventive measures.

  12. Stereoselective urinary MDMA (ecstasy) and metabolites excretion kinetics following controlled MDMA administration to humans.

    PubMed

    Schwaninger, Andrea E; Meyer, Markus R; Barnes, Allan J; Kolbrich-Spargo, Erin A; Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Huestis, Marilyn A; Maurer, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    The R- and S-enantiomers of racemic 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) exhibit different dose-concentration curves. In plasma, S-MDMA was eliminated at a higher rate, most likely due to stereoselective metabolism. Similar data were shown in various in vitro experiments. The aim of the present study was the in vivo investigation of stereoselective elimination of MDMA's phase I and phase II metabolites in human urine following controlled oral MDMA administration. Urine samples from 10 participants receiving 1.0 and 1.6 mg/kg MDMA separated by at least one week were analyzed blind by liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after chiral derivatization with S-heptafluorobutyrylprolyl chloride. R/S ratios at C(max) were comparable after low and high doses with ratios >1 for MDMA, free DHMA, and HMMA sulfate, and with ratios <1 for MDA, free HMMA, DHMA sulfate and HMMA glucuronide. In the five days after the high MDMA dose, a median of 21% of all evaluated compounds were excreted as R-stereoisomers and 17% as S-stereoisomers. Significantly greater MDMA, DHMA, and HMMA sulfate R-enantiomers and HMMA and HMMA glucuronide S-stereoisomers were excreted. No significant differences were observed for MDA and DHMA sulfate stereoisomers. Changes in R/S ratios could be observed over time for all analytes, with steady increases in the first 48 h. R/S ratios could help to roughly estimate time of MDMA ingestion and therefore, improve interpretation of MDMA and metabolite urinary concentrations in clinical and forensic toxicology.

  13. Immunocytoma effect upon circadian variation in murine urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid, beta-alanine, phenylalanine and tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Halberg, F; Gehrke, C W; Kuo, K; Nelson, W L; Sothern, R B; Cadotte, L M; Haus, E; Scheving, L E

    1978-01-01

    Under the conditions of disynchronization by the manipulation of both the alternation of light and darkness and the availability and unavailability of food, circadian rhythms characterize the excretion of several amino acids by inbred LOU rats bearing an immunocytoma. Large amplitude rhythms can be demonstrated for urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid, beta-alanine, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Under the same conditions of disynchronization, control animals excrete the same compounds also with a marked circadian variation but at an invariably lower average rate. These excretory rhythms, along with those demonstrated earlier for polyamines and light-chains, are of interest as potential markers for the chronotherapy of cancer.

  14. Accuracy and Usefulness of Select Methods for Assessing Complete Collection of 24-Hour Urine: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    John, Katherine A; Cogswell, Mary E; Campbell, Norm R; Nowson, Caryl A; Legetic, Branka; Hennis, Anselm J M; Patel, Sheena M

    2016-05-01

    Twenty-four-hour urine collection is the recommended method for estimating sodium intake. To investigate the strengths and limitations of methods used to assess completion of 24-hour urine collection, the authors systematically reviewed the literature on the accuracy and usefulness of methods vs para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) recovery (referent). The percentage of incomplete collections, based on PABA, was 6% to 47% (n=8 studies). The sensitivity and specificity for identifying incomplete collection using creatinine criteria (n=4 studies) was 6% to 63% and 57% to 99.7%, respectively. The most sensitive method for removing incomplete collections was a creatinine index <0.7. In pooled analysis (≥2 studies), mean urine creatinine excretion and volume were higher among participants with complete collection (P<.05); whereas, self-reported collection time did not differ by completion status. Compared with participants with incomplete collection, mean 24-hour sodium excretion was 19.6 mmol higher (n=1781 specimens, 5 studies) in patients with complete collection. Sodium excretion may be underestimated by inclusion of incomplete 24-hour urine collections. None of the current approaches reliably assess completion of 24-hour urine collection.

  15. [24-hour energy metabolism in the human: circadian rhythm, relation to body weight and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Steiniger, J

    1985-04-15

    In 7 men with normal weight and 9 man with overweight and healthy metabolism the resting and fasting energy expenditure was indirectly calorimetrically pursued in the open system over 24 hours. The total energy expenditure over 24 hours revealed an ascertained dependence on body-weight and nutrition. The persons with overweight had a higher absolute energy expenditure, however, the activity of the energy metabolism of the body mass free from fat and the active body mass, respectively, decreased with increasing overweight. The resting and fasting energy expenditure showed in all measured parameters (oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient and nitrogen excretion in the urine) an ascertained daily periodicity (circadian rhythm), which was widely independent of body weight. Only the average daily level C0 (rhythm adjusted level) of the resting and fasting energy expenditure was positively correlated with the body weight and the food energy intake. A negative energy balance (reduction 1.2 MJ/d over 28 days) influenced only the total energy and substrate balance over 24 hours and the daily average level, respectively. The circadian conditions remained unchanged (Chossat's phenomenon). The variability in daily rhythm of the energy expenditure of nearly 25% of the daily average should be taken into consideration in the judgment of exogenically stimulated changes in the energy metabolism.

  16. Urinary Excretion of Liver Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein Accurately Reflects the Degree of Tubulointerstitial Damage

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Takeshi; Kamijo-Ikemori, Atsuko; Sugaya, Takeshi; Hoshino, Seiko; Yasuda, Takashi; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), a biomarker of chronic kidney disease, in the kidney and the degree of tubulointerstitial damage, folic acid (FA)-induced nephropathy was studied in a mouse model system. As renal L-FABP is not expressed in wild-type mice, human L-FABP (hL-FABP) transgenic mice were used in this study. hL-FABP is expressed in the renal proximal tubules of the transgenic mice that were injected intraperitoneally with FA in NaHCO3 (the FA group) or only NaHCO3 (the control group) and oral saline solution daily during the experimental period. The FA group developed severe tubulointerstitial damage with the infiltration of macrophages and the deposition of type I collagen on days 3 and 7 and recovered to the control level on day 14. The gene and protein expression levels of hL-FABP in the kidney were significantly enhanced on days 3 and 7. Urinary hL-FABP in the FA group was elevated on days 3 and 7 and decreased to the control level on day 14. The protein expression levels of hL-FABP in both the kidney and urine significantly correlated with the degree of tubulointerstitial damage, the infiltration of macrophages, and the deposition of type I collagen. In conclusion, renal expression and urinary excretion of hL-FABP significantly reflected the severity of tubulointerstitial damage in FA-induced nephropathy. PMID:19435794

  17. Neighbourhood food store availability in relation to 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies on the relationship of local food environment with residents' diets have relied exclusively on self-reported information on diet, producing inconsistent results. Evaluation of dietary intake using biomarkers may obviate the biases inherent to the use of self-reported dietary information. This cross-sectional study examined the association between neighbourhood food store availability and 24 h urinary Na and K excretion. The subjects were 904 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18-22 years. Neighbourhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence. Urinary Na and K excretion and the ratio of urinary Na to K were estimated from a single 24 h urine sample. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, neighbourhood availability of confectionery stores/bakeries was inversely associated with urinary K, and was positively associated with the ratio of Na to K (P for trend = 0.008 and 0.03, respectively). Neighbourhood availability of rice stores showed an independent inverse association with urinary K (P for trend = 0.03), whereas neighbourhood availability of supermarkets/grocery stores conversely showed an independent positive association with this variable (P for trend = 0.03). Furthermore, neighbourhood availability of fruit/vegetable stores showed an independent inverse association with the ratio of Na to K (P for trend = 0.049). In a group of young Japanese women, increasing neighbourhood availability of supermarkets/grocery stores and fruit/vegetable stores and decreasing availability of confectionery stores/bakeries and rice stores were associated with favourable profiles of 24 h urinary K (and Na) excretion.

  18. Urinary excretion rates of natural estrogens and androgens from humans, and their occurrence and fate in the environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Kanjo, Yoshinori; Mizutani, Satoshi

    2009-09-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are pollutants with estrogenic or androgenic activities at very low concentrations and are emerging as a major concern for water quality. For sewage of municipal wastewater treatment plants in cities, one of the most important sources of EDCs are natural estrogens and natural androgens (NEAs) excreted from humans. Therefore, estrogenic/androgenic potencies or relative binding affinity of the NEAs were first outlined from different sources, and data of urinary excretion rates of NEAs were summarized. To evaluate their estrogenic activities, their excretion rates of estrogen equivalent (EEQ) or testosterone (T) equivalent (TEQ) were also calculated. Based on our summary, the total excretion rates of EEQ by estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) only accounted for 66-82% of the total excretion rate of EEQ among four different groups, and the other corresponding natural estrogens contributed 18-34%, which meant that some of the other natural estrogens may also exist in wastewater with high estrogenic activities. Based on the contribution ratio of individual androgens to the total excretion rate of TEQ, five out of 12 natural androgens, T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (AD), 5beta-androstanediol (beta-ADL), and androstenediol (ANL) were evaluated as the priority natural androgens, which may exist in wastewater with high androgenic activities. Published data on occurrence and fate of the NEAs including natural estrogen conjugates in the environment were also summarized here.

  19. Urinary excretion of the C5b-9 membrane attack complex of complement is a marker of immune disease activity in autologous immune complex nephritis.

    PubMed

    Pruchno, C J; Burns, M M; Schulze, M; Johnson, R J; Baker, P J; Alpers, C E; Couser, W G

    1991-01-01

    The urinary excretion of the C5b-9 membrane attack complex of complement correlates with glomerular deposition of antibody in the passive Heymann nephritis (PHN) model of membranous nephropathy (MN). To determine if this parameter can be correlated with antibody deposition in a model of MN induced by an autologous mechanism and thus more analogous to human MN, the relationship of urinary C5b-9 to ongoing glomerular immune complex formation late in autologous immune complex nephritis (AICN) was studied. Based on urinary C5b-9, the animals were divided into two groups at 12 weeks after induction of AICN, those with persistently high urinary C5b-9 excretion and those in whom urinary excretion of C5b-9 returned to undetectable levels. While all rats developed glomerular deposition of rat IgG and significant proteinuria, high C5b-9 excretors had greater proteinuria and prolonged positive staining for glomerular C3. When normal syngeneic kidneys were transplanted into rats (n = 3) from each group, only those with persistent C5b-9 excretion developed subepithelial immune deposits of rat IgG in the transplanted kidney. As in the PHN model of MN, proteinuria was dissociated widely from urinary C5b-9 excretion, glomerular C3 staining, and evidence of circulating antibody. Thus these findings demonstrate that urinary excretion of C5b-9 serves as an index of on-going immunologic disease activity in the AICN model of MN, while proteinuria does not.

  20. Comparison of pharmacokinetics and urinary iron excretion of two single doses of deferiprone in β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E patients.

    PubMed

    Rodrat, Supot; Yamanont, Pavena; Tankanitlert, Jeeranut; Chantraraksri, Udom; Fucharoen, Suthat; Morales, Noppawan Phumala

    2012-01-01

    Dose-related pharmacokinetics and urinary iron excretion (UIE) of an orally active iron chelator, deferiprone (L1), was investigated in 12 severe β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E patients. The patients received two single doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg with a 2-week washout period. Deferiprone was rapidly absorbed and reached maximum concentration (C(max)) within 1 h after administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters including C(max) and area under concentration time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) as well as urinary excretion of non-conjugated and glucuronide-conjugated deferiprone (L1 and L1-G) increased proportionally with the dose of deferiprone. A constant ratio of AUC(0-∞) of L1-G to L1 and a percentage of urinary excretion of L1-G indicated that increasing the dosage does not influence deferiprone biotransformation. Longer terminal elimination half-lifeand higher volume of distribution of L1 were observed with the high dose and correlated with deferiprone-chelated iron in serum. Unexpectedly, UIE did not show a linear relationship with the increased dose of deferiprone. The correlation between UIE and creatinine clearance suggested the possibility of L1-iron complex redistribution in patients with renal impairment treated with high-dose deferiprone.

  1. Supplementation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) with condensed tannin-containing pellets of sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata): Effects on ruminant urinary urea excretion and digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some feedstuffs that contain condensed tannins can reduce urinary urea excretion without compromising nutrition for ruminant livestock. This results in reducing environmental impact, improving productivity and enhancing sustainability of ruminant farming operations. In some situations there are adva...

  2. The Impact of Using Different Methods to Assess Completeness of 24-Hour Urine Collection on Estimating Dietary Sodium.

    PubMed

    Wielgosz, Andreas; Robinson, Christopher; Mao, Yang; Jiang, Ying; Campbell, Norm R C; Muthuri, Stella; Morrison, Howard

    2016-06-01

    The standard for population-based surveillance of dietary sodium intake is 24-hour urine testing; however, this may be affected by incomplete urine collection. The impact of different indirect methods of assessing completeness of collection on estimated sodium ingestion has not been established. The authors enlisted 507 participants from an existing community study in 2009 to collect 24-hour urine samples. Several methods of assessing completeness of urine collection were tested. Mean sodium intake varied between 3648 mg/24 h and 7210 mg/24 h depending on the method used. Excluding urine samples collected for longer or shorter than 24 hours increased the estimated urine sodium excretion, even when corrections for the variation in timed collections were applied. Until an accurate method of indirectly assessing completeness of urine collection is identified, the gold standard of administering para-aminobenzoic acid is recommended. Efforts to ensure participants collect complete urine samples are also warranted.

  3. Interchangeability between 24-hour collection and single spot urines for vanillylmandelic and homovanillic acid levels in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cangemi, Giuliana; Barco, Sebastiano; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Viscardi, Elisabetta; Di Cataldo, Andrea; Garaventa, Alberto; Melioli, Giovanni; Conte, Massimo

    2013-12-01

    The determination of the two urinary catecholamine metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) is of crucial importance for the diagnosis and follow-up of neuroblastoma (NB). The standard practice for their measurement requires the use of 24-hour collections that are time consuming and difficult to obtain. In this article, we directly demonstrate that 24-hour collections and single spot urines are interchangeable for the determination of HVA and VMA expressed as ratio on creatinine concentration. This study can be useful for a faster management of NB at onset.

  4. The effect of lithium salts on the urinary excretion of α-oxoglutarate in man

    PubMed Central

    Bond, P. A.; Jenner, F. A.; Lee, C. R.; Lenton, Elizabeth; Pollitt, R. J.; Sampson, Gwyneth A.

    1972-01-01

    1. Lithium ions in therapeutic doses cause an increase in the renal excretion of α-oxoglutarate and glutaric acid. 2. The excretion is probably due to reduced renal tubular reabsorption. 3. Neither citrate, lactate nor pyruvate excretion rises. PMID:5084816

  5. Intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary excretion of the rare sugar D-psicose

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Hossain, Akram; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Hirata, Yuko; Dong, Youyi; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Sui, Li; Nonaka, Machiko; Ueno, Masaki; Nishimoto, Kazuyuki; Suda, Hirofumi; Morimoto, Kenji; Shimonishi, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Madoka; Song, Tao; Konishi, Ryoji; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary elimination of the rare sugar D-psicose, a 3-carbon stereoisomer of D-fructose that is currently being investigated and which has been found to be strongly effective against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Methods This study was performed using radioactive D-psicose, which was synthesized enzymatically from radioactive D-allose. Concentrations in whole blood, urine, and organs were measured at different time points until 2 hours after both oral and intravenous administrations and 7 days after a single oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to Wistar rats. Autoradiography was also performed by injecting 100 mg/kg body weight of 14C-labeled D-psicose or glucose intravenously to C3H mice. Results Following oral administration, D-psicose easily moved to blood. The maximum blood concentration (48.5±15.6 μg/g) was observed at 1 hour. Excretion to urine was 20% within 1 hour and 33% within 2 hours. Accumulation to organs was detected only in the liver. Following intravenous administration, blood concentration was decreased with the half-life=57 minutes, and the excretion to urine was up to almost 50% within 1 hour. Similarly to the results obtained with oral administration, accumulation to organs was detected only in the liver. Seven days after the single-dose oral administration, the remaining amounts in the whole body were less than 1%. Autoradiography of mice showed results similar to those in rats. High signals of 14C-labeled D-psicose were observed in liver, kidney, and bladder. Interestingly, no accumulation of D-psicose was observed in the brain. Conclusion D-psicose was absorbed well after oral administration and eliminated rapidly after both oral and intravenous administrations, with short duration of action. The study provides valuable pharmacokinetic data for further drug development of D-psicose. Because the findings were mainly based on animal

  6. A quantitative threshold for high/low extent of urinary excretion of compounds in humans.

    PubMed

    Dave, Rutwij A; Morris, Marilyn E

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a quantitative threshold was determined for the high/low extent of urinary excretion (UE) of compounds in humans, using a straightforward but robust statistical method known as receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, and also 18 potential physicochemical determinants of UE were evaluated. Data on the percent of drug excreted unchanged into the urine, %Ae , were used to determine the threshold for high/low UE. Compounds can be divided into high/low UE groups using the threshold value of Ae  = 16.8%, namely those with Ae  > 16.8% are classified as high UE and those with Ae  ≤ 16.8% as low UE. The %Ae negatively correlated with cLogP (r = -0.56); however, cLogP could not quantitatively predict the value of %Ae (R(2) adj. = 0.32). Several determinants of the extent of UE, including cLogP, ACD labs cLogP and ACD labs cLogD(pH=7.4) , were successfully evaluated as a priori indicators of the extent of UE using two cut-off values for each parameter. Moreover, 87% of the 90 compounds in the external validation set were correctly classified using this approach. Analysis of the physicochemical spaces of compounds in these two groups showed significant overlap, which hinders the a priori determination of the extent of UE of compounds using a single threshold/cut-off value of simple physicochemical parameters. In conclusion, 16.8% is a quantitative threshold value to distinguish between high and low UE and new molecular entities with cLogP and ACD labs cLogP values of ≤0.7 and ≥1.0 and ACD labs cLogD(pH=7.4) values of ≤0.0 and ≥0.5 could be identified as exhibiting high and low UE, respectively. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A study on the effect of the internal exposure to (210)Po on the excretion of urinary proteins in rats.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Baki; Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Daka, Joseph; Yusuf, Hamdi; Wyatt, Heather; Surette, Joel; Priest, Nick; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of a noninvasive urine specimen for the detection of proteins as indicators of internal exposure to ionizing radiation. Three groups of rats (five in each group) were intravenously injected with 1601 ± 376, 10,846 ± 591 and 48,467 ± 2812 Bq of (210)Po in citrate form. A sham-exposed control group of five rats was intravenously injected with sterile physiological saline. Daily urine samples were collected over 4 days following injection. Purification and pre-concentration of urinary proteins were carried out by ultrafiltration using a 3000 Da molecular weight cutoff membrane filter. The concentration of common urinary proteins, namely albumin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary excretion of albumin decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.05) 96 h post-injection relative to the control group. In contrast, no statistically significant effects were observed for other proteins tested. The dose-dependent decrease in urinary excretion of albumin observed in this study underscores the need for further research, which may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers that would reflect the changes in the primary target organs for deposition of (210)Po.

  8. Effect of dietary supplementation of gallic acid on nitrogen balance, nitrogen excretion pattern and urinary nitrogenous constituents in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chen; Yang, Kai; Zhao, Guangyong; Lin, Shixin; Xu, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the trial was to study the effects of dietary supplementation of gallic acid (GA) on nitrogen (N) balance, N excretion pattern and urinary N constituents in beef cattle. In a 4 × 4 Latin square design, four male 30-month-old Simmental cattle (443 ± 22 kg live weight) received four levels of GA (purity ≥ 98.5%), i.e. 0, 5.3, 10.5, 21.1 g/kg DM, added to a basal ration. Each experimental period lasted 17 d, consisting of 12 d adaptation and 5 d sampling. The results showed that supplementation of GA at 5.3, 10.5 or 21.1 g/kg DM did not affect the N balance but regulated the N excretion pattern by increasing the ratio of faecal N/urinary N and decreasing the ratio of urinary urea N/total urinary N in beef cattle fed at maintenance level.

  9. Excretion patterns of pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in patients with tumours of the upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Kvist, E; Sjølin, K E; Iversen, J

    1990-01-01

    In 39 patients with either pelvic or renal cell tumours, the pre-operative urinary excretion ratios of pseudouridine/creatinine (psi:C) and beta-aminoisobutyric acid/creatinine (BAIB:C) were estimated. In 34/39 of the patients (87%), including both types of tumours, psi: C was found to be increased, and in only one patient was the value decreased. Twenty-five of the patients (64%) had a BAIB:C ratio within the normal range. 10 (25%) had increased and 4 (11%) decreased values. In 13 patients the psi:C and BAIB:C ratios from the affected side were compared with the values in urine from the bladder. Twelve of the patients had higher values of psi:C in the urine from the ureter. In seven patients the ureteric BAIB:C ratio was higher than the bladder BAIB:C ratio and in five patients the ureteric BAIB:C ratio was less than the bladder BAIB:C ratio. In only one patient were the values similar. The results indicate that patients with tumours of the upper urinary tract have changed excretion patterns compared with normal subjects and the urinary ratios on the affected side are different from those on the healthy side. The biological tumour markers pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid may be helpful in the diagnosis of tumours in the upper urinary tract.

  10. The Effects of Probenecid and Thiazides and Their Combination on the Urinary Excretion of Electrolytes and on Acid-base Equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, D. A.; Yendt, E. R.

    1970-01-01

    The effects of commonly used therapeutic doses of hydrochlorothiazide and probenecid, given singly and in combination, on the urinary excretion of monovalent and divalent ions and on acid-base equilibrium were studied in four patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Probenecid had no effect on the urinary excretion of monovalent ions but resulted in a sustained increase in the urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium and citrate and a temporary increase in the urinary excretion of ammonium, in addition to its well-known effects on uric acid metabolism. A temporary fall in serum phosphorus levels was also observed. Probenecid also modified the response to hydrochlorothiazide in that the urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium and citrate was greater during combined therapy than when hydrochlorothiazide was administered alone. Probenecid prevented or abolished the increase in serum uric acid levels associated with the use of thiazide but did not modify the effects of hydrochlorothiazide on the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, potassiu, phosphorus, ammonium, titratable acid and bicarbonate. PMID:5469617

  11. Effect of feeding sweet-potato condensed distillers solubles on intake and urinary excretion of minerals in Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Yuko; Kamiya, Misturu; Hattori, Ikuo; Hayashi, Yoshiro; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Four Japanese Black steers (16 months of age) were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to investigate the effect of graded levels of sweet-potato condensed distillers solubles (SCDS) in their diets on intake and urinary excretion of minerals. The four diets consisted of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% (dry matter (DM) basis) SCDS, with SCDS replacing commercial concentrate (CC). Intake of K, Cl, S, P and Mg increased linearly with increasing SCDS content. Urinary pH increased linearly with increasing dietary SCDS content. SCDS feeding increased urinary K concentrations (linear and quadratic effects). Urinary concentrations of Cl increased linearly with increasing SCDS content. In contrast, urinary concentrations of Mg decreased with increasing SCDS content. Feeding of SCDS did not apparently affect urinary NH3 ,P, Na or Ca concentrations. These results suggest that high SCDS feeding is not a risk for crystallization of minerals leading to the formation of magnesium-phosphate type calculi: although SCDS contains large amounts of P and Mg, high SCDS feeding decreased the Mg concentration and did not affect the P concentration in urine. Additionally, high SCDS feeding had no apparent effects on plasma concentrations of Na, K, Cl, Ca or inorganic P.

  12. Quantitative measurement of urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl carnitine by LC-MS/MS as an indicator of biotin status in humans.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Thomas D; Stratton, Shawna L; Bogusiewicz, Anna; Owen, Suzanne N; Mock, Donald M; Moran, Jeffery H

    2010-11-15

    Abnormally increased urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl carnitine (3HIA-carnitine) results from impairment in leucine catabolism caused by reduced activity of the biotin-dependent enzyme 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase. Accordingly, urinary 3HIA-carnitine might reflect biotin status. Here, we describe an LC-MS/MS method for accurately quantitating the urinary concentration of 3HIA-carnitine at concentrations that are typical for excretion rates that are normal or only modestly increased. This method allows for high sample throughput and does not require solid-phase extraction. We used this method to provide evidence validating urinary 3HIA-carnitine as a biomarker of biotin deficiency in humans. Four healthy adult subjects were successfully made marginally biotin deficient by feeding a 30% egg white diet for 28 days. From study day 0 to 28, the mean urinary excretion of 3HIA-carnitine increased 3.5-fold (p = 0.026). These preliminary results indicate that urinary excretion of 3HIA-carnitine increases with marginal biotin deficiency. If these results are confirmed in studies involving larger numbers of subjects, urinary excretion of 3HIA-carnitine may potentially be a clinically useful indicator of biotin status.

  13. Magnesium, zinc, arsenic, selenium and platinum urinary excretion from cancer patients of Antofagasta region, Chile: multi-metal approach

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, I; Rivera, L; Ávila, J; Cortés, P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the short-term 24 h urinary excretion of platinum, arsenic, selenium, magnesium and zinc in patients with lung cancer and with cancer other than lungs treated with cisplatin or/and carboplatin from Antofagasta, Chile. Design Urine measurements of Pt and Se were made by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, As by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry and Mg and Zn by means of flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Setting All samples were provided by the Oncological Centre of Antofagasta Regional Hospital (Region of Antofagasta, Chile). Participants Ninety 24-h urine samples from cancer patients after the infusion of Pt-base drugs and 10 24-h urine samples from cancer patients not treated with metal-base drugs. Main outcome measures Concentrations of Pt, Se, As, Zn and Mg coming from 24-h urine samples. Results Pt excreted was not significantly different between patients with lung and other cancers treated with cisplatin. The excretion of Mg, Zn and Se was greater than As. Then, Pt favours the excretion of essential elements. For lung and other types of cancers treated with drugs without Pt, excretion of Mg, Zn and Se was also greater than that of As, suggesting antagonism Mg-Zn-Se–anti-cancer drug relationship. Conclusions The amounts of Mg, Zn and Se excreted were greater than for As either with or without Pt-containing drugs, suggesting antagonist Mg-Zn-Se–anti-cancer drug relationships. The excretion of As, Mg, Zn and Se is induced by Pt. Knowledge obtained can contribute to understanding the arsenic cancer mechanism and the As-Mg-Zn-Se-Pt inter-element association for lung cancer and other types of cancer. PMID:27757244

  14. Urinary excretion of LH and testosterone from male rats during exposure to increased gravity: post-spaceflight and centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Morey-Holton, E.

    2000-01-01

    A dissociation between plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) appears to exist during exposure to altered gravity. The pulsatile nature of LH release and the diurnal variability of T secretion may mask or bias the effects of altered gravity on the pituitary-gonadal axis when analyzing plasma concentrations. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the excretion of urinary LH and T in male Sprague-Dawley rats during exposure to increased gravity upon return to Earth following a 14-day spaceflight (n = 6) and by 12 days of centrifugation at 2g (n = 8). Excreted LH and T were elevated on the first 3 days postflight. Excreted T was elevated between Days 1 and 8 of centrifugation; however, excreted LH was reduced on Days 2 and 3 compared with control animals. Excreted LH and T were significantly correlated (R = 0.731 and 0.706, respectively) in postspaceflight and centrifuged animals. Correlation curves had similar slopes (0.0213 and 0.023, respectively), but different y-intercepts (-1.43 and 3.32, respectively). The sustained increase in excreted T during centrifugation suggests that the pituitary-gonadal axis in postspaceflight animals may adapt quicker to increased gravity. The upward shift in the correlation curve exhibited by the centrifuged animals suggests that the sensitivity of LH-induced T release is increased in these animals. The previous dissociation between plasma LH and T during altered gravity was not observed in the present study in which excreted LH and T were measured.

  15. Pilot survey of urinary porphyrins from persons transiently exposed to a PCB transformer fire

    SciTech Connect

    Osterloh, J.; Cone, J.; Harrison, R.; Wade, R.; Becker, C.

    1987-01-01

    In rats and humans chronically exposed to large amounts of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and PCDF (polychlorinated dibenzofurans), the urinary excretion of uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin are altered. However, porphyrin excretion in humans after acute transient low level exposure has not been evaluated. Following such an exposure in which bystanders and firefighters were in contact with smoke from a PCB transformer fire, we surveyed 90 self-referred individuals by questionnaire and by determining single 24 hour urinary excretion of uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin 2-4 weeks after the fire. Questionnaire variables that assessed exposure were not associated with the magnitude of either uroporphyrin or coproporphyrin excretion. Uroporphyrin excretion was slightly elevated in nine subjects (range 66-106 micrograms/24 hours, normal less than 60), which is much less than in clinical cases of porphyria cutanea tarda. Uroporphyrin excretion was inversely correlated with coproporphyrin excretion (r = -0.3844, p = 0.0002). For 5 subjects (3 with elevated initial uroporphyrin excretion) retested at 3-4 weeks after the fire, all 5 showed increases in uroporphyrin and decreases in coproporphyrin excretion when compared to initial determinations. These two reciprocal relationships would be the expected result from inhibition of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase, a known experimental effect of PCB and PCDF in mice. Overall, urinary porphyrin excretions were not altered or sensitive measures of exposure.

  16. Excretion Profiles and Half-Lives of Ten Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolites after Dietary Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa; Bartell, Scott; Pittman, Erin N.; Trinidad, Debra A.; McClean, Michael; Webster, Thomas F.; Sjödin, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be assessed by biomonitoring of their urinary mono-hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PAHs). Limited information exists on the human pharmacokinetics of OH-PAHs. This study aimed to investigate the excretion half-life of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR), the most used biomarker for PAH exposure, and 9 other OH-PAHs following a dietary exposure in 9 non-smoking volunteers with no occupational exposure to PAHs. Each person avoided food with known high PAH-content during the study period, except for a high PAH-containing lunch (barbecued chicken) on the first day. Individual urine samples (n = 217) were collected from 15 hours before to 60 hours following the dietary exposure. Levels of all OH-PAHs in all subjects increased rapidly by 9–141 fold after the exposure, followed by a decrease consistent with first order kinetics, and returned to background levels 24–48 hours after the exposure. The average time to reach maximal concentration ranged from 3.1 h (1-naphthol) to 5.5 h (1-PYR). Creatinine-adjusted urine concentrations for each metabolite were analyzed using a non-linear mixed effects model including a term to estimate background exposure. The background-adjusted half-life estimate was 3.9 h for 1-PYR and ranged 2.5–6.1 h for the other 9 OH-PAHs, which in general, were shorter than those previously reported. The maximum concentrations after the barbecued chicken consumption were comparable to the levels found in reported occupational settings with known high PAH exposures. It is essential to consider the relatively short half-life, the timing of samples relative to exposures, and the effect of diet when conducting PAH exposure biomonitoring studies. PMID:22663094

  17. Relationship between the urinary excretion mechanisms of drugs and their physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ito, Sumito; Ando, Hirotaka; Ose, Atsushi; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Ando, Tomohiro; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the physicochemical properties of drugs and their urinary excretion mechanisms. Three hundred twenty-five drugs were classified into the reabsorption, intermediate, and secretion types based on their ratio of renal clearance to protein-unbound fraction glomerular filtration rate. Fifty percent of ionized and neutral drugs were the secretion and reabsorption types, respectively. The mean molecular weight of the neutral drugs was slightly smaller than those of the ionized drugs (296 vs. 330-368 g/mol). The reabsorption-type anionic drugs were characterized by their low molecular weights (mean value 269 g/mol) and the logarithmic measure of the acid dissociation constants (pKa s) greater than 4.5, whereas the secretion-type anionic drugs all had pKa s below 4.5. Cationic drugs with pKa s lower than 8.0 tended to be the reabsorption type. Some cationic drugs were classified as the secretion type, despite their high molecular weights (734-811 g/mol) and high log P values (3.1-5.3). The organic anion transporter (OAT)1 and OAT3 substrates were all secretion-type drugs. The same trend was observed for the substrates of organic cation transporter 2, multidrug and toxin extrusion, multidrug resistance-associated protein 4, and multidrug resistance 1/breast cancer resistance protein, but substantial fractions of the substrates were categorized as the intermediate or reabsorption types (9%-38%). This work provides a clue to the renal elimination mechanism of new chemical entities during drug development.

  18. Predicting urinary creatinine excretion and its usefulness to identify incomplete 24 h urine collections.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Huybrechts, Inge; Dekkers, Arnold L M; Geelen, Anouk; Crispim, Sandra; Hulshof, Paul J M; Andersen, Lene F; Řehůřková, Irena; Ruprich, Jiří; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Van Maele, Georges; Slimani, Nadia; van't Veer, Pieter; de Boer, Evelien; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-09-28

    Studies using 24 h urine collections need to incorporate ways to validate the completeness of the urine samples. Models to predict urinary creatinine excretion (UCE) have been developed for this purpose; however, information on their usefulness to identify incomplete urine collections is limited. We aimed to develop a model for predicting UCE and to assess the performance of a creatinine index using para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as a reference. Data were taken from the European Food Consumption Validation study comprising two non-consecutive 24 h urine collections from 600 subjects in five European countries. Data from one collection were used to build a multiple linear regression model to predict UCE, and data from the other collection were used for performance testing of a creatinine index-based strategy to identify incomplete collections. Multiple linear regression (n 458) of UCE showed a significant positive association for body weight (β = 0·07), the interaction term sex × weight (β = 0·09, reference women) and protein intake (β = 0·02). A significant negative association was found for age (β = -0·09) and sex (β = -3·14, reference women). An index of observed-to-predicted creatinine resulted in a sensitivity to identify incomplete collections of 0·06 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·20) and 0·11 (95 % CI 0·03, 0·22) in men and women, respectively. Specificity was 0·97 (95 % CI 0·97, 0·98) in men and 0·98 (95 % CI 0·98, 0·99) in women. The present study shows that UCE can be predicted from weight, age and sex. However, the results revealed that a creatinine index based on these predictions is not sufficiently sensitive to exclude incomplete 24 h urine collections.

  19. Enhancement of radiopharmaceutical excretion by chemical interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Brill, A.B.; Sacker, D.F.; Atkins, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    The goal was to find methods of decreasing the radiation dose after radionuclide studies, by giving a compound that will increase the rate of excretion of the radionuclide. Sprague - 1 Dawley rats were given Tc-99m pertechnetate, Ga-67 citrate or Tl-201 chloride intravenously followed at intervals of 1 to 24 hours by one of the following compounds: desferroxamine (DFO), 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol (BAL), triethylene tetraamine hexaacetic acid (TETHA), stannous tartarate, bleomycin (BLEO), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), DTPA+SnCl.2H/sub 2/O, dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), and ferric-cyanoferrate (IT)(Prussian blue, PB). All the agents except PB are chelators. Some of these agents enhance excretion through the urinary tract (DFO), while most are excreted through the bile. PB was shown to increase Cs excrection through the G.I. tract. (ACR)

  20. Administration of ascorbic acid and an aldose reductase inhibitor (tolrestat) in diabetes: effect on urinary albumin excretion.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, A V; Brooks, B A; Fisher, E J; Molyneaux, L M; Yue, D K

    1998-11-01

    The important role of ascorbic acid (AA) as an anti-oxidant is particularly relevant in diabetes mellitus where plasma concentrations of AA are reduced. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of treatment with AA or an aldose reductase inhibitor, tolrestat, on AA metabolism and urinary albumin excretion in diabetes. Blood and urine samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months from 20 diabetic subjects who were randomized into two groups to receive either oral AA 500 mg twice daily or placebo. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, HbA1c, plasma lipids, urinary albumin, and total glycosaminoglycan excretion were measured at all time points, and heparan sulphate (glycosaminoglycan) was measured at 0 and 12 months. The same parameters, as well as urinary AA excretion, were determined at 0 and 3 months for 16 diabetes subjects receiving 200 mg tolrestat/day. AA treatment increased plasma AA (ANOVA, F ratio = 12.1, p = 0.004) and reduced albumin excretion rate (AER) after 9 months (ANOVA, F ratio = 3.2, p = 0.03), but did not change the other parameters measured. Tolrestat lowered plasma AA (Wilcoxon's signed-rank test, p < 0.05), but did not change AER or the other parameters measured. The ability of AA treatment to decrease AER may be related to changes in extracellular matrix or improvement in oxidative defence mechanism. Unlike the rat model of diabetes, inhibition of aldose reductase did not normalize plasma AA or AER in humans. In fact, tolrestat reduced the plasma AA concentration, a phenomenon which may be due to increased utilization of AA. Dietary supplementation of AA in diabetic subjects may have long-term benefits in attenuating the progression of diabetic complications.

  1. Is 24-hour Intraocular Pressure Monitoring Necessary in Glaucoma?

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Kaweh; Weinreb, Robert N.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2013-01-01

    Although intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only treatable risk factor for glaucoma, its 24-hour behavior is poorly understood. Conflicting information is available in the literature with regard to the importance and predictive value of IOP peaks and fluctuations on the risk of glaucoma development and progression. This may be secondary to lack of prospective studies designed to address this issue. This article critically reviews the current evidence for the importance of 24-h IOP measurements in glaucoma and discusses shortcomings of current methods to assess 24-h IOP data, drawing attention to new developments in this field. PMID:23697618

  2. Urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion in intellectually disabled subjects with sleep disorders and multiple medications: validation of measurements in urine extracted from diapers.

    PubMed

    Laakso, M-L; Lindblom, N; Kaipainen, P; Kaski, M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (MT6s) measurements in the evaluation of melatonin secretion in intellectually disabled patients with sleep disorders. All 17 patients received drugs with potential interactions with melatonin metabolism. Serum melatonin 24-h profiles were determined at hourly intervals. The area under the curve (AUC) value, peak amplitude, half-rise time, and half-decline time were calculated individually. Urinary MT6s excretion was determined from samples collected from disposable diapers during three consecutive days at varying intervals. The average excretion rate for each hour of the day was calculated. The excretion profiles were characterized by total amount of MT6s excretion/24 h/kg body mass, amount of excreted MT6s during 6 h of maximum excretion (MAX 6h), and start time of the maximum excretion (start MAX 6h). There were significant positive correlations between serum melatonin AUC value and total excretion of MT6s/body mass, between serum melatonin amplitude and urinary MAX 6h, and between melatonin half-rise time and start MAX 6h; one patient on phenobarbital medication was out of line. The serum melatonin profiles of the patients were classified by comparing them with those of matched healthy volunteers (low-, normal-, or high secretors, normal or delayed rhythm). Similarly, the parameters of MT6s profiles were compared with those obtained from healthy controls, and the patients were reclassified as normal or aberrant. The classifications based on serum melatonin and urinary MT6s measurements were mostly concordant. The daily pattern of urinary MT6s excretion reliably reflected the phase of the serum melatonin rhythm irrespective of the medications, but in some cases, the total amount of excreted MT6s was lower than expected based on serum melatonin measurements.

  3. [Increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage as a predictor of cerebral salt wasting syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Ichiro; Kurokawa, Shinichiro; Takayama, Katsutoshi; Wada, Takeshi; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is considered to correlate with delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) induced by cerebral vasospasm; however, its exact mechanism is still not well-known. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between hyponatremia caused by CSWS and the increase of the urinary sodium excretion in early phase following SAH. Fifty-four patients with SAH were divided into 2 groups, normonatremia group and hyponatremia group which suffered hyponatremia after SAH. The hyponatremia group comprise 14 patients (26%) in whom the hyponatremia developed of the SAH. In this group, the serum level of sodium significantly decreased 7 days after SAH and then gradually normalised. Further, excretion of sodium in the urine tended to increase 3 days after SAH and significantly increased 7 days after SAH. In conclusion, the increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of SAH would serve as a predictive factor for CSWS after SAH. We consider that it is important to start sodium and fluid supplementation and inhibit natriuresis by fludrocortisone acetate administration before hyponatremia occurs in order to prevention delayed ischemic neurological deficits in SAH patients.

  4. Influence of dietary source of phosphorus on fecal and urinary excretion of phosphorus and other minerals by male cats.

    PubMed

    Finco, D R; Barsanti, J A; Brown, S A

    1989-02-01

    Twelve male cats were fed 2 diets that differed in the source of P. In diet 1 (1.4% P), 62.7% of P originated from poultry, meat, and fish meal, and the remainder from other organic ingredients of food. In diet 2 (1.6% P), 63.5% of P was derived from neutral monobasic/dibasic salts, and the remainder from other organic ingredients of the food. The P intake was nearly the same with both diets, but there was a significant (P less than 0.05) difference between diets in the percentage of ingested P that was excreted in the urine (14.7 +/- 5.3% for diet 1; 34.9 +/- 8.4% for diet 2), and in 6-day urinary P excretion (774 +/- 290 mg for diet 1; 2,004 +/- 556 mg for diet 2). The P concentrations in urine samples obtained by cystocentesis after cats ate were significantly (P less than 0.05) higher when cats were fed diet 2 than when those same cats were fed diet 1. Plasma P concentrations increased after ingestion of diet 2, but were unchanged after ingestion of diet 1. Seemingly, urinary excretion of P was markedly influenced by dietary composition. Diets with the same P content have potential for different biologic effects because of differences in availability of P.

  5. Simplified structure of a new model to describe urinary excretion of plutonium after systemic, liver or pulmonary contamination of rats associated with Ca-DTPA treatments.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, P; Sérandour, A L; Grémy, O; Phan, G; Tsapis, N; Abram, M C; Renault, D; Fattal, E; Benech, H; Deverre, J R; Poncy, J L

    2009-06-01

    This study validates, by targeted experiments, several modeling hypotheses for interpretation of urinary excretion of plutonium after Ca-DTPA treatments. Different formulations and doses of Ca-DTPA were administered to rats before or after systemic, liver or lung contamination with various chemical forms of plutonium. The biokinetics of plutonium was also characterized after i.v. injection of Pu-DTPA. Once formed, Pu-DTPA complexes are stable in most biological environments. Pu-DTPA present in circulating fluids is rapidly excreted in the urine, but 2-3% is retained, mainly in soft tissues, and is then excreted slowly in the urine after transfer to blood. Potentially, all intracellular monoatomic forms of plutonium could be decorporated after DTPA internalization involving slow urinary excretion of Pu-DTPA with half-lives varying from 2.5 to 6 days as a function of tissue retention. The ratio of fast to slow urinary excretion of Pu-DTPA depends on both plutonium contamination and Ca-DTPA treatment. Fast urinary excretion of Pu-DTPA corresponds to extracellular decorporation that occurs beyond a threshold of the free DTPA concentration in circulating fluids. Slow excretion corresponds mostly to intracellular decorporation and depends on the amount of intracellular DTPA. From these results, the structure of a simplified model is proposed for interpretation of data obtained with Ca-DTPA treatments after systemic, wound or pulmonary contamination by plutonium.

  6. Urinary iodine excretion during normal pregnancy in healthy women living in the southwest of France: correlation with maternal thyroid parameters.

    PubMed

    Caron, P; Hoff, M; Bazzi, S; Dufor, A; Faure, G; Ghandour, I; Lauzu, P; Lucas, Y; Maraval, D; Mignot, F; Réssigeac, P; Vertongen, F; Grangé, V

    1997-10-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate urinary iodine excretion and changes of maternal thyroid function during pregnancy in healthy women living in the southwest of France. The cohort included a total of 347 pregnant women (mean age 28.0+/-0.5 years). Iodine concentration in a random urine sample and thyroid tests (free thyroxine [FT4], free triiodothyronine [FT3], thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine-binding globulin [TBG], and thyroglobulin [Tg]) were measured at initial presentation (before 12 weeks of gestation), and during the ninth month of pregnancy. A thyroid ultrasound was performed 1 to 5 days after delivery in 246 mothers. Mean urinary iodine levels were low during the first trimester (6.9+/-0.4 microg/dL), as well as during the ninth month of pregnancy (8.6+/-0.6 microg/dL). During pregnancy, FT4 and T3 concentrations decreased (p < .001), and TSH and Tg concentrations increased (p < .001). Thyroid hypertrophy (thyroid volume greater than 18 mL) was present in 15.4% of women whose first trimester urinary iodine concentration was less than 5 microg/dL, but was present in only 3.5% of women whose urinary iodine concentration was greater than 10 microg/dL. A goiter (thyroid volume greater than 22 mL) was present in 11% of the mothers. In conclusion, this prospective study shows that urinary iodine excretion is low in pregnant women living in the southwest of France. This low iodine intake is associated with reduced circulating thyroid hormone levels and growth of the thyroid gland. These data point to the need of an increased iodine supply in these pregnant women to reduce the potential consequences of low iodine intake on maternal thyroid economy.

  7. Urinary excretion of copper, zinc and iron with and without D-penicillamine administration in relation to hepatic copper concentration in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fieten, H; Hugen, S; van den Ingh, T S G A M; Hendriks, W H; Vernooij, J C M; Bode, P; Watson, A L; Leegwater, P A J; Rothuizen, J

    2013-08-01

    Hereditary copper-associated hepatitis in dogs resembles Wilson's disease, a copper storage disease in humans. Values for urinary copper excretion are well established in the diagnostic protocol of Wilson's disease, whereas in dogs these have not been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to characterize both basal and D-penicillamine induced urinary copper, zinc and iron excretion in dogs in relation to hepatic copper concentration. Beagles, Beagle-Bedlington terrier cross-breeds homozygous for the COMMD1 gene mutation that causes copper toxicosis, and Labrador retrievers with normal or increased hepatic copper concentrations were investigated. The hepatic copper phenotype was determined by histological evaluation of liver biopsies and measurement of the hepatic copper concentration by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Urinary excretion of copper, iron and zinc was measured via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry under basal conditions and after oral administration of a single dose (20mg/kg bodyweight) of the chelator D-penicillamine. There was a rapid increase in urinary excretion of copper and zinc, but not iron after D-penicillamine administration. This increase was not different between dogs with high or normal hepatic copper concentrations. D-penicillamine-induced urinary copper excretion and the copper/creatinine ratio did not correlate with hepatic copper concentrations in the dogs studied, although basal urinary copper/zinc ratios did correlate with hepatic copper concentrations in Labrador retrievers. The latter parameter may be useful in diagnostic and follow-up protocols for copper-associated hepatitis in Labrador retrievers.

  8. Effects of saline loading during head down tilt on ANP and cyclic GMP levels and on urinary fluid excretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummer, C.; Lang, R. E.; Baisch, F.; Blomqvist, G.; Heer, M.; Gerzer, R.

    In the present study the renal and humoral effects of acute saline infusions were investigated in six healthy male volunteers before, during and after a ten day period of -6° head-down-tilt (HDT). During the whole 23-day study period the subjects received a standardized diet including 40 ml water and 125 mg NaCl per kg body weight per day. After the infusion of 0.9% saline (22 ml/kg within 20 minutes) plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were only slightly increased (not significant) at the end of the infusion, while plasma cyclic GMP levels were significantly increased by about 40% (p<0.05) one hour later. No difference was observed in the plasma ANP and cyclic GMP changes between the pre-HDT, the HDT and the post-HDT infusion experiment. Urine flow, sodium excretion and urinary cyclic GMP excretion were significantly increased (p<0.05 and below) by 100 to 300% during the second and third hour after each saline infusion. However, during these short-term periods only 20% of the infused water and less than 20% of the infused sodium were excreted. Furthermore, a significantly increased volume, sodium and cyclic GMP excretion was observed for over 48 hours after each fluid load experiment. These data suggest that HDT does not induce major alterations in the regulation of an acute saline infusion and plasma ANP does not play a major role in the diuretic/natriuretic effects of volume loading.

  9. Urinary cyclophosphamide excretion and micronuclei frequencies in peripheral lymphocytes and in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of nurses handling antineoplastics.

    PubMed

    Burgaz, S; Karahalil, B; Bayrak, P; Taşkin, L; Yavuzaslan, F; Bökesoy, I; Anzion, R B; Bos, R P; Platin, N

    1999-02-02

    In this study, urinary cyclophosphamide (CP) excretion rate, as well as micronuclei (MN) in peripheral lymphocytes and in buccal epithelial cells were determined for 26 nurses handling antineoplastics and 14 referents matched for age and sex. In urine samples of 20 out of 25 exposed nurses CP excretion rate was found in a range of 0.02-9.14 microg CP/24 h. Our results of the analyses of CP in urine demonstrates that when the nurses were handling CP (and other antineoplastic drugs) this particular compound was observed in urine. The mean values (+/-SD) of MN frequencies (%) in peripheral lymphocytes from the nurses and controls were 0.61 (+/-0. 32) and 0.28 (+/-0.16), respectively (p<0.01). The mean value (+/-SD) of MN frequency (%) in buccal epithelial cells of nurses was 0.16 (+/-0.19) and also mean MN frequency in buccal epithelial cells for controls was found to be as 0.08 (+/-0.08), (p>0.05). Age, sex and smoking habits have not influenced the parameters analyzed in this study. Handling time of antineoplastics, use of protective equipment and handling frequency of drugs have no effect on urinary and cytogenetic parameters analyzed. No correlation was found between the urinary CP excretion and the cytogenetic findings in nurses. Neither could we find any relationship between two cytogenetic endpoints. Our results have identified the possible genotoxic damage of oncology nurses related to occupational exposure to at least one antineoplastic agent, which is used as a marker for drug handling. As a whole, there is concern that the present handling practices of antineoplastic drugs used in the several hospitals in Ankara will not be sufficient to prevent exposure.

  10. Massive Urinary Protein Excretion Associated with Greater Neonatal Risk in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Mateus, Julio; Newman, Roger; Sibai, Baha M.; Li, Qing; Barton, John R.; Combs, C. Andrew; Guzman, Edwin; Boggess, Kim A.; Gyamfi, Cynthia; von Dadelszen, Peter; Woelkers, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of preeclamptic pregnancies according to the proteinuria level. Study Design Secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective cohort study of women with preeclampsia (PE) symptomatology. Nonproteinuria, mild-proteinuria, and massive-proteinuria PEs were defined as: < 165 mg in 12 hours or < 300 mg in 24 hours, 165 mg to 2.69 g in 12 hours or 300 mg to 4.99 g in 24 hours, and ≥ 2.7 g in 12 hours or ≥ 5.0 g in 24 hours, respectively. Individual and composite maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes were compared among the PE groups. Results Of the 406 analyzed pregnancies, 36 (8.8%) had massive-proteinuria PE, 268 (66.0%) mild-proteinuria PE, and 102 (25.1%) nonproteinuria PE. Compared with the other groups, massive-proteinuria PE women had significantly higher blood pressures (p < 0.001), epigastric pain (p = 0.007), and uric acid serum levels (p < 0.001) prior to delivery. Composite maternal morbidity was similar across the groups. Delivery < 340/7 weeks occurred in 80.6, 49.3, and 22.5% of massive-proteinuria, mild-proteinuria, and nonproteinuria PE groups, respectively (p < 0.0001). Composite adverse neonatal outcomes were significantly higher in the massive-proteinuria PE compared with the other groups (p = 0.001). Conclusion While potentially not important diagnostically, massive proteinuria is associated with more severe clinical manifestations of PE prompting earlier delivery.

  11. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-08-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impactor air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions >/= 3.5 micron. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 microg/m3 (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (SigmaAs) metabolites was 16.9 microg As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 microg/m3 arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration of the SigmaAs urinary metabolites was 13.2 microg As/G creatinine [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.1-16.3). Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic.

  12. Glycerol administration before endurance exercise: metabolism, urinary glycerol excretion and effects on doping-relevant blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; de Marees, Markus; Geyer, Hans; Thevis, Mario; Mester, Joachim; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2014-03-01

    Glycerol is prohibited as a masking agent by the World Anti-Doping Agency and a urinary threshold has recently been recommended. However, little is known about urinary glycerol excretion after exercise, when (1) exogenous glycerol is metabolized increasingly and (2) endogenous glycerol levels are elevated. The purpose of the placebo-controlled cross-over study was to determine the effects of pre-exercise glycerol administration on glycerol metabolism, urinary excretion, and selected blood parameters. After administration of glycerol (G; 1.0 g/kg body weight (BW) + 25 ml fluid/kg BW) or placebo (P; 25 ml fluid/kg), 14 cyclists exercised 90 min at 60% VO2max . Samples were taken at 0 h (before administration), 2.5 h (before exercise), 4 h (after exercise) and 6.5 h and additional urine samples were collected until 24 h. Exercise increased endogenous plasma glycerol (0.51 ± 0.21 mmol/l) but peak concentrations were much higher in G (2.5 h: 15.6 ± 7.8 mmol/l). Urinary glycerol increased rapidly (58,428 ± 71,084 µg/ml after 2.5 h) and was significantly higher than in P until 13.6 ± 0.9 h (p < 0.01). In comparison with placebo administration, G caused significantly greater changes in plasma volume and haemoglobin concentrations after 2.5 h. BW and urine production were significantly different between P and G after 2.5 h and post-exercise. Despite exercise-induced increases in endogenous glycerol in the control group, urinary excretion remained well below the previously recommended threshold. In addition, exercise-related glycerol degradation did not appear to negatively affect the detection of exogenously administered glycerol.

  13. Technical Basis Document: A Statistical Basis for Interpreting Urinary Excretion of Plutonium Based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for Selected Atoll Populations in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K; Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Martinelli, R E; Marchetti, A A; Kehl, S R; Langston, R G

    2007-05-01

    We have developed refined statistical and modeling techniques to assess low-level uptake and urinary excretion of plutonium from different population group in the northern Marshall Islands. Urinary excretion rates of plutonium from the resident population on Enewetak Atoll and from resettlement workers living on Rongelap Atoll range from <1 to 8 {micro}Bq per day and are well below action levels established under the latest Department regulation 10 CFR 835 in the United States for in vitro bioassay monitoring of {sup 239}Pu. However, our statistical analyses show that urinary excretion of plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) from both cohort groups is significantly positively associated with volunteer age, especially for the resident population living on Enewetak Atoll. Urinary excretion of {sup 239}Pu from the Enewetak cohort was also found to be positively associated with estimates of cumulative exposure to worldwide fallout. Consequently, the age-related trends in urinary excretion of plutonium from Marshallese populations can be described by either a long-term component from residual systemic burdens acquired from previous exposures to worldwide fallout or a prompt (and eventual long-term) component acquired from low-level systemic intakes of plutonium associated with resettlement of the northern Marshall Islands, or some combination of both.

  14. Urinary excretion of cyclic nucleotides, creatinine prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 from mice exposed to whole-body irradiation from an enhanced neutron field

    SciTech Connect

    Steel, L.K.; Rafferty, M.A.; Wolfe, W.W.; Egan, J.E.; Kennedy, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Urine volume and excretion of cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and creatinine were evaluated as potential indicators of radiation damage in mice given 2-5 Gy to the whole body from an enhanced neutron field. In general, urinary cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, creatinine and urine volumes were positively correlated across time postexposure, for each radiation dose. TxB2 levels positively correlated with urine volume and cyclic AMP excretion only in animals given 2.0Gy. None of these parameters suggests their use as a prognostic indicator of the extent of radiation damage. Urinary excretion of PGE2 was negatively correlated with other urinary parameters. Biphasic increases in urinary PGE2 were also observed. The initial transient elevation 2-3 days postexposure was not correlated with the dose (2-5 Gy). The second elevation of PGE2 excretion occurred at 6-10 days. The magnitude of the latter increase suggests that urinary PGE2 excretion may be a useful indicator of whole-body or kidney exposure to neutron fields.

  15. Urinary excretion of the acrylonitrile metabolite 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid is correlated with a variety of biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and consumption.

    PubMed

    Minet, Emmanuel; Cheung, Francis; Errington, Graham; Sterz, Katharina; Scherer, Gerhard

    2011-02-01

    Acrylonitrile is an IARC class 2B carcinogen present in cigarette smoke. Urinary 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) is an acrylonitrile metabolite and a potential biomarker for acrylonitrile exposure. The objective of this work was to study the dose response of CEMA in urine of non-smokers and smokers of different ISO tar yield cigarettes. We observed that smokers excreted >100-fold higher amounts of urinary CEMA than non-smokers. The CEMA levels in smokers were significantly correlated with ISO tar yield, daily cigarette consumption, and urinary biomarkers of smoke exposure. In conclusion, urinary CEMA is a suitable biomarker for assessing smoking-related exposure to acrylonitrile.

  16. Urinary excretion of the acrylonitrile metabolite 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid is correlated with a variety of biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and consumption

    PubMed Central

    Minet, Emmanuel; Cheung, Francis; Errington, Graham; Sterz, Katharina; Scherer, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Acrylonitrile is an IARC class 2B carcinogen present in cigarette smoke. Urinary 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) is an acrylonitrile metabolite and a potential biomarker for acrylonitrile exposure. The objective of this work was to study the dose response of CEMA in urine of non-smokers and smokers of different ISO tar yield cigarettes. We observed that smokers excreted >100-fold higher amounts of urinary CEMA than non-smokers. The CEMA levels in smokers were significantly correlated with ISO tar yield, daily cigarette consumption, and urinary biomarkers of smoke exposure. In conclusion, urinary CEMA is a suitable biomarker for assessing smoking-related exposure to acrylonitrile. PMID:21108560

  17. INCREASED LEVELS OF MEDIAN URINARY IODINE EXCRETION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN THE SUBURBAN AREA, KHON KAEN, THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Apirajkamol, Nahatai; Panamonta, Ouyporn; Panamonta, Manat

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is associated with a low IQ in children and is an important public health problem in northeastern Thailand. Despite campaigns to reduce IDD in northeastern Thailand, studies showed people in this region continue to have the lowest median urinary iodine (UI) excretion and Intelligence Quotient scores. We conducted a cross sectional study of median urinary iodine excretion among primary school children in suburban Khon Kaen Province, in northeastern Thailand, during December 2012 to evaluate the current status of IDD in this population. We studied 377 school children. Urine samples were collected and measured for UI using a simple microplate method. The median UI level was 229.0 μg/l (range 15.0-1,124.1). Forty school children (10.6%) had UI levels less than 100 μg/l and 10 children (2.7%) had UI levels less than 50 μg/l. One hundred nine children (28.9%) had UI levels greater than 300 μg/l. Our study shows that there are still children in the study population and study area with inadequate UI levels. Programs to prevent IDD need to include this population in this area.

  18. Effect of para-aminobenzoic acid on the pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) in rats.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M; Vannozzi, M; Viale, M; Pellecchia, C; Civalleri, D; Gogioso, L

    1995-01-01

    Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) has been previously reported as being an inhibitor of DDP toxicity, and its use did not result in any observable loss in antitumor activity of DDP. The following studies investigated the effect of PABA on the pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (DDP) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. DDP was injected i.p. at the dose of 7.5 mg/kg in normal saline alone and with a concurrent i.p. injection of PABA (100 mg/kg). The combined treatment with PABA produced a significant increase in the plasma concentrations of total platinum, without affecting the levels of platinum species in the plasma ultrafiltrate. Similar results were also obtained in additional studies in rats receiving the same dose of DDP plus PABA through different routes of administration (i.e. DDP i.v. and PABA i.p.). Both the area under the total platinum plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) up to 60 min and AUC0-120 min were increased by PABA by an average of 113% and 66% respectively. The administration of PABA in rats was followed by a substantial reduction in total urinary excretion of platinum (P < 0.05) and by a significant (P < 0.01) lower concentration of DDP derived platinum in the urine collected during the first 4 h after treatment. The renal clearance of filterable platinum was reduced by PABA by an average of 67.5% from 1.11 to 0.36 ml/min/100 g body wt. Total 24-h urinary excretion of platinum was also decreased, although not significantly, by PABA. Urine volumes from rats treated with DDP+PABA were similar to those from animals receiving DDP alone. HPLC studies indicate that PABA reacts readily with the species generated from DDP in vitro, while the agent is essentially unreactive toward the parent DDP and does not influence its decomposition rate. The overall data of this study suggest that the protective effect exerted by PABA on DDP toxicity may be at least partially due to its ability to interact with aquated DDP as well as to

  19. Metabolic effects of D-psicose in rats: studies on faecal and urinary excretion and caecal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Hashiguchi, Mineo; Izumori, Ken; Suzuki, Hiroo

    2003-01-01

    D-psicose (D -ribo-2-hexulose), a C-3 epimer of D-fructose, is one of the "rare sugars" present in small quantities in commercial carbohydrate complex or agricultural products. We investigated the absorption and excretion of D-psicose when orally administrated (5g/kg body weight) to Wistar rats, and the fermentation of D-psicose was measured as caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) when fed to rats in controlled diets (0, 10, 20 and 30%). Urinary and faecal excretions of D-psicose over the 24 h, following a single oral administration, were 11-15% of dosage for the former and 8-13% of dosage for the latter. Serum D-psicose concentration and D-psicose in the contents of stomach and small intestines decreased progressively after administration. D-psicose in caecum contents was detected after 3h and 7h administration, but not after 1h. Rats fed on D-psicose diets showed short-chain fatty acid production with caecal hypertrophy. These results suggest that D-psicose is partly absorbable in the digestive tract and is excreted into urine and faeces. As with other poorly absorbed dietary carbohydrates, D-psicose is fermented in the caecum by intestinal microflora.

  20. Urinary excretion of the main anthocyanin in lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Henna-Maria; Rantala, Milla; Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Viitanen, Matti; Kallio, Heikki

    2009-05-27

    In vitro trials have indicated various potential health effects of lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). Most of these studies have been performed with berry extract or juice, and the detailed chemical structures of active compounds in these products have not been elucidated. Lingonberry contains cyanidin-3-galactoside as its main anthocyanin. Absorption and metabolism of the compound is not fully understood, and no studies of anthocyanin metabolism have been performed with lingonberries. The aim of this study was to investigate the urinary excretion of cyanidin-3-galactoside and its metabolites in young and healthy subjects receiving a breakfast containing 300 g of lingonberries. A fast, selective, and sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (uHPLC-MS/MS) method was optimized for the analysis of the anthocyanin metabolites in urine. Both intact cyanidin-3-galactoside and its methylated and glucuronidated metabolites were identified from urine samples. The two metabolites represented >50% of cyanidin excreted in urine. Maximal excretion appeared between 4 and 8 h after the meal. Also, the compounds were absorbed more slowly than reported previously in several studies.

  1. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work-social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns.

  2. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work–social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns. PMID:23957268

  3. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Geoffrey L.; Zaharieva, Dessi; Basset, Fabien A.; Hynes, Zach

    2016-01-01

    Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (Tc) and cognitive test battery (CTB) performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature). Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold) were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease Tc after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5–1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance. PMID:27478839

  4. Urinary protein excretion profile: A contribution for subclinical renal damage identification among environmental heavy metals exposure in Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlipp, C. R.; Bottini, P. V.; de Capitan, E. M.; Pinho, M. C.; Panzan, A. D. N.; Sakuma, A. M. A.; Paoliello, M. B.

    2003-05-01

    In Southeast Brazil. Ribeira Valley region has been a major public health concern due to he environmental heavy metals contamination indexes of vegetation, rocks and aquifers, caused by locai mining in the past. Human contamination low levels of heavy rnetals doesn't cause acute intoxication but ni chronic exposure, renal damage may occur with progressive tubuJointerstitial changes evolvil1g to glomemlar 1esiol1, ln this stndy we invesligated the relationship between thc profile of utillan, excreted proteins (glomerular or lubular origin) of arsenic and mercury and blood lead concentration in chiJdren and adults from highly e) qJosed regions of the Ribeira Valley. The subjects were classieed as GROUP 1 (GI; higher environmental risk n=333) and GROUP 2 (G2; lower risk of contamination. n=104). In order to determine the urinary excretion of total protein, albumin (MA, glomerular marker) and alpha i microglobulin (AIM, tubular marker) and the blood lead concentrations. random wine and blood samples were obtaiiied. Plasmatic lead levels were assessed by atomic absorption spectrometty with graphite fumace. Totai protein concentration (PROT) was assessed on a biochemical analyzer ,progallol red method). MA and AIM were determined by nephelometric method. Croup 1 showcd a higher frequency of altered urinary excretion of PROT (GI=3.4%; G2=1.0%), MA (Gl=9.0%; G2=5.1%) and AIM (Gt=7.5%, G2=3.8%), without significant differences between both groups. Elevated arscnic levels were more prevaient among subjects from Group 1 (2.8.8%) and demonstrated a significant corrolation with abiiormal iirinarv excretion of ilbumin and alpha-l-micrglobulin (p=0.019).Leadaand mercury levels showed no difference among the groups and no correlation will MAa and/or M. Oti-c dala suggests that abnormal itrinary protein excretion is relatively frequent in this population independently of the plasmatic or urinaryl heavy metal levels. The early detection of possible renal damage become necessary for

  5. Temporal variability in urinary excretion of bisphenol A and seven other phenols in spot, morning, and 24-h urine samples.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Main, Katharina M; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Jørgensen, Niels; Kranich, Selma Kløve; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2013-10-01

    Human exposure to modern non-persistent chemicals is difficult to ascertain in epidemiological studies as exposure patterns and excretion rates may show temporal and diurnal variations. The aim of this study was to assess the temporal variability in repeated measurements of urinary excretion of bisphenol A (BPA) and seven other phenols. All analytes were determined using TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS. Two spot, three first morning and three 24-h urine samples were collected from 33 young Danish men over a three months period. Temporal variability was estimated by means of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). More than 70% of the urine samples had detectable levels of BPA, triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and sum of 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorophenol (ΣDCP). We found low to moderate ICCs for BPA (0.10-0.42) and ΣDCP (0.39-0.72), whereas the ICCs for BP-3 (0.69-0.80) and TCS (0.55-0.90) were higher. The ICCs were highest for the two spot urine samples, which were collected approximately 4 days apart, compared with the 24-h urine samples and the first morning urine samples, which were collected approximately 40 days apart. A consequence of the considerable variability in urinary excretion of BPA may be misclassification of individual BPA exposure level in epidemiological studies, which may lead to attenuation of the association between BPA and outcomes. Our data do not support that collection of 24-h samples will improve individual exposure assessment for any of the analysed phenols.

  6. Association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and hypertension subtypes in untreated Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Ting-Yan; Ding, Feng-Hua; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and ambulatory hypertension subtypes has not yet been examined in untreated Chinese patients. We measured left ventricular mass index by echocardiography (n=619), the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (n=1047), and aortic pulse wave velocity by tonometry (n=1013) in 1047 untreated subjects (mean age, 50.6 years; 48.9% women). Normotension was a 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure <130/<80 mm Hg. Hypertension subtypes were isolated diastolic hypertension and mixed systolic plus diastolic hypertension. We assessed associations of interest by multivariable-adjusted linear models. Using normotension as reference, mixed hypertension was associated with higher (P≤0.003) left ventricular mass index (+4.31 g/m(2)), urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.63 mg/mmol), and pulse wave velocity (+0.76 m/s); and isolated diastolic hypertension was associated with similar left ventricular mass index and pulse wave velocity (P≥0.39), but higher urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.24 mg/mmol; P=0.002). In younger participants (<55 years), the mutually independent effect sizes associated with 1 SD increases in 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure were +3.31/-0.36 g/m(2) (P=0.009/0.79) for left ventricular mass index, +1.15/+1.14 mg/mmol (P=0.02/0.04) for the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, and +0.54/-0.05 m/s (P<0.001/0.54) for pulse wave velocity. In older participants, these estimates were +3.58/+0.30 g/m(2) (P=0.045/0.88), +1.23/+1.05 mg/mmol (P=0.002/0.54), and +0.76/-0.49 m/s (P<0.001/<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, 24-hour systolic blood pressure and mixed hypertension are major determinants of target organ damage irrespective of age and target organ, whereas 24-hour diastolic blood pressure and isolated diastolic hypertension only relate to the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio below middle age.

  7. Urinary excretion of chromium following ingestion of chromite-ore processing residues in humans: implications for biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Gargas, M L; Norton, R L; Harris, M A; Paustenbach, D J; Finley, B L

    1994-12-01

    Biomonitoring programs for urinary chromium (Cr) typically attempt to evaluate occupational exposure via the inhalation route. This study investigated whether Cr can be detected in the urine of people following the ingestion of soils that contain relatively high concentrations of chromium in chromite ore processing residue (COPR). To evaluate the reasonableness of using urinary monitoring to assess environmental exposure, six volunteers ingested 400 mg of soil/day (low-dose group), two others ingested 2.0 g of soil/day (high-dose group) for 3 consecutive days, and one person ingested a placebo on each of 3 days. The soil and COPR mixture contained concentrations of total chromium (Cr) and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] of 103 +/- 20 and 9.3 +/- 3.8 mg/kg, respectively. Therefore, the low-dose group ingested 41 micrograms Cr/day [including 3.7 micrograms Cr(VI)] and the high-dose group ingested 206 micrograms Cr/day [including 18.6 micrograms Cr(VI)] on each of 3 consecutive days. All urine samples were collected and analyzed individually for total Cr on the day prior to dosing, during the 3 days of dosing, and up to the first void 48 h after the last dose. No significant increases in urinary Cr excretion were found when background excretion data were compared with data following each of the 3 days of dosing or in daily mean urine concentrations of the high- vs the low-dose groups. It appears that Cr present in a soil and COPR mixture at Cr doses up to 200 micrograms/day is not sufficiently bioavailable for biomonitoring of urine to be informative.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Increased urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion in long-distance bus drivers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Donovan, Maryann; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2010-05-01

    Professional bus drivers are exposed to environments containing air pollution and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can induce cellular oxidative stress and DNA damage. This study investigated environmental factors associated with oxidative DNA damage in a cohort of long-distance bus drivers. In a comparison study, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, was examined in 120 male long-distance bus drivers and 58 male office workers in Taiwan. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze association between urinary 8-OHdG levels and environmental factors. Bus drivers had higher urinary 8-OHdG levels (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=9.4, 95% confidence interval (CI)=3.5-28.2) compared with office workers. Increased urinary 8-OHdG level was significantly related to cigarette smoking (aOR=18.0, 95% CI=7.1-52.1), consumption of energy drinks (aOR=5.0, 95% CI=2.1-12.6), and regular exercise (aOR=3.8, 95% CI=1.5-10.2). A strong exposure-response relationship was found between urinary 8-OHdG and urinary cotinine (p<0.0001). Among nonsmokers, bus drivers (aOR=3.9, 95% CI=1.0-17.7) had higher urinary 8-OHdG than office workers. Among both bus drivers and office workers, those who drank energy drinks (aOR=3.7, 95% CI=1.2-12.2) had higher 8-OHdG levels than those who did not drink energy drinks. Adjusted for smoking, levels of 8-OHdG were increased in long-distance bus drivers exposed to traffic exhaust and ingested energy drinks. Future studies should explore what aspects of energy drinks may contribute to increased urinary 8-OHdG.

  9. Preparation and results of a 24-hour orbital flight.

    PubMed

    Titov, G S

    1963-01-01

    The space age presents man with unprecedented opportunities for discovery and for cooperative endeavors to benefit all mankind. My flight of August 6-7, 1961 was conducted for the purpose of determining whether man can stay and work effectively and whether all systems of the spaceship can operate successfully during a period of 24 hours in space. The flight of Vostok II represents an experimental step in a logical sequence which included the first earth orbiting flight of USSR citizen Yuri A. Gagarin. Preparation for the flight included the study of theoretical and applied subjects, testing in various kinds of apparatus which provide acceleration, heat and isolation experience, brief airborne weightless flights and parachute landings, in addition to extensive training in a real spacecraft having simulators for normal and emergency contingencies of space flight. The actual flight was therefore carried out with a sense of confidence and familiarity and with continuous close radio contact with ground centers from whom my fellow cosmonauts served as spokesmen. Sequential boosters totaling 600 000 kg thrust placed the 4731 kg spaceship into a perfect orbit varying in altitude from 178-246 km in a plane 64 degrees 58' inclined to the equator. The spaceship made 17 orbits around the earth landing 25 hours, 18 minutes after take-off. The cabin had full atmospheric pressure and a comfortable habitability which could be extended for 10 days. I was able to maneuver the spaceship and perform many other control functions, make observations and take pictures of the earth and its cloud cover, eat meals and sleep all with good efficiency. I experienced mild symptoms suggestive of seasickness which were aggravated by head turning, ameliorated by sleep and entirely relieved by resumption of g-loading during descent. Altogether analyses of the physical and structural performance of the spaceship and the continuously monitored physiological responses of the pilot indicate that all

  10. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase in children with type I diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ellis, E N; Brouhard, B H; Lagrone, L; Travis, L B

    1983-01-01

    N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), a lysosomal enzyme, has been shown to be increased in the urine of patients with various glomerulonephritides, tubulointerestitial diseases, renal allograft rejection, toxic renal injury, and diabetes mellitus. Although it has been suggested that urinary NAG may reflect blood glucose control, no studies have correlated this with other measures of metabolic control. Thirty-four children from a diabetic summer camp were found to have urinary NAG to creatinine ratios significantly above those of normal controls of similar age (5.22 +/- 1.19 versus 1.51 +/- 0.17 U). Urinary NAG was found to positively correlate with an arbitrary control index (r = 0.82; P less than 0.05) and in seven patients with hemoglobin A1c (r = 0.70; P less than 0.001). In a closely followed group of 40 clinic patients, urinary NAG to creatinine ratio was again found to be significantly increased over normal controls (7.55 +/- 0.70 versus 1.51 +/- 0.17 U; P less than 0.05). Again, urinary NAG was positively correlated with HbA1c (r = 0.62; P less than 0.001) and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (r = 0.47; P less than 0.01). In neither group was there a correlation with UNAG:UCr and duration of disease. Thus, these data suggest that urinary NAG to creatinine ratio appears to be a reflection of blood sugar control.

  11. Significance of dermal and respiratory uptake in creosote workers: exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene.

    PubMed Central

    Elovaara, E; Heikkilä, P; Pyy, L; Mutanen, P; Riihimäki, V

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate workers' exposure in a creosote impregnation plant by means of ambient and biological monitoring. METHODS--Naphthalene (vapour phase) and 10 large molecular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (particulate phase) were measured in the breathing zone air during an entire working week. 1-Hydroxypyrene (1-HP) was measured in 24 hour urine as a metabolite of the pyrene found in neat (dermal exposure) and airborne creosote. RESULTS--Naphthalene (0.4-4.2 mg/m3) showed 1000 times higher concentrations in air than did the particulate PAHs. In total, the geometric mean (range) of three to six ring PAHs was 4.8 (1.2-13.7) micrograms/m3; pyrene 0.86 (0.23-2.1) micrograms/m3, and benzo(a)pyrene 0.012 (0.01-0.05) micrograms/m3. There was no correlation between pyrene and gaseous naphthalene. The correlations between pyrene and the other nine particulate PAHs were strong, and gave a PAH profile that was similar in all air samples: r = 0.83 (three to six ring PAHs); r = 0.81 (three ring PAHs); r = 0.78 (four to six ring PAHs). Dermal exposure was probably very high in all workers, because the daily output of urinary 1-HP exceeded the daily uptake of inhaled pyrene by < or = 50-fold. Urinary 1-HP concentrations were very high, even on Monday mornings, when they were at their lowest (4-22 mumol/mol creatinine). 1-HP seldom showed any net increase over a workshift (except on Monday) due to its high concentrations (16 to 120 mumol/mol creatinine) in the morning samples. 1-HP was always lower at the end of the shift (19 to 85 mumol/mol creatinine) than in the evening (27 to 122), and the mean (SD) change over the working week (47 (18)) was greater than the change over Monday (35 (32)). The timing of 1-HP sampling is therefore very important. CONCLUSIONS--Urinary 1-HP proved to be a good biomarker of exposure to three to six ring PAHs but not to airborne naphthalene. Hence, biomonitoring based on 1-HP has to be completed with exposure assessment for

  12. Accelerated urinary excretion of methylmercury following administration of its antidote N-acetylcysteine requires Mrp2/Abcc2, the apical multidrug resistance-associated protein.

    PubMed

    Madejczyk, Michael S; Aremu, David A; Simmons-Willis, Tracey A; Clarkson, Thomas W; Ballatori, Nazzareno

    2007-07-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a sulfhydryl-containing compound that produces a dramatic acceleration of urinary methylmercury (MeHg) excretion in poisoned mice, but the molecular mechanism for this effect is poorly defined. MeHg readily binds to NAC to form the MeHg-NAC complex, and recent studies indicate that this complex is an excellent substrate for the basolateral organic anion transporter (Oat)-1, Oat1/Slc22a6, thus potentially explaining the uptake from blood into the renal tubular cells. The present study tested the hypothesis that intracellular MeHg is subsequently transported across the apical membrane of the cells into the tubular fluid as a MeHg-NAC complex using the multidrug resistance-associated protein-2 (Mrp2/Abcc2). NAC markedly stimulated urinary [(14)C]MeHg excretion in wild-type Wistar rats, and a second dose of NAC was as effective as the first dose in stimulating MeHg excretion. In contrast with the normal Wistar rats, NAC was much less effective at stimulating urinary MeHg excretion in the Mrp2-deficient (TR-) Wistar rats. The TR- rats excreted only approximately 30% of the MeHg excreted by the wild-type animals. To directly test whether MeHg-NAC is a substrate for Mrp2, studies were carried out in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from livers of TR- and control Wistar rats. Transport of MeHg-NAC was lower in vesicles prepared from TR- rats, whereas transport of MeHg-cysteine was similar in control and TR- rats. These results indicate that Mrp2 is involved in urinary MeHg excretion after NAC administration and suggest that the transported molecule is most likely the MeHg-NAC complex.

  13. Urinary Sodium Excretion Has Positive Correlation with Activation of Urinary Renin Angiotensin System and Reactive Oxygen Species in Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Shin-Young; Kim, Sejoong; Kim, Dong Ki; Shin, Sung Joon; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Bum Soon; Lim, Chun Soo

    2014-01-01

    It is not well described the pathophysiology of renal injuries caused by a high salt intake in humans. The authors analyzed the relationship between the 24-hr urine sodium-to-creatinine ratio (24HUna/cr) and renal injury parameters such as urine angiotensinogen (uAGT/cr), monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1 (uMCP1/cr), and malondialdehyde-to-creatinine ratio (uMDA/cr) by using the data derived from 226 hypertensive chronic kidney disease patients. At baseline, the 24HUna/cr group or levels had a positive correlation with uAGT/cr and uMDA/cr adjusted for related factors (P<0.001 for each analysis). When we estimated uAGT/cr in the 24HUna/cr groups by ANCOVA, the uAGT/cr in patients with ≥200 mEq/g cr was higher than in patients with <100 mEq/g cr (708 [95% CI, 448-967] vs. 334 [95% CI, 184-483] pg/mg cr, P=0.014). Similarly, uMDA/cr was estimated as 0.17 (95% CI, 0.14-0.21) pM/mg cr in patients with <100 mEq/g cr and 0.27 (95% CI, 0.20-0.33) pM/mg cr in patients with ≥200 mEq/g cr (P=0.016). During the 16-week follow-up period, an increase in urinary sodium excretion predicted an increase in urinary angiotensinogen excretion. In conclusion, high salt intake increases renal renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) activation, primarily, and directly or indirectly affects the production of reactive oxygen species through renal RAS activation. PMID:25317016

  14. Relation of dietary inorganic arsenic exposure and urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites excretion in Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Suzuki, Yayoi; Tao, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Tetsuya

    2017-03-08

    Inorganic arsenic (InAs) is a ubiquitous metalloid that has been shown to exert multiple adverse health outcomes. Urinary InAs and its metabolite concentration has been used as a biomarker of arsenic (As) exposure in some epidemiological studies, however, quantitative relationship between daily InAs exposure and urinary InAs metabolites concentration has not been well characterized. We collected a set of 24-h duplicated diet and spot urine sample of the next morning of diet sampling from 20 male and 19 female subjects in Japan from August 2011 to October 2012. Concentrations of As species in duplicated diet and urine samples were determined by using liquid chromatography-ICP mass spectrometry with a hydride generation system. Sum of the concentrations of urinary InAs and methylarsonic acid (MMA) was used as a measure of InAs exposure. Daily dietary InAs exposure was estimated to be 0.087 µg kg(-1) day(-1) (Geometric mean, GM), and GM of urinary InAs+MMA concentrations was 3.5 ng mL(-1). Analysis of covariance did not find gender-difference in regression coefficients as significant (P > 0.05). Regression equation Log 10 [urinary InAs+MMA concentration] = 0.570× Log 10 [dietary InAs exposure level per body weight] + 1.15 was obtained for whole data set. This equation would be valuable in converting urinary InAs concentration to daily InAs exposure, which will be important information in risk assessment.

  15. Effects of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) form and administration mode on PABA recovery in 24-hour urine collections.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rashmi S; Joy, Raechel C; Boushey, Carol J; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Leonov, Alexei P; McCrory, Megan A

    2014-03-01

    Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) has long been used as an objective measure to assess completeness of 24-hour urine collections. However, pharmaceutical-grade PABA for human ingestion is not available in the United States. An alternative, the potassium salt of PABA, aminobenzoate potassium, can be obtained for clinical use, although it has not yet been validated in this role. Both PABA and aminobenzoate potassium can be directly ingested in their tablet or capsule forms or added to food before consumption. Our aim was to investigate the effect of form (PABA vs aminobenzoate potassium) and administration mode (directly ingested as a tablet/capsule vs added to food) on urinary PABA recovery levels. Twenty healthy participants underwent 3 test days separated by two 24-hour wash-out periods. Three test conditions, one on each test day, were investigated in randomized order: PABA tablet, aminobenzoate potassium capsule, and PABA or aminobenzoate potassium in food. Ingestion of each dose was supervised and participants performed the 24-hour urine collections while free-living. The 24-hour urine collections were analyzed for PABA recovery (%R) levels using a colorimetric assay. Recoveries 85% to 110% were deemed complete and those >110% were reanalyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Only complete collections (>85%R) were included in analyses. The recovery for the PABA tablet, aminobenzoate potassium capsule, and PABA/aminobenzoate potassium in food were similar at 98.8%R±2.0%R, 95.1%R±2.3%R, and 93.2%R±2.1%R, respectively, and did not differ significantly. These results suggest that aminobenzoate potassium may be used as an alternative to PABA for assessing the completeness of 24-hour urine collections and to track compliance with consuming provided diets in community-dwelling studies.

  16. In vivo cross-match by chromium-51 urinary excretion from labeled erythrocytes: A case of anti-Gerbich

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, T.; Tauxe, W.N.; Ramsey, G. )

    1990-12-01

    We studied a patient with an alloantibody to the high-frequency red blood cell (RBC) antigen Gerbich. A nationwide search for rare Gerbich-negative blood (less than 1:45,000 donors) located only seven units, and our supply was quickly exhausted. By using an in vivo cross-matching method, we demonstrated that this anti-Gerbich did not cause RBC destruction. Regular Gerbich-positive transfusions could then proceed without hemolysis. This cross-match test was based on the determination of the urinary excretion rates of injected radioactive chromium-labeled donor erythrocytes by which it was possible to determine compatibility only 24 hr after the test was begun. The procedure provides an easy and accurate means for in vivo cross-matching of conventionally incompatible donor blood.

  17. Tissue vitamin concentrations are maintained constant by changing the urinary excretion rate of vitamins in rats' restricted food intake.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that mild food restriction induces a reduction in tryptophan-nicotinamide conversion, which helps to explain why death secondary to pellagra is pandemic during the hungry season. In this study, we investigated the levels of B-group vitamins in the liver, kidney, blood, and urine in rats that underwent gradual restriction of food intake (80, 60, 40, and 20% restriction vs. ad libitum food intake). No significant differences in the B-group vitamin concentrations (mol/g tissue) in the liver and kidney were observed at any level of food restriction. However, the urine excretion rates exhibited some characteristic phenomena that differed by vitamin. These results show that the tissue concentrations of B-group vitamins were kept constant by changing the urinary elimination rates of vitamins under various levels of food restriction. Only vitamin B12 was the only (exception).

  18. Renal metabolism and urinary excretion of platelet-activating factor in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Noris, M.; Perico, N.; Macconi, D.; Nanni, V.; Dadan, J.; Peterlongo, F.; Remuzzi, G. )

    1990-11-15

    The origin of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the urine remains ill defined. The present study documents that (3H)PAF (3.5 mu Ci) injected into the renal artery of isolated control rat kidney preparations perfused at constant pressure with a cell-free medium containing 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) was excreted in negligible amounts (0.034%) in the urine, whereas 6% was retained by the kidney. When kidneys were perfused with a BSA-free medium, 0.029 and 71% of the total radioactivity added to the perfusate was recovered in the urine and in the renal tissue, respectively. (3H)PAF urine excretion in proteinuric kidneys from adriamycin-treated rats was still negligible (0.015%). Analysis of the renal tissue-retained radioactivity in control and proteinuric kidneys perfused with 1% BSA indicated metabolism into long chain acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine species, lyso-PAF, glycerols, and intact PAF. Thin layer chromatography analysis of (3H)glycerol fraction in these renal extracts showed two major components comigrating with 1-O-alkylglycerol and 1-O-alkyl-2-fatty acylglycerol. Isolated proximal tubules, but not glomeruli from nephrotic rats exposed to increasing concentrations of BSA (0-4%), had a higher PAF uptake than control tubules for BSA concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.1%. Our findings in the isolated perfused kidneys indicate that, in normal conditions, circulating PAF is excreted in the urine in negligible amounts and that the altered glomerular permeability to proteins does not affect this excretion rate. Moreover, analysis of renal tissue radioactivity documented that the renal metabolism of PAF is comparable in control and nephrotic kidneys.

  19. Effects of dairy cow diet forage proportion on duodenal nutrient supply and urinary purine derivative excretion.

    PubMed

    Moorby, J M; Dewhurst, R J; Evans, R T; Danelón, J L

    2006-09-01

    Four mature Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square change-over design experiment made up of four 4-wk periods to investigate the relationship between microbial protein flow to the duodenum and excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in the urine. Four dietary treatments based on ad libitum access to ryegrass silage were offered, with a standard dairy concentrate included at different forage:concentrate (F:C) ratios, calculated on a dry matter basis: 80:20, 65:35, 50:50, and 35:65. Feed intakes increased as the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased, despite a concurrent decrease in silage intake. Increased feed intake led to increased nutrient flow to the duodenum. Milk yields increased as the diet F:C ratio decreased, with cows offered the 35:65 diet yielding nearly 8 kg/d more milk than cows offered the 80:20 diet; the concentrations of milk fat decreased and milk protein increased with a decreasing F:C ratio. Purine derivative excretion in the urine increased with an increasing proportion of concentrate in the diet, and there was a strong linear relationship between total PD excretion (allantoin and uric acid) and microbial N flow to the duodenum: microbial N (g/d) = 19.9 + 0.689 x total PD (mmol/d); R = 0.887. This strengthens the case for using PD excretion as a noninvasive marker of microbial protein flow from the rumen in dairy cows.

  20. Dietary resistant starch prevents urinary excretion of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and vitamin D-binding protein in type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Smazal, Anne L; Borcherding, Nicholas C; Anderegg, Alysse S; Schalinske, Kevin L; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Rowling, Matthew J

    2013-07-01

    Diabetes is a rapidly growing epidemic affecting millions of Americans and has been implicated in a number of devastating secondary complications. We previously demonstrated that type 2 diabetic rats exhibit vitamin D deficiency due to aberrant megalin-mediated endocytosis and excessive urinary excretion of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25D3) and vitamin D-binding protein (DBP). Here, we examined whether a model of type 1 diabetes [T1D; streptozotocin (STZ)-treated Sprague-Dawley rats] would similarly excrete abnormally high concentrations of 25D3 and DBP due to renal damage and compromised expression of megalin and its endocytic partner, disabled-2 (Dab2). Moreover, we tested whether feeding diabetic rats starch that is resistant to digestion could alleviate these abnormalities. Control (n = 12) rats were fed a standard, semipurified diet (AIN-93G) containing 55% total dietary starch and STZ-treated rats were fed the AIN-93G diet (n = 12) or a diet containing 55% high-amylose maize that is partially resistant to digestion [20% total dietary resistant starch (RS); n = 12] for 2 and 5 wk. The RS diet attenuated weight loss and polyuria in STZ-treated rats. Histology and immunohistochemistry revealed that dietary RS also attenuated the loss of Dab2 expression in renal proximal tubules. Moreover, urinary concentrations of both 25D3 and DBP were elevated ∼10-fold in STZ-treated rats (5 wk post STZ injection), which was virtually prevented by the RS. We also observed a ∼1.5-fold increase in megalin mRNA expression in STZ-treated rats, which was attenuated by feeding rats the RS diet for 2 wk. Taken together, these studies indicate that consumption of low-glycemic carbohydrates can attenuate disruption of vitamin D homeostasis in T1D through the rescue of megalin-mediated endocytosis in the kidney.

  1. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    PubMed

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake.

  2. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children’s discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother’s 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child’s salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  3. Turnover and urinary excretion of free and acetylated MS-222 rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, J.B.; Schoettger, R.A.; Willford, W.A.

    1968-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) anesthetized in 100 mg/liter of M.S. 222 at 12 C excreted the drug in free and acetylated forms via the urine during a 24-hr recovery period in freshwater. Of the M.S. 222 excreted, 77-96% was acetylated. Blood levels of free drug in anesthetized trout approximated 75% of the anesthetic concentration, but the amount of acetylated M.S. 222 was relatively insignificant. The blood and urine were cleared of the two fractions of M.S. 222 in 8 and 24 hr respectively. Low levels of aromatic amines of natural origin occurred in blood and urine and were subtracted from measurements of M.S. 222. Intraperitoneal injections of 10-100 mg/kg of M.S. 222 did not induce anesthesia; however, the 24-hr pattern of drug excretion was similar to that observed after anesthesia by immersion. Only 15-21 % of the injected dose was found in the urine, suggesting a second route of drug elimination.

  4. Urinary nitrate excretion in relation to murine macrophage activation. Influence of dietary L-arginine and oral NG-monomethyl-L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Granger, D L; Hibbs, J B; Broadnax, L M

    1991-02-15

    Murine macrophage oxidation of L-arginine guanidino nitrogen to nitrite/nitrate yields an intermediate effector, possibly nitric oxide, with antimicrobial activity. Total body nitrogen oxidation metabolism (NOM) was measured in vivo by determining the urinary nitrate excretion of mice ingesting a chemically defined nitrite/nitrate-free diet. As reported previously, mycobacterial infection with bacillus Calmétte-Guerin led to a large increase in urinary nitrate excretion. This increase was temporally related to macrophage activation in vivo. The substrate for macrophage nitrogen oxidation metabolism in vitro, L-arginine, was deleted from the diet without ameliorating the urinary nitrate excretion response induced by BCG. This suggested that L-arginine was synthesized endogenously because there are no other known natural substrates for NOM. A competitive inhibitor of NOM, the L-arginine analog, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine was fed to mice in their drinking water. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine ingestion blocked both basal and bacillus Calmétte-Guerin-induced urinary nitrate excretion over a 2-4 week time span. These experimental conditions should prove useful for further investigation on the role of macrophage NOM in host defense against intracellular microorganisms.

  5. Preeclampsia -- a state of prostaglandin deficiency? Urinary prostaglandin excretion, the renin-aldosterone system, and circulating catecholamines in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, E B; Christensen, N J; Christensen, P; Johannesen, P; Kornerup, H J; Kristensen, S; Lauritsen, J G; Leyssac, P P; Rasmussen, A; Wohlert, M

    1983-01-01

    Urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), plasma concentrations of renin, aldosterone, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) were determined during pregnancy, 5 days, 3, and 6 months after delivery in preeclampsia, normotensive pregnant, and nonpregnant control subjects. The PGE2 was higher in normotensive pregnant control subjects than in nonpregnant subjects. In preeclampsia, PGE2 was reduced to nonpregnant level. PGF2 alpha was the same in preeclampsia and in normotensive pregnancy, but elevated when compared to the normotensive nonpregnant control group. Plasma concentrations of renin and aldosterone were increased during pregnancy, but considerably less in preeclampsia than during normotensive pregnancy. NE and E were the same as in nonpregnant subjects during both hypertensive and normotensive pregnancy. All parameters were normal 3 months after delivery. There were no correlations between PGE2, PGF2 alpha, plasma concentrations of renin, aldosterone, NE, or E and blood pressure level in third trimester either in preeclampsia or in normotensive pregnancy. PGE2 was positively correlated to plasma concentrations of renin. It is suggested that the lack of renal PGE2 in preeclampsia might be responsible for the decrease in renal blood flow and sodium excretion. It is hypothesized that preeclampsia is a state of prostaglandin deficiency. The changes in the renin-aldosterone system may be secondary to changes in prostaglandin concentration both in preeclampsia and normotensive pregnancy.

  6. Melatonin production during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal study on the excretion of urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Griefahn, Barbara; Bröde, Peter; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Remer, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Cross-sectional data on urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) excretion in children suggest a constant melatonin secretion during growth. The present longitudinal study concerned, accordingly, the intra-individual stability of melatonin production during childhood and adolescence. Urine samples collected during a longitudinal investigation of healthy white children and adolescents were analyzed. Forty-six boys and 38 girls were chosen for the present study. They had passed 3-15 annual examinations between their 3rd and 18th yr of age. Each examination included the collection of urine over 24 hr. The daily urinary output of 6-OHMS of the overall 621 samples was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The analyses clearly revealed for the first time that, despite huge inter-individual differences, melatonin production remains constant in one and the same individual during childhood and adolescence. Additionally, neither a significant sex difference was observed nor was the 6-OHMS output affected by season. The dramatic decrease of plasma melatonin levels as described in the literature is mainly related to an increase in body size rather than to decreasing pineal secretion.

  7. Effects of the dietary supplements, activated charcoal and copper chlorophyllin, on urinary excretion of trimethylamine in Japanese trimethylaminuria patients.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Fujieda, Masaki; Togashi, Masahiro; Saito, Tetsuya; Preti, George; Cashman, John R; Kamataki, Tetsuya

    2004-04-16

    Trimethylaminuria (TMAU) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the inability to oxidize and convert dietary-derived trimethylamine (TMA) to trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). This disorder has been relatively well-documented in European and North American populations, but no reports have appeared regarding patients in Japan. We identified seven Japanese individuals that showed a low metabolic capacity to convert TMA to its odorless metabolite, TMAO. The metabolic capacity, as defined by the concentration of TMAO excreted in the urine divided by TMA concentration plus TMAO concentration, in these seven individuals ranged from 70 to 90%. In contrast, there were no healthy controls examined with less than 95% of the metabolic capacity to convert TMA to TMAO. The intake of dietary charcoal (total 1.5 g charcoal per day for 10 days) reduced the urinary free TMA concentration and increased the concentration of TMAO to normal values during charcoal administration. Copper chlorophyllin (total 180 mg per day for 3 weeks) was also effective at reducing free urinary TMA concentration and increasing TMAO to those of concentrations present in normal individuals. In the TMAU subjects examined, the effects of copper chlorophyllin appeared to last longer (i.e., several weeks) than those observed for activated charcoal. The results suggest that the daily intake of charcoal and/or copper chlorophyllin may be of significant use in improving the quality of life of individuals suffering from TMAU.

  8. Chemical synthesis of deuterated folate monoglutamate and in vivo assessment of urinary excretion of deuterated folates in man

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, J.F. III; Toth, J.P.

    1988-04-01

    The synthesis and in vivo application of stable-isotopically labeled folic acid was investigated to devise methods suitable for studies of folate metabolism in human subjects. Glutamate-labeled tetradeutero-pteroylglutamic acid (d4-folic acid) was prepared by mixed anhydride coupling of N10-trifluoroacetylpteroic acid and dimethyl L-(3,3,4,4-2H4)glutamic acid, saponification in sodium deuteroxide, and chromatographic purification. Retention of the isotopic label was verified by proton NMR and mass spectrometry of the para-aminobenzoylglutamic acid product of C9-N10 bond cleavage. A method was devised for determination of of isotopic enrichment of urinary d4-folates derived from orally administered d4-folic acid using affinity chromatographic purification, chemical cleavage of the C9-N10 bond, HPLC isolation of the p-(2H4)aminobenzoylglutamate product, followed by negative-ion chemical-ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Data concerning the urinary excretion of d4-folates derived from an oral dose of d4-folic acid in an adult human are presented.

  9. Monitoring and managing urinary albumin excretion: practical advice for primary care clinicians.

    PubMed

    Bakris, George L; Kuritzky, Louis

    2009-07-01

    Albuminuria has a strong, continuous, direct, linear relationship with adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. Even at levels below the accepted upper limit of what is considered "normal" daily albumin excretion (< 30 mg/24 h), a relationship between albumin excretion level and adverse CV events is evident. Primary care clinicians (eg, physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians' assistants) are usually the first point of contact for patients at risk for CV and kidney disease. Hence, identifying and treating problematic albuminuria levels are important in primary care. Both the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) endorse routine annual screening for microalbuminuria (small amounts of albumin in the urine). Once excess albumin excretion is detected, clinicians must employ aggressive CV risk reduction. To optimize outcomes, treatment of microalbuminuria often requires the combined skills of experts in primary care, cardiology, metabolic disease, and nephrology. Although blood pressure reduction usually improves microalbuminuria, agents that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are most efficacious. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers (ie, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors) may confer CV and kidney advantages in high-risk patients. Their effects on microalbuminuria reduction are greater than those associated with attaining guideline-recommended blood pressure goals. Effective RAAS blockade sometimes induces transient changes in creatinine and potassium, which merit consistent monitoring for the first 2 to 3 months of their use, but rarely necessitate discontinuation. This article also presents an approach to managing increases in creatinine and potassium that should fit comfortably in the hands of primary care clinicians.

  10. Infrequency of urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid by healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Evered, D F; Barley, J F

    1978-03-15

    Urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) levels were measured by modified ion-exchange chromatography. Daily BAIB levels are reported for a group of apparently healthy individuals, a subject with infective hepatitis and two human genetic variants who were high "excretors" of BAIB. The frequency of high "excretors" of BAIB was found using low-voltage paper electrophoresis. The frequency among 403 male European subjects was 5 (1.2%) and lower than previous estimates in the United Kingdom. The percentage recovery of fed BAIB suggests that Oriental "excretors" may have a different type of genetic lesion from non-Oriental "excretors". The clinical usefulness of urinary BAIB assays and qualitative screening is reviewed.

  11. Systemic exposure and urinary cortisol effects of fluticasone propionate formulated with hydrofluoroalkane in 4- to 11-year-olds with asthma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kenneth T; Milgrom, Henry; Yoon, Y Kellie; Levy, Arden L; Matz, Paul; Welch, Michael J; Cahn, Anthony; Collins, David A; Kathman, Steven; Mehta, Rashmi; Su, Sheng-Fang; Kunka, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    The systemic exposure of fluticasone propionate with hydrofluoroalkane propellant compared with chlorofluoro-carbon propellant and the effect of fluticasone propionate hydrofluoroalkane on 24-hour urinary cortisol in children aged 4 to 11 years with asthma were evaluated. Study 1 was an open-label, 2-way crossover study in which 16 subjects were randomized to 7.5 days each of fluticasone propionate hydrofluoroalkane 88 mug twice a day or fluticasone propionate chlorofluorocarbon 88 mug twice a day. In study 2, 63 subjects received 13.5 days of placebo followed by 27.5 days of fluticasone propionate hydrofluoroalkane 88 mug twice a day. The main outcome measure for study 1 was the difference between fluticasone propionate hydrofluoroalkane and fluticasone propionate chlorofluorocarbon in fluticasone propionate AUC(last) (area under the plasma fluticasone propionate concentration-time curve from zero up to the last quantifiable plasma concentration), and for study 2, 24-hour overnight urinary cortisol excretion. In study 1, fluticasone propionate systemic exposure was significantly lower (55%) with hydrofluoroalkane metered dose inhaler compared with chlorofluorocarbon metered dose inhaler. Study 2 showed no statistically significant changes in 24-hour overnight urinary cortisol excretion and no relationship to fluticasone propionate systemic exposure at this dose. The results of these 2 studies showed that in children aged 4 to 11 years with asthma, fluticasone propionate hydrofluoroalkane has lower systemic exposure compared with chlorofluorocarbon and no hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis effects as measured by 24-hour urinary cortisol excretion.

  12. Elevated urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid and delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and the inhibition of ALA-synthase and ALA-dehydratase activities in both liver and kidney in mice exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Tomokuni, K; Ichiba, M; Hirai, Y

    1991-12-01

    Urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (ABA) and delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was investigated in mice exposed to lead (500 p.p.m.) in drinking water for 14 days. Concentrations of both urinary ABA and urinary ALA increased significantly in the lead-exposed mice. However, the degree of increasing excretion was higher in urinary ALA (10-fold of the control) than in urinary ABA (2-fold of the control). On the other hand, it was demonstrated that ALA dehydratase in liver and kidney is inhibited by exposure to lead, while ALA synthase in these tissues has no inhibitory effect.

  13. Test characteristics of urinary biomarkers depend on quantitation method in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Ralib, Azrina Md; Pickering, John W; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Devarajan, Prasad; Edelstein, Charles L; Bonventre, Joseph V; Endre, Zoltan H

    2012-02-01

    The concentration of urine influences the concentration of urinary biomarkers of AKI. Whether normalization to urinary creatinine concentration, as commonly performed to quantitate albuminuria, is the best method to account for variations in urinary biomarker concentration among patients in the intensive care unit is unknown. Here, we compared the diagnostic and prognostic performance of three methods of biomarker quantitation: absolute concentration, biomarker normalized to urinary creatinine concentration, and biomarker excretion rate. We measured urinary concentrations of alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule-1, and IL-18 in 528 patients on admission and after 12 and 24 hours. Absolute concentration best diagnosed AKI on admission, but normalized concentrations best predicted death, dialysis, or subsequent development of AKI. Excretion rate on admission did not diagnose or predict outcomes better than either absolute or normalized concentration. Estimated 24-hour biomarker excretion associated with AKI severity, and for neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and cystatin C, with poorer survival. In summary, normalization to urinary creatinine concentration improves the prediction of incipient AKI and outcome but provides no advantage in diagnosing established AKI. The ideal method for quantitating biomarkers of urinary AKI depends on the outcome of interest.

  14. The Association between the Urinary Excretion of Trimethylselenonium and Trimethylsulfonium in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lajin, Bassam; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a signaling molecule that plays important roles in several physiological processes, and its methylation product trimethylsulfonium (TMS) is a natural constituent of human urine that could serve as a biomarker for hydrogen sulfide. In vitro studies showed that the enzyme indole-ethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT) is responsible for the production of trimethylsulfonium as well as its selenium analogue trimethylselenonium (TMSe). Marked inter-individual variability in TMSe production is associated with genetic polymorphisms in the INMT gene, but it remains unclear whether these polymorphisms affect substrate specificity or general enzymatic activity. Therefore, we explore the association between the TMS and TMSe production phenotypes. Caucasian volunteers were recruited and grouped according to their TMSe status into “TMSe producers” and “TMSe non-producers”, and morning urine samples were collected over 5 consecutive days from each volunteer. A total of 125 urine samples collected from 25 volunteers (13 TMSe producers and 12 TMSe non-producers) were analyzed for total selenium and total sulfur using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), trimethylselenonium using HPLC/ICPMS, and trimethylsulfonium using HPLC/electrospray ionization—triple quadrupole—mass spectrometry (ESI-QQQ-MS). Although there was no correlation between TMS and TMSe urinary levels within the “TMSe producers” group, the “TMSe producers” had urinary levels of TMS 10-fold higher than those of the “TMSe non-producers” (P < 0.001). This result indicates that stratification according to TMSe status or genotype is crucial for the correct interpretation of urinary TMS as a possible biomarker for hydrogen sulfide body pools. PMID:27870899

  15. Urinary excretion profiles for total morphine, free morphine, and 6-acetylmorphine following smoked and intravenous heroin.

    PubMed

    Smith, M L; Shimomura, E T; Summers, J; Paul, B D; Jenkins, A J; Darwin, W D; Cone, E J

    2001-10-01

    Heroin is one of the major target drugs in workplace drug-testing programs because of its history of abuse, liability, and continued negative social impact. This study was a comprehensive examination of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, detection times, opiate immunoassay performance, and urine excretion profiles following single doses of heroin administered to human subjects via smoking and intravenous routes. Studies of the first four components of this investigation were previously published. This article describes the urine excretion profiles. Total morphine (Tmor), free morphine (Fmor), and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in 920 urine samples collected from 11 male human subjects following single doses of heroin. Eight received intravenous doses of 3, 6, and 12 mg heroin HCI and four smoked 3.5-, 5.2-, 7-, 10.5-, or 13.9-mg doses of heroin (base). In addition, 183 urine-based blind quality-control samples were added to the study set to assess assay performance. Creatinine was also measured in each sample by a colorimetric technique. The parameters studied were not significantly dependent on route of administration. Excretion half-life mean +/- SD for Tmor was 3.11 +/- 0.30 h. Range (median) of peak urine concentrations, time to peak, time to last positive sample for low cutoff (300 ng/mL) and high cutoff (2000 ng/mL) for Tmor following lower doses (< or = 7 mg) were, respectively, 1392-9250 (3620) ng/mL, 1.2-6.2 (2.3) h, 7.4-31.9 (7.4) h, and 0-10.1 (4.3) h. Following higher doses (> 10 mg) they were 2065-29,030 (16,470) ng/mL, 2.3-9.3 (4.5) h, 10.7-53.5 (34.4) h, 2.3-22.3 (8.3) h. Fmor peaked in the same sample as Tmor. Range (median) of peak Fmor concentrations and time to last positive using a cutoff of 100 ng/mL for low and high doses were, respectively, 117-1160 (415) ng/mL, 1.2-10.1 (4.5) h and 150-2580 (1400) ng/mL, 2.3-29.1 (9.3) h. The range (median) of peak urine concentrations for 6-AM was 6

  16. Relationship of nutrition knowledge and self-reported dietary behaviors with urinary excretion of sodium and potassium: comparison between dietitians and nondietitians.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Minami; Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of better nutrition knowledge and dietary behavior on healthier dietary intake is still controversial. We hypothesized that nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior are associated with sodium and potassium intake in adult women. A cross-sectional study was conducted at welfare facilities located in 20 areas of Japan. Ninety-nine female dietitians and 117 nondietitians aged 20 to 69 years participated. Sodium and potassium intake were assessed with two 24-hour urine collections and 4-day semiweighed diet records. Nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior were accessed with 3 questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to compare sodium and potassium excretion and selected nutrition and food intake between dietitians and nondietitians. After adjustment for age and smoking habit, sodium and potassium excretion did not significantly differ between the 2 groups (3857 vs 3959 mg/d, P = .57, and 2016 vs 1886 mg/d, P = .10, respectively). Sodium/potassium ratio was significantly lower in the dietitians (P = .044). The dietitians used food labels for sodium contents more often than the nondietitians and consumed more fruits and vegetables (P = .048 and P < .0001, respectively) and less sugar and confectionaries and fat and oils (P = .016 and P = .010, respectively). In conclusion, the higher level of nutritional knowledge and better dietary behavior were not associated with either sodium or potassium excretion but were moderately associated with sodium/potassium ratio.

  17. Renal phenotype in Bardet-Biedl syndrome: a combined defect of urinary concentration and dilution is associated with defective urinary AQP2 and UMOD excretion.

    PubMed

    Zacchia, Miriam; Zacchia, Enza; Zona, Enrica; Capolongo, Giovanna; Raiola, Ilaria; Rinaldi, Luca; Trepiccione, Francesco; Ingrosso, Diego; Perna, Alessandra; Di Iorio, Valentina; Simonelli, Francesca; Moe, Orson W; Capasso, Giovambattista

    2016-10-01

    The renal phenotype in Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is highly variable. The present study describes renal findings in 41 BBS patients and analyzes the pathogenesis of hyposthenuria, the most common renal dysfunction. Five of 41 patients (12%) showed an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml·min(-1)·1.73 m(-2) Urine protein and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio were over 200 and 30 mg/g in 9/24 and 7/23 patients, respectively. Four of 41 patients showed no renal anomalies on ultrasound. Twenty of 34 patients had hyposthenuria in the absence of renal insufficiency. In all 8 of the hyposthenuric patients studied, dDAVP failed to elevate urine osmolality (Uosm), suggesting a nephrogenic origin. Interestingly, water loading (WL) did not result in a significant reduction of Uosm, indicating combined concentrating and diluting defects. dDAVP infusion induced a significant increase of plasma Factor VIII and von Willebrand Factor levels, supporting normal function of the type 2 vasopressin receptor at least in endothelial cells. While urinary aquaporin 2 (u-AQP2) abundance was not different between patients and controls at baseline, the dDAVP-induced increased u-AQP2 and the WL-induced reduction of u-AQP2 were blunted in patients with a combined concentrating and diluting defect, suggesting a potential role of AQP2 in the defective regulation of water absorption. Urine Uromodulin excretion was reduced in all hyposthenuric patients, suggesting a thick ascending limb defect. Interestingly, renal Na, Cl, Ca, but not K handling was impaired after acute WL but not at basal. In summary, BBS patients show combined urinary concentration and dilution defects; a thick ascending limb and collecting duct tubulopathy may underlie impaired water handling.

  18. Physiological biochemical, and performance responses to a 24-hour crash diet.

    PubMed

    Higgins, E A; Mertens, H W; McKenzie, J M; Funkhouser, G E

    1982-03-01

    Twelve overweight male subjects were evaluated on both a normal diet and a 24-h crash diet. During approximately 2 1/4-h complex performance tests subjects breathed an O2/N2 mixture equivalent to 3810 m. (12,500 ft). There were no significant findings due to diet for heart rate, blood pressure, serum electrolytes, subjective fatigue and urinary excretion of K+, epinephrine and norepinephrine. body temperatures were lower (p less than 0.05) for the crash diet than for the normal diet. Serum glucose levels increased during the normal diet and decreased during the crash diet. Hematocrit increased more for the crash diet (p less than 0.05) than for the normal diet. Urinary excretion of 17-ketogenic steroids was less (p less than 0.001) during sleep for the crash diet than for the normal diet. Complex performance showed no significant differences when subjects were tested under low workloads. Performance was enhanced during the crash diet when subjects were tested under the medium and high workload conditions.

  19. Gender and age differences in mixed metal exposure and urinary excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, Marika; Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Yunus, Mohammad; Grander, Margaretha; Loennerdal, Bo; Vahter, Marie

    2011-11-15

    Background: Little is known about the variation in exposure to toxic metals by age and gender and other potential modifying factors. We evaluated age and gender differences by measurements of metal/element concentrations in urine in a rural population in Matlab, Bangladesh, in three age groups: 8-12 (N=238), 14-15 (N=107) and 30-88 (N=710) years of age, living in an area with no point sources of metal exposure but where elevated water arsenic concentrations are prevalent. Results: We found marked differences in urine concentrations of metals and trace elements by gender, age, tobacco use, socioeconomic and nutritional status. Besides a clearly elevated urinary arsenic concentration in all age groups (medians 63-85 {mu}g As/L), and despite the low degree of contamination from industries and traffic, the urine concentrations of toxic metals such as cadmium and lead were clearly elevated, especially in children (median 0.31 {mu}g Cd/L and 2.9 {mu}g Pb/L, respectively). In general, women had higher urinary concentrations of toxic metals, especially Cd (median 0.81 {mu}g/L) compared to men (0.66 {mu}g/L) and U (median 10 ng/L in women, compared to 6.4 ng/L in men), while men had higher urinary concentrations of the basic and essential elements Ca (69 mg/L in men, 30-50 years, compared to 52 mg/L in women), Mg (58 mg/L in men compared to 50 mg/L in women), Zn (182 {mu}g/L in men compared to 117 {mu}g/L in women) and Se (9.9 {mu}g/L in men compared to 8.7 {mu}g/L in women). Manganese was consistently higher in females than in males in all age groups, suggesting a biological difference between females and males in Mn metabolism. Increasing socioeconomic status decreased the toxic metal exposure significantly in children and especially in men. Poor iron status was detected in 17% of children, adolescents and women, but only in 6% of men. Also zinc deficiency was more prevalent in females than in males. Conclusions: Women and children seemed to be more at risk for toxic

  20. Acquired deficiency and urinary excretion of antithrombin III in nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, N D; Paule, P; Toohey, J; Hung, E; Alikhani, S; Darwish, R; Pahl, M V

    1984-09-01

    The published data concerning changes of antithrombin III (ATIII) in nephrotic syndrome (NS) are contradictory. While increased ATIII activity has been reported by some investigators, decreased concentration has been shown by others and normal values by yet another group of authors. We determined plasma and urine concentrations of ATIII in a group of 20 patients with NS using an immunologic assay. In addition, plasma ATIII activity was determined. The results were compared with those obtained in a group of normal volunteers. Plasma concentration and activity of ATIII were both greatly reduced in the patients with NS. In addition, substantial quantities of ATIII were recovered in the urine of all tested patients. The present study, therefore, substantiates the low plasma concentrations of ATIII and its urinary losses in NS. In addition, a parallel reduction in plasma ATIII activity is demonstrated providing functional evidence of acquired ATIII deficiency in this condition.

  1. LC-MS/MS characterization of the urinary excretion profile of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in human and rat.

    PubMed

    Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Solfrizzo, Michele; De Girolamo, Annalisa; Chulze, Sofía N; Torres, Adriana M; Visconti, Angelo

    2011-04-01

    The understanding of mycotoxins transfer to biological fluids is challenged by the difficulties in performing and replicating in vivo experiments as well as the lack of suitable methods of analysis to detect simultaneously a range of chemically different metabolites at trace levels. LC-MS/MS has been used herein to study the urinary excretion profile of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in human and Wistar rat. Deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol glucuronide were found in both human and rat urines, whereas de-epoxydeoxynivalenol and its glucuronide conjugate were only detected in rat urine. The presence of two deoxynivalenol glucuronide isomers in Wistar rat urine has been shown for the first time. Structure confirmation of the detected metabolites was provided by the analysis of fragmentation patterns. A solid phase extraction clean up procedure allowing recoveries in the range 72-102% for deoxynivalenol, de-epoxydeoxynivalenol, and their glucuronide conjugates was optimized. A multiple reaction monitoring method for the simultaneous determination of all investigated metabolites was elaborated allowing the direct detection of deoxynivalenol metabolites without the hydrolysis step. Deoxynivalenol urinary levels in the range 0.003-0.008 μg/ml were detected in healthy human subjects, whereas deoxynivalenol and de-epoxynivalenol levels between 1.9-4.9 μg/ml and 1.6-5.9 μg/ml, respectively were found in administered rat urine. These findings emphasize the relevance of the highly selective and sensitive LC-MS/MS technique for the direct detection and characterization of deoxynivalenol metabolites in complex biological matrices.

  2. Morning Spot Urine Glucose-to-Creatinine Ratios Predict Overnight Urinary Glucose Excretion in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Ra; Lee, Yong-ho; Lee, Sang-Guk; Lee, Sun Hee; Kang, Eun Seok; Cha, Bong-Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background With the advent of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors to control glucose and treat diabetes, laboratory data aided by either timed or spot glucose levels in the urine could be used as an alternative marker of drug response. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between overnight urinary glucose excretion (UGE) and morning spot urinary glucose-to-creatinine ratio (UGCR). Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, we enrolled a total of 215 participants with either normal glucose tolerance (NGT), pre-diabetes, or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To exclude external factors such as food intake and physical activity, urine samples collected overnight at an 8-hr interval and the first-voided morning spot urine were collected and compared. Results The median values of overnight 8-hr UGE in participants with NGT (N=14), pre-diabetes (N=41), and T2DM (N=160) were 35.0 mg, 35.6 mg, and 653.4 mg, respectively. In participants with T2DM, the median values of overnight 8-hr UGCR and first-voided morning spot UGCR (M-UGCR) were 1.37 mg/mg and 0.16 mg/mg, respectively. Quantitative analyses using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) demonstrated a good reliability of measurement of the overnight 8-hr UGCR and M-UGCR (ICC=0.943, P<0.001). The M-UGCR was also significantly related to the overnight 8-hr UGE (r=0.828, P<0.001). Conclusions M-UGCR and overnight 8-hr UGCR showed good agreement, suggesting that M-UGCR be used as a simple index for estimating overnight amounts of UGE in patients with T2DM. PMID:27834060

  3. Urinary Excretion of Kidney Aquaporins as Possible Diagnostic Biomarker of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Luigi; Nicoletti, Maria Celeste; Mastrofrancesco, Lisa; Di Franco, Antonella; Indrio, Francesca; Lella, Rossella; Laviola, Luigi; Giorgino, Francesco; Svelto, Maria; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a microangiopathic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) affecting one-third of diabetic patients. The large variability in the clinical presentation of renal involvement in patients with DM makes kidney biopsy a prerequisite for a correct diagnosis. However, renal biopsy is an invasive procedure associated with risk of major complications. Numerous studies aimed to identify a noninvasive biomarker of DN but, so far, none of these is considered to be sufficiently specific and sensitive. Water channel aquaporins (AQPs), expressed at the plasma membrane of epithelial tubular cells, are often dysregulated during DN. In this work, we analyzed the urine excretion of AQP5 and AQP2 (uAQP5 and uAQP2), via exosomes, in 35 diabetic patients: 12 normoalbuminuric with normal renal function (DM), 11 with proteinuric nondiabetic nephropathy (NDN), and 12 with histological diagnosis and classification of DN. ELISA and WB analysis independently showed that uAQP5 was significantly increased in DN patients. Interestingly, linear regression analysis showed a positive correlation between uAQP5 and the histological class of DN. The same analysis, focusing on uAQP2, showed comparable results. Taken together, these data suggest a possible use of AQP5 and AQP2 as novel noninvasive biomarkers to help in classifying the clinical stage of DN. PMID:28246612

  4. Gastrointestinal absorption and urinary excretion of trans-cinnamic and p-coumaric acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Garrait, Ghislain; Jarrige, Jean-François; Blanquet, Stéphanie; Beyssac, Erick; Cardot, Jean-Michel; Alric, Monique

    2006-04-19

    trans-Cinnamic acid (CIN) and p-coumaric acid (COU) are ingested by humans in their diet. While the metabolism and health benefits of CIN have been widely documented, little is known about its absorption sites, and there have been few studies dedicated to COU. The gastrointestinal sac technique demonstrated that CIN and COU are absorbed by all digestive organs in rats and partially transported via MCT-mediated carrier. Absorption was lowest in the stomach. Regardless of the organs that were studied, CIN was more efficiently absorbed than COU. After their individual oral administration to rats, CIN and COU were excreted in 0-24 h urine (0.3% and 23% of ingested CIN and COU, respectively). This suggests that COU was less metabolized than CIN. CIN and COU are absorbed across the digestive epithelium and subsequently interact with target tissues. Despite its lower gastrointestinal absorption, COU may have greater health benefits because it seems to be less metabolized than CIN.

  5. Urinary excretion of radionuclides from Marshallese exposed to fallout from the 1954 Bravo nuclear test.

    PubMed

    Harris, Payne S; Simon, Steven L; Ibrahim, Shawki A

    2010-08-01

    Soon after the Bravo nuclear test at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands on 1 March 1954, urine samples were collected for analysis of excreted radioactivity from native residents exposed to radioactive fallout on two atolls as well as from U.S. military personnel on a third atoll. The earliest acquired samples, obtained by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), were assayed for various radionuclides and provided the first known measurements of (131)I in urine following exposure to fallout from a nuclear test. Over the course of 1954, many additional samples were collected by the LASL, as well as by the Atomic Energy Commission New York Operations Office's Health and Safety Laboratory and the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. Collectively, the groups sampled included Marshallese exposed on Rongelap and Ailinginae Atolls, American military weather observers temporarily resident on Rongerik Atoll, and sailors from the Japanese fishing vessel, the Lucky Dragon. While the bioassay measurement data and individual urine volumes have been crucial to various attempts to assess intakes of radioactivity and the related internal radiation doses among the Marshallese, those data have never been published in any peer-reviewed journal, but have been restricted to agency memoranda, laboratory reports, and summaries in some publications and book chapters. Reconstructions of internal doses to Marshallese in 1954 and in later years have depended on these data and, hence, they have considerable historical importance as well as importance to ongoing health risk projections for Marshallese. This paper presents much of the original data on urine volumes and radioactivity from the various assays of urine for radionuclides, and compares estimates of (131)I intakes made in 1954, 1985, 1987, and 2008.

  6. URINARY EXCRETION OF RADIONUCLIDES FROM MARSHALLESE EXPOSED TO FALLOUT FROM THE 1954 BRAVO NUCLEAR TEST

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Payne S.; Simon, Steven L.; Ibrahim, Shawki A.

    2014-01-01

    Soon after the Bravo nuclear test at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands on 1 March 1954, urine samples were collected for analysis of excreted radioactivity from native residents exposed to radioactive fallout on two atolls as well as from U.S. military personnel on a third atoll. The earliest acquired samples, obtained by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), were assayed for various radionuclides and provided the first known measurements of 131I in urine following exposure to fallout from a nuclear test. Over the course of 1954, many additional samples were collected by the LASL, as well as by the Atomic Energy Commission New York Operations Office’s Health and Safety Laboratory and the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. Collectively, the groups sampled included Marshallese exposed on Rongelap and Ailinginae Atolls, American military weather observers temporarily resident on Rongerik Atoll, and sailors from the Japanese fishing vessel, the Lucky Dragon. While the bioassay measurement data and individual urine volumes have been crucial to various attempts to assess intakes of radioactivity and the related internal radiation doses among the Marshallese, those data have never been published in any peer-reviewed journal, but have been restricted to agency memoranda, laboratory reports, and summaries in some publications and book chapters. Reconstructions of internal doses to Marshallese in 1954 and in later years have depended on these data and, hence, they have considerable historical importance as well as importance to ongoing health risk projections for Marshallese. This paper presents much of the original data on urine volumes and radioactivity from the various assays of urine for radionuclides, and compares estimates of 131I intakes made in 1954, 1985, 1987, and 2008. PMID:20622553

  7. Caffeine in sport. Urinary excretion of caffeine in healthy volunteers after intake of common caffeine-containing beverages.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, P J; Müller, F R; Müller, F O

    1988-08-20

    The presence of a concentration of caffeine greater than or equal to 15 micrograms/ml in urine of athletes participating in competitive sport is a disqualifying factor. A study was conducted to establish how much caffeine needs to be ingested--in the form of coffee, tea or Coca-Cola--to approach or exceed this limit. Nine healthy volunteers participated in a randomised cross-over study and received caffeine in the form of these beverages, ingested within 15 minutes, in doses ranging from 1.52 mg/kg to 17.53 mg/kg. The latter dose is equivalent to nearly 8 cups of ordinary percolated coffee. The maximum caffeine concentration in urine recorded was 14 micrograms/ml, 3 hours after ingestion. A significant correlation was found between the caffeine dose and the maximum urinary concentration. The mean recovery of caffeine in urine was between 0.74% and 0.91% of the administered dose. The nature of the beverage did not appear to influence the degree of caffeine excretion. It is concluded that if a concentration of 15 micrograms caffeine/ml urine is recorded, it can safely be accepted that the athlete purposely ingested large amounts of the substance, in whatever form.

  8. [An approach to a sanitary and social problem: urinary iodine excretion in pregnant women from a iodine deficient region].

    PubMed

    Olivares, Jorge L; Ortiz, Valeria A; Mayer, Marcos; Demaria, Cecilia I; Nancucheo, Ester; Cresto, Juan C

    2009-12-01

    The urinary iodine excretion (UIE) assay is an effective method to detect reduced iodine intake. UIE was measured in two different samples (morning and evening) from 121 pregnant women, with a turbid-metric method modified by Pino (normal value =150 ugl/1). Furthermore, thyroid function was evaluated in pregnant women with UIE <100 ug/l. From 121 pregnant women, the UIE was normal in 75 with similar morning and evening samples (morning: 305.2 +/- 7.0; evening: 319.2 +/- 8.8; p: NS). The UIE did no showed differences in different trimesters and in morning and evening samples. The UIE was low in 46 women (36.9%), without significant differences between morning and evening (morning: 88.12 +/- 5.07 microg/l; evening: 88.7 +/- 6.2 microg/l; p: NS). Normal or low UIE were not influenced by the age of pregnant women and 45% of pregnant women with UIE < 100 ug/l showed impaired thyroid function. Morning and evening study of UIE allowed us to detect a higher number of pregnant women with low iodine intake. This study let us to find thyroid function abnormalities likes a screening method, because in our state there is not a public screening program for gestational hypothyroidism.

  9. Biosynthesis and urinary excretion of methyl sulfonium derivatives of the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, and other thioethers

    SciTech Connect

    Mozier, N.M.; Hoffman, J.L. )

    1990-12-01

    Thioether methyltransferase was previously shown to catalyze the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation of diemthyl selenide, dimethyl telluride, and various thioethers to produce the corresponding methyl onium ions. In this paper we show that the following thioethers are also substrates for this enzyme in vitro: 2-hydroxyethyl ethyl sulfide, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, thiodiglycol, t-butyl sulfide, and isopropyl sulfide. To demonstrate thioether methylation in vivo, mice were injected with (methyl-{sup 3}H)methionine plus different thioethers, and extracts of lungs, livers, kidneys, and urine were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the presence of ({sup 3}H)methyl sulfonium ions. The following thioethers were tested, and all were found to be methylated in vivo: dimethyl sulfide, diethyl sulfide, methyl n-propyl sulfide, tetrahydrothiophene, 2-(methylthio)ethylamine, 2-hydroxyethyl ethyl sulfide, and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide. This supports our hypothesis that the physiological role of thioether methyltransferase is to methylate seleno-, telluro-, and thioethers to more water-soluble onium ions suitable for urinary excretion. Conversion of the mustard gas analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, to the methyl sulfonium derivative represents a newly discovered mechanism for biochemical detoxification of sulfur mustards, as this conversion blocks formation of the reactive episulfonium ion that is the ultimate alkylating agent for this class of compounds.

  10. Drinking water contribution to aggregate perchlorate intake of reproductive-age women in the United States estimated by dietary intake simulation and analysis of urinary excretion data.

    PubMed

    Mendez, William; Dederick, Elizabeth; Cohen, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    Estimates of perchlorate intake by the US population can be derived from either urinary excretion data or through simulation of dietary intake. Estimates from surveys of urinary excretion (NHANES) are subject to substantial uncertainty owing to the small numbers of subjects for which data are currently available. In addition, current excretion estimates are derived from "spot" urine samples and include a component of short-term (intra-day) variability that may give biased estimates of the variability in average daily intakes. Previous dietary estimates have generally not included any contribution from drinking water, owing to a lack of data related to perchlorate concentrations in water supplies. In this paper, we derive simulation (Monte Carlo) estimates of dietary perchlorate intake distributions for reproductive-age women, which include explicit contributions from drinking water, and compare them to estimates based on urinary excretion. Perchlorate concentrations in water were estimated based on measurements from the US Environmental Protection Agency's UCMR1 database, and from other regional studies of perchlorate contamination. We find that including the drinking water contributions in the dietary simulations yields increases in the population's geometric mean perchlorate intake of 3-8 percent, with a conservative maximum of about 24 percent, compared to intakes estimated based on food intake alone. The intake distributions estimated from dietary and water consumption were found to be very similar to estimates based on creatinine-adjusted perchlorate excretion data from the NHANES, except for having lower population variability. When the dietary simulation data were adjusted to include a contribution from short-term variability similar to that in the "spot" urine samples, the variability in the NHANES and diet-derived estimates were found to be very similar. Our analyses indicate that a reasonable upper-bound estimate for the 95th percentile perchlorate intake

  11. Effects of inhaled corticosteroids and inhaled cromolyn sodium on urinary growth hormone excretion in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Soferman, R; Sapir, N; Spirer, Z; Golander, A

    1998-11-01

    Over the past few years there has been an increasing awareness that asthma is a chronic inflammatory airways disease. The current therapeutic strategies for treating asthma focus on suppressing the inflammatory process by using cromones or inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). The beneficial effects of ICS in asthma are now well known, but its detrimental effect on linear growth remains a controversial issue. The aim of this open label, nonrandomized, cross-sectional, one-time study was to determine the influence of these drugs on urinary growth hormone (U-GH) levels in prepubertal asthmatic children. U-GH levels were measured in 47 prepubertal asthmatic children who had been treated for at least 6 months with either ICS (beclomethasone or budesonide at a mean daily dose of 360 microg) or with 80 mg daily dose of cromolyn sodium (CrS). There were also nine healthy children who served as a control. These three groups of children were matched for age and gender ratio. The mean level of U-GH in the CrS-treated group was 2.94 +/- 0.96 ng/night; this was significantly higher compared to the mean level of the ICS-treated group (1.99 +/- 0.83 ng/night; P < 0.001) and to the mean level of the control group (1.98 +/- 0.39 ng/night; P < 0.006). There was no significant difference between the mean level of U-GH in the group treated by ICS and the controls (P < 0.9). These results show that the mean levels of U-GH secretion of the children who were treated by CrS for 6 months was significantly increased, compared to the mean U-GH level of the ICS-treated group and the controls. The mean U-GH levels in the last two groups showed no statistically significant difference.

  12. B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-07-01

    Urinary dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential problems especially connected with energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, and nutritional individuality in autistic children. A diet rich in vitamins and macroelements is a new idea of intervention in autism. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and magnesium supplementation is effective in reducing the level of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of autistic children. We examined the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children before and after vitamin supplementation. Thirty children with autism received magnesium (daily dose, 200 mg), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine; daily dose, 500 mg), and vitamin B2 (riboflavin; daily dose, 20 mg). The treatment was provided for a period of 3 months. Organic acids were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Before supplementation, the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children were 41.47 ± 50.40 μmol/mmol creatinine, 15.61 ± 15.31 μmol/mmol creatinine, 8.02 ± 6.08 μmol/mmol creatinine; and after supplementation, the levels were 9.90 ± 8.26 μmol/mmol creatinine, 2.92 ± 2.41 μmol/mmol creatinine, and 2.57 ± 3.53 μmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. The results suggest that the supplementation reduces the level of dicarboxylic acid in the urine of autistic children.

  13. Relationship between urinary prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha excretion and plasma arginine vasopressin during renal concentrating and diluting tests in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, E B; Christensen, P; Danielsen, H; Eiskjaer, H; Jespersen, B; Knudsen, F; Kornerup, H J; Leyssac, P P; Nielsen, A H; Sørensen, S S

    1987-10-01

    Urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP) were determined during urinary concentrating and diluting tests in renal transplant recipients and control subjects. During the concentrating test PGE2 and PGF2 alpha remained unchanged in the renal transplant recipients, whereas both PGE2 and PGF2 alpha were significantly reduced in the control subjects. During the diluting test PGE2 and PGF2 alpha increased in both groups but, contrary to PGF2 alpha, PGE2 was significantly higher in all periods in the transplant recipients compared to the controls. However, the prostaglandin excretion rates per kidney were significantly higher in the renal transplant recipients than control subjects, for all periods during both the concentrating and the diluting test. Arginine vasopressin was significantly higher in renal transplant recipients than control subjects during basal conditions, increased to a significantly higher level in the transplant recipients after thirst, but was reduced to the same levels in the two groups during the diluting test. It is concluded that the increased excretion of prostaglandins in renal transplant recipients may be a compensatory phenomenon representing an adaptation to a reduced renal mass in order to maintain adequate renal water excretion. Although a direct relationship between the prostaglandin excretions of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha and AVP does not seem to exist, it is possible that the higher prostaglandin excretion in the renal transplant recipients may be a counterbalancing mechanism to the higher AVP level, which most likely is secondary to a decreased responsiveness to vasopressin of the renal collecting ducts in the transplanted kidney.

  14. Tissue distribution and urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites in C57BL6 mice following subchronic exposure to arsenate in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, E.M. Hughes, M.F.; Adair, B.M.; Highfill, J.H.; Crecelius, E.A.; Clewell, H.J.; Yager, J.W.

    2008-11-01

    The relationship of exposure and tissue concentration of parent chemical and metabolites over prolonged exposure is a critical issue for chronic toxicities mediated by metabolite(s) rather than parent chemical alone. This is an issue for As{sup V} because its trivalent metabolites have unique toxicities and relatively greater potency compared to their pentavalent counterparts for many endpoints. In this study, dose-dependency in tissue distribution and urinary excretion for inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites was assessed in female C57Bl/6 mice exposed to 0, 0.5, 2, 10 or 50 ppm arsenic (as arsenate, As{sup V}) in their drinking water for 12 weeks. No adverse effects were observed and body weight gain did not differ significantly among groups. Urinary excretion of arsenite monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}), and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) increased linearly with dose, whereas As{sup V} and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) excretion was non-linear with respect to dose. Total tissue arsenic accumulation was greatest in kidney > lung > urinary bladder >>> skin > blood > liver. Monomethyl arsenic (MMA, i.e. MMA{sup III} + MMA{sup V}) was the predominant metabolite in kidney, whereas dimethylarsenic (DMA, i.e., DMA{sup III} + DMA{sup V}) was the predominant metabolite in lung. Urinary bladder tissue had roughly equivalent levels of inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsenic, as did skin. These data indicate that pharmacokinetic models for arsenic metabolism and disposition need to include mechanisms for organ-specific accumulation of some arsenicals and that urinary metabolite profiles are not necessarily reflective of target tissue dosimetry.

  15. The influence of dietary factors on the risk of urinary stone formation.

    PubMed

    Hesse, A; Siener, R; Heynck, H; Jahnen, A

    1993-09-01

    The action of various beverages and foods on the composition of the urine in the circadian rhythm and in the 24-hour urine has been investigated under standardized conditions. Orange juice leads to a significant increase of urinary pH and citric acid excretion. Black tea leads to a raised excretion of oxalic acid by only 7.9%. In the short term, beer increases diuresis, but afterwards leads to a compensatory antidiuresis with increased risk of stone formation. Depending on their composition, mineral waters have very different effects on the urinary constituents. Milk as well as cocoa beverage significantly increase calcium excretion; moreover, cocoa causes an increase in the oxalic acid excretion. The leafy vegetable foods containing oxalate, e.g., spinach and rhubarb, lead to peaks of oxalate excretion of 300-400% in the circadian excretion curve. Cheese leads to a significant rise of calcium excretion with acidification of the urine and lowering of citrate excretion. Calcium excretion is increased by 30% by sodium chloride. Foods containing purine result in an increased uric acid excretion over several days. Depending on their phytic acid content, brans bind calcium, but lead to an increased oxalic acid excretion. Analysis of the urine indicates that average diet in Germany entails a high risk of urinary stone formation. As a result of the change to a balanced mixed or vegetarian diet, according to the requirements, significant alterations in urinary pH, calcium, magnesium, uric acid, citric acid, cystine, and glycosaminoglycan excretion are measured, resulting in a drastic reduction in the risk of urinary stone formation.

  16. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    PubMed

    Passlack, Nadine; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A), 18.5 (B) and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C) and 16.1 (A), 17.6 (B) and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C). Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between), and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox), the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  17. Association between 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zeng; Guo, Xiaolei; Chen, Xiaorong; Tang, Junli; Yan, Liuxia; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Jiyu; Lu, Zilong; Dong, Jing; Xu, Jianwei; Cai, Xiaoning; Liang, Hao; Ma, Jixiang

    2015-03-28

    The association of 24 h urinary Na and potassium excretion with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been studied in China. The aim of the present study was to examine this association by analysing the data from 1906 study participants living in north China. To this end, 24 h urine samples were collected. Of the 1906 participants, 471 (24·7 %) had the MetS. The mean urinary Na and K excretion was 228·7 and 40·8 mmol/d, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the odds of the MetS significantly increased across the increasing tertiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·40 and 1·54, respectively). For the components of the MetS, the odds of central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG, but not the odds of low HDL-cholesterol and elevated fasting glucose, significantly increased with the successive tertiles of urinary Na excretion. Furthermore, for every 100 mmol/d increase in urinary Na excretion, the odds of the MetS, central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG was significantly increased by 29, 63, 22 and 21 %, respectively. However, urinary K excretion was not significantly associated with the risk of the MetS. These findings suggest that high Na intake might be an important risk factor for the MetS in Chinese adults.

  18. Biliary and urinary excretion rates and serum concentration changes of four bilirubin photoproducts in Gunn rats during total darkness and low or high illumination.

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, S; Ogino, T; Yokoyama, T; Isobe, K; Itoh, S; Yamakawa, T; Hashimoto, T

    1984-01-01

    On cycled exposure of Gunn rats to total darkness and low and high illumination, biliary excretion rates of (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin and (EZ)-cyclobilirubin increased up to approx. 10-fold from the mean basal values of 1.2 and 0.2 microgram/h to the mean maximum values of 25.2 and 4.2 micrograms/h respectively, and at the same time those of (EE)-bilirubin and (EE)-cyclobilirubin also increased, but at very much lower rates than those of the first-mentioned two. During the low illumination only (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin and (EZ)-cyclobilirubin appeared in the urine; during the high illumination (EE)-bilirubin and (EE)-cyclobilirubin also appeared, showing a similar excretion pattern to that observed in the bile, but the total urinary excretion rates were lower than the total biliary excretion rates. The serum bilirubin concentrations fell gradually to lower values, accompanied by an increment in (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin, but (EZ)-cyclobilirubin was not detected. It is concluded that during phototherapy the predominant pathway for the removal of bilirubin from the body in the Gunn rat is by biliary excretion of the geometric photoisomers (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin, derived from Z----E isomerization, and the structural photoisomer (EZ)-cyclobilirubin, formed from intramolecular endo-vinyl cyclization. PMID:6477496

  19. Tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate: absorption and urinary excretion of bismuth in patients with normal and impaired renal function.

    PubMed

    Treiber, G; Gladziwa, U; Ittel, T H; Walker, S; Schweinsberg, F; Klotz, U

    1991-10-01

    We have investigated the absorption and urinary excretion of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate during a treatment course of 4 weeks in 7 patients with normal renal function (creatinine clearance 115 +/- 29 ml/min; mean +/- S.D.), in 7 patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance = 34 +/- 19 ml/min) and in 4 dialysed patients. Following the first dose of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (216 mg bismuth b.d.), and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment (dialysed patients received only 108 mg/b.d.), plasma and urine concentrations of bismuth were monitored for 2 and 24 h, respectively. After stopping therapy plasma and urine concentrations of bismuth were followed for 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. In all three groups of patients small amounts of bismuth (mean values 0.26 to 0.28% of dose) were rapidly (transient mean peak concentrations between 40 and 134 micrograms/L) reached within about 30 to 40 min, absorbed and plasma levels demonstrated a wide intra- and inter-individual variability. Absorption profiles were not altered during the treatment course; however, the trough plasma concentration of bismuth demonstrated an about 3- to 5-fold accumulation (correlated to creatinine clearance) from about 5 micrograms/L to 15 micrograms/L (normal renal function) or to 20-25 micrograms/L (impaired renal function). Pre-study bismuth levels could be detected within 2 to 4 weeks after stopping therapy in all subjects whereas urinary concentrations were still elevated 6 weeks after the course of treatment. Our results indicate that tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate is absorbed in very low amounts during standard therapy. However, dependent on renal function, accumulation to non-toxic levels does occur during a course of treatment. It appears prudent to halve tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate dosage in patients with severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance less than or equal to 20 ml/min) to avoid any possible toxic risks. In such patients monitoring of the

  20. Urinary Isoflavonoid Excretion is Similar after Consuming Soy Milk and Miso Soup in Japanese-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Watts, Kirsten; Kagihara, Jamie; Hebshi, Sandra M.; Franke, Adrian A.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that isoflavones are absorbed more efficiently from fermented than from non-fermented soy foods, we compared the urinary isoflavonoid excretion (UIE) after intake of miso soup or soy milk. We recruited 21 women with Japanese ancestry who consumed standardized soy portions containing 48 mg isoflavones. On day 1, half the women consumed soy milk, the other half started with miso soup. On day 3, the subjects ate the other soy food and on day 5, they repeated the first food. Each participant collected a spot urine sample before and an overnight urine sample after soy food intake. All urine samples were analyzed for the daidzein, genistein, and equol using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and were expressed as nmol per mg creatinine. We applied mixed models to evaluate the difference in UIE by food while including the baseline values and covariates. Relative to baseline, both groups experienced significantly higher UIE after consuming any of the soy foods. We observed no significant difference in UIE when soy milk was compared to miso soup (p = 0.87) among all women or in the seven equol producers (p = 0.88). Repeated intake of the same food on different days showed high reproducibility within subjects. These preliminary results indicate similar UIEs after consuming a fermented soy food (miso) as compared to a non-fermented soy food (soy milk). Therefore, recommendations favoring fermented soy foods are not justified as long as the intestinal microflora is capable of hydrolyzing the isoflavone glucosides from non-fermented soy foods. PMID:18275624

  1. Sclerostin alters serum vitamin D metabolite and fibroblast growth factor 23 concentrations and the urinary excretion of calcium

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Zachary C.; Ketha, Hemamalini; McNulty, Melissa S.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan; Craig, Theodore A.; Grande, Joseph P.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Singh, Ravinder J.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Inactivating mutations of the SOST (sclerostin) gene are associated with overgrowth and sclerosis of the skeleton. To determine mechanisms by which increased amounts of calcium and phosphorus are accreted to enable enhanced bone mineralization in the absence of sclerostin, we measured concentrations of calciotropic and phosphaturic hormones, and urine and serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus in mice in which the sclerostin (sost) gene was replaced by the β-D-galactosidase (lacZ) gene in the germ line. Knockout (KO) (sost−/−) mice had increased bone mineral density and content, increased cortical and trabecular bone thickness, and greater net bone formation as a result of increased osteoblast and decreased osteoclast surfaces compared with wild-type (WT) mice. β-Galactosidase activity was detected in osteocytes of sost KO mice but was undetectable in WT mice. Eight-week-old, male sost KO mice had increased serum 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, decreased 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, decreased intact fibroblast growth factor 23, and elevated inorganic phosphorus concentrations compared with age-matched WT mice. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (cyp27B1) mRNA was increased in kidneys of sost KO mice compared with WT mice. Treatment of cultured proximal tubule cells with mouse recombinant sclerostin decreased cyp27B1 mRNA transcripts. Urinary calcium and renal fractional excretion of calcium were decreased in sost KO mice compared with WT mice. Sost KO and WT mice had similar serum calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations. The data show that sclerostin not only alters bone mineralization, but also influences mineral metabolism by altering concentrations of hormones that regulate mineral accretion. PMID:23530237

  2. LP-925219 maximizes urinary glucose excretion in mice by inhibiting both renal SGLT1 and SGLT2.

    PubMed

    Powell, David R; Smith, Melinda G; Doree, Deon D; Harris, Angela L; Xiong, Wendy W; Mseeh, Faika; Wilson, Alan; Gopinathan, Suma; Diaz, Damaris; Goodwin, Nicole C; Harrison, Bryce; Strobel, Eric; Rawlins, David B; Carson, Ken; Zambrowicz, Brian; Ding, Zhi-Ming

    2015-03-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of oral anti-diabetic agents that improve glycemic control by inhibiting SGLT2-mediated renal glucose reabsorption. Currently available agents increase urinary glucose excretion (UGE) to <50% of maximal values because they do not inhibit SGLT1, which reabsorbs >50% of filtered glucose when SGLT2 is completely inhibited. This led us to test whether LP-925219, a small molecule dual SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitor, increases UGE to maximal values in wild-type (WT) mice. We first tested LP-925219 inhibition of glucose transport by HEK293 cells expressing SGLT1 or SGLT2, and then characterized LP-925219 pharmacokinetics. We found that LP-925219 was a potent inhibitor of mouse SGLT1 (IC50 = 22.6 nmol/L) and SGLT2 (IC50 = 0.5 nmol/L), and that a 10 mg/kg oral dose was bioavailable (87%) with a long half-life (7 h). We next delivered LP-925219 by oral gavage to WT, SGLT1 knockout (KO), SGLT2 KO, and SGLT1/SGLT2 double KO (DKO) mice and measured their 24-h UGE. We found that, in vehicle-treated mice, DKO UGE was maximal and SGLT2 KO, SGLT1 KO, and WT UGEs were 30%, 2%, and 0.2% of maximal, respectively; we also found that LP-925219 dosed at 60 mg/kg twice daily increased UGE of SGLT1 KO, SGLT2 KO, and WT mice to DKO UGE levels. These findings show that orally available dual SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitors can maximize 24-h UGE in mammals, and suggest that such agents merit further evaluation for their potential, in diabetic patients, to achieve better glycemic control than is achieved using selective SGLT2 inhibitors.

  3. Independent associations of exposure to evening light and nocturnal urinary melatonin excretion with diabetes in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Iwamoto, Junko; Ikada, Yoshito; Kurumatani, Norio

    2014-04-01

    Circadian misalignment between internal and environmental rhythms dysregulates glucose homeostasis because of disruption of the biological clock, and increases risk of diabetes. Although exposure to evening light and decreased melatonin secretion are both associated with the circadian misalignment, it remains unclear whether they are associated with diabetes. In this cross-sectional study on 513 elderly individuals (mean age, 72.7 years), we measured ambulatory light intensity during the 4 h prior to bedtime at 1-min intervals during two consecutive days and overnight urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion (UME) along with glucose metabolism. The median average intensity of evening light exposure and UME were 25.4 lux (interquartile range 17.5-37.6) and 6.6 μg (interquartile range 3.9-9.7), respectively. Both log-transformed average intensity of evening light exposure and log-transformed UME were significantly associated with diabetes in a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for covariates, including gender, body mass index, duration in bed, and night-time light exposure [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.64; p = 0.01; and adjusted OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-0.97; p = 0.04; respectively]. An increase in evening light exposure from 17.5 to 37.6 lux (25-75th percentiles) was associated with a 51.2% (95% CI, 8.2-111.4%) increase in prevalent diabetes, and an increase in UME from 3.9 to 9.7 μg (25-75th percentiles) was associated with a 32.0% (95% CI, 1.9-52.8%) decrease in prevalent diabetes. In conclusion, this study in elderly individuals demonstrated that evening light exposure in home settings and UME were significantly and independently associated with diabetes.

  4. Improvements in Augmentation Index and Urinary Albumin Excretion With Benidipine in Hypertensive Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Tadateru; Yoda, Shunichi; Yajima, Yoshiharu; Kasamaki, Yuji; Kunimoto, Satoshi; Kanai, Takashi; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Although calcium channel blockers (CCB) are expected to improve the augmentation index (AI) in CKD patients, the potential effect of benidipine on AI has been poorly studied.The present study aimed to compare the effect of benidipine and amlodipine in the treatment of CKD patients as measured through AI and urinary albumin excretion (UAE). Eligible patients with CKD were randomized to either the benidipine group or amlodipine group. Changes in UAE and AI were compared with target blood pressure level set at < 130/80 mmHg. A total of 108 patients were enrolled; 88 patients who were followed up were included in the analysis. Although no significant change in renal function was noted in either group, there was a significant improvement in AI only in the benidipine group (85.7 ± 13.3% to 81.4 ± 15.2%; P = 0.021) A subgroup analysis of 64 patients who achieved SBP < 140 mmHg at the end of follow-up (31 on amlodipine and 33 on benidipine) was carried out. Significant improvement in AI was noted only in the benidipine group (84.5 ± 13.6% to 79.5 ± 15.2%; P = 0.0138). In another subgroup of patients with UAE ≥ 300 mg/g Cr, a significant improvement in UAE in the benidipine group was found compared with the amlodipine group (-25 ± 46, 51 ± 60%, P = 0.031, respectively).These results suggest that benidipine might reduce significantly AI and might have potentially greater improvements in UAE than amlodipine in advanced CKD patients receiving RAS inhibitors.

  5. Caffeine does not entrain the circadian clock but improves daytime alertness in blind patients with non-24-hour rhythms

    PubMed Central

    St. Hilaire, Melissa A.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective/Background Totally blind individuals are highly likely to suffer from Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder due to a failure of light to reset the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. In this outpatient case series, we investigated whether daily caffeine administration could entrain the circadian pacemaker in non-entrained blind patients to alleviate symptoms of non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder. Patients/Methods Three totally blind males (63.0 ± 7.5 years old) were studied at home over ~4 months. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) rhythms were measured for 48 h every 1–2 weeks. Participants completed daily sleep–wake logs, and rated their alertness and mood using nine-point scales every ~2–4 h while awake on urine sampling days. Caffeine capsules (150 mg per os) were self-administered daily at 10 a.m. for approximately one circadian beat cycle based on each participant's endogenous circadian period τ and compared to placebo (n = 2) or no treatment (n = 1) in a single-masked manner. Results Non-24-h aMT6s rhythms were confirmed in all three participants (τ range = 24.32–24.57 h). Daily administration of 150 mg caffeine did not entrain the circadian clock. Caffeine treatment significantly improved daytime alertness at adverse circadian phases (p < 0.0001) but did not decrease the occurrence of daytime naps compared with placebo. Conclusions Although caffeine was able to improve daytime alertness acutely and may therefore provide temporary symptomatic relief, the inability of caffeine to correct the underlying circadian disorder means that an entraining agent is required to treat Non-24-Hour Sleep–Wake Disorder in the blind appropriately. PMID:25891543

  6. Interspecies scaling of excretory amounts using allometry - retrospective analysis with rifapentine, aztreonam, carumonam, pefloxacin, miloxacin, trovafloxacin, doripenem, imipenem, cefozopran, ceftazidime, linezolid for urinary excretion and rifapentine, cabotegravir, and dolutegravir for fecal excretion.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2016-09-01

    1. Interspecies allometry scaling for prediction of human excretory amounts in urine or feces was performed for numerous antibacterials. Antibacterials used for urinary scaling were: rifapentine, pefloxacin, trovafloxacin (Gr1/low; <10%); miloxacin, linezolid, PNU-142300 (Gr2/medium; 10-40%); aztreonam, carumonam, cefozopran, doripenem, imipenem, and ceftazidime (Gr3/high; >50%). Rifapentine, cabotegravir, and dolutegravir was used for fecal scaling (high; >50%). 2. The employment of allometry equation: Y = aW(b) enabled scaling of urine/fecal amounts from animal species. Corresponding predicted amounts were converted into % recovery by considering the respective human dose. Comparison of predicted/observed values enabled fold difference and error calculations (mean absolute error [MAE] and root mean square error [RMSE]). Comparisons were made for urinary/fecal data; and qualitative assessment was made amongst Gr1/Gr2/Gr3 for urine. 3. Average correlation coefficient for the allometry scaling was >0.995. Excretory amount predictions were largely within 0.75- to 1.5-fold differences. Average MAE and RMSE were within ±22% and 23%, respectively. Although robust predictions were achieved for higher urinary/fecal excretion (>50%), interspecies scaling was applicable for low/medium excretory drugs. 4. Based on the data, interspecies scaling of urine or fecal excretory amounts may be potentially used as a tool to understand the significance of either urinary or fecal routes of elimination in humans in early development.

  7. Optimal dose of oral omeprazole for maximal 24 hour decrease of intragastric acidity.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, B K; Walt, R P; Pounder, R E; Gomes, M D; Wood, E C; Logan, L H

    1984-01-01

    In a series of 59 experiments in nine duodenal ulcer patients, 24 hour intragastric acidity was measured before, during, and after treatment with daily oral omeprazole. Omeprazole 10, 20, and 30 mg/day for one week caused a 37, 90, and 97% decrease of 24 hour intragastric acidity, respectively. No further decrease of acidity was observed when the dose of omeprazole was doubled to 60 mg/day, or after a second week of treatment with 30 mg/day. One week after stopping treatment with omeprazole (14 doses) there was a significant 26% decrease of 24 hour intragastric acidity, with full recovery seven weeks later. Fasting plasma gastrin concentration was significantly raised during treatment with all doses of omeprazole. Omeprazole 30 mg/day is the optimal dose for a maximal decrease of 24 hour intragastric acidity in duodenal ulcer patients. PMID:6469081

  8. Comparison of anthropometric and training characteristics between recreational male marathoners and 24-hour ultramarathoners

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Of the anthropometry and training variables used to predict race performance in a 24-hour ultrarun, the personal best marathon time is the strongest predictor in recreational male 24-hour ultramarathoners. This finding raises the question of whether similarities exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners. Methods The association between age, anthropometric variables (ie, body mass, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, skeletal muscle mass, limb circumference, and skinfold thickness at the pectoral, mid axillary, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, front thigh, and medial calf sites), previous experience and training characteristics (ie, volume, speed, and personal best time), and race time for 79 male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and 126 male recreational marathoners was investigated using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results The 24-hour ultramarathoners were older (P < 0.05), had a lower circumference at both the upper arm (P < 0.05) and thigh (P < 0.01), and a lower skinfold thickness at the pectoral, axillary, and suprailiac sites (P < 0.05) compared with the marathoners. During training, the 24-hour ultramarathoners were running for more hours per week (P < 0.001) and completed more kilometers (P < 0.001), but were running slower (P < 0.01) compared with the marathoners. In the 24-hour ultramarathoners, neither anthropometric nor training variables were associated with kilometers completed in the race (P > 0.05). In the marathoners, percent body fat (P < 0.001) and running speed during training (P < 0.0001) were related to marathon race times. Conclusion In summary, differences in anthropometric and training predictor variables do exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners for race performance. PMID:24198595

  9. Field study of the urinary excretion of ethoxyacetic acid during repeated daily exposure to the ethyl ether of ethylene glycol and the ethyl ether of ethylene glycol acetate.

    PubMed

    Veulemans, H; Groeseneken, D; Masschelein, R; Van Vlem, E

    1987-06-01

    The urinary excretion of ethoxyacetic acid (EAA) was studied in a group of five women daily exposed to the ethyl ether of ethylene glycol (EGEE) and the ethyl ether of ethylene glycol acetate (EGEE-Ac) during 5 d of normal production and 7 d after a 12-d production stop. The mean combined exposure concentration of EGEE and EGEE-Ac (expressed in equivalent weight of EGEE) was 14.0 mg/m3 with occasional slight excursions above the current Belgian occupational exposure limit. The daily combined exposure profiles for EGEE and EGEE-Ac were rather constant during the first observation period, but they tended to decrease during the last week. The urinary EAA excretion clearly increased during the work week. Over the weekends the elimination was far from complete, and even after a prolonged nonexposure period of 12 d traces of the metabolite were still detectable. Based on the observations from the first period, a good linear correlation (r = 0.92) was found between the average exposure over 5 d (14.4 mg/m3) and the EAA excretion at the end of the week (105.7 mg/g creatinine). An EAA estimate of 150 +/- 35 mg/g was found to correspond with repeated 5-d full-shift exposures to the respective occupational exposure limit of EGEE (19 mg/m3) or EGEE-Ac (27 mg/m3).

  10. LC-MS/MS determination and urinary excretion study of seven alkaloids in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of Shuanghua Baihe tablets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Minlu; Liu, Ruijuan; Wu, Yao; Gu, Pan; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Yujie; Ma, Pengcheng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-25

    An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of magnoflorine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, epiberberine, palmatine and berberine in human urine. The sample preparation procedure involved the four-fold dilution of the urine samples with acetonitrile/water (1:3, v/v). The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hedera ODS-2 column under gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min with acetonitrile and water containing 0.5% formic acid as the mobile phase. The mass detection was performed in the positive mode. Calibration curves of the seven alkaloids showed good linearity (correlation coefficients>0.9973) over their concentration ranges. To meet the requirements of urinary excretion study for each alkaloid in human, the lower limit of quantification was set at different values from 0.05063 ng/mL to 2.034 ng/mL for the seven alkaloids, respectively. The intra- and inter-batch precision and accuracy were all within ± 15%. No matrix effect was observed for the analytes. The validated method was applied to the excretion study for the seven alkaloids in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of Shuanghua Baihe tablets. The average 72 h cumulative urinary excretion of magnoflorine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, epiberberine, palmatine and berberine accounted for 1.81%, 0.27%, 0.29%, 0.046%, 0.027%, 0.010% and 0.021% of the respective administered dose.

  11. Urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins increases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats without decreases in liver or blood vitamin content.

    PubMed

    Imai, Eri; Sano, Mitsue; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that the contents of water-soluble vitamins in the body are generally low in diabetic patients because large amounts of vitamins are excreted into urine. However, this hypothesis has not been confirmed. To investigate this hypothesis, diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats (6 wk old) by streptozotocin treatment, and they were then given diets containing low, medium or sufficient vitamins for 70 d. The contents of 6 kinds of B-group vitamins, namely vitamin B₁, vitamin B₂, vitamin B₆, vitamin B₁₂, folate and biotin, were determined in the urine, blood and liver. No basic differences among the dietary vitamin contents were observed. The urinary excretion of vitamins was higher in diabetic rats than in control rats. The blood concentrations of vitamin B₁₂ and folate were lowered by diabetes, while, those of vitamin B₁, vitamin B₂, vitamin B₆, and biotin were not. All liver concentrations of vitamins were increased in diabetic rats above those in control rats. These results showed that streptozotocin-induced diabetes increased urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins, though their blood and liver concentrations were essentially maintained in the rats.

  12. The atypical excretion profile of meldonium: Comparison of urinary detection windows after single- and multiple-dose application in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Görgens, Christian; Guddat, Sven; Bosse, Christina; Geyer, Hans; Pop, Valentin; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2017-05-10

    Following a one-year monitoring program providing unequivocal analytical evidence for a high prevalence in international elite sports, meldonium has been included in the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) list of prohibited substances that came into effect on 1 January 2016. Despite of the polar and hydrophilic nature of the molecule, an unusual long detection window was observed in pilot elimination studies. Consequently, in the present study, urinary excretion profiles after single-dose (5 volunteers, 1×500mg) and multiple-dose oral application (5 volunteers; 2×500mg/day for 6days) were determined in order to facilitate the result management concerning meldonium findings in doping controls. Particularly the option to differentiate between recent use and tapering concentrations was studied. Urinary meldonium concentrations were determined using an analytical approach based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. The study corroborates the hypothesis of a non-linear, dose-depended and biphasic excretion profile after oral application of meldonium and demonstrates that urinary detection windows are of considerable extent with up to 65 and 117days (concentrations>LOQ of 10ng/mL) following single- and multiple-dose applications, respectively.

  13. Activation of the serotonergic 5-HT1A receptor in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus inhibits water intake and increases urinary excretion in water-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    de Souza Villa, Patrícia; Menani, José Vanderlei; de Arruda Camargo, Gabriela Maria Pavan; de Arruda Camargo, Luiz Antônio; Saad, Wilson Abrão

    2008-10-09

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) may be considered as a dynamic mosaic of chemically-specified subgroups of neurons. 5-HT(1A) is one of the prime receptors identified and there is expressed throughout all magnocellular regions of the PVN. Several reports have demonstrated that a subpopulation of the magnocellular neurons expressing 5-HT(1A) receptors are oxytocin (OT) neurons and activation of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the PVN increases the plasma OT. Increasing evidence shows that OT inhibits water intake and increases urinary excretion in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of serotonergic 5-HT(1A) receptors in the lateral-medial posterior magnocellular region of the PVN in the water intake and diuresis induced by 24 h of water deprivation. Cannulae were implanted in the PVN of rats. 5-HT injections in the PVN reduced water intake and increased urinary excretion. 8-OH-DPAT (a 5-HT(1A) agonist) injections blocked the water intake and increased urinary output in all the periods of the observation. pMPPF (a 5-HT(1A) antagonist) injected bilaterally before the 8-OH-DPAT blocked its inhibitory effect on water intake and its diuretic effect. We suggest that antidipsogenic and diuretic responses seem to be mediated via 5-HT(1A) receptors of the lateral-medial posterior magnocellular region of the PVN in water-deprived rats.

  14. A comparison of the effects of glucose ingestion and NH4Cl acidosis on urinary calcium and magnesium excretion in man

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Edward J.; Piering, Walter F.

    1970-01-01

    Both glucose ingestion and NH4Cl acidosis have been reported to augment urinary calcium (UCa V) and magnesium (UMg V) excretion. Both also cause acidification of the urine and an increase in renal acid excretion. To examine whether a common mechanism of action was involved, the effects of glucose ingestion and NH4Cl acidosis on UCa V and UMg V were tested in the same subjects. Glucose ingestion caused significant increases in both UCa V and UMg V. During stable NH4Cl acidosis, UCa V increased significantly, while UMg V was unaffected. When a glucose load was given during acidosis, the separate effects of acidosis and glucose on UCa V were additive, whereas UMg V increased less than observed during normal acid-base balance. Although renal acid excretion increased and the urine was acidified after glucose in the normal steady state, when glucose was administered during NH4Cl acidosis urine pH rose and there was no change in renal acid excretion. We concluded that NH4Cl acidosis and glucose ingestion reduce the renal tubular reabsorption of magnesium and (or) calcium, but they act through separate mechanisms. PMID:5432375

  15. Urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine interrelations with obesity, insulin, and the metabolic syndrome in Hong Kong Chinese.

    PubMed

    Lee, Z S; Critchley, J A; Tomlinson, B; Young, R P; Thomas, G N; Cockram, C S; Chan, T Y; Chan, J C

    2001-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome is characterized by a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Elevated plasma insulin and urinary norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and reduced urinary epinephrine (adrenaline) excretion are associated with obesity in Caucasian populations. We examined the interrelationships between obesity, plasma insulin, and urinary catecholamine excretion in Chinese subjects with various components of the metabolic syndrome. A total of 577 Chinese subjects (aged 38 +/- 10 years; 68% with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and/or albuminuria and 32% healthy subjects) were studied, all of whom had a plasma creatinine less than 150 micromol/L. The blood pressure, height, weight, waist and hip circumference, and fasting plasma glucose, insulin, lipid, and creatinine levels were measured. A 24-hour urine sample was collected for measurement of albumin and catecholamine excretion. The body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were used as measures of general and central obesity, respectively. The insulin resistance index was estimated by the calculated product of fasting plasma insulin and glucose concentrations. Patients with an increasing number of components of the metabolic syndrome (type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and/or albuminuria) were more obese, hyperglycemic, dyslipidemic, and albuminuric and had higher blood pressure, plasma insulin, insulin resistance indices, and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine excretion but lower urinary epinephrine output (all P < .005). Increasing quintiles of BMI in the whole population or waist circumference in both sexes were associated with increasing trends for adverse lipid profiles, plasma insulin, insulin resistance indices, and urinary norepinephrine excretion but a decreasing trend for urinary epinephrine output (all P < .001). There were close associations between age, obesity

  16. Canagliflozin Lowers Postprandial Glucose and Insulin by Delaying Intestinal Glucose Absorption in Addition to Increasing Urinary Glucose Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Polidori, David; Sha, Sue; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ciaraldi, Theodore P.; Ghosh, Atalanta; Vaccaro, Nicole; Farrell, Kristin; Rothenberg, Paul; Henry, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor, is also a low-potency SGLT1 inhibitor. This study tested the hypothesis that intestinal canagliflozin levels postdose are sufficiently high to transiently inhibit intestinal SGLT1, thereby delaying intestinal glucose absorption. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This two-period, crossover study evaluated effects of canagliflozin on intestinal glucose absorption in 20 healthy subjects using a dual-tracer method. Placebo or canagliflozin 300 mg was given 20 min before a 600-kcal mixed-meal tolerance test. Plasma glucose, 3H-glucose, 14C-glucose, and insulin were measured frequently for 6 h to calculate rates of appearance of oral glucose (RaO) in plasma, endogenous glucose production, and glucose disposal. RESULTS Compared with placebo, canagliflozin treatment reduced postprandial plasma glucose and insulin excursions (incremental 0- to 2-h area under the curve [AUC0–2h] reductions of 35% and 43%, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), increased 0- to 6-h urinary glucose excretion (UGE0–6h, 18.2 ± 5.6 vs. <0.2 g; P < 0.001), and delayed RaO. Canagliflozin reduced AUC RaO by 31% over 0 to 1 h (geometric means, 264 vs. 381 mg/kg; P < 0.001) and by 20% over 0 to 2 h (576 vs. 723 mg/kg; P = 0.002). Over 2 to 6 h, canagliflozin increased RaO such that total AUC RaO over 0 to 6 h was <6% lower versus placebo (960 vs. 1,018 mg/kg; P = 0.003). A modest (∼10%) reduction in acetaminophen absorption was observed over the first 2 h, but this difference was not sufficient to explain the reduction in RaO. Total glucose disposal over 0 to 6 h was similar across groups. CONCLUSIONS Canagliflozin reduces postprandial plasma glucose and insulin by increasing UGE (via renal SGLT2 inhibition) and delaying RaO, likely due to intestinal SGLT1 inhibition. PMID:23412078

  17. Effect of Pentoxifylline on Renal Function and Urinary Albumin Excretion in Patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease: The PREDIAN Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Fernández, Carmen; Muros de Fuentes, Mercedes; Chahin, Jesús; Méndez, María L.; Gallego, Eduardo; Macía, Manuel; del Castillo, Nieves; Rivero, Antonio; Getino, María A.; García, Patricia; Jarque, Ana; García, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of ESRD. We conducted an open-label, prospective, randomized trial to determine whether pentoxifylline (PTF), which reduces albuminuria, in addition to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade, can slow progression of renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and stages 3–4 CKD. Participants were assigned to receive PTF (1200 mg/d) (n=82) or to a control group (n=87) for 2 years. All patients received similar doses of RAS inhibitors. At study end, eGFR had decreased by a mean±SEM of 2.1±0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the PTF group compared with 6.5±0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the control group, with a between-group difference of 4.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.1 to 5.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2; P<0.001) in favor of PTF. The proportion of patients with a rate of eGFR decline greater than the median rate of decline (0.16 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per month) was lower in the PTF group than in the control group (33.3% versus 68.2%; P<0.001). Percentage change in urinary albumin excretion was 5.7% (95% CI, −0.3% to 11.1%) in the control group and −14.9% (95% CI, −20.4% to −9.4%) in the PTF group (P=0.001). Urine TNF-α decreased from a median 16 ng/g (interquartile range, 11–20.1 ng/g) to 14.3 ng/g (interquartile range, 9.2–18.4 ng/g) in the PTF group (P<0.01), with no changes in the control group. In this population, addition of PTF to RAS inhibitors resulted in a smaller decrease in eGFR and a greater reduction of residual albuminuria. PMID:24970885

  18. Different effect of testosterone and oestrogen on urinary excretion of metformin via regulating OCTs and MATEs expression in the kidney of mice.

    PubMed

    He, Rui; Ai, Ligen; Zhang, Dandan; Wan, Lili; Zheng, Taishan; Yin, Jun; Lu, Huijuan; Lu, Junxi; Lu, Fengdi; Liu, Fang; Jia, Weiping

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of testosterone and oestrogen on regulating organic cation transporters (Octs) and multidrug and toxin extrusions (Mates) expression in the kidney of mice and urinary excretion of metformin. 8 week-old male db/db mice were treated with estradiol (5 mg/kg), testosterone (50 mg/kg) or olive oil with same volume. Metformin (150 mg/kg) was injected in daily for successive 7 days. Plasma, urine and tissue concentrations of metformin were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS) assay. Western blotting and Real-time PCR analysis were successively used to evaluate the renal protein and mRNA expression of Octs and MATEs. After treatment, the protein expression of Mate1 and Oct2 in testosterone group was significantly increased than those in control group (both P < 0.05). The protein expression of Mate1 and Oct2 in estradiol group was significantly reduced by 29.4% and 43.3%, respectively, compared to those in control group (all P < 0.05). These data showed a good agreement with the change in mRNA level (all P < 0.05). The plasma metformin concentration (ng/ml) in mice treated with estradiol was significantly higher than control and testosterone group (677.56 ± 72.49 versus 293.92 ± 83.27 and 261.46 ± 79.45; P < 0.01). Moreover, testosterone increased the metformin urine excretion of mice while estradiol decreasing (both P < 0.01). Spearman correlation analysis showed that gonadal hormone was closely associated with Mate1 and Oct2 expression and metformin urine excretion in db/db mice (all P < 0.05). Testosterone and oestrogen exerted reverse effect on metformin urinary excretion via regulating Octs and Mates expression in the kidney of mice.

  19. Daytime cold exposure and salt intake based on nocturnal urinary sodium excretion: A cross-sectional analysis of the HEIJO-KYO study.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Keigo; Obayashi, Kenji; Tone, Nobuhiro; Kurumatani, Norio

    2015-12-01

    Increased cardiovascular incidence in winter is partly explained by higher blood pressure due to cold exposure. Although higher salt intake induced by cold exposure has been reported in mice, the association remains unclear in humans. To investigate the association between salt intake and cold exposure in winter, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 860 elderly subjects (mean ± standard deviation: 72.0 ± 7.1 years). We determined ambient temperature at every 10 min according to indoor temperature measured in the subjects' home, outdoor temperature, and self-administered diary logging time spent outdoors. Salt intake was estimated by nocturnal sodium excretion rate of overnight urine collection. A 1°C lower daytime ambient temperature was significantly associated with a higher urinary sodium excretion rate by 0.07 mmol/h in the subsequent night independent of age, sex, body weight, alcohol intake, calcium channel blocker use, diabetes, household income, estimated glomerular filtration rate, daytime physical activity (p=0.02). After further adjustment for outdoor temperature and day length, the lowest tertile groups of ambient daytime temperature (10.1 ± 2.3°C) showed the nocturnal urinary sodium excretion rate was higher by 14.2% (7.62 vs. 6.54 mmol/h) compared with the highest tertile group (19.3 ± 1.8°C). Higher sodium excretion rate was associated with higher nighttime ambulatory blood pressure (p<0.01) and its lower nocturnal dipping (p<0.01). Significant association between higher salt intake and daytime cold exposure partly explain the mechanism of higher blood pressure in winter, and suggest that a reduction of cold exposure might be effective to decrease salt intake.

  20. Urinary excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 (apolipoprotein H) and other markers of tubular malfunction in "non-tubular" renal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, F. V.; Lapsley, M.; Sansom, P. A.; Cohen, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1 assays can provide improved discrimination between chronic renal diseases which are primarily of tubular or glomerular origin. METHODS: Urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, alpha 1-microglobulin, beta 2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosa-minidase and albumin were measured in 51 patients with primary glomerular disease, 23 with obstructive nephropathy, and 15 with polycystic kidney disease, and expressed per mmol of creatinine. Plasma beta 2-glycoprotein-1 was assayed in 52 patients and plasma creatinine in all 89. The findings were compared between the diagnostic groups and with previously published data relating to primary tubular disorders. RESULTS: All 31 patients with plasma creatinine greater than 200 mumol/l excreted increased amounts of beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin, and 29 had increased N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase; the quantities were generally similar to those found in comparable patients with primary tubular pathology. Among 58 with plasma creatinine concentrations under 200 mumol/l, increases in beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin excretion were less common and much smaller, especially in those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. The ratios of the excretion of albumin to the other proteins provided the clearest discrimination between the patients with glomerular or tubular malfunction, but an area of overlap was present which embraced those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Increased excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 due to a raised plasma concentration or diminution of tubular reabsorption, or both, is common in all the forms of renal disease investigated, and both plasma creatinine and urinary albumin must be taken into account when interpreting results. Ratios of urinary albumin: beta 2-glycoprotein-1 greater than 1000 are highly suggestive

  1. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives, microbial protein synthesis, nitrogen use, and ruminal fermentation in sheep and goats fed diets of different quality.

    PubMed

    Carro, M D; Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Ranilla, M J; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare N balance, microbial N flow (MNF) estimated from purine derivatives (PD) urinary excretion, and its variation when estimated using purine bases:N ratios in liquid associated bacteria (LAB) from models reported in the literature (MNF - response models) or measured ratios in liquid and solid-associated bacterial (SAB) pellets (MNF-LAB+SAB), diet digestibility, and rumen fermentation variables in sheep and goats fed 3 different practical, quality diets to study interspecies differences concerning N use as accurately as possible. Four mature female Merino sheep and 4 mature female Granadina goats, each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were used in 3 × 3 Latin square design with an extra animal. Two experimental diets had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 70:30 (DM basis) with alfalfa hay (ALC) or grass hay (GRC) as forage, and the third diet contained 70% concentrate and 30% alfalfa hay (CAL). All animals were fed the diets at a daily rate of 56 g/kg BW(0.75) to minimize feed selection. Digestibility of nutrients was similar (P = 0.16 to 0.88) in the 2 species, but some animal species × diet interactions (P = 0.01 to 0.04) were detected. There were small differences between the fermentation patterns of both animal species. Goats showed decreased VFA concentrations (P = 0.005) and butyrate proportions (P = 0.04), and greater acetate proportions (P = 0.02) compared with sheep, whereas N intake and percentage of N intake excreted in feces were similar in both species (P = 0.58 and 0.15, respectively), the percentage excreted via the urine was greater in goats compared with sheep (P < 0.001). As a consequence, sheep had greater (P < 0.001) N retention than goats (averaged across diets, 32.6% and 16.1% of N intake, respectively). There were no differences (P = 0.95) between animal species in total PD excretion, but goats showed a greater excretion of allantoin (P = 0.01) and decreased excretion of xanthine (P = 0.008) and

  2. Insights about serum sodium behavior after 24 hours of continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Thiago Gomes; Martins, Cassia Pimenta Barufi; Mendes, Pedro Vitale; Besen, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro; Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Park, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratorial factors associated with serum sodium variation during continuous renal replacement therapy and to assess whether the perfect admixture formula could predict 24-hour sodium variation. Methods Thirty-six continuous renal replacement therapy sessions of 33 patients, in which the affluent prescription was unchanged during the first 24 hours, were retrieved from a prospective collected database and then analyzed. A mixed linear model was performed to investigate the factors associated with large serum sodium variations (≥ 8mEq/L), and a Bland-Altman plot was generated to assess the agreement between the predicted and observed variations. Results In continuous renal replacement therapy 24-hour sessions, SAPS 3 (p = 0.022) and baseline hypernatremia (p = 0.023) were statistically significant predictors of serum sodium variations ≥ 8mEq/L in univariate analysis, but only hypernatremia demonstrated an independent association (β = 0.429, p < 0.001). The perfect admixture formula for sodium prediction at 24 hours demonstrated poor agreement with the observed values. Conclusions Hypernatremia at the time of continuous renal replacement therapy initiation is an important factor associated with clinically significant serum sodium variation. The use of 4% citrate or acid citrate dextrose - formula A 2.2% as anticoagulants was not associated with higher serum sodium variations. A mathematical prediction for the serum sodium concentration after 24 hours was not feasible. PMID:27410407

  3. Agreement between twenty-four hour salt ingestion and sodium excretion in a controlled environment

    PubMed Central

    Lerchl, Kathrin; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Rauh, Manfred; Goller, Ulrike; Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F.; Beck, Luis; Agureev, Alexander; Larina, Irina; Baranov, Victor; Morukov, Boris; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Vassilieva, Galina; Wabel, Peter; Vienken, Jörg; Kirsch, Karl; Johannes, Bernd; Krannich, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C.; Titze, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Accurately collected 24-hour urine collections are presumed to be valid for estimating salt intake in individuals. We performed two independent ultra-long-term salt balance studies lasting 105 (4 men) and 205 (6 men) days in 10 men simulating a flight to Mars. We controlled dietary intake of all constituents for months at salt intakes of 12, 9, and 6 grams per day and collected all urine. The subjects’ daily menus consisted of 27,279 individual servings, out of which 83.0% were completely consumed, 16.5% completely rejected, and 0.5% incompletely consumed. Urinary recovery of dietary salt was 92% of recorded intake, indicating long-term steady state sodium balance in both studies. Even at fixed salt intake, 24-hour sodium excretion (UNaV) showed infradian rhythmicity. We defined a ±25 mmol deviation from the average difference between recorded sodium intake and UNaV as the prediction interval to accurately classify a 3-gram difference in salt intake. Due to the biological variability in UNaV, only every-other daily urine sample correctly classified a 3-gram difference in salt intake (49%). By increasing the observations to three consecutive 24-hour collections and sodium intakes, classification accuracy improved to 75%. Collecting seven 24-hour urines and sodium intake samples improved classification accuracy to 92%. We conclude that single 24-hour urine collections at intakes ranging from 6–12 grams salt per day were not suitable to detect a 3-gram difference in individual salt intake. Repeated measurements of 24-hour UNaV improve precision. This knowledge could be relevant to patient care and the conduct of intervention trials. PMID:26259596

  4. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Buendia Jimenez, Inmaculada; Richardot, Pascaline; Picard, Pascaline; Lepicard, Eve M.; De Meo, Michel; Talaska, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume <1 L and osmolality >700 mOsmol/kg). Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN) on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary. PMID:26357419

  5. Asymptomatic rhythm and conduction abnormalities in children with acute rheumatic fever: 24-hour electrocardiography study.

    PubMed

    Karacan, Mehmet; Işıkay, Sedat; Olgun, Haşim; Ceviz, Naci

    2010-12-01

    Some rhythm and conduction abnormalities can occur in children with acute rheumatic fever. These abnormalities have been defined based on standard electrocardiography; however, the real prevalence of these abnormalities has not been investigated previously by the evaluation of long-term electrocardiographic recordings. In this study, we evaluated the asymptomatic rhythm and conduction abnormalities in children with acute rheumatic fever by evaluating the 24-hour electrocardiography. We evaluated the standard electrocardiography and the 24-hour electrocardiography of 64 children with acute rheumatic fever. On standard electrocardiography, the frequency of the first-degree atrioventricular block was found to be 21.9%. Electrocardiography at 24 hours detected three additional and separate patients with a long PR interval. Mobitz type I block and atypical Wenckebach periodicity were determined in one patient (1.56%) on 24-hour electrocardiography. While accelerated junctional rhythm was detected in three patients on standard electrocardiography, it was present in nine patients according to 24-hour electrocardiography. Premature contractions were present in 1.7% of standard electrocardiography, but in 29.7% of 24-hour electrocardiography. Absence of carditis was found to be related to the presence of accelerated junctional rhythm (p > 0.05), and the presence of carditis was found to be related to the presence of premature contractions (p = 0.000). In conclusion, our results suggest that in children with acute rheumatic fever, the prevalence of rhythm and conduction abnormalities may be much higher than determined on standard electrocardiography. Further studies are needed to clarify whether or not these abnormalities are specific to acute rheumatic fever.

  6. Sodium and potassium intake in South Africa: an evaluation of 24-hour urine collections in a white, black, and Indian population.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Bianca; Schutte, Aletta E; Cockeran, Marike; Steyn, Krisela; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2016-11-01

    Limited number of studies on salt intake has been conducted in the South Africa. The present study established the sodium and potassium excretion (24-hour urine collection) of three different South African populations. In total, 692 successful 24-hour urine collections were analyzed for sodium, potassium, and iodine levels. The median sodium and potassium excretion was 122.9 and 33.5 mmol/d, respectively, and the median salt intake was 7.2 g/d. The majority (92.8%) of the population did not meet the recommended potassium intake/d, and 65.6% consumed more than 6 g of salt/d. Potassium excretion showed a linear relationship with salt intake (P-trend ≤ .001). The median sodium-to-potassium ratio was 3.5. These findings support the South African government's sodium reduction legislation, as well as global initiatives. More consideration should be given to promoting the intake of potassium-rich foods, as this may have a greater public health impact than focusing only on dietary sodium reduction.

  7. Continual 24-hour observations of thermospheric winds made with the SOFDI instrument from Huancayo, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerrard, Andrew; Meriwether, John W.

    The Second generation Optimized Fabry-Perot Doppler Imager (SOFDI), a state-of-the-art triple-etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer, has been sucessfully relocated to Huancayo, Peru and is making continual 24-hour observations. The 630-nm data, originating from layer-integrated OI emission with centroid heights of 250 km at night and 220 km during the day, are analyzed so as to obtain measurements of horizontal winds in the thermosphere. In this paper we report the most recent results from continuous 24-hour observations of these thermospheric parameters.

  8. [Effects of excess vitamin B1 or vitamin B2 on growth and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in weaning rats].

    PubMed

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Kuzuya, Mako; Satoh, Shiori; Shibata, Katsumi

    2009-04-01

    To determine the tolerable upper intake levels of vitamin B(1) and vitamin B(2) in humans, we investigated the effects of excess thiamin or riboflavin administration on body weight gain, food intake, tissue weights, and urinary excretion of B-group vitamins in weaning rats. The weaning rats were freely fed ordinary diet containing 0.0006% thiamin-HCl or the same diet with 0.006%, 0.03%, 0.18% or 1.0% thiamin-HCl for 30 days, or the diet containing 0.0006% riboflavin or the same diet with 0.1%, 0.5 or 1.0% riboflavin for 22 days. Mild diarrhea was seen only in the rats fed with 1.0% thiamin-HCl diet. Excess thiamin-HCl or riboflavin did not affect body weight gains, food intake or tissue weights. The urinary excretions of water-soluble vitamins also did not differ among the diets. These results clearly showed that feeding a diet containing up to 1.0% thiamin-HCl or 1.0% riboflavin did not induce apparent adverse effects, and the no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAELs) for thiamin-HCl and riboflavin in rats might be 1.0% in diet, corresponding to 900 mg/kg body weight/day.

  9. Effects of phosphate binders on the gastrointestinal absorption of arsenate and of an SGLT2 inhibitor drug on the urinary excretion of arsenite in mice.

    PubMed

    Poór, Miklós; Németi, Balázs; Gregus, Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    Arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) are typical sources of acute and chronic arsenic poisoning. Therefore, reducing inner exposure to these arsenicals is a rational objective. Because As(V) mimics phosphate, phosphate binder drugs may decrease the intestinal As(V) absorption. Indeed, lanthanum and aluminium salts and sevelamer removed As(V) from solution in vitro, especially at acidic pH. In mice gavaged with As(V), lanthanum chloride, lanthanum carbonate and aluminium hydroxide given orally also lowered the urinary excretion and tissue levels of As(V) and its metabolites, indicating that they decreased the gastrointestinal As(V) absorption. As some glucose transporters may carry As(III), the effect of the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin was investigated in As(III)-injected mice. While producing extreme glucosuria, dapagliflozin barely affected the urinary excretion and tissue concentrations of As(III) and its metabolites. Thus, phosphate binders (especially lanthanum compounds) can reduce the gastrointestinal absorption of As(V); however, SGLT2 inhibition cannot diminish the renal reabsorption of As(III).

  10. Effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the elimination kinetics of pyrene and the urinary excretion profile of 1-hydroxypyrene in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lipniak-Gawlik, M

    1998-12-11

    Pyrene was chosen as a noncarcinogen model of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Groups of male Wistar rats were dosed with pyrene and with mixture of pyrene and fluoranthene, pyrene and benz[a]anthracene, or pyrene, fluoranthene, and benz[a]anthracene at 20 mg/kg by intravenous or oral routes. Blood samples were taken at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h after administration. The concentration of pyrene was determined by gas chromatography. The toxicokinetic parameters for pyrene were determined from the time course of blood concentration. A significant increase in the bioavailability of pyrene after treatment with other PAHs was observed. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene excretion was analyzed after pretreatment with acenaphthene, naphthalene, chrysene, phenanthrene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The urine from rats was collected for 3 d and the concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Most compounds examined caused a decrease in the urinary excretion of the metabolite of pyrene.

  11. Effect of cytidine(5')diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) on the total urinary excretion of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) by rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Lopez, I; Coviella, G; Agut, J; Wurtman, R J

    1986-01-01

    We examined the effects of orally administered cytidine(5')-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) on the total levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in human and rat urine. Four subjects who had been on a low-choline diet (less than 1 gm/day) for 24 hours received three doses of CDP-choline (2 gm each) at 8 a.m., 10 a.m., and noon; urines were collected at two-hour intervals after each dose. Rats received water for three days; then CDP-choline (100 mg/kg) or equimolar doses of choline for five days; then water again for three more days. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected on each day of the study. The levels of MHPG in human urine increased by 45-68% when subjects were receiving CDP-choline (p less than 0.01). CDP-choline, but not choline, also elevated urinary MHPG significantly in rats (p less than 0.01). These data suggest that CDP-choline enhances norepinephrine release, and that this action may be mediated by more than just its choline content.

  12. Effects of potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate in the diet on urinary pH and mineral excretion of adult cats.

    PubMed

    Passlack, Nadine; Brenten, Thomas; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-03-14

    Low dietary K levels have been associated with increasing renal Ca excretion in humans, indicating a higher risk of calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether dietary K also affects the urine composition of cats. A total of eight adult cats were fed diets containing 0·31 % native K and 0·50, 0·75 and 1·00 % K from KCl or KHCO₃ and were evaluated for the effects of dietary K. High dietary K levels were found to elevate urinary K concentrations (P<0·001). Renal Ca excretion was higher in cats fed the KCl diets than in those fed the KHCO₃ diets (P=0·026), while urinary oxalate concentrations were generally lower in cats fed the KCl diets and only dependent on dietary K levels in cats fed the KHCO₃ diets (P<0·05). Fasting urine pH increased with higher dietary K levels (P=0·022), reaching values of 6·38 (1·00 % KCl) and 7·65 (1·00 % KHCO₃). K retention was markedly negative after feeding the cats with the basal diet (-197 mg/d) and the 0·50 % KCl diet (-131 mg/d), while the cats tended to maintain their balance on being fed the highest-KCl diet (-23·3 mg/d). In contrast, K from KHCO₃ was more efficiently retained (P=0·018), with K retention being between -82·5 and 52·5 mg/d. In conclusion, the dietary inclusion of KHCO₃ instead of KCl as K source could be beneficial for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation in cats, since there is an association between a lower renal Ca excretion and a generally higher urine pH. The utilisation of K is distinctly influenced by the K salt, which may be especially practically relevant when using diets with low K levels.

  13. Correlation of random urine protein creatinine (P-C) ratio with 24-hour urine protein and P-C ratio, based on physical activity: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Seyed-Ali; Jaipaul, Navin

    2010-09-07

    Quantification of proteinuria is usually predicated upon 24-hour urine collection. Multiple factors influence urine collection and the rate of protein and creatinine excretion. Urine collection is often incomplete, and therefore creatinine and protein excretion rates are underestimated. A random urine protein-creatinine (P-C) ratio has been shown over the years to be a reliable alternative to the 24-hour collection for detection and follow up of proteinuria. However, urine protein excretion may be influenced by physical activity. We studied 48 patients with proteinuria and varying levels of physical activity to determine the correlation between the measures of urine protein excretion. The correlation coefficient (r) between 24-hour urine total protein and random urine P-C ratio was 0.75 (P < 0.01) in the overall study population, but varied according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity in a stratified analysis: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.95 (P < 0.01) in bedridden patients; r = 0.44 (P = not significant [NS]) and r = 0.54 (P = NS) in semiactive patients; and r = 0.44 (P = NS) and r = 0.58 (P < 0.05) in active patients with nephrotic- (>3500 mg/day) and non-nephrotic (<3500 mg/day) range proteinuria, respectively. The correlation appeared to be stronger between random urine and 24-hour urine P-C ratio for the overall study population (r = 0.84; P < 0.001), and when stratified according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.92 (P < 0.01) in bedridden patients; r = 0.61 (P = NS) and r = 0.54 (P = NS) in semiactive patients; and r = 0.64 (P < 0.02) and r = 0.52 (P < 0.05) in active patients with nephrotic and non-nephrotic range proteinuria, respectively. We conclude that the random urine P-C ratio is a reliable and practical way of estimating and following proteinuria, but its precision and accuracy may be affected by the level of patient physical activity.

  14. 29 CFR 785.22 - Duty of 24 hours or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.22 Duty of 24 hours or more. (a) General. Where an... bona fide meal periods and a bona fide regularly scheduled sleeping period of not more than 8 hours from hours worked, provided adequate sleeping facilities are furnished by the employer and the...

  15. 29 CFR 785.22 - Duty of 24 hours or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.22 Duty of 24 hours or more. (a) General. Where an... bona fide meal periods and a bona fide regularly scheduled sleeping period of not more than 8 hours from hours worked, provided adequate sleeping facilities are furnished by the employer and the...

  16. 24-Hour Access: Responding to Students' Need for Late Library Hours at the University of Denver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Bethany B.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Denver's Penrose Library saw a substantial increase in use as a result of several new and enhanced services over a six-year period. In turn, longer operating hours and increased staffing for a 24-hours-a-day, five-days-a-week (24 x 5) operating schedule was funded. This case study analyzes student need for longer library hours…

  17. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  18. Mood-Dependent Cognitive Change in a Man with Bipolar Disorder Who Cycles Every 24 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Dominic; Mansell, Warren

    2008-01-01

    A case study of a bipolar patient whose mood changes every 24 hours is described to illustrate the changes in cognitive processing and content during different phases of bipolar disorder. The participant completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks on 4 separate occasions: twice when depressed and twice when manic. Depression tended to be…

  19. The Three-Continent, 24-Hour Help Desk: An Academic First?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Describes Follow the Sun, a computer help-desk service that takes advantage of time differences around the world to permit four universities (University of Colorado Boulder, Australia's Macquarie and Newcastle universities, and the London School of Economics) to share services and provide 24-hour support to users. (EV)

  20. 29 CFR 785.22 - Duty of 24 hours or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.22 Duty of 24 hours or more. (a) General. Where an... bona fide meal periods and a bona fide regularly scheduled sleeping period of not more than 8 hours from hours worked, provided adequate sleeping facilities are furnished by the employer and the...

  1. 29 CFR 785.22 - Duty of 24 hours or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.22 Duty of 24 hours or more. (a) General. Where an... bona fide meal periods and a bona fide regularly scheduled sleeping period of not more than 8 hours from hours worked, provided adequate sleeping facilities are furnished by the employer and the...

  2. 29 CFR 785.22 - Duty of 24 hours or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.22 Duty of 24 hours or more. (a) General. Where an... bona fide meal periods and a bona fide regularly scheduled sleeping period of not more than 8 hours from hours worked, provided adequate sleeping facilities are furnished by the employer and the...

  3. Urinary Albumin Excretion Reflects Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women without Diabetes: The 2011 to 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hee Jung; Moon, Do Sik; Kang, Da Yeong; Lee, Jung In; Kim, Da Young; Kim, Jin Hwa; Bae, Hak Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of the current study was to determine whether there was an association between urinary albumin excretion and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by estimating the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in postmenopausal women without diabetes. Methods This study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare in 2011 to 2013. Data on 2,316 postmenopausal women from a total of 24,594 participants was included in the analysis. Results The mean FRS was significantly different in each of the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) subgroups, and it increased with UACR. The FRS was 12.69±0.12 in the optimal group, 14.30±0.19 in the intermediate normal group, 14.62±0.26 in the high normal group, and 15.86±0.36 in the microalbuminuria group. After fully adjusting for potential confounding factors, high normal levels and microalbuminuria were significantly associated with the highest tertile of FRS ([odds ratio (OR), 1.642; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.124 to 2.400] and [OR, 3.385; 95% CI, 2.088 to 5.488], respectively) compared with the optimal subgroup. High normal levels and microalbuminuria were also significantly associated with a ≥10% 10-year risk of CVD ([OR, 1.853; 95% CI, 1.122 to 3.060] and [OR, 2.831; 95% CI, 1.327 to 6.037], respectively) after adjusting for potential confounding covariates. Conclusion Urinary albumin excretion reflects CVD risk in postmenopausal women without diabetes, and high normal levels and microalbuminuria were independently associated with a higher risk of CVD. PMID:27834079

  4. Dietary chloride does not correlate with urinary thromboxane in deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Theriot, J A; Passmore, J C; Jimenez, A E; Fleming, J T

    2000-06-01

    Renal vascular resistance in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt-treated uninephrectomized rats is increased by high dietary chloride. Because DOCA salt-hypertensive rats exhibit an increased urinary excretion of thromboxane B2 (TXB2), a metabolite of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), the increased TXB2 excretion by DOCA salt-treated rats could relate to elevated dietary chloride, increased blood pressure, and/or the presence of intact renal tubules. We hypothesized that high NaCl intake, resulting in an elevated tubular chloride excretion, stimulates TXA2 production. A result of that production could be renal vasoconstriction. Baseline blood pressures were measured for 10 days, and then the rats were treated with DOCA (30 mg/kg) and fed (1) normal NaCl, (2) normal sodium with high chloride, or (3) high sodium chloride (NaCl) for 4.5 weeks. Next, the rats were uninephrectomized (1K) or unihydronephrectomized (1KHK) to yield one kidney without an intact tubular system and therefore no macula densa. Two and a half weeks later, urinary excretion of TXB2 was determined. DOCA-high NaCl-fed 1KHK or 1K rats had significant increases in systemic blood pressure to 172 +/- 12 and 190 +/- 5 mm Hg, respectively, compared with no significant increase in blood pressure among the other groups. Urinary TXB2 excretion was increased to 29 +/- 4 pg per 24 hours per gram of body weight in all DOCA-treated 1KHK and 1K animals regardless of diet compared with DOCA-treated animals with two intact kidneys (13 +/- 2 pg per 24 hours per gram of body weight). DOCA treatment in rats with one functional kidney results in the excretion of high levels of urinary TXB2 unrelated to dietary chloride load, blood pressure, or intact renal tubules.

  5. Impact of Different Normality Thresholds for 24-hour ABPM at the Primary Health Care Level

    PubMed Central

    Grezzana, Guilherme Brasil; Moraes, David William; Stein, Airton Tetelbon; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Primary health care (PHC) physicians should be prepared to act appropriately in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the rates of patients with control of blood pressure (BP) remain low. The impact of the reclassification of high BP by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) can lead to different medical decisions in PHC. Objective To evaluate the agreement between the BP measured by a conventional method by PHC physicians and by 24-hour ABPM, considering different BP normal thresholds for the 24-hour ABPM according to the V Brazilian ABPM Guidelines and the European Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Methods A cross-sectional study including 569 hypertensive patients. The BP was initially measured by the PHC physicians and, later, by 24-hour ABPM. The BP measurements were obtained independently between the two methods. The therapeutic targets for the conventional BP followed the guidelines by the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8), the V ABPM Brazilian Guidelines, and the 2013 European Hypertension Guidelines. Results There was an accuracy of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.51 - 0.58%) for the BP measured with the conventional method when compared with the 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 85% (95%CI 80.8 - 88.6%), specificity of 31.9% (95%CI 28.7 - 34.7%), and kappa value of 0.155, when considering the European Hypertension Guidelines. When using more stringent thresholds to characterize the BP as "normal" by ABPM, the accuracy was 45% (95%CI 0.41 - 0.47%) for conventional measurement when compared with 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 86.7% (95%CI 0.81 - 0.91%), specificity of 29% (95%CI 0.26 - 0.30%), and kappa value of 0.103. Conclusion The BP measurements obtained by PHC physicians showed low accuracy when compared with those obtained by 24-hour ABPM, regardless of the threshold set by the different guidelines. PMID:28099585

  6. 24 Hours of Sleep, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Activity with Nine Wearable Devices

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, Mary E.; Buman, Matthew P.; Haskell, William L.; McConnell, Michael V.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Getting enough sleep, exercising and limiting sedentary activities can greatly contribute to disease prevention and overall health and longevity. Measuring the full 24-hour activity cycle - sleep, sedentary behavior (SED), light intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) - may now be feasible using small wearable devices. PURPOSE This study compares nine devices for accuracy in 24-hour activity measurement. METHODS Adults (N=40, 47% male) wore nine devices for 24-hours: Actigraph GT3X+, activPAL, Fitbit One, GENEactiv, Jawbone Up, LUMOback, Nike Fuelband, Omron pedometer, and Z-Machine. Comparisons (to standards) were made for total sleep time (Z-machine), time spent in SED (activPAL), LPA (GT3x+), MVPA (GT3x+), and steps (Omron). Analysis included mean absolute percent error, equivalence testing, and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS Error rates ranged from 8.1–16.9% for sleep; 9.5–65.8% for SED; 19.7–28.0% for LPA; 51.8–92% for MVPA; and 14.1–29.9% for steps. Equivalence testing indicated only two comparisons were significantly equivalent to standards: the LUMOback for sedentary behavior and the GT3X+ for sleep. Bland-Altman plots indicated GT3X+ had the closest measurement for sleep, LUMOback for sedentary behavior, GENEactiv for LPA, Fitbit for MVPA and GT3X+ for steps. CONCLUSIONS Currently, no device accurately captures activity data across the entire 24-hour day, but the future of activity measurement should aim for accurate 24-hour measurement as a goal. Researchers should continue to select measurement devices based on their primary outcomes of interest. PMID:26484953

  7. Increased angiotensinogen expression, urinary angiotensinogen excretion, and tissue injury in nonclipped kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, Weijian; Miyata, Kayoko; Katsurada, Akemi; Satou, Ryousuke; Seth, Dale M; Rosales, Carla B; Prieto, Minolfa C; Mitchell, Kenneth D; Navar, L Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    In angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension, there is an angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent amplification mechanism enhancing intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT) formation and secretion in the tubular fluid. To evaluate the role of increased arterial pressure, AGT mRNA, protein expression, and urinary AGT (uAGT) excretion and tissue injury were assessed in both kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip Sprague-Dawley hypertensive rats subjected to left renal arterial clipping (0.25-mm gap). By 18-21 days, systolic arterial pressure increased to 180 ± 3 mmHg, and uAGT increased. Water intake, body weights, 24-h urine volumes, and sodium excretion were similar. In separate measurements of renal function in anesthetized rats, renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate were similar in clipped and nonclipped kidneys and not different from those in sham rats, indicating that the perfusion pressure to the clipped kidneys remained within the autoregulatory range. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited increased urine flow and sodium excretion. The uAGT excretion was significantly greater in nonclipped kidneys compared with clipped and sham kidneys. AGT mRNA was 2.15-fold greater in the nonclipped kidneys compared with sham (1.0 ± 0.1) or clipped (0.98 ± 0.15) kidneys. AGT protein levels were also greater in the nonclipped kidneys. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited greater glomerular expansion and immune cell infiltration, medullary fibrosis, and cellular proliferation than the clipped kidneys. Because both kidneys have elevated ANG II levels, the greater tissue injury in the nonclipped kidneys indicates that an increased arterial pressure synergizes with increased intrarenal ANG II to stimulate AGT production and exert greater renal injury.

  8. Effect of dietary Quebracho tannin extract on feed intake, digestibility, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Henke, Anika; Dickhoefer, Uta; Westreicher-Kristen, Edwin; Knappstein, Karin; Molkentin, Joachim; Hasler, Mario; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Quebracho tannin extract (QTE) on feed intake, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), excretion of urinary purine derivatives (PD) and milk composition and yield in dairy cows. Fifty Holstein cows were divided into two groups. To reach a similar performance of both groups, cows were divided according to their milk yield, body weight, days in milk and number of lactations at the start of the experiment averaging 33.2 ± 8.2 kg/d, 637 ± 58 kg, 114 ± 73 d and 2.3 ± 1.6 lactations, respectively. The cows were fed a basal diet as total mixed ration containing on dry matter (DM) basis 34% grass silage, 32% maize silage and 34% concentrate feeds. Three dietary treatments were tested, the control (CON, basal diet without QTE), QTE15 (basal diet with QTE at 15 g/kg DM) and QTE30 (basal diet with QTE at 30 g/kg DM). Two treatments were arranged along six periods each 21 d (13 d adaptation phase and 8 d sampling phase). The ATTD of DM and organic matter were reduced only in Diet QTE30, whereas both QTE treatments reduced ATTD of fibre and nitrogen (N), indicating that QTE impaired rumen fermentation. Nevertheless, feed intake was unaffected by QTE. In Diet CON, urinary N excretion accounted for 29.8% of N intake and decreased in treatments QTE15 and QTE30 to 27.5% and 17.9%, respectively. Daily faecal N excretion increased in treatments CON, QTE15 and QTE30 from 211 to 237 and 273 g/d, respectively, which amounted to 39.0%, 42.4% and 51.7% of the N intake, respectively. Hence, QTE shifted N excretion from urine to faeces, whereas the proportion of ingested N appearing in milk was not affected by QTE (average 30.7% of N intake). Daily PD excretion as indicator for microbial crude protein (CP) flow at the duodenum decreased in treatment QTE30 compared with Diet CON from 413 to 280 mmol/d. The ratios of total PD to creatinine suggest that urinary PD excretion was already lower when feeding Diet

  9. [Evaluation of sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 of newborn infants feeding different types of nutrition, by means of urinary excretion determination].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Pereverzeva, O G; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Pustograev, N N

    2015-01-01

    With the help of non-invasive methods the sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 in 58 newborns (38-40 weeks of gestation) on breastfeeding as well as on mixed or artificial feeding has been evaluated. Urinary excretion and breast content of ascorbic acid (measured by visual titration), thiamin (by thiochrome fluorimetric method) andriboflavin (fluorimetrically by titration with riboflavin-binding protein) was determined on the 3-10th day after birth. 35 infants were exclusively breastfed. 40% of their mothers regularly took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy and 42.9%--both during pregnancy and after childbirth, 17.1% did not use vitamin complexes either duringpregnancy or after childbearing. The content of vitamins C, B1 and B2 in the breast milk of women who did not additionally intake vitamins during pregnancy and lactation, was reduced compared with that of mothers who took multivitamin supplements, and provided only a half of the needs of their child in these vitamins. All these babies have urinary excretion of vitamins below the lower limit of norm. Among infants whose mothers took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy, but stop taking them immediately after their birth, only 28.6% of newborns were provided with vitamin C, while all the children identified a lack of vitamins By and B2. The insufficiency with vitamins C and B1 was detected in one third of children breastfed by mothers who took vitamins during pregnancy and continued intaking them after birth, adequate supplied with vitamin B2 was 35.7% of the surveyed. Determination of vitamin urinary excretion (perg creatinine) is useful for vitamin status evaluation. The content of vitamins in breast milk can be used for assessment of vitamin status both a nursing woman and her child. Taking into consideration that the diet of a breastfeeding woman is not always the best, there is no doubt about the need to continue multivitamin intake during breastfeeding. The question on the doses of vitamins

  10. Gastric cancer in Zambian adults: a prospective case-control study that assessed dietary intake and antioxidant status by using urinary isoprostane excretion123

    PubMed Central

    Asombang, Akwi W; Kayamba, Violet; Mwanza-Lisulo, Mpala; Colditz, Graham; Mudenda, Victor; Yarasheski, Kevin; Chott, Robert; Rubin, Deborah C; Gyawali, C Prakash; Sinkala, Edford; Mwanamakondo, Stayner; Anderson-Spearie, Catherine; Kelly, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is increasingly recognized in Zambia. Although nutritional factors contribute to gastric cancer risk, their effect in Zambia is unknown. Objective: The objective was to investigate the association between intake of dietary antioxidants, urinary 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-iso PGF2α) as a marker of oxidative stress, and gastric cancer. Design: This was a case-control study at the University Teaching Hospital in Zambia. Gastric cancer cases were compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Urine 8-iso PGF2α was measured primarily by ELISA, and by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in a subset, expressed as a ratio to creatinine. Blood was collected for Helicobacter pylori, HIV serology, gastrin-17, and pepsinogen 1 and 2 concentrations. Clinical and dietary data were collected by using questionnaires. Food items were broadly classified into 7 major categories (fruit, vegetables, fish, meat, insects, cereals, and starches). Results: Fifty cases with gastric cancer (mean age: 61 y; n = 31 males) and 90 controls (mean age: 54 y; n = 41 males) were enrolled. Median urinary 8-iso PGF2α excretion was higher in cases (0.014; IQR: 0.008–0.021) than in controls (0.011; IQR: 0.006–0.018; P = 0.039). On univariate analysis, habitual fruit intake was lower in cases than in controls during the dry season (P = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, smoking (OR: 7.22; IQR: 1.38–37.9) and gastric atrophy (OR: 2.43; IQR: 1.12–5.13) were independently associated with cancer, and higher fruit intake was protective (OR: 0.44; IQR: 0.20–0.95). Isoprostane excretion was inversely correlated with total fruit intake (ρ = −0.23; n = 140; P = 0.006). Conclusion: Urinary 8-iso PGF2α excretion was associated with the risk of gastric cancer, as were smoking and gastric atrophy, but increased fruit intake conferred protection. This trial was registered at www.pactr.org as ISRCTN52971746. PMID:23535107

  11. Simultaneous determination of corynoline and acetylcorynoline in human urine by LC-MS/MS and its application to a urinary excretion study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruijuan; Zheng, Lu; Cheng, Minlu; Wu, Yao; Gu, Pan; Liu, Yujie; Ma, Pengcheng; Ding, Li

    2016-03-01

    Corynoline and acetycorynoline, the major active components derived from Corydalis bungeana Herba, showed multiple pharmacological activities. However, quantification of the two compounds in human urine has not been reported. A simple liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of corynoline and acetycorynoline in human urine has been developed and fully validated. The analytes were extracted from urine samples by simple liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hedera ODS-2C18 column with the mobile phase of water (containing 0.5% formic acid) and acetonitrile (28:72, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. A tandem mass spectrometric detection was conducted using multiple reaction monitoring via an electrospray ionization source in positive mode. The monitored ion transitions were m/z 368.1→289.1 for corynoline, m/z 410.2→289.2 for acetycorynoline and m/z 380.2→243.2 for donepezil (internal standard), respectively. The calibration curves were linear (correlation coefficients>0.9970) over the concentration ranges of 3.0-3000pg/mL for corynoline and 3.0-1000pg/mL for acetycorynoline. The established method was highly sensitive with the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 3.0pg/mL for both analytes. The intra- and inter-day precision was lower than 10% in terms of relative standard deviation for the low, medium, and high quality control samples, and lower than 16% for the LLOQ samples of the analytes. The accuracy was within ±10% in terms of relative error for both analytes. The method was successfully applied to a urinary excretion study after oral administration of the Chinese medicine formula Shuanghua Baihe tablets in healthy volunteers. The urinary excretion profiles of corynoline and acetycorynoline in human were first reported. The results of this study suggest that renal excretion was not the main excretion pathway of corynoline and acetycorynoline in humans.

  12. Fractional urinary fluoride excretion of 6-7-year-old children attending schools in low-fluoride and naturally fluoridated areas in the UK.

    PubMed

    Zohoori, F V; Walls, R; Teasdale, L; Landes, D; Steen, I N; Moynihan, P; Omid, N; Maguire, A

    2013-05-28

    F is an important trace element for bones and teeth. The protective effect of F against dental caries is well established. Urine is the prime vehicle for the excretion of F from the body; however, the relationship between F intake and excretion is complex: the derived fractional urinary F excretion (FUFE) aids understanding of this in different age groups. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between (1) total daily F intake (TDFI) and daily urinary F excretion (DUFE), and (2) TDFI and FUFE in 6-7-year-olds, recruited in low-F and naturally fluoridated (natural-F) areas in north-east England. TDFI from diet and toothbrushing and DUFE were assessed through F analysis of duplicate dietary plate, toothbrushing expectorate and urine samples using a F-ion-selective electrode. FUFE was calculated as the ratio between DUFE and TDFI. Pearson's correlation and regression analysis were used to investigate the relationship between TDFI and FUFE. A group of thirty-three children completed the study; twenty-one receiving low-F water (0·30 mg F/l) and twelve receiving natural-F water (1·06 mg F/l) at school. The mean TDFI was 0·076 (SD 0·038) and 0·038 (SD 0·027) mg/kg per d for the natural-F and low-F groups, respectively. The mean DUFE was 0·017 (SD 0·007) and 0·012 (SD 0·006) mg/kg per d for the natural-F and low-F groups, respectively. FUFE was lower in the natural-F group (30 %) compared with the low-F group (40 %). Pearson's correlation coefficient for (1) TDFI and DUFE was +0·22 (P= 0·22) and for (2) TDFI and FUFE was − 0·63 (P< 0·001). In conclusion, there was no correlation between TDFI and DUFE. However, there was a statistically significant negative correlation between FUFE and TDFI.

  13. Seasonal changes of 24-hour intraocular pressure rhythm in healthy Shanghai population

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jingyi; Xiao, Ming; Xu, Huan; Fang, Shaobin; Chen, Xu; Kong, Xiangmei; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythms in winter and summer in the healthy population of Shanghai, China. This is a cross-sectional study in which 24-hour IOP measurements were taken for all eligible healthy volunteers in winter and summer, respectively, and the temperature, hours of sunlight (sunlight time), and circulatory parameters, including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, were also recorded. The 24-hour IOP curves and IOP parameters (mean, peak, trough, and fluctuation of IOP together with the diurnal-to-nocturnal IOP change) in winter and summer were obtained and compared. The magnitude of IOP changes from summer to winter was also calculated. A total of 29 participants (58 eyes), 14 (48.28%) male and 15 (51.72%) female, aged 43.66 ± 12.20 (19–61) years, were considered eligible for this study. Generally, IOP decreased progressively before noon, increased notably in the nocturnal period, and peaked at 12:00 am in winter and at 2:00 am in summer. The pattern of 24-hour IOP in winter and summer was significantly different (P = 0.002). The average IOPs from 4:00 pm to 8:00 am, except for 6:00 am, were significantly higher in winter (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were shown after adjusting for temperature and/or sunlight time. From summer to winter, the extent of IOP increase was mostly around 0 to 3 mm Hg, and the IOPs increased more significantly in the nocturnal period than in the diurnal period (P = 0.05). The 24-hour IOP rhythms were different in winter and summer, with higher IOP level in winter. Temperature and sunlight time, which are independent of heart rate and blood pressure, affected the 24-hour IOP rhythms in healthy people in Shanghai, China. Further investigations are expected for the rhythm of some endogenous substance secretion and the inner mechanism of regulation of IOP. PMID:27495076

  14. Experiences of 24-hour advice line services: a framework for good practice and meeting NICE guidelines.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Sarah J; Codling, Jan; Roberts, Dai; O Donnell, Valerie; Taylor, Sue

    2009-06-01

    This article presents a framework for the practical implementation of a 24-hour specialist palliative care advice line, illustrated by two case examples from the authors' experience. In the UK, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidance requires provision of 24-hour access to specialist palliative care advice for healthcare professionals and carers regardless of a patient's location. Effective implementation of a telephone advice line for specialist advice is one approach to addressing the current variability in palliative care service provision, both in the UK and elsewhere. The authors were unable to identify a model with documentation for ensuring adequate clinical governance of an advice line in the literature and so present their own. The accompanying case examples demonstrate the difference between 'evolution of services by demand' and taking a systemic approach to service design. Key recommendations for practice are outlined for an effective advice line service which incorporates training and education into the clinical governance structures of the host organization.

  15. Pharmacist-physician co-management of hypertension reduces 24-hour ambulatory blood pressures

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Cynthia A.; Ernst, Michael E.; Sezate, Genesis S.; Zheng, Shimin; Carter, Barry L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacist-physician co-management of hypertension has been shown to improve office blood pressures (BP). We sought to describe the effect of such a model on 24-hour ambulatory BPs. Methods We performed a prospective, cluster-randomised controlled clinical trial in 179 patients with uncontrolled hypertension from five primary care clinics in Iowa City, Iowa. Patients were randomized by clinic to receive pharmacist-physician collaborative management of hypertension (intervention) or usual care (control) for a 9-month period. In the intervention group, pharmacists helped patients identify barriers to BP control, counselled on lifestyle and dietary modifications, and adjusted antihypertensive therapy in collaboration with the patient’s primary care provider. Patients were seen by pharmacists a minimum every 2 months. Ambulatory BP was obtained at baseline and study end. Results Baseline and end of study ambulatory BP profiles were evaluated for 175 patients. Ambulatory BPs were reduced to a greater extent in the intervention compared to control group (daytime ΔSBP [SD] 15.2[11.5] vs 5.5[13.5], p<0.001; nighttime ΔSBP [SD] 12.2[14.8] vs 3.4[13.3], p<0.001; 24-hour ΔSBP [SD] 14.1[11.3] vs 5.5[12.5], p<0.001). More patients in the intervention group had BP controlled at the end of the study (75% vs 50.7%, p<0.001) as defined by overall 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Conclusions Pharmacist-physician collaborative management of hypertension achieved consistent and significantly greater reduction in 24-hour BP and a high rate of BP control. PMID:20937921

  16. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deitrick, Ronald W.; Hillman, Angela R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK: 19172 ± 4542 kJ versus NoBK: 15312 ± 4513 kJ; p < 0.001) and evening (BK: 12265 ± 4278 kJ versus NoBK: 10833 ± 4065; p = 0.039) energy intake and RQ (BK: 0.90 ± 0.03 versus NoBK: 0.86 ± 0.03; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise (5.2 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L; p = 0.025). Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management. PMID:27738523

  17. Circadian polymorphisms in night owls, in bipolars, and in non-24-hour sleep cycles.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F; Klimecki, Walter T; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Rex, Katharine M; Murray, Sarah S; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J; Loving, Richard T; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F; Poceta, J Steven; Jamil, Shazia M; Kline, Lawrence E; Kelsoe, John R

    2014-10-01

    People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression.

  18. A novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonist, NIP-222, reduces urinary albumin excretion in streptozotocin-diabetic mice independent of PPARgamma activation.

    PubMed

    Yotsumoto, Takashi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Kanaki, Tatsuro; Matsuda, Maho; Tsuruzoe, Nobutomo

    2003-12-01

    NIP-222 is a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonist. This study provides evidence that NIP-222 decreases urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in diabetic mice independent of its PPARgamma activation. We compared the effect of NIP-222 and another PPARgamma agonist, troglitazone, on UAE, plasma glucose level, blood pressure, and creatinine clearance (C(cr)) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Treatment for 3 weeks with NIP-222 (30 mg/kg) was associated with a significant decrease in UAE without any change in blood pressure, creatinine clearance, or plasma glucose level. In contrast, UAE did not decrease in mice treated with troglitazone (300 mg/kg). These results indicate that NIP-222 has PPARgamma independent effects on UAE in diabetic mice and suggest that this agent may have potential to minimize the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  19. Intraarterial irradiation with rhenium-188 for inhibition of restenosis after PTCA - strategy and evaluation of Re-188-species for rapid urinary excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Guhlke, S.; Beets, A.L.

    1997-05-01

    Estimated costs for coronary restenosis therapy after PTCA are > $ 1 billion (U.S.). Radiation is a simple and effective tool for inhibition of neointimal proliferation an important component of restenosis. We propose use of Re-188 (t{sub {1/2}} 16.9 h, 2.1 MeV {beta}), obtained from decay of W-188 (T{sub {1/2}} 69 d). Our alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator has a shelf-life of several months and we have developed an on-line tandem cation/anion exchange column system to concentrate to > 18.5 BGq/mL. Estimates for targeted regional dose of 8.4 rad/37 MBq/min/mL, which is > 1,400 cGy for about 370 MBq Re-188 for 5 min. Balloon inflation with Re-188 solutions is a new approach for more uniform vascular dose distribution as an alternative to use of radioactive wires or other linear sources. Rapid urinary excretion kinetics are important in the unlikely event of balloon rupture (<0.1%). We have therefore evaluated relative excretion kinetics of Re-188-perrhenate and -MAG3 in rats; Re-188-perrhenate was obtained from generator elution with 0.9% NaCl and re-188-MAG3 was prepared be reaction of the ligand with Sn(II)-reduced perrhenate. Fischer rats (n=4-5/group) were injected i.v. and urine and feces collected every 2 h for 12 h and then daily for 5 d. Both agents excreted > 90% in urine; biodistribution studies showed low organ uptake with intestines as the major site. Rhenium-188-MAG3 excreted more rapidly (2 h = 59.6{+-}18.5%) then Re-188-MAG3 excreted more rapidly (2 h = 68.3{+-}13.5%) in same model. Both Re-188 species are thus good candidates for balloon inflation. Studies are in progress in a swine model to evaluate the effectiveness of Re-188 for inhibition of restenosis.

  20. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  1. alpha-Benzyl-N-methylphenethylamine (BNMPA), an impurity of illicit methamphetamine synthesis: II. Metabolism and urinary excretion (human).

    PubMed

    Moore, K A; Poklis, A

    1995-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a popular drug of abuse, which is readily synthesized in clandestine laboratories. Illicit synthesis results in the formation of various contaminants. Few impurities have been studied in vivo, and their metabolic fate is unknown. One such impurity is alpha-benzyl-N-methylphenethylamine (BNMPA). The detection of BNMPA or its metabolites in urine samples may provide a marker of use of illicitly synthesized methamphetamine. Benzphetamine is structurally similar to BNMPA. Based on metabolic studies of benzphetamine, we predicted the four major metabolites of BNMPA to be the N-demethyl compound, diphenyl-2-propanone (DP2P), p-hydroxy-N-demethyl BNMPA, and p-hydroxy-BNMPA. One male volunteer ingested 5 mg BNMPA. Seventeen urine specimens were collected over 50 h post ingestion. These specimens were analyzed for BNMPA and its four predicted major metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following beta-glucuronidase hydrolysis or acid hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. Specimens were also analyzed without hydrolysis to determine the abundance of nonconjugated ("free") metabolites. Only trace amounts of BNMPA and its N-demethyl metabolites were detected, and maximum excretion was from 2 to 4 h post ingestion. In the nonhydrolyzed samples, the phenyl-OH metabolites were also present in only trace amounts. Maximum excretion of DP2P was at 2 h. Following either hydrolysis procedure, phenyl-OH-BNMPA and phenyl-OH-N-demethyl BNMPA were the major metabolites detected. Maximum excretion of these two metabolites occurred at 4 h. With the exception of the parent compound and the N-demethyl metabolite, excretion of metabolites was greater than the limit of detection of this procedure (2.5 ng/mL) up to 21 h post ingestion. Metabolites were detectable in sufficient quantities to serve as an adequate marker of illicit methamphetamine consumption within the preceding 24 h.

  2. Anthropometrics provide a better estimate of urinary organic acid anion excretion than a dietary mineral intake-based estimate in children, adolescents, and young adults.

    PubMed

    Berkemeyer, Shoma; Remer, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    The role of elevated net endogenous acid production (NEAP) in the causation of osteoporosis, muscle wasting, and kidney stones is currently under discussion. The aim of this study was to examine whether urinary organic acid anion excretion, a major component of NEAP, is predicted primarily by anthropometric- (OA(anthro)) or diet- (OA(diet)) based estimates. Dietary intakes, anthropometric data, and 24-h urinary excretion rates of organic acids (24h-OA(urine)) were determined cross sectionally in healthy children (6-7 y; n = 217), adolescents (13-14 y; n = 91), and young adults (18-22 y; n = 82). OA(anthro) was computed from body surface area and OA(diet) calculated using a published algorithm based on dietary intakes of mineral anions and cations. There was a significant increase (P < 0.0001) in 24h-OA(urine) across the age groups that was no longer discernible after correction for body surface area. In almost all sex-stratified subsamples, OA(anthro) had a higher correlation with 24h-OA(urine) than OA(diet). Multiple regression analyses, using energy-corrected diet variables, revealed that OA(anthro) was consistently the primary predictor of 24h-OA(urine) (R(2) varying from 0.15 to 0.39) and dietary fat and protein were sporadic predictors. In accordance with the observed age independency of 24h-OA(urine) after body surface area correction, our findings indicate that OA(anthro) is a better estimate of 24h-OA(urine) in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults than OA(diet). This further confirms that the (principally diet-dependent) NEAP comprises a component, i.e., organic acid anions, that is reasonably predictable by anthropometrics. Consequently, the other component, i.e., the potential renal acid load, appears to be the primary parameter that characterizes the diet-induced acid load.

  3. Short communication: Urinary excretion of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in a pregnant woman following heavy, chronic cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Westin, Andreas A; Huestis, Marilyn A; Aarstad, Kjell; Spigset, Olav

    2009-01-01

    Differentiating new intake of drugs-of-abuse from residual drug excretion may be difficult, especially following chronic drug usage and for drugs with long elimination half-lives such as cannabis. In the present case, cannabis was found in the urine of a young pregnant woman following heavy and chronic cannabis use. She was warned that if she continued using cannabis while pregnant she would be forced to be hospitalized. She was subjected to serial urine testing with 2-7-day intervals. Urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) concentrations, measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, declined from 348 to 3.9 ng/mL over a surprisingly long period of 12 weeks (84 days). Several algorithms for detecting new drug intake were applied during this time course; most indicated that the woman continued to smoke cannabis following the first urine test. The woman denied any use after the first specimen collection. In retrospect, her THCCOOH excretion profile supports her story. Algorithms for detecting new drug intake have been validated for occasional cannabis users only. We advise caution when interpreting urine test results from heavy, chronic cannabis users, especially when serious consequences are involved.

  4. Activation of the Endogenous Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System or Aldosterone Administration Increases Urinary Exosomal Sodium Channel Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ying; Wang, Xiaojing; Rose, Kristie L.; MacDonald, W. Hayes; Zhang, Bing; Schey, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary exosomes secreted by multiple cell types in the kidney may participate in intercellular signaling and provide an enriched source of kidney-specific proteins for biomarker discovery. Factors that alter the exosomal protein content remain unknown. To determine whether endogenous and exogenous hormones modify urinary exosomal protein content, we analyzed samples from 14 mildly hypertensive patients in a crossover study during a high-sodium (HS, 160 mmol/d) diet and low-sodium (LS, 20 mmol/d) diet to activate the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. We further analyzed selected exosomal protein content in a separate cohort of healthy persons receiving intravenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg per hour for 10 hours) versus vehicle infusion. The LS diet increased plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration, whereas aldosterone infusion increased only aldosterone concentration. Protein analysis of paired urine exosome samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry–based multidimensional protein identification technology detected 2775 unique proteins, of which 316 exhibited significantly altered abundance during LS diet. Sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and α- and γ-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits from the discovery set were verified using targeted multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry quantified with isotope-labeled peptide standards. Dietary sodium restriction or acute aldosterone infusion similarly increased urine exosomal γENaC[112–122] peptide concentrations nearly 20-fold, which correlated with plasma aldosterone concentration and urinary Na/K ratio. Urine exosomal NCC and αENaC concentrations were relatively unchanged during these interventions. We conclude that urinary exosome content is altered by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation. Urinary measurement of exosomal γENaC[112–122] concentration may provide a useful biomarker of ENaC activation in future clinical studies. PMID:26113616

  5. Tissue distribution and urinary excretion of dimethylated arsenic and its metabolites in dimethylarsinic acid- or arsenate-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, Blakely M.; Moore, Tanya; Conklin, Sean D.; Creed, John T.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Thomas, David J. . E-mail: thomas.david@epa.gov

    2007-07-15

    Adult female Fisher 344 rats received drinking water containing 0, 4, 40, 100, or 200 parts per million of dimethylarsinic acid or 100 parts per million of arsenate for 14 days. Urine was collected during the last 24 h of exposure. Tissues were then taken for analysis of dimethylated and trimethylated arsenicals; urines were analyzed for these arsenicals and their thiolated derivatives. In dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats, highest concentrations of dimethylated arsenic were found in blood. In lung, liver, and kidney, concentrations of dimethylated arsenic exceeded those of trimethylated species; in urinary bladder and urine, trimethylated arsenic predominated. Dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide were present in urine of dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats. Concentrations of dimethylated arsenicals were similar in most tissues of dimethylarsinic acid- and arsenate-treated rats, including urinary bladder which is the target for dimethylarsinic acid-induced carcinogenesis in the rat. Mean concentration of dimethylated arsenic was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in urine of dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than in arsenate-treated rats, suggesting a difference between treatment groups in the flux of dimethylated arsenic through urinary bladder. Concentrations of trimethylated arsenic concentrations were consistently higher in dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than in arsenate-treated rats; these differences were significant (P < 0.05) in liver, urinary bladder, and urine. Concentrations of dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide were higher in urine from dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than from arsenate-treated rats. Dimethylarsinic acid is extensively metabolized in the rat, yielding significant concentrations of trimethylated species and of thiolated derivatives. One or more of these metabolites could be the species causing alterations of cellular function that lead to tumors in the urinary bladder.

  6. Activation of the Endogenous Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System or Aldosterone Administration Increases Urinary Exosomal Sodium Channel Excretion.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ying; Wang, Xiaojing; Rose, Kristie L; MacDonald, W Hayes; Zhang, Bing; Schey, Kevin L; Luther, James M

    2016-02-01

    Urinary exosomes secreted by multiple cell types in the kidney may participate in intercellular signaling and provide an enriched source of kidney-specific proteins for biomarker discovery. Factors that alter the exosomal protein content remain unknown. To determine whether endogenous and exogenous hormones modify urinary exosomal protein content, we analyzed samples from 14 mildly hypertensive patients in a crossover study during a high-sodium (HS, 160 mmol/d) diet and low-sodium (LS, 20 mmol/d) diet to activate the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. We further analyzed selected exosomal protein content in a separate cohort of healthy persons receiving intravenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg per hour for 10 hours) versus vehicle infusion. The LS diet increased plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration, whereas aldosterone infusion increased only aldosterone concentration. Protein analysis of paired urine exosome samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based multidimensional protein identification technology detected 2775 unique proteins, of which 316 exhibited significantly altered abundance during LS diet. Sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and α- and γ-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits from the discovery set were verified using targeted multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry quantified with isotope-labeled peptide standards. Dietary sodium restriction or acute aldosterone infusion similarly increased urine exosomal γENaC[112-122] peptide concentrations nearly 20-fold, which correlated with plasma aldosterone concentration and urinary Na/K ratio. Urine exosomal NCC and αENaC concentrations were relatively unchanged during these interventions. We conclude that urinary exosome content is altered by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation. Urinary measurement of exosomal γENaC[112-122] concentration may provide a useful biomarker of ENaC activation in future clinical studies.

  7. Copious urinary excretion of a male Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) salivary gland protein after its endocrine-like release upon β-adrenergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Ved Prakash; Srikantan, Subramanya; Mohammad, Mahabub Pasha; Rajan, Wenson David; De, Prabir Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Salivary glands, although widely considered as typically exocrine, may also release specific proteins in an endocrine manner. However, endocrine release of salivary gland proteins is not generally acknowledged since the evidences are not easily demonstrable. Submandibular salivary glands (SMG) of male Syrian hamsters express male-specific secretory proteins (MSP; which are lipocalins) visible in SDS-PAGE of SMG extracts, as major bands and also detectable in immunoblots of whole-saliva and urine as low MSP crossreactions. We report here that MSP is localized in acinar cells of SMG and acute treatment with isoproterenol (IPR; non-specific β1/β2-adrenergic agonist) results in considerable release of MSP in SMG-saliva. Moreover, acute IPR treatment markedly depletes SMG-MSP in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, MSP depleted from SMG, far exceeds that recovered in SMG-saliva. Blood, submandibular lymph nodes and kidney of IPR-treated males showed MSP crossreactions and SDS-PAGE of their urine revealed profuse MSP excretion; this was undetectable in IPR-treated-SMG-ablated males, confirming that a substantial amount of MSP depleted from SMG after IPR treatment enters circulation and is excreted in urine. Treatments with specific β1- or β2-adrenergic agonists also reduced SMG-MSP levels and resulted in copious urinary excretion of MSP. Co-treatments with specific β1/β2-blockers indicated that above effects of IPR, β1- and even β2-agonists are very likely mediated by β1-adrenoceptors. MSP's detection by SDS-PAGE in urine after β-agonist treatment is a compelling and easily demonstrable evidence of release into circulation of a salivary gland protein. The possible means (endocrine-like or otherwise) of MSP's release into circulation and significance of its presence in saliva, blood and urine of male hamsters are discussed.

  8. Validation of triple pass 24-hour dietary recall in Ugandan children by simultaneous weighed food assessment

    PubMed Central

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Amorut, Denis; Nakuya, Margaret; Arimi, Margaret; Frost, Gary; Maitland, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition remains highly prevalent in African children, highlighting the need for accurately assessing dietary intake. In order to do so, the assessment method must be validated in the target population. A triple pass 24 hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation has been described but not previously validated in African children. This study aimed to establish the relative validity of 24-hour dietary recalls of daily food consumption in healthy African children living in Mbale and Soroti, eastern Uganda compared to simultaneous weighed food records. Methods Quantitative assessment of daily food consumption by weighed food records followed by two independent assessments using triple pass 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. In conjunction with household measures and standard food sizes, volumes of liquid, dry rice, or play dough were used to aid portion size estimation. Inter-assessor agreement, and agreement with weighed food records was conducted primarily by Bland-Altman analysis and secondly by intraclass correlation coefficients and quartile cross-classification. Results 19 healthy children aged 6 months to 12 years were included in the study. Bland-Altman analysis showed 24-hour recall only marginally under-estimated energy (mean difference of 149kJ or 2.8%; limits of agreement -1618 to 1321kJ), protein (2.9g or 9.4%; -12.6 to 6.7g), and iron (0.43mg or 8.3%; -3.1 to 2.3mg). Quartile cross-classification was correct in 79% of cases for energy intake, and 89% for both protein and iron. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the separate dietary recalls for energy was 0.801 (95% CI, 0.429-0.933), indicating acceptable inter-observer agreement. Conclusions Dietary assessment using 24-hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation resulted in similar and acceptable estimates of dietary intake compared with weighed food records and thus is considered a valid method for daily dietary intake assessment of

  9. Static stretching can impair explosive performance for at least 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Monoem; Dridi, Amir; Chtara, Moktar; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Behm, David; Chamari, Karim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static vs. dynamic stretching (DS) on explosive performances and repeated sprint ability (RSA) after a 24-hour delay. Sixteen young male soccer players performed 15 minutes of static stretching (SS), DS, or a no-stretch control condition (CC) 24 hours before performing explosive performances and RSA tests. This was a within-subject repeated measures study with SS, DS, and CC being counterbalanced. Stretching protocols included 2 sets of 7 minutes 30 seconds (2 repetitions of 30 seconds with a 15-second passive recovery) for 5 muscle groups (quadriceps, hamstring, calves, adductors, and hip flexors). Twenty-four hours later (without any kind of stretching in warm-up), the players were tested for the 30-m sprint test (with 10- and 20-m lap times), 5 jump test (5JT), and RSA test. Significant differences were observed between CC, SS, and DS with 5JT (F = 9.99, p < 0.00, effect size [ES] = 0.40), 10-m sprint time (F = 46.52, p < 0.00, ES = 0.76), 20-m sprint time (F = 18.44, p < 0.000, ES = 0.55), and 30-m sprint time (F = 34.25, p < 0.000, ES = 0.70). The significantly better performance (p < 0.05) was observed after DS as compared with that after CC and SS in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. In contrast, significantly worse performance (p < 0.05) was observed after SS as compared with that after CC in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. With RSA, no significant difference was observed between different stretching protocols in the total time (F = 1.55, p > 0.05), average time (F = 1.53, p > 0.05), and fastest time (F = 2.30, p > 0.05), except for the decline index (F = 3.54, p < 0.04, ES = 0.19). Therefore, the SS of the lower limbs and hip muscles had a negative effect on explosive performances up to 24 hours poststretching with no major effects on the RSA. Conversely, the DS of the same muscle groups are highly recommended 24 hours before performing sprint and long-jump performances. In

  10. Identification of a mechanism by which the methylmercury antidotes N-acetylcysteine and dimercaptopropanesulfonate enhance urinary metal excretion: transport by the renal organic anion transporter-1.

    PubMed

    Koh, Albert S; Simmons-Willis, Tracey A; Pritchard, John B; Grassl, Steven M; Ballatori, Nazzareno

    2002-10-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) and dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS) are sulfhydryl-containing compounds that produce a dramatic acceleration of urinary methylmercury (MeHg) excretion in poisoned animals, but the molecular mechanism for this effect is unknown. NAC and DMPS are themselves excreted in urine in high concentrations. The present study tested the hypothesis that the complexes formed between MeHg and these anionic chelating agents are transported from blood into proximal tubule cells by the basolateral membrane organic anion transporters (Oat) 1 and Oat3. Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing rat Oat1 showed increased uptake of [(14)C]MeHg when complexed with either NAC or DMPS but not when complexed with L-cysteine, glutathione, dimercaptosuccinate, penicillamine, or gamma-glutamylcysteine. In contrast, none of these MeHg complexes were transported by Oat3-expressing oocytes. The apparent K(m) values for Oat1-mediated transport were 31 +/- 2 microM for MeHg-NAC and 9 +/- 2 microM for MeHg-DMPS, indicating that these are relatively high-affinity substrates. Oat1-mediated uptake of [(14)C]MeHg-NAC and [(14)C]MeHg-DMPS was inhibited by prototypical substrates for Oat1, including p-aminohippurate (PAH), and was trans-stimulated when oocytes were preloaded with 2 mM glutarate but not glutamate. Conversely, efflux of [(3)H]PAH from Oat1-expressing oocytes was trans-stimulated by glutarate, PAH, NAC, DMPS, MeHg-NAC, MeHg-DMPS, and a mercapturic acid, indicating that these are transported solutes. [(3)H]PAH uptake was competitively inhibited by NAC (K(i) of 2.0 +/- 0.3 mM) and DMPS (K(i) of 0.10 +/- 0.02 mM), providing further evidence that these chelating agents are substrates for Oat1. These results indicate that the MeHg antidotes NAC and DMPS and their mercaptide complexes are transported by Oat1 but are comparatively poor substrates for Oat3. This is the first molecular identification of a transport mechanism by which these antidotes may enhance urinary excretion of

  11. Strawberry processing does not affect the production and urinary excretion of urolithins, ellagic acid metabolites, in humans.

    PubMed

    Truchado, Pilar; Larrosa, Mar; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Cerdá, Begoña; Vidal-Guevara, María Luisa; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2012-06-13

    The study of fruit and vegetable processing and its effects on the levels of health-promoting constituents and their bioavailability and metabolism is very relevant to understanding the role of these constituents in human health. Strawberry polyphenols, and particularly ellagitannins and ellagic acid, have been associated with the health benefits of this berry for humans. These compounds are transformed into urolithins by the gut microbiota, and these metabolites exert several biological activities that could be responsible for the health effects of strawberries. Processing potentially increases the extraction of ellagitannins from the strawberry achenes and the release of ellagic acid from ellagitannins. It is of interest to evaluate the effect of processing on strawberry ellagitannin microbial metabolism compared with fresh strawberries. This study shows that no significant differences in the production and excretion of urolithins were found between the intake of fresh strawberries and that of a thermally processed strawberry puree containing the same amount of strawberries. Processing increases the amount of free ellagic acid 2.5-fold, but this had no effect on the transformation in urolithins by the gut microbiota or in the excretion of urolithin metabolites (urolithin glucuronides) in urine, showing that the release of ellagic acid from ellagitannins is not a relevant factor affecting the microbial metabolism. All of the volunteers produced urolithin A, but only 3 of 20 volunteers produced and excreted urolithin B. It is confirmed that some volunteers were efficient producers of urolithins, whereas other produced much lower amounts. These results show that processing does not modify the potential health effects of strawberry polyphenols.

  12. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy: Report of a case associated with high urinary excretion of Vanilmandelic acid

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, P. N.; Sah, Kunal; Kale, Alka; Kadam, Ajit; Shah, Hetul; Chandra, Sunira

    2011-01-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is a rare congenital neoplasm involving the head and neck region in young patients. A case of melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is presented. This tumor occurred in right maxillary alveolar ridge in a 4-month-old infant. The present case showed an increased urinary level of vanilmandelic acid, confirming that the tumor is originated from neural crest. Clinical assessment, histologic diagnosis, and laboratory findings supported the diagnosis. PMID:22346163

  13. Tamm-Horsfall protein in recurrent calcium kidney stone formers with positive family history: abnormalities in urinary excretion, molecular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Markus; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Zipperle, Ljerka; Hess, Bernhard

    2007-04-01

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) powerfully inhibits calcium oxalate crystal aggregation, but structurally abnormal THPs from recurrent calcium stone formers may promote crystal aggregation. Therefore, increased urinary excretion of abnormal THP might be of relevance in nephrolithiasis. We studied 44 recurrent idiopathic calcium stone formers with a positive family history of stone disease (RCSF(fam)) and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (C). Twenty-four-hour urinary THP excretion was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Structural properties of individually purified THPs were obtained from analysis of elution patterns from a Sepharose 4B column. Sialic acid (SA) contents of native whole 24-h urines, crude salt precipitates of native urines and individually purified THPs were measured. THP function was studied by measuring inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation in vitro (pH 5.7, 200 mM sodium chloride). Twenty-four-hour urine excretion of THP was higher in RCSF(fam) (44.0 +/- 4.0 mg/day) than in C (30.9 +/- 2.2 mg/day, P = 0.015). Upon salt precipitation and lyophilization, elution from a Sepharose 4B column revealed one major peak (peak A, cross-reacting with polyclonal anti-THP antibody) and a second minor peak (peak B, not cross-reacting). THPs from RCSF(fam) eluted later than those from C (P = 0.021), and maximum width of THP peaks was higher in RCSF(fam )than in C (P = 0.024). SA content was higher in specimens from RCSF(fam) than from C, in native 24-h urines (207.5 +/- 20.4 mg vs. 135.2 +/- 16.1 mg, P = 0.013) as well as in crude salt precipitates of 24-h urines (10.4 +/- 0.5 mg vs. 7.4 +/- 0.9 mg, P = 0.002) and in purified THPs (75.3 +/- 9.3 microg/mg vs. 48.8 +/- 9.8 microg/mg THP, P = 0.043). Finally, inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal aggregation by 40 mg/L of THP was lower in RCSF(fam) (6.1 +/- 5.5%, range -62.0 to +84.2%) than in C (24.9 +/- 6.0%, range -39.8 to +82.7%), P = 0.022, and only 25 out of 44 (57%) THPs from RCSF

  14. Treating allergic conjunctivitis: A once-daily medication that provides 24-hour symptom relief

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Jack; Donnenfeld, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is a common ocular inflammatory manifestation of allergen exposure in sensitized individuals. Signs and symptoms of AC can decrease quality of life, interfere with productivity, and lead to considerable economic burden. Consistent suppression of conjunctival inflammation is necessary for managing AC, but currently available medications require frequent administration and exhibit limited duration of action. Methods: In this review, we summarized AC pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment options as well as their limitations. Findings from the literature were discussed in the context of the unmet need for a once-daily medication with sustained 24-hour effectiveness. Results: Topical pharmacologic treatments are the most common approach for managing extant AC; however, most available medications require multiple daily instillations. Dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizing agents are currently considered first-line therapeutics for AC because they provide acute relief of signs and symptoms and block persistent inflammation to promote regression of AC. Recent studies of a newly-developed, higher-concentration formulation of a dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizer have demonstrated that this formulation provides a 24-hour duration of action with once-daily dosing. Conclusions: Dual-acting AC medications exhibit a high degree of overall effectiveness and are well tolerated for chronic use. A newly available once-daily medication that manages signs and symptoms of AC for a full 24 hours may be considered a treatment of choice for patients experiencing seasonal or perennial AC. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01743027 and NCT01479374 PMID:27466061

  15. Bioenergetical and Cardiac Adaptations of Pilots to a 24-Hour Team Kart Race.

    PubMed

    Durand, Sylvain; Ripamonti, Michael; Rahmani, Abderrahmane; Beaune, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate (HR) response in kart pilots to successive driving bouts during a 24-hour team race. Eight adult male pilots (22.8 ± 4.1 years) participated to a team 24-hour speedway kart race in Le Mans (France). They alternatively piloted a 390 cm kart. Each relay was 45 minutes long and each pilot performed 4 relays. For each pilot, mean speeds were calculated from lap-to-lap duration recordings using a telemetric infrared timing device. Heart rate values were recorded continuously on 5-second intervals using a portable cardiometric device. Total energy expenditure (EET) and physical activity ratio (PAR) were determined by accelerometry. To pilot a kart during 45 minutes at a mean speed around 62 km·h induces a 300-kcal EET, corresponding to a 5.6-Mets PAR. This effort is responsive for a 73 b·min increase in HR, from 84.1 ± 7.6 to 157.4 ± 11.0 b·min (82% maximal heart rate intensity). However, during this relay period, HR values seemed independent to mean speed performance and bioenergetical values. Thus, in the context of the 24-hour team race, the variability in effort made during each relay and relay succession did not alter bioenergetical adaptation of pilots to kart driving. The high EE and HR values would be better explained by both emotional stress and environmental constraints such as speedway configuration and vibrations. The way how these factors specifically influence bioenergetical demand, and their relative importance, has to be specified to optimize training procedure and recommendations.

  16. Heterogeneity of Prognostic Studies of 24-Hour Blood Pressure Variability: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kathryn S.; Heneghan, Carl J.; Stevens, Richard J.; Adams, Emily C.; Nunan, David; Ward, Alison

    2015-01-01

    In addition to mean blood pressure, blood pressure variability is hypothesized to have important prognostic value in evaluating cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of blood pressure variability within 24 hours. Using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library to April 2013, we conducted a systematic review of prospective studies of adults, with at least one year follow-up and any day, night or 24-hour blood pressure variability measure as a predictor of one or more of the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, all cardiovascular events, stroke and coronary heart disease. We examined how blood pressure variability is defined and how its prognostic use is reported. We analysed relative risks adjusted for covariates including the appropriate mean blood pressure and considered the potential for meta-analysis. Our analysis of methods included 24 studies and analysis of predictions included 16 studies. There were 36 different measures of blood pressure variability and 13 definitions of night- and day-time periods. Median follow-up was 5.5 years (interquartile range 4.2–7.0). Comparing measures of dispersion, coefficient of variation was less well researched than standard deviation. Night dipping based on percentage change was the most researched measure and the only measure for which data could be meaningfully pooled. Night dipping or lower night-time blood pressure was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events. The interpretation and use in clinical practice of 24-hour blood pressure variability, as an important prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events, is hampered by insufficient evidence and divergent methodologies. We recommend greater standardisation of methods. PMID:25984791

  17. Heterogeneity of prognostic studies of 24-hour blood pressure variability: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kathryn S; Heneghan, Carl J; Stevens, Richard J; Adams, Emily C; Nunan, David; Ward, Alison

    2015-01-01

    In addition to mean blood pressure, blood pressure variability is hypothesized to have important prognostic value in evaluating cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of blood pressure variability within 24 hours. Using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library to April 2013, we conducted a systematic review of prospective studies of adults, with at least one year follow-up and any day, night or 24-hour blood pressure variability measure as a predictor of one or more of the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, all cardiovascular events, stroke and coronary heart disease. We examined how blood pressure variability is defined and how its prognostic use is reported. We analysed relative risks adjusted for covariates including the appropriate mean blood pressure and considered the potential for meta-analysis. Our analysis of methods included 24 studies and analysis of predictions included 16 studies. There were 36 different measures of blood pressure variability and 13 definitions of night- and day-time periods. Median follow-up was 5.5 years (interquartile range 4.2-7.0). Comparing measures of dispersion, coefficient of variation was less well researched than standard deviation. Night dipping based on percentage change was the most researched measure and the only measure for which data could be meaningfully pooled. Night dipping or lower night-time blood pressure was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events. The interpretation and use in clinical practice of 24-hour blood pressure variability, as an important prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events, is hampered by insufficient evidence and divergent methodologies. We recommend greater standardisation of methods.

  18. Lack of effect of a 24-hour infusion of iloprost in intermittent claudication.

    PubMed

    Hay, C R; Waller, P C; Carter, C; Cameron, H A; Parnell, L; Ramsay, L E; Preston, F E; Greaves, M

    1987-04-15

    24 hour infusion of iloprost was compared with placebo infusion in 19 patients with stable intermittent claudication using a double blind, balanced crossover design. Despite significant inhibition of platelet aggregation to ADP and collagen (p less than 0.001) and the typical cardiovascular and gastrointestinal side effects, there was no significant effect on treadmill exercise times at any time up to 6 weeks after infusion. The 95% confidence limits indicated that an improvement of more than 25% was unlikely to occur. No significant changes in B thromboglobulin, platelet aggregate ratio, bleeding time, whole blood viscosity and euglobulin clot lysis time were demonstrated.

  19. [The changes in mental working capacity of operators during 24-hour shift work conditions].

    PubMed

    Kal'nysh, V V; Shvets', A V; Ieshchenko, O I

    2011-01-01

    Psychophysiological peculiarities of influence of a 24-hour shift work on the efficiency of operators have been discussed. It was shown that servicemen operators develop significant fatigue as a result of 24 hrs duty services. The informative psychophysiological characteristics which can be reliable indicators of fatigue level are highlighted. Individual psychophysiological indicators of fatigue level, according to different mechanisms of its development, have been proposed. The hypothesis about the existence of several compensatory mechanisms for maintenance of long duty operators' working capacity has been formulated.

  20. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  1. Acute effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure on 24-hour blood pressure and catecholamines in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Minemura, H; Akashiba, T; Yamamoto, H; Akahoshi, T; Kosaka, N; Horie, T

    1998-12-01

    To assess the acute effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on the 24-hour blood pressure and the secretion of catecholamines in urine and plasma, we investigated the changes in the 24-hour blood pressure and urinary and plasma concentrations of epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) in 26 men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with and without nasal CPAP. Nasal CPAP resulted in significant decreases in the daytime diastolic pressure (from 86 +/-16 mmHg to 83+/-12 mmHg), the nighttime diastolic pressure (from 81+/-12 mmHg to 77+/-9 mmHg) and the nighttime systolic pressures (from 125+/-15 mmHg to 120+/-10 mmHg). There was no significant difference between patients with and without CPAP in the daytime or nighttime urinary E level, but patients who received CPAP showed a significant decrease in daytime urinary NE level (from 156+/-112 microg/14h to 119+/-101 microg/14h) and nighttime urinary NE level (from 143+/-91 microg/10h to 112+/-65 microg/10h). The morning plasma level of NE also decreased (from 371+/-181 pg/ml to 273 +/-148 pg/ml) in patients who received nasal CPAP (p<0.02), but the plasma level of E remained unchanged. There were no correlations between PSG parameters and the reductions in blood pressure and the catecholamine levels induced by nasal CPAP. These findings suggest that OSA contributes, at least in part, to the development of systemic hypertension by increasing sympathetic nervous activity.

  2. Urinary excretion profiles of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-hydroxy-delta9-THC: cannabinoid metabolites to creatinine ratio study IV.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Albert D; Worth, David

    2004-07-16

    The objective of this study was to compare urinary excretion patterns of two cannabinoid metabolites in subjects with a history of chronic marijuana use. The first metabolite analyzed was nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC-COOH), the major urinary cannabinoid metabolite that is pharmacologically inactive. The second metabolite 11-OH-delta9-THC is an active cannabinoid metabolite and is not routinely measured. Urine specimens were collected from four subjects on 12-20 occasions > or = 96 h apart in an uncontrolled clinical setting. Creatinine was analyzed in each urine specimen by the colorimetric modified Jaffé reaction on a SYVA 30R biochemical analyzer. All urine specimens analyzed for 11-OH-delta9-THC had screened positive for cannabinoids with the EMIT II Plus cannabinoids assay (cut-off 50 ng/mL) on a SYVA 30R analyzer and submitted for delta9-THC-COOH confirmation by GC-MS (cut-off concentration 15 ng/mL). Eleven-OH-delta9-THC was measured by GC-MS with a cut-off concentration of 3 ng/mL. Both GC-MS methods for cannabinoid metabolites used deuterated internal standards for quantitative analysis. The mean (range) of urinary delta9-THC-COOH concentration was 1153 ng/mL (78.7-2634) with a cut-off of 15 ng/mL. The mean (range) of delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratios (ng/mL delta9-THC-COOH/mmol/L creatinine) was 84.1 (8.1-122.1). The mean (range) urinary of 11-OH-delta9-THC concentration was 387.6 ng/mL (11.9-783) with a cut-off of 3 ng/mL, and the mean (range) of 11-OH-delta9-THC/creatinine ratio (ng/mL 11-OH-delta9-THC/mmol/L creatinine) was 29.7 (1.2-40.7). Of the 63 urine specimens submitted for delta9-THC-COOH confirmation by GC-MS, 59/63 urine specimens (94%) were positive for delta9 -THC-COOH and 51/63 (81%) were positive for 11-OH-delta9-THC. Overall, the concentrations of 11-OH-delta9-THC in urine specimens collected > or = 96 h apart were lower than delta9-THC-COOH concentrations in 50/51 of the urine specimens in this population

  3. Confirming urinary excretion of mephentermine and phentermine following the ingestion of oxethazaine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Hsun; Liu, Chin-Hung; Liu, Ray H; Tseng, Ying Lung

    2010-03-01

    Mephentermine and phentermine, substances prohibited in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency, were found for the first time in urine specimens following the administration of a therapeutic medication, oxethazaine. In a recent sporting event, a urine specimen donor who tested positive for mephentermine and phentermine claimed consumption of Mucaine((R)) for treating stomach pain was the reason for testing positive. Five volunteers were administrated oxethazaine (a topical anesthetic found in the multi-ingredient medication Mucaine and its generic equivalent, Stoin, both of which are available in Taiwan), mephentermine, and phentermine. Excretion profiles of mephentermine and phentermine following the administration of these drugs were found to be similar. However, the mephentermine/phentermine ratios found in urine specimens collected at different time points following the administration of oxethazine and mephentermine were found to be characteristically different.

  4. [Comparative study of the urinary excretion of boron, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    José Ramón, Vielma; Mora Mora, Marylú; Marino Alarcón, Oscar; Hernández, Gladys; Josefina Linares, Ledy; Urdaneta Romero, Haideé; Arévalo González, Evelia

    2012-03-01

    In order to compare the possible relationship between urinary concentrations of boron, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in serum and urine of postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis, we selected 45 postmenopausal women over 47 years of age, divided into two groups: group I clinically healthy postmenopausal women and group II postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, without chronic kidney and hepatic diseases or diabetes mellitus. We determined the boron (B), phosphorus (P), total calcium (Ca) and total magnesium (Mg) in the urine of two hours, by atomic emission spectroscopy with induction-coupled plasma (ICPA-ES). Total calcium and total magnesium in serum were determined by atomic flame absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) and inorganic phosphorus in serum, and creatinine in serum and urine, by molecular absorption spectrometry. The preliminary results suggest the existence of a significant difference (p < 0.05) in boron and phosphorus concentrations in the urine of two hours between the groups. The model of linear regression analysis used showed a relationship between urinary concentrations of boron/creatinine index and calcium/ creatinine, magnesium/creatinine and phosphorus/creatinine indexes in the urine of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

  5. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. PMID:27525110

  6. Physician-pharmacist co-management and 24-hour blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ziqian; Ernst, Michael E; Ardery, Gail; Xu, Yinghui; Carter, Barry L

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare indices of 24-hour blood pressure (BP) following a physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention and to describe the associated changes in antihypertensive medications. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective, cluster-randomized clinical trial conducted in 6 family medicine clinics randomized to co-managed (n=3 clinics, 176 patients) or control (n=3 clinics, 198 patients) groups. Mean ambulatory systolic BP (SBP) was significantly lower in the co-managed vs the control group: daytime BP 122.8 mm Hg vs 134.4 mm Hg (P<.001); nighttime SBP 114.8 mm Hg vs 123.7 mm Hg (P<.001); and 24-hour SBP 120.4 mm Hg vs 131.8 mm Hg (P<.001), respectively. Significantly more drug changes were made in the co-managed than in the control group (2.7 vs 1.1 changes per patient, P<.001), and there was greater diuretic use in co-managed patients (79.6% vs 62.6%, P<.001). Ambulatory BPs were significantly lower for the patients who had a diuretic added during the first month compared with those who never had a diuretic added (P<.01). Physician-pharmacist co-management significantly improved ambulatory BP compared with the control group. Antihypertensive drug therapy was intensified much more for patients in the co-managed group.

  7. Deviation of innate circadian period from 24 hours reduces longevity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Libert, Sergiy; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Pointer, Kelli; Pletcher, Scott D.; Guarente, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Summary The variation of individual lifespans, even in highly inbred cohorts of animals and under strictly controlled environmental conditions, is substantial and not well understood. This variation in part could be due to epigenetic variation, which later affects the animal’s physiology and ultimately longevity. Identification of the physiological properties that impact health and lifespan is crucial for longevity research and the development of anti-aging therapies. Here we measured individual circadian and metabolic characteristics in a cohort of inbred F1 hybrid mice and correlated these parameters to their lifespans. We found that mice with innate circadian periods close to 24 hours (revealed during 30 days of housing in total darkness) enjoyed nearly 20% longer lifespans than their littermates, which had shorter or longer innate circadian periods. These findings show that maintenance of a 24 hour intrinsic circadian period is a positive predictor of longevity. Our data suggest that circadian period may be used to predict individual longevity and that processes that control innate circadian period affect aging. PMID:22702406

  8. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m(2), had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab(®) device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens(®) algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for "24-hour", "awake", and "asleep" periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects.

  9. Urinary trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) as an index of selenium (Se) exposure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, V.C.; Levander, O.A.

    1986-03-01

    Large doses of certain Se compounds have been suggested as cancer chemoprevention agents in humans and better techniques for assessing Se status at such intakes are needed. Others have shown that urinary TMSe excretion is a function of Se exposure in rats and an HPLC method has recently been developed for measuring TMSe in urine. In their studies, young male rats were injected i.p. with 6 to 600 ..mu..g Se as selenite or L-selenomethionine containing 3..mu..Ci /sup 75/Se as the appropriate tracer. Urine was collected for 24 hours and desalted. TMSe was separated by HPLC on a strong cation exchanger with NH/sub 4/C/sub 2/H/sub 3/O/sub 2/ (pH 5.0) as the eluting buffer. Identification of TMSe was confirmed by autoradiographic TLC vs. authentic standards. The fraction of urinary Se excreted as TMSe increased from 2 to 70% as the amount of selenite injected increased. Only 3 to 53% appeared in urine as TMSe after injection of equivalent doses of selenomethionine. There was little or no effect of crude (chow) vs. purified (casein) diet on the excretion of TMSe after selenite injection, but Se-deficient rats excreted more Se in the form of TMSe than Se-supplemented rats. Urinary TMSe is a promising tool for assessing Se exposure but more work is needed to evaluate the effect of various dietary forms of Se on the excretion of TMSe in the urine.

  10. Urinary excretion profiles of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol: a Delta9-THC-COOH to creatinine ratio study #2.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Albert D; Worth, David

    2003-04-23

    Subjects with a history of chronic marijuana use were screened for cannabinoids in urine specimens with the EMIT((R)) II Plus cannabinoids assay with a cut-off value of 50 ng/ml. All presumptively positive specimens were submitted for confirmatory analysis for the major urinary cannabinoid metabolite (Delta(9)-THC-COOH) by GC-MS with a cut-off value of 15 ng/ml. Creatinine was analyzed in each specimen as an index of dilution. Huestis and Cone [J. Anal. Toxicol. 22 (1998) 445] reported that serial monitoring of Delta(9)-THC-COOH to creatinine ratios in paired urine specimens collected at least 24h apart could differentiate new drug use from residual Delta(9)-THC-COOH excretion. The best accuracy (85.4%) for predicting new marijuana use was a Delta(9)-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio > or =0.5 (dividing the Delta(9)-THC-COOH to creatinine ratio of specimen 2 by the specimen 1 ratio). In a previous study in this laboratory [J. Anal. Toxicol. 23 (1999) 531], urine specimens were collected from chronic marijuana users at least 24h apart and dilute urine specimens (creatinine values <2.2 micromol/l) were excluded from the data analysis. The objective of the present study was to determine whether creatinine corrected urine specimens positive for cannabinoids could differentiate new marijuana use from the excretion of residual Delta(9)-THC-COOH in chronic users of marijuana based on the Huestis 0.5 ratio. Urine specimens (N=946) were collected from 37 individuals with at least 48h between collections. All urine specimens were included in the data review irrespective of creatinine concentration. The mean urinary Delta(9)-THC-COOH concentration was 302.4 ng/ml, mean Delta(9)-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio (ng/ml Delta(9)-THC-COOH/(mmol/l) creatinine) was 29.3 and the Huestis ratio calculation indicated new drug use in 83% of all sequentially paired urine specimens. The data were sub-divided into three groups (A-C) based on the mean Delta(9)-THC-COOH/creatinine values. Interindividual

  11. Non-inferiority of creatinine excretion rate to urinary L-FABP and NGAL as predictors of early renal allograft function

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated accuracy of urinary liver type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) for prediction of early allograft function and compared it to neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), diuresis and urinary creatinine excretion rate (UCr). Methods Urine samples from 71 consecutive patients were taken 4, 10, 24 and 48 h after transplantation. We classified recipients into two groups: immediate graft function (IGF), with more than 70% reduction of serum Cr at 7th day post-transplant, and delayed graft function (DGF)/slow graft function (SGF) group (DGF - the need for hemodialysis procedure in the first week, SGF - less than 70% reduction of serum Cr in the first week). Results Thirty-one recipients had IGF and 40 had DGF/SGF. L-FABP was only useful 48 h post-transplant with ROC AUC of 0.85 (95% C.I. 0.74-0.92); NGAL 24 h post-transplant had ROC AUC of 0.82 (0.7-0.91). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for prediction of DGF/SGF with L-FABP > 9.5 mg/mmol Cr and NGAL > 33.1 μg/mmol Cr were: 86, 80, 83 and 83% (L-FABP), and 68, 93, 91, and 73% (NGAL). The difference in urine output between the groups was largest 4 h post-transplant (p = 0.001), later on the difference diminished. There were no significant differences in ROC AUC between L-FABP at 48 h, NGAL at 24 h, urine output at 4 h and UCr excretion rate at 10 h post-transplant. UCr < 0.56 mmol/h 10 h post-transplant predicted DGF/SGF with 94% sensitivity, 84% specificity, 89% PPV and 91% NPV, ROC AUC was 0.9. Classification tree with urine output 4 h and UCr 10 h post-transplant accurately predicted 89% of outcomes. When L-FABP or NGAL were added, the prediction was accurate in 92 or 90%, respectively. Conclusions L-FABP is comparable to NGAL for prediction of first week allograft function, however UCr and diuresis were non-inferior. PMID:25027586

  12. Concentrations in plasma, urinary excretion, and bactericidal activity of linezolid (600 milligrams) versus those of ciprofloxacin (500 milligrams) in healthy volunteers receiving a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Wydra, Stephan; Onda, Hajime; Kinzig-Schippers, Martina; Sörgel, Fritz; Naber, Kurt G

    2003-12-01

    In a randomized crossover study, 12 volunteers (6 males, 6 females) received a single oral dose of 600 mg of linezolid or 500 mg of ciprofloxacin to assess the concentrations in plasma (up to 24 h), urinary excretion (by high-pressure liquid chromatography), and bactericidal titers in urine (UBT) at intervals up to 120 h. The mean maximum concentration of linezolid in plasma was 13.1 mg/liter, and that of ciprofloxacin was 2.46 mg/liter. The median cumulative levels of renal excretion of the administered dose of the parent drug were 44% for linezolid (range, 28 to 47%; mean +/- standard deviation, 40% +/- 7.8%) and 43% for ciprofloxacin (range, 20 to 56%; mean +/- standard deviation, 40% +/- 9.3%). The UBTs, i.e., the highest twofold dilution (with antibiotic-free urine used as the diluent) of urine that was still bactericidal, were determined for a reference strain and five gram-positive clinical uropathogens for which the MICs of linezolid and ciprofloxacin were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 27278, 2 and 0.25 mg/liter, respectively; Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin susceptible), 1 and 16 mg/liter, respectively; Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin resistant), 2 and 64 mg/liter, respectively; Staphylococcus saprophyticus (methicillin susceptible), 1 and 0.25 mg/liter, respectively; Enterococcus faecalis, 2 and 1 mg/liter, respectively; and Enterococcus faecium, 2 and 1 mg/liter, respectively. The median UBTs of linezolid measured within the first 6 h were 1:96 for each of the two enterococcal strains and between 1:128 and 1:256 for the four staphylococcal strains. The median UBTs of ciprofloxacin were 1:64 for the two enterococcal strains; between 1:384 and 1:512 for the two ciprofloxacin-susceptible strains; and 1 (bactericidal activity of undiluted urine only) and 1:2 for the two resistant staphylococcal strains, respectively. The areas under the UBT-time curve (AUBT) for linezolid and ciprofloxacin showed no statistically significant (P<0

  13. Circadian rhythm of catecholamine excretion in rats after phase shift of light-dark cycle.

    PubMed

    Sudo, A; Miki, K

    1995-01-01

    To clarify the time course of circadian rhythm adaptation to a phase shift of the light-dark (LD) cycle, urinary excretion of catecholamines was measured in rats before and after a 12-hour or 6-hour phase delay of a 12-hour light and 12-hour dark schedule. In rats under a basal condition, distinct circadian rhythms in catecholamine excretion were observed, especially in adrenaline excretion. During the 1st and 2nd days after a 12-hour phase delay, the acrophase and amplitude of adrenaline rhythm remained almost unchanged, but thereafter the acrophase was retarded and the amplitude was reduced. The acrophase once again became constant after 5 or 6 days, but the ratio of amplitude to mesor in the circadian rhythm of adrenaline excretion and the ratio of light-period to 24-hour noradrenaline excretion were readjusted to the new LD schedule on 11th or 12th day. IN the 6-hour phase delay of the LD cycle, similar findings were observed, and the results suggested adaptation on the 5-6th day. It is considered that the circadian rhythms of the sympathetic adrenomedullary function are restored, at the latest, 12 days after a 12-hour delay of the LD cycle, and 6 days after a 6-hour delay, suggesting that rats need approximately 1 day to adapt to a 1-hour phase shift.

  14. Changes in urinary amino acids excretion in relationship with muscle activity markers over a professional cycling stage race: in search of fatigue markers.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, Roberto; Barassi, Alessandra; Perego, Silvia; Sansoni, Veronica; Rossi, Alessandra; Damele, Clara Anna Linda; Melzi D'Eril, Gianlodovico; Banfi, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between metabolic effort, muscular damage/activity indices, and urinary amino acids profile over the course of a strenuous prolonged endurance activity, as a cycling stage race is, in order to identify possible fatigue markers. Nine professional cyclists belonging to a single team, competing in the Giro d'Italia cycling stage race, were anthropometrically characterized and sampled for blood and urine the day before the race started, and on days 12 and 23 of the race. Diet was kept the same over the race, and power output and energy expenditure were recorded. Sera were assayed for muscle markers (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities, and blood urea nitrogen), and creatinine, all corrected for plasma volume changes. Urines were profiled for amino acid concentrations, normalized on creatinine excretion. Renal function, in terms of glomerular filtration rate, was monitored by MDRD equation corrected on body surface area. Creatine kinase activity and blood urea were increased during the race as did serum creatinine while kidney function remained stable. Among the amino acids, taurine, glycine, cysteine, leucine, carnosine, 1-methyl histidine, and 3-methyl histidine showed a net decreased, while homocysteine was increased. Taurine and the dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) were significantly correlated with the muscle activity markers and the indices of effort. In conclusion, the metabolic profile is modified strikingly due to the effort. Urinary taurine and carnosine seem useful tools to evaluate the muscle damage and possibly the fatigue status on a long-term basis.

  15. A whole-grain-rich diet reduces urinary excretion of markers of protein catabolism and gut microbiota metabolism in healthy men after one week.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair B; Pere-Trépat, Emma; Montoliu, Ivan; Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Collino, Sebastiano; Moco, Sofia; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Cléroux, Marilyn; Guy, Philippe A; Breton, Isabelle; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Thorimbert, Anita; Tavazzi, Isabelle; Tornier, Lionel; Bebuis, Aude; Bruce, Stephen J; Beaumont, Maurice; Fay, Laurent-Bernard; Kochhar, Sunil

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently find that diets rich in whole-grain (WG) cereals lead to decreased risk of disease compared with refined grain (RG)-based diets. Aside from a greater amount of fiber and micronutrients, possible mechanisms for why WGs may be beneficial for health remain speculative. In an exploratory, randomized, researcher-blinded, crossover trial, we measured metabolic profile differences between healthy participants eating a diet based on WGs compared with a diet based on RGs. Seventeen healthy adult participants (11 female, 6 male) consumed a controlled diet based on either WG-rich or RG-rich foods for 2 wk, followed by the other diet after a 5-wk washout period. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. The metabolic profiles of plasma, urine, and fecal water were measured using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (plasma only). After 1 wk of intervention, the WG diet led to decreases in urinary excretion of metabolites related to protein catabolism (urea, methylguanadine), lipid (carnitine and acylcarnitines) and gut microbial (4-hydroxyphenylacetate, trimethylacetate, dimethylacetate) metabolism in men compared with the same time point during the RG intervention. There were no differences between the interventions after 2 wk. Urinary urea, carnitine, and acylcarnitine were lower at wk 1 of the WG intervention relative to the RG intervention in all participants. Fecal water short-chain fatty acids acetate and butyrate were relatively greater after the WG diet compared to the RG diet. Although based on a small population and for a short time period, these observations suggest that a WG diet may affect protein metabolism.

  16. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-10-01

    Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis.The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04).UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE.

  17. Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Normal and Abnormal 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, P.; Stevenson, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) plays an important role in assessing cardiovascular prognosis, through presence or absence of ABPM-related prognostic features. Objectives. To study relationship between 24-hour ABPM and cardiovascular outcomes in patients from Chesterfield Royal Hospital. Material and Methods. Over 12 months from the 1st of August 2002, 1187 individuals had 24-hour ABPM performed. Cardiovascular outcomes were studied in a subset (297) of the original cohort, made up by every 4th consecutive subject. The following ABPM-related prognostic features were studied—high day time systolic and diastolic BP (≥135, ≥85 mmHg), high night time systolic and diastolic BP (≥120 mmHg, ≥75 mmHg), absence of nocturnal dip (≤10% fall in night time SBP), high early morning SBP (≥140 mmHg), and morning surge (≥20/15 mmHg). The cardiovascular outcomes studied in the fourth table included fatal and nonfatal MI, new diagnosis of angina, acute coronary syndrome, sudden cardiac death, cardiac arrhythmias, acute LVF, cerbrovascular events, peripheral vascular disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and CKD stage 3 or above. Results. Over a followup period of 2015 ± 116 days (1720–2305 days) 82 cardiovascular events occurred in 61 subjects. Cardiac arrhythmias were the most common CV outcome (34 events) followed by cerebrovascular events (15). Statistically significant associations found were between cerebrovascular events and absent nocturnal dip ≤ 10% (P = .05) and high day time DBP (P = .029), peripheral vascular disease and morning surge ≥ 20/15 mmHg (P = .014), cardiac arrhythmias and high day time and night time DBP (P = .009 and .033, resp.). Conclusion. Significant associations were found between cerebrovascular events and absent nocturnal dip ≤ 10% and high day time DBP, peripheral vascular disease and morning surge ≥ 20/15 mmHg, cardiac arrhythmias and high day time and night time DBP. PMID

  18. Comparison of 24-hour intragastric pH using four liquid formulations of lansoprazole and omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K

    1999-12-01

    The results of previous studies evaluating the effect of four liquid formulations of proton-pump inhibitors on 24-hour intragastric pH are described. Patients with a gastrostomy who were resident in a Veterans Affairs medical center or its affiliated nursing home were eligible for enrollment in one of four open-label studies in which each patient served as his own control. Patients underwent 24-hour intragastric pH studies before and after receiving seven consecutive days of one of the following liquid formulations of a proton-pump inhibitor administered once daily: omeprazole granules 20 mg in orange juice, lansoprazole granules 30 mg in orange juice, simplified omeprazole suspension 20 mg, and simplified lansoprazole suspension 30 mg. The suspensions were prepared with 10 mL of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate solution. Mean intragastric pH was measured, as was the time pH stayed above 3.0 and 4.0 during the 24-hour period. Six to 14 patients participated in each study. The mean posttreatment pH was 4.9+/-0.8, 4.7+/-0.6, 4.1+/-1.5, and 5.1+/-1.1 for omeprazole granules in orange juice, lansoprazole granules in orange juice, simplified omeprazole suspension, and simplified lansoprazole suspension, respectively. Both drugs in orange juice maintained pH above 4.0 longer than 14 hours and above 3.0 for close to 20 hours, which are the levels deemed optimal for healing erosive esophagitis and duodenal ulcers, respectively. Simplified lansoprazole suspension maintained pH above those thresholds for the optimal times, but simplified omeprazole suspension did not (20 and 15 hr above 3.0, 17 and 12 hr above 4.0 for lansoprazole and omeprazole, respectively). Further development of liquid formulations of proton-pump inhibitors may have important implications for the treatment of acid-related diseases in patients, including children, who are unable to swallow capsules.

  19. Setting Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for 1 hour or 24 hour contingency exposures to airborne chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Hector D.; Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Since the early years of the manned space program, NASA has developed and used exposure limits called Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) to help protect astronauts from airborne toxicants. Most of these SMACS are based on an exposure duration of 7 days, since this is the duration of a 'typical' mission. A set of 'contingency SMACs' is also being developed for scenarios involving brief (1-hour or 24- hour) exposures to relatively high levels of airborne toxicants from event-related 'contingency' releases of contaminants. The emergency nature of contingency exposures dictates the use of different criteria for setting exposure limits. The NASA JSC Toxicology Group recently began a program to document the rationales used to set new SMACs and plans to review the older, 7-day SMACs. In cooperation with the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology, a standard procedure has been developed for researching, setting, and documenting SMAC values.

  20. New method for assessing cardiac parasympathetic activity using 24 hour electrocardiograms.

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, D J; Neilson, J M; Travis, P

    1984-01-01

    Cardiac parasympathetic activity was assessed using 24 hour electrocardiographic recordings by measuring the incidence of larger changes in successive RR intervals, which in normal subjects occur frequently but irregularly. In 25 normal subjects the mean number of times per hour in which the change in successive RR interval was greater than 50 ms was 150-250 during waking and 350-450 during sleeping. By contrast, 30 diabetics with medically denervated hearts (12 with cardiovascular reflex evidence of parasympathetic damage and 18 with additional sympathetic damage) and six cardiac transplant patients with surgically denervated hearts had extremely low counts. Additionally, of 20 diabetics with normal cardiovascular reflexes, about half had abnormally low counts, suggesting that this method is better than currently available reflex tests in detecting early cardiac parasympathetic damage. This technique provides a valid and sensitive way of monitoring cardiac parasympathetic activity over prolonged periods. PMID:6383446

  1. After 24-hour scrub, another tower rollback for the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    As tower rollback begins, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for the second launch attempt at 4:04 p.m. EST. The original launch was scrubbed on Feb. 6 for 24 hours. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  2. Urinary excretion of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 cytokines during relapse and remission of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Amal A; Al Rushood, Maysoun; Al-Attiyah, Rajaa J

    2017-01-01

    Background/aim The role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the immunopathogenesis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome had been widely postulated. Reports on the release of cytokines, during idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) activation, were conflicting in defining a specific interleukin pattern during relapse and remission of the disease. The aim of this study was to explore the role of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the pathophysiology of INS during relapse and remission. Patients and methods A total of 37 INS patients were included. Their demographic and biochemical data were reviewed. Levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were measured in the urine of patients during relapse and remission of the disease. Urine samples from 30 age- and sex-matched controls were checked for the same 3 cytokines. Results Mean age of patients at study was 6.4 ± 3.2 years (range: 14 months–12 years). Male:female ratio was 24:13. Mean serum creatinine was 47 ± 13 μmol/L, and mean serum albumin was 21 ± 7 g/L. Mean urinary IL-1β, IL6 and IL8 levels, corrected to urinary creatinine, in patients during relapse were 132.94 ± 654.97, 217.82 ± 1124.31 and 150.227 ± 523.97 pg/μmol compared to 9.11 ± 40.75, 0.146 ± 0.652, and 6.455 ± 24.53 pg/μmol in controls, respectively (P = 0.02, 0.03 and 0.014, respectively). No significant difference was reported in the mean level of the 3 cytokines compared to controls during remission (P = 0.94, 0.092 and 0.076). Conclusion Our results support the role of T-cell activation and the subsequent release of IL-1β, IL6 and IL8 in the pathogenesis of relapses in INS. The use of steroid-sparing cytokine blockers in managing relapses of INS remains a tempting challenge. PMID:28176955

  3. Low correlation between visit-to-visit variability and 24-hour variability of blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi; Diaz, Keith M.; Newman, Jonathan; Sloan, Richard P.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of clinic systolic blood pressure (SBP) has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Given the need for obtaining blood pressure (BP) at multiple visits to calculate VVV, substituting BP variability from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) may be a practical alternative. We assessed the correlation between VVV of BP and BP variability from ABPM using data from 146 untreated, mostly normotensive participants (mean age 47.9 years) in a substudy of the ongoing Masked Hypertension Study. VVV of SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was estimated by the standard deviation (SDvvv) and average real variability (ARVvvv) from 6 study visits over a median of 216 days. ABPM data were used to calculate the day-night SD (SDdn) and the ARV of SBP and DBP over 24 hours (ARV24). For SBP, the mean SDvvv and SDdn were 6.3 (SD=2.5) and 8.8 (SD=1.8) mmHg, respectively, and mean ARVvvv and ARV24 were 7.2 (SD=3.2) and 8.4 (SD=2.1) mmHg, respectively. The Spearman correlation coefficient between SDvvv and SDdn of SBP was rs=0.25 and between ARVvvv and ARV24 was rs=0.17. Participants in the highest quartile of SDdn of SBP were 1.66 (95% CI: 0.93 – 2.75) times more likely to be in the highest quartile of SDvvv of SBP. The observed-to-expected ratio between the highest quartiles of ARVvvv and ARV24 of SBP was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.41 – 1.69). The correlations for SDvvv and SDdn and ARVvvv and ARV24 of DBP were minimal. These data suggest VVV and 24-hour variability are weakly correlated and not interchangeable. PMID:23784506

  4. Mice increased target biting behaviors 24 hours after co-administration of alcohol and fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Ping Chao; Matray-Devoti, Judith; Fisher, Hans; Wagner, George C

    2017-02-10

    Increased alcohol consumption has been linked to social isolation. Individuals showed heightened aggression following social isolation. Animals treated with alcohol following social separation showed higher aggression and lower serotonin transmission. Although reduced serotonin transmission in the brain may be related to alcohol induced heightened aggression, it remains unclear whether there are specific brain regions where changes in serotonin transmission are critical for animal aggression following alcohol treatment. In the present study, we isolated mice for 4 - 6 weeks and injected them with alcohol, fluoxetine and alcohol with fluoxetine. We studied their aggression by using two types of behavioral paradigms: isolation-induced attack behavior towards a naïve mouse in a neutral cage, or shock-induced target biting aggression. We observed that alcohol administered at 500 mg/kg significantly increased animal attack behaviors towards naïve mice 30 minutes after injections. This dose of alcohol co-administered with a low dose of fluoxetine (2 mg/kg) further increased the attack behaviors, but with higher doses of fluoxetine decreased the attack behaviors. Alcohol administered at a dose of 1,000 mg/kg significantly decreased the shock-induced target biting rates 24 hours after injections. Interestingly, we observed a significant increase in target biting rates when alcohol was co-administered with fluoxetine at a dose of 16 mg/kg 24 hours after injections. We also observed the same heightened target biting rates when animals were injected with fluoxetine alone. This heightened biting attack engendered by the fluoxetine (alone or in combination with the alcohol) occurred at a time when brain serotonin activity was reduced by these drugs in the frontal lobe and hypothalamus. These observations indicate that heightened biting attack behavior may be associated with reduced serotonergic activity in brain regions regulating aggression.

  5. Effects of exenatide and liraglutide on 24-hour glucose fluctuations in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Jo; Yamakawa, Tadashi; Taguri, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Hirohisa; Shigematsu, Erina; Suzuki, Jun; Morita, Satoshi; Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of short-term treatment with exenatide twice daily or liraglutide once daily on daily blood glucose fluctuations in 40 patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by sulfonylureas. The patients in a multicenter, open-label trial were randomly assigned to receive add-on exenatide (10 μg/day, n = 21) or add-on liraglutide (0.3-0.9 mg/day, n = 19), and underwent 24-hour continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring. There was no significant between-group difference in glucose fluctuations during the day, as assessed by calculating mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) and standard deviation (SD). However, the mean blood glucose levels at 3 hours after breakfast and dinner were significantly lower in the exenatide group than the liraglutide group (breakfast: 127.3 ± 24.1 vs. 153.4 ± 28.7 mg/dL; p = 0.006, dinner: 108.7 ± 17.3 vs. 141.9 ± 24.2 mg/dL; p < 0.001). In contrast, mean blood glucose levels and their SD were significantly lower between 0000 h and 0600 h in the liraglutide group than the exenatide group (average glucose: 126.9 ± 27.1 vs. 107.1 ± 24.0 mg/dL; p = 0.029, SD: 15.2 ± 10.5 vs. 8.7 ± 3.8; p = 0.020). Both groups had similar glucose fluctuations despite differences in 24-hour blood glucose profiles. Therefore, each of these agents may have advantages or disadvantages and should be selected according to the blood glucose profile of the patient.

  6. The effect of Operation 24 Hours on reducing collision in the City of Edmonton.

    PubMed

    Halim, Siana; Jiang, Heming

    2013-09-01

    In the City of Edmonton, in order to reduce the prevalence of collisions, the Operation 24 Hours program (OPS24) was developed by using existing police and transportation services resources. The program uses traditional manned police speed enforcement method, which are supplemented by traffic safety messages displayed on permanent and mobile dynamic messaging signs (DMS). In this paper, collision data analysis was performed by looking at the daily number of collisions from 2008 to 2011 that covers 28 Operation 24 Hours (OPS24) events. The objective of the collision data analysis is to analyze if there is a reduction in collision frequencies after OPS24 was held and examined how long the collision reduction effect last. Weather factors such as temperature, thickness of snow, and wind gust have been considered by many as a great influence on collision occurrences, especially in a city with long and cold winter such as Edmonton. Therefore, collision modeling was performed by considering these external weather factors. To analyze the linear and periodic trend of different collision types (injury, fatal, and property damage only (PDO)) and examine the influence of weather factors on collisions, negative binomial time series model that accounts for seasonality and weather factors was used to model daily collision data. The modeling also considered collision proportion to account for missing traffic volume data; the Gaussian time series model that accounts for seasonality and weather factors was used to model collision proportion. To estimate the collision trend and test for changes in collision levels before/after OPS24, interrupted time series model with segmented regression was used. While for estimating how long the effect of the OPS24 last, change point method was applied.

  7. Dietary restraint and disinhibition do not affect accuracy of 24-hour recall in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Desmond, Renee Ann; Allison, David B; Conway, Joan Marie

    2006-03-01

    Some psychological predictors of eating behaviors have been shown to affect usefulness of methods for dietary assessment. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the association of dietary restraint and disinhibition with dietary recall accuracy for total energy, fat, carbohydrate, and protein. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 79 male and 71 female non-Hispanic whites and African-American volunteers. Participants selected and consumed all foods for a 1-day period under observation and actual intake was determined. The following day, each participant completed a telephone 24-hour recall using the US Department of Agriculture Multiple-Pass method to obtain recalled intake. The Eating Inventory, which measures dietary restraint and disinhibition, was administered prior to eating any food in the study. Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to determine if dietary restraint or disinhibition were independent predictors of recall accuracy. The mean (+/-standard deviation) age and body mass index of the participants was 43+/-12 years and 29+/-5.5 (calculated as kg/m2), respectively. On average, men overreported intake of energy by 265 kcal and women by 250 kcal; both groups also overreported intake of protein, carbohydrate, and fat. When controlling for body mass index, sex, and race, restraint was a significant independent predictor of energy intake (P=0.004) and negatively correlated with energy intake (r=-0.23, P<0.001). Unlike intake of carbohydrate or protein, fat intake was significantly and negatively associated with dietary restraint (P<0.001; r=-0.3). Dietary restraint did not affect accuracy of recall of intake of energy, fat, carbohydrate, or protein, but was significantly associated with intake of energy and fat. Disinhibition was not related to intake or accuracy. Dietetics professionals should consider dietary restraint a possible reason for a lower than expected estimate of energy intake when using 24-hour recalls.

  8. Urinary excretion profiles of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Study III. A Delta9-THC-COOH to creatinine ratio study.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Albert D; Worth, David

    2003-11-26

    Huestis and Cone reported in [J. Anal. Toxicol. 22 (1998) 445] that serial monitoring of Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratios in paired urine specimens collected at least 24h apart could differentiate new drug use from residual Delta(9)-THC-COOH excretion following acute marijuana use in a controlled setting. The best accuracy (85.4%) for predicting new marijuana use was for a Delta(9)-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio > or = 0.5 (dividing the Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio of specimen no. 2 by the specimen no. 1 ratio). In previous studies in this laboratory [J. Anal. Toxicol. 23 (1999) 531 and Forensic Sci. Int. 133 (2003) 26], urine specimens were collected from chronic marijuana users > or = 24 h or > = 48 h apart in an uncontrolled setting. Subjects with a history of chronic marijuana use were screened for cannabinoids with the EMIT II Plus cannabinoids assay (cut-off 50 ng/ml) followed by confirmation for Delta9-THC-COOH by GC-MS (cut-off 15 ng/ml). Creatinine was analyzed as an index of dilution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether creatinine corrected specimens could differentiate new marijuana or hashish use from the excretion of residual Delta(9)-THC-COOH in chronic marijuana users based on the Huestis 0.5 ratio. Urine specimens (N=376) were collected from 29 individuals > or = 96 h between urine collections. The mean urinary Delta9-THC-COOH concentration was 464.4 ng/ml, mean Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio (ng/(ml Delta9-THC-COOH mmoll creatinine)) was 36.8 and the overall mean Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio of specimen 2/mean Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio of specimen 1 was 1.37. The Huestis ratio calculation indicated new drug use in 83% of all sequentially paired urine specimens. The data were sub-divided into three groups (Groups A-C) based on mean Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine values. Interindividual mean Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine values ranged from 4.7 to 13.4 in Group A where 80% of paired specimens indicated new drug use (N=10

  9. Urinary excretion of cadmium among Torres Strait Islanders (Australia) at risk of elevated dietary exposure through traditional foods.

    PubMed

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa; Imray, Paula; Satarug, Soisungwan; Moore, Michael R; O'dea, Kerin

    2007-07-01

    This study explored urinary cadmium levels among Torres Strait Islanders in response to concerns about potential health impact of high levels of cadmium in some traditional seafood (dugong and turtle liver and kidney). Cadmium levels were measured by inductively coupled mass spectrometry in de-identified urine samples collected during general screening programs in 1996 in two communities with varying dugong and turtle catch statistics. Statistical analysis was performed to identify links between cadmium levels and demographic and background health information. Geometric mean cadmium level among the sample group was 0.83 mug/g creatinine with 12% containing over 2 microg/g creatinine. Cadmium level was most strongly associated with age (46% of variation), followed by sex (females >males, 7%) and current smoking status (smokers >non-smokers, 4.7%). Adjusting model conditions suggested further positive associations between cadmium level and diabetes (p=0.05) and residence in the predicted higher exposure community (p=0.07). Positive correlations between cadmium and body fat in bivariate analysis were eliminated by control for age and sex. This study found only suggestive differences in cadmium levels between two communities with predicted variation in exposure from traditional foods. However, the data indicate that factors linked with higher cadmium accumulation overlap with those of renal disease risk (i.e. older, females, smokers, diabetes) and suggest that levels may be sufficient to contribute to renal pathology. More direct assessment of exposure and health risks of cadmium to Torres Strait Islanders is needed given the disproportionate level of diet-related disease and the cultural importance of dugong and turtle. This study highlights the need to consider social and cultural variation in exposure and to define "safe" cadmium levels during diabetes given its rising global prevalence.

  10. Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours Maps and Data of Model-Based Small Area Estimates - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours is defined as a person 18 years of age or older who must have reported smoking at least 100 cigarettes in his/her life, and now does not smoke at all but it has been less than 365 days since completely stopped smoking cigarettes, or now smoke everyday or some days but reported that have made attempt of quitting for more than 24 hours in the past 12 months.

  11. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  12. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited – A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P.; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light–dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (“master clock”) of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli (“zeitgebers”), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5–0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy

  13. [Time course of excretion of tebuconazole and its metabolites in vineyard workers].

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, S; Polledri, E; Mercadante, R; Rubino, F; Colosio, C; Moretto, A

    2012-01-01

    Tebuconazole (TEB) is a fungicide widely used in vineyards. This work aimed at the identification of urinary metabolites of TEB for the biological monitoring of exposure, and to study their kinetics of excretion. Major urinary metabolites of TEB in rats are t-butyl-hydroxy-and-carboxy-tebuconazole (TEB-OH and TEB-COOH). TEB and these metabolites were determined in urine samples of 5 wine growers who collected each void before (24 hours), during and after (48 hours) TEB application. These chemicals were found in 95%, 100% and 100% of the samples with levels of < 1.5-13.4 microg/L for TEB, 5.2-749 microg/L for TEB-OH e 2.8-234 microg/l for TEB-COOH. TEB-OH is the major metabolite of TEB, its concentration increases at the end of exposure and peaks after 16-24 hours. TEB-COOH has similar pattern. TEB-OH and TEB -COOH are promising candidates for biological monitoring of TEB exposure; preliminary results suggest the day after the application as the best sampling time.

  14. Direct radioimmunoassay of urinary estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronides during the menstrual cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Stanczyk, F.Z.; Miyakawa, I.; Goebelsmann, U.

    1980-06-15

    Assays measuring immunoreactive estrone glucuronide (E/sub 1/G), estradiol-3-glucuronide (E/sub 2/-3G), estradiol-17..beta..-glucuronide (E/sub 2/-17G), estriol-3-glucuronide (E/sub 3/-3G), estriol-16..cap alpha..-glucuronide (E/sub 3/-16G), and pregnanediol-3..cap alpha..-glucuronide (Pd-3G) directly in diluted urine were developed and validated. These estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronide fractions were measured in aliquots of 24-hour and overnight samples of urine collected daily from seven women for one menstrual cycle. Urinary hormone excretion was correlated with daily serum estradiol (E/sub 2/), progesterone (P), and lutenizing hormonee (LH) levels. A sharp midcycle LH peak preceded by a preovulatory rise in serum E/sub 2/ and followed by luteal phase serum P levels were noted in each of the seven apparently ovulatory cycles. Twenty-four-hour and overnight urinary excretion patterns of estrogen glucuronides were similar to those of serum E/sub 2/. Of the five estrogen glucuronide fractions tested, excretion of E/sub 2/-17G exhibited the earliest and steepest ascending slope of the preovulatory estrogen surge and correlated best with serum E/sub 2/ levels. Urinary excretion of E/sub 1/-G, E/sub 2/-3G, and E/sub 3/-16G also showed an early and steep preovulatory rise and preceded that of E/sub 3/-3G, whereas urinary excretion of E/sub 3/-3G exhibited the poorest correlation with serum E/sub 2/ concentrations. The urinary excretion of Pd-3G rose parallel to serum P levels and was markedly elevated 2 to 3 days after the midcycle LH peak in both 24-hour and overnight collections of urine. These results indicate that among the urinary estrogen conjugate fractions tested, E/sub 2/-17G is the one that most suitably predicts ovulation.

  15. Potassium Bicarbonate Supplementation Lowers Bone Turnover and Calcium Excretion in Older Men and Women: A Randomized Dose-Finding Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Harris, Susan S; Palermo, Nancy J; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Shea, M Kyla; Fielding, Roger A; Ceglia, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The acid load accompanying modern diets may have adverse effects on bone and muscle metabolism. Treatment with alkaline salts of potassium can neutralize the acid load, but the optimal amount of alkali is not established. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of two doses of potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) compared with placebo on biochemical markers of bone turnover, and calcium and nitrogen (N) excretion. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 244 men and women age 50 years and older were randomized to placebo or 1 mmol/kg or 1.5 mmol/kg of KHCO3 daily for 3 months; 233 completed the study. The primary outcomes were changes in 24-hour urinary N-telopeptide (NTX) and N; changes in these measures were compared across the treatment groups. Exploratory outcomes included 24-hour urinary calcium excretion, serum amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP), and muscle strength and function assessments. The median administered doses in the low-dose and high-dose groups were 81 mmol/day and 122 mmol/day, respectively. When compared with placebo, urinary NTX declined significantly in the low-dose group (p =0.012, after adjustment for baseline NTX, gender, and change in urine creatinine) and serum P1NP declined significantly in the low-dose group (p =0.004, adjusted for baseline P1NP and gender). Urinary calcium declined significantly in both KHCO3 groups versus placebo (p < 0.001, adjusted for baseline urinary calcium, gender, and changes in urine creatinine and calcium intake). There was no significant effect of either dose of KHCO3 on urinary N excretion or on the physical strength and function measures. KHCO3 has favorable effects on bone turnover and calcium excretion and the lower dose appears to be the more effective dose. Long-term trials to assess the effect of alkali on bone mass and fracture risk are needed. PMID:25990255

  16. Low mean impedance in 24-hour tracings and esophagitis in children: a strong connection.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, S; Salvatoni, A; Ummarino, D; Ghanma, A; Van der Pol, R; Rongen, A; Fuoti, M; Meneghin, F; Benninga, M Alexander; Vandenplas, Y

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal multiple intraluminal impedance baseline is an additional impedance parameter that was recently related to esophageal integrity. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between mean esophageal impedance value and endoscopic findings in a large group of children. Children with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux submitted to both endoscopy and impedance were included. Esophagitis was graded according to the Los Angeles classification. Mean impedance value was automatically calculated over 24-hour tracings. Data were adjusted for age through z-score transformation using percentiles normalized by the LMS (Lambda for the skew, Mu for the median, and Sigma for the generalized coefficient of variation) method. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, multiple, and stepwise regression were used. P-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. A total of 298 impedance tracings were analyzed. Endoscopic and histological esophagitis were detected in 30 and 29% patients, respectively. Median baseline z-score was significantly decreased both in proximal (P = 0.02) and distal (P = 0.01) esophagus in patients with endoscopic (but not histological) esophagitis. Patients with more severe esophagitis showed the lowest z-score. Bolus exposure index and the number of reflux episodes were the variables that were significantly associated with the baseline z-score. Impedance z-score is significantly decreased in infants and children with endoscopic esophagitis. Severity of esophagitis, bolus exposure index, and number of reflux episodes are factors influencing mean esophageal impedance.

  17. Deep venous thrombophlebitis: detection with 4-hour versus 24-hour platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Ponto, J.A.; Kimball, D.A.; Frey, E.E.; Ahmed, F.; Coughlan, J.D.; Jensen, K.C.

    1987-11-01

    Thirty-one nonheparinized patients with suspected deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT) underwent contrast venography and indium-111 platelet scintigraphy (In-111 PS). Venography permitted identification of acute DVT in 12 of 31 cases (39%). One additional patient was considered to have acute DVT despite nonconclusive venography results. In-111 PS results were positive at 4 hours in nine of 13 cases (69%) and at 24 hours in 12 of 13 cases (92%). Two of four patients with false-negative 4-hour In-111 PS studies had received warfarin. Thus, the sensitivity of 4-hour In-111 PS in patients not receiving anticoagulants was 82%. Venography results were negative for acute DVT in 18 cases, and 4-hour In-111 PS studies were negative or equivocal in each. In-111 PS is an alternative to contrast venography for detecting acute DVT. If 4-hour In-111 PS results are positive, anticoagulation can be initiated. Delayed images are necessary if the 4-hour images are negative or equivocal.

  18. Neonatal family care for 24 hours per day: effects on maternal confidence and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Wataker, Heidi; Meberg, Alf; Nestaas, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    In family care (FC) program for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), parents are encouraged to reside together with their infant for 24 hours a day to actively be involved in the care. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of FC on maternal confidence and breast-feeding. Maternal confidence and rate of breast-feeding were assessed in 31 mothers offered FC that included special family rooms in the NICU, and in 30 mothers from a comparable NICU providing traditional care without such facilities. One week prior to hospital discharge, mothers in the FC group felt better informed regarding nursing issues and had more confidence in interpretation of the infants regarding feeding issues and in caregiving without staff attendance (P < .05). They also reported a higher level of empowerment (P < .05). Three months after discharge, the mothers in the FC group had a higher self-reported skill level for interpretation of the infant's signals and knowledge about breast-feeding (P < .05). Despite similar rate of breast-feeding at discharge, more infants in the FC group were breastfed 3 months after discharge (P < .05). An FC program in the NICU promoted better maternal confidence during the hospital stay and 3 months after discharge compared with traditional care.

  19. The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Implications for practitioners, professionals, and organizations.

    PubMed

    Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Copeland, Jennifer L; Fowles, Jonathon; Zehr, Lori; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    The new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth emphasize the integration of all movement behaviours that occur over a whole day (i.e., light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep). These guidelines shift the paradigm away from considering each behaviour in isolation. This concept of the "whole day matters" not only calls for a change in thinking about movement but also for redevelopment of dissemination and implementation practice. Past guideline launch activities largely have aimed to create awareness through passive dissemination strategies (e.g., Website posts, distribution of print resources). For the integrated guidelines to have public health impact, we must move beyond dissemination and raising of awareness to implementation and behaviour change. Shifting this focus requires new, innovative approaches to intervention, including interdisciplinary collaboration, policy change, and refocused service provision. The purpose of this paper is to identify practitioners, professionals, and organizations with potential to disseminate and/or implement the guidelines, discuss possible implementation strategies for each of these groups, and describe the few resources being developed and those needed to support dissemination and implementation efforts. This discussion makes readily apparent the need for a well-funded, comprehensive, long-term dissemination, implementation, and evaluation plan to ensure uptake and activation of the guidelines.

  20. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust waits for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the late morning light at Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Cananveral Air Station, the fixed utility tower (right) casts a long shadow across the base of the Boeing Delta II rocket (left) waiting to launch the Stardust spacecraft. After a 24-hour scrub, the new targeted launch time is 4:04 p.m. EST. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  1. Obtaining liver tridimensional scaffold through the decellularization of rabbit whole liver in 24 hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Schliamser; Ayelen, Rinaldi; Romina, Comin; Alba Nelly, Borchert; Adrian, Nari Gustavo; Alicia, Salvatierra Nancy; Mariana Paula, Cid

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, we development a new protocol for liver decellularization in which the hole decellularization was reached over 24 h. Introduction: the availability of transplantable livers is not sufficient to fulfill the current demand for grafts, with the search for therapeutic alternatives having generated different lines of research, one of which is the use of decellularized three-dimensional biological matrices and subsequent cell seeding to obtain a functional organ. Objective: to produce a decellularization protocol from rabbit liver to generate a three-dimensional matrixin which the time period involved didn't pass 24 h. Methods: The decellularization is obtained through the use of water and SDS (0,1-0,3 %), after freezing at -80 degrees, is the best alternative of different physical and/or chemical mechanisms to break down organ cells and leave only the extracellular matriz. After 24 h of retrograde perfusion, a decellularized translucent matrix was generated. To evaluate if the decellularization protocol was successful, with the extracellular matrix being preserved, we carried out histological (light microscopy) and biochemical (DNA quantification) studies. Results: the decellularization process was verified by macroscopic observation of the organ using microscopic observation corroborated the macroscopic results, with the hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining showing no cells or nuclear material. In addition, the DNA quantification was less than 10% in the decellularized liver compared to control. Finally,the time taken to develop the decellularization protocol was less than 24 hours.

  2. Depressive Symptoms and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans: The SABPA Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Lespérance, François; Harvey, Brian H.; Malan, Nico T.; Malan, Leoné

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances in circadian rhythm might play a central role in the neurobiology of depression. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and 24-hour ambulatory BP in a sample of 405 (197 black and 208 Caucasian) urbanized African teachers aged 25 to 60 yrs (mean 44.6 ± 9.6 yrs). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-administered 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). After adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, participants with severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15) had higher odds of hypertension defined from ambulatory BP and/or use of antihypertensive medication (odds ratio = 2.19, 95% CI, 1.00–4.90) in comparison to participants with no symptoms. Compared to Caucasians with no depressive symptoms, those with severe symptoms had blunted nocturnal systolic BP drop of 4.7 mmHg (95% CI, −0.5 to 10.0, P = 0.07). In summary, depressive symptoms were associated with the circadian BP profile in black and Caucasian Africans. PMID:22028954

  3. Comparison of effects of amphotericin B deoxycholate infused over 4 or 24 hours: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Urs; Seifert, Burkhard; Schaffner, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that amphotericin B deoxycholate is less toxic when given by continuous infusion than by conventional rapid infusion. Design Randomised, controlled, non-blinded, single centre study. Setting University hospital providing tertiary clinical care. Patients 80 mostly neutropenic patients with refractory fever and suspected or proved invasive fungal infections. Intervention Patients were randomised to receive 0.97 mg/kg amphotericin B by continuous infusion over 24 hours or 0.95 mg/kg by rapid infusion over four hours. Main outcome measures Patients were evaluated for side effects related to infusion, nephrotoxicity, and mortality up to three months after treatment. Analysis was on an intention to treat basis. Results Patients in the continuous infusion group had fewer side effects and significantly reduced nephrotoxicity than those in the rapid infusion group. Overall mortality was higher during treatment and after three months' follow up in the rapid infusion than in the continuous infusion group. Conclusion Continuous infusions of amphotericin B reduce nephrotoxicity and side effects related to infusion without increasing mortality. PMID:11238151

  4. What and how much do we eat? 24-hour dietary recall method.

    PubMed

    Salvador Castell, Gemma; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes

    2015-02-26

    Diet, along with lifestyle factors, is an important determinant of the health status of an individual and of a community. Dietary assessment at the population level provides us with key information on the frequency and distribution of possible inadequate diets and/or nutritional status. It is also useful as input into the elaboration of food and nutrition policies aiming to improve dietary habits and the health status of a community. This article reviews the characteristics, advantages and limitations of the 24-hour dietary recall method (24hDR), which is one of the most widely used tools in nutrition epidemiology to identify food, energy and nutrient intake in national nutrition surveys, cross-sectional studies, clinical trials and cohort studies as well as in the evaluation of individual dietary intake and Total Diet assessment. To reduce the key factors associated with bias, the importance of previously trained interviewers is highlighted, as well as the role of support materials and the contribution of novel technologies.

  5. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust waits for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    After a 24-hour postponement, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for its scheduled launch at 4:04 p.m. EST. Umbilical lines (at top) still attached to the fixed utility tower (at right) feed electricity, air conditioning and coolants for the Stardust spacecraft inside the fairing (enclosing the upper stage) before launch. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  6. After 24-hour scrub, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust launches on time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Flames sear the pristine blue sky behind the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft after the 4:04:15 p.m. launch from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. A 24- hour scrub postponed the launch from the originally scheduled date of Feb. 6. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  7. A 24-hour study to investigate persistent chemical exposures associated with clandestine methamphetamine laboratories.

    PubMed

    VanDyke, Mike; Erb, Nicola; Arbuckle, Shawn; Martyny, John

    2009-02-01

    The clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine continues to be a concern across the United States. Although the exposures associated with the actual production process have been evaluated, the persistence of those exposures in a residential setting have not been investigated. This study was designed to document the contamination associated with two red phosphorous methamphetamine "cooks" conducted in a residence and the associated exposures up to 24 hours after the cook. The two cooks were conducted on the first day of the study, and exposures associated with different occupant activity levels were measured the following day. Airborne methamphetamine levels during the cook ranged from 520 microg/m(3) to 760 microg/m(3). On Day 2, airborne levels of methamphetamine ranged from 70 microg/m(3) to 210 microg/m(3) and increased with moderate to high activity levels within the residence. The majority of the methamphetamine measured during both days had a particle size of less than 1 mum, suggesting that the methamphetamine is formed as a condensation aerosol and is readily resuspended from contaminated surfaces. Significant methamphetamine contamination was found in the carpeting and likely was associated with the elevated levels of methamphetamine during activity. Levels of hydrogen chloride and iodine were also detected on Day 2 of the project although at very low levels. The study concluded that exposures may still present a significant inhalation exposure well after the actual cook.

  8. Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06 ± 1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake.

  9. The Association of Knowledge and Behaviours Related to Salt with 24-h Urinary Salt Excretion in a Population from North and South India

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J.; MacGregor, Graham A.; Webster, Jacqui; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Consumer knowledge is understood to play a role in managing risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and may be influenced by level of education. The association between population knowledge, behaviours and actual salt consumption was explored overall, and for more-educated compared to less-educated individuals. A cross-sectional survey was done in an age-and sex-stratified random sample of 1395 participants from urban and rural areas of North and South India. A single 24-h urine sample, participants’ physical measurements and questionnaire data were collected. The mean age of participants was 40 years, 47% were women and mean 24-h urinary salt excretion was 9.27 (8.87–9.69) g/day. Many participants reported favourable knowledge and behaviours to minimise risks related to salt. Several of these behaviours were associated with reduced salt intake—less use of salt while cooking, avoidance of snacks, namkeens, and avoidance of pickles (all p < 0.003). Mean salt intake was comparable in more-educated (9.21, 8.55–9.87 g/day) versus less-educated (9.34, 8.57–10.12 g/day) individuals (p = 0.82). There was no substantively different pattern of knowledge and behaviours between more-versus less-educated groups and no clear evidence that level of education influenced salt intake. Several consumer behaviours related to use of salt during food preparation and consumption of salty products were related to actual salt consumption and therefore appear to offer an opportunity for intervention. These would be a reasonable focus for a government-led education campaign targeting salt. PMID:28212309

  10. Comparison of the urinary excretion of quercetin glycosides from red onion and aglycone from dietary supplements in healthy subjects: a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuanlu; Williamson, Gary

    2015-05-01

    Some intervention studies have shown that quercetin supplementation can regulate certain biomarkers, but it is not clear how the doses given relate to dietary quercetin (e.g. from onion). We conducted a two-period, two-sequence crossover study to compare the bioavailability of quercetin when administered in the form of a fresh red onion meal (naturally glycosylated quercetin) or dietary supplement (aglycone quercetin) under fasting conditions. Six healthy, non-smoking, adult males with BMI 22.7 ± 4.0 kg m(-2) and age 35.3 ± 12.3 y were grouped to take the two study meals in random order. In each of the 2 study periods, one serving of onion soup (made from 100 g fresh red onion, providing 156.3 ± 3.4 μmol (47 mg) quercetin) or a single dose of a quercetin dihydrate tablet (1800 ± 150 μmol (544 mg) of quercetin) were administered following 3 d washout. Urine samples were collected up to 24 h, and after enzyme deconjugation, quercetin was quantified by LC-MS. The 24 h urinary excretion of quercetin (1.69 ± 0.79 μmol) from red onion in soup was not significantly different to that (1.17 ± 0.44 μmol) for the quercetin supplement tablet (P = 0.065, paired t-test). This means that, in practice, 166 mg of quercetin supplement would be comparable to about 10 mg of quercetin aglycone equivalents from onion. These data allow intervention studies on quercetin giving either food or supplements to be more effectively compared.

  11. Effects of dietary supplementation of rumen-protected folic acid on rumen fermentation, degradability and excretion of urinary purine derivatives in growing steers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Liu, Qiang; Guo, Gang; Huo, WenJie; Ma, Le; Zhang, YanLi; Pei, CaiXia; Zhang, ShuanLin; Wang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary addition of rumen-protected folic acid (RPFA) on ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, enzyme activity and the relative quantity of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in growing beef steers. Eight rumen-cannulated Jinnan beef steers averaging 2.5 years of age and 419 ± 1.9 kg body weight were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four treatments comprised supplementation levels of 0 (Control), 70, 140 and 210 mg RPFA/kg dietary dry matter (DM). On DM basis, the ration consisted of 50% corn silage, 47% concentrate and 3% soybean oil. The DM intake (averaged 8.5 kg/d) was restricted to 95% of ad libitum intake. The intake of DM, crude protein (CP) and net energy for growth was not affected by treatments. In contrast, increasing RPFA supplementation increased average daily gain and the concentration of total volatile fatty acid and reduced ruminal pH linearly. Furthermore, increasing RPFA supplementation enhanced the acetate to propionate ratio and reduced the ruminal ammonia N content linearly. The ruminal effective degradability of neutral detergent fibre from corn silage and CP from concentrate improved linearly and was highest for the highest supplementation levels. The activities of cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase and α-amylase linearly increased, but carboxymethyl-cellulase and protease were not affected by the addition of RPFA. The relative quantities of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes increased linearly. With increasing RPFA supplementation levels, the excretion of urinary purine derivatives was also increased linearly. The present results indicated that the supplementation of RPFA improved ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, activities of microbial enzymes and the relative quantity of the ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. According to the conditions of this

  12. No Enhancement of 24-Hour Visuomotor Skill Retention by Post-Practice Caffeine Administration

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Sara J.; Cole, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed throughout the world and appears to indirectly facilitate learning and memory through effects on attention and motivation. Animal work indicates that post-training caffeine administration augments inhibitory avoidance memory, spatial memory, and object memory. In humans, post-training caffeine administration enhances the ability to discern between familiar images and new, similar images. However, the effect of post-training caffeine administration on motor memory has not been examined. Therefore, we tested two groups of low caffeine consumers (average weekly consumption ≤500 mg) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving acquisition of a continuous isometric visuomotor tracking skill. On Day 1, subjects completed 5 blocks (150 repetitions) of training on the continuous isometric visuomotor skill and subsequently ingested either 200 mg of caffeine or placebo. On day 2, subjects completed an additional 5 blocks of training. Day 1 mean performance and performance variability were both similar between groups, suggesting that both groups acquired the motor skill similarly. For mean performance on Day 2, patterns of re-learning, mean performance learning magnitudes, mean performance learning rates, and mean performance retention magnitudes were all similar between groups. For performance variability on Day 2, there was a small trend towards increased variability in the caffeine group during re-learning, but performance variability learning magnitudes and performance variability retention magnitudes did not differ between groups. Because motor skill acquisition can also be conceptualized as a reduction in performance variability, these results suggest that there may be a small negative effect of post-practice caffeine administration on memory of a newly-learned visuomotor skill. Overall, we found no evidence to suggest that post-training caffeine administration enhances 24-hour retention of a newly-learned continuous visuomotor

  13. No Enhancement of 24-Hour Visuomotor Skill Retention by Post-Practice Caffeine Administration.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sara J; Cole, Kelly J

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed throughout the world and appears to indirectly facilitate learning and memory through effects on attention and motivation. Animal work indicates that post-training caffeine administration augments inhibitory avoidance memory, spatial memory, and object memory. In humans, post-training caffeine administration enhances the ability to discern between familiar images and new, similar images. However, the effect of post-training caffeine administration on motor memory has not been examined. Therefore, we tested two groups of low caffeine consumers (average weekly consumption ≤500 mg) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving acquisition of a continuous isometric visuomotor tracking skill. On Day 1, subjects completed 5 blocks (150 repetitions) of training on the continuous isometric visuomotor skill and subsequently ingested either 200 mg of caffeine or placebo. On day 2, subjects completed an additional 5 blocks of training. Day 1 mean performance and performance variability were both similar between groups, suggesting that both groups acquired the motor skill similarly. For mean performance on Day 2, patterns of re-learning, mean performance learning magnitudes, mean performance learning rates, and mean performance retention magnitudes were all similar between groups. For performance variability on Day 2, there was a small trend towards increased variability in the caffeine group during re-learning, but performance variability learning magnitudes and performance variability retention magnitudes did not differ between groups. Because motor skill acquisition can also be conceptualized as a reduction in performance variability, these results suggest that there may be a small negative effect of post-practice caffeine administration on memory of a newly-learned visuomotor skill. Overall, we found no evidence to suggest that post-training caffeine administration enhances 24-hour retention of a newly-learned continuous visuomotor

  14. Non-24-hour sleep–wake syndrome improved by low-dose valproic acid: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, Masatake; Moriya, Takahiro; Nishino, Satoshi; Hirata, Eishin; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Okubo, Yoshiro; Sato, Tadahiro

    2016-01-01

    A woman was diagnosed with non-24-hour sleep–wake syndrome and depressive symptoms. Her depressive symptoms did not respond to standard doses of several antidepressants or mood stabilizers. Furthermore, her sleep–wake cycle remained non-entrained despite treatment with a melatonin-related drug, vitamin B12, and phototherapy. Ultimately, her sleep–wake rhythm was restored to a 24-hour pattern with a low dose of valproic acid, and her depressive symptoms tended to improve as a result of synchronization without antidepressants. Low-dose valproic acid appears to be one of the effective means of entraining circadian rhythms in patients with non-24-hour sleep–wake syndrome, which in turn likely improves associated depressive symptoms. PMID:28008257

  15. To Compare the Microleakage Among Experimental Adhesives Containing Nanoclay Fillers after the Storages of 24 Hours and 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinasab, Seyed Mostafa; Atai, Mohammad; Alavi, Bagher

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the microleakage among experimental adhesives containing nanoclay fillers after the storages of 24 hours and 6 months. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on extracted human molars with the occlusal margins located in enamel and the cervical margins in cementum. Phosphoric acid was applied to the enamel and dentin margins.Subsequently, the cavities were treated using four groups of experimental adhesive systems and restored with a resin composi