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Sample records for 24-hour urinary sodium

  1. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286–4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the

  2. Measurement error corrected sodium and potassium intake estimation using 24-hour urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Van Horn, Linda; Tinker, Lesley F; Neuhouser, Marian L; Carbone, Laura; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Thomas, Fridtjof; Prentice, Ross L

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological studies of the association of sodium and potassium intake with cardiovascular disease risk have almost exclusively relied on self-reported dietary data. Here, 24-hour urinary excretion assessments are used to correct the dietary self-report data for measurement error under the assumption that 24-hour urine recovery provides a biomarker that differs from usual intake according to a classical measurement model. Under this assumption, dietary self-reports underestimate sodium by 0% to 15%, overestimate potassium by 8% to 15%, and underestimate sodium/potassium ratio by ≈20% using food frequency questionnaires, 4-day food records, or three 24-hour dietary recalls in Women's Health Initiative studies. Calibration equations are developed by linear regression of log-transformed 24-hour urine assessments on corresponding log-transformed self-report assessments and several study subject characteristics. For each self-report method, the calibration equations turned out to depend on race and age and strongly on body mass index. After adjustment for temporal variation, calibration equations using food records or recalls explained 45% to 50% of the variation in (log-transformed) 24-hour urine assessments for sodium, 60% to 70% of the variation for potassium, and 55% to 60% of the variation for sodium/potassium ratio. These equations may be suitable for use in epidemiological disease association studies among postmenopausal women. The corresponding signals from food frequency questionnaire data were weak, but calibration equations for the ratios of sodium and potassium/total energy explained ≈35%, 50%, and 45% of log-biomarker variation for sodium, potassium, and their ratio, respectively, after the adjustment for temporal biomarker variation and may be suitable for cautious use in epidemiological studies. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000611.

  3. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables

  4. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables

  5. Analysis of correlation between 24-hour urinary sodium and the degree of blood pressure control in patients with chronic kidney disease and non-chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ho Seok; Kim, Yong Chul; Ahn, Shin Young; Oh, Se Won; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the association between 24-hr urinary sodium (24UNA) and adequacy of blood pressure (BP) control in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and nonCKD. All data were collected retrospectively by accessing the electrical medical records in patients with 24-hr urine collection and serum creatinine. Enrolled 400 subjects were subgrouped by the amount of 24UNA, or CKD stage. The appropriate BP was defined as BP < 130/80 mmHg for subjects with proteinuria, and BP < 140/90 mmHg for subjects without proteinuria. The mean level of 24UNA was 166±76 mEq/day. The 24UNA group was an independently related factor to diastolic BP as a continuous variable. The rate of appropriate BP control in patients with proteinuria was highest in 24UNA <100 mEq/L (P=0.012). The odds to fail achievement of BP target in subjects with 24UNA≥90 mEq/day was 2.441 (1.249-4.772, P=0.009) higher than that of 24UNA <90 mEq/day among participants with proteinuria. There was difference in the amount of 24UNA between CKD and non-CKD except each stage of CKD group. In conclusion, salt intake estimated by 24-hr urine sodium excretion is a risk factor to achieve appropriate BP control.

  6. Urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and chloride, but not iodine, varies by timing of collection in a 24-hour calibration study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Yih; Cogswell, Mary E; Loria, Catherine M; Chen, Te-Ching; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Swanson, Christine A; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Perrine, Cria G; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Liu, Kiang; Sempos, Christopher T; Gillespie, Cathleen D; Burt, Vicki L

    2013-08-01

    Because of the logistic complexity, excessive respondent burden, and high cost of conducting 24-h urine collections in a national survey, alternative strategies to monitor sodium intake at the population level need to be evaluated. We conducted a calibration study to assess the ability to characterize sodium intake from timed-spot urine samples calibrated to a 24-h urine collection. In this report, we described the overall design and basic results of the study. Adults aged 18-39 y were recruited to collect urine for a 24-h period, placing each void in a separate container. Four timed-spot specimens (morning, afternoon, evening, and overnight) and the 24-h collection were analyzed for sodium, potassium, chloride, creatinine, and iodine. Of 481 eligible persons, 407 (54% female, 48% black) completed a 24-h urine collection. A subsample (n = 133) collected a second 24-h urine 4-11 d later. Mean sodium excretion was 3.54 ± 1.51 g/d for males and 3.09 ± 1.26 g/d for females. Sensitivity analysis excluding those who did not meet the expected creatinine excretion criterion showed the same results. Day-to-day variability for sodium, potassium, chloride, and iodine was observed among those collecting two 24-h urine samples (CV = 16-29% for 24-h urine samples and 21-41% for timed-spot specimens). Among all race-gender groups, overnight specimens had larger volumes (P < 0.01) and lower sodium (P < 0.01 to P = 0.26), potassium (P < 0.01), and chloride (P < 0.01) concentrations compared with other timed-spot urine samples, although the differences were not always significant. Urine creatinine and iodine concentrations did not differ by the timing of collection. The observed day-to-day and diurnal variations in sodium excretion illustrate the importance of accounting for these factors when developing calibration equations from this study.

  7. Agreement between 24-hour salt ingestion and sodium excretion in a controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Lerchl, Kathrin; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Rauh, Manfred; Goller, Ulrike; Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F; Beck, Luis; Agureev, Alexander; Larina, Irina; Baranov, Victor; Morukov, Boris; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Vassilieva, Galina; Wabel, Peter; Vienken, Jörg; Kirsch, Karl; Johannes, Bernd; Krannich, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Accurately collected 24-hour urine collections are presumed to be valid for estimating salt intake in individuals. We performed 2 independent ultralong-term salt balance studies lasting 105 (4 men) and 205 (6 men) days in 10 men simulating a flight to Mars. We controlled dietary intake of all constituents for months at salt intakes of 12, 9, and 6 g/d and collected all urine. The subjects' daily menus consisted of 27 279 individual servings, of which 83.0% were completely consumed, 16.5% completely rejected, and 0.5% incompletely consumed. Urinary recovery of dietary salt was 92% of recorded intake, indicating long-term steady-state sodium balance in both studies. Even at fixed salt intake, 24-hour urine collection for sodium excretion (UNaV) showed infradian rhythmicity. We defined a ±25 mmol deviation from the average difference between recorded sodium intake and UNaV as the prediction interval to accurately classify a 3-g difference in salt intake. Because of the biological variability in UNaV, only every other daily urine sample correctly classified a 3-g difference in salt intake (49%). By increasing the observations to 3 consecutive 24-hour collections and sodium intakes, classification accuracy improved to 75%. Collecting seven 24-hour urines and sodium intake samples improved classification accuracy to 92%. We conclude that single 24-hour urine collections at intakes ranging from 6 to 12 g salt per day were not suitable to detect a 3-g difference in individual salt intake. Repeated measurements of 24-hour UNaV improve precision. This knowledge could be relevant to patient care and the conduct of intervention trials.

  8. Decreased 24-hour urinary MHPG in childhood autism.

    PubMed

    Young, J G; Cohen, D J; Caparulo, B K; Brown, S L; Maas, J W

    1979-08-01

    The authors compared a group of boys with childhood autism and a group of normal boys of similar age and found a decrease in urinary 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenethylene glycol (MHPG) in the autistic group. They hypothesize that autistic children might have an alteration in central and peripheral noradrenergic function, which might be related to impaired regulation of attention, arousal, and anxiety.

  9. Estimation of Daily Sodium and Potassium Excretion Using Spot Urine and 24-Hour Urine Samples in a Black Population (Benin).

    PubMed

    Mizéhoun-Adissoda, Carmelle; Houehanou, Corine; Chianéa, Thierry; Dalmay, François; Bigot, André; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Bovet, Pascal; Houinato, Dismand; Desport, Jean-Claude

    2016-07-01

    The 24-hour urine collection method is considered the gold standard for the estimation of ingested potassium and sodium. Because of the impracticalities of collecting all urine over a 24-hour period, spot urine is often used for epidemiological investigations. This study aims to assess the agreement between spot urine and 24-hour urine measurements to determine sodium and potassium intake. A total of 402 participants aged 25 to 64 years were randomly selected in South Benin. Spot urine was taken during the second urination of the day. Twenty-four-hour urine was also collected. Samples (2-mL) were taken and then stored at -20°C. The analysis was carried out using potentiometric dosage. The agreement between spot urine and 24-hour urine measurements was established using Bland-Altman plots. A total of 354 results were analyzed. Daily sodium chloride and potassium chloride urinary excretion means were 10.2±4.9 g/24 h and 2.9±1.4 g/24 h, respectively. Estimated daily sodium chloride and potassium chloride means from the spot urine were 10.7±7.0 g/24 h and 3.9±2.1 g/24 h, respectively. Concordance coefficients were 0.61 at d=-0.5 g, (d±2SD=-11 g and 10.1 g) for sodium chloride and 0.61 at d=-1 g, (d±2SD=-3.8 g and 1.8 g) for potassium chloride. Spot urine method is acceptable for estimating 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion to assess sodium and potassium intake in a black population. However, the confidence interval for the mean difference, which is too large, makes the sodium chloride results inadmissible at a clinical level.

  10. Insights about serum sodium behavior after 24 hours of continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Thiago Gomes; Martins, Cassia Pimenta Barufi; Mendes, Pedro Vitale; Besen, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro; Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Park, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratorial factors associated with serum sodium variation during continuous renal replacement therapy and to assess whether the perfect admixture formula could predict 24-hour sodium variation. Methods Thirty-six continuous renal replacement therapy sessions of 33 patients, in which the affluent prescription was unchanged during the first 24 hours, were retrieved from a prospective collected database and then analyzed. A mixed linear model was performed to investigate the factors associated with large serum sodium variations (≥ 8mEq/L), and a Bland-Altman plot was generated to assess the agreement between the predicted and observed variations. Results In continuous renal replacement therapy 24-hour sessions, SAPS 3 (p = 0.022) and baseline hypernatremia (p = 0.023) were statistically significant predictors of serum sodium variations ≥ 8mEq/L in univariate analysis, but only hypernatremia demonstrated an independent association (β = 0.429, p < 0.001). The perfect admixture formula for sodium prediction at 24 hours demonstrated poor agreement with the observed values. Conclusions Hypernatremia at the time of continuous renal replacement therapy initiation is an important factor associated with clinically significant serum sodium variation. The use of 4% citrate or acid citrate dextrose - formula A 2.2% as anticoagulants was not associated with higher serum sodium variations. A mathematical prediction for the serum sodium concentration after 24 hours was not feasible. PMID:27410407

  11. The Impact of Using Different Methods to Assess Completeness of 24-Hour Urine Collection on Estimating Dietary Sodium.

    PubMed

    Wielgosz, Andreas; Robinson, Christopher; Mao, Yang; Jiang, Ying; Campbell, Norm R C; Muthuri, Stella; Morrison, Howard

    2016-06-01

    The standard for population-based surveillance of dietary sodium intake is 24-hour urine testing; however, this may be affected by incomplete urine collection. The impact of different indirect methods of assessing completeness of collection on estimated sodium ingestion has not been established. The authors enlisted 507 participants from an existing community study in 2009 to collect 24-hour urine samples. Several methods of assessing completeness of urine collection were tested. Mean sodium intake varied between 3648 mg/24 h and 7210 mg/24 h depending on the method used. Excluding urine samples collected for longer or shorter than 24 hours increased the estimated urine sodium excretion, even when corrections for the variation in timed collections were applied. Until an accurate method of indirectly assessing completeness of urine collection is identified, the gold standard of administering para-aminobenzoic acid is recommended. Efforts to ensure participants collect complete urine samples are also warranted.

  12. Moderate alcohol consumption and 24-hour urinary levels of melatonin in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low overnight urinary melatonin metabolite concentrations have been associated with increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Women's Alcohol Study was a controlled feeding study to test the effects of low to moderate alcohol intake on potential risk factors for...

  13. Establishing normal plasma and 24-hour urinary biochemistry ranges in C3H, BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice following acclimatization in metabolic cages.

    PubMed

    Stechman, Michael J; Ahmad, Bushra N; Loh, Nellie Y; Reed, Anita A C; Stewart, Michelle; Wells, Sara; Hough, Tertius; Bentley, Liz; Cox, Roger D; Brown, Steve D M; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2010-07-01

    Physiological studies of mice are facilitated by normal plasma and 24-hour urinary reference ranges, but variability of these parameters may increase due to stress that is induced by housing in metabolic cages. We assessed daily weight, food and water intake, urine volume and final day measurements of the following: plasma sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, cholesterol and glucose; and urinary sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, glucose and protein in 24- to 30-week-old C3H/HeH, BALB/cAnNCrl and C57BL/6J mice. Between 15 and 20 mice of each sex from all three strains were individually housed in metabolic cages with ad libitum feeding for up to seven days. Acclimatization was evaluated using general linear modelling for repeated measures and comparison of biochemical data was by unpaired t-test and analysis of variance (SPSS version 12.0.1). Following an initial 5-10% fall in body weight, daily dietary intake, urinary output and weight in all three strains reached stable values after 3-4 days of confinement. Significant differences in plasma glucose, cholesterol, urea, chloride, calcium and albumin, and urinary glucose, sodium, phosphate, calcium and protein were observed between strains and genders. Thus, these results provide normal reference values for plasma and urinary biochemistry in three strains housed in metabolic cages and demonstrate that 3-4 days are required to reach equilibrium in metabolic cage studies. These variations due to strain and gender have significant implications for selecting the appropriate strain upon which to breed genetically-altered models of metabolic and renal disease.

  14. Comparative studies on 24-hour urinary excretion in Japanese and Chinese adults and children--need for nutritional education.

    PubMed

    Mori, Mari; Xu, Jin-Wen; Mori, Hideki; Ling, Cheng Feng; Wei, Guo Hong; Yamori, Yukio

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of nutritional education on the risk of developing lifestyle-related diseases, we measured taurine and isoflavone content in 24-hour urine samples (24-U) of 3rd grade Chinese children (CC) and of age-matched Japanese children (JC), as well as adult Chinese and Japanese (CA, JA) according to the WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison) Study protocol. There was a significantly higher prevalence of obesity and "thin" individuals in CC compared with JC. While K intake was not significantly different in the children, the sodium to potassium ratio (Na/ K) and the intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) were significantly higher in CC than in JC. Taurine excretion (24-U) was significantly higher in CC than in JC, but isoflavone excretion was significantly lower in CC than in JC. Taurine excretion was significantly lower in CA than in JA, while isoflavone excretion was almost the same in CA and JA. After nutritional education CC consumed more isoflavones than the control group that had been subjected to only environmental education. JC exhibited significantly higher 24-U taurine and isoflavone excretion after taking the nutritional class.

  15. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in Victoria, Australia, using 24-hour urine collections. Secondary aims were to identify the dietary sources of sodium and potassium, examine the association between these electrolytes and cardiovascular risk factors, and assess children’s taste preferences and saltiness perception of manufactured foods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of schoolchildren attending primary schools in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed one 24-hour urine collection, which was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Completeness of collections was assessed using collection time, total volume, and urinary creatinine. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed to assess dietary intake. Other data collected included blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumference. Children were also presented with high and low sodium variants of food products and asked to discriminate salt level and choose their preferred variant. Parents provided demographic information and information on use of discretionary salt. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sodium and potassium intakes. Linear and logistic regression models with clustered robust standard errors will be used to assess the association between electrolyte intake and health outcomes (blood pressure and body mass index/BMI z-score and waist circumference) and to assess differences in taste preference and discrimination between high and low sodium foods, and correlations between

  16. Association between 24-Hour Urinary Cadmium and Pulmonary Function among Community-Exposed Men: The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Brad J.; Park, Sung Kyun; Robins, Thomas; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Weisskopf, Marc; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Background High levels of cadmium exposure are known to cause emphysema in occupationally exposed workers, but little has been reported to date on the association between chronic environmental cadmium exposure and pulmonary function. Objective In this study we examined the association between pulmonary function and cadmium body burden in a subcohort of the Normative Aging Study, a community-based study of aging. Methods We examined 96 men who had cadmium measured in single 24-hr urinary specimens collected in 1994–1995 and who had one to three tests of pulmonary function between 1994 and 2002 (a total of 222 observations). We used mixed-effect models to predict pulmonary function based on individual 24-hr urinary cadmium output, adjusted for age, height, time elapsed from the baseline, and smoking status. We assessed effect modification by smoking status. Results Among all subjects, a single log-unit increase in baseline urinary cadmium was inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) percent predicted [β = −7.56%; 95% confidence interval (CI) −13.59% to −1.53%]; forced vital capacity (FVC) percent predicted (β = −2.70%; 95% CI −7.39% to 1.99%), and FEV1/FVC ratio (β = −4.13%; 95% CI −7.61% to −0.66%). In models including an interaction between urinary cadmium and smoking status, there was a graded, statistically significant reduction in FEV1/FVC ratio across smoking status in association with urinary cadmium. Conclusions This study suggests that chronic cadmium exposure is associated with reduced pulmonary function, and cigarette smoking modifies this association. These results should be interpreted with caution because the sample size is small, and further studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:18795167

  17. Effect of metoprolol on 24-hour urinary excretion of adrenal steroids and kallikrein in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Fritschka, E.; Gotzen, R.; Kittler, R.; Schöneshöfer, M.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of fifteen patients with essential hypertension over four weeks using the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocking agent, metoprolol, resulted in a decrease in 24 h urinary excretion of kallikrein and aldosterone along with a decrease in plasma renin activity. There was no significant change in 24 h excretion rates of the free adrenal steroids deoxycorticosterone, 18-OH-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, cortisol or 18-OH-corticosterone during treatment, which were not significantly different from excretion rates of normal males, thus excluding inhibitory effects of adrenal steroids on urinary kallikrein activity. A positive correlation was found between plasma renin activity and urinary excretion of kallikrein during the control period and after 2 weeks on metoprolol, supporting the assumption of a preserved link between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the renal excretion of kallikrein in these patients. The decrease in kallikrein excretion during beta 1-adrenoceptor blockade in patients with essential hypertension may be explained by a reduction in sympathetic tone and by reduced activity of the renin-aldosterone system. PMID:6367871

  18. Estimated amount of 24-hour urine sodium excretion is positively correlated with stomach and breast cancer prevalence in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yong Chul; Koo, Ho Seok; Oh, Se Won; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the association between the prevalence of cancer, particularly stomach cancer, and the amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion estimated from spot urine specimens. The study included 19,083 subjects who took part in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey between 2009 and 2011. The total amount of urine sodium excreted in a 24-hr period was estimated by using two equations based on the values for spot urine sodium and creatinine. In subjects who had an estimated 24-hr urine sodium excretion of more than two standard deviations above the mean (group 2), the prevalence of stomach cancer was higher than in subjects with lower 24-hr sodium excretion (group 1). By using the Tanaka equation to estimate it, the prevalence of stomach cancer was 0.6% (114/18,331) in group 1, whereas it was 1.6% (9/568) in group 2 (P=0.006). By using the Korean equation, the prevalence was 0.6% (115/18,392) in group 1, and 1.6% in group 2 (8/507) (P=0.010). By using the Tanaka equation, breast cancer in women is more prevalent in group 2 (1.9%, 6/324) than group 1 (0.8%, 78/9,985, P=0.039). Higher salt intake, as defined by the estimated amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion, is positively correlated with a higher prevalence of stomach or breast cancer in the Korean population.

  19. Estimation of 24-hour thyroid uptake of I-131 sodium iodide using a 5-minute uptake of technetium-99m pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.J.; Croft, B.Y.; Brookeman, V.A.; Teates, C.D. )

    1990-02-01

    The authors have developed a method to estimate the 24-hour sodium iodide thyroid uptake based on a 5-minute Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake using the equation: Estimated Iodide Uptake = 17.72*In(Pertechnetate Uptake) + 30.40. This estimation has a correlation coefficient of 0.90. It is based on a data pool of 44 patients who underwent I-131 and Tc-99m studies within 2 weeks of each other from 1978-1988, with established diagnoses as follows: 12 euthyroid, 6 hyperthyroid with multinodular goiters, 15 hyperthyroid with diffuse goiters, 4 with subacute thyroiditis, and 7 unknown. The population consisted of 30 women and 14 men with a mean age of 52.0 +/- 17.5 years; this sample was screened for use of thyroid hormone, propylthiouracil, and radiographic contrast. The authors believe this estimation method is of value whenever a 24-hour iodide uptake is desired, and where speed and minimizing radiation dose are factors. This method is strongly recommended for thyroid uptake evaluation before I-131 therapy.

  20. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a day, such as: Creatinine Sodium Potassium Nitrogen Protein This test may also be done if ... disease Potassium urine test Sodium urine test Urea nitrogen urine test Urination - excessive amount Urine output - decreased ...

  1. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and CKD Progression.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Mills, Katherine T; Appel, Lawrence J; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Lee, Belinda T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Porter, Anna; Makos, Gail; Weir, Matthew R; Hamm, L Lee; Kusek, John W

    2016-04-01

    CKD is a major risk factor for ESRD, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Whether dietary sodium and potassium intake affect CKD progression remains unclear. We prospectively studied the association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with CKD progression and all-cause mortality among 3939 patients with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured using three 24-hour urine specimens, and CKD progression was defined as incident ESRD or halving of eGFR. During follow-up, 939 CKD progression events and 540 deaths occurred. Compared with the lowest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (<116.8 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (≥194.6 mmol/24 h) were 1.54 (1.23 to 1.92) for CKD progression, 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for all-cause mortality, and 1.43 (1.18 to 1.73) for the composite outcome of CKD progression and all-cause mortality after adjusting for multiple covariates, including baseline eGFR. Additionally, compared with the lowest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (<39.4 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios for the highest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (≥67.1 mmol/24 h) were 1.59 (1.25 to 2.03) for CKD progression, 0.98 (0.71 to 1.35) for all-cause mortality, and 1.42 (1.15 to 1.74) for the composite outcome. These data indicate that high urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with increased risk of CKD progression. Clinical trials are warranted to test the effect of sodium and potassium reduction on CKD progression.

  2. Urinary sodium is a potent correlate of proteinuria: Lessons from the CRIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Matthew R.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Teal, Valerie; Sozio, Stephen M.; Anderson, Cheryl A.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Turban, Sharon; Chen, Jing; He, Jiang; Litbarg, Natasha; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Rosen, Leigh; Steigerwalt, Susan; Strauss, Louise; Joffe, Marshall M.

    2013-01-01

    Background While higher blood pressure is known to increase proteinuria, whether increased dietary sodium as estimated from 24-hour urinary excretion correlates with increased proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well studied. Methods We measured 24-hour urine sodium, potassium, and protein excretion in 3,680 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, to determine the relationship between urinary sodium and potassium and urinary protein excretion in patients with CKD. We stratified our data based on the presence or absence of diabetes given the absence of any data on this relationship, and evidence that diabetics had greater urinary protein excretion at nearly every level of urinary sodium excretion. Multiple linear regressions were used with a stepwise inclusion of covariates such as systolic blood pressure (SBP), demographics, hemoglobin A1C, and type of antihypertensive medications to evaluate the relationship between urinary electrolyte excretion and proteinuria. Results Our data demonstrated that urinary sodium (+1SD above the mean), as a univariate variable, explained 12% of the variation in proteinuria (β=0.29, p<.0001) with rising urinary sodium excretion associated with increasing proteinuria. The significance of that relationship was only partially attenuated with adjustment for demographic and clinical factors and the addition of 24-hour urinary potassium to the model (β=0.13, R2=0.35, p<.0001). Conclusions An understanding of the relationship between these clinical factors and dietary sodium may allow a more tailored approach for dietary salt restriction in patients with CKD. PMID:23076013

  3. Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance is associated with Lower CD4 Count and 24-Hour Urinary Dopamine Levels in Ethnic Minority Women Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Seay, Julia S.; McIntosh, Roger; Fekete, Erin M.; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Kumar, Mahendra; Schneiderman, Neil; Antoni, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbance is associated with dopamine dysregulation, which can negatively impact immune status. Individuals living with HIV experience more sleep difficulties, and poor sleep may compound immune decrements associated with HIV infection. Little research has examined associations between sleep, dopamine, and immune status (CD4 count) in individuals with HIV. As ethnic minority women living with HIV (WLWH) are at heightened risk for HIV disease progression, we related sleep reports to both CD4 count and dopamine levels in a cohort of ethnic minority WLWH. Methods Participants were 139 low-income WLWH (ages 20–62; 78.3% African-American or Caribbean) who reported both overall sleep quality and sleep disturbance on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). CD4 count and HIV viral load were measured via morning peripheral venous blood samples, and concentrations of dopamine were measured via 24-hour urine collection. Covariates included HIV viral load, length of time since HIV diagnosis, HAART adherence, perceived stress and depression. Results After controlling for all covariates, greater sleep disturbance was associated with significantly lower CD4 count (β = −.20, p = .03) and lower levels of dopamine (β = −.25, p = .04). Poorer overall sleep quality was marginally associated with lower CD4 count (β = −.16, p = .08), and was not associated with dopamine. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that sleep disturbance is independently related with immune status and dopamine levels in WLWH. Lower levels of dopamine may indicate neuroendocrine dysregulation and may impact immune and health status. Results highlight sleep disturbance rather than overall sleep quality as potentially salient to neuroendocrine and immune status in ethnic minority WLWH. PMID:23850225

  4. Central Systolic Augmentation Indexes and Urinary Sodium in a White Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Ping; Thijs, Lutgarde; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Gu, Yu-Mei; Asayama, Kei; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Jin, Yu; Verhamme, Peter; Struijker-Boudier, Harry A.J.; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The association between cardiovascular health and salt intake remains controversial. The objective of our study was to assess the association between arterial stiffness and urinary sodium, both cross-sectionally and prospectively. METHODS In 630 participants (mean age 40.6 years; 51% women), randomly recruited from a Flemish population, we measured sodium and creatinine in 24-hour urine samples at baseline and follow-up (median, 9.7 years) and the carotid and aortic augmentation indexes (AIs) standardized to heart rate at follow-up only. RESULTS From baseline to follow-up, the urinary sodium concentration decreased (117.1 vs. 105.2 mmol/L; P < 0.0001), whereas 24-hour urinary sodium did not change significantly (166.5 vs. 171.5 mmol/L; P = 0.12). In multivariable-adjusted longitudinal analyses, a 40 mmol/L (~1 SD) increase in the urinary sodium concentration was independently and inversely associated with the carotid AI (effect size, −1.38 ± 0.66%; P = 0.04) and aortic AI (−1.54 ± 0.72%; P = 0.02). In cross-sectional analyses of follow-up data, these estimates were −1.26 ± 0.70% (P = 0.07) and −1.52 ± 0.76% (P = 0.04), respectively. In the longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses, the carotid and aortic AIs were unrelated to the 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed an inverse association between the central arterial AIs and the urinary sodium concentration. Further research is required to consolidate our findings, to unravel the underlying mechanism, and to establish the role of renal vasodilatation in the maintenance of sodium balance. PMID:23382332

  5. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion is increased in rats after 24 hours of exposure to vertical 50 Hz, 100 {micro}T magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, J.; Nagy, N.; Thuroczy, G.; Szabo, L.D.

    1997-05-01

    The effect of exposure to a 50 Hz, vertical magnetic field on the excretion of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) of rats was studied in a self-controlled experiment. Ten male Wistar rats were kept under 9:15 h light:dark conditions in metabolic cages. The rats were exposed to 1.0 or 100 {micro}T flux density for 24 h. The excretion of aMT6s, which is the primary metabolite of melatonin in the urine, did not show a statistically significant decrease, as measured by {sup 125}I radioimmunoassay, during or after magnetic field exposure of rats to either flux density. At 100 {micro}T flux density, the increase of aMT6s excretion on the day after exposure was statistically significant (P < .02), compared with the value under exposure, but was not significant compared with the baseline values before exposure.

  6. Estimating the Population Distribution of Usual 24-Hour Sodium Excretion from Timed Urine Void Specimens Using a Statistical Approach Accounting for Correlated Measurement Errors1234

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chia-Yih; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Chen, Te-Ching; Loria, Catherine M; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Liu, Kiang; Sempos, Christopher T; Perrine, Cria G; Cogswell, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Background: High US sodium intake and national reduction efforts necessitate developing a feasible and valid monitoring method across the distribution of low-to-high sodium intake. Objective: We examined a statistical approach using timed urine voids to estimate the population distribution of usual 24-h sodium excretion. Methods: A sample of 407 adults, aged 18–39 y (54% female, 48% black), collected each void in a separate container for 24 h; 133 repeated the procedure 4–11 d later. Four timed voids (morning, afternoon, evening, overnight) were selected from each 24-h collection. We developed gender-specific equations to calibrate total sodium excreted in each of the one-void (e.g., morning) and combined two-void (e.g., morning + afternoon) urines to 24-h sodium excretion. The calibrated sodium excretions were used to estimate the population distribution of usual 24-h sodium excretion. Participants were then randomly assigned to modeling (n = 160) or validation (n = 247) groups to examine the bias in estimated population percentiles. Results: Median bias in predicting selected percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th) of usual 24-h sodium excretion with one-void urines ranged from −367 to 284 mg (−7.7 to 12.2% of the observed usual excretions) for men and −604 to 486 mg (−14.6 to 23.7%) for women, and with two-void urines from −338 to 263 mg (−6.9 to 10.4%) and −166 to 153 mg (−4.1 to 8.1%), respectively. Four of the 6 two-void urine combinations produced no significant bias in predicting selected percentiles. Conclusions: Our approach to estimate the population usual 24-h sodium excretion, which uses calibrated timed-void sodium to account for day-to-day variation and covariance between measurement errors, produced percentile estimates with relatively low biases across low-to-high sodium excretions. This may provide a low-burden, low-cost alternative to 24-h collections in monitoring population sodium intake among healthy young adults and

  7. 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion test

    MedlinePlus

    Gruber HA, Farag AF. Evaluation of endocrine function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 24.

  8. Urinary sodium excretion and ambulatory blood pressure findings in patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Afsar, Baris; Elsurer, Rengin; Kirkpantur, Alper; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2015-03-01

    Use of ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) allows for identification of dipping, nondipping, extreme dipping, and reverse dipping of BP. Using office BP and ABPM, hypertension subtypes can be identified: sustained normotension (SNT), white-coat hypertension, masked hypertension, and sustained hypertension. The comparison of hemodynamic parameters and salt intake has not been investigated among these patient groups. Office BP, ABPM, augmentation index (AIx), pulse wave velocity (PWV), cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were automatically measured. Estimation of salt intake was assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Urinary sodium excretion was not different among groups. AIx, PWV, CO, and TPR were lowest in patients with SNT. CO was lowest while AIx adjusted for a heart rate of 75 beats per minute, PWV, and TPR were highest in the extreme dipper group. No relationship was detected between hypertension subtypes and urinary sodium excretion.

  9. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  10. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  11. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  12. Urinary sodium and chloride during renal salt retention.

    PubMed

    Sherman, R A; Eisinger, R P

    1983-09-01

    One hundred ten episodes of renal salt retention (urinary sodium and/or chloride less than 10 mEq/L) were studied retrospectively to determine the significance of discordance of urinary sodium from chloride. In 16 episodes the urinary sodium exceeded chloride by at least 15 mEq/L. This disparity was associated with the necessity for urinary excretion of substantial quantities of poorly reabsorbed anions (penicillin, ketones, or diatrizoate), a rapidly falling serum bicarbonate level (due to resolving metabolic or developing respiratory alkalosis), or substantial renal insufficiency (serum creatinine greater than 3 mg/dL). In 14 of 110 episodes, urinary chloride exceeded urinary sodium by at least 15 mEq/L. These patients were more often oliguric and had a higher mean serum chloride than patients without this dissociation. In patients with oliguria, hyponatremia, or metabolic alkalosis, measurement of urinary sodium or chloride alone will, in a substantial number of cases, fail to detect renal salt retention. When evidence is sought for renal salt retention, both urinary sodium and chloride should be determined. PMID:6613992

  13. Urinary {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, and retinol-binding protein levels in general populations in Japan with references to cadmium in urine, blood, and 24-hour food duplicates

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Moon, Chan-Seok; Zhang, Zuo-Wen

    1995-07-01

    Possible cadmium (Cd) exposure-associated changes in urinary levels of low-molecular-weight proteins were studied in nonsmoking and nondrinking female members of the general Japanese population (378 subjects with no known occupational heavy metal exposure) who lived at 19 study sites (all without any known environmental heavy metal pollution) in 13 prefectures throughout Japan. The external Cd dose was evaluated in terms of daily Cd intake via food (Cd-F), whereas Cd levels in blood (Cd-B) and urine (Cd-U) were taken as internal dose indicators. When the subjects were classified according to Cd-F into three groups with {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} (20.4 {mu}g/day as a geometric mean of 97 women), {open_quotes}middle{close_quotes} (35.0 {mu}g/day, 120 women) and {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} (67.0 {mu}g/day, 66 women) exposure, both Cd-B and Cd-U increased in parallel with the changes in Cd-F. However, there were no dose-dependent changes in {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin or retinol-binding protein levels in urine. {alpha}{sub 1}-Microglobulin levels appeared to increase, but the distribution of the cases above the two cutoff levels of 9.6 and 15.8 {mu}g/mg creatinine among the three Cd-F groups did not show any bias. Overall, it was concluded that there was no apparent Cd exposure-associated elevation in urinary low-molecular-weight protein levels in the study population. 41 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Urinary calcium, sodium, and bone mass of young females.

    PubMed

    Matkovic, V; Ilich, J Z; Andon, M B; Hsieh, L C; Tzagournis, M A; Lagger, B J; Goel, P K

    1995-08-01

    Calcium is an important determinant of peak bone mass in young adults because of its influence on skeletal development during growth. Attainment of maximum peak bone mass requires optimal positive balance between calcium intake and obligatory losses of calcium, primarily in urine and feces. Urinary excretion is an important determinant of calcium retention in the body. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of various nutrients on urinary calcium excretion, and to assess their impact on bone mass of young females, aged 8-13 y, during early puberty. The study was conducted in 381 healthy white females in pubertal stage 2. From each participant we collected basic anthropometric measurements, a 3-d food record, blood, a 24-h urine sample, and bone mass measurements of the total body and forearm by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Urinary sodium was found to be one of the most important determinants of urinary calcium excretion: [urinary calcium (mmol/d) = 0.01154 x urinary sodium (mmol/d) + 0.823], whereas calcium intake had relatively little impact: [urinary calcium (mmol/d) = 0.02252 x calcium intake (mmol/d) + 1.5261]. Urinary calcium was much higher at a calcium intake of approximately 37.5 mmol/d (1500 mg/d), supporting the notion that calcium is a threshold nutrient. Calcium intake had a significant positive influence on the bone mineral content and density of the whole body and radius shaft whereas urinary calcium had a negative influence, presumably by reducing calcium accretion into the skeleton.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  16. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  17. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  18. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  19. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  20. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  1. Respiration and sodium transport in rabbit urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, S U; Eaton, D C

    1982-07-28

    Respiration of rabbit urinary bladder was measured in free-floating pieces and in short-circuited pieces mounted in an Ussing chamber. Ouabain, amiloride, and potassium-free saline inhibited respiration approx. 20%; sodium-free saline depressed respiration approx. 40-50%. The coupling ratio between respiration and transport in short-circuited tissues was about two sodium ions per molecule O2. Chloride-free saline depressed mean oxygen consumption 21% in free-floating tissue pieces; 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS) and furosemide had no effect. The effect of chloride-free saline in short-circuited tissues was variable; in tissues with low transport rates, respiration was stimulated about 21% while in tissue with high transport rates respiration was reduced about 24%. Nystatin and monensin, both of which markedly increase the conductance of cell membranes with a concomitant increase in sodium entry, stimulated respiration. These data indicate that 50-60% of the total oxygen consumption is not influenced by sodium, 20-25% is linked to (Na+ +K+)-ATPase transport, while the remaining 25-30% is sodium-dependent but not ouabain-inhibitable.

  2. Intake and urinary excretion of sodium chloride under varying conditions of effort and environment heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, E.; Adar, R.; Tennenbaum, J.; Kesten, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intake and urinary excretion of sodium were investigated in a group of young, healthy and acclimated men. The sodium excretions of workers and of machinists in the engine rooms of a ship were also investigated.

  3. Assessing variability of the 24-hour pad weight test in men with post-prostatectomy incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Rena D.; Cohn, Joshua A.; Fedunok, Pauline A.; Chung, Doreen E.; Bales, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Decision-making regarding surgery for post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI) is challenging. The 24-hour pad weight test is commonly used to objectively quantify PPI. However, pad weight may vary based upon activity level. We aimed to quantify variability in pad weights based upon patient-reported activity. Materials and Methods: 25 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were prospectively enrolled. All patients demonstrated clinical stress urinary incontinence without clinical urgency urinary incontinence. On three consecutive alternating days, patients submitted 24-hour pad weights along with a short survey documenting activity level and number of pads used. Results: Pad weights collected across the three days were well correlated to the individual (ICC 0.85 (95% CI 0.74–0.93), p<0.001). The mean difference between the minimum pad weight leakage and maximum leakage per patient was 133.4g (95% CI 80.4–186.5). The mean increase in 24-hour leakage for a one-point increase in self-reported activity level was 118.0g (95% CI 74.3–161.7, p<0.001). Pad weights also varied significantly when self-reported activity levels did not differ (mean difference 51.2g (95% CI 30.3–72.1), p<0.001). Conclusions: 24-hour pad weight leakage may vary significantly on different days of collection. This variation is more pronounced with changes in activity level. Taking into account patient activity level may enhance the predictive value of pad weight testing. PMID:27256187

  4. Relationship between urinary sodium and potassium, and arterial blood pressure: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Miller, G D

    1984-01-01

    An epidemiologic study was conducted to ascertain the relationship between urinary sodium and potassium, and arterial blood pressure in normal, nonhospitalized adults. Random samples of 1,939 adult residents, 35 to 54 years of age, of Savannah, Georgia; Hagerstown, Maryland; and Pueblo, Colorado, were interviewed and examined. Arterial blood pressures were taken with a standardized zero-muddler in a standard fashion by a specially trained, experienced nurse. Casual urine specimens were collected and analyzed for their sodium and potassium content. The relationship between urinary sodium potassium and the sodium-to-potassium ratio and arterial blood pressure was calculated. Systolic and diastolic pressure increased with increasing levels of urinary sodium and the sodium-to-potassium ratio, and decreased with increasing levels of urinary potassium. The data suggest that dietary potassium provides some protection against the hypertensive effects of dietary sodium in humans as in animals.

  5. The 24 Hours before Hospitalization: Factors Related to Suicide Attempting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, John A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Psychiatric inpatients (N=59) were interviewd concerning psychological and environmental events that occurred in the 24 hours prior to their hospitalization. Suicide attempters were more likely to have used alcohol or marijuana and less likely to have contacted a health care professional than suicide ideators, even when past history of suicide…

  6. Effect of daily oral omeprazole on 24 hour intragastric acidity.

    PubMed Central

    Walt, R P; Gomes, M D; Wood, E C; Logan, L H; Pounder, R E

    1983-01-01

    Twenty four hour intragastric acidity was measured in nine patients with duodenal ulcer before and after one week of treatment with oral omeprazole 30 mg daily, a drug that inhibits gastric secretion by inhibition of parietal cell H+K+ adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase). Omeprazole virtually eliminated intragastric acidity in all patients: the median 24 hour intragastric pH rose from 1.4 to 5.3 and the mean hourly hydrogen ion activity fell from 38.50 to 1.95 mmol(mEq)/1 (p less than 0.001). This inhibition of 24 hour intragastric acidity is more profound than that previously reported with either cimetidine 1 g daily or ranitidine 300 mg daily. PMID:6407676

  7. [Gastroesophageal reflux during pregnancy: 24-hour esophageal ph monitoring].

    PubMed

    Anton, C; Anton, E; Drug, V; Stanciu, C

    2001-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) occurs in 30-50% of all pregnancies. The progressive rise in plasma progesterone has been suggested as a possible mediator of GER during pregnancy. Recent advances in technology have made it possible to detect GER through monitoring of esophageal pH for prolonged periods, including sleep. 24-hour pH monitoring is the proper method for diagnosing GER in pregnant women. If 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring is to be a useful diagnostic tool, it must reliably discriminate GER patients despite daily variations in distal esophageal acid exposure. To address this issue, we studied 62 women (30 healthy non-pregnant women without GER symptoms and 32 pregnant women with GER symptoms-heartburn, acid regurgitation) with 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Intrasubject reproducibility of three pH parameters to discriminate the presence of abnormal acid reflux was determined (DeMeester score, Kaye score, circadian one hour diagram for pH < 4). Each patient was interviewed, using a reliable questionnaire detailing individual habits, life style characteristics and symptoms, at four time points during the first, second, third trimesters of pregnancy and post-partum period. Symptoms of GER are common in pregnancy and although GER rarely endangers maternal or fetal health, it can significantly affect patient comfort and quality of life. We conclude: 1. GER is almost constantly present during pregnancy, increasing with gestational age. 2. The most important pH--parameter is DeMcester score. 3. Heartburn disappear after delivery. 4. 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring is the gold standard for measuring acid exposure and is a reproducible test for the diagnosis of GER in pregnancy.

  8. Metabolic and renal changes in two athletes during a world 24 hour relay record performance.

    PubMed Central

    Irving, R A; Noakes, T D; van Zyl Smit, R

    1989-01-01

    Metabolic parameters and renal function were studied in two subjects before, during and after they established a world two-man 24 hour relay record. During the race, the athletes expended an estimated 37.747 and 42.880 kJ running at 54 and 61 per cent of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max). Rectal temperatures reached maxima of 38.6 and 39.2 degrees C respectively during the race. Serum free fatty acid levels peaked at 2108 and 1875 mumol ml-1 after 24 hours; blood glucose levels varied from 4.3-6.5 and 4.9-8.5 mmol.l-1 respectively. Plasma insulin levels fell from 42.9 and 22.7 microU.ml-1 to 11.5 microU.ml-1. Plasma urea, creatinine, beta 2-microglobulin and C-reactive protein concentrations were elevated at the end of the race (to 9.0 and 8.0 mmol.l-1, 119 and 102 mumol.l-1, 3.508 and 3203 micrograms.l-1 and 2.7 and 3.9 mg per cent respectively). Plasma osmolality was altered from 293 and 304 to 302 and 280 mosmol.Kg-1 during the race but increased to 312 and 318 mosmol.Kg-1 the following day probably due to intercompartmental fluid shifts. Plasma creatinine concentration was increased by 38 and 26 per cent due to reduced urinary excretion. Urine flow rate increased 40 and 123 per cent respectively during the race, but creatinine clearance decreased by 38 and 40 per cent. Urine osmolality decreased by 38 and 65 per cent and osmolal clearance decreased by 15 and 16 per cent respectively. Urine sodium excretion was greatly reduced (85 and 90 per cent) on the post-race days (by 88 and 92 per cent on day 2). Both urine total protein and beta2-microglobulin excretion increased during the race (by 89 and 35 per cent and by 334 and 136 per cent respectively), but owing to the increased beta2-microglobulin production renal clearance was unaltered. The changes in renal function were temporary and some aspects of renal tubular function were enhanced during the post-race days. We conclude that, although C-reactive protein concentrations increased sooner and were higher

  9. Effect of Dietary Sodium Restriction on Human Urinary Metabolomic Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Klawitter, Jelena; Chonchol, Michel; Bassett, Candace J.; Racine, Matthew L.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Metabolomics is a relatively new field of “-omics” research, focusing on high-throughput identification of small molecular weight metabolites. Diet has both acute and chronic effects on metabolic profiles; however, alterations in response to dietary sodium restriction (DSR) are completely unknown. The goal of this study was to explore changes in urine metabolites in response to DSR, as well as their association with previously reported improvements in vascular function with DSR. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using stored urine samples from a 10-week randomized placebo-controlled crossover study of DSR in 17 middle-aged/older adults (six men and 11 women; mean age 62±8 years) who had moderately elevated systolic BP (130–159 mmHg) and were otherwise healthy, a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry–based analysis of 289 metabolites was performed. This study identified metabolites that were significantly altered between the typical (153±29 mmol/d) and low (70±29 mmol/d) sodium conditions, as well as their baseline (typical sodium) association with responsiveness to previously reported improvements in vascular endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation) and large elastic artery stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity). Results Of the 289 metabolites surveyed, 10 were significantly altered (nine were upregulated and one was downregulated) during the low sodium condition, and eight of these exceeded our prespecified clinically significant threshold of a >40% change. These metabolites were involved in biologic pathways broadly related to cardiovascular risk, nitric oxide production, oxidative stress, osmotic regulation, and metabolism. One metabolite, serine, was independently (positively) associated with previously reported improvements in the primary vascular outcome of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation. Conclusions This proof-of-concept study provides the first evidence that DSR is a stimulus

  10. Laparoscopic Colon Resections With Discharge Less Than 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Maedeh; Alam, Shaan E.; Kar, Pran M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A short hospital stay is one of the main advantages of laparoscopic surgery. Previous studies have shown that after a multimodal fast-track process, the hospital length of stay can be shortened to between 2 and 5 days. The objective of this review is to show that the hospital length of stay can, in some cases, be reduced to <24 hours. Methods: This study retrospectively reviews a surgeon's experience with laparoscopic surgery over a 12-month period. Seven patients were discharged home within 24 hours after minimally invasive laparoscopic surgical treatment, following a modified fast-track protocol that was adopted for perioperative care. Results: Of the 7 patients, 4 received laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for malignant disease and 3 underwent sigmoid colectomies for recurrent diverticulitis. The mean hospital stay was 21 hours, 47 minutes; the mean volume of intraoperative fluid (lactated Ringer) was 1850 mL; the mean surgical blood loss was only 74.3 mL; the mean duration of surgery was 118 minutes; and the patients were ambulated and fed a liquid diet after recovery from anesthesia. The reviewed patients had functional gastrointestinal tracts and were agreeable to the timing of discharge. On the follow-up visit, they showed no adverse consequences such as bleeding, infection, or anastomotic leak. Conclusion: Laparoscopic colon surgery that incorporated multimodal perioperative care allowed patients to be discharged within the first 24 hours. Careful postoperative outpatient follow-up is important in monitoring complications such as anastomotic leak, which may not present until postoperative day 5. PMID:23925012

  11. Influence of Overweight on 24-Hour Urine Chemistry Studies and Recurrent Urolithiasis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Dong; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Myung, Soon Chul; Moon, Young Tae; Kim, Kyung Do

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the influence of overweight on 24-hour urine chemistry studies and recurrent urolithiasis (UL) in children. Materials and Methods A retrospective cohort study was designed to assess children who presented with UL at a pediatric institution between 1985 and 2010. We calculated body mass index percentile (BMIp) adjusted for gender and age according to the 2007 Korean Children and Adolescents Growth Chart and stratified the children into 3 BMI categories: lower body weight (LBW, BMIp≤10), normal BW (NBW, 1024-hour urine chemistry studies did not differ significantly between the three groups. Mean urine citrate levels were lower (0.273±0.218 mg/mg/d vs. 0.429±0.299 mg/mg/d, p<0.05) and the incidence of hypocitraturia was higher (81.5% vs. 45.7%, p<0.05)) in the recurrent stone former group. In the univariate analysis, hypocitraturia and acidic urinary pH were risk factors, but in the multivariate analysis, only hypocitraturia was a risk factor for stone recurrence (hazard ratio, 3.647; 95% confidence interval, 1.047 to 12.703). In the Kaplan-Meier curve, the hypocitraturia group showed higher recurrence than did the normocitraturia group (p<0.05). Conclusions Unlike in adults, in children, overweight adjusted for gender and age was not associated with 24-hour urine chemistry studies and was not a risk factor for recurrent UL. Hypocitraturia was the only risk factor for UL in children. PMID:22536471

  12. Effects of dietary interventions on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones.

    PubMed

    Kıraç, Mustafa; Küpeli, Bora; Irkilata, Lokman; Gülbahar, Ozlem; Aksakal, Nur; Karaoğlan, Ustünol; Bozkırlı, Ibrahim

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary factors on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones. A total of 108 of idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones were included in the study. A 24-hour urinalysis was performed and metabolic abnormalities were measured for all of the patients. All of the patients were given specialized diets for their 24-hour urine abnormalities. At the end of first month, the same parameters were examined in another 24-hour urinalysis. Hyperoxaluria, hypernatruria, and hypercalciuria were found in 84 (77%), 43 (39.8%), and 38 (35.5%) of the patients, respectively. The differences between the oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate parameters before and after the dietary intervention were significant (p < 0.05). The calcium parameters were not significantly different before and after the intervention. We found that oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate-but not calcium-abnormalities in patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones can be corrected by diet. The metabolic profiles of idiopathic calcium oxalate stone patients should be evaluated and the appropriate dietary interventions should be implemented to decrease stone recurrence.

  13. Association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and hypertension subtypes in untreated Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Ting-Yan; Ding, Feng-Hua; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and ambulatory hypertension subtypes has not yet been examined in untreated Chinese patients. We measured left ventricular mass index by echocardiography (n=619), the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (n=1047), and aortic pulse wave velocity by tonometry (n=1013) in 1047 untreated subjects (mean age, 50.6 years; 48.9% women). Normotension was a 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure <130/<80 mm Hg. Hypertension subtypes were isolated diastolic hypertension and mixed systolic plus diastolic hypertension. We assessed associations of interest by multivariable-adjusted linear models. Using normotension as reference, mixed hypertension was associated with higher (P≤0.003) left ventricular mass index (+4.31 g/m(2)), urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.63 mg/mmol), and pulse wave velocity (+0.76 m/s); and isolated diastolic hypertension was associated with similar left ventricular mass index and pulse wave velocity (P≥0.39), but higher urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.24 mg/mmol; P=0.002). In younger participants (<55 years), the mutually independent effect sizes associated with 1 SD increases in 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure were +3.31/-0.36 g/m(2) (P=0.009/0.79) for left ventricular mass index, +1.15/+1.14 mg/mmol (P=0.02/0.04) for the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, and +0.54/-0.05 m/s (P<0.001/0.54) for pulse wave velocity. In older participants, these estimates were +3.58/+0.30 g/m(2) (P=0.045/0.88), +1.23/+1.05 mg/mmol (P=0.002/0.54), and +0.76/-0.49 m/s (P<0.001/<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, 24-hour systolic blood pressure and mixed hypertension are major determinants of target organ damage irrespective of age and target organ, whereas 24-hour diastolic blood pressure and isolated diastolic hypertension only relate to the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio below middle age.

  14. Self-Renewal and Differentiation Capacity of Urine-Derived Stem Cells after Urine Preservation for 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yingai; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Leng, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobo; Liu, Hong; Atala, Anthony; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite successful approaches to preserve organs, tissues, and isolated cells, the maintenance of stem cell viability and function in body fluids during storage for cell distribution and transportation remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize urine-derived stem cells (USCs) after optimal preservation of urine specimens for up to 24 hours. A total of 415 urine specimens were collected from 12 healthy men (age range 20–54 years old). About 6×104 cells shed off from the urinary tract system in 24 hours. At least 100 USC clones were obtained from the stored urine specimens after 24 hours and maintained similar biological features to fresh USCs. The stored USCs had a “rice grain” shape in primary culture, and expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, high telomerase activity, and normal karyotypes. Importantly, the preserved cells retained bipotent differentiation capacity. Differentiated USCs expressed myogenic specific proteins and contractile function when exposed to myogenic differentiation medium, and they expressed urothelial cell-specific markers and barrier function when exposed to urothelial differentiation medium. These data demonstrated that up to 75% of fresh USCs can be safely persevered in urine for 24 hours and that these cells stored in urine retain their original stem cell properties, indicating that preserved USCs could be available for potential use in cell-based therapy or clinical diagnosis. PMID:23349776

  15. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activation by dietary capsaicin promotes urinary sodium excretion by inhibiting epithelial sodium channel α subunit-mediated sodium reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Wang, Fei; Wei, Xing; Liang, Yi; Cui, Yuanting; Gao, Feng; Zhong, Jian; Pu, Yunfei; Zhao, Yu; Yan, Zhencheng; Arendshorst, William J; Nilius, Bernd; Chen, Jing; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2014-08-01

    High salt (HS) intake contributes to the development of hypertension. Epithelial sodium channels play crucial roles in regulating renal sodium reabsorption and blood pressure. The renal transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel can be activated by its agonist capsaicin. However, it is unknown whether dietary factors can act on urinary sodium excretion and renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) function. Here, we report that TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin increased urinary sodium excretion through reducing sodium reabsorption in wild-type (WT) mice on a HS diet but not in TRPV1(-/-) mice. The effect of capsaicin on urinary sodium excretion was involved in inhibiting αENaC and its related with-no-lysine kinase 1/serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase 1 pathway in renal cortical collecting ducts of WT mice. Dietary capsaicin further reduced the increased αENaC activity in WT mice attributed to the HS diet. In contrast, this capsaicin effect was absent in TRPV1(-/-) mice. Immunoprecipitation study indicated αENaC specifically coexpressed and functionally interact with TRPV1 in renal cortical collecting ducts of WT mice. Additionally, ENaC activity and expression were suppressed by capsaicin-mediated TRPV1 activation in cultured M1-cortical collecting duct cells. Long-term dietary capsaicin prevented the development of high blood pressure in WT mice on a HS diet. It concludes that TRPV1 activation in the cortical collecting ducts by capsaicin increases urinary sodium excretion and avoids HS diet-induced hypertension through antagonizing αENaC-mediated urinary sodium reabsorption. Dietary capsaicin may represent a promising lifestyle intervention in populations exposed to a high dietary salt intake.

  16. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work–social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns. PMID:23957268

  17. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation.

    PubMed

    Taber, Michael J; Hartley, Geoffrey L; McGarr, Gregory W; Zaharieva, Dessi; Basset, Fabien A; Hynes, Zach; Haman, Francois; Pinet, Bernard M; DuCharme, Michel B; Cheung, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (T c) and cognitive test battery (CTB) performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature). Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold) were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease T c after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5-1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance. PMID:27478839

  18. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Geoffrey L.; Zaharieva, Dessi; Basset, Fabien A.; Hynes, Zach

    2016-01-01

    Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (Tc) and cognitive test battery (CTB) performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature). Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold) were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease Tc after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5–1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance. PMID:27478839

  19. [Necessity of a 24-hour system of blood transfusion testing].

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    The preventive effects of a 24-hour system of blood transfusion testing on mistyping of transfused blood was examined. Blood transfusion tests have been performed by blood transfusion technologists during working hours and by physicians at other times. In March 2000, we introduced a system in which technologists perform blood transfusion tests after working hours. Technologists of the Blood Transfusion Unit and Central Clinical Laboratory perform the test jointly, and column agglutination technology was introduced as the test method. A computer system setup exclusively for the testing was also introduced to perform computer cross-matching. Since transfusion error is likely to occur during emergency blood transfusion, a manual was established to prioritize safety. After introduction of the system, mistyping that may have been caused by inaccurate blood test results markedly decreased, confirming the usefulness of this system for prevention of mistyping. In addition, transfusion errors also decreased in wards and the improved system increased the safety of the entire medical care system. The frequency of mistyping was about 1% when physicians performed blood typing, showing the importance of clinical technologists for blood transfusion tests. PMID:12652691

  20. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work-social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns.

  1. Association of Urinary Sodium Excretion With Insulin Resistance in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Yoon Hong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Yong Gyu; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Seon Mee; Kim, Yang Hyun; Nam, Ga Eun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High sodium intake is a well-known risk factor for elevated blood pressure and is responsible for a higher incidence of cardiovascular events. Reports have suggested an association of sodium intake with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. However, evidence on an association between sodium intake assessed on the basis of urinary sodium excretion and IR in adolescents is scarce. The present study aimed at investigating the association between urinary sodium excretion and IR among South Korean adolescents. This population-based, cross-sectional study analyzed the data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009 to 2010. The data of a total of 1353 adolescents (779 boys and 574 girls) were included in the final analysis. Spot urine samples were collected, and urinary sodium excretion was estimated by using the urinary sodium concentration (U[Na+]), U[Na+] to urinary creatinine ratio (U[Na+]/Cr), and U[Na+] to specific gravity unit (SGU) ratio (U[Na+]/SGU). IR was assessed by using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk for a high HOMA-IR according to urinary sodium excretion. The mean levels of U[Na+], U[Na+]/Cr, and U[Na+]/SGU were significantly higher in subjects in the highest HOMA-IR quartile (Q4) than in subjects in the lowest, second, or third quartiles (Q1–3) of HOMA-IR. The mean values of HOMA-IR and several cardiometabolic parameters tended to progressively increase with the U[Na+], U[Na+]/Cr, and U[Na+]/SGU quartiles. Q3 of U[Na+] was at a significantly higher risk than Q1 of U[Na+] of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR, after adjustment for confounding variables. Q3 and Q4 of U[Na+]/Cr and U[Na+]/SGU, respectively, had significantly higher risks, than the respective Q1s, of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR. The risk of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR demonstrated significantly

  2. Urinary sodium excretion and kidney failure in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Fan, Li; Tighiouart, Hocine; Levey, Andrew S; Beck, Gerald J; Sarnak, Mark J

    2014-09-01

    Current guidelines recommend under 2 g/day sodium intake in chronic kidney disease, but there are a few studies relating sodium intake to long-term outcomes. Here we evaluated the association of mean baseline 24-h urinary sodium excretion with kidney failure and a composite outcome of kidney failure or all-cause mortality using Cox regression in 840 participants enrolled in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. Mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 3.46 g/day. Kidney failure developed in 617 participants, and the composite outcome was reached in 723. In the primary analyses, there was no association between 24-h urine sodium and kidney failure (HR 0.99 (95% CI 0.91-1.08)) nor on the composite outcome (HR 1.01 (95% CI 0.93-1.09)), each per 1 g/day higher urine sodium. In exploratory analyses, there was a significant interaction of baseline proteinuria and sodium excretion with kidney failure. Using a two-slope model, when urine sodium was under 3 g/day, higher urine sodium was associated with increased risk of kidney failure in those with baseline proteinuria under 1 g/day and with lower risk of kidney failure in those with baseline proteinuria of ⩾ 1 g/day. There was no association between urine sodium and kidney failure when urine sodium was ⩾ 3 g/day. Results were consistent using first baseline and time-dependent urinary sodium excretion. Thus, we noted no association of urine sodium with kidney failure. Results of the exploratory analyses need to be verified in additional studies and the mechanism explored.

  3. Comparison of Population Iodine Estimates from 24-Hour Urine and Timed-Spot Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Cogswell, Mary E.; Swanson, Christine A.; Sullivan, Kevin M.; Chen, Te-Ching; Carriquiry, Alicia L.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Wang, Chia-Yih

    2014-01-01

    Background: Median urine iodine concentration (UIC; μg/L) in spot urine samples is recommended for monitoring population iodine status. Other common measures are iodine:creatinine ratio (I/Cr; μg/g) and estimated 24-hour urine iodine excretion (UIE; I/Cr×predicted 24-hour Cr; μg/day). Despite different units, these measures are often used interchangeably, and it is unclear how they compare with the reference standard 24-hour UIE. Methods: Volunteers aged 18–39 years collected all their urine samples for 24 hours (n=400). Voids from morning, afternoon, evening, overnight, and a composite 24-hour sample were analyzed for iodine. We calculated median observed 24-hour UIE and 24-hour UIC, and spot UIC, I/Cr, and two measures of estimated UIE calculated using predicted 24-hour Cr from published estimates by Kesteloot and Joosens (varies by age and sex) and published equations by Mage et al. (varies by age, sex, race, and anthropometric measures). We examined mean differences and relative difference across iodine excretion levels using Bland–Altman plots. Results: Median 24-hour UIE was 173.6 μg/day and 24-hour UIC was 144.8 μg/L. From timed-spot urine samples, estimates were: UIC 147.3–156.2 μg/L; I/Cr 103.6–114.3 μg/g, estimated 24-hour UIE (Kesteloot and Joosens) 145.7–163.3 μg/day; and estimated 24-hour UIE (Mage) 176.5–187.7 μg/day. Iodine measures did not vary consistently by timing of spot urine collection. Compared with observed 24-hour UIE, on average, estimated (Mage) 24-hour UIE was not significantly different, while estimated 24-hour UIE (Kesteloot and Joosens) was significantly different for some ethnicity/sex groups. Compared with 24-hour UIC, on average, spot UIC did not differ. Conclusions: Estimates of UIC, I/Cr, and estimated 24-hour UIE (I/Cr×predicted 24-hour Cr) from spot urine samples should not be used interchangeably. Estimated 24-hour UIE, where predicted 24-hour Cr varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and

  4. Coagulation abnormalities in diabetic coma before and 24 hours after treatment.

    PubMed

    McLaren, E H; Cullen, D R; Brown, M J

    1979-12-01

    A coagulation screen consisting of measurement of the prothrombin time, thrombin time, kaolin caphalin clotting time, platelet count, plasma fibrinogen level, fibrin degradation products and ethanol gelation test was performed on 24 patients with impairment of consciousness due to acute diabetic metabolic decompensation at the start of treatment and 24 hours later. 22 out of 24 patients showed at least one coagulation abnormality on admission of which the commonest were a prolonged prothrombin time, shortened kaolin cephalin clotting.time and raised plasma fibrinogen level. After 24 hours of treatment these values were more normal but 20 out of 22 patients still displayed some abnormality. 15 patients had two or more coagulation abnormalities on admission including 3 patients with haematological abnormalities suggestive of disseminated intravascular coagulation. This group was older and had higher blood ureas than those with fewer abnormalities, but plasma glucose, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate levels were similar in both groups of patients. All 5 patients with hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma and all 3 patients who died without recovering consciousness had two or more coagulation abnormalities on admission.

  5. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion and dietary intake: a cross-sectional analysis in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Padrão, Patrícia; Pinho, Olívia; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the leading cause for heart disease and stroke, for mortality and morbidity worldwide, and a high sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is considered a stronger risk factor for hypertension than sodium alone. Objective This study aims to evaluate sodium and potassium urinary excretion, and assess the food sources of these nutrients in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Design A cross-sectional study with a sample of 250 Portuguese adolescents. Sodium and potassium excretion were measured by one 24-h urinary collection, and the coefficient of creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. Dietary sources of sodium and potassium were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Results Valid urine collections were provided by 200 adolescents (118 girls) with a median age of 14.0 in both sexes (p=0.295). Regarding sodium, the mean urinary excretion was 3,725 mg/day in boys and 3,062 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 9.8% of boys and 22% of girls met the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for sodium intake. Concerning potassium, the mean urinary excretion was 2,237 mg/day in boys and 1,904 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 6.1% of boys and 1.7% of girls met the WHO recommendations for potassium intake. Major dietary sources for sodium intake were cereal and cereal products (41%), meat products (16%), and milk and milk products (11%); and for potassium intake, main sources were milk and milk products (21%), meat products (17%), and vegetables (15%). Conclusions Adolescents had a high-sodium and low-potassium diet, well above the WHO recommendations. Health promotion interventions are needed in order to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake. PMID:27072344

  6. Preparation and results of a 24-hour orbital flight.

    PubMed

    Titov, G S

    1963-01-01

    The space age presents man with unprecedented opportunities for discovery and for cooperative endeavors to benefit all mankind. My flight of August 6-7, 1961 was conducted for the purpose of determining whether man can stay and work effectively and whether all systems of the spaceship can operate successfully during a period of 24 hours in space. The flight of Vostok II represents an experimental step in a logical sequence which included the first earth orbiting flight of USSR citizen Yuri A. Gagarin. Preparation for the flight included the study of theoretical and applied subjects, testing in various kinds of apparatus which provide acceleration, heat and isolation experience, brief airborne weightless flights and parachute landings, in addition to extensive training in a real spacecraft having simulators for normal and emergency contingencies of space flight. The actual flight was therefore carried out with a sense of confidence and familiarity and with continuous close radio contact with ground centers from whom my fellow cosmonauts served as spokesmen. Sequential boosters totaling 600 000 kg thrust placed the 4731 kg spaceship into a perfect orbit varying in altitude from 178-246 km in a plane 64 degrees 58' inclined to the equator. The spaceship made 17 orbits around the earth landing 25 hours, 18 minutes after take-off. The cabin had full atmospheric pressure and a comfortable habitability which could be extended for 10 days. I was able to maneuver the spaceship and perform many other control functions, make observations and take pictures of the earth and its cloud cover, eat meals and sleep all with good efficiency. I experienced mild symptoms suggestive of seasickness which were aggravated by head turning, ameliorated by sleep and entirely relieved by resumption of g-loading during descent. Altogether analyses of the physical and structural performance of the spaceship and the continuously monitored physiological responses of the pilot indicate that all

  7. Flexibility of working hours in the 24-hour society.

    PubMed

    Costa, G

    2006-01-01

    The 24-hour Society undergoes an ineluctable process towards a social organisation where time constraints are no more restricting human life. The borders between working and social times are no more fixed and rigidly determined, and the value of working time changes according to the different economic and social effects you may consider. Shift and night work, irregular and flexible working hours, together with new technologies, are the milestone of this epochal passage. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual, the companies, and the society? What is the cost/benefit ratio in terms of health and social well-being? Coping properly with this process means avoiding a passive acceptance of it with consequent maladjustments at both individual and social level, but adopting effective preventive and compensative strategies aimed at building up a more sustainable society. Flexible working times now appear to be one of the best ways to cope with the demands of the modern life, but there are different points of view about labour and temporal 'flexibility" between employers and employees. For the former it means a prompt adaptation to market demands and technological innovations; for the latter it is a way to improve working and social life, by decreasing work constraints and increasing control and autonomy. Although it can be easily speculated that individual-based 'flexibility" should improve health and well-being, and especially satisfaction, whereas company-based flexibility" might interfere negatively, the effective consequences on health and well-being have still to be analysed properly. PMID:17017360

  8. 24 hour blood pressure monitoring in healthy and hypertensive children.

    PubMed Central

    Reusz, G S; Hóbor, M; Tulassay, T; Sallay, P; Miltényi, M

    1994-01-01

    24 Hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed to provide data on the normal daily blood pressure of healthy schoolchildren and on patients with hypertension. The subjects studied were 123 healthy schoolchildren with a mean (SD) age of 12.5 (1.6) years (range 9.5-14.5 years), 24 children with borderline or mild hypertension, 17 with renal hypertension and normal renal function, 10 with chronic renal failure, and six with a renal allograft. In eight children with definite renal disease a second measurement was performed after treatment modification. The monitor used for ABPM was validated with a mercury column manometer. The mean (SD) of the signed differences of the blood pressure measured by the two methods was -0.19 (1.75) mmHg for the systolic and -0.21 (2.11) mmHg for the diastolic blood pressure (n = 60). Normal values for daytime and night time blood pressure were determined for those aged 10-14 years. The mean (SD) blood pressure of the 123 children was 109 (7)/66 (8) mmHg (systolic/diastolic) for the daytime and 96 (8)/52 (7) mmHg at night time. Of the 24 children with borderline or mild hypertension 14 had a raised blood pressure on ABPM. The circadian rhythm was disturbed in three children of this group. Even children with normal daytime blood pressure had significantly higher systolic blood pressure in the night when compared with the controls. The incidence of disturbed circadian rhythm was higher in the groups with renal hypertension (4/17 in the subgroup with normal renal function, 5/16 in the group with renal failure and/or transplantation). All children undergoing a second ABPM measurement had a lower average blood pressure after treatment adjustment. ABPM measurements were reproducible and accurate. The method provided new data on the physiological circadian variation of blood pressure in healthy children. It proved to be a helpful tool in the diagnosis of hypertension, particularly in the detection of cases of disturbance of the

  9. Evaluation of Salt Intake, Urinary Sodium Excretion and Their Relationship to Overhydration in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Hallvass, Andrea E C; Claro, Lígia Maria; Gonçalves, Simone; Olandoski, Márcia; Nerbass, Fabiana Baggio; Aita, Carlos Alberto Mayora; de Moraes, Thyago Proença; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate sodium intake in a group of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to correlate the results with the urinary excretion values of sodium and signs of fluid overload. We included patients with CKD in different stages. Urinary sodium was measured in 24 h urine samples. Body composition monitor (BCM) was used to estimate the hydration status. Sixty patients (38 ± 15 ml/min of GFR) presented 4.14 ± 1.71 g/24 h of urinary sodium excretion. Overhydration was detected in 50% of the patients by the BCM. There was a positive correlation between the measured sodium excretion values and BCM, ICW, ECW and TBW. In conclusion, markers of overhydration evaluated by BCM were positively correlated with urinary sodium excretion.

  10. Elevated urinary excretion of orotic acid in sheep caused by intraruminal infusion of sodium propionate.

    PubMed

    Bödeker, D; Martens, H

    1992-06-01

    1. The effect of sodium propionate on urinary excretion of orotic acid was investigated. 2. Solutions containing sodium propionate or NaCl, 750 mM/day each, were continuously infused into the rumen for 10 days. 3. During NaCl infusion, an urinary orotic acid excretion of 290 +/- 80 micrograms/day was noted. The intraruminal infusion of sodium propionate raised the concentration of propionic acid in the rumen fluid from 14.0 +/- 0.9 to 26.9 +/- 1.9 mM. 4. During this experimental period the excretion of orotic acid via urine significantly increased to 492 +/- 30 micrograms/day. Parameters of nitrogen balance were not altered by propionate. 5. It is suggested that the site of propionate action in intact sheep is in the pyrimidine synthesis pathway.

  11. High energy deficit in an ultraendurance athlete in a 24-hour ultracycling race

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ferran A.; Iglesias, Xavier; Benítez, Adolfo; Marina, Míchel; Padullés, Josep M.; Torrado, Priscila; Vázquez, Jairo; Knechtle, Beat

    2012-01-01

    This case study examined the nutritional behavior and energy balance in an official finisher of a 24-hour ultracycling race. The food and beverages consumed by the cyclist were continuously weighed and recorded to estimate intake of energy, macronutrients, sodium, and caffeine. In addition, during the race, heart rate was continuously monitored. Energy expenditure was assessed using a heart rate–oxygen uptake regression equation obtained previously from a laboratory test. The athlete (39 years, 175.6 cm, 84.2 kg, maximum oxygen uptake, 64 mL/kg/min) cycled during 22 h 22 min, in which he completed 557.3 km with 8760 m of altitude at an average speed of 25.1 km/h. The average heart rate was 131 beats/min. Carbohydrates were the main macronutrient intake (1102 g, 13.1 g/kg); however, intake was below current recommendations. The consumption of protein and fat was 86 g and 91 g, respectively. He ingested 20.7 L (862 mL/h) of fluids, with sport drinks the main fluid used for hydration. Sodium concentration in relation to total fluid intake was 34.0 mmol/L. Caffeine consumption over the race was 231 mg (2.7 mg/kg). During the race, he expended 15,533 kcal. Total energy intake was 5571 kcal, with 4058 (73%) and 1513 (27%) kcal derived from solids and fluids, respectively. The energy balance resulted in an energy deficit of 9915 kcal. PMID:22481841

  12. Renal nerves affect rate of achieving sodium balance in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, S G; Enders, C; Osborn, J L

    1993-07-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has an elevated efferent sympathetic nerve activity, suggesting that the renal handling of sodium and water may be altered. This study evaluated the renal neurogenic influence on the rate of achieving sodium balance in adult SHRs and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats after either a step increase or step decrease in fixed sodium intake. Conscious, unrestrained rats with either innervated or denervated kidneys were initially placed on a low-sodium (0.3 mEq/d) or high-sodium (5.0 mEq/d) intake by intravenous infusion. Hourly urinary sodium excretion was determined 24 hours before and 72 hours after sodium intake had been increased from low to high or decreased from high to low. After either step change in fixed sodium intake, both innervated SHRs and innervated WKY rats achieved sodium balance within 24 hours. Similarly, the time course of achieving sodium balance was nearly identical between WKY rats with innervated and denervated kidneys after either switch in sodium intake. In SHRs receiving a step increase in sodium intake, both innervated and denervated kidneys increased urinary sodium excretion equally for 9 hours; however, at this time, innervated SHRs continued to increase sodium excretion rapidly, whereas denervated rats were delayed in a further response. Thus, innervated SHRs achieved sodium balance approximately 18 hours sooner than denervated SHRs. Differences in urinary sodium excretion did not result from concomitant changes in plasma renin activity or mean arterial pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Mineralocorticoid receptor stimulation induces urinary storage dysfunction via upregulation of epithelial sodium channel expression in the rat urinary bladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiji; Hotta, Yuji; Maeda, Kotomi; Kataoka, Tomoya; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Hamakawa, Takashi; Sasaki, Shoichi; Yasui, Takahiro; Asai, Kiyofumi; Kimura, Kazunori

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) expression in rat bladder and the physiological role of the MR-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) pathway in controlling bladder function in 10-12-week-old, male Sprague-Dawley rats. First, we examined the mRNA expression of MR and localization of MR and ENaC-α proteins in the urinary bladder. MR mRNA expression was observed in untreated-rat urinary bladders, and MR and ENaC-α proteins were localized in the epithelium. Next, rats were treated with vehicle (controls) or fludrocortisone (an MR agonist) for 3 days, and ENaC-α protein expression levels and bladder function were evaluated on day 4. ENaC-α protein expression was significantly higher in fludrocortisone-treated rats than in controls. In addition, cystometry was performed during intravesical infusion of saline and amiloride (an ENaC inhibitor). While intercontraction intervals (ICIs) during saline infusion were significantly shorter in the fludrocortisone group than in the controls, infusion of amiloride normalized the ICIs in the fludrocortisone group. However, no intra- or inter-group differences in maximum intravesical pressure were observed. Taken together, MR protein is localized in the rat urinary bladder epithelium, and may regulate ENaC expression and bladder afferent input. The MR-ENaC pathway may be a therapeutic target for ameliorating storage symptoms. PMID:26976493

  14. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Chen, Hui; Bo, Jian; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    24-h urinary sodium excretion is the gold standard for evaluating dietary sodium intake, but it is often not feasible in large epidemiological studies due to high participant burden and cost. Three methods—Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka—have been proposed to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these methods have not been validated in the general Chinese population. This aim of this study was to assess the validity of three methods for estimating 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples against measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion in a Chinese sample population. Data are from a substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study that enrolled 120 participants aged 35 to 70 years and collected their morning fasting urine and 24-h urine specimens. Bias calculations (estimated values minus measured values) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity of the three estimation methods. 116 participants were included in the final analysis. Mean bias for the Kawasaki method was -740 mg/day (95% CI: -1219, 262 mg/day), and was the lowest among the three methods. Mean bias for the Tanaka method was -2305 mg/day (95% CI: -2735, 1875 mg/day). Mean bias for the INTERSALT method was -2797 mg/day (95% CI: -3245, 2349 mg/day), and was the highest of the three methods. Bland-Altman plots indicated that all three methods underestimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urines all underestimated true 24-h urinary sodium excretion in this sample of Chinese adults. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was least biased, but was still relatively inaccurate. A more accurate method is needed to estimate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine for assessment of dietary sodium intake in China. PMID:26895296

  15. A clinical experience with dantrolene sodium for external urinary sphincter hypertonicity in spinal cord injured patients.

    PubMed

    Hackler, R H; Broecker, B H; Klein, F A; Brady, S M

    1980-07-01

    Significant bladder residual urine is secondary to pelvic floor skeletal muscle hypertonicity in some spinal cord injury patients with suprasacral or mixed lesions. Fifteen patients with residual urine volumes greater than 150 cc were treated with dantrolene sodium because of its ability to decrease skeletal muscle contractibility. All of the patients had urethral closure pressures greater than 100 cm. water. Of the 15 patients 8 benefited from dantrolene sodium therapy and were maintained on external condom urinary drainage. Five of these 8 patients required up to 600 mg. dantrolene sodium daily to affect this result. The residual urine volume decreased to less than 100 cc and the post-therapy decrease in urethral pressure averaged 77 cm. water (49 per cent). The patients in the failure group (residual urine greater than 150 cc) had an average decrease in urethral pressure of 21 cm. water (16 per cent). Detrusor hyporeflexia possibly contributed to the failure rate. In summary, dantrolene sodium seems to be beneficial in some patients with external urinary sphincter hypertonicity. However, it will not supplant external sphincterotomy in the more complete male spinal cord injury patient in whom reflex incontinence is of minimal concern. Dantrolene sodium could be an ideal treatment of patients with incomplete neurologic lesions in whom continence might be preserved. The drug will have to be effective at low doses to obviate the major side effect of over-all muscle weakness.

  16. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Chinese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Ying; Guan, Ke; Su, Yi-Xiang; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Limited studies have examined the association between sodium (Na) and potassium (K) levels and the risk of atherosclerosis. This study examined whether higher Na and Na/K levels and low K levels were independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. This community-based cross-sectional study included 3290 subjects (1067 men and 2223 women) 40 to 75 years of age in Guangzhou, China, between 2011 and 2013. Urinary excretion of Na and K were measured from the first morning void, and creatinine-adjusted values were used. The intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid common artery and the carotid bifurcation was measured with high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Dietary K and Na intake and other covariates were obtained by face-to-face interviews. A significant positive association was seen between urinary Na excretion and carotid atherosclerosis after adjustment for age, sex, and other lifestyle covariates. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of urinary Na were 1.32 (1.04–1.66) for carotid plaques, 1.48 (1.18–1.87) for increased common carotid artery IMT, and 1.55 (1.23–1.96) for increased carotid bifurcation IMT (all p-trend < 0.01). A similar positive association was observed between urinary Na/K levels and carotid plaque and increased IMT, and between dietary Na intake and increased bifurcation IMT. Regarding potassium data, we only found a significantly lower presence of carotid plaque (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57–0.91) for quartile 2 (vs. 1) of urinary K. Our findings suggest that higher levels of urinary excretion Na and Na/K are significantly associated with greater presence of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese adults. PMID:27706075

  17. Estimation of 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure Peak Timing and Variation Using a Contact Lens Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, John H. K.; Mansouri, Kaweh; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare estimates of 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) peak timing and variation obtained using a contact lens sensor (CLS) and using a pneumatonometer. Methods Laboratory data collected from 30 healthy volunteers (ages, 20-66 years) in a randomized, controlled clinical trial were analyzed. Participants were housed for 24 hours in a sleep laboratory. One randomly selected right or left eye was fitted with a CLS that monitored circumferential curvature in the corneoscleral region related to the change of IOP. Electronic output signals of 30 seconds were averaged and recorded every 5 minutes. In the contralateral eye, habitual IOP measurements were taken using a pneumatonometer once every two hours. Simulated 24-hour rhythms in both eyes were determined by cosinor fitting. Simulated peak timings (acrophases) and simulated data variations (amplitudes) were compared between the paired eyes. Results Bilateral change patterns of average 24-hour data for the group were in parallel. The simulated peak timing in the CLS fitted eye occurred at 4:44 AM ± 210 min (mean ± SD) and the IOP peak timing in the contralateral eye at 4:11 AM ± 120 min (P=0.256, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). There was no significant correlation between the simulated data variations in the paired eyes (P=0.820, linear regression). Conclusions The 24-hour CLS data showed a simulated peak timing close to the 24-hour IOP peak timing obtained using the pneumatonometer. However, the simulated variations of 24-hour data in the paired eyes were not correlated. Estimated 24-hour IOP rhythms using the two devices should not be considered interchangeable. PMID:26076472

  18. 24-Hour ICH Score Is a Better Predictor of Outcome than Admission ICH Score

    PubMed Central

    Aysenne, Aimee M.; Albright, Karen C.; Mathias, Tiffany; Chang, Tiffany R.; Boehme, Amelia K.; Beasley, T. Mark; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    Background The ICH score is a validated tool for predicting 30-day morbidity and mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Aims and/or Hypothesis The aim of this study is to determine if the ICH score calculated 24 hours after admission is a better predictor of mortality than the ICH score calculated on admission. Methods Patients presenting to our center with ICH from 7/08-12/10 were retrospectively identified from our prospective stroke registry. ICH scores were calculated based on initial Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and emergent head computed tomography (CT) on initial presentation and were recalculated after 24 hours. Results A total of 91 patients out of 121 had complete data for admission and 24-hour ICH score. The ICH score changed in 38% from baseline to 24 hours. After adjusting for age, NIHSS on admission, and glucose, ICH score at 24 hours was a significant, independent predictor of mortality (OR = 2.71, 95% CI 1–19–6.20, and P = 0.018), but ICH score on admission was not (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 0.88-5.24, and P = 0.095). Conclusion Early determination of the ICH score may incorrectly estimate the severity and expected outcome after ICH. Calculations of the ICH score 24 hours after admission will better predict early outcomes.

  19. Dissociated 24-hour patterns of somatotropin and prolactin in fatal familial insomnia.

    PubMed

    Portaluppi, F; Cortelli, P; Avoni, P; Vergnani, L; Maltoni, P; Pavani, A; Sforza, E; Manfredini, R; Montagna, P; Roiter, I

    1995-06-01

    To assess the changes in the 24-hour profiles of serum somatotropin and prolactin levels during total disruption of the sleep/wake cycle sustained over several months, we studied 2 subjects affected by fatal familial insomnia, a rare disease characterized by selective thalamic degeneration that causes chronic sleep loss. Under standardized conditions and polysomnographic control, the patients underwent repeated 24-hour study sessions covering the entire clinical course of the disease. Hormones were assayed at 30-min intervals. Four healthy volunteers were used as controls. A sleep/wake cycle was always absent in fatal familial insomnia. Serum somatotropin and prolactin concentrations never exceeded the normal range of variation. The nocturnal elevation of somatotropin disappeared simultaneously with sleep loss, whereas a significant 24-hour component of variations in serum prolactin levels was present for months after total disruption of the sleep/wake cycle, with normally placed nocturnal acrophases. Complete obliteration of the 24-hour component was achieved for prolactin only in the advanced stages, through a progressive decrease in 24-hour amplitude of variation. Selective and progressive degeneration of the mediodorsal and anterior ventral nuclei of the thalamus causes an early obliteration of the 24-hour rhythm of somatotropin and a later disappearance of circadian prolactin rhythmicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. 24-hour central blood pressure and intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes in untreated subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bednarek, Agnieszka; Jankowski, Piotr; Olszanecka, Agnieszka; Windak, Adam; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recently, 24-hour monitoring of central systolic blood pressure (SBP) has become available. However, the relation between end-organ damage and the 24-hour central SBP profile and variability has not so far been analyzed. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relation between 24-hour central SBP, 24-hour central SBP profile as well as central SBP short-term variability and parameters of cardiac and vascular intermediate phenotypes. Methods: The study group consisted of 50 patients with newly diagnosed, untreated hypertension (age 40.4 ± 11.5 years, 35 men) and 50 normotensive subjects (age 38.3 ± 12.0 years, 35 men). Applanation tonometry of the radial artery and the “n-point forward moving average” method were used to determine 24-hour central SBP. Each study participant underwent echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography. Results: 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime central SBP was related to left ventricle end-diastole diameter (p < 0.05), left ventricular mass index (p < 0.001), relative wall thickness (p < 0.05), E/E’ ratio (p < 0.01), and left atrium volume (p < 0.01). The nocturnal central SBP fall was not related to any of the mentioned parameters, whereas parameters of short-term variability were related to IMT in hypertensives only (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The present study showed that 24-hour central SBP is related to intermediate cardiac phenotypes as assessed by echocardiography whereas short-term central SBP variability is mainly related to vascular phenotype as determined by IMT. PMID:25628959

  1. Microtensile bond strength of resin-resin interfaces after 24-hour and 2-month soaking.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Curry; Boberick, Kenneth G; Winkler, Sheldon

    2007-01-01

    Evaluate the bond strengths of denture base-repair materials to minimize recurrent failure rate. Use microtensile bond strength (muTBS) testing to evaluate the interfacial bonding strength of 6 commercial denture repair materials after 24-hour and 12-month soaking. Blocks of poly(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) and Triad were fabricated, fractured, and repaired. Twenty bars (1 x 1 x 30 mm) per group were sectioned from each block parallel to the long axis and approximately 90 degrees to the resin-resin repair interface and stored before muTBS testing in a servo-hydraulic tensile-testing machine. Intact PMMA and Triad bars that had been soaked for 24 hours and 12 months were tested for reference. The 24-hour repair strengths for PMMA ranged from 52% to 84% of original strength. Soaking for 12 months resulted in a 20% decrease in strength for the PMMA control. The 12-month repair strengths for PMMA ranged from 43% to 74% of the 12-month soaked material strength. Triad repair tested 35% of original strength after soaking for 24 hours. Permabond (cyanoacrylate) to PMMA tested 47% of original strength after 24 hours of soaking and 26% of the 12-month soaked material strength. Permabond to Triad tested 30% of original strength after 24 hours of soaking. Permabond and Triad showed a 100% adhesive mode of failure. All other materials tested exhibited either an adhesive mode of failure at the denture base-repair-material interface or a complex cohesive failure within the repair-material interface. The muTBS approach can be used to analyze the resin-resin interface of repaired acrylics. The relatively small standard deviations make the muTBS approach attractive. In this study, muTBS was used to evaluate the repair strength of 6 denture repair materials enabling clinicians to make clinical judgments regarding the strongest repair bond available. PMID:17987865

  2. Mood-Dependent Cognitive Change in a Man with Bipolar Disorder Who Cycles Every 24 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Dominic; Mansell, Warren

    2008-01-01

    A case study of a bipolar patient whose mood changes every 24 hours is described to illustrate the changes in cognitive processing and content during different phases of bipolar disorder. The participant completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks on 4 separate occasions: twice when depressed and twice when manic. Depression tended to be…

  3. Leg skinfold thicknesses and race performance in male 24-hour ultra-marathoners.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    The association of skinfold thicknesses with race performance has been investigated in runners competing over distances of ≤50 km. This study investigated a potential relation between skinfold thicknesses and race performance in male ultra-marathoners completing >50 km in 24 hours. Variables of anthropometry, training, and previous performance were related to race performance in 63 male ultra-marathoners aged 46.9 (standard deviation [SD] 10.3) years, standing 1.78 (SD 0.07) m in height, and weighing 73.3 (SD 7.6) kg. The runners clocked 146.1 (SD 43.1) km during the 24 hours. In the bivariate analysis, several variables were associated with race performance: body mass (r = -0.25); skinfold thickness at axilla (r = -0.37), subscapula (r = -0.28), abdomen (r = -0.31), and suprailiaca (r = -0.30); the sum of skinfold thicknesses (r = -0.32); percentage body fat (r = -0.32); weekly kilometers run (r = 0.31); personal best time in a marathon (r = -0.58); personal best time in a 100-km ultra-run (r = -0.31); and personal best performance in a 24-hour run (r = 0.46). In the multivariate analysis, no anthropometric or training variable was related to race performance. In conclusion, in contrast to runners up to distances of 50 km, skinfold thicknesses of the lower limbs were not related to race performance in 24-hour ultra-marathoners.

  4. The Three-Continent, 24-Hour Help Desk: An Academic First?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Describes Follow the Sun, a computer help-desk service that takes advantage of time differences around the world to permit four universities (University of Colorado Boulder, Australia's Macquarie and Newcastle universities, and the London School of Economics) to share services and provide 24-hour support to users. (EV)

  5. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  6. Oropharyngeal 24-Hour pH Monitoring in Children With Airway-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Mesallam, Tamer A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diagnosis and clinical presentation of pediatric laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is still controversial. The aims of this work were to study the possibility of performing 24-hour oropharyngeal pH monitoring for children in the outpatient clinic setup and to explore the results of this test in correlation to airway-related problems. Methods In this descriptive qualitative study, 26 children suffering from airway-related problems were included. Oropharyngeal 24-hour pH monitoring was performed for all subjects in the outpatient clinic setting. The distribution of airway diagnoses among the study group was studied versus the results of the pH monitoring. Results There were 16 males and 10 females participated in the study with a mean age of 6.88 (SD, ±5.77) years. Thirty-five percent of the patients were under the age of 3 years (range, 11 months to 3 years). Eight-five percent of the patients tolerated the pH probe insertion and completed 24-hour of pH recording. Laryngomalacia and subglottic stenosis (SGS) were more frequently reported in the positive LPR patients (77%). Conclusion Oropharyngeal 24-hour pH monitoring can be conducted for children in the outpatient setup even in young age children below 3 years old. Among the positive LPR group, SGS and laryngomalacia were the most commonly reported airway findings. PMID:27090271

  7. Effects of dietary sodium reduction on blood pressure in subjects with resistant hypertension: results from a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Eduardo; Gaddam, Krishna K; Oparil, Suzanne; Aban, Inmaculada; Husain, Saima; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Calhoun, David A

    2009-09-01

    Observational studies indicate a significant relation between dietary sodium and level of blood pressure. However, the role of salt sensitivity in the development of resistant hypertension is unknown. The present study examined the effects of dietary salt restriction on office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in subjects with resistant hypertension. Twelve subjects with resistant hypertension entered into a randomized crossover evaluation of low (50 mmol/24 hours x 7 days) and high sodium diets (250 mmol/24 hours x 7 days) separated by a 2-week washout period. Brain natriuretic peptide; plasma renin activity; 24-hour urinary aldosterone, sodium, and potassium; 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; aortic pulse wave velocity; and augmentation index were compared between dietary treatment periods. At baseline, subjects were on an average of 3.4+/-0.5 antihypertensive medications with a mean office BP of 145.8+/-10.8/83.9+/-11.2 mm Hg. Mean urinary sodium excretion was 46.1+/-26.8 versus 252.2+/-64.6 mmol/24 hours during low- versus high-salt intake. Low- compared to high-salt diet decreased office systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 22.7 and 9.1 mm Hg, respectively. Plasma renin activity increased whereas brain natriuretic peptide and creatinine clearance decreased during low-salt intake, indicative of intravascular volume reduction. These results indicate that excessive dietary sodium ingestion contributes importantly to resistance to antihypertensive treatment. Strategies to substantially reduce dietary salt intake should be part of the overall treatment of resistant hypertension.

  8. Activation of the Endogenous Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System or Aldosterone Administration Increases Urinary Exosomal Sodium Channel Excretion.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ying; Wang, Xiaojing; Rose, Kristie L; MacDonald, W Hayes; Zhang, Bing; Schey, Kevin L; Luther, James M

    2016-02-01

    Urinary exosomes secreted by multiple cell types in the kidney may participate in intercellular signaling and provide an enriched source of kidney-specific proteins for biomarker discovery. Factors that alter the exosomal protein content remain unknown. To determine whether endogenous and exogenous hormones modify urinary exosomal protein content, we analyzed samples from 14 mildly hypertensive patients in a crossover study during a high-sodium (HS, 160 mmol/d) diet and low-sodium (LS, 20 mmol/d) diet to activate the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. We further analyzed selected exosomal protein content in a separate cohort of healthy persons receiving intravenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg per hour for 10 hours) versus vehicle infusion. The LS diet increased plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration, whereas aldosterone infusion increased only aldosterone concentration. Protein analysis of paired urine exosome samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based multidimensional protein identification technology detected 2775 unique proteins, of which 316 exhibited significantly altered abundance during LS diet. Sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and α- and γ-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits from the discovery set were verified using targeted multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry quantified with isotope-labeled peptide standards. Dietary sodium restriction or acute aldosterone infusion similarly increased urine exosomal γENaC[112-122] peptide concentrations nearly 20-fold, which correlated with plasma aldosterone concentration and urinary Na/K ratio. Urine exosomal NCC and αENaC concentrations were relatively unchanged during these interventions. We conclude that urinary exosome content is altered by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation. Urinary measurement of exosomal γENaC[112-122] concentration may provide a useful biomarker of ENaC activation in future clinical studies.

  9. Seasonal changes of 24-hour intraocular pressure rhythm in healthy Shanghai population

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jingyi; Xiao, Ming; Xu, Huan; Fang, Shaobin; Chen, Xu; Kong, Xiangmei; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythms in winter and summer in the healthy population of Shanghai, China. This is a cross-sectional study in which 24-hour IOP measurements were taken for all eligible healthy volunteers in winter and summer, respectively, and the temperature, hours of sunlight (sunlight time), and circulatory parameters, including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, were also recorded. The 24-hour IOP curves and IOP parameters (mean, peak, trough, and fluctuation of IOP together with the diurnal-to-nocturnal IOP change) in winter and summer were obtained and compared. The magnitude of IOP changes from summer to winter was also calculated. A total of 29 participants (58 eyes), 14 (48.28%) male and 15 (51.72%) female, aged 43.66 ± 12.20 (19–61) years, were considered eligible for this study. Generally, IOP decreased progressively before noon, increased notably in the nocturnal period, and peaked at 12:00 am in winter and at 2:00 am in summer. The pattern of 24-hour IOP in winter and summer was significantly different (P = 0.002). The average IOPs from 4:00 pm to 8:00 am, except for 6:00 am, were significantly higher in winter (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were shown after adjusting for temperature and/or sunlight time. From summer to winter, the extent of IOP increase was mostly around 0 to 3 mm Hg, and the IOPs increased more significantly in the nocturnal period than in the diurnal period (P = 0.05). The 24-hour IOP rhythms were different in winter and summer, with higher IOP level in winter. Temperature and sunlight time, which are independent of heart rate and blood pressure, affected the 24-hour IOP rhythms in healthy people in Shanghai, China. Further investigations are expected for the rhythm of some endogenous substance secretion and the inner mechanism of regulation of IOP. PMID:27495076

  10. Carotid intima media thickness is independently associated with urinary sodium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ustundag, Sedat; Yilmaz, Gulay; Sevinc, Can; Akpinar, Seval; Temizoz, Osman; Sut, Necdet; Ustundag, Ayten

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis-induced premature vascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The pathogenetic mechanism of atherosclerosis in patients with CKD has not been fully explained. Experimental studies have demonstrated that high dietary sodium intake not only increases circulatory volume and blood pressure, but also facilitates development of atherosclerosis by reducing production-bioavailability of nitric oxide due to oxidative stress and accordingly by enhancing endothelial and arterial stiffness. In this study, we investigated the relationship between sodium consumption and carotid artery intima-media thickness, which is the indicator of atherosclerosis, by determining daily urinary sodium excretion, which is a reliable indicator of sodium consumption, in our patient group. Our patient group included 193 patients with stage 2-4 non-diabetic CKD and without a history of atherosclerotic disease. We determined that 77% of our patients have been consuming more than 2  g of sodium per day, which is the upper limit of sodium consumption recommended for patients with CKD. We determined a positive linear correlation between carotid artery intima-media thickness and patient age (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p < 0.001), urinary sodium excretion (p < 0.001), body mass index (p = 0.002), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.002), hemoglobin (p = 0.030), triglycerides (p = 0.043), and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.049). We also found a negative linear correlation between carotid artery intima-media thickness and glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.008). We found that urinary sodium excretion is the determinant of intima-media thickness even if all factors associated with intima-media thickness are adjusted, and that intima-media thickness increases by 0.031 (0.004-0.059) mm per 2  g increase in daily sodium excretion, independent from overall factors (p = 0.025). Our results

  11. [Identification of paroxysmal, transient arrhythmias: Intermittent registration more efficient than the 24-hour Holter monitoring].

    PubMed

    Hendrikx, Tijn; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Sandström, Herbert; Persson, Mats; Hörnsten, Rolf

    2015-01-06

    Many patients suffer from palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. These patients are often referred for Holter ECG (24 hour), although the sensitivity for detecting arrhythmias is low. A new method, short intermittent regular and symptomatic ECG registrations at home, might be a convenient and more sensitive alternative also suitable for primary health care. In this case report we present a patient who had contacted health care several times during a seven year period for paroxysmal palpitations. Routine examination with 24 hour Holter ECG and event recorder did not result in a diagnosis. Using intermittent handheld ECG registration at home, a paroxysmal supraventricular arrhythmia was diagnosed. Further investigation revealed that the patient had a concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome.

  12. Pulmonary function in mechanically-ventilated patients during 24-hour use of a hygroscopic condensor humidifier.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, N R; Anderson, H R; Silver, R M; Schuler, F R; Coleman, R E

    1983-11-01

    Hygroscopic condensor humidifiers (HCH) are reportedly capable of humidifying even the driest of ventilator source gases with at least 30 mg H2O/liter of ventilation. To assess the adequacy of the HCH during mechanical ventilation, we studied 26 patients over a 72-hour period (alternating 24-hour periods of humidification by a conventional cascade and the HCH). In these patients, we found no significant difference in static lung compliance, airway resistance, PaO2, and PaCO2 on either system. Additionally, estimates of sputum volume (over a four-hour collection period) and clearance of aerosolized 99mTc labelled DTPA (in five of these patients) also showed no significant differences between the two systems. We conclude that the HCH is capable of supplying necessary heat and moisture to most mechanically-ventilated patients for at least a period of 24 hours.

  13. Demonstration that thiazole-orange-positive platelets in the dog are less than 24 hours old.

    PubMed

    Dale, G L; Friese, P; Hynes, L A; Burstein, S A

    1995-04-01

    Approximately 6% of dog platelets are positive for staining with thiazole orange, a dye frequently used to stain ribonucleic acid. In this report, thiazole-orange positivity is shown to mark platelets that are less than 24 hours old. Dog platelets were derivatized in vivo with N-hydroxysuccinimido biotin such that greater than 95% of all platelets were biotinylated. Newly synthesized, nonbiotinylated platelets were then monitored by flow cytometry for their ability to bind thiazole orange. After biotinylation, the percentage of biotin-negative, thiazole-orange-positive platelets increased gradually from 0.72% at 30 minutes to 5.44% at 24 hours. These data indicate that thiazole-orange staining does label newly synthesized platelets.

  14. [Contraceptive effect of spermicide on cervical mucus in vivo after 24 hours (authors transl)].

    PubMed

    Batallan, L; Brissi, J; Commerot, J

    1980-10-01

    Efficacy of Alpagelle, a vaginal contraceptive jelly containing benzalkonium chlorohydrate, was tested on 34 women who had been using it for some. The testing was conducted using fresh human spermatozoa, and measuring the penetration into the cervical mucus 24 hours after instillation of 2 ml. of Alpagelle. Maximum penetration of spermatozoa before immobilization and death was 2/10 mm., while it is 2mm. a minute under normal conditions. Alpagelle has no contraindications, and only 1 application every 24 hours will provide contraceptive protection; such method could be ideal for women presenting temporary or permanent contraindications to the IUD, or to the pill, or to those who wish to opt for a method free of side effects. PMID:12262152

  15. Circadian Polymorphisms in Night Owls, in Bipolars, and in Non-24-Hour Sleep Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Klimecki, Walter T.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Rex, Katharine M.; Murray, Sarah S.; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J.; Loving, Richard T.; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F.; Poceta, J. Steven; Jamil, Shazia M.; Kline, Lawrence E.; Kelsoe, John R.

    2014-01-01

    People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression. PMID:25395965

  16. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deitrick, Ronald W.; Hillman, Angela R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK: 19172 ± 4542 kJ versus NoBK: 15312 ± 4513 kJ; p < 0.001) and evening (BK: 12265 ± 4278 kJ versus NoBK: 10833 ± 4065; p = 0.039) energy intake and RQ (BK: 0.90 ± 0.03 versus NoBK: 0.86 ± 0.03; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise (5.2 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L; p = 0.025). Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management. PMID:27738523

  17. Circadian polymorphisms in night owls, in bipolars, and in non-24-hour sleep cycles.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F; Klimecki, Walter T; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Rex, Katharine M; Murray, Sarah S; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J; Loving, Richard T; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F; Poceta, J Steven; Jamil, Shazia M; Kline, Lawrence E; Kelsoe, John R

    2014-10-01

    People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression. PMID:25395965

  18. Impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) drop within 24 hours after cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joshua Kuang-Chao; Chuang, Ann Yi-Chiun; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Li, Lieber Po-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Previous animal study revealed that post-implantation electrical detection levels significantly declined within days. The impact of cochlear implant (CI) insertion on human auditory pathway in terms of impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) variation within hours after surgery remains unclear, since at this time frequency mapping can only commence weeks after implantation due to factors associated with wound conditions. The study presented our experiences with regards to initial switch-on within 24 hours, and thus the findings about the milieus inside cochlea within the first few hours after cochlear implantation in terms of impedance/ECAP fluctuations. The charts of fifty-four subjects with profound hearing impairment were studied. A minimal invasive approach was used for cochlear implantation, characterized by a small skin incision (≈ 2.5 cm) and soft techniques for cochleostomy. Impedance/ECAP was measured intro-operatively and within 24 hours post-operatively. Initial mapping within 24 hours post-operatively was performed in all patients without major complications. Impedance/ECAP became significantly lower measured within 24 hours post-operatively as compared with intra-operatively (p<0.001). There were no differences between pre-operative and post-operative threshold for air-conduction hearing. A significant drop of impedance/ECAP in one day after cochlear implantation was revealed for the first time in human beings. Mechanisms could be related to the restoration of neuronal sensitivity to the electrical stimulation, and/or the interaction between the matrix enveloping the electrodes and the electrical stimulation of the initial switch-on. Less wound pain/swelling and soft techniques both contributed to the success of immediate initial mapping, which implied a stable micro-environment inside the cochlea despite electrodes insertion. Our research invites further studies to correlate initial impedance/ECAP changes with long

  19. Impedance and Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential (ECAP) Drop within 24 Hours after Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joshua Kuang-Chao; Chuang, Ann Yi-Chiun; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Li, Lieber Po-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Previous animal study revealed that post-implantation electrical detection levels significantly declined within days. The impact of cochlear implant (CI) insertion on human auditory pathway in terms of impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) variation within hours after surgery remains unclear, since at this time frequency mapping can only commence weeks after implantation due to factors associated with wound conditions. The study presented our experiences with regards to initial switch-on within 24 hours, and thus the findings about the milieus inside cochlea within the first few hours after cochlear implantation in terms of impedance/ECAP fluctuations. The charts of fifty-four subjects with profound hearing impairment were studied. A minimal invasive approach was used for cochlear implantation, characterized by a small skin incision (≈2.5 cm) and soft techniques for cochleostomy. Impedance/ECAP was measured intro-operatively and within 24 hours post-operatively. Initial mapping within 24 hours post-operatively was performed in all patients without major complications. Impedance/ECAP became significantly lower measured within 24 hours post-operatively as compared with intra-operatively (p<0.001). There were no differences between pre-operative and post-operative threshold for air-conduction hearing. A significant drop of impedance/ECAP in one day after cochlear implantation was revealed for the first time in human beings. Mechanisms could be related to the restoration of neuronal sensitivity to the electrical stimulation, and/or the interaction between the matrix enveloping the electrodes and the electrical stimulation of the initial switch-on. Less wound pain/swelling and soft techniques both contributed to the success of immediate initial mapping, which implied a stable micro-environment inside the cochlea despite electrodes insertion. Our research invites further studies to correlate initial impedance/ECAP changes with long

  20. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  1. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders.

  2. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  3. Continuous 24-hour intraocular pressure monitoring for glaucoma--time for a paradigm change.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, K; Weinreb, R

    2012-01-01

    Glaucoma is the main cause of irreversible blindness and intraocular pressure (IOP) is its only modifiable risk factor. The importance of robust lowering of IOP for prevention of glaucoma onset and progression is well established. Although IOP is a dynamic parameter with individual circadian rhythms, current management usually relies on single IOP measurements during regular clinic hours performed a few times a year. Recent technological advances have provided clinicians with tools for continuous IOP monitoring during a 24 hour period in an ambulatory setting. There are two approaches being investigated. The first is permanent IOP monitoring through an implantable sensor and the other is temporary monitoring through a contact lens sensor. In this article, we discuss the shortcomings of the current gold standard for tonometry (Goldmann Applanation Tonometry) and the current experience with the first commercially available continuous 24 hour IOP monitoring technology (SENSIMED Triggerfish®); a telemetric contact lens sensor produced by a Swiss start-up company (Sensimed AG, Lausanne, Switzerland). Recent studies suggest that 24 hour continuous monitoring of IOP can be integrated into clinical practice and have the potential to contribute to the reduction of glaucoma-related vision loss.

  4. Changes in platelet morphology and function during 24 hours of storage.

    PubMed

    Braune, S; Walter, M; Schulze, F; Lendlein, A; Jung, F

    2014-01-01

    aggregates could be visualized microscopically. After four hours, first debris and very small aggregates occurred. After 24 hours, platelet aggregates and also debris progressively increased. In accordance to this, the CASY system revealed an increase of platelet aggregates (up to 90 μm diameter) with increasing storage time. The percentage of CD62P positive platelets and PF4 increased significantly with storage time in resting PRP. When soluble ADP was added to stored PRP samples, the number of activatable platelets decreased significantly over storage time. The present study reveals the importance of a consequent standardization in the preparation of WB and PRP. Platelet morphology and function, particularly platelet reactivity to adherent or soluble agonists in their surrounding milieu, changed rapidly outside the vascular system. This knowledge is of crucial interest, particularly in the field of biomaterial development for cardiovascular applications, and may help to define common standards in the in vitro hemocompatibility testing of biomaterials.

  5. Validation of triple pass 24-hour dietary recall in Ugandan children by simultaneous weighed food assessment

    PubMed Central

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Amorut, Denis; Nakuya, Margaret; Arimi, Margaret; Frost, Gary; Maitland, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition remains highly prevalent in African children, highlighting the need for accurately assessing dietary intake. In order to do so, the assessment method must be validated in the target population. A triple pass 24 hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation has been described but not previously validated in African children. This study aimed to establish the relative validity of 24-hour dietary recalls of daily food consumption in healthy African children living in Mbale and Soroti, eastern Uganda compared to simultaneous weighed food records. Methods Quantitative assessment of daily food consumption by weighed food records followed by two independent assessments using triple pass 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. In conjunction with household measures and standard food sizes, volumes of liquid, dry rice, or play dough were used to aid portion size estimation. Inter-assessor agreement, and agreement with weighed food records was conducted primarily by Bland-Altman analysis and secondly by intraclass correlation coefficients and quartile cross-classification. Results 19 healthy children aged 6 months to 12 years were included in the study. Bland-Altman analysis showed 24-hour recall only marginally under-estimated energy (mean difference of 149kJ or 2.8%; limits of agreement -1618 to 1321kJ), protein (2.9g or 9.4%; -12.6 to 6.7g), and iron (0.43mg or 8.3%; -3.1 to 2.3mg). Quartile cross-classification was correct in 79% of cases for energy intake, and 89% for both protein and iron. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the separate dietary recalls for energy was 0.801 (95% CI, 0.429-0.933), indicating acceptable inter-observer agreement. Conclusions Dietary assessment using 24-hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation resulted in similar and acceptable estimates of dietary intake compared with weighed food records and thus is considered a valid method for daily dietary intake assessment of

  6. Static stretching can impair explosive performance for at least 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Monoem; Dridi, Amir; Chtara, Moktar; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Behm, David; Chamari, Karim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static vs. dynamic stretching (DS) on explosive performances and repeated sprint ability (RSA) after a 24-hour delay. Sixteen young male soccer players performed 15 minutes of static stretching (SS), DS, or a no-stretch control condition (CC) 24 hours before performing explosive performances and RSA tests. This was a within-subject repeated measures study with SS, DS, and CC being counterbalanced. Stretching protocols included 2 sets of 7 minutes 30 seconds (2 repetitions of 30 seconds with a 15-second passive recovery) for 5 muscle groups (quadriceps, hamstring, calves, adductors, and hip flexors). Twenty-four hours later (without any kind of stretching in warm-up), the players were tested for the 30-m sprint test (with 10- and 20-m lap times), 5 jump test (5JT), and RSA test. Significant differences were observed between CC, SS, and DS with 5JT (F = 9.99, p < 0.00, effect size [ES] = 0.40), 10-m sprint time (F = 46.52, p < 0.00, ES = 0.76), 20-m sprint time (F = 18.44, p < 0.000, ES = 0.55), and 30-m sprint time (F = 34.25, p < 0.000, ES = 0.70). The significantly better performance (p < 0.05) was observed after DS as compared with that after CC and SS in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. In contrast, significantly worse performance (p < 0.05) was observed after SS as compared with that after CC in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. With RSA, no significant difference was observed between different stretching protocols in the total time (F = 1.55, p > 0.05), average time (F = 1.53, p > 0.05), and fastest time (F = 2.30, p > 0.05), except for the decline index (F = 3.54, p < 0.04, ES = 0.19). Therefore, the SS of the lower limbs and hip muscles had a negative effect on explosive performances up to 24 hours poststretching with no major effects on the RSA. Conversely, the DS of the same muscle groups are highly recommended 24 hours before performing sprint and long-jump performances. In

  7. Agreement between twenty-four hour salt ingestion and sodium excretion in a controlled environment

    PubMed Central

    Lerchl, Kathrin; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Rauh, Manfred; Goller, Ulrike; Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F.; Beck, Luis; Agureev, Alexander; Larina, Irina; Baranov, Victor; Morukov, Boris; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Vassilieva, Galina; Wabel, Peter; Vienken, Jörg; Kirsch, Karl; Johannes, Bernd; Krannich, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C.; Titze, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Accurately collected 24-hour urine collections are presumed to be valid for estimating salt intake in individuals. We performed two independent ultra-long-term salt balance studies lasting 105 (4 men) and 205 (6 men) days in 10 men simulating a flight to Mars. We controlled dietary intake of all constituents for months at salt intakes of 12, 9, and 6 grams per day and collected all urine. The subjects’ daily menus consisted of 27,279 individual servings, out of which 83.0% were completely consumed, 16.5% completely rejected, and 0.5% incompletely consumed. Urinary recovery of dietary salt was 92% of recorded intake, indicating long-term steady state sodium balance in both studies. Even at fixed salt intake, 24-hour sodium excretion (UNaV) showed infradian rhythmicity. We defined a ±25 mmol deviation from the average difference between recorded sodium intake and UNaV as the prediction interval to accurately classify a 3-gram difference in salt intake. Due to the biological variability in UNaV, only every-other daily urine sample correctly classified a 3-gram difference in salt intake (49%). By increasing the observations to three consecutive 24-hour collections and sodium intakes, classification accuracy improved to 75%. Collecting seven 24-hour urines and sodium intake samples improved classification accuracy to 92%. We conclude that single 24-hour urine collections at intakes ranging from 6–12 grams salt per day were not suitable to detect a 3-gram difference in individual salt intake. Repeated measurements of 24-hour UNaV improve precision. This knowledge could be relevant to patient care and the conduct of intervention trials. PMID:26259596

  8. Dietary administration of sodium arsenite to rats: Relations between dose and urinary concentrations of methylated and thio-metabolites and effects on the rat urinary bladder epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Shugo; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Chen, Baowei; Naranmandura, Hua; Le, X. Chris; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2010-04-15

    Based on epidemiological data, chronic exposure to high levels of inorganic arsenic in drinking water is carcinogenic to humans, inducing skin, urinary bladder and lung tumors. In vivo, inorganic arsenic is metabolized to organic methylated arsenicals including the highly toxic dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}). Short-term treatment of rats with 100 mug/g trivalent arsenic (As{sup III}) as sodium arsenite in the diet or in drinking water induced cytotoxicity and necrosis of the urothelial superficial layer, with increased cell proliferation and hyperplasia. The objectives of this study were to determine if these arsenic-induced urothelial effects are dose responsive, the dose of arsenic at which urothelial effects are not detected, and the urinary concentrations of the arsenical metabolites. We treated female F344 rats for 5 weeks with sodium arsenite at dietary doses of 0, 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm. Cytotoxicity, cell proliferation and hyperplasia of urothelial superficial cells were increased in a dose-responsive manner, with maximum effects found at 50 ppm As{sup III}. There were no effects at 1 ppm As{sup III}. The main urinary arsenical in As{sup III}-treated rats was the organic arsenical dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}). The thio-metabolites dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA{sup V}) and monomethylmonothioarsinic acid (MMMTA{sup V}) were also found in the urine of As{sup III}-treated rats. The LC{sub 50} concentrations of DMMTA{sup V} for rat and human urothelial cells in vitro were similar to trivalent oxygen-containing arsenicals. These data suggest that dietary As{sup III}-induced urothelial cytotoxicity and proliferation are dose responsive, and the urothelial effects have a threshold corresponding to the urinary excretion of measurable reactive metabolites.

  9. Sodium ascorbate improves yield of urinary steroids during hydrolysis with Helix pomatia juice.

    PubMed

    Christakoudi, Sofia; Cowan, David A; Taylor, Norman F

    2008-03-01

    Urinary steroid profile analysis requires enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronide and sulfate conjugates and this is achieved simultaneously using Helix pomatia juice (HPJ), but steroids with 3beta-hydroxy-5-ene structure undergo transformation and yield of 5alpha-reduced corticosteroid glucuronides is poor. We describe the use of sodium ascorbate to solve these problems and provide a basis for its mode of action. Steroid conjugates were extracted from urine, hydrolyzed in acetate buffer with HPJ and sodium ascorbate and analyzed as methyloxime-trimethylsilylether derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ranges of temperature, pH and ascorbate, substrate and HPJ concentrations were compared for urine and pure standards. Activity of other antioxidants and that of bacterial cholesterol oxidase were examined. Helix pomatia enzyme preparations from different commercial sources were compared. Loss of 3beta-hydroxy-5-ene steroids was enzyme-dependant, since it required HPJ, was saturable, subject to substrate competition and heat-inactivated. Products were 3-oxo-4-ene steroids and 4,6-diene and 6-oxy derivatives of these but the latter were not formed from 3-oxo-4-ene precursors. Ascorbate, other antioxidants or oxygen exclusion diminished activity. These characteristics were shared by cholesterol oxidase. Yield of 5alpha-reduced steroids was diminished by pre-incubation of HPJ before ascorbate addition and this was reversed if ascorbate was added to the pre-incubation mixture. We conclude that transformation of 3beta-hydroxy-5-ene steroids by HPJ is due to cholesterol oxidase and is diminished by antioxidants or oxygen denial. Yield of 5alpha-reduced steroids is low due to oxidative damage of beta-glucuronidase during hydrolysis, prevented by ascorbate. These features are shared by most commercial Helix pomatia enzyme preparations tested.

  10. [Increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage as a predictor of cerebral salt wasting syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Ichiro; Kurokawa, Shinichiro; Takayama, Katsutoshi; Wada, Takeshi; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is considered to correlate with delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) induced by cerebral vasospasm; however, its exact mechanism is still not well-known. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between hyponatremia caused by CSWS and the increase of the urinary sodium excretion in early phase following SAH. Fifty-four patients with SAH were divided into 2 groups, normonatremia group and hyponatremia group which suffered hyponatremia after SAH. The hyponatremia group comprise 14 patients (26%) in whom the hyponatremia developed of the SAH. In this group, the serum level of sodium significantly decreased 7 days after SAH and then gradually normalised. Further, excretion of sodium in the urine tended to increase 3 days after SAH and significantly increased 7 days after SAH. In conclusion, the increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of SAH would serve as a predictive factor for CSWS after SAH. We consider that it is important to start sodium and fluid supplementation and inhibit natriuresis by fludrocortisone acetate administration before hyponatremia occurs in order to prevention delayed ischemic neurological deficits in SAH patients.

  11. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8–53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7–45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885–4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654–4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4–23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1–4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33–1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34–2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49–2.53, P < 0

  12. [Electrocardiographic recording of long duration (Holter) of 24 hours during idiopathic cardiomyopathy of the peripartum].

    PubMed

    Diao, M; Diop, I B; Kane, A; Camara, S; Kane, Ad; Sarr, M; Ba, S A; Diouf, S M

    2004-01-01

    The idiopathic myocardiopathy of the peripartum (IMPP) is a frequent disease in the Soudano-Sahelian zone of Africa whose evolution is loaded with many complications hemodynamic, thrombo-embolic and rhythmic. The prevalence and the meaning of the rhythm disorders are unknown. The aims of this prospective study are to measure and to describe the prevalence of the anomalies observed in Holter ECG of 24 hours. It's about a description cross-sectional study realized at the Cardiology Department (CHU Dakar) and 19 patients with IMPP were included, from October 2000 to July 2002. A recording ECG of 24 hours (Holter) was realized on all the patients. The average age was 29.4+/-6.9 years with a low socio-economic level (100%). The diagnosis of IMPP done before childbirth in 4 cases (21%) and the post partum on 15 patients (78.9%). The dyspnea was constant, the chest pain in 12 cases (63.1%) and palpitations in 8 cases (42%). The average rate of hemoglobin was of 10.85+/-2.05 g/dL. The standard electrocardiogram recorded a sinusal tachycardia (68.4%), a cavitary hypertrophy (78.8%), and disorders of the repolarization (47.3%). The cardiac echo-Doppler noted a cavitary dilatation (84.2%), a constant alteration of the left ventricular systolic function with a fraction of average ejection of 29.7+/-10.3%. The anatomy of the valves was normal. The recording Holter ECG of 24 hours recorded a sinusal tachycardia in 17 cases (89.4%), ventricular extrasystoles on 7 patients (36.8%), 4 cases of ventricular tachycardia non-sustained and double ventricular extrasystole on 1 patient, auricular extrasystoles in 4 cases (21%) and 1 case of auriculo-ventricular block of the first degree. The study of heart rate variability founded a mean value of 106 ms.

  13. Development of an artificial placenta IV: 24 hour venovenous extracorporeal life support in premature lambs.

    PubMed

    Gray, Brian W; El-Sabbagh, Ahmed; Rojas-Pena, Alvaro; Kim, Anne C; Gadepali, Samir; Koch, Kely L; Capizzani, Tony R; Bartlet, Robert H; Mychaliska, George B

    2012-01-01

    An extracorporeal artificial placenta would change the paradigm of treating extremely premature infants. We hypothesized that a venovenous extracorporeal life support (VV-ECLS) artificial placenta would maintain fetal circulation, hemodynamic stability, and adequate gas exchange for 24 hours. A near-term neonatal lamb model (130 days; term = 145 days) was used (n = 9). The right jugular vein was cannulated for VV-ECLS outflow, and an umbilical vein was used for inflow. The circuit included a peristaltic roller pump and a 0.5 m(2) hollow fiber oxygenator. Lambs were maintained on VV-ECLS in an "amniotic bath" for up to 24 hours. Five of nine fetuses survived for 24 hours. In the survivors, average mean arterial pressure was 69 ± 10 mm Hg for the first 4 hours and 36 ± 8 mm Hg for the remaining 20 hours. The mean fetal heart rate was 202 ± 30. Mean VV-ECLS flow was 94 ± 20 ml/kg/min. Using a gas mixture of 50% O(2)/3% CO(2) and sweep flow of 1-2 L/min, the mean pH was 7.27 ± 0.09, with Po(2) of 35 ± 12 mm Hg and Pco(2) of 48 ± 12 mm Hg. Necropsy revealed a patent ductus arteriosus in all cases, and there was no gross or microscopic intracranial hemorrhage. Complications in failed attempts included technically difficult cannulation and multisystem organ failure. Future studies will enhance stability and address the factors necessary for long-term support.

  14. Treating allergic conjunctivitis: A once-daily medication that provides 24-hour symptom relief

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Jack; Donnenfeld, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is a common ocular inflammatory manifestation of allergen exposure in sensitized individuals. Signs and symptoms of AC can decrease quality of life, interfere with productivity, and lead to considerable economic burden. Consistent suppression of conjunctival inflammation is necessary for managing AC, but currently available medications require frequent administration and exhibit limited duration of action. Methods: In this review, we summarized AC pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment options as well as their limitations. Findings from the literature were discussed in the context of the unmet need for a once-daily medication with sustained 24-hour effectiveness. Results: Topical pharmacologic treatments are the most common approach for managing extant AC; however, most available medications require multiple daily instillations. Dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizing agents are currently considered first-line therapeutics for AC because they provide acute relief of signs and symptoms and block persistent inflammation to promote regression of AC. Recent studies of a newly-developed, higher-concentration formulation of a dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizer have demonstrated that this formulation provides a 24-hour duration of action with once-daily dosing. Conclusions: Dual-acting AC medications exhibit a high degree of overall effectiveness and are well tolerated for chronic use. A newly available once-daily medication that manages signs and symptoms of AC for a full 24 hours may be considered a treatment of choice for patients experiencing seasonal or perennial AC. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01743027 and NCT01479374 PMID:27466061

  15. Evaluation of Intradermal and Subcutaneous Infusion Set Performance Under 24-Hour Basal and Bolus Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McVey, Elaine; Keith, Steven; Herr, Joshua K.; Sutter, Diane; Pettis, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study sought to assess the function and delivery reliability of intradermal (ID) infusion sets used with commercial insulin pumps. Method: Healthy subjects (n = 43) were randomized to either ID or subcutaneous (SC) arms, and received basal/bolus placebo delivery for 24 hours. Subjects received 4 of 8 infusion set combinations (ID: microneedle design A or B, with 2 pump brands [Animas or MiniMed]; SC: Teflon Quickset or steel Rapid-D, Animas pump only, with or without overtaping) and were evaluated for pump occlusion alarms, fluid leakage, pain, and tissue tolerability. A novel algorithm was developed to determine flow consistency based on fluid pressure, and the duration and occurrence rate for periods of unalarmed but interrupted flow (“silent occlusions’”) were compared. Results: ID delivery was successfully maintained over the 24-hour infusion period. The number of silent occlusions was lower for ID microneedle cannula design B than A (P < .01) and lower for Rapid-D SC device compared to Quick-set (P = .03). There was no significant difference in the number of occlusion alarms between the ID and SC devices with the Animas pump. However, the pumps tested with ID devices had significantly different alarm rates (MiniMed 29.5%, Animas 0%, P < .001). Leakage and tissue tolerability were comparable across devices. Conclusion: The ID infusion set reliably delivered diluent for an extended 24-hour period in healthy subjects and was well tolerated. Silent occlusion flow interruptions could be detected in both ID and SC infusion sets using a proprietary algorithm. This algorithm is a promising method for quantitatively evaluating infusion set flow performance. PMID:26319228

  16. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... the 2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' 74 FR 58688... Federal Regulations DC District of Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR... EPA finalized designations for the 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS (74 FR 58688, November 13, 2009), the...

  17. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  18. Intermittent short ECG recording is more effective than 24-hour Holter ECG in detection of arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patients report symptoms of palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. These patients are often referred for 24-hour Holter ECG, although the sensitivity for detecting relevant arrhythmias is comparatively low. Intermittent short ECG recording over a longer time period might be a convenient and more sensitive alternative. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of 24-hour Holter ECG with intermittent short ECG recording over four weeks to detect relevant arrhythmias in patients with palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. Methods Design: prospective, observational, cross-sectional study. Setting: Clinical Physiology, University Hospital. Patients: 108 consecutive patients referred for ambiguous palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. Interventions: All individuals underwent a 24-hour Holter ECG and additionally registered 30-second handheld ECG (Zenicor EKG® thumb) recordings at home, twice daily and when having cardiac symptoms, during 28 days. Main outcome measures: Significant arrhythmias: atrial fibrillation (AF), paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), atrioventricular (AV) block II–III, sinus arrest (SA), wide complex tachycardia (WCT). Results 95 patients, 42 men and 53 women with a mean age of 54.1 years, completed registrations. Analysis of Holter registrations showed atrial fibrillation (AF) in two patients and atrioventricular (AV) block II in one patient (= 3.2% relevant arrhythmias [95% CI 1.1–8.9]). Intermittent handheld ECG detected nine patients with AF, three with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) and one with AV-block-II (= 13.7% relevant arrhythmias [95% CI 8.2–22.0]). There was a significant difference between the two methods in favour of intermittent ECG with regard to the ability to detect relevant arrhythmias (P = 0.0094). With Holter ECG, no symptoms were registered during any of the detected arrhythmias. With intermittent ECG, symptoms were registered during half of the arrhythmia

  19. Nutritional behavior of cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race: a field study report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information about behavior of energy intake in ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race is scarce. The nutritional strategy during such an event is an important factor which athletes should plan carefully before the race. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the nutritional intake of ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race with the current nutritional guidelines for endurance events. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship among the nutritional and performance variables. Methods Using a observational design, nutritional intake of eight males (mean ± SD: 36.7 ± 4.7 years; 71.6 ± 4.9 kg; 174.6 ± 7.3 cm; BMI 23.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2) participating in a 24-hour team relay cycling race was assessed. All food and fluid intake by athletes were weighed and recorded. Additionally, distance and speed performed by each rider were also recorded. Furthermore, before to the race, all subjects carried out an incremental exercise test to determine two heart rate-VO2 regression equations which were used to estimate the energy expenditure. Results The mean ingestion of macronutrients during the event was 943 ± 245 g (13.1 ± 4.0 g/kg) of carbohydrates, 174 ± 146 g (2.4 ± 1.9 g/kg) of proteins and 107 ± 56 g (1.5 ± 0.7 g/kg) of lipids, respectively. This amount of nutrients reported an average nutrient intake of 22.8 ± 8.9 MJ which were significantly lower compared with energy expenditure 42.9 ± 6.8 MJ (P = 0.012). Average fluid consumption corresponded to 10497 ± 2654 mL. Mean caffeine ingestion was 142 ± 76 mg. Additionally, there was no relationship between the main nutritional variables (i.e. energy intake, carbohydrates, proteins, fluids and caffeine ingestion) and the main performance variables (i.e. distance and speed). Conclusions A 24-hour hours cycling competition in a team relay format elicited high energy demands which were not compensated by energy intake of the athletes despite that dietary

  20. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B.; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W.; Gilhooly, Cheryl H.; Kelly, Michael J.; Parsons, lkSusan K.; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE ×100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:25883059

  1. Dietary quality varies according to data collection instrument: a comparison between a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; de Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes; De Cnop, Mara Lima; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Coura, Camila Pinheiro; Brito, Alessandra Page; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the agreement between the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R), estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and multiple 24-hour recalls (24h-R). The Wilcoxon paired test, partial correlations (PC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman method were used. The total BHEI-R scores and its components ("total fruits", "whole fruits", "total vegetables", "integral cereals", "saturated fat", "sodium", and "energy intake derived from solid fat, added sugar, and alcoholic beverages") were statistically different, with the ICC and PC indicating poor concordance and correlation. The mean concordance estimated for the total BHEI-R and its components varied from 68% for "integral cereals" to 147% for "whole fruits". The suitable concordance limits were violated for most of the components of the BHEI-R. Poor concordance was observed between the BHEI-R estimated by the FFQ and by multiple 24h-R, which indicated a strong reliability of the BHEI-R on the instrument used to collect information on food consumption. PMID:26910251

  2. Regional Neurodegeneration and Gliosis Are Amplified by Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Repeated at 24-Hour Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Amanda Nicholle; Saatman, Kathryn Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Most traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) that occur every year are classified as ‘mild’. Individuals involved in high-risk activities may sustain multiple mild TBIs. We evaluated the acute physiological and histopathological consequences of mild TBI in a mouse model, comparing sham injury, single impact, or 5 impacts at a 24- or 48-hour inter-injury interval. A single closed skull impact resulted in bilateral gliosis in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex that was proportional to impact depth. Midline impact, at a depth just above the threshold to induce transient unconsciousness, produced occasional axonal injury and degenerating neurons accompanied by astrogliosis in the entorhinal cortex and cerebellum. Mild TBI repeated every 24 hours resulted in bilateral hemorrhagic lesions in the entorhinal cortex along with significantly increased neurodegeneration and microglial activation despite diminished durations of apnea and unconsciousness with subsequent impacts. Astrogliosis and diffusely distributed axonal injury were also observed bilaterally in the cerebellum and the brainstem. When the interval between mild TBIs was increased to 48 hours, the pathological consequences were comparable to a single TBI. Together, these data suggest that in mice the brain remains at increased risk for damage for 24 hours after mild TBI despite reduced acute physiological responses to subsequent mild impacts. PMID:25232942

  3. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. PMID:27525110

  4. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m(2), had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab(®) device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens(®) algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for "24-hour", "awake", and "asleep" periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects.

  5. A Compute Perspective: Delivering Decision Support Products in 24 Hours from the Airborne Snow Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, P.; Mattmann, C. A.; Painter, T. H.; Seidel, F. C.; Trangsrud, A.; Hart, A. F.; Goodale, C. E.; Boardman, J. W.; Heneghan, C.; Verma, R.; Khudikyan, S.; Boustani, M.; Zimdars, P. A.; Horn, J.; Neely, S.

    2013-12-01

    The JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) must process 100s of GB of raw data to 100s of Terabytes of derived data in 24 hour Near Real Time (NRT) latency in a geographically distributed mobile compute and data-intensive processing setting. ASO provides meaningful information to water resource managers in the Western US letting them know how much water to maintain; or release, and what the prospectus of the current snow season is in the Sierra Nevadas. Providing decision support products processed from airborne data in a 24 hour timeframe is an emergent field and required the team to develop a novel solution as this process is typically done over months. We've constructed a system that combines Apache OODT; with Apache Tika; with the Interactive Data Analysis (IDL)/ENVI programming environment to rapidly and unobtrusively generate, distribute and archive ASO data as soon as the plane lands near Mammoth Lakes, CA. Our system is flexible, underwent several redeployments and reconfigurations, and delivered this critical information to stakeholders during the recent "Snow On" campaign March 2013 - June 2013. This talk will take you through a day in the life of the compute team from data acquisition, delivery, processing, and dissemination. Within this context, we will discuss the architecture of ASO; the open source software we used; the data we stored; and how it was delivered to its users. Moreover we will discuss the logistics, system engineering, and staffing that went into the developing, deployment, and operation of the mobile compute system.

  6. Deviation of innate circadian period from 24 hours reduces longevity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Libert, Sergiy; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Pointer, Kelli; Pletcher, Scott D.; Guarente, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Summary The variation of individual lifespans, even in highly inbred cohorts of animals and under strictly controlled environmental conditions, is substantial and not well understood. This variation in part could be due to epigenetic variation, which later affects the animal’s physiology and ultimately longevity. Identification of the physiological properties that impact health and lifespan is crucial for longevity research and the development of anti-aging therapies. Here we measured individual circadian and metabolic characteristics in a cohort of inbred F1 hybrid mice and correlated these parameters to their lifespans. We found that mice with innate circadian periods close to 24 hours (revealed during 30 days of housing in total darkness) enjoyed nearly 20% longer lifespans than their littermates, which had shorter or longer innate circadian periods. These findings show that maintenance of a 24 hour intrinsic circadian period is a positive predictor of longevity. Our data suggest that circadian period may be used to predict individual longevity and that processes that control innate circadian period affect aging. PMID:22702406

  7. Sleep in healthy elderly subjects: a 24-hour ambulatory polysomnographic study.

    PubMed

    Gigli, G L; Placidi, F; Diomedi, M; Maschio, M; Silvestri, G; Scalise, A; Marciani, M G

    1996-04-01

    It is still debated whether the deterioration of the sleep pattern, frequently reported by elderly subjects, is due only to aging per se. Other factors associated with aging or modifications of biological rhythms could also be involved. Elderly subjects frequently complain of daytime sleepiness, but it is not clear whether this actually represents a return to a polyphasic structure of sleep, or only a consequence of a disturbed night sleep. Ten healthy, independent and active elderly subjects (age > 72 years) were elevated by means of 24-hour ambulatory polysomnography. Findings of nocturnal sleep were compared with sleep of the same group in the 24-hour period and with sleep of young healthy controls. We observed a fragmentation of nocturnal sleep, but a fairly good representation of stages and a preservation of cyclicity. Except for three cases, with early or late times of sleep onset and wake-up, sleep disruption did not seem to be related to modification of circadian rhythms. Only three subjects presented undesired daytime naps, whereas the others either did not show daytime sleep at all, or were used to having their siesta after lunch since their young adulthood. In normal aging, daytime sleep does not constitute a social problem. Ambulatory polysomnography is a valid alternative to laboratory recordings in the identification of daytime sleep. PMID:8734563

  8. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sarah C; Gauthier, Angela C; Liu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. PMID:27525110

  9. PHYSICIAN-PHARMACIST CO-MANAGEMENT AND 24-HOUR BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ziqian; Ernst, Michael E.; Ardery, Gail; Xu, Yinghui; Carter, Barry L.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: to compare indices of 24-hour BP following a physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention and to describe the associated changes in antihypertensive medications. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective, cluster-randomized clinical trial conducted in 6 family medicine clinics randomized to co-managed (n=3 clinics, 176 subjects) or control (n=3 clinics, 198 subjects) groups. Mean ambulatory systolic BP was significantly lower in the co-managed versus the control group: daytime SBP 122.8 mm Hg versus 134.4 mm Hg (p<0.001); nighttime SBP 114.8 mm Hg versus 123.7 mm Hg (p<0.001); and 24-hour SBP 120.4 mm Hg versus 131.8 mm Hg (p<0.001), respectively. Significantly more drug changes were made in the co-managed than in the control group (2.7 versus 1.1 changes/subject, p<0.001), and there was greater diuretic use in co-managed subjects (79.6% versus 62.6%, p<0.001). Ambulatory BPs were significantly lower for the subjects who had a diuretic added during the first month compared with those who never had a diuretic added (p<0.01). Physician-pharmacist co-management significantly improved ambulatory BP compared with a control group. Anti-hypertensive drug therapy was intensified much more for subjects in the co-managed group. PMID:23614849

  10. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m(2), had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab(®) device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens(®) algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for "24-hour", "awake", and "asleep" periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects. PMID:24812515

  11. Global, regional and national sodium intakes in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis of 24 h urinary sodium excretion and dietary surveys worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Powles, John; Fahimi, Saman; Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Ezzati, Majid; Engell, Rebecca E; Lim, Stephen S; Danaei, Goodarz; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate global, regional (21 regions) and national (187 countries) sodium intakes in adults in 1990 and 2010. Design Bayesian hierarchical modelling using all identifiable primary sources. Data sources and eligibility We searched and obtained published and unpublished data from 142 surveys of 24 h urinary sodium and 103 of dietary sodium conducted between 1980 and 2010 across 66 countries. Dietary estimates were converted to urine equivalents based on 79 pairs of dual measurements. Modelling methods Bayesian hierarchical modelling used survey data and their characteristics to estimate mean sodium intake, by sex, 5 years age group and associated uncertainty for persons aged 20+ in 187 countries in 1990 and 2010. Country-level covariates were national income/person and composition of food supplies. Main outcome measures Mean sodium intake (g/day) as estimable by 24 h urine collections, without adjustment for non-urinary losses. Results In 2010, global mean sodium intake was 3.95 g/day (95% uncertainty interval: 3.89 to 4.01). This was nearly twice the WHO recommended limit of 2 g/day and equivalent to 10.06 (9.88–10.21) g/day of salt. Intake in men was ∼10% higher than in women; differences by age were small. Intakes were highest in East Asia, Central Asia and Eastern Europe (mean >4.2 g/day) and in Central Europe and Middle East/North Africa (3.9–4.2 g/day). Regional mean intakes in North America, Western Europe and Australia/New Zealand ranged from 3.4 to 3.8 g/day. Intakes were lower (<3.3 g/day), but more uncertain, in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Between 1990 and 2010, modest, but uncertain, increases in sodium intakes were identified. Conclusions Sodium intakes exceed the recommended levels in almost all countries with small differences by age and sex. Virtually all populations would benefit from sodium reduction, supported by enhanced surveillance. PMID:24366578

  12. Association between Sleep Duration and 24-Hour Urine Free Cortisol in the MrOS Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Madhu N.; Blackwell, Terri; Redline, Susan; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Neylan, Thomas C.; Stone, Katie L.

    2013-01-01

    Context Short sleep duration is associated with adverse health outcomes, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. It has been postulated that short sleep duration may elevate cortisol levels, but studies have had conflicting results. It is unclear whether these differing findings may be due to methodological issues, such as assessment of sleep duration. Specifically, objective versus subjective methods of measuring habitual sleep duration may account for the conflicting results found in epidemiological studies. Objective Our goal was to determine whether habitual sleep duration, measured objectively (by actigraphy) and subjectively (by self-report), was associated with 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), a measure of integrated cortisol secretion. Our secondary goal was to determine whether slow wave sleep (SWS, determined by polysomnography) was associated with 24-hour UFC. Design/Setting Cross sectional study of community dwelling older men. Patients/Participants 325 men (mean age = 76.6 years, SD = 5.5) from the Portland site of the MrOS Sleep Study, who underwent 24-hour urine collection, polysomnography, actigraphy and sleep questionnaire. Primary Outcome 24-hour UFC. Results In this study of community dwelling older men, self-reported sleep duration was inversely related to 24-hour UFC levels. Participants reporting <5 hours of habitual sleep had an adjusted mean 24-hour UFC of 29.8 ug, compared to 28.0 ug in participants reporting >5 to <8 hours of sleep 25.5 ug in those reporting >8 hours of habitual sleep. However, sleep duration determined by actigraphy was not associated with 24-hour UFC in either univariable or multivariable regression models. SWS was not associated with 24-hour UFC. Conclusion Objectively measured (i.e., actigraphic) sleep duration is not associated with 24-hour UFC in these community dwelling older men. This finding, together with prior studies, suggests that elevated levels of integrated cortisol secretion is not the

  13. Relationship of nutrition knowledge and self-reported dietary behaviors with urinary excretion of sodium and potassium: comparison between dietitians and nondietitians.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Minami; Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of better nutrition knowledge and dietary behavior on healthier dietary intake is still controversial. We hypothesized that nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior are associated with sodium and potassium intake in adult women. A cross-sectional study was conducted at welfare facilities located in 20 areas of Japan. Ninety-nine female dietitians and 117 nondietitians aged 20 to 69 years participated. Sodium and potassium intake were assessed with two 24-hour urine collections and 4-day semiweighed diet records. Nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior were accessed with 3 questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to compare sodium and potassium excretion and selected nutrition and food intake between dietitians and nondietitians. After adjustment for age and smoking habit, sodium and potassium excretion did not significantly differ between the 2 groups (3857 vs 3959 mg/d, P = .57, and 2016 vs 1886 mg/d, P = .10, respectively). Sodium/potassium ratio was significantly lower in the dietitians (P = .044). The dietitians used food labels for sodium contents more often than the nondietitians and consumed more fruits and vegetables (P = .048 and P < .0001, respectively) and less sugar and confectionaries and fat and oils (P = .016 and P = .010, respectively). In conclusion, the higher level of nutritional knowledge and better dietary behavior were not associated with either sodium or potassium excretion but were moderately associated with sodium/potassium ratio.

  14. Relationship of nutrition knowledge and self-reported dietary behaviors with urinary excretion of sodium and potassium: comparison between dietitians and nondietitians.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Minami; Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of better nutrition knowledge and dietary behavior on healthier dietary intake is still controversial. We hypothesized that nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior are associated with sodium and potassium intake in adult women. A cross-sectional study was conducted at welfare facilities located in 20 areas of Japan. Ninety-nine female dietitians and 117 nondietitians aged 20 to 69 years participated. Sodium and potassium intake were assessed with two 24-hour urine collections and 4-day semiweighed diet records. Nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior were accessed with 3 questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to compare sodium and potassium excretion and selected nutrition and food intake between dietitians and nondietitians. After adjustment for age and smoking habit, sodium and potassium excretion did not significantly differ between the 2 groups (3857 vs 3959 mg/d, P = .57, and 2016 vs 1886 mg/d, P = .10, respectively). Sodium/potassium ratio was significantly lower in the dietitians (P = .044). The dietitians used food labels for sodium contents more often than the nondietitians and consumed more fruits and vegetables (P = .048 and P < .0001, respectively) and less sugar and confectionaries and fat and oils (P = .016 and P = .010, respectively). In conclusion, the higher level of nutritional knowledge and better dietary behavior were not associated with either sodium or potassium excretion but were moderately associated with sodium/potassium ratio. PMID:27101762

  15. Turbulent diffusion on the solar photosphere through 24-hour continuous observations of magnetic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannattasio, F.; Berrilli, F.; Del Moro, D.; Bellot Rubio, L.; Orozco Suarez, D.; Gosic, M.

    2012-12-01

    Solar atmosphere is a unique laboratory for the study of turbulent flows under extreme conditions (e.g. very high Reynolds numbers). The turbulent nature of the flow may be approached by determining how magnetic flux elements are transported on the solar surface, and measuring the spatio-temporal scales on which these small magnetic structures are organized. The process involved is diffusion. Several works explored this topic, both by simulations and observations, and the results are often contradictory, ranging from fully-developed turbulent scenarios to normal-diffusive motions. We analyze 24-hour continuous Hinode SOT observations of a supergranular region (for the first time these long scales are explored), studying the evolution of the mutual distance between magnetic element pairs and its scaling laws, in order to investigate the diffusion process. We find a super-diffusive behavior, with a gamma index depending on the spatial scale selected.

  16. After 24-hour scrub, another tower rollback for the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    As tower rollback begins, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for the second launch attempt at 4:04 p.m. EST. The original launch was scrubbed on Feb. 6 for 24 hours. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  17. Chest physiotherapy in preterm infants with RDS in the first 24 hours of life.

    PubMed

    Raval, D; Yeh, T F; Mora, A; Cuevas, D; Pyati, S; Pildes, R S

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate if chest physiotherapy is beneficial to premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) during the first 24 hours of life, 20 infants were randomly assigned to two groups; 10 infants in Group I received routine chest physiotherapy and suction, and 10 infants in Group II received suction only. The birth weight, gestational age, postnatal age, Apgar scores, blood gases, acid-base status, and ventilatory requirements prior to study were comparable between the two groups. There were no significant differences between the groups in the amount of endotracheal secretions removed, the PO2/FIO2 ratio, blood gases, and pH during the study. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), Grade I and II intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and mortality was comparable. However, five of 10 Group I and zero of 10 Group II infants developed Grade III or IV IVH (P less than 0.05).

  18. [Development of direct and indirect ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure monitoring].

    PubMed

    Krönig, B

    1991-01-01

    The direct ambulatory 24-hour blood-pressure monitoring has been applied in two ways. With the so called "Oxford-system", blood pressure is recorded via a cannula in the brachial artery which is connected to a perfusion unit that is worn around the neck, on the front of the chest, with a tape recorder carried in a pouch on the patient's belt. Using the micro-catheter blood-pressure telemetry recording is done in the same way, but transmission of the data to a stationary-receiving unit is managed by telemetry. The usage of the latter method is limited by the weight and complexity of the patient-sited equipment. Compared to the Oxford-system there is the advantage of continuously observing the patients blood-pressure "on-line" during the recording. The invasive character of both methods limits the application to special, scientific investigations. In recent years the indirect recording machines for 24-hour blood-pressure monitoring has been developed further. They are now accurate, easy to apply and simple to work out. Beside the auscultatory way of recording, with or without ECG-gating, the oscillometry recording machines have been improved. There should be automatically-operated intervals with recordings in day-time every 15-20 minutes and during the night every 30 minutes. The recorded data should be analysed by computer, calculating mean values with standard deviations in day-time and night-time separately. Further more, there should be a listing of reading-errors and probably corrected measurements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index derived from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang; Dolan, Eamon; Gao, Ping-Jin; Guo, Hui-Feng; Nawrot, Tim; Stanton, Alice V; Zhu, Ding-Liang; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2006-03-01

    We hypothesized that 1 minus the slope of diastolic on systolic pressure during 24-hour ambulatory monitoring (ambulatory arterial stiffness index [AASI]) might reflect arterial stiffness. We compared AASI with established measures of arterial stiffness and studied its distribution in Chinese and European populations. We used 90207 SpaceLabs monitors and the SphygmoCor device to measure AASI, central and peripheral pulse pressures, the central (CAIx) and peripheral (PAIx) systolic augmentation indexes, and aortic pulse wave velocity. In 166 volunteers, the correlation coefficient between AASI and pulse wave velocity was 0.51 (P<0.0001). In 348 randomly recruited Chinese subjects, AASI correlated (P<0.0001) with CAIx (r=0.48), PAIx (r=0.50), and central pulse pressure (r=0.50). AASI increased with age and mean arterial pressure but decreased with body height. Both before and after adjustment for arterial wave reflections by considering height and heart rate as covariates, AASI correlated more (P<0.0001) closely with CAIx and PAIx than 24-hour pulse pressure. Among normotensive subjects, the 95th percentile of AASI was 0.55 in Chinese and 0.57 in 1617 Europeans enrolled in the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring. The upper boundary of the 95% prediction interval of AASI in relation to age ranged from 0.53 at 20 years to 0.72 at 80 years. In conclusion, AASI is a new index of arterial stiffness that can be easily measured under ambulatory conditions. Pending additional validation in outcome studies, normal values of AASI are probably <0.50 and 0.70 in young and older subjects, respectively. PMID:16432048

  20. A 24-Hour Study of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary Axes in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nambron, Rajasree; Costelloe, Seán J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hill, Nathan R.; Frost, Chris; Watt, Hilary C.; Hindmarsh, Peter; Björkqvist, Maria; Warner, Thomas T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Huntington’s disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Patients exhibit other symptoms including sleep and mood disturbances, muscle atrophy and weight loss which may be linked to hypothalamic pathology and dysfunction of hypothalamo-pituitary axes. Methods We studied neuroendocrine profiles of corticotropic, somatotropic and gonadotropic hypothalamo-pituitary axes hormones over a 24-hour period in controlled environment in 15 healthy controls, 14 premanifest and 13 stage II/III Huntington’s disease subjects. We also quantified fasting levels of vasopressin, oestradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free total thyroxine, prolactin, adrenaline and noradrenaline. Somatotropic axis hormones, growth hormone releasing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like factor binding protein-3 were quantified at 06:00 (fasting), 15:00 and 23:00. A battery of clinical tests, including neurological rating and function scales were performed. Results 24-hour concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone did not differ significantly between the Huntington’s disease group and controls. Daytime growth hormone secretion was similar in control and Huntington’s disease subjects. Stage II/III Huntington’s disease subjects had lower concentration of post-sleep growth hormone pulse and higher insulin-like growth factor-1:growth hormone ratio which did not reach significance. In Huntington’s disease subjects, baseline levels of hypothalamo-pituitary axis hormones measured did not significantly differ from those of healthy controls. Conclusions The relatively small subject group means that the study may not detect subtle perturbations in hormone concentrations. A targeted study of the somatotropic axis in larger cohorts may be warranted. However, the lack

  1. Low correlation between visit-to-visit variability and 24-hour variability of blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi; Diaz, Keith M.; Newman, Jonathan; Sloan, Richard P.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of clinic systolic blood pressure (SBP) has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Given the need for obtaining blood pressure (BP) at multiple visits to calculate VVV, substituting BP variability from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) may be a practical alternative. We assessed the correlation between VVV of BP and BP variability from ABPM using data from 146 untreated, mostly normotensive participants (mean age 47.9 years) in a substudy of the ongoing Masked Hypertension Study. VVV of SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was estimated by the standard deviation (SDvvv) and average real variability (ARVvvv) from 6 study visits over a median of 216 days. ABPM data were used to calculate the day-night SD (SDdn) and the ARV of SBP and DBP over 24 hours (ARV24). For SBP, the mean SDvvv and SDdn were 6.3 (SD=2.5) and 8.8 (SD=1.8) mmHg, respectively, and mean ARVvvv and ARV24 were 7.2 (SD=3.2) and 8.4 (SD=2.1) mmHg, respectively. The Spearman correlation coefficient between SDvvv and SDdn of SBP was rs=0.25 and between ARVvvv and ARV24 was rs=0.17. Participants in the highest quartile of SDdn of SBP were 1.66 (95% CI: 0.93 – 2.75) times more likely to be in the highest quartile of SDvvv of SBP. The observed-to-expected ratio between the highest quartiles of ARVvvv and ARV24 of SBP was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.41 – 1.69). The correlations for SDvvv and SDdn and ARVvvv and ARV24 of DBP were minimal. These data suggest VVV and 24-hour variability are weakly correlated and not interchangeable. PMID:23784506

  2. Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours Maps and Data of Model-Based Small Area Estimates - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours is defined as a person 18 years of age or older who must have reported smoking at least 100 cigarettes in his/her life, and now does not smoke at all but it has been less than 365 days since completely stopped smoking cigarettes, or now smoke everyday or some days but reported that have made attempt of quitting for more than 24 hours in the past 12 months.

  3. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    PubMed

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  4. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited - A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light-dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus ("master clock") of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli ("zeitgebers"), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5-0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy might have

  5. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  6. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited – A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P.; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light–dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (“master clock”) of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli (“zeitgebers”), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5–0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy

  7. Association of Urinary Sodium Excretion With Insulin Resistance in Korean Adolescents: Results From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Chun, Yoon Hong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Yong Gyu; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Seon Mee; Kim, Yang Hyun; Nam, Ga Eun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is a well-known risk factor for elevated blood pressure and is responsible for a higher incidence of cardiovascular events. Reports have suggested an association of sodium intake with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. However, evidence on an association between sodium intake assessed on the basis of urinary sodium excretion and IR in adolescents is scarce. The present study aimed at investigating the association between urinary sodium excretion and IR among South Korean adolescents.This population-based, cross-sectional study analyzed the data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009 to 2010. The data of a total of 1353 adolescents (779 boys and 574 girls) were included in the final analysis. Spot urine samples were collected, and urinary sodium excretion was estimated by using the urinary sodium concentration (U[Na]), U[Na] to urinary creatinine ratio (U[Na]/Cr), and U[Na] to specific gravity unit (SGU) ratio (U[Na]/SGU). IR was assessed by using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk for a high HOMA-IR according to urinary sodium excretion.The mean levels of U[Na], U[Na]/Cr, and U[Na]/SGU were significantly higher in subjects in the highest HOMA-IR quartile (Q4) than in subjects in the lowest, second, or third quartiles (Q1-3) of HOMA-IR. The mean values of HOMA-IR and several cardiometabolic parameters tended to progressively increase with the U[Na], U[Na]/Cr, and U[Na]/SGU quartiles. Q3 of U[Na] was at a significantly higher risk than Q1 of U[Na] of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR, after adjustment for confounding variables. Q3 and Q4 of U[Na]/Cr and U[Na]/SGU, respectively, had significantly higher risks, than the respective Q1s, of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR. The risk of an association with Q4 of HOMA-IR demonstrated significantly increasing trends with

  8. The relationship between sodium intake and some bone minerals and osteoporosis risk assessment instrument in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Vafa, Mohammadreza; Soltani, Sepideh; Zayeri, Farid; Niroomand, Mahtab; Najarzadeh, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The results of the studies on the effects of sodium on bone metabolism have been inconsistent. There is no definitive answer to the question of whether sodium restriction can be associated with a lower incidence of osteoporosis. What reinforces the necessity of designing this study is the lack of findings with the approach of examining the effects of sodium on bone in our country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 185 retired female teachers aged 45 to 70. Sodium intake was evaluated using two methods: A 24-hour recall and a 12-hour urine sample. To assess bone health, ORAI index was calculated for each individual. Urinary calcium, phosphorus, potassium and serum vitamin D and PTH were measured as laboratory variables. To compare the general characteristics of the participants across tertiles of urinary sodium, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for quantitative variables and the Chi-square test for categorical variables. Results: Phosphorous, calcium and potassium urinary excretion rate increased with the increase in urinary sodium (p<0.05). However, the changes in serum vitamin D, and PTH levels across tertiles of urinary sodium were not significant. Changes in urinary sodium levels were not significant (p=0.933) in ORAI groups (sorted by rating). The relationship between urinary calcium and sodium was apparent in low calcium intake (r=0.415, p<0.001), but not in higher calcium intake (r=0.144, p=0.177). Conclusion: Although urinary calcium and potassium increased with the increase in sodium intake, no relationship was found between sodium and ORAI. PMID:27493921

  9. What and how much do we eat? 24-hour dietary recall method.

    PubMed

    Salvador Castell, Gemma; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes

    2015-02-26

    Diet, along with lifestyle factors, is an important determinant of the health status of an individual and of a community. Dietary assessment at the population level provides us with key information on the frequency and distribution of possible inadequate diets and/or nutritional status. It is also useful as input into the elaboration of food and nutrition policies aiming to improve dietary habits and the health status of a community. This article reviews the characteristics, advantages and limitations of the 24-hour dietary recall method (24hDR), which is one of the most widely used tools in nutrition epidemiology to identify food, energy and nutrient intake in national nutrition surveys, cross-sectional studies, clinical trials and cohort studies as well as in the evaluation of individual dietary intake and Total Diet assessment. To reduce the key factors associated with bias, the importance of previously trained interviewers is highlighted, as well as the role of support materials and the contribution of novel technologies.

  10. Severe community-acquired pneumonia: timely management measures in the first 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Phua, Jason; Dean, Nathan C; Guo, Qi; Kuan, Win Sen; Lim, Hui Fang; Lim, Tow Keang

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) range from 17 to 48 % in published studies.In this review, we searched PubMed for relevant papers published between 1981 and June 2016 and relevant files. We explored how early and aggressive management measures, implemented within 24 hours of recognition of severe CAP and carried out both in the emergency department and in the ICU, decrease mortality in severe CAP.These measures begin with the use of severity assessment tools and the application of care bundles via clinical decision support tools. The bundles include early guideline-concordant antibiotics including macrolides, early haemodynamic support (lactate measurement, intravenous fluids, and vasopressors), and early respiratory support (high-flow nasal cannulae, lung-protective ventilation, prone positioning, and neuromuscular blockade for acute respiratory distress syndrome).While the proposed interventions appear straightforward, multiple barriers to their implementation exist. To successfully decrease mortality for severe CAP, early and close collaboration between emergency medicine and respiratory and critical care medicine teams is required. We propose a workflow incorporating these interventions. PMID:27567896

  11. Sudden cardiac arrest risk stratification based on 24-hour Holter ECG statistics.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Keisuke; Shiobara, Masahito; Nakamura, Saya; Yamashiro, Koichiro; Yana, Kazuo; Ono, Takuya

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using indices obtained from a long term Holter ECG record for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) risk stratification. The ndices tested were the QT-RR interval co-variability and the alternans ratio percentile (ARP(θ)) which is defined as the θ(th) percentile of alternans ratios over a 24 hour period. The QT-RR interval co-variabilities are evaluated by the serial correlation coefficient between QT and RR trend sequences (QTRC). Previously reported Kalman filter technique and a simple smoothing spline method for the trend estimation are compared. Parameter θ in the alternans ratio percentile index was optimized to achieve the best classification accuracy. These indices were estimated from 26 cardiovascular outpatients for Holter ECG record. Patients were classified into high and low risk groups according to their clinical diagnosis, and the obtained indices were compared with those of 25 control subjects. A risk stratification using the two indices QTRC and ARP(θ) yielded an average sensitivity of 0.812 and a specificity of 0.925. The sensitivities and specificities of all three categories exceeded 0.8 except for the sensitivity to detect the high-risk patient group. Other short-term ECG parameters may need to be incorporated in order to improve the sensitivity.

  12. 24 Hours in the Life of HIV-1 in a T Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Pejman; Desfarges, Sébastien; Bartha, István; Joos, Beda; Zangger, Nadine; Muñoz, Miguel; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Telenti, Amalio; Ciuffi, Angela

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 infects CD4+ T cells and completes its replication cycle in approximately 24 hours. We employed repeated measurements in a standardized cell system and rigorous mathematical modeling to characterize the emergence of the viral replication intermediates and their impact on the cellular transcriptional response with high temporal resolution. We observed 7,991 (73%) of the 10,958 expressed genes to be modulated in concordance with key steps of viral replication. Fifty-two percent of the overall variability in the host transcriptome was explained by linear regression on the viral life cycle. This profound perturbation of cellular physiology was investigated in the light of several regulatory mechanisms, including transcription factors, miRNAs, host-pathogen interaction, and proviral integration. Key features were validated in primary CD4+ T cells, and with viral constructs using alternative entry strategies. We propose a model of early massive cellular shutdown and progressive upregulation of the cellular machinery to complete the viral life cycle. PMID:23382686

  13. Age and individual sleep characteristics affect cognitive performance in anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift.

    PubMed

    Tadinac, Meri; Sekulić, Ante; Hromatko, Ivana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Ivancić, Romina

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown that both shift work and sleep deprivation have an adverse influence on various aspects of human cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to explore changes in cognitive functioning and subjective sleepiness of anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift. Twenty-six anesthesiology residents completed a set of psychological instruments at the beginning and at the end of the shift, as well as a questionnaire regarding information about the shift, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and Circadian Type Questionnaire. There was a significant decline in cognitive performance measured by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test after the shift. The effect was stronger in older participants and in those with high scores on rigidity of sleep scale and low scores on the ability to overcome sleepiness scale. There were no differences in the digits forward test (a measure of concentration), while digits backward test (a measure of working memory) even showed an improved performance after the shift. Although participants reported being significantly sleepier after the shift, the subjective sleepiness did not correlate with any of the objective measures of cognitive performance. In conclusion, the performance in short tasks involving concentration and working memory was not impaired, while performance in long-term and monotone tasks declined after sleep deprivation, and the magnitude of this decline depended on the specific individual characteristics of sleep and on age Surprisingly, age seemed to have an important impact on cognitive functions after shift work even in the relatively age-homogeneous population of young anesthesiology residents.

  14. Obtaining liver tridimensional scaffold through the decellularization of rabbit whole liver in 24 hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Schliamser; Ayelen, Rinaldi; Romina, Comin; Alba Nelly, Borchert; Adrian, Nari Gustavo; Alicia, Salvatierra Nancy; Mariana Paula, Cid

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, we development a new protocol for liver decellularization in which the hole decellularization was reached over 24 h. Introduction: the availability of transplantable livers is not sufficient to fulfill the current demand for grafts, with the search for therapeutic alternatives having generated different lines of research, one of which is the use of decellularized three-dimensional biological matrices and subsequent cell seeding to obtain a functional organ. Objective: to produce a decellularization protocol from rabbit liver to generate a three-dimensional matrixin which the time period involved didn't pass 24 h. Methods: The decellularization is obtained through the use of water and SDS (0,1-0,3 %), after freezing at -80 degrees, is the best alternative of different physical and/or chemical mechanisms to break down organ cells and leave only the extracellular matriz. After 24 h of retrograde perfusion, a decellularized translucent matrix was generated. To evaluate if the decellularization protocol was successful, with the extracellular matrix being preserved, we carried out histological (light microscopy) and biochemical (DNA quantification) studies. Results: the decellularization process was verified by macroscopic observation of the organ using microscopic observation corroborated the macroscopic results, with the hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining showing no cells or nuclear material. In addition, the DNA quantification was less than 10% in the decellularized liver compared to control. Finally,the time taken to develop the decellularization protocol was less than 24 hours.

  15. Electrodes for 24 hours pH monitoring--a comparative study.

    PubMed Central

    McLauchlan, G; Rawlings, J M; Lucas, M L; McCloy, R F; Crean, G P; McColl, K E

    1987-01-01

    Three pH electrodes in clinical use were examined--(1) antimony electrode with remote reference electrode (Synectics 0011), (2) glass electrode with remote reference electrode (Microelectrodes Inc. MI 506) and (3) combined glass electrode with integral reference electrode (Radiometer GK2801C). In vitro studies showed that both glass electrodes were similar and superior to the antimony electrode with respect to response time, drift, and sensitivity. The effect of the siting of the reference electrode on the recorded pH was examined in five human volunteers. The pH reading using a remote skin reference electrode was higher by a mean of 0.3 pH units (range 0.0-0.6) in the stomach, lower by 0.65 pH units (0.5-0.8) in the duodenum and lower by 0.3 pH units (0.0-0.6) in the oesophagus than that simultaneously obtained with an intraluminal reference electrode. Buccal reference electrodes gave similar readings to skin. Combined reference and glass pH electrodes are recommended for 24-hour ambulatory pH monitoring. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3666560

  16. Depressive Symptoms and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans: The SABPA Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Lespérance, François; Harvey, Brian H.; Malan, Nico T.; Malan, Leoné

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances in circadian rhythm might play a central role in the neurobiology of depression. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and 24-hour ambulatory BP in a sample of 405 (197 black and 208 Caucasian) urbanized African teachers aged 25 to 60 yrs (mean 44.6 ± 9.6 yrs). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-administered 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). After adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, participants with severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15) had higher odds of hypertension defined from ambulatory BP and/or use of antihypertensive medication (odds ratio = 2.19, 95% CI, 1.00–4.90) in comparison to participants with no symptoms. Compared to Caucasians with no depressive symptoms, those with severe symptoms had blunted nocturnal systolic BP drop of 4.7 mmHg (95% CI, −0.5 to 10.0, P = 0.07). In summary, depressive symptoms were associated with the circadian BP profile in black and Caucasian Africans. PMID:22028954

  17. Neonatal family care for 24 hours per day: effects on maternal confidence and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Wataker, Heidi; Meberg, Alf; Nestaas, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    In family care (FC) program for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), parents are encouraged to reside together with their infant for 24 hours a day to actively be involved in the care. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of FC on maternal confidence and breast-feeding. Maternal confidence and rate of breast-feeding were assessed in 31 mothers offered FC that included special family rooms in the NICU, and in 30 mothers from a comparable NICU providing traditional care without such facilities. One week prior to hospital discharge, mothers in the FC group felt better informed regarding nursing issues and had more confidence in interpretation of the infants regarding feeding issues and in caregiving without staff attendance (P < .05). They also reported a higher level of empowerment (P < .05). Three months after discharge, the mothers in the FC group had a higher self-reported skill level for interpretation of the infant's signals and knowledge about breast-feeding (P < .05). Despite similar rate of breast-feeding at discharge, more infants in the FC group were breastfed 3 months after discharge (P < .05). An FC program in the NICU promoted better maternal confidence during the hospital stay and 3 months after discharge compared with traditional care.

  18. Importance of all movement behaviors in a 24 hour period for overall health.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Carson, Valerie; Gray, Casey E; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-12-01

    Physical inactivity and childhood obesity are well-recognized public health concerns that are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes. Historically, the benefits of physical activity (e.g., moderate-to-vigorous physical activity-MVPA) to overall health have dominated discussions and emerging evidence indicates that a broader, more integrated approach is needed to better understand and address current public health crises. Existing guidelines for children and youth around the world only focus on MVPA, and recently sedentary behavior, despite an accumulating body of evidence showing that light-intensity physical activity (LPA) such as walking can provide important health benefits. Furthermore, there is accumulating support for the importance of adequate sleep and that these behaviors moderate the health impact of each other. Ignoring the other components of the movement continuum (i.e., sleep, sedentary time, LPA) while focusing efforts exclusively on MVPA (accounting for <5% of the time in a 24 h period) limits the potential to optimize the health benefits of movement behaviors. In order to address this limitation, experts in Canada are currently developing the world's first Integrated 24 Hour Movement Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth to help advance an integrated healthy active living agenda that has the potential to significantly improve the overall health and well-being of children and youth. PMID:25485978

  19. Sodium Excretion and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katherine T.; Chen, Jing; Yang, Wei; Appel, Lawrence J.; Kusek, John W.; Alper, Arnold; Delafontaine, Patrice; Keane, Martin G.; Mohler, Emile; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Ricardo, Ana C.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Steigerwalt, Susan; Townsend, Raymond; He, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. Prior studies have produced contradictory results on the association of dietary sodium intake with risk of CVD, and this relationship has not been investigated in patients with CKD. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between urinary sodium excretion and clinical CVD events among patients with CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study of patients with CKD from 7 locations in the United States enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study and followed up from May 2003 to March 2013. EXPOSURES The cumulative mean of urinary sodium excretion from three 24-hour urinary measurements and calibrated to sex-specific mean 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES A composite of CVD events defined as congestive heart failure, stroke, ormyocardial infarction. Events were reported every 6 months and confirmed by medical record adjudication. RESULTS Among 3757 participants (mean age, 58 years; 45% women), 804 composite CVD events (575 heart failure, 305 myocardial infarction, and 148 stroke) occurred during a median 6.8 years of follow-up. From lowest (<2894 mg/24 hours) to highest (≥4548 mg/24 hours) quartile of calibrated sodium excretion, 174, 159, 198, and 273 composite CVD events occurred, and the cumulative incidence was 18.4%, 16.5%, 20.6%, and 29.8% at median follow-up. In addition, the cumulative incidence of CVD events in the highest quartile of calibrated sodium excretion compared with the lowest was 23.2% vs 13.3% for heart failure, 10.9% vs 7.8% for myocardial infarction, and 6.4% vs 2.7% for stroke at median follow-up. Hazard ratios of the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.09–1.70; P = .007) for composite CVD events, 1.34 (95% CI, 1.03–1.74; P = .03) for heart failure, and 1.81 (95% CI, 1.08–3.02; P = .02) for

  20. A 24-HOUR AMBULATORY ECG MONITORING IN ASSESSMENT OF QT INTERVAL DURATION AND DISPERSION IN ROWERS WITH PHYSIOLOGICAL MYOCARDIAL HYPERTROPHY

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Z.F.; Bilalova, R.R.; Tsibulkin, N.A.; Almetova, R.R.; Mudarisova, R.R.; Ahmetov, I.I.

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial hypertrophy (MH) due to cardiac pathology is characterized by an increase in QT interval duration and dispersion, while the findings for exercise-induced myocardial hypertrophy are contradictory. The majority of published research findings have not explored this relationship, but there have only been a few conducted studies using 24-hour ECG monitoring. The aim of the study was to determine the QT interval duration and dispersion in short-term and 24-hour ECG in endurance athletes with myocardial hypertrophy and without it. Methods: A total of 26 well-trained rowers underwent a resting 12-lead ECG, 24-hour ECG monitoring and echocardiography. Results: Athletes with MH (n = 7) at rest did not show any increase in QTc interval duration and dispersion, or mean and maximal QTc duration in Holter monitoring compared to athletes without MH (n = 19). Left ventricular mass was not significantly correlated with any QTc characteristics. Furthermore, athletes with MH had significantly longer mean QT (P = 0.01) and maximal QT (P = 0.018) intervals in Holter monitoring and higher 24-hour heart rate variability indexes due to stronger vagal effects. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that athlete's heart syndrome with myocardial hypertrophy as a benign phenomenon does not lead to an increase in QT interval duration, or increases in maximal and mean duration in a 24-hour ECG. An increase in QT interval duration in athletes may have an autonomic nature. PMID:24744494

  1. Comparison of 24-hour Holter Monitoring with 14-day Novel Adhesive Patch Electrocardiographic Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Paddy M.; Komatireddy, Ravi; Haaser, Sharon; Topol, Sarah; Sheard, Judith; Encinas, Jackie; Fought, Angela J.; Topol, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiac arrhythmias are remarkably common and routinely go undiagnosed because they are often transient and asymptomatic. Effective diagnosis and treatment can substantially reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac arrhythmias. The Zio Patch (iRhythm Technologies, Inc, San Francisco, Calif) is a novel, single-lead electrocardiographic (ECG), lightweight, Food and Drug Administration–cleared, continuously recording ambulatory adhesive patch monitor suitable for detecting cardiac arrhythmias in patients referred for ambulatory ECG monitoring. METHODS A total of 146 patients referred for evaluation of cardiac arrhythmia underwent simultaneous ambulatory ECG recording with a conventional 24-hour Holter monitor and a 14-day adhesive patch monitor. The primary outcome of the study was to compare the detection arrhythmia events over total wear time for both devices. Arrhythmia events were defined as detection of any 1 of 6 arrhythmias, including supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation/flutter, pause greater than 3 seconds, atrioventricular block, ventricular tachycardia, or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. McNemar’s tests were used to compare the matched pairs of data from the Holter and the adhesive patch monitor. RESULTS Over the total wear time of both devices, the adhesive patch monitor detected 96 arrhythmia events compared with 61 arrhythmia events by the Holter monitor (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS Over the total wear time of both devices, the adhesive patch monitor detected more events than the Holter monitor. Prolonged duration monitoring for detection of arrhythmia events using single-lead, less-obtrusive, adhesive-patch monitoring platforms could replace conventional Holter monitoring in patients referred for ambulatory ECG monitoring. PMID:24384108

  2. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and 24-Hour Blood Pressure Pattern Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, William B.; Kutner, Michael; Ouslander, Joseph G.; Bliwise, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Background To examine the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and 24-hour blood pressure (BP) pattern among community-dwelling older adults. Methods A convenience sample of 70 community-dwelling older adults, recruited from senior housing, community centers, and learning centers, were admitted to General Clinical Research Center, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Ga. Information regarding demographic and clinical history was obtained using questionnaires. Twenty-four–hour BP monitoring in supine position was performed using Spacelabs model 20207. Breathing during sleep was monitored with the use of a modified sleep recording system (Embletta, PDS), which monitors nasal and oral airflow, chest and abdominal movements, and pulse oximetry. Night time–daytime (night-day) BP ratio (average night-time BP divided by daytime BP) was calculated both for systolic and diastolic BPs. Results Sixty-nine participants, mean age 74.9 ± 6.4 years (41 [57%] women), completed the study. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 13 ± 13 per hour of sleep, and 20 participants (29%) had AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep, indicating moderate to severe SDB. Moderate to severe SDB (AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep) was significantly associated with nocturnal hypertension, whereas there was no statistically significant difference in wake-time BP between those with and without moderate to severe SDB. Stepwise multiple regressions showed that AHI independently predicted increased night-day systolic and night-day diastolic BP ratio, even after controlling for nocturia frequency. Conclusions The results indicate increased BP load associated with increased AHI in this group of older adults. This increased BP load may contribute to increased hypertension-related morbidity and disease burden. PMID:19196901

  3. Methodology for adding glycemic index and glycemic load values to 24-hour dietary recall database

    PubMed Central

    Olendzki, Barbara C.; Ma, Yunsheng; Culver, Annie L.; Ockene, Ira S.; Griffith, Jennifer A.; Hafner, Andrea R.; Hebert, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives We describe a method of adding the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values to the nutrient database of the 24-hour dietary recall interview (24HR), a widely used dietary assessment. We also calculated daily GI and GL values from the 24HR. Methods Subjects were 641 healthy adults from central Massachusetts who completed 9067 24HRs. The 24HR-derived food data were matched to the International Table of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Values. The GI values for specific foods not in the table were estimated against similar foods according to physical and chemical factors that determine GI. Mixed foods were disaggregated into individual ingredients. Results Of 1261 carbohydrate-containing foods in the database, GI values of 602 foods were obtained from a direct match (47.7%), accounting for 22.36% of dietary carbohydrate. GI values from 656 foods (52.1%) were estimated, contributing to 77.64% of dietary carbohydrate. The GI values from three unknown foods (0.2%) could not be assigned. The average daily GI was 84 (SD 5.1, white bread as referent) and the average GL was 196 (SD 63). Conclusion Using this methodology for adding GI and GL values to nutrient databases, it is possible to assess associations between GI and/or GL and body weight and chronic disease outcomes (diabetes, cancer, heart disease). This method can be used in clinical and survey research settings where 24HRs are a practical means for assessing diet. The implications for using this methodology compel a broader evaluation of diet with disease outcomes. PMID:17029903

  4. Usability of a smartphone food picture app for assisting 24-hour dietary recall: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Benjamin T.; Bilgiç, Pelin; Orr, Barron J.; Suzuki, Asuka; Kim, Angela Sarah; Merchant, Nirav C.; Roe, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The Recaller app was developed to help individuals record their food intakes. This pilot study evaluated the usability of this new food picture application (app), which operates on a smartphone with an embedded camera and Internet capability. SUBJECTS/METHODS Adults aged 19 to 28 years (23 males and 22 females) were assigned to use the Recaller app on six designated, nonconsecutive days in order to capture an image of each meal and snack before and after eating. The images were automatically time-stamped and uploaded by the app to the Recaller website. A trained nutritionist administered a 24-hour dietary recall interview 1 day after food images were taken. Participants' opinions of the Recaller app and its usability were determined by a follow-up survey. As an evaluation indicator of usability, the number of images taken was analyzed and multivariate Poisson regression used to model the factors determining the number of images sent. RESULTS A total of 3,315 food images were uploaded throughout the study period. The median number of images taken per day was nine for males and 13 for females. The survey showed that the Recaller app was easy to use, and 50% of the participants would consider using the app daily. Predictors of a higher number of images were as follows: greater interval (hours) between the first and last food images sent, weekend, and female. CONCLUSIONS The results of this pilot study provide valuable information for understanding the usability of the Recaller smartphone food picture app as well as other similarly designed apps. This study provides a model for assisting nutrition educators in their collection of food intake information by using tools available on smartphones. This innovative approach has the potential to improve recall of foods eaten and monitoring of dietary intake in nutritional studies. PMID:25861429

  5. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. Results: The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. Conclusion: The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses

  6. Sex differences in 24-hour ultra-marathon performance - A retrospective data analysis from 1977 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Laura; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the changes in running performance and the sex differences between women and men in 24-hour ultra-marathons held worldwide from 1977 to 2012. METHOD: Changes in running speed and ages of the fastest 24-hour ultra-marathoners were determined using single- and multi-level regression analyses. RESULTS: From 1977 to 2012, the sex differences in 24-hour ultra-marathon performance were 4.6±0.5% for all women and men, 13.3% for the annual fastest finishers, 12.9±0.8% for the top 10 and 12.2±0.4% for the top 100 finishers. Over time, the sex differences decreased for the annual fastest finishers to 17%, for the annual 10 fastest finishers to 11.3±2.2% and for the annual 100 fastest finishers to 14.2±1.8%. For the annual fastest men, the age of peak running speed increased from 23 years (1977) to 53 years (2012). For the annual 10 and 100 fastest men, the ages of peak running speed were unchanged at 40.9±2.5 and 44.4±1.1 years, respectively. For women, the ages of the annual fastest, the annual 10 fastest and the annual 100 fastest remained unchanged at 43.0±6.1, 43.2±2.6 and 43.8±0.8 years, respectively. CONCLUSION: The gap between the annual top, annual top 10 and annual top 100 female and male 24-hour ultra-marathoners decreased over the last 35 years; however, it seems unlikely that women will outrun men in 24-hour ultra-marathons in the near future. The fastest 24-hour ultra-marathoners worldwide achieved their peak performance at the age of master athletes (>35 years). PMID:24473558

  7. [Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide level and urinary fractional sodium excretion (FENa) in patients with chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Czekalski, S

    1990-12-01

    The aim of the study was the search for the correlation between the degree of impairment renal function (measured by creatinine clearance) and plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and urinary fractional sodium excretion (FENa) in patients with chronic renal diseases. Forty seven patients were studied: 10 with diminished renal reserve (group I), 10 with renal insufficiency (group II), 27 with renal failure (group III) and 10 chronically haemodialysed before dialysis (group IV). Control group consisted of 27 healthy persons. All patients and controls were on the diet containing 100-120 mmol sodium daily. Plasma ANP levels were significantly higher in all groups of patients (I--16.5 +/- 5.7; II--40.7 +/- 18.6; III--86.2 +/- 49.9; IV--196.1 +/- 51.3 pmol/l, respectively) than in controls (10.8 +/- 6.0 pmol/l). A significant correlation (r = 0.85; p less than 0.01) between plasma ANP concentration and FENa was found when the patients from all groups were pooled together. The results confirm the important role of ANP in the adaptation of reduced kidney mass to the excretion of sodium load.

  8. Circadian (about 24-hour) variation in malondialdehyde content and catalase activity of mouse erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sani, Mamane; Sebai, Hichem; Ghanem-Boughanmi, Néziha; Boughattas, Naceur A; Ben-Attia, Mossadok

    2015-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation is a part of normal metabolism that may cause biological molecule damage leading to the formation of several specific metabolites that include aldehydes of variable chains, such as malondialdehyde (MDA). These biological effects are controlled in vivo by a wide spectrum of enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense mechanisms among which catalase (CAT) is considered as an important regulator of oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between the temporal patterns of the formation of MDA and the activity of CAT in the erythrocytes of mice. Twenty-four-hour studies were performed on male Swiss albino mice, 12 weeks old, synchronized to a 12:12 light: dark cycle for 3 weeks. Different and comparable groups of animals (n = 10) were sacrificed at an interval of 4 hours (1, 5, 9, 13, 17, and 21 hours after light onset (HALO)). The levels of erythrocyte MDA concentration and CAT activity both significantly (analysis of variance: F = 6.4, P < 0.002) varied according to the time of sampling under non-stressed conditions. The characteristics of the waveform describing the temporal patterns differed between the two studied variables, e.g. MDA content showing one peak (≅21 HALO) and CAT activity showing three peaks (≅9, 17, and 21 HALO). Cosinor analysis revealed a significant (adjusted Cosinor: P ≤ 0.018) circadian (τ ≅ 24 hours) rhythm in MDA level and no statistically significant rhythmicity in CAT activity. The differences and the absence of correlation between the curve patterns of erythrocyte MDA content and CAT activity under physiological conditions are hypothesized to explain that variation in lipid peroxidation may depend on several factors. Moreover, the identification of peak/trough levels of MDA accumulation in erythrocytes may reflect the degree of oxidative stress in these blood cells. In addition, the observed significant time-of-day effect suggests that, in both clinical and scientific

  9. Characterisation of sleep in intensive care using 24-hour polysomnography: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many intensive care patients experience sleep disruption potentially related to noise, light and treatment interventions. The purpose of this study was to characterise, in terms of quantity and quality, the sleep of intensive care patients, taking into account the impact of environmental factors. Methods This observational study was conducted in the adult ICU of a tertiary referral hospital in Australia, enrolling 57 patients. Polysomnography (PSG) was performed over a 24-hour period to assess the quantity (total sleep time: hh:mm) and quality (percentage per stage, duration of sleep episode) of patients' sleep while in ICU. Rechtschaffen and Kales criteria were used to categorise sleep. Interrater checks were performed. Sound pressure and illuminance levels and care events were simultaneously recorded. Patients reported on their sleep quality in ICU using the Richards Campbell Sleep Questionnaire and the Sleep in Intensive Care Questionnaire. Data were summarised using frequencies and proportions or measures of central tendency and dispersion as appropriate and Cohen's Kappa statistic was used for interrater reliability of the sleep data analysis. Results Patients' median total sleep time was 05:00 (IQR: 02:52 to 07:14). The majority of sleep was stage 1 and 2 (medians: 19 and 73%) with scant slow wave and REM sleep. The median duration of sleep without waking was 00:03. Sound levels were high (mean Leq 53.95 dB(A) during the day and 50.20 dB(A) at night) and illuminance levels were appropriate at night (median <2 lux) but low during the day (median: 74.20 lux). There was a median 1.7 care events/h. Patients' mean self-reported sleep quality was poor. Interrater reliability of sleep staging was highest for slow wave sleep and lowest for stage 1 sleep. Conclusions The quantity and quality of sleep in intensive care patients are poor and may be related to noise, critical illness itself and treatment events that disturb sleep. The study highlights the

  10. Analysis of 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kun-Tai; Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Weng, Wen-Chin; Lee, Pei-Lin; Hsu, Wei-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, we aimed to verify associations between ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a hospital-based population. This was a cross-sectional observational study on children aged 4 to 16 years with OSA-related symptoms from a tertiary referral medical center. All children received overnight polysomnography and 24-hour recording of ABP. Severity of the disease was classified as primary snoring (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI <1), mild OSA (AHI 1–5), and moderate-to-severe OSA (AHI >5). For 195 children enrolled in this study (mean age, 7.8 ± 3.4 years; 69% boy), ABP increased as severity of OSA increased. During daytime, children with moderate-to-severe OSA had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (BP) (117.0 ± 12.7 vs 110.5 ± 9.3 mmHg), mean arterial pressure (MAP) (85.6 ± 8.1 vs 81.6 ± 6.8 mmHg), and diastolic BP load (12.0 ± 9.6 vs 8.4 ± 10.9 mmHg) compared with children with primary snoring. During nighttime, children with moderate-to-severe OSA had significantly higher systolic BP (108.6 ± 15.0 vs 100.0 ± 9.4 mmHg), MAP (75.9 ± 9.6 vs 71.1 ± 7.0 mmHg), systolic BP load (44.0 ± 32.6 vs 26.8 ± 24.5 mmHg), systolic BP index (0.5 ± 13.1 vs −6.8 ± 8.5 mmHg), and higher prevalence of systolic hypertension (47.6% vs 14.7 %) compared with children with primary snoring. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed an independent association between AHI and nighttime systolic BP and MAP after adjusting for adiposity variables. This large hospital-based study showed that children with moderate-to-severe OSA had a higher ABP compared with children who were primary snorers. As elevated BP in childhood predicts future cardiovascular risks, children with severe OSA should be treated properly to prevent further adverse cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:26448004

  11. Value of 24-hour Delayed Film of Barium Enema for Evaluation of Colon Transit Function in Young Children with Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ha Yeong; Son, Jae Sung; Park, Hye Won; Kwak, Byung Ok; Kim, Hyeong Su; Bae, Sun Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims A colon transit time test using radio-opaque markers (CTTRM) is considered the gold standard for evaluating colon transit function. A 24-hour delayed film of barium enema (BE) has been used as a supplementary method in structural evaluations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a 24-hour delayed BE film for assessing colon transit function in young children with constipation. Methods In total, 93 children with constipation who performed both single-contrast BE and CTTRM were enrolled in this study. Of these, the data from 70 children were analyzed (males 33, females 37; mean age [range], 5.63 ± 2.94 [2–14] years). The basic principle of the study is “velocity = distance/time”. Time values were identified in both studies, and the colon length and distance of barium movement were measured on the 24-hour delayed BE film. Thus, colon transit velocity values could be calculated using both methods. The correlation between colon transit velocity using a 24-hour delayed BE film versus CTTRM was analyzed statistically. Results Median value (interquartile range) of colon transit velocity using CTTRM was 1.57 (1.07–2.89) cm/hr, and that using BE of that was 1.58 (0.94–2.07) cm/hr. The Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.438 (P < 0.001) for the overall group. The correlation was strongest in children younger than 4 years (r = 0.537, P = 0.032). Conclusions Although the correlation between BE and CTTRM was not very strong, the 24-hour delayed BE film could provide broad information about colon transit function in young children, especially those under 4 years who usually cannot undergo CTTRM. PMID:26979249

  12. Microleakage of Two Self-Adhesive Cements in the Enamel and Dentin After 24 Hours and Two Months

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Kalantar Motamedi, Mojdeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Microleakage is a main cause of restorative treatment failure. In this study, we compared occlusal and cervical microleakage of two self-adhesive cements after 24 hours and two months. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, class II inlay cavities were prepared on 60 sound human third molars. Composite inlays were fabricated with Z100 composite resin. The teeth were randomly assigned to six groups. RelyX-Arc (control), RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem were used for the first three groups and specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The same cements were used for the remaining three groups, but the specimens were stored for 2 months. The teeth were subjected to 500 thermal cycles (5°C and 55°C) and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then sectioned mesiodistally and dye penetration was evaluated in a class II cavity with occlusal and cervical margins using X20 magnification stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: After 24 hours, cements had significant differences only in cervical margin microleakage (P=0.0001) and microleakage of RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was significantly more than that of RelyX-Arc (both P=0.0001). Cervical microleakage in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was greater than occlusal (P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively). Microleakage was not significantly different between the occlusal and cervical margins after 2 months. Conclusion: Cervical microleakage was greater than occlusal in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem after 24h. The greatest microleakage was reported for the cervical margin of RelyX-Unicem after 24 hours. PMID:25584053

  13. Urinary arsenic speciation profiles in mice subchronically exposed to low concentrations of sodium arsenate in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huijie; Krishnamohan, Manonmanii; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Ng, Jack Chakmeng

    2011-09-01

    Arsenic is a proven human carcinogen. Although the mechanism of its carcinogenicity is still largely unknown, methylation is thought to have an important role to play in arsenic toxicity. In this study, urinary methylation profiles were investigated in female C57BL/6J black mice given drinking water containing 500 μg arsenate (As(V))/L, 250 μg As(V)/L, or 100 μg As(V)/L as sodium arsenate for 2 months. The concentrations of arsenic chosen reflected those in the drinking water often encountered in arsenic-endemic areas. Urine samples were collected from the mice at the end of the exposure period, and the arsenic species were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. All detectable arsenic species showed strong linear correlation with the administered dosage. The methylation patterns were similar in all three groups with a slight decrease of dimethylarsinic acid/As(V) ratio in the 500-μg/L group, which corresponded to the significantly higher arsenic retention in the tissue. The results indicate that urinary arsenic could be used as a good biomarker for internal dose and potential biological effects. Different doses of arsenic exposure could result in different degrees of methylation, excretion, and tissue retention, and this may contribute to the understanding of arsenic carcinogenicity.

  14. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    PubMed

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  15. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children’s discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother’s 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child’s salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  16. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    PubMed

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake.

  17. Histopathological changes of renal tissue following sodium fluoride administration in two consecutive generations of mice. Correlation with the urinary elimination of fluoride.

    PubMed

    Dimcevici Poesina, Nicoleta; Bălălău, Cristian; Nimigean, Vanda Roxana; Nimigean, Victor; Ion, Ion; Baconi, Daniela; Bârcă, Maria; Băran Poesina, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the toxic effects (evaluated as histopathological changes) of sodium fluoride on the kidney in two consecutive generations of NMRI mice. An attempt to correlate the toxicity with the urinary elimination of fluoride has been made, as urinary fluoride excretion has been widely used as an indicator of fluoride intake and exposure. Six mixed (males and females) animal groups have been constituted by dividing the populations of mice derived from pregnant females (named "mothers" 0.5 mg sodium fluoride) treated with 0.5 mg sodium fluoride by daily gavage and pregnant females (named "mothers" 0.25 mg sodium fluoride) treated with 0.25 mg sodium fluoride by daily gavage; three types of sodium fluoride treatments were administrated: homeopathic, allopathic-homeopathic and allopathic. When the animals reached the adulthood, by randomization, they were selected in pairs for giving birth to the second generation of mice. No treatments were administrated to the second generation of mice; thus, the urinary elimination of fluoride in the second generation is attributed to exposure at sodium fluoride before birth. The administration of sodium fluoride to the first generation (F1) is realized until the mice reached the adulthood. For the first generation, the urine was collected at three times, every three weeks: at the age of four weeks, seven weeks and 11 weeks; single sampling urine, at the age of four weeks, has been conducted for the second generation. The urine samples have been analyzed using the ion selective electrode method for fluoride. For the histopathological examination, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation; the kidneys were collected in a 10% formalin solution. The preparation of samples for optical microscopy was realized with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The results indicate that the elimination of fluoride was similar (at the second evaluation, at 7-week-old of the first generation) for the both generations

  18. HOW RELIABLE IS 24 HOUR SERUM LITHIUM LEVEL AFTER A TEST DOSE OF LITHIUM IN PREDICTING OPTIMAL LITHIUM DOSE?

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, K.; Shaji, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY 57% of a group of 35 patients treated with Lithium Carbonate at dosages predicted by the nomogram suggested by Cooper et al (1973) failed to reach therapeutic levels of serum lithium. This finding casts serious doubts on the usefulness of the claim by Cooper et al (1973 & 1976) that 24 hour serum lithium level after a test dose of 600 mg. lithium can predict the daily lithium dose. PMID:21927360

  19. Dipstick Spot urine pH does not accurately represent 24 hour urine PH measured by an electrode

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Mohamed; Sarkissian, Carl; Jianbo, Li; Calle, Juan; Monga, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To determine whether spot urine pH measured by dipstick is an accurate representation of 24 hours urine pH measured by an electrode. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed urine pH results of patients who presented to the urology stone clinic. For each patient we recorded the most recent pH result measured by dipstick from a spot urine sample that preceded the result of a 24-hour urine pH measured by the use of a pH electrode. Patients were excluded if there was a change in medications or dietary recommendations or if the two samples were more than 4 months apart. A difference of more than 0.5 pH was considered an inaccurate result. Results A total 600 patients were retrospectively reviewed for the pH results. The mean difference in pH between spot urine value and the 24 hours collection values was 0.52±0.45 pH. Higher pH was associated with lower accuracy (p<0.001). The accuracy of spot urine samples to predict 24-hour pH values of <5.5 was 68.9%, 68.2% for 5.5 to 6.5 and 35% for >6.5. Samples taken more than 75 days apart had only 49% the accuracy of more recent samples (p<0.002). The overall accuracy is lower than 80% (p<0.001). Influence of diurnal variation was not significant (p=0.588). Conclusions Spot urine pH by dipstick is not an accurate method for evaluation of the patients with urolithiasis. Patients with alkaline urine are more prone to error with reliance on spot urine pH. PMID:27286119

  20. Voluntary feed intake, acid-base balance and partitioning of urinary nitrogen in lambs fed corn silage with added sodium bicarbonate or sodium sesquicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Phillip, L E; Hidalgo, V

    1989-08-01

    An experiment with growing lambs was designed to test the hypothesis that alterations in blood acid-base status would influence intake of corn silage. Six wethers (29 kg) were fed a diet of corn silage (36% DM, 8% CP) supplemented with 1.25% urea and .2% sulfur. At feeding time, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and sodium sesquicarbonate (NaSC) were added to the silage at levels of 0, 2% or 4% of diet DM. The treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial, and the study was conducted as a 6 x 4 incomplete latin square with four 17-d periods. Voluntary intake of OM was not different (P greater than .05) between NaHCO3 (1,008 g/d) and NaSC (1,041 g/d). There was no significant interaction between type of buffer (NaHCO3 or NaSC) and level of buffer on any of the variables measured. The progressive increase in buffer load did not alter feed intake (P greater than .05), although there was a quadratic response (P less than .05) in urine pH and a linear increase (P less than .01) in blood HCO3- 2 h after feeding. There was no evidence that lambs fed corn silage experienced metabolic acid stress. Urinary excretion of ammonia and urea were indicative of changes, although not pronounced, in ammoniuria and ureapoiesis in response to bicarbonate loading. This study implies that corn silage imposes no "acid stress" on lambs and, consequently, that there is no nutritional benefit in adding buffers to corn silage for sheep. PMID:2551870

  1. Increased energy density of the home-delivered lunch meal improves 24-hour nutrient intakes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Silver, Heidi J; Dietrich, Mary S; Castellanos, Victoria H

    2008-12-01

    As food intake declines with aging, older adults develop energy and nutrient inadequacies. It is important to design practical approaches to combat insufficient dietary intakes to decrease risk for acute and chronic diseases, illness, and injury. Manipulating the energy density of meals has improved energy intakes in institutional settings, but the effects on community-residing older adults who are at nutrition risk have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether enhancing the energy density of food items regularly served in a home-delivered meals program would increase lunch and 24-hour energy and nutrient intakes. In a randomized crossover counterbalanced design, 45 older adult Older American Act Nutrition Program participants received a regular and enhanced version of a lunch meal on alternate weeks. The types of foods, portion sizes (gram weight), and appearance of the lunch meal was held constant. Consumption of the enhanced meal increased average lunch energy intakes by 86% (P<0.001) and 24-hour energy intakes by 453 kcal (from 1,423.1+/-62.2 to 1,876.2+/-78.3 kcal, P<0.001). The 24-hour intakes of several key macronutrients and micronutrients also improved. These data suggest that altering the energy density of regularly served menu items is an effective strategy to improve dietary intakes of free-living older adults.

  2. Assessment of 24-hours Aldosterone Administration on Protein Abundances in Fluorescence-Sorted Mouse Distal Renal Tubules by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas B; Pisitkun, Trairak; Hoffert, Jason D; Jensen, Uffe B; Fenton, Robert A; Praetorius, Helle A; Knepper, Mark A; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Aldosterone exerts multiple long-term effects in the distal renal tubules. The aim of this study was to establish a method for identifying proteins in these tubules that change in abundance by only 24-hours aldosterone administration. Methods Mice endogenously expressing green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in the connecting tubule and cortical collecting ducts were treated with a subcutaneous injection of 2.0 mg/kg aldosterone or vehicle (n=5), and sacrificed 24 hours later. Suspensions of single cells were obtained enzymatically, and eGFP positive cells were isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Samples of 100 μg proteins were digested with trypsin and labeled with 8-plex iTRAQ reagents and processed for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results FACS yielded 1.4 million cells per mouse. The LC-MS/MS spectra were matched to peptides by the SEQUEST search algorithm, which identified 3002 peptides corresponding to 506 unique proteins of which 20 significantly changed abundance 24-hours after aldosterone injection. Conclusion We find the method suitable and useful for studying hormonal effects on protein abundance in distal tubular segments. PMID:23428628

  3. Apical membrane permeability and kinetic properties of the sodium pump in rabbit urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, S A; Wills, N K

    1983-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that aldosterone stimulates the rate of Na+ transport across the rabbit urinary bladder epithelium by increasing the apical membrane permeability to Na+. Paradoxically, ion-sensitive and conventional micro-electrode measurements demonstrated that intracellular Na+ activity aiNa+ was essentially unchanged by aldosterone, i.e. aiNa+ was constant regardless of the rate of Na+ transport. The present study was designed to resolve this apparent contradiction. The effects of elevated, endogenous aldosterone levels produced by low-Na+ diet (Lewis & Diamond, 1976) on urinary bladder Na+ transport were investigated in vitro using Ussing-type chambers and intracellular conventional and ion-sensitive microelectrodes. Apical membrane selectivity and kinetics of the Na+ pump were assessed as a function of hormone stimulation. The aldosterone-stimulated increase in Na+ transport was accounted for by increases in both the relative selective permeability of the apical membrane to Na+ and an increase in its absolute Na+ permeability. The kinetics of the Na+ pump were evaluated electrically by loading the cells with Na+ (monitored with Na+-sensitive micro-electrodes) or alternatively by manipulating serosal solution K+ concentration and measuring changes in the basolateral membrane electromotive forces and resistance. From these measurements the current generated by the pump was calculated as a function of intracellular Na+ or extracellular K+. The kinetics of the pump were not altered by aldosterone. A model of highly co-operative binding estimated Km for Na+ as 14.2 mM and 2.3 mM for K+. Hill coefficients for these ions were 2.8 and 1.8, respectively, consistent with a pump stoichiometry of 3 Na+ to 2 K+. The kinetic properties of the Na-K pump indicate that physiological levels of aiNa+ are poised at the foot of a step kinetic curve which energetically favours Na+ extrusion. PMID:6312027

  4. Effects of Potassium Magnesium Citrate Supplementation on 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Oxidative Stress Marker in Prehypertensive and Hypertensive Subjects.

    PubMed

    Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Peri-Okonny, Poghni; Velasco, Alejandro; Arbique, Debbie; Wang, Zhongyun; Ravikumar, Priya; Adams-Huet, Beverly; Moe, Orson W; Pak, Charles Y C

    2016-09-15

    Diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, known as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, is known to reduce blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients. More recently, the DASH diet was shown to reduce oxidative stress in hypertensive and nonhypertensive humans. However, the main nutritional components responsible for these beneficial effects of the DASH diet remain unknown. Because the DASH diet is rich in potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and alkali, we performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to compare effects of potassium magnesium citrate (KMgCit), potassium chloride (KCl), and potassium citrate (KCit) to allow dissociation of the three components of K, Mg, and citrate on 24-hour ambulatory BP and urinary 8-isoprostane in hypertensive and prehypertensive subjects, using a randomized crossover design. We found that KCl supplementation for 4 weeks induced a significant reduction in nighttime SBP compared with placebo (116 ± 12 vs 121 ± 15 mm Hg, respectively, p <0.01 vs placebo), whereas KMgCit and KCit had no significant effect in the same subjects (118 ± 11 and 119 ± 13 mm Hg, respectively, p >0.1 vs placebo). In contrast, urinary 8-isoprostane was significantly reduced with KMgCit powder compared with placebo (13.5 ± 5.7 vs 21.1 ± 10.5 ng/mgCr, respectively, p <0.001), whereas KCl and KCit had no effect (21.4 ± 9.1 and 18.3 ± 8.4, respectively, p >0.1 vs placebo). In conclusion, our study demonstrated differential effects of KCl and KMgCit supplementation on BP and the oxidative stress marker in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects. Clinical significance of the antioxidative effect of KMgCit remains to be determined in future studies. PMID:27448942

  5. Albumin infusion in humans does not model exercise induced hypervolaemia after 24 hours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, A.; Gillen, C. M.; Mack, G. W.; Nadel, E. R.

    1998-01-01

    We rapidly infused 234 +/- 3 mL of 5% human serum albumin in eight men while measuring haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, plasma volume (PV), albumin concentration, total protein concentration, osmolality, sodium concentration, renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and atrial natriuretic peptide concentration to test the hypotheses that plasma volume expansion and plasma albumin content expansion will not persist for 24 h. Plasma volume and albumin content were expanded for the first 6 h after infusion (44.3 +/- 1.9-47.2 +/- 2.0 mL kg-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.1-2.1 +/- 0.1 g kg-1 at pre-infusion and 1 h, respectively, P < 0.05), but by 24 h plasma volume and albumin content decreased significantly from 1 h post-infusion and were not different from pre-infusion (44.8 +/- 1.9 mL kg-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.1 g kg-1, respectively). Plasma aldosterone concentration showed a significant effect of time over the 24 h after infusion (P < 0.05), and showed a trend to decrease at 2 h after infusion (167.6 +/- 32.5(-1) 06.2 +/- 13.4 pg mL-1, P = 0.07). These data demonstrate that a 6.8% expansion of plasma volume and 10.5% expansion of plasma albumin content by infusion does not remain in the vascular space for 24 h and suggest a redistribution occurs between the intravascular space and interstitial fluid space.

  6. Fluid and electrolyte balance during 24-hour fluid and/or energy restriction.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2013-12-01

    Weight categorized athletes use a variety of techniques to induce rapid weight loss (RWL) in the days leading up to weigh in. This study examined the fluid and electrolyte balance responses to 24-hr fluid restriction (FR), energy restriction (ER) and fluid and energy restriction (F+ER) compared with a control trial (C), which are commonly used techniques to induce RWL in weight category sports. Twelve subjects (six male, six female) received adequate energy and water (C) intake, adequate energy and restricted water (~10% of C; FR) intake, restricted energy (~25% of C) and adequate water (ER) intake or restricted energy (~25% of C) and restricted (~10% of C) water intake (F+ER) in a randomized counterbalanced order. Subjects visited the laboratory at 0 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr for blood and urine sample collection. Total body mass loss was 0.33% (C), 1.88% (FR), 1.97% (ER), and 2.44% (F+ER). Plasma volume was reduced at 24 hr during FR, ER, and F+ER, while serum osmolality was increased at 24 hr for FR and F+ER and was greater at 24 hr for FR compared with all other trials. Negative balances of sodium, potassium, and chloride developed during ER and F+ER but not during C and FR. These results demonstrate that 24 hr fluid and/ or energy restriction significantly reduces body mass and plasma volume, but has a disparate effect on serum osmolality, resulting in hypertonic hypohydration during FR and isotonic hypohydration during ER. These findings might be explained by the difference in electrolyte balance between the trials.

  7. Low Response of Renin–Angiotensin System to Sodium Intake Intervention in Chinese Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Weijing; Cai, Qingqing; Yuan, Woliang; Liu, Yu; Bardeesi, Adham Sameer A.; Wang, Jingfeng; Chen, Jie; Huang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The interactions of sodium balance and response of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system are important for maintaining the hemodynamic stability in physiological conditions. However, the influence of short-term sodium intake intervention in the response of renin–angiotensin system (RAS) on hypertensive patients is still unclear. Thus, we conducted a clinical trial to investigate the effects of short-term sodium intake intervention on the response of RAS in hypertensive patients. One hundred twenty-five primary Chinese hypertensive patients were divided into high, moderate, and low sodium groups by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (UNa+). All the patients received a 10-day dietary sodium intake intervention with standardized sodium (173.91mmol/day) and potassium (61.53mmol/day). Blood pressure, urinary sodium, urinary potassium, plasma sodium, potassium, creatinine, the levels of plasma renin activity, plasma angiotensin II concentrations (AT-II), and plasma aldosterone concentrations were detected before and after the intervention. Before the intervention, no differences were found in blood pressure and RAS among 3 groups. After standardized dietary sodium intake intervention, both UNa+ excretion and systolic pressure decreased in high-sodium group, while they increased in moderate and low-sodium groups. Intriguingly, there were no changes in the levels of plasma renin activity, AT-II, and plasma aldosterone concentrations among 3 groups during the intervention. The present study demonstrated that the influenced sodium excretion and blood pressure by short-term sodium intake intervention were independent of RAS quick response in Chinese hypertensive patients. PMID:26871780

  8. Meal-induced 24-hour profile of circulating glycated insulin in type 2 diabetic subjects measured by a novel radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John R; McKillop, Aine M; Mooney, Mark H; Flatt, Peter R; Bell, Patrick M; O'harte, Finbarr P M

    2003-05-01

    Increasing evidence supports a role for glycated insulin in the insulin-resistant state of type 2 diabetes. We measured 24-hour profiles of plasma glycated insulin, using a novel radioimmunoassay (RIA), to evaluate the effects of meal stimulation and intermittent fasting on circulating concentrations of plasma glycated insulin in type 2 diabetes. Patients (n = 6; hemoglobin A(1c) [HbA(1c)], 7.2% +/- 0.6%; fasting plasma glucose, 7.4 +/- 0.7 mmol/L; body mass index [BMI], 35.7 +/- 3.5 kg/m(2); age, 56.3 +/- 4.4 years) were admitted for 24 hours and received a standardized meal regimen. Half-hourly venous samples were taken for plasma glycated insulin, glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations between 8 am and midnight and 2-hourly overnight. The mean plasma glycated insulin concentration over 24 hours was 27.8 +/- 1.2 pmol/L with a mean ratio of insulin:glycated insulin of 11:1. Circulating glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glycated insulin followed a basal and meal-related pattern with most prominent increments following breakfast, lunch, and evening meal, respectively. The mean concentrations of glycated insulin during the morning, afternoon, evening, and night-time periods were 24.4 +/- 2.5, 28.7 +/- 2.3, 31.1 +/- 2.1, and 26.2 +/- 1.5 pmol/L, respectively, giving significantly higher molar ratios of insulin:glycated insulin of 18.0:1, 14.2:1, and 12.7:1 compared with 7.0:1 at night (P <.01 to P <.001). These data demonstrate that glycated insulin circulates at relatively high concentrations in type 2 diabetes with a diurnal pattern of basal and meal-stimulated release. A higher proportion of glycated insulin circulates at night suggestive of differences in metabolic clearance compared with native insulin.

  9. Effects of Fibrinogen Concentrate on Thrombin Generation, Thromboelastometry Parameters, and Laboratory Coagulation Testing in a 24-Hour Porcine Trauma Model

    PubMed Central

    Zentai, Christian; Solomon, Cristina; van der Meijden, Paola E. J.; Spronk, Henri M. H.; Schnabel, Jonas; Rossaint, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In a 24-hour porcine model of liver injury, we showed that fibrinogen supplementation does not downregulate endogenous fibrinogen synthesis. Here we report data from the same study showing the impact of fibrinogen on coagulation variables. Materials and Methods: Coagulopathy was induced in 20 German land race pigs by hemodilution and blunt liver injury. Animals randomly received fibrinogen concentrate (100 mg/kg) or saline. Coagulation parameters were assessed and thromboelastometry (ROTEM) was performed. Results: Fibrinogen concentrate significantly reduced the prolongations of EXTEM clotting time, EXTEM clot formation time, and prothrombin time induced by hemodilution and liver injury. A decrease in clot strength was also ameliorated. Endogenous thrombin potential was significantly higher in the fibrinogen group than in the control group, 20 minutes (353 ± 24 vs 289 ± 22 nmol/L·min; P < .05) and 100 minutes (315 ± 40 vs 263 ± 38 nmol/L·min; P < .05) after the start of infusion. However, no significant between-group differences were seen in other thrombin generation parameters or in d-dimer or thrombin–antithrombin levels. Fibrinogen–platelet binding was reduced following liver injury, with no significant differences between groups. No significant between-group differences were observed in any parameter at ∼12 and ∼24 hours. Conclusion: This study suggests that, in trauma, fibrinogen supplementation may shorten some measurements of the speed of coagulation initiation and produce a short-lived increase in endogenous thrombin potential, potentially through increased clotting substrate availability. Approximately 12 and 24 hours after starting fibrinogen concentrate/saline infusion, all parameters measured in this study were comparable in the 2 study groups. PMID:25948634

  10. The Relationship Between 24-Hour Symptoms and COPD Exacerbations and Healthcare Resource Use: Results from an Observational Study (ASSESS).

    PubMed

    Miravitlles, Marc; Worth, Heinrich; Soler-Cataluña, Juan José; Price, David; De Benedetto, Fernando; Roche, Nicolas; Godtfredsen, Nina S; van der Molen, Thys; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Padullés, Laura; Ribera, Anna

    2016-10-01

    This observational study assessed the relationship between nighttime, early-morning and daytime chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms and exacerbations and healthcare resource use. COPD symptoms were assessed at baseline in patients with stable COPD using a standardised questionnaire during routine clinical visits. Information was recorded on exacerbations and healthcare resource use during the year before baseline and during a 6-month follow-up period. The main objective of the analysis was to determine the predictive nature of current symptoms for future exacerbations and healthcare resource use. 727 patients were eligible (65.8% male, mean age: 67.2 years, % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 52.8%); 698 patients (96.0%) provided information after 6 months. Symptoms in any part of the day were associated with a prior history of exacerbations (all p < 0.05) and nighttime and early-morning symptoms were associated with the frequency of primary care visits in the year before baseline (both p < 0.01). During follow-up, patients with baseline symptoms during any part of the 24-hour day had more exacerbations than patients with no symptoms in each period (all p < 0.05); there was also an association between 24-hour symptoms and the frequency of primary care visits (all p ≤ 0.01). Although there was a significant association between early-morning and daytime symptoms and exacerbations during follow-up (both p < 0.01), significance was not maintained when adjusted for potential confounders. Prior exacerbations were most strongly associated with future risk of exacerbation. The results suggest 24-hour COPD symptoms do not independently predict future exacerbation risk.

  11. Developing a Method to Test the Validity of 24 Hour Time Use Diaries Using Wearable Cameras: A Feasibility Pilot

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Paul; Thomas, Emma; Doherty, Aiden; Harms, Teresa; Burke, Órlaith; Gershuny, Jonathan; Foster, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Self-report time use diaries collect a continuous sequenced record of daily activities but the validity of the data they produce is uncertain. This study tests the feasibility of using wearable cameras to generate, through image prompted interview, reconstructed 'near-objective' data to assess their validity. 16 volunteers completed the Harmonised European Time Use Survey (HETUS) diary and used an Autographer wearable camera (recording images at approximately 15 second intervals) for the waking hours of the same 24-hour period. Participants then completed an interview in which visual images were used as prompts to reconstruct a record of activities for comparison with the diary record. 14 participants complied with the full collection protocol. We compared time use and number of discrete activities from the diary and camera records (using 10 classifications of activity). In terms of aggregate totals of daily time use we found no significant difference between the diary and camera data. In terms of number of discrete activities, participants reported a mean of 19.2 activities per day in the diaries, while image prompted interviews revealed 41.1 activities per day. The visualisations of the individual activity sequences reveal some potentially important differences between the two record types, which will be explored at the next project stage. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using wearable cameras to reconstruct time use through image prompted interview in order to test the concurrent validity of 24-hour activity time-use budgets. In future we need a suitably powered study to assess the validity and reliability of 24-hour time use diaries. PMID:26633807

  12. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 version, for youth aged 9 to 11 Years: A validation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites using a quasiexperimental design. In one s...

  13. Aldosterone-to-Renin Ratio Is Associated With Reduced 24-Hour Heart Rate Variability and QTc Prolongation in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grübler, Martin R.; Kienreich, Katharina; Gaksch, Martin; Verheyen, Nicolas; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó.; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; März, Winfried; Schmid, Johannes; Oberreither, Eva-Maria; Wetzel, Julia; Catena, Cristiana; Sechi, Leonardo A.; Pieske, Burkert; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pilz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aldosterone is considered to exert direct effects on the myocardium and the sympathetic nervous system. Both QT time and heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) are considered to be markers of arrhythmic risk and autonomous dysregulation. In this study, we investigated the associations between aldosterone, QT time, and HRV in patients with arterial hypertension. We recruited 477 hypertensive patients (age: 60.2 ± 10.2 years; 52.3% females) with a mean systolic/diastolic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) value of 128 ± 12.8/77.1 ± 9.2 mmHg and with a median of 2 (IQR: 1–3) antihypertensive agents. Patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Department of Internal Medicine of the Medical University of Graz, Austria. Blood samples, 24-hour HRV derived from 24-hour blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and ECG's were obtained. Plasma aldosterone and plasma renin concentrations were measured by means of a radioimmunoassay. Twenty-four-hour urine specimens were collected in parallel with ABPM. Mean QTc was 423.3 ± 42.0 milliseconds for males and 434.7 ± 38.3 milliseconds for females. Mean 24H-HR and 24H-HRV was 71.9 ± 9.8 and 10.0 ± 3.6 bpm, respectively. In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, ABPM, and current medication, aldosterone to active renin ratio (AARR) was significantly associated with the QTc interval, a marker for cardiac repolarization abnormalities (mean = 426 ± 42.4 milliseconds; β-coefficient = 0.121; P = 0.03) as well as with the 24-hour heart rate variability a surrogate for autonomic dysfunction (median = 9.67 [IQR = 7.38–12.22 bpm]; β-coefficient = −0.133; P = 0.01). In hypertensive patients, AARR is significantly related to QTc prolongation as well as HRV. Further studies investigating the effects of mineralocorticoid receptor blocker and aldosterone synthase inhibitors on QTc and HRV are warranted

  14. A Plaque Disruption Index Identifies Patients with Non-STE-Type 1 Myocardial Infarction within 24 Hours of Troponin Positivity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mohaissen, Maha A.; Carere, Ronald G.; Mancini, G. B. John; Humphries, Karin H.; Whalen, Beth A.; Lee, Terry; Scheuermeyer, Frank X.; Ignaszewski, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Markers of plaque destabilization and disruption may have a role in identifying non-STE- type 1 Myocardial Infarction in patients presenting with troponin elevation. We hypothesized that a plaque disruption index (PDI) derived from multiple biomarkers and measured within 24 hours from the first detectable troponin in patients with acute non-STE- type 1 MI (NSTEMI-A) will confirm the diagnosis and identify these patients with higher specificity when compared to individual markers and coronary angiography. Methods We examined 4 biomarkers of plaque destabilization and disruption: myeloperoxidase (MPO), high-sensitivity interleukin-6, myeloid-related protein 8/14 (MRP8/14) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in 83 consecutive patients in 4 groups: stable non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), stable obstructive CAD, NSTEMI-A (enrolled within 24 hours of troponin positivity), and NSTEMI-L (Late presentation NSTEMI, enrolled beyond the 24 hour limit). The PDI was calculated and the patients’ coronary angiograms were reviewed for evidence of plaque disruption. The diagnostic performance of the PDI and angiography were compared. Results Compared to other biomarkers, MPO had the highest specificity (83%) for NSTEMI-A diagnosis (P<0.05). The PDI computed from PAPP-A, MRP8/14 and MPO was higher in NSTEMI-A patients compared to the other three groups (p<0.001) and had the highest diagnostic specificity (87%) with 79% sensitivity and 86% accuracy, which were higher compared to those obtained with MPO, but did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05 for all comparisons). The PDI had higher specificity and accuracy for NSTEMI-A diagnosis compared to coronary angiography (P<0.05). Conclusions A PDI measured within 24 hour of troponin positivity has potential to identify subjects with acute Non-ST-elevation type 1 MI. Additional evidence using other marker combinations and investigation in a sufficiently large non-selected cohort is warranted

  15. The impact of kidney transplantation on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Min; Ahn, Seung Won; Bae, Myoung Nam; Choi, Bum Soon; Park, Cheol Whee; Kim, Yong-Soo; Yang, Chul Woo; Chung, Byung Ha

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we prospectively investigated the impact of kidney transplantation (KT) on the status of hypertension, including circadian rhythm in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and office BP measurement in 48 patients before and 1 year after KT. According to the nocturnal reduction in systolic BP (ΔSBP), the patients were divided into dippers, non-dippers, and reverse dippers. After KT, the mean BP value in office BP and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring did not change, but the proportion of patients taking anti-hypertensive drugs and the pill number significantly decreased. In contrast, the mean ΔSBP significantly decreased, and the proportion of non-dippers and reverse dippers did not decrease. Decrease in ΔSBP after KT was associated with inferior allograft function during follow-up. Our study suggests that KT improved the overall BP level, but it did not affect abnormal circadian rhythm in ESRD patients. PMID:26051924

  16. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Augments Perceptual Sensitivity and 24-Hour Retention in a Complex Threat Detection Task

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Brian; Coffman, Brian A.; Clark, Vincent P.; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improved performance of a complex visual perceptual learning task (Clark et al. 2012). However, it is not known whether tDCS can enhance perceptual sensitivity independently of non-specific, arousal-linked changes in response bias, nor whether any such sensitivity benefit can be retained over time. We examined the influence of stimulation of the right inferior frontal cortex using tDCS on perceptual learning and retention in 37 healthy participants, using signal detection theory to distinguish effects on perceptual sensitivity (d′) from response bias (ß). Anodal stimulation with 2 mA increased d′, compared to a 0.1 mA sham stimulation control, with no effect on ß. On completion of training, participants in the active stimulation group had more than double the perceptual sensitivity of the control group. Furthermore, the performance enhancement was maintained for 24 hours. The results show that tDCS augments both skill acquisition and retention in a complex detection task and that the benefits are rooted in an improvement in sensitivity (d′), rather than changes in response bias (ß). Stimulation-driven acceleration of learning and its retention over 24 hours may result from increased activation of prefrontal cortical regions that provide top-down attentional control signals to object recognition areas. PMID:22511978

  17. Enhanced carotid-cardiac baroreflex response and elimination of orthostatic hypotension 24 hours after acute exercise in paraplegics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelke, K. A.; Shea, J. D.; Doerr, D. F.; Convertino, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that an acute bout of maximal exercise can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension consequent to prolonged wheelchair confinement, we evaluated heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure responses during 15 minutes of 70 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) in 10 paraplegic subjects 24 hours after arm crank exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, and during a control (no exercise) conditions. Additionally, the carotid baroreceptor stimulus-cardiac response relationship was determined by measurement of R-R interval during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses. One week separated the treatment conditions. The maximum slope of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response was increased (p = 0.049) by exercise (6.2 +/- 1.7 msec/mmHg) compared to control (3.3 +/- 0.6). During control HUT, HR increased from 61 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 7 bpm (p = 0.001) while SBP decreased from 118 +/- 5 to 106 +/- 9 mmHg (p = 0.025). During HUT 24 hours after exercise, HR increased from 60 +/- 2 to 90 +/- 4 bpm (p = 0.001), but the reduction in SBP was essentially eliminated (116 +/- 5 to 113 +/- 5 mmHg).

  18. Transcranial direct current stimulation augments perceptual sensitivity and 24-hour retention in a complex threat detection task.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Brian; Coffman, Brian A; Clark, Vincent P; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improved performance of a complex visual perceptual learning task (Clark et al. 2012). However, it is not known whether tDCS can enhance perceptual sensitivity independently of non-specific, arousal-linked changes in response bias, nor whether any such sensitivity benefit can be retained over time. We examined the influence of stimulation of the right inferior frontal cortex using tDCS on perceptual learning and retention in 37 healthy participants, using signal detection theory to distinguish effects on perceptual sensitivity (d') from response bias (ß). Anodal stimulation with 2 mA increased d', compared to a 0.1 mA sham stimulation control, with no effect on ß. On completion of training, participants in the active stimulation group had more than double the perceptual sensitivity of the control group. Furthermore, the performance enhancement was maintained for 24 hours. The results show that tDCS augments both skill acquisition and retention in a complex detection task and that the benefits are rooted in an improvement in sensitivity (d'), rather than changes in response bias (ß). Stimulation-driven acceleration of learning and its retention over 24 hours may result from increased activation of prefrontal cortical regions that provide top-down attentional control signals to object recognition areas.

  19. Comparison of Interviewer-Administered and Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recalls in 3 Diverse Integrated Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Frances E; Dixit-Joshi, Sujata; Potischman, Nancy; Dodd, Kevin W; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Kushi, Lawrence H; Alexander, Gwen L; Coleman, Laura A; Zimmerman, Thea P; Sundaram, Maria E; Clancy, Heather A; Groesbeck, Michelle; Douglass, Deirdre; George, Stephanie M; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Subar, Amy F

    2015-06-15

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls provide high-quality intake data but have been prohibitively expensive for large epidemiologic studies. This study's goal was to assess whether the web-based Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24) performs similarly enough to the standard interviewer-administered, Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) 24-hour dietary recall to be considered a viable alternative. In 2010-2011, 1,081 adults from 3 integrated health systems in Detroit, Michigan; Marshfield, Wisconsin; and Kaiser-Permanente Northern California participated in a field trial. A quota design ensured a diverse sample by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Each participant was asked to complete 2 recalls and was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 protocols differing by type of recall and administration order. For energy, the mean intakes were 2,425 versus 2,374 kcal for men and 1,876 versus 1,906 kcal for women by AMPM and ASA24, respectively. Of 20 nutrients/food groups analyzed and controlling for false discovery rate, 87% were judged equivalent at the 20% bound. ASA24 was preferred over AMPM by 70% of the respondents. Attrition was lower in the ASA24/AMPM study group than in the AMPM/ASA24 group, and it was lower in the ASA24/ASA24 group than in the AMPM/AMPM group. ASA24 offers the potential to collect high-quality dietary intake information at low cost with less attrition.

  20. Predictors of poor blood pressure control assessed by 24 hour monitoring in patients with type B acute aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Delsart, Pascal; Midulla, Marco; Sobocinski, Jonathan; Achere, Charles; Haulon, Stephan; Claisse, Gonzague; Mounier-Vehier, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The chronic management of post-acute aortic dissection (AD) of the descending aorta (Type B) is based on optimal control of blood pressure (BP), with a target BP < 135/80 mmHg. The aim of our study was to determine and verify effective blood pressure control with an objective measurement method and to identify predicting factors. Methods We collected data from 26 patients hospitalized in the acute phase of a Type B AD between 2006 and 2009. Two groups were defined according to 24 hour BP monitoring results at follow-up. Group 1 consisted of patients with a controlled BP (<130/80 mmHg), and Group 2 consisted of patients with an uncontrolled BP. Results Thirty four percent of patients showed an uncontrolled BP at checkup. Vascular history before AD (P = 0.06), high baseline BP trend (P = 0.01 for systolic and P = 0.08 for diastolic), and greater diameter of the descending aorta (P = 0.02) were associated with poor BP control. Conclusion Prognosis after AD is associated with BP control. Therefore, 24 hour BP monitoring can be made. PMID:22272072

  1. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... a blockage of blood vessels, or other causes Multiple myeloma Healthy people may have higher than normal urine ... Distal Hemolytic anemia Macroglobulinemia of Waldenstrom Microalbuminuria test Multiple myeloma Nephrotic syndrome Proximal Wilson disease Update Date 11/ ...

  2. CT-determined canine kidney and urine iodine concentration following intravenous administration of sodium diatrizoate, metrizamide, iopamidol, and sodium ioxaglate.

    PubMed

    Brennan, R E; Rapoport, S; Weinberg, I; Pollack, H M; Curtis, J A

    1982-01-01

    Following 24-hour fasting and fluid deprivation, sequential changes in CT numbers of the canine kidney were determined in 4 dogs, each of whom received, at intervals, IV sodium diatrizoate, metrizamide, iopamidol, and sodium ioxaglate at a dose of 500 mgI/kg body weight. The urinary bladder was catheterized for baseline determination of urine osmolality and, subsequently, urine volume and CT number, CT number of the bladder urine from 0 to 10 minutes and from 10 to 20 minutes post-injection was obtained by scanning known dilutions of urine in vitro. Peak renal cortical enhancement occurred within 2 minutes of bolus injection and was not dependent on the chemical make-up of the contrast agent. Peak medullary enhancement occurred within 3 minutes of bolus injection. Peak medulla CT number following sodium diatrizoate was significantly less than that following metrizamide (P less than 0.025) or iopamidol (P less than 0.01). Peak medulla CT number was significantly less following sodium diatrizoate (P less than 0.01), metrizamide (P less than 0.01) and iopamidol (P less than 0.05) than following sodium ioxaglate. Urine iodine concentrations followed a similar pattern, with significant differences as follows: sodium diatrizoate less than metrizamide = iopamidol less than sodium ioxaglate. It was concluded that the investigational agents metrizamide, iopamidol, and sodium ioxaglate have theoretical advantage for excretory urography. Differences in renal handling of these agents are detectable, with CT scanning as differences in renal medullary enhancement and urine iodine concentration.

  3. Ultra-Rapid dUT1 Measurements on Japan-Fennoscandian Baselines - Application to 24-hour Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuzaka, Shigeru; Kurihara, Shinobu; Sekido, Mamoru; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rudiger; Ritakari, Jouko; Wagner, Jan

    2010-01-01

    GSI, NICT, OSO, and MRO have been engaged in Ultra-rapid dUT1 experiments since 2007 aiming at the technological possibility of real-time dUT1 results using the e-VLBI technique. We have already successfully determined dUT1 in less than four minutes after the end of an experimental Intensive session in 2008, and at present we routinely get the results within 30 minutes for regular Intensives. In 2009 we applied the technique to 24-hour sessions and continuously obtained dUT1 values by processing and analyzing Tsukuba Onsala data in near real-time. It showed a detailed behavior of UT1 variations, which could be very valuable for scientific study as well as for precise prediction of UT1-UTC.

  4. Tolvaptan Prolongs Blockage of the Vasopressin Type II Receptor Over 24 Hours in Responders With Stage D Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Komuro, Issei

    2016-01-01

    The urine aquaporin-2 (U-AQP2) level relative to the plasma arginine vasopressin (P-AVP) level is a novel predictor of the responsiveness to the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) antagonist tolvaptan (TLV). However, little has been reported about the concentration-time profile of U-AQP2 after TLV treatment. We evaluated 24 patients with decompensated stage D heart failure (HF) who had received 3.75 mg/day of TLV on a de novo basis for > 7 days to treat congestion refractory to conventional diuretics. Seventeen patients were TLV-responders, whose 24-hour urine volume (UV) increased after TLV initiation; the other 7 patients were TLV-non-responders. The U-AQP2 of the TLV-responders, corrected for the urine creatinine concentration, decreased significantly at 4 hours after TLV administration without returning to the day-1 morning level on the morning of day-7. The TLV-non-responder U-AQP2 levels remained low even before the TLV treatment. On the morning of day-7, the TLV-responder U-AQP2/P-AVP ratio was comparable to that of the TLV-non-responders. Among 18 patients (11 responders and 7 non-responders), the day-7 TLV trough concentration was 64 ± 62 ng/mL and was negatively correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). TLV has antagonistic effects on the V2R over 24 hours in TLV-responders with advanced heart failure and chronic kidney disease, probably due to persistently elevated blood TLV concentration. The unresponsiveness to TLV in the TLV-non-responders is not attributable to malabsorption. PMID:26742881

  5. Prognostic Value of the 24-Hour Neurological Examination in Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke: A post hoc Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled Stroke Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Frankel, Michael; Jovin, Tudor G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early prognostication of long-term outcomes following ischemic stroke can facilitate medical decision-making. We hypothesized that the 24-hour National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) predicts 3-month clinical outcomes in anterior circulation stroke. Methods Secondary analyses of the Interventional Management of Stroke 3 (IMS3) and intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) for acute ischemic stroke [National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) IV tPA] trials were performed. In participants with documented 24-hour NIHSS and 3-month Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), the predictive power of the 24-hour NIHSS and 24-hour NIHSS improvement for 3-month outcomes [mRS 0-2 and Barthel Index (BI) ≥95] was assessed. Percentages of good outcome (mRS 0-2 or BI ≥95) at 3, 6, and 12 months and mean quality of life (EQ5D™) index at 3 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were compared. Results The majority of the study participants were included (IMS3 n = 587/656, NINDS IV tPA n = 619/624). The 24-hour NIHSS was correlated with 3-month mRS (R = 0.73) with excellent predictive power for mRS 0-2 [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.91] and BI ≥95 (AUC = 0.9) in both cohorts. A model with the 24-hour NIHSS alone correctly classified 82-84% of patients in both cohorts. The percentages of good outcomes at 3-12 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were similar in both cohorts. mRS 0-2 was achieved by 75.6-77.7% of patients with 24-hour NIHSS ≤11 but by only 1.4-3.6% with 24-hour NIHSS ≥20. The EQ5D index at 3 months varied among NIHSS 0-4 (mean 0.86 ± 0.16), 5-11 (0.77 ± 0.18), and 12-19 (0.59 ± 0.26) quartiles. Conclusions The 24-hour NIHSS strongly predicts long-term stroke outcomes and is associated with quality of life. Its easy availability, reliability, and validity support its use as an early prognostic marker and surrogate of clinical outcome in ischemic stroke. PMID:27051408

  6. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Anita; Bonny, Olivier; Guessous, Idris; Suter, Paolo M.; Conen, David; Erne, Paul; Binet, Isabelle; Gabutti, Luca; Gallino, Augusto; Muggli, Franco; Hayoz, Daniel; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. Design, settings, participants, & measurements Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root–transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dependent variable with a focus on month-specific vitamin D tertiles and serum calcium in the Swiss Survey on Salt Study. Results In total, 624 men and 669 women were studied with mean ages of 49.2 and 47.0 years, respectively (age range=15–95 years). Mean urinary calcium excretion was higher in men than in women (183.05 versus 144.60 mg/24 h; P<0.001). In adjusted models, the association (95% confidence interval) of square root urinary calcium excretion with protein–corrected serum calcium was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.34) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in women and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, −0.11 to 1.29) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in men. Men in the third 25(OH)D3 tertile had higher square root urinary calcium excretion than men in the first tertile (0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 1.63 mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter), and the corresponding association was 0.32 (95% confidence interval, −0.22 to 0.85) mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter in women. These sex differences were more marked under conditions of high urinary sodium or urea excretions. Conclusions There was a positive association of serum calcium with urinary calcium excretion in women but not men. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 was associated with urinary calcium excretion in men but not women. These results suggest important sex differences in the hormonal and dietary control of urinary calcium excretion. PMID:25518946

  7. Sodium

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than 2.4 grams per day. That equals about 1 teaspoon of table salt a day. Reading food labels can help you see how much sodium is in prepared foods. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  8. Daytime cold exposure and salt intake based on nocturnal urinary sodium excretion: A cross-sectional analysis of the HEIJO-KYO study.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Keigo; Obayashi, Kenji; Tone, Nobuhiro; Kurumatani, Norio

    2015-12-01

    Increased cardiovascular incidence in winter is partly explained by higher blood pressure due to cold exposure. Although higher salt intake induced by cold exposure has been reported in mice, the association remains unclear in humans. To investigate the association between salt intake and cold exposure in winter, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 860 elderly subjects (mean ± standard deviation: 72.0 ± 7.1 years). We determined ambient temperature at every 10 min according to indoor temperature measured in the subjects' home, outdoor temperature, and self-administered diary logging time spent outdoors. Salt intake was estimated by nocturnal sodium excretion rate of overnight urine collection. A 1°C lower daytime ambient temperature was significantly associated with a higher urinary sodium excretion rate by 0.07 mmol/h in the subsequent night independent of age, sex, body weight, alcohol intake, calcium channel blocker use, diabetes, household income, estimated glomerular filtration rate, daytime physical activity (p=0.02). After further adjustment for outdoor temperature and day length, the lowest tertile groups of ambient daytime temperature (10.1 ± 2.3°C) showed the nocturnal urinary sodium excretion rate was higher by 14.2% (7.62 vs. 6.54 mmol/h) compared with the highest tertile group (19.3 ± 1.8°C). Higher sodium excretion rate was associated with higher nighttime ambulatory blood pressure (p<0.01) and its lower nocturnal dipping (p<0.01). Significant association between higher salt intake and daytime cold exposure partly explain the mechanism of higher blood pressure in winter, and suggest that a reduction of cold exposure might be effective to decrease salt intake.

  9. Label-free mass spectrometry proteome quantification of human embryonic kidney cells following 24 hours of sialic acid overproduction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cell surface glycoprotein sialylation is one of the most ubiquitous glycan modifications found on higher eukaryotes. The surface sialylation pattern of cells is influenced by the cellular environment but also by the Golgi sialyltransferase activity and flux of metabolites through sialic acid producing pathways. Altered cell surface sialic acid patterns have been observed in several cancers and other pathological conditions. In this experiment we examined the cellular proteomic changes that occur in human embryonic kidney cells after 24 hours of sialic acid overproduction using N-Acetylmannosamine. We utilized high resolution mass spectrometry and label free protein quantification to characterize the relative changes in protein abundance as well as multiple reaction monitoring to quantify the cellular sialic acid levels. Results Using N-Acetylmannosamine we were able to induce sialic acid production to almost 70-fold compared to non-induced control cells. Mass spectrometric analysis of cellular proteome of control and induced cells identified 1802 proteins of which 105 displayed significant changes in abundance. Functional analysis of the resulting relative changes in protein abundance revealed regulation of several cellular pathways including protein transport, metabolic and signaling pathways and remodeling of epithelial adherens junctions. We also identified several physically interacting co-regulated proteins in the set of changed proteins. Conclusions In this experiment we show that increased metabolic flux through sialic acid producing pathway affects the abundance of several protein transport, epithelial adherens junction, signaling and metabolic pathway related proteins. PMID:23915316

  10. Once- and twice-daily bevantolol for systemic hypertension using 24-hour ambulatory intraarterial blood pressure recording.

    PubMed

    Al-Khawaja, I M; Caruana, M P; Prince, H; Whittington, J; Raftery, E B

    1986-11-26

    The antihypertensive efficacy of bevantolol, a selective beta 1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, was evaluated in 17 patients with essential hypertension, using continuous ambulatory intraarterial blood pressure (BP) monitoring. The study compared a twice-daily regimen (titrated dose of 200 to 600 mg/day) with the same amount given in a single daily dose. Within-patient comparisons of mean hourly systolic and diastolic BPs and heart rate showed a highly significant effect with twice-daily therapy (p less than 0.001) for all of the 24 hours. Similar significant results were obtained with a single morning dose. There was no difference between the pattern or extent of BP reduction with the 2 regimens. The decrease in BP after bevantolol persisted during the physiologic tests (rest, tilt, isometric and dynamic exercise). Four patients developed minor side effects with the single morning dose, and only 1 patient with the twice-daily regimen. These effects included tiredness, fatigue and dizziness. Unlike pure beta-blocking agents, bevantolol controlled the early morning increase in BP, lending support to the belief that it possesses vasodilatory properties in addition to beta blockade. These results suggest that bevantolol may be useful as first-line therapy in a once-daily dosage for the treatment of essential hypertension.

  11. A comparison of regression and Bayesian change point analysis for extreme 24hours rainfall in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamruzzaman, M.; Beecham, S.; Metcalfe, A.

    2013-12-01

    We consider monthly extremes rainfall, aggregated over 24 hours, at 24 rainfall station in South Australia (SA). A self-organizing map (SOM) technique is used to draw contours of extreme for this area for each month. The possibility of change in extreme rainfall is investigated in two ways. The first is a multiple regression with time, month, station and their interaction as predictor variables. A confidence interval and for the linear and quadratic effects of time series are given. We have developed a strategy to possible improve prediction of extreme rainfall as a linear combination of original prediction. The dramatic improvement is a consequence of introducing squares and cross product of predictor variables is given in calibration, validation and re-calibration model. The similarity between fitted to the calibration and validation periods suggests that the hydrological process have been relatively stable over the period. The modeling strategy is empirical and will valid for different time period; although, in general, estimated coefficients could change substantially. The second analysis is a Bayesian change's point (BCP) analysis based on deseasonalised extreme data. A univariate BCP is applied in the data averaged over stations and compared with a multivariate BCP applied to the individual station records. The BCP is applied to investigate the possibility of sudden change rather than a smooth trend.

  12. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support. PMID:27398166

  13. Relative prognostic value of rest thallium-201 imaging, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; Nestico, P.F.; Heo, J.; Unwala, A.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-07-01

    Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.

  14. Adrenal catecholamine synthesis rate changes induced by combined thermal and immobilization stress in fed and 24 hour fasted rats.

    PubMed

    Bargiel, Z; Nowicka, H

    1989-01-01

    The combined stress of acute immobilization (IM) at high and low ambient temperature has been used to determine its influence on adrenal catecholamine (CA) content assassed histofluorimetrically in fed and 24 hour fasted rats. The general course of changes obtained after the arrangement of adrenal strips deriving from the adrenals of rats exposed to cold and IM stress (CIMS) at +10 degrees C to -25 degrees C during the different time fragments presented the adrenal CA depletion events followed sometimes by the adrenal CA content increase after the longer stress exposure or/and stronger CIMS and WIMS conditions. It was found that this depletion-stimulated increase of adrenal Ca synthesis rate had been accelerated in 24 h fasted rats compared to satiated ones exposed to the same stress conditions, especially after the CIMS exposure. Moreover the survival time duration at first lethal temperature (-5 degrees C and +45 degrees C) was significantly higher in fasted rats. The possible hypothalamic regulation of adrenal CA synthesis rate accordingly to the actual metabolism needs and beta-adrenoceptor sensitivity changes depending on satiety state have been discussed and the necessity of further investigations concerning the specificity of stress-induced metabolism changes in 24 h starved rats has been suggested.

  15. Hourly thermal load prediction for the next 24 hours by ARIMA, EWMA, LR and an artificial neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Kawashima, Minoru; Dorgan, C.E.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Predicting the thermal load for the next 24 hours is essential for optimal control of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems that use thermal cool storage. It can be useful in minimizing costs and energy in nonstorage systems. A cooperative research project between a US. university and a Japanese corporation investigated four generally used prediction methods to examine the basic models with variations and to compare the accuracy of each model. A cooling and heating seasonal data set with known next-day weather was used to evaluate the accuracy of each prediction method. The results indicate that an artificial neural network (ANN) model produces the most accurate thermal load predictions. After the initial comparisons with a computer-generated data set, the ANN model was applied to two measured building loads from another research project. These sets included typical measurement noise related to continuous field monitoring. The predictions of the next-day cooling load using the ANN prediction model were close to the actual data, even when the next-day weather was forecast. This confirms that the ANN model has sufficient accuracy and is the correct method for practical utilization in HVAC system control, thermal storage optimal control, and load/demand management.

  16. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support. PMID:27398166

  17. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support.

  18. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Carson, Valerie; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dinh, Thy; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Gray, Casey E; Gruber, Reut; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; LeBlanc, Claire; Okely, Anthony D; Olds, Timothy; Pate, Russell R; Phillips, Andrea; Poitras, Veronica J; Rodenburg, Sophie; Sampson, Margaret; Saunders, Travis J; Stone, James A; Stratton, Gareth; Weiss, Shelly K; Zehr, Lori

    2016-06-01

    Leaders from the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, content experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children and youth aged 5-17 years respect the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period). The development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and systematic reviews of evidence informing the guidelines were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Four systematic reviews (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, integrated behaviours) examining the relationships between and among movement behaviours and several health indicators were completed and interpreted by expert consensus. Complementary compositional analyses were performed using Canadian Health Measures Survey data to examine the relationships between movement behaviours and health indicators. A stakeholder survey was employed (n = 590) and 28 focus groups/stakeholder interviews (n = 104) were completed to gather feedback on draft guidelines. Following an introductory preamble, the guidelines provide evidence-informed recommendations for a healthy day (24 h), comprising a combination of sleep, sedentary behaviours, light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Proactive dissemination, promotion, implementation, and evaluation plans have been prepared in an effort to optimize uptake and activation of the new guidelines. Future research should consider the integrated relationships among movement behaviours, and similar integrated guidelines for other age groups should be developed. PMID:27306437

  19. Risk Stratification by 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in 5322 Subjects From 11 Populations

    PubMed Central

    Boggia, José; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Hansen, Tine W.; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Schwedt, Emma; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Filipovský, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; Wang, Jiguang; Ibsen, Hans; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    No previous study addressed whether in the general population estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR [Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula]) adds to the prediction of cardiovascular outcome over and beyond ambulatory blood pressure. We recorded health outcomes in 5322 subjects (median age, 51.8 years; 43.1% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations, who had baseline measurements of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP24) and eGFR. We computed hazard ratios using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Median follow-up was 9.3 years. In fully adjusted models, which included both ABP24 and eGFR, ABP24 predicted (P≤0.008) both total (513 deaths) and cardiovascular (206) mortality; eGFR only predicted cardiovascular mortality (P=0.012). Furthermore, ABP24 predicted (P≤0.0056) fatal combined with nonfatal events as a result of all cardiovascular causes (555 events), cardiac disease (335 events), or stroke (218 events), whereas eGFR only predicted the composite cardiovascular end point and stroke (P≤0.035). The interaction terms between ABP24 and eGFR were all nonsignificant (P≥0.082). For cardiovascular mortality, the composite cardiovascular end point, and stroke, ABP24 added 0.35%, 1.17%, and 1.00% to the risk already explained by cohort, sex, age, body mass index, smoking and drinking, previous cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive drug treatment. Adding eGFR explained an additional 0.13%, 0.09%, and 0.14%, respectively. Sensitivity analyses stratified for ethnicity, sex, and the presence of hypertension or chronic kidney disease (eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2) were confirmatory. In conclusion, in the general population, eGFR predicts fewer end points than ABP24. Relative to ABP24, eGFR is as an additive, not a multiplicative, risk factor and refines risk stratification 2- to 14-fold less. PMID:23172928

  20. Prevalence of Masked Hypertension: a Population-Based Survey in a Large City by Using 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Woong; Choi, Eun-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Nah, Deuk-Young; Shin, Sung-Joon; Gu, Namyi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We estimated the prevalence of hypertension and hypertension subtypes in a large semi-urban city in Korea, using 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a randomly selected sample population. Subjects and Methods A random sample (aged 20-65 years) from a city with an adult population of approximately 600000 was selected by using a list-assisted random digit dialing method. The 24-hour ABPM and conventional blood pressure measurement (CBPM) of these individuals were obtained. Results Among the 496 participants, valid 24-hour ABPM and CBPM were obtained from 462 (93%) individuals. The estimated prevalence of hypertension in Goyang was 17.54% by CBPM and 32.70% by 24-hour ABPM (p<0.01). In the age stratified analysis, both CBPM and 24-hour ABPM showed increased prevalence of hypertension with age. The estimated prevalence of masked hypertension was 16.22% and that of white-coat hypertension was 1.08%. Men had a higher prevalence of masked hypertension than women (20.79% vs. 11.86%, p=0.0295). The estimated prevalence of masked hypertension was 17.5%, 20.58%, 24.34%, and 13.29% in the age categories of 30s, 40s, 50s, and 60s, respectively. The estimated prevalence of masked uncontrolled hypertension was 26.79% in patients with hypertension who were taking antihypertensive medications. Conclusion The estimated prevalence of hypertension by 24-hour ABPM was higher than that by CBPM, revealing high prevalence of masked hypertension. The high prevalence of masked hypertension supports the adoption of ABPM in the national population survey and clinical practice to improve public health and reduce health care costs. PMID:27721860

  1. Accuracy of children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-hour dietary recalls) differs by retention interval

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Guinn, Caroline H.; Royer, Julie A.; Hardin, James W.; Mackelprang, Alyssa J.; Smith, Albert F.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objectives Validation-study data were analyzed to investigate the effect of retention interval (time between the to-be-reported meal and interview) on accuracy of children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports in 24-hour recalls, and to compare accuracy of children's school-breakfast reports for two breakfast locations (classroom; cafeteria). Subjects/Methods Each of 374 fourth-grade children was interviewed to obtain a 24-hour recall using one of six conditions from crossing two target periods (prior 24 hours; previous day) with three interview times (morning; afternoon; evening). Each condition had 62 or 64 children (half boys). A recall's target period included one school breakfast and one school lunch, for which the child had been observed. Food-item variables (observed number; reported number; omission rate; intrusion rate) and energy variables (observed; reported; report rate; correspondence rate; inflation ratio) were calculated for each child for school breakfast and school lunch separately. Results Accuracy for school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports was inversely related to retention interval. Specifically, as indicated by smaller omission rates, smaller intrusion rates, larger correspondence rates, and smaller inflation ratios, accuracy for school-breakfast reports was best for prior-24-hour recalls in the morning, and accuracy for school-lunch reports was best for prior-24-hour recalls in the afternoon. For neither school meal was a significant sex effect found for any variable. For school-breakfast reports, there was no significant school-breakfast location effect for any variable. Conclusions By shortening the retention interval, accuracy can be improved for school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports in children's 24-hour recalls. PMID:19756033

  2. Computerized portion-size estimation compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls for measurement of fat, fruit, and vegetable intake in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Toobert, Deborah J; Strycker, Lisa A; Hampson, Sarah E; Westling, Erika; Christiansen, Steven M; Hurley, Thomas G; Hébert, James R

    2011-10-01

    Validated self-report methods of dietary assessment exist and might be improved in terms of both accuracy and cost-efficiency with computer technology. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop an initial version of an interactive CD-ROM program to estimate fruit, vegetable, and fat intake, and to compare it to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (averaged over 3 days). In 2009, overweight male and female adults (n=205) from Lane County, OR, completed computerized and paper versions of fruit, vegetable, and fat screening instruments, and multiple 24-hour dietary recalls. Summary scores from the 10-item National Cancer Institute Fruit and Vegetable Scan and the 18-item Block Fat Screener were compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake estimates (criterion measures). Measurement models were used to derive deattenuated correlations with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls of paper and CD-ROM administrations of Fruit and Vegetable Scan fruit intake, vegetable intake, and fruit and vegetable intake, and Block Fat Screener fat intake. The computerized assessment and paper surveys were related to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 to 0.73 (all P≤0.0001). The CD-ROM-derived estimate of fruit intake was more closely associated with 24-hour dietary recall (r=0.73) than the paper-derived estimate (r=0.54; P<0.05), but the other comparisons did not differ significantly. Findings from this preliminary study with overweight adults indicate the need for additional enhancements to the CD-ROM assessment and more extensive validation studies.

  3. Computerized portion-size estimation compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls for measurement of fat, fruit, and vegetable intake in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Toobert, Deborah J; Strycker, Lisa A; Hampson, Sarah E; Westling, Erika; Christiansen, Steven M; Hurley, Thomas G; Hébert, James R

    2011-10-01

    Validated self-report methods of dietary assessment exist and might be improved in terms of both accuracy and cost-efficiency with computer technology. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop an initial version of an interactive CD-ROM program to estimate fruit, vegetable, and fat intake, and to compare it to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (averaged over 3 days). In 2009, overweight male and female adults (n=205) from Lane County, OR, completed computerized and paper versions of fruit, vegetable, and fat screening instruments, and multiple 24-hour dietary recalls. Summary scores from the 10-item National Cancer Institute Fruit and Vegetable Scan and the 18-item Block Fat Screener were compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake estimates (criterion measures). Measurement models were used to derive deattenuated correlations with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls of paper and CD-ROM administrations of Fruit and Vegetable Scan fruit intake, vegetable intake, and fruit and vegetable intake, and Block Fat Screener fat intake. The computerized assessment and paper surveys were related to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 to 0.73 (all P≤0.0001). The CD-ROM-derived estimate of fruit intake was more closely associated with 24-hour dietary recall (r=0.73) than the paper-derived estimate (r=0.54; P<0.05), but the other comparisons did not differ significantly. Findings from this preliminary study with overweight adults indicate the need for additional enhancements to the CD-ROM assessment and more extensive validation studies. PMID:21963026

  4. Jack Healy Remembers - Anecdotal Evidence for the Origin of the Approximate 24-hour Urine Sampling Protocol Used for Worker Bioassay Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2008-10-01

    The origin of the approximate 24-hour urine sampling protocol used at Hanford for routine bioassay is attributed to an informal study done in the mid-1940s. While the actual data were never published and have been lost, anecdotal recollections by staff involved in the initial bioassay program design and administration suggest that the sampling protocol had a solid scientific basis. Numerous alternate methods for normalizing partial day samples to represent a total 24-hour collection have since been proposed and used, but no one method is obviously preferred.

  5. Reproducibility of blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions: the GenSalt study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dongfeng; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Jing; Chen, Ji-Chun; Huang, Jianfeng; Bazzano, Lydia A; Lu, Fanghong; Mu, Jianjun; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Mills, Katherine; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Rice, Treva; Hamm, L Lee; He, Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions vary among individuals. We studied the long-term reproducibility of blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium intake. We repeated the dietary sodium and potassium interventions among 487 Chinese adults 4.5 years after the original dietary intervention. The identical dietary intervention protocol, which included a 7-day low-sodium feeding (51.3 mmol/d), a 7-day high-sodium feeding (307.8 mmol/d), and a 7-day high-sodium feeding with oral potassium supplementation (60.0 mmol/d), was applied in both the initial and repeated studies. Three blood pressure measurements were obtained during each of the 3 days of baseline observation and on days 5, 6, and 7 of each intervention period. The results from the 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium showed excellent compliance with the study diet. Blood pressure responses to dietary intervention in the original and repeated studies were highly correlated. For example, the correlation coefficients (95% confidence interval) for systolic blood pressure levels were 0.77 (0.73-0.80) at baseline, 0.79 (0.75-0.82) during low sodium, 0.80 (0.77-0.83) during high sodium, and 0.82 (0.79-0.85) during high sodium and potassium supplementation interventions (all P<0.0001). The correlation coefficients for systolic blood pressure changes were 0.37 (0.29-0.44) from baseline to low sodium, 0.37 (0.29-0.44) from low to high sodium, and 0.28 (0.20-0.36) from high sodium to high sodium plus potassium supplementation (all P<0.0001). These data indicate that blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions have long-term reproducibility and stable characteristics in the general population.

  6. Comparison of gastric body and antral pH: a 24 hour ambulatory study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    McLauchlan, G; Fullarton, G M; Crean, G P; McColl, K E

    1989-05-01

    Simultaneous ambulatory records of gastric antral and body pH were made over 24 hours in nine healthy volunteers by means of endoscopically positioned and anchored glass electrodes. Intragastric pH was temporarily raised after the endoscopy with the median pH value 30 minutes after the procedure being 3.9 (range 1.5-7.0) for the antrum and 4.1 (range 1.5-7.0) for the body. Daytime pH (median pH value between 12 00 h and 23 00 h) was lower in the antrum (median = 1.9, range 1.6-2.6) than in the body (median = 2.7, range 1.8-4.5) (p less than 0.05) and this was because of the rise in pH on eating being less marked in the antrum than in the body. The median peak pH recorded during the evening meal was only 4.1 (range 2.4-6.2) in the antrum compared with 6.3 (range 4.4-6.7) in the body (p less than 0.01). Preprandial pH (median value over the hour prior to the evening meal) was similar in the antrum (median = 1.9, range 1.2-2.5) and body (median = 1.9, range 1.3-2.8). Night-time pH (median pH value between 23 00 h and 05 00 h) in six subjects remained low and was similar in the antrum (median = 1.4, range 1.2-1.7) and body (median = 1.3, range 1.1-1.7). In two subjects, however, there were episodes of raised night-time pH which were more marked in the antrum than in the body. Antral biopsies showed gastritis in four of the nine normal volunteers, which in three was associated with the presence of campylobacter-like organisms. This study shows the significant regional variations in day and night-time intragastric pH.

  7. Perfusion-CT - Can We Predict Acute Pancreatitis Outcome within the First 24 Hours from the Onset of Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Pieńkowska, Joanna; Gwoździewicz, Katarzyna; Skrobisz-Balandowska, Katarzyna; Marek, Iwona; Kostro, Justyna; Szurowska, Edyta; Studniarek, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is still a significant clinical problem which is associated with a highly mortality. The aim of this study was the evaluation of prognostic value of CT regional perfusion measurement performed on the first day of onset of symptoms of AP, in assessing the risk of developing severe form of acute pancreatitis. Material and Methods 79 patients with clinical symptoms and biochemical criteria indicative of acute pancreatitis (acute upper abdominal pain, elevated levels of serum amylase and lipase) underwent perfusion CT within 24 hours after onset of symptoms. The follow-up examinations were performed after 4–6 days to detect progression of the disease. Perfusion parameters were compared in 41 people who developed severe form of AP (pancreatic and/or peripancreatic tissue necrosis) with parameters in 38 consecutive patients in whom course of AP was mild. Blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time and permeability surface area product were calculated in the three anatomic pancreatic subdivisions (head, body and tail). At the same time the patient's clinical status was assessed by APACHE II score and laboratory parameters such as CRP, serum lipase and amylase, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP and bilirubin were compared. Results Statistical differences in the perfusion parameters between the group of patients with mild and severe AP were shown. Blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time were significantly lower and permeability surface area product was significantly higher in patients who develop severe acute pancreatitis and presence of pancreatic and/or peripancreatic necrosis due to pancreatic ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of evaluated on admission severity of pancreatitis assessed using APACHE II score and laboratory tests. Conclusions CT perfusion is a very useful indicator for prediction and selection patients in early stages of acute pancreatitis who are at risk of

  8. Identifying nutrients that are under-reported by an automated 24-hour dietary recall method in overweight and obese women after weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underreporting of energy intake by 15-50% is a common problem in dietary assessment. Evidence suggests overweight/obese respondents are more likely to under-report than normal weight. This study compared Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24)-reported dietary intake to true intake in ove...

  9. The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24): A resource for researchers, clinicians, and educators from the National Cancer Institute

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) provide high-quality dietary intake data with minimal bias, making them the preferred tool for monitoring the diets of populations and, increasingly, for studying diet and disease associations. Traditional 24HDRs, however, are...

  10. Heart rate variability parameters of myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs with and without heart failure obtained using 24-hour Holter electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M S; Muzzi, R A L; Araújo, R B; Muzzi, L A L; Ferreira, D F; Nogueira, R; Silva, E F

    2012-06-16

    Time-domain heart rate variability (HRV) parameters and the correlation between echocardiography and Holter examinations in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) were determined. Holter examination was also performed at different time frames: an entire 24-hour period, a four-hour period during sleep, and a four-hour period while awake. Ten healthy (control group) and 28 MMVD dogs, 15 with and 13 without heart failure, were evaluated. The SDANN (sd of the mean normal RR intervals for all five-minute segments during 24-hour Holter) and pNN(50) (percentage of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals that are >50 ms computed over 24-hour Holter) variables were significantly lower in the dogs with MMVD heart failure. The differences in HRV between the groups were only detected during the 24-hour evaluation period (P<0.05). There were high correlations (canonical analysis) between Holter and echocardiography examinations when considering pNN(50), SDANN, and LA/AO (left atrial to aortic root ratio) (r=0.92; P<0.05), indicating that both are important in evaluating MMVD dogs. SDANN and pNN(50) are measures of parasympathetic control of the heart, and thus, it is possible to infer that the MMVD dogs exhibit parasympathetic withdrawal during the development of heart failure.

  11. Validation of the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall for children (ASA24-Kids) among 9- to 11-year-old youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty-nine children in two sites participated in the study. In one site, trained staff observed and recorded types and portions of foods and drinks consumed by ...

  12. Ambulatory 24 hour intraoesophageal pH and pressure recordings v provocation tests in the diagnosis of chest pain of oesophageal origin.

    PubMed Central

    Ghillebert, G; Janssens, J; Vantrappen, G; Nevens, F; Piessens, J

    1990-01-01

    Fifty patients with non-cardiac chest pain underwent 24 hour intraoesophageal pH and pressure recording and provocation tests to determine the relative value of both techniques in establishing the oesophageal origin of the chest pain. Twenty six patients (52%) had at least one positive provocation test: the acid perfusion test was positive related in 18 patients (36%), the edrophonium test in 16 patients (32%), the vasopressin test in five patients (10%), and the balloon distension test (performed in only 20 patients) in one (5%). The 24 hour pH and pressure recording correlated spontaneous chest pain attacks with abnormal motility or gastro-oesophageal reflux in 19 patients (38%). Fourteen of these patients also had at least one positive provocation test. Therefore, 24 hour pH and pressure recordings are only slightly better than a set of provocation tests in identifying the oesophagus as the cause of chest pain (10% diagnostic gain). In the case of oesophageal chest pain, however, 24 hour recording appeared to be the only way to identify the nature of the underlying oesophageal abnormality that caused the spontaneous pain attacks--for example, gastro-oesophageal reflux, motility disorders, or irritability of the oesophagus. PMID:2370009

  13. Bath water contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria in 24-hour home baths, hot springs, and public bathhouses of Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bath water samples were collected from 116 hot springs, 197 public bathhouses, and 38 24-hour home baths in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, during the period of April 2009 to November 2011, for determining the presence and extent of contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Cultures positive for Legionella were observed in 123 of the 3,314 bath water samples examined. The distribution and abundance of Legionella and/or combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria were investigated to clarify the contamination levels. The abundance of Legionella was demonstrated to correlate considerably with the levels of combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Legionella spp. were obtained from 61% of the water samples from 24-hour home baths, but only from 3% of the samples from public bathhouses and hot springs. This is despite the fact that a few outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Nagano Prefecture as well as other regions of Japan have been traced to bath water contamination. The comparatively higher rate of contamination of the 24-hour home baths is a matter of concern. It is therefore advisable to routinely implement good maintenance of the water basins, particularly of the 24-hour home baths.

  14. The effect of low level radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in operators during 24-hour shifts.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, K; Israel, M; Mihaylov, S

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long term exposure to low level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in satellite station operators during 24-hour shifts. Twelve male operators at a satellite station for TV communications and space research were studied during 24-hour shifts. Dosimetric evaluation of the exposure was carried out and showed low level exposure with specific absorption of 0.1127 J.kg-1. A control group of 12 unexposed male operators with similar job task and the same shift system were studied, too. The 11-oxycorticosteroids (11-OCS), adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed by spectrofluorimetric methods on 3-hour intervals during the 24-hour shifts. The data were analyzed by tests for interindividual analysis, Cosinor analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant increase in the 24-hour excretion of 11-OCS and disorders in its circadian rhythm, manifested by increase in the mesor, decrease in the amplitude and shift in the acrophase were found in the exposed operators. The changes in the excretion rates of the catecholamines were significant and showed greater variability of both variables. The long term effect of the exposure to low-level RF EM radiation evoked pronounced stress reaction with changes in the circadian rhythm of 11-OCS and increased variability of catecholamines secretion. The possible health hazards associated with observed alteration in the stress system need to be clarified by identification of their significance and prognostic relevance.

  15. Characterization of pulmonary protein profiles in response to zinc oxide nanoparticles in mice: a 24-hour and 28-day follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Jen-Kun; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Lai, Ching-Huang; Jones, Tim P; BéruBé, Kelly A; Hong, Gui-Bing; Ho, Kin-Fai; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are recognized to cause systemic disorders, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the time-dependent differences that occur after exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanistic differences at 24 hours and 28 days after the exposure of BALB/c mice to ZnONPs via intratracheal instillation. An isobaric tag for the relative and absolute quantitation coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the differential protein expression, biological processes, molecular functions, and pathways. A total of 18 and 14 proteins displayed significant changes in the lung tissues at 24 hours and 28 days after exposure, respectively, with the most striking changes being observed for S100-A9 protein. Metabolic processes and catalytic activity were the main biological processes and molecular functions, respectively, in the responses at the 24-hour and 28-day follow-up times. The glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway was continuously downregulated from 24 hours to 28 days, whereas detoxification pathways were activated at the 28-day time-point after exposure. A comprehensive understanding of the potential time-dependent effects of exposure to ZnONPs was provided, which highlights the metabolic mechanisms that may be important in the responses to ZnONP. PMID:26251593

  16. 24-HOUR DIFFUSIVE SAMPLING OF 1,3-BUTADIENE IN AIR ONTO CARBONPAK X SOLID ADSORBENT WITH THEMAL DESORPTION/GC/MS ANALYSIS - FEASIBILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffusive sampling of 1,3-butadiene for 24 hours onto the graphitic adsorbent Carbopack X contained in a stainless steel tube badge (6.3 mm OD, 5 mm ID, and 90 mm in length) with analysis by thermal desorption/GC/MS has been evaluated in controlled tests. A test matrix of 42 tr...

  17. Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate challenge test for mercury in humans. III. Urinary mercury after exposure to mercurous chloride.

    PubMed

    Maiorino, R M; Gonzalez-Ramirez, D; Zuniga-Charles, M; Xu, Z; Hurlbut, K M; Aposhian, M M; Dart, R C; Woods, J S; Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Gonsebatt, M E; Aposhian, H V

    1996-05-01

    The sodium salt of 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid (Dimaval; DMPS) challenge test has been given previously to humans exposed to elemental mercury (vapor) or mercuric salts, but not mercurous salts. The test (300 mg p.o., after an 11-hr fast) was given to 11 factory workers who make a skin lotion that contains mercurous chloride, eight users of the skin lotion and nine controls. Urines were analyzed for total mercury by using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mercury excreted for 6 hr before and 6 hr after DMPS treatment was 113 micrograms +/- 26 and 5037 micrograms +/- 682 S.E.M. for the skin lotion makers; 16.2 micrograms +/- 3.4 and 1410 micrograms +/- 346 S.E.M. for the skin lotions users; and 0.49 micrograms +/- 0.11 and 18.4 micrograms +/- 7.1 S.E.M. for the controls, respectively. The increases in urinary mercury resulting from the DMPS challenge test were 45-, 87- and 38-fold, respectively. The results demonstrate that, in humans exposed to mercurous chloride, DMPS increases the urinary excretion of mercury and that the DMPS/mercury challenge test is of value for a more realistic estimation of mobilizable mercury. An attempt to associate genotoxicity, as indicated by micronuclei content in buccal cells, with mercury exposure was inconclusive, perhaps because of the small number of subjects.

  18. Changes in urinary water and electrolyte excretion in sodium-loaded sheep in response to intravenous infusion of arginine vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Scott, D; Morton, J J

    1976-01-01

    Mature sheep receiving supplements of sodium chloride into the rumen were given intravenous infusions of arginine vasopressin at rates varying from 4-6-23 pmol/min (2-10 mU/min). Infusion of the hormone led to an increase in urine flow and to increases in the amounts of sodium and chloride excreted, the effect on flow was, however, the greater so that the osmolality of the urine fell during the infusions. In sheep given intravenous infusions of a hypertonic sodium chloride solution addition of vasopressin to the infusate led to the formation of a larger volume of urine containing a higher proportion of the infused salt load compared to when the salt solution alone was given. As before the effect on flow was the greater and hence the osmolality of the urine was lower when the hormone was given. In other experiments intravenous infusion of a hypertonic sodium chloride solution at rates providing 2-8 mmol NaCl/min led to increases in urine flow and increases in sodium and chloride excretion, the size of these increases being proportional to infusion rate. Plasma vasopressin levels markedly increased during these infusions, the levels seen being similar to those seen in sheep given vasopressin in amounts which increased both urine flow and electrolyte excretion. This suggests that during hypertonic salt loading vasopressin probably contributes directly to the increases in urine flow and the increases in electrolyte excretion which are seen. Further evidence in support of this was obtained in experiments in which a greater natriuretic response was seen in sheep given a hypertonic sodium chloride solution into the carotid artery as opposed to the given a hypertonic sodium chloride solution into the carotid artery as opposed to the jugular vein and where it was shown that plasma vasopressin levels were indeed higher when the solution was given into the artery.

  19. Fluid reabsorption in Henle's loop and urinary excretion of sodium and water in normal rats and rats with chronic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Stumpe, Klaus O.; Lowitz, Hans D.; Ochwadt, Bruno

    1970-01-01

    The function of the short loops of Henle was investigated by micropuncture technique in normal rats, in rats with spontaneous hypertension, and in the untouched kidney of rats with experimental renal hypertension. All animals received a standard infusion of 1.2 ml of isotonic saline per hr. With increasing arterial blood pressure (range from 90 to 220 mm Hg), a continuous decrease in transit time of Lissamine green through Henle's loop from 32 to 10 sec was observed. Fractional water reabsorption along the loop declined progressively from 26 to 10%, and fractional sodium reabsorption decreased from 40 to 36% of the filtered load. The fluid volume in Henle's loop calculated from transit time and mean flow rate also decreased with increasing blood pressure. There was no change in superficial single nephron filtration rate but there was a slight increase in total glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Sodium and water reabsorption in the proximal tubule remained unchanged. Urine flow rate, sodium excretion, osmolar clearance, and negative free water clearance increased with increasing blood pressure. The osmolal urine to plasma (U/P) ratio declined but did not fall below a value of 1.5. It is concluded that the increase in sodium and water excretion with chronic elevation of arterial blood pressure is caused by a decrease of sodium and water reabsorption along the loop of Henle, presumably as a consequence of increased medullary blood pressure. PMID:5422022

  20. Effect of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibition, Dietary Sodium Restriction, and/or Diuretics on Urinary Kidney Injury Molecule 1 Excretion in Nondiabetic Proteinuric Kidney Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Waanders, Femke; Vaidya, Vishal S.; van Goor, Harry; Leuvenink, Henri; Damman, Kevin; Hamming, Inge; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan

    2012-01-01

    Background Tubulointerstitial damage plays an important role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) with proteinuria. Urinary kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) reflects tubular KIM-1 and is considered a sensitive biomarker for early tubular damage. We hypothesized that a decrease in proteinuria by using therapeutic interventions is associated with decreased urinary KIM-1 levels. Study Design Post hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Setting & Participants 34 proteinuric patients without diabetes from our outpatient renal clinic. Intervention Stepwise 6-week interventions of losartan, sodium restriction (low-sodium [LS] diet), their combination, losartan plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), and the latter plus an LS diet. Outcomes & Measurements Urinary excretion of KIM-1, total protein, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) as a positive control for tubular injury. Results Mean baseline urine protein level was 3.8 ± 0.4 (SE) g/d, and KIM-1 level was 1,706 ± 498 ng/d (increased compared with healthy controls; 74 ng/d). KIM-1 level was decreased by using placebo/LS (1,201 ± 388 ng/d; P = 0.04), losartan/high sodium (1,184 ± 296 ng/d; P = 0.09), losartan/LS (921 ± 176 ng/d; P = 0.008), losartan/high sodium plus HCT (862 ± 151 ng/d; P = 0.008) and losartan/LS plus HCT (743 ± 170 ng/d; P = 0.001). The decrease in urinary KIM-1 levels paralleled the decrease in proteinuria (R = 0.523; P < 0.001), but not blood pressure or creatinine clearance. 16 patients reached target proteinuria with protein less than 1 g/d, whereas KIM-1 levels normalized in only 2 patients. Urinary NAG level was increased at baseline and significantly decreased during the treatment periods of combined losartan plus HCT only. The decrease in urinary NAG levels was not closely related to proteinuria. Limitations Post hoc analysis. Conclusions Urinary KIM-1 level was increased in patients with nondiabetic CKD with proteinuria and decreased in parallel with

  1. Estimating daily salt intake based on 24 h urinary sodium excretion in adults aged 18–69 years in Shandong, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji-yu; Yan, Liu-xia; Tang, Jun-li; Ma, Ji-xiang; Guo, Xiao-lei; Zhao, Wen-hua; Zhang, Xiao-fei; Li, Jian-hong; Chu, Jie; Bi, Zhen-qiang

    2014-01-01

    Objective 24 h urinary sodium extretion was used to estimate the daily salt intake of shandong residents aged from 18 to 69 years in China. Setting 20 selected counties/districts in Shandong stratified by geographic region (Eastern, Central Southern and North Western) and residence type (urban vs rural). Participants Among 2184 randomly selected adults, 2061 provided usable 24 h urine samples. Urine volume <500 mL or male creatinine <3.81 (female creatinine <4.57) are not included in the analysis. Results The mean sodium level excreted over 24 h was 237.61 mmol (95% CI 224.77 to 250.44) mmol. Overall, the estimated mean salt intake was 13.90 g/day (95% CI 13.15 to 14.65). The mean salt intake among rural residents was higher than that among urban residents (14.00 vs 13.68 g; p<0.01). Salt intake in men was higher than that in women (14.40 vs 13.37 g; p<0.01). Approximately 96% of the survey participants had a dietary salt intake of ≥6 g/day. Conclusions The salt intake in Shandong is alarmingly higher than the current recommended amount (6 g/day). Thus, effective interventions to reduce salt intake levels to combat the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases need to be developed and implemented. PMID:25037642

  2. Reductions in Mean 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure After 6-Week Treatment With Canagliflozin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Raymond R; Machin, Israel; Ren, Jimmy; Trujillo, Angelina; Kawaguchi, Masato; Vijapurkar, Ujjwala; Damaraju, Chandrasekharrao V; Pfeifer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the early effects of canagliflozin on blood pressure (BP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension. Patients were randomized to canagliflozin 300 mg, canagliflozin 100 mg, or placebo for 6 weeks and underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring before randomization, on day 1 of treatment, and after 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in mean 24-hour systolic BP (SBP) from baseline to week 6. Overall, 169 patients were included (mean age, 58.6 years; glycated hemoglobin, 8.1%; seated BP 138.5/82.7 mm Hg). At week 6, canagliflozin 300 mg provided greater reductions in mean 24-hour SBP than placebo (least squares mean -6.2 vs -1.2 mm Hg, respectively; P=.006). Numerical reductions in SBP were observed with canagliflozin 100 mg. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated, with side effects similar to those reported in previous studies. These results suggest that canagliflozin rapidly reduces BP in patients with T2DM and hypertension.

  3. Daily variations in urinary excretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone in idiopathic isosexual precocity.

    PubMed

    Penny, R; Olambiwonnu, N O; Frasier, S D

    1977-01-01

    The 24-hour urinary excretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) was determined for 30 days in an 8.3-year-old girl with isosexual precocity and for 25 days in a normal 11.9-year-old girl. The pattern of daily variation in urinary LH and FSH excretion observed in the girl with sexual precocity was similar to that of the normal menstrual cycle. The LH and FSH midcycle peaks were 132.5 IU/24 hours and 26.3 IU/24 hours, respectively. Excluding the midcycle peak, the daily excretion of LH was 28.4 +/- 9.3 (SD) IU/24 hours, and the excretion of FSH was 8.9 +/- 1.9 (SD) IU/24 hours, values comparable to those of normal adult females. In contrast, the daily excretion of LH in the normal 11.9-year-old girl was 6.9 +/- 1.1 (SD) IU/24 hours and FSH excretion was 3.9 +/- 0.9 (SD) IU/24 hours. No LH or FSH surge was observed. The data are consistent with early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in idiopathic isosexual precocity.

  4. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: The 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8-53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7-45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885-4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654-4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4-23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1-4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33-1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34-2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49-2.53, P < 0.001) in women. In this

  5. Loss of Renal Tubular PGC-1α Exacerbates Diet-Induced Renal Steatosis and Age-Related Urinary Sodium Excretion in Mice.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Kristoffer; Schnyder, Svenia; Cardel, Bettina; Handschin, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The kidney has a high energy demand and is dependent on oxidative metabolism for ATP production. Accordingly, the kidney is rich in mitochondria, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a common denominator for several renal diseases. While the mitochondrial master regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is highly expressed in kidney, its role in renal physiology is so far unclear. Here we show that PGC-1α is a transcriptional regulator of mitochondrial metabolic pathways in the kidney. Moreover, we demonstrate that mice with an inducible nephron-specific inactivation of PGC-1α in the kidney display elevated urinary sodium excretion, exacerbated renal steatosis during metabolic stress but normal blood pressure regulation. Overall, PGC-1α seems largely dispensable for basal renal physiology. However, the role of PGC-1α in renal mitochondrial biogenesis indicates that activation of PGC-1α in the context of renal disorders could be a valid therapeutic strategy to ameliorate renal mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27463191

  6. Loss of Renal Tubular PGC-1α Exacerbates Diet-Induced Renal Steatosis and Age-Related Urinary Sodium Excretion in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Kristoffer; Schnyder, Svenia; Cardel, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    The kidney has a high energy demand and is dependent on oxidative metabolism for ATP production. Accordingly, the kidney is rich in mitochondria, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a common denominator for several renal diseases. While the mitochondrial master regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is highly expressed in kidney, its role in renal physiology is so far unclear. Here we show that PGC-1α is a transcriptional regulator of mitochondrial metabolic pathways in the kidney. Moreover, we demonstrate that mice with an inducible nephron-specific inactivation of PGC-1α in the kidney display elevated urinary sodium excretion, exacerbated renal steatosis during metabolic stress but normal blood pressure regulation. Overall, PGC-1α seems largely dispensable for basal renal physiology. However, the role of PGC-1α in renal mitochondrial biogenesis indicates that activation of PGC-1α in the context of renal disorders could be a valid therapeutic strategy to ameliorate renal mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27463191

  7. Effects of calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide and sodium citrate bicarbonate health supplements on the urinary risk factors for kidney stone formation.

    PubMed

    Allie, Shameez; Rodgers, Allen

    2003-01-01

    We describe a model to illustrate different chemical interactions that can occur in urine following ingestion of individual and combined health supplements. Two types of interactions are defined: synergism and addition. The model was applied to eight healthy males who participated in a study to investigate the chemical interactions between calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide and sodium citrate-bicarbonate health supplements on calcium oxalate urinary stone risk factors. Subjects ingested these components individually and in combination for 7 days. Twenty-four-hour urines were collected at baseline and during the final day of supplementation. These were analysed using standard laboratory techniques. Three different chemical interactions, all involving citrate, were identified: magnesium and citrate exerted a synergistic effect on lowering the relative superaturation (RS) of brushite; the same two components produced a synergistic effect on raising pH; finally, calcium and citrate exerted an additive effect on lowering the RS of uric acid. We propose that the novel approach described in this paper allows for the evaluation of individual, additive and synergistic interactions in the assessment of the efficacy of stone-risk reducing preparations.

  8. Decreased striatal dopamine release underlies increased expression of long-term synaptic potentiation at corticostriatal synapses 24 hours after 3-nitropropionic acid induced chemical hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Akopian, Garnik; Crawford, Cynthia; Beal, M. Flint; Cappelletti, Maurand; Jakowec, Michael W.; Petzinger, Giselle M.; Zheng, Ling; Gheorghe, Stacey L.; Reichel, Carmela M.; Chow, Robert; Walsh, John P

    2008-01-01

    The striatum is particularly sensitive to the irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehyrdrogenase 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP). In the present study we examined early changes in behavior and dopamine and glutamate synaptic physiology created by a single systemic injection of 3-NP in Fischer 344 rats. Hind limb dystonia was seen 2 hours after 3-NP injections and rats performed poorly on balance beam and rota-rod motor tests 24 hours later. Systemic 3-NP increased NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at corticostriatal synapses over the same time period. The 3-NP induced corticostriatal LTP was not due to increased NMDA receptor number or function, since 3-NP did not change MK-801 binding or NMDA/AMPA receptor current ratios. The LTP seen 24 hours after 3-NP was D1 receptor-dependent and reversed by exogenous addition of dopamine or a D2 receptor agonist to brain slices. High performance liquid chromatography and fast scan cyclic voltammetry revealed a decrease in dopamine content and release in rats injected 24 hours earlier with 3-NP, and much like the enhanced LTP, dopamine changes were reversed by 48 hours. Tyrosine hydroxylase expression was not changed and there was no evidence of striatal cell loss at 24–48 hours after 3-NP exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats showed similar physiological responses to systemic 3-NP, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Thus, 3-NP causes significant changes in motor behavior marked by parallel changes in striatal dopamine release and corticostriatal synaptic plasticity. PMID:18799690

  9. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared to the written-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared to the written-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written-assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared to the current written record based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared to either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

  10. [The normalisation of blood sugar using a non-miniaturised artifical pancreas. Application for 24 hours in 7 insulin-dependent diabetics (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Slama, G; Klein, J C; Tardieu, M C; Tchobroutsky, G

    1977-06-25

    Seven insulin-dependent diabetic were treated for 24 to 36 hours by intravenous injections of insulin adapted to variations in blood glucose using a fairly voluminous automatic regulation device. This artificial pancreas consists of a modified Technicon blood sugar apparatus which provides continuous estimation of blood glucose using non-haemolysed whole blood by a glucose oxidase method with an inertia time of 6 minutes, a table calculator and a newly developed interpretation and command electronic unit (GlucostatR). Normalisation of blood glucose was obtained for at least 24 hours, during and between meals, during a period following an oral glucose load and throughout the night.

  11. Italian society of hypertension guidelines for conventional and automated blood pressure measurement in the office, at home and over 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Parati, Gianfranco; Omboni, Stefano; Palatini, Paolo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Bilo, Grzegorz; Valentini, Mariaconsuelo; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2008-10-01

    This article offers instructions and recommendations on how to perform blood pressure measurements in the doctor's office, in the patient's home and in ambulatory conditions over 24 hours. Great attention is paid to some of the general aspects of blood pressure measurement, including the accuracy of blood pressure measuring devices, the importance of a 'white-coat effect', and the need for patient education. This article also deals with a number of practical details, such as the importance of patient's relaxation and position, arm position and support, arm selection and cuff selection and application. Recommendations are provided on the observer's position and performance, and on the need to pay attention to specific factors affecting the blood pressure measurement in different patient populations, namely in children, elderly and obese people, pregnant women, patients with arrhythmias and patients on treatment. This article then separately focuses on the characteristics of auscultatory and automated measurements, the latter performed either in the office, at home or over 24 hours in ambulatory settings. Home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) is becoming increasingly important in the diagnosis and management of arterial hypertension. The importance of HBPM in cardiovascular prevention, related to a deeper involvement of patients in their long-term management, and the wide diffusion of this approach in populations, is not always accompanied by adequate knowledge of how to make proper use of this technique, which emphasizes the need for more precise recommendations. This article summarizes the available evidence and provides recommendations on the use of home blood pressure monitoring in clinical practice and in research. It updates the previous recommendations on the same topic issued in 2000. The main topics addressed include the methodology of HBPM, focusing on measurement conditions and procedures, ranging from patient/subject position, to arm selection, arm

  12. Sodium and Potassium Intake of Urban Dwellers: Nothing Changed in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Masoud; Namayandeh, Mahdieh; GharahiGhehi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    To assess the daily salt intake of people aged 20-74 years based on the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion in urban population of Yazd, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted. This is a substudy of Yazd Healthy Heart Project in Iran. From 2004 to 2005, two thousand people of the urban population of Yazd city, aged 20-74 years, were enrolled in the main study. Overall, 219 volunteer participants of 20-70 years were enrolled in this substudy. Sample frame was the household numbers according to the database of Yazd City Health Services. Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and creatinine were measured in the urine samples collected from the participants over a 24-hour period. Sodium content in urine over 24 hours was 171.7±82.9 mmol/day in males and 127.8±56.1 mmol/day in females (p<0.0001) while potassium content was 49.4±23.2 mmol/day in males and 41.5±25.1 mmol/day in females (p=0.2). Estimated average daily salt (NaCl) intake was 10.0±4.8 g/day in males and 7.5±3.3 g/day in females (p<0.0001). Only one participant had the ideal Na/K ratio of less than one. Na/K ratios greater than one and less than two were seen in 11.3% (n=24), and a ratio equal to or greater than 2 was observed in 82.3% (n=118) of the participants. The average Na/K ratio was 3.69±1.58. Unlike many developed countries where sodium intake declined over the past few decades, the daily sodium intake in Yazd is high, and daily potassium intake is low. This is similar to what was observed four decades ago in an area not far from Yazd. Efforts must be directed towards health promotion interventions to increase public awareness to reduce sodium intake and increase potassium intake. PMID:24847600

  13. Sodium and potassium intake of urban dwellers: nothing changed in Yazd, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Masoud; Soltaniz, Mohammadhossien; Namayandeh, Mahdieh; GharahiGhehi, Neda

    2014-03-01

    To assess the daily salt intake of people aged 20-74 years based on the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion in urban population of Yazd, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted. This is a substudy of Yazd Healthy Heart Project in Iran. From 2004 to 2005, two thousand people of the urban population of Yazd city, aged 20-74 years, were enrolled in the main study. Overall, 219 volunteer participants of 20-70 years were enrolled in this substudy. Sample frame was the household numbers according to the database of Yazd City Health Services. Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and creatinine were measured in the urine samples collected from the participants over a 24-hour period. Sodium content in urine over 24 hours was 171.7 +/- 82.9 mmol/day in males and 127.8 +/- 56.1 mmol/day in females (p < 0.0001) while potassium content was 49.4 +/- 23.2 mmol/day in males and 41.5 +/- 25.1 mmol/day in females (p = 0.2). Estimated average daily salt (NaCl) intake was 10.0 +/- 4.8 g/day in males and 7.5 +/- 3.3 g/day in females (p < 0.0001). Only one participant had the ideal Na/K ratio of less than one. Na/K ratios greater than one and less than two were seen in 11.3% (n = 24), and a ratio equal to or greater than 2 was observed in 82.3% (n = 118) of the participants. The average Na/K ratio was 3.69 +/- 1.58. Unlike many developed countries where sodium intake declined over the past few decades, the daily sodium intake in Yazd is high, and daily potassium intake is low. This is similar to what was observed four decades ago in an area not far from Yazd. Efforts must be directed towards health promotion interventions to increase public awareness to reduce sodium intake and increase potassium intake.

  14. Liquid-containing Refluxes and Acid Refluxes May Be Less Frequent in the Japanese Population Than in Other Populations: Normal Values of 24-hour Esophageal Impedance and pH Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Osamu; Kohata, Yukie; Kawami, Noriyuki; Iida, Hiroshi; Kawada, Akiyo; Hosaka, Hiroko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko; Inamori, Masahiko; Kusano, Motoyasu; Hongo, Micho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Twenty-four-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring allows detection of all types of reflux episodes and is considered the best technique for identifying gastroesophageal refluxes. However, normative data for the Japanese population are lacking. This multicenter study aimed to establish the normal range of 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH data both in the distal and the proximal esophagus in Japanese subjects. Methods Forty-two healthy volunteers (25 men and 17 women) with a mean ± standard deviation age of 33.3 ± 12.4 years (range: 22–72 years) underwent a combined 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. According to the physical and pH properties, distal or proximal esophageal reflux events were categorized. Results Median 45 reflux events occurred in 24 hours, and the 95th percentile was 85 events. Unlike previous reports, liquid-containing reflux events are median 25/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 62/24 hours. Acidic reflux events were median 11/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Non-acidic gas reflux events were median 15/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Proximal reflux events accounted for 80% of the total reflux events and were mainly non-acidic gas refluxes. About 19% of liquid and mixed refluxes reached the proximal esophagus. Conclusions Unlike previous studies, liquid-containing and acidic reflux events may be less frequent in the Japanese population. Non-acidic gas reflux events may be frequent and a cause of frequent proximal reflux events. This study provides important normative data for 24-hour impedance and pH monitoring in both the distal and the proximal esophagus in the Japanese population. PMID:27247103

  15. Clinical study of urinary excretion of Ga-67

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Ibuka, K.; Hashizume, T.; Noguchi, A.; Kojima, J.; Sasakuma, F.; Ishigami, S. )

    1990-04-01

    Ga-67 urinary excretion was examined in 59 patients. The 72-hour urinary excretion rate ranged from 4.3 to 67.8% of the injected dose. Within the first 24 hours, 60.9% of the 72-hour urinary excretion was excreted. There was no significant difference in the Ga-67 urinary excretion rate between males and females, nor between the Ga-67 positive and negative cases. A significant negative correlation was found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and the unsaturated iron binding capacity. Notably, four patients with hyperferremia, which was considered secondary to leukemia and/or chemotherapy or liver cirrhosis, excreted more than 46.8% of Ga-67 within 72 hours. A significant negative correlation was also found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and age. Urinary excretion of Ga-67 may be related to the glomerular filtration rate, which decreases with age.

  16. Treatment of burns in the first 24 hours: simple and practical guide by answering 10 questions in a step-by-step form

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose. PMID:22583548

  17. Self-Perception of Swallowing-Related Problems in Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Patients Diagnosed with 24-Hour Oropharyngeal pH Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Mesallam, Tamer A.; Farahat, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Swallowing difficulty is considered one of the nonspecific symptoms that many patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux complain of. However, the relationship between laryngopharyngeal reflux and swallowing problems is not clear. The purpose of this work is to explore correlation between swallowing-related problems and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) in a group of patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal pH monitoring and to study the effect of laryngopharyngeal reflux on the patients' self-perception of swallowing problems. Methods. 44 patients complaining of reflux-related problems were included in the study. Patients underwent 24-hour oropharyngeal pH monitoring and were divided into positive and negative LPR groups based on the pH monitoring results. All patient filled out the Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) and Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) questionnaires. Comparison was made between the positive and negative LPR groups regarding the results of the DHI and RSI ratings. Also, correlation between DHI scores, RSI scores, and pH monitoring results was studied. Results. Significant difference was reported between positive and negative LPR groups regarding DHI scores, RSI scores, and overall rating of swallowing difficulty. There was significant correlation demonstrated between DHI scores, RSI scores, and 24-hour oropharyngeal pH results. Conclusion. Laryngopharyngeal reflux appears to have a significant impact on patients' self-perception of swallowing problems as measured by DHI. PMID:26966689

  18. Prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients receiving CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery

    PubMed Central

    Siriphuwanun, Visith; Punjasawadwong, Yodying; Lapisatepun, Worawut; Charuluxananan, Somrat; Uerpairojkit, Ketchada

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) within 24 hours of receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery. Patients and methods A retrospective cohort study approved by the Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai University Hospital Ethical Committee. Data used were taken from records of 751 cardiac arrest patients who received their first CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery between January 1, 2003 and October 31, 2011. The reviewed data included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status classification, anesthesia information, the timing of cardiac arrest, CPR details, and outcomes at 24 hours after CPR. Univariate and polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to determine prognostic factors associated with the outcome variable. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results The outcomes at 24 hours were death (638/751, 85.0%), survival with complications (73/751, 9.7%), and survival without complications (40/751, 5.3%). The prognostic factors associated with death were: age between 13–34 years (OR =3.08, 95% CI =1.03–9.19); ASA physical status three and higher (OR =6.60, 95% CI =2.17–20.13); precardiopulmonary comorbidity (OR =3.28, 95% CI =1.09–9.90); the condition of patients who were on mechanical ventilation prior to receiving anesthesia (OR =4.11, 95% CI =1.17–14.38); surgery in the upper abdominal site (OR =14.64, 95% CI =2.83–75.82); shock prior to cardiac arrest (OR =6.24, 95% CI =2.53–15.36); nonshockable electrocardiography (EKG) rhythm (OR =5.67, 95% CI =1.93–16.62); cardiac arrest occurring in postoperative period (OR =7.35, 95% CI =2.89–18.74); and duration of CPR more than 30 minutes (OR =4.32, 95% CI =1.39–13.45). The prognostic factors associated with survival with complications were being greater

  19. Prediction of Cortical Defect Using C-Reactive Protein and Urine Sodium to Potassium Ratio in Infants with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated whether C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, urine protein-creatinine ratio (uProt/Cr), and urine electrolytes can be useful for discriminating acute pyelonephritis (APN) from other febrile illnesses or the presence of a cortical defect on 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scanning (true APN) from its absence in infants with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Materials and Methods We examined 150 infants experiencing their first febrile UTI and 100 controls with other febrile illnesses consecutively admitted to our hospital from January 2010 to December 2012. Blood (CRP, electrolytes, Cr) and urine tests [uProt/Cr, electrolytes, and sodium-potassium ratio (uNa/K)] were performed upon admission. All infants with UTI underwent DMSA scans during admission. All data were compared between infants with UTI and controls and between infants with or without a cortical defect on DMSA scans. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, the ability of the parameters to predict true APN was analyzed. Results CRP levels and uProt/Cr were significantly higher in infants with true APN than in controls. uNa levels and uNa/K were significantly lower in infants with true APN than in controls. CRP levels and uNa/K were relevant factors for predicting true APN. The method using CRP levels, u-Prot/Cr, u-Na levels, and uNa/K had a sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 65%, positive predictive value of 60%, and negative predictive value of 95% for predicting true APN. Conclusion We conclude that these parameters are useful for discriminating APN from other febrile illnesses or discriminating true APN in infants with febrile UTI. PMID:26632389

  20. Urinary melatonin levels and skin malignancy.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Reza; Sehatbakhsh, Samineh; Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Sharifzadeh, Gholam Reza

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin inhibits tumor genesis in a variety of in vivo and in vitro experimental models of neoplasia. In industrialized societies, light at night, by suppressing melatonin production, poses a new risk for the development of a variety of cancers such as breast cancer. This effect on skin has been previously studied only in animals and not in humans. Our goal was to examine the relationship between 24-hour 6-sulphatoxymelatonin levels and skin cancer in a case-control study of 70 patients with skin cancer and 70 healthy individuals. The level of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin was measured in 24-hour urine by the ELISA method. In the case group, 55 (78%) patients had basal cell carcinoma and 15 (22%) had squamous cell carcinoma. The mean level of 24-hour urine 6-sulfatoxymelatonin was significantly higher in the control group (P<0.001). Also, sleep duration had a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.001). It seems that a low level of 24-hour urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin renders human beings prone to skin cancer. This association, however, requires further investigation. PMID:24453396

  1. Studies on human urinary arylamidases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raina, P. N.; Ellis, S.

    1975-01-01

    Human urinary protein was found to contain enzymes that hydrolyze leucyl-, alanyl-, and glycyl-prolyl-beta-naphthylamides. The kinetic constants of these enzymes were determined and their chemical properties studied. The pH optima for the hydrolysis of the various naphthylamides were also determined. Glycyl-prolyl-arylaminade was inhibited by Co(2+) and Mn(2+), while two other arylamidases were slightly activated by Co(2+). p-Chloromercuriphenyl-sulfonate and puromycin significantly inhibited leucyl and alanyl arylamidases. The mean values for 24-hour urinary output for leucyl-, alanyl-, and glycyl-prolyl arylamidases in normal human male subjects were 4.32, 9.97, and 2.2 units, respectively.

  2. [How to express results of 24-hour gastric pH measurement? Choice of a mode of expression in 27 healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Vallot, T; Elouaer-Blanc, L; Garcia del Risco, F; Mignon, M; Vatier, J; Bonfils, S

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four hour intragastric acidity was studied in 27 healthy subjects (mean age = 29 yrs) by continuous recording in standardized conditions. Data obtained were expressed according to several analytical methods as used extensively elsewhere. In our study, there was a wide discrepancy in results from one subject to another. The use of median values of pH was more appropriate than mean values to express half-hour acidity levels for 24 hours. The median value of H+ concentration is recommended as well. The median value of pH varied from 1 to 4.8 with a slight rise during the second half of the night. During the postprandial period, increase of pH values was prolonged over 2 h 30 in 50 p. 100 of subjects. Profile of pH allowed to demonstrate the distribution of pH value without excluding the extreme values. Both periodicity of pH measurement (30 or 60 min) and parameters used to quantify acidity (percentage of time or pH value at or below threshold values) did not modify results. As measured over a 24 hours period, the percentage of time (mean +/- SEM) at or below pH 1.5 and 3.5 was 54 +/- 3 p. 100 and 85 +/- 2 p. 100, respectively. Daytime and night-time profiles were similar. Mean 24 h H+ concentration (mean +/- SEM) was 47 +/- 35 mmol/l, with, once again, similarity between day and night-time values. The mean 24 h pH values underestimated true acidity with respect to median values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Demand and characteristics of a psychiatric 24-hour emergency service performed by mandatory rotation of licensed psychiatrists in Swiss primary care

    PubMed Central

    Chmiel, Corinne; Rosemann, Thomas; Senn, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate characteristics of and satisfaction with psychiatric 24-hour emergency primary care performed by mandatory rotation of licensed psychiatrists as a viable baseline for possible reorganizational measures. Methods This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study (November 2010–April 2011). The number of patient–psychiatrist encounters, modes of contact, and patient and psychiatrist characteristics were assessed. Diagnoses were coded with ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10). Results From 167 duty episodes, 74 (44%) were recorded. Of the psychiatrists (n=44), 52% were female, and mean age (standard deviation) was 49.9 (5.2) years. The median number of encounters per episode was 4 (interquartile range 0–8), mainly in the evenings. Demand for “face-to-face” (direct) patient visits was significantly more common (64.0%) than practice (1.3%) or telephone consultations (34.7%). In 83.8%, psychiatrists judged the encounter as adequate at the patient’s location. A total of 43 different diagnoses were recorded: mainly schizophrenic disorders (23.9%), suicidal behavior (15.2%), and acute stress reactions (10.3%). Psychiatrists felt burdened by services (62.5%): in 39.2%, they felt threatened; and in 6.8%, violence occurred. In 32.4%, bills were not paid for. If services were optional, 45.2% would participate. Conclusion Our findings indicate justified demand for direct mobile patient visits, suggesting that emergency care should be multifaceted, and sole provision of psychiatric care at stationed emergency facilities may not always be appropriate. Reorganization of 24-hour emergency services should carefully evaluate patient and provider’s needs before changing established structures. PMID:24707172

  4. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): Comparison of a Mobile Phone Digital Entry App for Dietary Data Collection With 24-Hour Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Sarah; Giannelli, Valentina; Yap, Megan LH; Tang, Lie Ming; Roy, Rajshri; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Hebden, Lana; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background The electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA), a digital entry food record mobile phone app, was developed to measure energy and nutrient intake prospectively. This can be used in monitoring population intakes or intervention studies in young adults. Objective The objective was to assess the relative validity of e-DIA as a dietary assessment tool for energy and nutrient intakes using the 24-hour dietary recall as a reference method. Methods University students aged 19 to 24 years recorded their food and drink intake on the e-DIA for five days consecutively and completed 24-hour dietary recalls on three random days during this 5-day study period. Mean differences in energy, macro-, and micronutrient intakes were evaluated between the methods using paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and correlation coefficients were calculated on unadjusted, energy-adjusted, and deattenuated values. Bland-Altman plots and cross-classification into quartiles were used to assess agreement between the two methods. Results Eighty participants completed the study (38% male). No significant differences were found between the two methods for mean intakes of energy or nutrients. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.79 (mean 0.68). Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement between the methods but without obvious bias. Cross-classification into same or adjacent quartiles ranged from 75% to 93% (mean 85%). Conclusions The e-DIA shows potential as a dietary intake assessment tool at a group level with good ranking agreement for energy and all nutrients. PMID:26508282

  5. Ambulatory Hypertension Subtypes and 24-Hour Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure as Distinct Outcome Predictors in 8341 Untreated People Recruited From 12 Populations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Wei, Fang-Fei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José; Asayama, Kei; Hansen, Tine W.; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Gu, Yu-Mei; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Liu, Yan-Ping; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Mena, Luis; Maestre, Gladys E.; Filipovský, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; O’Brien, Eoin; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on risk associated with 24-hour ambulatory diastolic (DBP24) versus systolic (SBP24) blood pressure are scarce. Methods and Results We recorded 24-hour blood pressure and health outcomes in 8341 untreated people (mean age, 50.8 years; 46.6% women) randomly recruited from 12 populations. We computed hazard ratios (HRs) using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Over 11.2 years (median), 927 (11.1%) participants died, 356 (4.3%) from cardiovascular causes, and 744 (8.9%) experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event. Isolated diastolic hypertension (DBP24≥80 mm Hg) did not increase the risk of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or stroke (HRs≤1.54; P≥0.18), but was associated with a higher risk of fatal combined with nonfatal cardiovascular, cardiac, or coronary events (HRs≥1.75; P≤0.0054). Isolated systolic hypertension (SBP24≥130 mm Hg) and mixed diastolic plus systolic hypertension were associated with increased risks of all aforementioned end points (P≤0.0012). Below age 50, DBP24 was the main driver of risk, reaching significance for total (HR for 1-SD increase, 2.05; P=0.0039) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 4.07; P=0.0032) and for all cardiovascular end points combined (HR, 1.74; P=0.039) with a nonsignificant contribution of SBP24 (HR≤0.92; P≥0.068); above age 50, SBP24 predicted all end points (HR≥1.19; P≤0.0002) with a nonsignificant contribution of DBP24 (0.96≤HR≤1.14; P≥0.10). The interactions of age with SBP24 and DBP24 were significant for all cardiovascular and coronary events (P≤0.043). Conclusions The risks conferred by DBP24 and SBP24 are age dependent. DBP24 and isolated diastolic hypertension drive coronary complications below age 50, whereas above age 50 SBP24 and isolated systolic and mixed hypertension are the predominant risk factors. PMID:24906822

  6. Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

    2014-03-11

    This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for

  7. Prediction of Appropriate Shocks Using 24-Hour Holter Variables and T-Wave Alternans After First Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation in Patients With Ischemic or Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Seegers, Joachim; Bergau, Leonard; Expósito, Pascal Muñoz; Bauer, Axel; Fischer, Thomas H; Lüthje, Lars; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Friede, Tim; Zabel, Markus

    2016-07-01

    In patients treated with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), prediction of both overall survival and occurrence of shocks is important if improved patient selection is desired. We prospectively studied the predictive value of biomarkers and indexes of cardiac and renal function and spectral microvolt T-wave alternans testing and 24-hour Holter variables in a population who underwent first ICD implantation. Consecutive patients in sinus rhythm with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy scheduled for primary or secondary prophylactic ICD implantation were enrolled. Exercise microvolt T-wave alternans and 24-hour Holter for number of ventricular premature contractions (VPCs), deceleration capacity, heart rate variability, and heart rate turbulence were done. Death of any cause and first appropriate ICD shock were defined as end points. Over 33 ± 15 months of follow-up, 36 of 253 patients (14%) received appropriate shocks and 39 of 253 patients (15%) died. Only 3 of 253 patients (1%) died after receiving at least 1 appropriate shock. In univariate analyses, New York Heart Association class, ejection fraction, N-terminal pro brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), renal function, ICD indication, deceleration capacity, heart rate variability, and heart rate turbulence were predictive of all-cause mortality and VPC number and deceleration capacity predicted first appropriate shock. NT-proBNP (≥1,600 pg/ml) was identified as the only independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.0, confidence interval 1.3 to 7.3, p = 0.014). In contrast, VPC number predicted appropriate shocks (hazard ratio 2.3, confidence interval 1.0 to 5.5, p = 0.047) as the only independent risk marker. In conclusion, NT-proBNP is a strong independent predictor of mortality in a typical prospective cohort of newly implanted patients with ICD, among many electrocardiographic and clinical variables studied. Number of VPCs was identified as a predictor of appropriate shocks

  8. Nighttime sleep duration, 24-hour sleep duration and risk of all-cause mortality among adults: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoli; Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2016-01-01

    A dose-response meta-analysis was conducted to summarize evidence from prospective cohort studies about the association of nighttime sleep duration and 24-hour sleep duration with risk of all-cause mortality among adults. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed databases to March 2015. A two-stage random-effects dose–response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific relative risks and 95% confidence intervals [RRs (95% CIs)]. Thirty-five articles were included. Compared with 7 hours/day, the RRs (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality were 1.07 (1.03–1.13), 1.04 (1.01–1.07), 1.01 (1.00–1.02), 1.07 (1.06–1.09), 1.21 (1.18–1.24), 1.37 (1.32–1.42) and 1.55 (1.47–1.63) for 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 and 11 hours/day of nighttime sleep, respectively (146,830 death cases among 1,526,609 participants), and the risks were 1.09 (1.04–1.14), 1.05 (1.02–1.09), 1.02 (1.00–1.03), 1.08 (1.05–1.10), 1.27 (1.20–1.36), 1.53 (1.38–1.70) and 1.84 (1.59–2.13) for 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 and 11 hours/day of 24-hour sleep, respectively (101,641 death cases among 903,727 participants). The above relationships were also found in subjects without cardiovascular diseases and cancer at baseline, and other covariates did not influence the relationships substantially. The results suggested that 7 hours/day of sleep duration should be recommended to prevent premature death among adults. PMID:26900147

  9. Control of bleeding by silk ligation and diathermy coagulation during tonsillectomy: A comparison of efficacy of the two techniques in the first 24 hours after surgery

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Khurshid; Ahmad, Rafiq; Khan, Muneeb

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the relative efficacy of silk ligation and diathermy coagulation techniques in controlling bleeding during tonsillectomy in the first 24 hours. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Department of ENT, Khalifa Gul Nawaz Teaching Hospital, Bannu and this department related consultants’ private clinics from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. The study included 180 cases. All patients included were having history of recurrent, acute tonsillitis, with more than 6–7 episodes in one year, five episodes per year for two years, or three episodes per year for three years. All the surgeries were performed by dissection method. Haemostasis during the procedure was secured by either ligation with silk 1 or using diathermy. The results were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 for windows. Results: A total of180 cases were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 5 to 40 years with the mean age of 15.56 years and a std.deviation of +/- 8.24. The male to female ratio was 1.25:1. The number of hemorrhages occurring was greater in the ‘diathermy coagulation’ group as compared to the ‘silk ligation’ group. However, the observed difference was statistically insignificant (p >.05). Conclusion: Primary haemorrhage occurring during tonsillectomy is a serious threat and control of bleeding during the procedure should therefore be meticulous. Both suture ligation and coagulation diathermy for control of bleeders during the procedure by dissection method are equally effective. PMID:26430438

  10. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Exploring the perceptions of stakeholders regarding their acceptability, barriers to uptake, and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Guy; White, Lauren; Riazi, Negin; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    Engaging stakeholders in the development of guidelines and plans for implementation is vital. The purpose of this study was to examine stakeholders' (parents, teachers, exercise professionals, paediatricians, and youth) perceptions of the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth ("Movement Guidelines"). Stakeholders (n = 104) engaged in semi-structured focus groups or interviews to discuss the perceived acceptability of the guidelines, potential barriers to implementation, and preferred methods and messengers of dissemination. A thematic analysis was conducted. Overall, there was consistent support across all stakeholder groups, with the exception of youth participants, for the Movement Guidelines. Stakeholders identified a range of barriers to the uptake of the guidelines including concerns with accurately defining key terms such as "recreational" screen time; everyday challenges such as financial and time constraints; and the possibility of the Movement Guidelines becoming just another source of stress and guilt for already busy and overwhelmed parents. Participants identified a range of recommended methods and messengers for future dissemination. School and medical settings were the most commonly recommended settings through which dissemination efforts should be delivered. Overall, participants representing a range of stakeholder groups were receptive to the new Movement Guidelines and endorsed their value. In complementing the Movement Guidelines, messaging and resources will need to be developed that address common concerns participants had regarding their dissemination and implementation. PMID:27306436

  11. A Day in the Life of Millisecond Pulsar J1713+0747: Limits on Timing Precision Over 24 Hours and Implications for Gravitational Wave Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolch, Timothy; Bailes, M.; Bassa, C.; Bhat, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Champion, D.; Chatterjee, S.; Cognard, I.; Cordes, J. M.; Crowter, K.; Demorest, P.; Finn, L. S.; Fonseca, E.; Hessels, J.; Hobbs, G.; Janssen, G.; Jones, G.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Keith, M.; Kramer, M.; Kraus, A.; Lam, M. T.; Lazarus, P.; Lazio, J.; Lee, K.; Levin, L.; Liu, K.; Lorimer, D.; Manchester, R. N.; McLaughlin, M.; Palliyaguru, N.; Perrodin, D.; Petroff, E.; Rajwade, K.; Rankin, J. M.; Ransom, S. M.; Rosenblum, J.; Roy, J.; Shannon, R.; Stappers, B.; Stinebring, D.; Stovall, K.; Teixeira, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; van Straten, W.; Verbiest, J.; Zhu, W.

    2014-01-01

    A 24-hour global observation of millisecond radio pulsar J1713+0747 was undertaken by the International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA) collaboration as an effort to better quantify sources of noise in this object, which is regularly timed for the purpose of detecting gravitational waves (GWs). Given an 8-year timing RMS of 30ns, it is regarded as one of the best precision clocks in the PTA. However, sources of timing noise visible on timescales longer than the usual 20-30min biweekly observation may nonetheless be present. Data from the campaign were taken contiguously with the Parkes, Arecibo, Green Bank, GMRT, LOFAR, Effelsberg, WSRT, Lovell, and Nancay radio telescopes. The combined pulse times-of-arrival provide an estimate of the absolute noise floor, in other words, what unaccounted sources of timing noise impede an otherwise simple sqrt(N) improvement in timing precision, where N is the number of pulses in a single observing session. We present first results of specific phenomena probed on the unusual timescale of tens of hours, in particular interstellar scattering (ISS), and discuss the degree to which ISS affects precision timing. Finally, we examine single pulse information during selected portions of the observation and determine the degree to which the pulse jitter of J1713+0747 varies throughout the course of the day-long dataset.

  12. Age-dependent changes in 24-hour rhythms of catecholamine content and turnover in hypothalamus, corpus striatum and pituitary gland of rats injected with Freund's adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Pilar; Cardinali, Daniel P; Chacon, Fernando; Castrillón, Patricia O; Reyes Toso, Carlos A; Esquifino, Ana I

    2001-01-01

    Background Little information is available on the circadian sequela of an immune challenge in the brain of aged rats. To assess them, we studied 24-hour rhythms in hypothalamic and striatal norepinephrine (NE) content, hypothalamic and striatal dopamine (DA) turnover and hypophysial NE and DA content, in young (2 months) and aged (18–20 months) rats killed at 6 different time intervals, on day 18th after Freund's adjuvant or adjuvant's vehicle administration. Results Aging decreased anterior and medial hypothalamic NE content, medial and posterior hypothalamic DA turnover, and striatal NE concentration and DA turnover. Aging also decreased NE and DA content in pituitary neurointermediate lobe and augmented DA content in the anterior pituitary lobe. Immunization by Freund's adjuvant injection caused: (i) reduction of DA turnover in anterior hypothalamus and corpus striatum; (ii) acrophase delay of medial hypothalamic DA turnover in old rats, and of striatal NE content in young rats; (iii) abolition of 24-h rhythm in NE and DA content of neurointermediate pituitary lobe, and in DA content of anterior lobe, of old rats. Conclusions The decline in catecholamine neurotransmission with aging could contribute to the decrease of gonadotropin and increase of prolactin release reported in similar groups of rats. Some circadian responses to immunization, e.g. suppression of 24-h rhythms of neurointermediate lobe NE and DA and of anterior lobe DA were seen only in aged rats. PMID:11741510

  13. Computer simulation of the effect of dDAVP with saline loading on fluid balance after 24-hour head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R. S.; Simanonok, K. E.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid loading (FL) before Shuttle reentry is a countermeasure currently in use by NASA to improve the orthostatic tolerance of astronauts during reentry and postflight. The fluid load consists of water and salt tablets equivalent to 32 oz (946 ml) of isotonic saline. However, the effectiveness of this countermeasure has been observed to decrease with the duration of spaceflight. The countermeasure's effectiveness may be improved by enhancing fluid retention using analogs of vasopressin such as lypressin (LVP) and desmopressin (dDAVP). In a computer simulation study reported previously, we attempted to assess the improvement in fluid retention obtained by the use of LVP administered before FL. The present study is concerned with the use of dDAVP. In a recent 24-hour, 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) study involving seven men, dDAVP was found to improve orthostatic tolerance as assessed by both lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and stand tests. The treatment restored Luft's cumulative stress index (cumulative product of magnitude and duration of LBNP) to nearly pre-bedrest level. The heart rate was lower and stroke volume was marginally higher at the same LBNP levels with administration of dDAVP compared to placebo. Lower heart rates were also observed with dDAVP during stand test, despite the lower level of cardiovascular stress. These improvements were seen with only a small but significant increase in plasma volume of approximately 3 percent. This paper presents a computer simulation analysis of some of the results of this HDT study.

  14. Gastroesophageal and pharyngeal reflux detection using impedance and 24-hour pH monitoring in asymptomatic subjects: defining the normal environment.

    PubMed

    Oelschlager, Brant K; Quiroga, Elina; Isch, John A; Cuenca-Abente, Federico

    2006-01-01

    Airway symptoms are often caused by aspiration of refluxed materials into the larynx. In this study we sought to define the frequency, character, and proximal extent of refluxed contents - including nonacid reflux-in normal subjects using intraluminal impedance to improve our understanding of the relationship between reflux and aspiration. Ten subjects, who had no symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease or airway disease, underwent impedance/pH monitoring with a catheter that allowed simultaneous esophageal and pharyngeal monitoring. Impedance detected 496 gastroesophageal reflux episodes in the 10 subjects during 240 hours of study. The majority, 399 (81% of the total) were acid reflux episodes (pH < 4). Ninety-seven were nonacid (pH > 4). Most reflux episodes (348 of 496) reached the mid esophagus (9 cm above lower esophageal sphincter). There were 51 reflux episodes that reached the pharynx (PR). Only 13 (25%) of PR were acidic (pH < 4), while 38 were nonacid. Twenty-six PR episodes were liquid and 25 were mixed (liquid and gas). The median number of PR episodes measured with impedance was 5 (0-10). In asymptomatic subjects, most episodes of gastroesophageal reflux are acidic and reach the midesophagus. Reflux into the PR appears to be more common than previously believed, and most of these episodes are not acidic. Thus, traditional 24-hour pH monitoring may underestimate the presence of pharyngeal reflux. The combination of impedance with pH monitoring markedly enhances our ability to accurately detect potential microaspiration.

  15. Urinary Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Urinary Dysfunction Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction ... dysfunction is normal following initial therapy for localized prostate cancer. But it’s important to realize that not all ...

  16. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited--The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    1998-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, "high leverage" technologies--liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Ironrich volcanic glass, or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way, LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging front the engine's choked sonic throat--essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased

  17. 2001: A Space Odyssey Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2003-01-01

    The prospects for 24 hour commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, high leverage technologies: liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and lunar-derived oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass, or orange soil, discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4 percent oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an afterburner into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat, essentially scramjet propulsion in reverse. By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that big engine performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or in-line Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an expendable mode initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased payload is

  18. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2001-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon. similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale. are examined using two near term. "high leverage" technologies-liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass. or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow. has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat-essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller. more affordable. easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased

  19. Epidemiology of Urban Traffic Accident Victims Hospitalized More Than 24 Hours in a Level III Trauma Center, Kashan County, Iran, During 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Mahdian, Mehrdad; Sehat, Mojtaba; Fazel, Mohammad Reza; Moraveji, Alireza; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urban traffic accidents are an extensively significant problem in small and busy towns in Iran. This study tried to explore the epidemiological pattern of urban traffic accidents in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to assess various epidemiological factors affecting victims of trauma admitted to a main trauma center in Iran. Patients and Methods: During a retrospective study, data including age, sex, injury type and pattern, outcome, hospital stay and treatment expenditures regarding urban Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) for one year (March 2012-March 2013) were obtained from the registry of trauma research center, emergency medical services and deputy of health of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. One-way ANOVA and chi-square tests were used to analyze data using SPSS version 16.0. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 1723 victims (82.6% male, sex ratio of almost 5:1) were considered in this study. Mortality rate in trauma cases hospitalized more than 24 hours during our study was 0.8%. Young motorcyclist men with the rate of more than 103 per 10000 were the most vulnerable group. The most common injury was head injury (73.6%) followed by lower limb injury (33.2%). A significant association was found between mechanism of injury and head, lower limb, multiple injuries and high risk age group. Conclusions: Urban RTAs are one of the most important problems in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, which impose a great economic burden on health system. Motorcyclists are the most vulnerable victims and multiple trauma and head injury are seen among them extensively. PMID:26101765

  20. Evaluation of the indications and arrhythmic patterns of 24 hour Holter electrocardiography among hypertensive and diabetic patients seen at OAUTHC, Ile-Ife Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Ikwu, Amanze N; Balogun, Michael O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Mene-Afejuku, Tuoyo O; Adeyeye, Victor O; Bamikole, Olaniyi J; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Ajayi, Olufemi E; Ogunyemi, Suraj A; Oketona, Omolola A

    2014-01-01

    Background There are very limited published studies in Nigeria on the use of 24 hour Holter electrocardiogram (Holter ECG) in the arrhythmic evaluation of hypertensive and diabetic patients. Objective To evaluate indications, arrhythmic pattern of Holter ECG, and heart rate variability (HRV) among patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD) with or without heart failure and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) seen in our cardiac care unit. Methods Seventy-nine patients (32 males and 47 females) were studied consecutively over a year using Schiller type (MT-101) Holter ECG machine. Results Out of the 79 patients, 17 (21.5%) had HHD without heart failure, 33 (41.8%) had HHD with hypertensive heart failure (HHF), while 29 (36.7%) were T2DM patients. The mean (standard deviation) ages of HHD without heart failure, HHF and T2DM patients were 59.65 (±14.38), 65.15 (±14.30), and 54.66 (±8.88) respectively. The commonest indication for Holter ECG was palpitation (38%), followed by syncope (20.3%). Premature ventricular contraction was the commonest arrhythmic pattern among the 79 patients, especially among HHF patients. The HRV using standard deviation of all normal-normal intervals was significantly reduced in T2DM patients (81.03±26.33, confidence interval [CI] =71.02–91.05) compared to the HHD without heart failure (119.65±29.86, CI =104.30–135.00) and HHF (107.03±62.50, CI =84.00–129.19). There was a negative correlation between the duration of T2DM and HRV (r=−0.613). Conclusion Palpitation was the commonest Holter ECG indication and premature ventricular contractions were the commonest arrhythmic pattern among our patients. HRV was reduced in T2DM patients compared with hypertensive patients. PMID:25473303

  1. Evidence for Long-period (14-30 Days) and Against Short-period (12-24 Hours) Tidal Modulation of Volcanic Tremor at Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagerty, M. T.; Schwartz, S.; Revenaugh, J.

    2008-12-01

    Many studies have sought a correlation between the occurrence of earthquakes or volcanic activity and various Earth tide components, which would provide evidence for external tidal modulation of these geophysical phenomena. Several studies of short duration seismic experiments at Arenal Volcano in Costa Rica have found evidence of diurnal and semi-diurnal tidal periodicities in the seismic record. However, studies at other volcanoes, using longer time series, with improved spectral resolution, do not find tidal peaks in the seismic spectrum, but rather solar peaks (at exactly 12 and/or 24 hours), suggesting that the modulation is caused not by tidal stresses, but by weather related parameters - temperature, barometric pressure, rainfall. In contrast, recent studies of nonvolcanic tremor in the subduction zones of Japan and Cascadia do find evidence for tidal modulation of tremor activity with a period of 12.4 hours. Thus, the questions of whether or not earthquakes and volcanoes are triggered by external forces, and if so, whether these forces are related to elastic tides or to weather, are still highly relevant. We examine a continuous, 302-day long recording of ground motion at Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica, for potential solar and lunar periodicities in the volcanic seismicity. No evidence is found for significant energy in the semidiurnal (near 12 hr) or diurnal (near 24 hr) frequency bands, in contrast to previous, lower- resolution studies at Arenal. However, analysis with multi-taper method (MTM) and singular spectrum analysis (SSA) reveals significant low-frequency (f < .005 cycles/hr) energy in the tremor and explosivity series, including 14 and 30-day quasi-periodic components, relative to a red noise hypothesis. We attempt to fit the data to long-period tidal frequencies in order to verify potential tidal modulation of the long-period seismic energy at Arenal.

  2. Effect of melatonin on 24-hour rhythms of ornithine decarboxylase activity and norepinephrine and acetylcholine synthesis in submaxillary lymph nodes and spleen of young and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, D P; Brusco, L I; García Bonacho, M; Esquifìno, A I

    1998-05-01

    Young (50 days old) and old (18 months old) Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with mycobacterial Freund's adjuvant to produce an inflammatory disease of the joints and were studied the day before, and on days 6, 12 and 18 after injection. At every postinjection interval examined, old rats had significantly lower circadian amplitudes of pineal melatonin content. On day 18 of arthritis development, decreased levels of pineal melatonin were also seen in young rats. A second study, carried out 18 days after the injection of Freund's complete adjuvant and after 17 daily injections of 10 or 100 microg of melatonin in the evening, indicated that melatonin treatment restored the inflammatory response in old rats (assessed plethysmographically in hind paws) to the level found in young animals. In young rats, an inflammation-promoting effect of 100 microg melatonin could be demonstrated. As a consequence of the immune reaction, submaxillary lymph node and splenic ornithine decarboxylase activity (an index of lymph cell proliferation) augmented significantly, with acrophases of 24-hour rhythms in the afternoon for lymph nodes or in the morning for spleen. Mesor and amplitude of ornithine decarboxylase rhythm were lowest in old rats, while melatonin injection generally augmented its amplitude. Lymph node and splenic tyrosine hydroxylase activity (a presynaptic adrenergic marker) reached maximal values during early night hours while maximal values of [3H]acetylcholine synthesis (a presynaptic cholinergic marker) occurred during the afternoon in lymph nodes. Amplitude and mesor of these rhythms were lowest in old rats, an effect generally counteracted by melatonin treatment. The results suggest that inflammation is accompanied by an age-dependent, significant depression of pineal melatonin synthesis during adjuvant-induced arthritis and a decreased amplitude of the circadian rhythm of immune cell proliferation and autonomic activity in lymph nodes and spleen. These effects are

  3. INDUCTION OF URINARY BLADDER PATHOLOGY IN MALE AND FEMALE C3H MICE EXPOSED TO SODIUM ARSENITE FROM GESTATION THROUGH YOUNG ADULTHOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiology studies suggest that chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with cancer of the skin, urinary bladder and lung as well as the kidney and liver. Recently, an in utero animal model was developed to characterize the carcinogenic properties of inorganic arsen...

  4. Low-sodium dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet reduces blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and oxidative stress in hypertensive heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Scott L; Seymour, E Mitchell; Brook, Robert D; Kolias, Theodore J; Sheth, Samar S; Rosenblum, Hannah R; Wells, Joanna M; Weder, Alan B

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction contribute to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). In salt-sensitive HFPEF animal models, diets low in sodium and high in potassium, calcium, magnesium, and antioxidants attenuate oxidative stress and cardiovascular damage. We hypothesized that the sodium-restricted Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet (DASH/SRD) would have similar effects in human hypertensive HFPEF. Thirteen patients with treated hypertension and compensated HFPEF consumed the DASH/SRD for 21 days (all food/most beverages provided). The DASH/SRD reduced clinic systolic (155-138 mm Hg; P=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (79-72 mm Hg; P=0.04), 24-hour ambulatory systolic (130-123 mm Hg; P=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (67-62 mm Hg; P=0.02), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (12.4-11.0 m/s; P=0.03). Urinary F2-isoprostanes decreased by 31% (209-144 pmol/mmol Cr; P=0.02) despite increased urinary aldosterone excretion. The reduction in urinary F2-isoprostanes closely correlated with the reduction in urinary sodium excretion on the DASH/SRD. In this cohort of HFPEF patients with treated hypertension, the DASH/SRD reduced systemic blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and oxidative stress. These findings are characteristic of salt-sensitive hypertension, a phenotype present in many HFPEF animal models and suggest shared pathophysiological mechanisms linking these 2 conditions. Further dietary modification studies could provide insights into the development and progression of hypertensive HFPEF.

  5. Sex and age-related differences in performance in a 24-hour ultra-cycling draft-legal event – a cross-sectional data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the sex and age-related differences in performance in a draft-legal ultra-cycling event. Methods Age-related changes in performance across years were investigated in the 24-hour draft-legal cycling event held in Schötz, Switzerland, between 2000 and 2011 using multi-level regression analyses including age, repeated participation and environmental temperatures as co-variables. Results For all finishers, the age of peak cycling performance decreased significantly (β = −0.273, p = 0.036) from 38 ± 10 to 35 ± 6 years in females but remained unchanged (β = −0.035, p = 0.906) at 41.0 ± 10.3 years in males. For the annual fastest females and males, the age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged at 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years, respectively. For all female and male finishers, males improved significantly (β = 7.010, p = 0.006) the cycling distance from 497.8 ± 219.6 km to 546.7 ± 205.0 km whereas females (β = −0.085, p = 0.987) showed an unchanged performance of 593.7 ± 132.3 km. The mean cycling distance achieved by the male winners of 960.5 ± 51.9 km was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the distance covered by the female winners with 769.7 ± 65.7 km but was not different between the sexes (p > 0.05). The sex difference in performance for the annual winners of 19.7 ± 7.8% remained unchanged across years (p > 0.05). The achieved cycling distance decreased in a curvilinear manner with advancing age. There was a significant age effect (F = 28.4, p < 0.0001) for cycling performance where the fastest cyclists were in age group 35–39 years. Conclusion In this 24-h cycling draft-legal event, performance in females remained unchanged while their age of peak cycling performance decreased and performance in males improved while their age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged. The annual fastest females and males were 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years old, respectively. The sex

  6. Dietary sodium intake, airway responsiveness, and cellular sodium transport.

    PubMed

    Tribe, R M; Barton, J R; Poston, L; Burney, P G

    1994-06-01

    Both epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggest that a high dietary sodium intake may increase airway responsiveness, but no adequate explanation exists of how changes in sodium intake might lead to increased responsiveness. This investigation was carried out to study dietary sodium intake and airway response to methacholine in relation to cellular sodium transport in 52 young men. Airway response to methacholine was associated with urinary sodium excretion when subjects were on normal sodium intake. Airway responsiveness in patients with mild asthma correlated with the furosemide-insensitive influx of sodium into peripheral leukocytes stimulated by autologous serum, but there was no relation between this influx and 24-h urinary sodium excretion. In a separate investigation, serum from subjects with increased airway responsiveness caused an increase in the sodium influx and sodium content of leukocytes from nonatopic subjects. The magnitude of the furosemide-insensitive, serum stimulated influx was related to the degree of airway responsiveness of the serum donor, as was the increase in intracellular sodium content. Neither was related to the 24-h urinary sodium excretion of the donor. Patients with airway hyperresponsiveness have an increased sodium influx into cells stimulated by a serum-borne factor. This is independent of the effect of added dietary sodium on airway responsiveness.

  7. Comparison and validation of two analytical methods for measurement of urinary sucrose and fructose excretion

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaoling; Navarro, Sandi L.; Diep, Pho; Thomas, Wendy K.; Razmpoosh, Elena C.; Schwarz, Yvonne; Wang, Ching-Yun; Kratz, Mario; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2013-01-01

    Urinary sugars excretion has been proposed as a potential biomarker for intake of sugars. In this study we compared two analytical methods [gas chromatography (GC) and enzymatic reactions – UV absorption] for quantifying urinary fructose and sucrose using 24-hour urine samples from a randomized cross-over controlled feeding study. All samples were successfully quantified by the GC method; however 21% and 1.9% of samples were below the detection limit of the enzymatic method for sucrose and fructose, respectively. While the correlation between the two methods was good for fructose (Pearson correlation 0.71), the correlation was weak for sucrose (Pearson correlation 0.27). We favor the GC method due to its better sensitivity, simplicity, and the ability to quantify fructose and sucrose directly in the same run. Of the 106 samples from 53 participants with complete urine collection after two study diets, 24-hour urinary fructose excretion was significantly associated with fructose intake. The sum of 24-hour urinary fructose and sucrose was significantly associated with total sugars consumption. However, variation in intakes of sugars explained only a modest amount of variation in urinary sugars excretion. In the unadjusted models, fructose intake explained 24.3% of urinary fructose excretion; and intake of total sugars 16.3% of the sum of urinary fructose and sucrose. The adjusted models explained 44.3% of urinary fructose excretion and 41.7% of the sum of urinary fructose and sucrose. Therefore, we caution using these biomarkers to predict sugars consumption before other factors that determine urinary sugars excretion are understood. PMID:24034568

  8. Tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels Na(v)1.8/SNS and Na(v)1.9/NaN in afferent neurons innervating urinary bladder in control and spinal cord injured rats.

    PubMed

    Black, Joel A; Cummins, Theodore R; Yoshimura, Naoki; de Groat, William C; Waxman, Stephen G

    2003-02-14

    Tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channels Na(v)1.8/SNS and Na(v)1.9/NaN are preferentially expressed in small diameter dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. The urinary bladder is innervated by small afferent neurons from L6/S1 DRG, of which approximately 75% exhibit high-threshold action potentials that are mediated by TTX-R sodium channels. Following transection of the spinal cord at T8, the bladder becomes areflexic and then gradually hyper-reflexic, and there is an attenuation of the TTX-R sodium currents in bladder afferent neurons. In the present study, we demonstrate that Na(v)1.8 is expressed in both bladder and non-bladder afferent neurons, while Na(v)1.9 is expressed in non-bladder afferent neurons but is rarely observed in bladder afferent neurons. In spinal cord transected rats 28-32 days following transection, there is a decreased expression of Na(v)1.8 sodium channels in bladder afferents, but no change in the expression of Na(v)1.8 in non-bladder afferent neurons. Both bladder and non-bladder afferent neurons exhibit limited increases in Na(v)1.9 expression following spinal cord transection. These results demonstrate that the expression of TTX-R channels in bladder afferent neurons changes after spinal cord transection, and these changes may contribute to the increased excitability of these neurons following spinal cord injury. PMID:12560118

  9. Association of sodium and potassium intake with left ventricular mass: coronary artery risk development in young adults.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carlos J; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Jin, Zhezhen; Daviglus, Martha L; Goff, David C; Jacobs, David R

    2011-09-01

    High salt intake may affect left ventricular mass (LVM). We hypothesized that urinary sodium (UNa) and sodium/potassium ratio (UNa/K) are associated with LVM in a predominantly normotensive cohort of young adults. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study is a multicenter cohort of black and white men and women aged 30±3.6 years at the time of baseline echocardiographic examination (1990-1991). 2D guided M-mode LVM indexed to body size (grams per meter(2.7)) was calculated, and UNa and potassium excretion assessed (average of three 24-hour urinary samples, n=1042). Linear and logistic regression analysis was used. Participants were 57% women and 55% black. Only 4% were hypertensive. UNa, urinary potassium, and UNa/K ratios were (mean±SD) 175.6±131.0, 56.4±46.3, and 3.4±1.4 mmol/24 h, respectively. Participants in the highest versus the lowest UNa excretion quartile had the greatest LVM (37.5 versus 34.0 g/m(2.7); P<0.001). Adjusted for age, sex, education, and race, LVM averaged 0.945 g/m(2.7) higher per SD of UNa/K (P=0.001). The relationship between UNa/K and LVM persisted among 399 participants with repeat echocardiographic measures 5 years later. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, education, and race, each SD higher baseline UNa/K was associated with 23% and 38% greater chances of being in the highest quartile of LVM at baseline (odds ratio: 1.23; P=0.005) and 5 years later (odds ratio: 1.38; P=0.02). A higher sodium/potassium excretion ratio is significantly related to cardiac structure, even among healthy young adults.

  10. Renin-Angiotensin System Genes and Exercise Training-Induced Changes in Sodium Excretion in African American Hypertensives

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jennifer M.; Park, Jung-Jun; Johnson, Jennifer; Vizcaino, Dave; Hand, Brian; Ferrell, Robert; Weir, Matthew; Dowling, Thomas; Obisesan, Thomas; Brown, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genotypes could predict changes in urinary sodium excretion in response to short-term aerobic exercise training (AEX). Design Longitudinal intervention. Setting The study was conducted at the University of Maryland at College Park and at Baltimore, and the University of Pittsburgh General Clinical Research Center. Participants 31 (age 53 ± 2 years) sedentary, hypertensive (146 ± 2/88 ± 2 mm Hg) African Americans. Intervention Aerobic exercise training (AEX) consisted of seven or eight consecutive days, 50 minutes per day, at 65% of heart rate reserve. Participants underwent a 24-hour period of ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and urine collection at baseline and 14–18 hours after the last exercise session. Main Outcome Measures Angiotensiongen (AGT) M235T and ACE I/D genotype and sodium excretion and ambulatory BP. Results Average sodium excretion for the entire group independent of genotype increased after AEX (108 ± 9 vs 143 ± 12 mEq/day, P=.003). Sodium excretion significantly increased after exercise training in the ACE II (114 ± 22 vs 169 ± 39 mEq/day, P=.04), but not in the ID (100 ± 8 vs 133 ± 17 mEq/day, P=.12) or DD (113 ± 18 vs 138 ± 11 mEq/day, P=.13) genotype groups. In the II genotype group, the increase in sodium excretion was significantly and inversely correlated with decreases in 24-hour diastolic (r=−.88, P=.02) and mean (r=−.95, P=.004) BP. The AGT TT and MT+MM genotype groups similarly increased their sodium excretion by 34 ± 16 (P=.05) and 37 ± 17 (P=.05) mEq/day respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that African American hypertensives with the ACE II genotype may be more susceptible to sodium balance and BP changes with exercise training compared with those with the ID and DD genotypes. PMID:16937603

  11. [Clinical use of sodium hypochlorite for local treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections and therapy of contracted bladders (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Eisen, M; Jurcovic, K; Pfeiffer, E; Skoluda, D; Busse, K

    1976-01-01

    A stable commercial electrolytic sodium hypochlorite solution was tested in 63 urologic patients. The complete germicidal action against all sorts of bacteria was shown in suspension-tests. Irrigation studies of the infected bladder were performed. It was found that continued bladder irrigations were necessary to stop bacterial ascension from the infected urethra. Bladder capacity was increased in 6 of 8 patients with nonmalignant contracted bladder or interstitial cystitis. Desinfection with sodium hypochlorite in urologic practice is cheap, easy to perform and diminishes the risk of hospitalism. Clinical studies confirmed the absence of general or local toxicity.

  12. Urinary potassium excretion and risk of developing hypertension: the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study.

    PubMed

    Kieneker, Lyanne M; Gansevoort, Ron T; Mukamal, Kenneth J; de Boer, Rudolf A; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; Joosten, Michel M

    2014-10-01

    Previous prospective cohort studies on the association between potassium intake and risk of hypertension have almost exclusively relied on self-reported dietary data, whereas repeated 24-hour urine excretions, as estimate of dietary uptake, may provide a more objective and quantitative estimate of this association. Risk of hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or initiation of blood pressure-lowering drugs) was prospectively studied in 5511 normotensive subjects aged 28 to 75 years not using blood pressure-lowering drugs at baseline of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study. Potassium excretion was measured in two 24-hour urine specimens at baseline (1997-1998) and midway during follow-up (2001-2003). Baseline median potassium excretion was 70 mmol/24 h (interquartile range, 57-85 mmol/24 h), which corresponds to a dietary potassium intake of ≈91 mmol/24 h. During a median follow-up of 7.6 years (interquartile range, 5.0-9.3 years), 1172 subjects developed hypertension. The lowest sex-specific tertile of potassium excretion (men: <68 mmol/24 h; women: <58 mmol/24 h) had an increased risk of hypertension after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.37), compared with the upper 2 tertiles (Pnonlinearity=0.008). The proportion of hypertension attributable to low potassium excretion was 6.2% (95% confidence interval, 1.7%-10.9%). No association was found between the sodium to potassium excretion ratio and risk of hypertension after multivariable adjustment. Low urinary potassium excretion was associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension. Dietary strategies to increase potassium intake to the recommended level of 90 mmol/d may have the potential to reduce the incidence of hypertension.

  13. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Buendia Jimenez, Inmaculada; Richardot, Pascaline; Picard, Pascaline; Lepicard, Eve M.; De Meo, Michel; Talaska, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume <1 L and osmolality >700 mOsmol/kg). Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN) on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary. PMID:26357419

  14. Similarity of urinary risk factors among stone-forming patients in five regions of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, J. A.; Hill, K. D.; Pak, C. Y.

    1990-01-01

    Study Objective: To compare urinary biochemical risk factors among stone-forming patients in the Southeast (SE) or "stone belt" versus four other regions of the United States. Design: Prospective biochemical survey for regional comparisons. Setting: Referral-based nephrolithiasis clinics, urologists, nephrologists, and family practitioners. Patients: Consecutive sample of 3473 stone-forming patients who submitted 24-hour urine collections for biochemical analyses of stone-forming risk factors. Interventions: None. Subjects taking medication known to interfere with stone-forming risk factors were deleted from the final data compilation. Measurements and Main Results: Overall, the mean values for each urinary parameter spanned a narrow range without significant difference between the five regions. Among "metabolic" factors, 40% in the SE had hypercalciuria (> 6.25 mmol/d), compared to 35%-43% in other regions, and hyperuricosuria (> 4.2 mmol/d) was found in 16% in the SE versus 17%-19% elsewhere. Among "environmental" factors, low urine volume ( < 2 L/d) was found in 77% patients in the SE compared to 69%-78% elsewhere, and high sodium was encountered in 27% in the SE versus 24%-29% elsewhere. No differences were noted in occurrence of other abnormal risk factors: hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, low pH, high sulfate, high phosphorus, or low magnesium. Conclusions: Despite expected regional differences in nutritional and environmental influences, the results of this study showed a striking similarity in urinary biochemical risk factor profiles of stone-formers in all five regions of the United States.

  15. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can happen to anyone, but it becomes more common with age. Women experience ...

  16. Addition of hydrochlorothiazide to angiotensin receptor blocker therapy can achieve a lower sodium balance with no acceleration of intrarenal renin angiotensin system in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fuwa, Daisuke; Fukuda, Michio; Ogiyama, Yoshiaki; Sato, Ryo; Mizuno, Masashi; Miura, Toshiyuki; Abe-Dohmae, Sumiko; Michikawa, Makoto; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Ohte, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) produce a lower sodium (Na) balance, and the natriuretic effect is enhanced under Na deprivation, despite falls in blood pressure (BP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Methods The effect of additional hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; 12.5 mg/day) to ARB treatment (valsartan; 80 mg/day) on glomerulotubular Na balance was evaluated in 23 patients with chronic kidney disease. Results Add-on HCTZ decreased GFR, tubular Na load, and tubular Na reabsorption (tNa), although 24-hour urinary Na excretion (UNaV) remained constant. Daily urinary angiotensinogen excretion (UAGTV, 152±10→82±17 μg/g Cre) reduced (p=0.02). Changes in tubular Na load (r2=0.26) and tNa (r2=0.25) correlated with baseline 24-hour UAGTV. Changes in filtered Na load correlated with changes in nighttime systolic BP (r2=0.17), but not with changes in daytime systolic BP. The change in the tNa to filtered Na load ratio was influenced by the change in daytime UNaV (β=−0.67, F=16.8), rather than the change in nighttime UNaV. Conclusions Lower Na balance was produced by add-on HCTZ to ARB treatment without an increase of intra-renal renin-angiotensin system activity, leading to restoration of nocturnal hypertension. A further study is needed to demonstrate that the reduction of UAGTV by additional diuretics to ARBs prevents the progression of nephropathy or cardiovascular events. PMID:27283968

  17. Effect of sodium arsenite dose administered in the drinking water on the urinary bladder epithelium of female arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yokohira, Masanao; Arnold, Lora L; Pennington, Karen L; Suzuki, Shugo; Kakiuchi-Kiyota, Satoko; Herbin-Davis, Karen; Thomas, David J; Cohen, Samuel M

    2011-06-01

    The enzyme arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes reactions converting inorganic arsenic to methylated metabolites, some of which are highly cytotoxic. In a previous study, female As3mt knockout (KO) mice treated with diet containing 100 or 150 ppm arsenic as arsenite showed systemic toxicity and significant effects on the urothelium. In the present study, we showed that the cytotoxic and proliferative effects of arsenite administration on the urothelium are dose dependent. Female wild-type C57BL/6 mice and As3mt KO mice were divided into five groups (n = 7) with free access to drinking water containing 0, 1, 10, 25, or 50 ppm arsenic as arsenite for 4 weeks. At sacrifice, urinary bladders of both As3mt KO and wild-type mice showed hyperplasia by light microscopy; however, the hyperplasia was more severe in the As3mt KO mice. Intracytoplasmic granules were detected in the urothelium of As3mt KO and wild-type mice at arsenic doses ≥ 10 ppm but were more numerous, more extensive, and larger in the KO mice. A no effect level for urothelial effects was identified at 1 ppm arsenic in the wild-type and As3mt KO mice. In As3mt KO mice, livers showed mild acute inflammation and kidneys showed hydronephrosis. The present study shows a dose-response for the effects of orally administered arsenite on the bladder urothelium of wild-type and As3mt KO mice, with greater effects in the KO strain but with a no effect level of 1 ppm for both.

  18. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    PubMed

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values <0.040). Similar inverse associations were observed for paraxanthine and theophylline. Adjusted night-time systolic blood pressure in the first (lowest), second, third, and fourth (highest) quartile of paraxanthine urinary excretions were 110.3, 107.3, 107.3, and 105.1 mm Hg, respectively (P trend <0.05). No associations of urinary excretions with diastolic blood pressure were generally found, and theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure. PMID:25489060

  19. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    PubMed

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values <0.040). Similar inverse associations were observed for paraxanthine and theophylline. Adjusted night-time systolic blood pressure in the first (lowest), second, third, and fourth (highest) quartile of paraxanthine urinary excretions were 110.3, 107.3, 107.3, and 105.1 mm Hg, respectively (P trend <0.05). No associations of urinary excretions with diastolic blood pressure were generally found, and theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure.

  20. Sodium intake among U.S. school-age children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying current major dietary sources of sodium can enhance strategies to reduce excess sodium intake which occurs among 90% of U.S. school-aged children. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data from a nationally representative sample of 2,142 U.S. children aged 6...

  1. The relationship between kallikrein and water excretion and the conditional relationship between kallikrein and sodium excretion.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, I H; Ward, P E

    1975-01-01

    1. The renal kallikrein-kinin system has previously been linked with renal control of sodium and water excretion. The present investigations were carried out to examine more closely these relationships. 2. In physiological studies with rabbits, urinary kallikrein was measured by a modification of the [3-H]TAME method. 3. With rabbits on free sodium and water intake, urinary kallikrein was positively correlated with both sodium and water excretion. Kallikrein excretion was also negatively correlated with urinary osmolality. 4. In rabbits on chronic high and low sodium diets, urinary kallikrein was positively correlated with urinary volume but not with sodium excretion. 5. In rabbits held to a constant fluid intake but with sodium intake changed, urinary kallikrein was not correlated with sodium excretion. 6. These results indicate that the positive correlation of kallikrein excretion with sodium excretion under conditions of free sodium and water intake may be only secondary to the positive relationship of kallikrein excretion with urinary volume. 7. The results of the present investigations do not support the hypothesis that the renal kallikrein-kinin system is necessarily involved in renal control of sodium excretion under normal conditions but it is where a change in sodium intake leads to a change in fluid intake and consequently of urinary volume. 8. In the above experiments, urinary kallikrein was always positively correlated with urinary volume and negatively correlated with urinary osmolality. This may indicate a functional relationship between renal kallikrein and water excretion. PMID:1133793

  2. Combination of Urinary Sodium/Creatinine Ratio and Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level Predicts Successful Tolvaptan Therapy in Patients With Heart Failure and Volume Overload.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuichi; Dohi, Kaoru; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Tanimura, Muneyoshi; Takeuchi, Tetsushiro; Sugiura, Emiyo; Sugimoto, Tadafumi; Kumagai, Naoto; Ogura, Toru; Nakamori, Shiro; Fujimoto, Naoki; Yamada, Norikazu; Ito, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the short-term clinical and hemodynamic effects of tolvaptan therapy and to identify predictors of the therapeutic outcomes, we retrospectively recruited 60 consecutive hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients (70 ± 11 years) with volume overload. The subjects were divided into two groups on the basis of the changes in HF symptom scores and hemodynamic status assessed by right heart catheterization after tolvaptan therapy (median: 7 days). The majority of patients were successfully treated (group 1). However, 22% of patients (group 2) were unsuccessfully treated, in whom 1) the HF symptom score worsened or 2) there was a stationary HF symptom score ≥ 6 points, and mean PCWP > 18 mmHg and mean RAP > 10 mmHg, after tolvaptan therapy. HF symptom scores, hemodynamic parameters, and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level improved in group 1, but all of these parameters remained unchanged in group 2. Lower urine sodium/creatinine ratio (UNa/UCr) and higher BNP level at baseline were independently associated with unsuccessful tolvaptan therapy, and UNa/UCr best predicts unsuccessful tolvaptan therapy with a cut-off value of 46.5 mEq/g·Cr (AUC 0.847, 95% CI: 0.718-0.976, sensitivity 77%, specificity 81%, P < 0.01). Double-positive results of UNa/UCr < 46.5 mEq/g·Cr and plasma BNP level > 778 pg/mL predicted unsuccessful tolvaptan therapy with high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 54%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 89%, and accuracy 90%). In summary, short-term tolvaptan therapy ameliorated HF symptoms and provided hemodynamic improvement in the majority of patients, and UNa/UCr and BNP level strongly predicted the therapeutic outcomes. PMID:26973271

  3. Investigation of cattle methane production and emission over a 24-hour period using measurements of δ13C and δD of emitted CH4 and rumen water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, R. S.; Tyler, S. C.; Kurihara, M.; Yagi, K.

    2001-07-01

    We have conducted a series of experiments to determine the effects different diets, including the addition of unsaturated fatty acids, had on isotopic signatures of CH4 emissions from dairy cattle. Measurements of emitted δ13CH4, δ13CO2, and δD-CH4 were made on gases collected over a 24-hour period from animal chambers containing individual Holstein cows. Some measurements of δD-H2O from samples collected directly from the rumen were also made. We observed variation in δ13CH4 values with time after feeding and a correlation in δ13C between emitted gases and diet. The average δ13CH4 value, which includes all samples of emitted gases, was -70.6±4.9‰ (n = 57). Measurements of δD-CH4 over the 24-hour sampling period had an average value of -357.8±15.0‰ (n = 56). These δD measurements are among the lightest reported for CH4 produced by cattle. Our cattle data indicate that hydrogen incorporated into the CH4 produced by CO2 reduction in high H2 concentration environments is fractionated to a greater degree than that incorporated in systems with relatively low H2 conditions, such as wetlands. Our results support bacterial studies that have demonstrated large hydrogen fractionation in high H2 concentration systems during methanogenesis.

  4. Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control and Sodium Intake in Shandong Province, China: Baseline Results From Shandong–Ministry of Health Action on Salt Reduction and Hypertension (SMASH), 2011

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Zhenqiang; Liang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Aiqiang; Wang, Linghong; Shi, Xiaoming; Zhao, Wenhua; Ma, Jixiang; Guo, Xiaolei; Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Jiyu; Ren, Jie; Yan, Liuxia; Lu, Zilong; Wang, Huicheng; Tang, Junli; Cai, Xiaoning; Dong, Jing; Zhang, Juan; Chu, Jie; Engelgau, Michael; Yang, Quanhe; Hong, Yuling

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In China, population-based blood pressure levels and prevalence of hypertension are increasing. Meanwhile, sodium intake, a major risk factor for hypertension, is high. In 2011, to develop intervention priorities for a salt reduction and hypertension control project in Shandong Province (population 96 million), a cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect information on sodium intake and hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. Methods Complex, multistage sampling methods were used to select a provincial-representative adult sample. Blood pressure was measured and a survey conducted among all participants; condiments were weighed in the household, a 24-hour dietary recall was conducted, and urine was collected. Hypertension was determined by blood pressure measured on a single occasion and self-reported use of antihypertension medications. Results Overall, 23.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20.9%–26.0%) of adults in Shandong were estimated to have hypertension. Among those classified as having hypertension, approximately one-third (34.5%) reported having hypertension, approximately one-fourth (27.5%) reported taking medications, and one-seventh (14.9%) had their blood pressure controlled (<140/<90 mm Hg). Estimated total average daily dietary sodium intake was 5,745 mg (95% CI, 5,428 mg–6,063 mg). Most dietary sodium (80.8%) came from salt and high-salt condiments added during cooking: a sodium intake of 4,640 mg (95% CI, 4,360 mg–4,920 mg). The average daily urinary sodium excretion was 5,398 mg (95% CI, 5,112 mg–5,683 mg). Conclusion Hypertension and excessive sodium intake in adults are major public health problems in Shandong Province, China. PMID:24854239

  5. The association between cognitive function and objective adherence to dietary sodium guidelines in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Dolansky, Mary A; Schaefer, Julie T; Hawkins, Misty AW; Gunstad, John; Basuray, Anup; Redle, Joseph D; Fang, James C; Josephson, Richard A; Moore, Shirley M; Hughes, Joel W

    2016-01-01

    Background Although cognitive impairment is common in heart failure (HF) patients, its effects on sodium adherence recommendations are unknown. Purpose Our aim is to examine if cognitive function is associated with patient sodium adherence. Methods Sodium collection/excretion and cognitive function were assessed for 339 HF patients over a 5–8-week period. Neuropsychological testing was performed at baseline (Visit 1), whereas two 24-hour urine samples were collected within 7 weeks postbaseline. The ability to collect two 24-hour urine samples and the estimation of sodium excretion levels from these samples were used to estimate sodium adherence recommendations. Results Nearly half (47%) of the study participants (n=159) were unable to give two valid 24-hour urine samples. Participants who were unable to adhere to two valid 24-hour urine samples had significantly poorer attention and global cognition tests (P<0.044), with a trend for poorer executive function (P=0.064). Among those with valid samples, urine sodium level was not associated with global cognitive function, attention, executive function, or memory after adjusting for covariates. Female sex was associated with lower sodium excretion (all P<0.01); individuals with knowledge of sodium guidelines had less intake of sodium, resulting in excretion of less sodium (all P≤0.03). Conversely, higher socioeconomic status (SES) and body mass index (BMI) were associated with greater sodium (all P≤0.02 and P≤0.01). Conclusion Adherence to urine sodium collection was poor, especially among those with poorer cognitive function. Sodium consumption exceeded recommended amounts and was unrelated to cognitive function. Interventions for improving sodium adherence should focus on at-risk groups (high SES and BMI) and at improving knowledge of recommended salt intake. PMID:27042017

  6. [Urinary bilharziasis].

    PubMed

    Gigase, P L

    1992-01-01

    A short account is given of present views on urinary schistosomiasis or bilharziasis. The incidence of infections is increasing in endemic areas of Africa and the near east, as a consequence of irrigation programs and hydroelectric power development. Urinary schistosomiasis is a disease of children and young adults. The serious consequences, obstructive uropathy due to more or less irreversible ureteral lesions, and cancer of the bladder, less directly related to the infection, appear but later in life. Diagnosis is still based on parasitology and serology but ultrasonography has proven to be an important means to evaluate the extent of lesions of the urinary tract, especially in developing countries. Praziquantel was a major development in the medical treatment and cures easily the infection. Some irreversible consequences have however to be treated surgically. Schistosomiasis is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in medically backward endemic countries. The control of the disease aims at reducing morbidity and mortality, consequences of the infection, rather than to avoid infection itself. It is based on mass treatment of school age children, together with focal molluscacides at places where people have contacts with water. Vaccination will be available in the near future and will be a welcome addition to other control measures, but will not be able to interrupt transmission on its own. Only economic development will solve in the long term this social African problem. PMID:1492630

  7. Toys Remain Viral Playground for 24 Hours

    MedlinePlus

    ... a toy's surface at typical indoor temperatures and humidity levels. Specifically, they tested the ability of so- ... East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). At 60 percent relative humidity, 1 percent of the virus remained infectious on ...

  8. Effects of methylxanthines on urinary prostaglandin E excretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Kogo, H; Aizawa, Y

    1981-04-01

    Effect of methylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine and caffeine) on urinary prostaglandin E (PGE) excretion in male rats was studied. Oral administration of xanthines significantly increased the urinary excretion of PGE. Dose-response studies showed that the maximal excretion of urinary PGE and water was obtained by administration of theophylline (50 mg/kg), where the increase in PGE was about 20 times that of the control. The excretion of urinary sodium, potassium and chloride was also markedly increased by xanthines, particularly, theophylline. Increases in urinary PGE excretion, urine volume and electrolytes excretion were inhibited by 10 mg/kg of indomethacin administered prior to theophylline. The increase of urinary PGE excretion after theophylline administration (50 mg/kg) preceded increases in water and sodium excretion. These results suggest that renal PGE mediates, at least in part, the diuretic effect of theophylline. PMID:7311144

  9. Effects of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy on urinary concentration of epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Baltaci, S; Ozer, G; Soygür, T; Yaman, O; Sarica, K; Müftüoğlu, Y Z; Göğüş, O

    1996-12-01

    In a prospective study, we tried to determine whether extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) has any effect on urinary epidermal growth factor (EGF) concentrations and to investigate whether EGF can be used as a marker for detecting shockwave-induced impairment of distal tubular cells. A total of 12 patients with renal pelvic or caliceal stones < or = 2 cm undergoing anesthesia-free SWL without ancillary measures and a control group of 10 patients without any urologic symptoms were included in this study. The urinary concentrations of EGF were measured by radioimmunoassay before and 4 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days after SWL. Relative urinary EGF concentrations were expressed as the ratio of EGF to creatinine (ng/mL creatinine). The mean urinary EGF concentration (mean +/- standard error) in control subjects and patients with renal pelvic or caliceal stones before SWL was 23.90 +/- 3.15 ng/mL creatinine and 22.18 +/- 6.85 ng/mL creatinine, respectively (p > 0.05). In patients with stones, we found a decrease in urinary EGF concentration 4 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days after SWL. Indeed, 7 days after SWL, the EGF concentration was on average half of the original value, a biologically significant, although not statistically significant, decrease.

  10. Acute cyanide intoxication treated with a combination of hydroxycobalamin, sodium nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate.

    PubMed

    Mannaioni, Guido; Vannacci, Alfredo; Marzocca, Cosimo; Zorn, Anna Monica; Peruzzi, Sandro; Moroni, Flavio

    2002-01-01

    An 80-year-old diabetic patient was admitted to the hospital because of sudden unconsciousness and severe metabolic acidosis. His son reported the possibility of cyanide poisoning. Clinical data and the detection of cyanide in blood and gastric material confirmed this possibility. Supportive therapy and the following antidotes--sodium nitrite two doses 300 mg i.v., sodium thiosulfate 3 g i.v., and hydroxocobalamin 4 g in 24 hours--were administered immediately and the patient completely recovered in 48 hours. Our observations suggest that timely and appropriate use of antidotes for cyanide intoxication may prevent death, even in aged diabetic patients. PMID:12126191

  11. Novel description of the 24-hour circadian rhythms of brachial versus central aortic blood pressure and the impact of blood pressure treatment in a randomized controlled clinical trial: The Ambulatory Central Aortic Pressure (AmCAP) Study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bryan; Lacy, Peter S; Baschiera, Fabio; Brunel, Patrick; Düsing, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    Elevated brachial blood pressure (BP) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and predicts morbidity and mortality in humans. Recently, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and assessment of central aortic BP have been introduced to improve BP phenotyping. The Ambulatory Central Aortic Pressure (AmCAP) study combines these approaches and describes, for the first time, the diurnal patterns of simultaneously measured 24-hour ambulatory brachial and central pressures in a prespecified substudy embedded within a clinical trial of BP lowering in patients with hypertension. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory brachial and central pressure measurements were acquired using a tonometer mounted into the articulating strap of a wristwatch-like device (BPro) in 171 participants with hypertension recruited into the ASSERTIVE (AliSkiren Study of profound antihypERtensive efficacy in hyperTensIVE patients) trial. Participants were randomly assigned to BP lowering with either aliskiren 300 mg QD or telmisartan 80 mg QD for 12 weeks. Ambulatory brachial and central BP was measured in all participants both at baseline and at study end. Brachial and central BP both demonstrated typical diurnal patterns with lower pressures at night. However, night time was associated with smaller reductions in central relative to brachial pressure and decreased pulse pressure amplification (P<0.0001 for both). These effects were not modulated after BP lowering and were maintained after adjustment for day and night-time BP and heart rate (P=0.02). This study demonstrates that brachial and central pressure show different diurnal patterns, which are not modulated by BP-lowering therapy, with relatively higher night-time central pressures. These novel data indicate that night-time central BP may provide prognostic importance and warrants further investigation. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00865020. PMID:23630950

  12. The importance of urinary calcium in postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Miguel Angel Ochoa-Hortal; Cano-García, María del Carmen; Arrabal-Martín, Miguel; Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Calcium stones are associated with osteoporosis and manifested mainly by elevated fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the presence of abnormal metabolism of calcium and calciuria in women with osteoporotic fracture with no previously known renal lithiasis compared to women without osteoporosis and without renal lithiasis. Methods: In total, 87 women were included in the study. They were divided into two groups: Group 1 with 55 postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture and without renal lithiasis; and Group 2 with 32 postmenopausal women without osteoporosis and without history of renal lithiasis. The following parameters of phospho-calcium metabolism were analyzed: calciuria 24-hour, oxaluria 24-hour, uricosuria 24-hour, and citraturia 24-hour. The presence of hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, and hypocitraturia was compared between groups. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: The mean age was 70.1 ± 13.8 in Group 1 and 56.7 ± 6.4 in Group 2 (p = 0.0001). Women in Group 1 had higher levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.05) and fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (p < 0.05). The percentage of patients with hypercalciuria in Group 1 (40%) was higher compared to Group 2 (18.8%) and statistically significant (p = 0.04). There were no statistically significant differences in the percentage of hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, and hypocitraturia between groups. This study has its limitations including its cross-sectional nature at a unique centre and its low number of patients. Conclusion: The determination of urinary calcium and fasting calcium/creatinine ratio in postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture without renal lithiasis may facilitate individualization of medical therapy and decreasing lithogenic risk. PMID:26085877

  13. Urinary catheter - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This article addresses urinary catheters in babies. WHY IS ...

  14. Changes in Urinary and Serum Levels of Novel Biomarkers after Administration of Gadolinium-based Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Mawad, Habib; Laurin, Louis-Philippe; Naud, Jean-François; Leblond, François A.; Henley, Nathalie; Vallée, Michel; Pichette, Vincent; Leblanc, Martine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of our study is to describe the changes in urinary and serum levels of novel biomarkers after gadolinium contrast administration in patients with normal renal function. METHODS We measured four biomarkers in 28 volunteers: interleukin-18 (IL-18), N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and cystatin C. Urinary and serum samples were collected at 0, 3, and 24 hours following gadolinium administration. RESULTS Baseline serum creatinine was 57.8 ± 34.5 µmol/L and remained stable. Urinary IL-18 levels increased significantly at three hours (10.7 vs. 7.3 ng/mg creatinine; P < 0.05). Similarly, urinary NAG levels increased significantly at three hours (3.9 vs. 2.2 IU/mg creatinine; P < 0.001). For both these markers, the difference was no longer significant at 24 hours. No statistically significant differences were observed for urinary and serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels and for serum cystatin C levels. CONCLUSIONS Urinary IL-18 and NAG levels increased transiently after administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents in patients with normal renal function. PMID:27398022

  15. Association between 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zeng; Guo, Xiaolei; Chen, Xiaorong; Tang, Junli; Yan, Liuxia; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Jiyu; Lu, Zilong; Dong, Jing; Xu, Jianwei; Cai, Xiaoning; Liang, Hao; Ma, Jixiang

    2015-03-28

    The association of 24 h urinary Na and potassium excretion with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been studied in China. The aim of the present study was to examine this association by analysing the data from 1906 study participants living in north China. To this end, 24 h urine samples were collected. Of the 1906 participants, 471 (24·7 %) had the MetS. The mean urinary Na and K excretion was 228·7 and 40·8 mmol/d, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the odds of the MetS significantly increased across the increasing tertiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·40 and 1·54, respectively). For the components of the MetS, the odds of central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG, but not the odds of low HDL-cholesterol and elevated fasting glucose, significantly increased with the successive tertiles of urinary Na excretion. Furthermore, for every 100 mmol/d increase in urinary Na excretion, the odds of the MetS, central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG was significantly increased by 29, 63, 22 and 21 %, respectively. However, urinary K excretion was not significantly associated with the risk of the MetS. These findings suggest that high Na intake might be an important risk factor for the MetS in Chinese adults.

  16. The Relationship of the Increase in the 'Time of the Earth Day,' from 18 Hours to 24 Hours, to the Increase in the Size of the Earth, Using the Laws of the Conservation of Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimorelli, S. A.; Samuels, C.

    2010-12-01

    There are three articles, by others, which discuss the increase in the Earth's day, from 18 hours to 24 hours, over a period of time of about a billion years. One article refers to Striations in the Substructure of Coral, C.T. Scrutton, et al, 1965. Another article refers to the Laws of the Conservation of Momentum, as related to the relationship of the Earth and the Moon, the lunar tides, the reduction of the Earth year from 481 days to our present 365.25 days, and an increase in the lunar orbit time from 20 days to 28 days. The third article is based on the dates of tidal sediment deposits, tidalites, C. P. Sonett, et al, in the late 1980's. In this paper, we explain how the Earth's Day could have increased from 18 hours to 24 hours, as related to the Laws of Conservation of Momentum (L). Wherein we use the simple formulation from the Law of the Conservation of Angular Momentum, L=Iω, in which I=Moment of Inertia and ω=Angular Velocity; for which we assume the earth to be a perfect sphere, for which I=0.4MR2, where M and R are the Mass and radius of the earth, respectively. We evaluate the radius of the earth over a time period of several billion years, during which time the earth's angular momentum, L=Iω, is conserved. In this formulation, we show a growth in the size of the earth; and present a curve, using just three points in time, which indicates that the rate of growth is increasing over time. The first point is from about 4.5 billion years ago, the second point is from about 1 billion years ago, and the third point represents present day, with an average growth of about 1mm per year. Although evidence has been presented, by others, showing circumferential growth at the Red Sea and in the Atlantic Ocean, at about 1.5cm per year, total. However, no proof of reduction in the size of the Earth has been shown to occur in the Pacific, or anywhere else, including in references to subduction. Some might say that the subduction is occurring at the rim of the

  17. Effective cross-over to granisetron after failure to ondansetron, a randomized double blind study in patients failing ondansetron plus dexamethasone during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, R; de Boer, A C; vd Linden, G H M; Stoter, G; Sparreboom, A; Verweij, J

    2001-01-01

    In view of the similarity in chemical structure of the available 5HT3-receptor antagonists it is assumed, whilst these agents all act at the same receptor, that failure to one agent would predict subsequent failure to all 5HT3-receptor antagonists. We conducted a randomized double blind trial of granisetron 3 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg versus continued treatment with ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg in patients with protection failure on ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Of 40 eligible patients, 21 received ondansetron + dexamethasone and 19 received granisetron + dexamethasone. We found a significant benefit from crossing-over to granisetron after failure on ondansetron. Of the 19 patients who crossed over to granisetron, 9 patients obtained complete protection, whereas this was observed in 1 of the 21 patients continuing ondansetron, P = 0.005. These results indicate that there is no complete cross-resistance between 5HT3-receptor antagonists, and that patients who have acute protection failure on one 5HT3-receptor antagonist should be offered cross-over to another 5HT3-receptor antagonist. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11710819

  18. Pooled results from five validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for potassium and sodium intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have pooled data from five large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as referents to assess food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. We reported on total potassium and sodium intakes, their densities, and their ratio. Results were...

  19. Effects of Verapamil SR and Atenolol on 24-Hour Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Hypertension Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: An International Verapamil SR-Trandolapril Ambulatory Monitoring Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Denardo, Scott J.; Gong, Yan; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Farsang, Csaba; Keltai, Matyas; Szirmai, László; Messerli, Franz H.; Bavry, Anthony A.; Handberg, Eileen M.; Mancia, Giuseppe; Pepine, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated nighttime blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), increased BP and HR variability, and altered diurnal variations of BP and HR (nighttime dipping and morning surge) in patients with systemic hypertension are each associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events. However, there are no reports on the effect of hypertension treatment on these important hemodynamic parameters in the growing population of hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). This was a pre-specified subgroup analysis of the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST), which involved 22,576 clinically stable patients aged ≥50 years with hypertension and CAD randomized to either verapamil SR- or atenolol-based hypertension treatment strategies. The subgroup consisted of 117 patients undergoing 24-hour ambulatory monitoring at baseline and after 1 year of treatment. Hourly systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) decreased after 1 year for both verapamil SR- and atenolol-based treatment strategies compared with baseline (P<0.0001). Atenolol also decreased hourly HR (P<0.0001). Both treatment strategies decreased SBP variability (weighted standard deviation: P = 0.012 and 0.021, respectively). Compared with verapamil SR, atenolol also increased the prevalence of BP and HR nighttime dipping among prior non-dippers (BP: OR = 3.37; 95% CI: 1.26 – 8.97; P = 0.015; HR: OR = 4.06; 95% CI: 1.35-12.17; P = 0.012) and blunted HR morning surge (+2.8 vs. +4.5 beats/min/hr; P = 0.019). Both verapamil SR- and especially atenolol-based strategies resulted in favorable changes in ambulatory monitoring parameters that have been previously associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00133692 PMID:25835002

  20. Comparison of validity of food group intake by food frequency questionnaire between pre- and post- adjustment estimates derived from 2-day 24-hour recalls in combination with the probability of consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Woo; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Kim, Jeongseon

    2012-01-01

    Validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) utilising a short-term measurement method is challenging when the reference method does not accurately reflect the usual food intake. In addition, food group intake that is not consumed on daily basis is more critical when episodically consumed foods are related and compared. To overcome these challenges, several statistical approaches have been developed to determine usual food intake distributions. The Multiple Source Method (MSM) can calculate the usual food intake by combining the frequency questions of an FFQ with the short-term food intake amount data. In this study, we applied the MSM to estimate the usual food group intake and evaluate the validity of an FFQ with a group of 333 Korean children (aged 3-6 y) who completed two 24-hour recalls (24HR) and one FFQ in 2010. After adjusting the data using the MSM procedure, the true rate of non-consumption for all food groups was less than 1% except for the beans group. The median Spearman correlation coefficients against FFQ of the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and the MSM-adjusted data were 0.20 (range: 0.11 to 0.40) and 0.35 (range: 0.14 to 0.60), respectively. The weighted kappa values against FFQ ranged from 0.08 to 0.25 for the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and from 0.10 to 0.41 for the MSM-adjusted data. For most food groups, the MSM-adjusted data showed relatively stronger correlations against FFQ than raw 2-d 24HRs data, from 0.03 (beverages) to 0.34 (mushrooms). The results of this study indicated that the application of the MSM, which was a better estimate of the usual intake, could be worth considering in FFQ validation studies among Korean children.

  1. Prognosis in threatened abortion: a comparison between predictions made by sonar urinary hormone assays and clinical judgement.

    PubMed

    Duff, G B

    1975-11-01

    One hundred patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of threatened abortion were assessed by means of sonar, urinary oestrogen, pregnanediol and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) assays and clinical examination. Assay of oestrogen excretion was the most accurate (86-5 per cent) in predicting the ultimate outcome of pregnancy, but did not give as much information as sonar examination which gave an accurate prognosis in 84 per cent of cases and was much quicker to perform The reasons for the sonar failures are discussed. Assay of urinary pregnanediol excretion gave an accurate indication of outcome in 74 per cent of cases and 24-hour urinary HCG in 70 per cent although random urinary HCG estimations provided an accurate prediciton in only 54-5 per cent of cases. Clinical examination presented the usual difficulties in assessing uterine size and predicting abortion from the amount of bleeding and pain.

  2. Integrated exposure assessment of sewage workers to genotoxicants: an urinary biomarker approach and oxidative stress evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sewage workers are exposed to multiple chemicals among which many are suspected genotoxicants. Therefore, they might incur DNA damage and oxidative stress. We aimed to explore integrated urinary biomarkers, assessing the overall urine genotoxicity by in vitro comet and micronucleus assays and measuring urinary 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine. Methods During three consecutive working days, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds were sampled in workplace air of 34 sewage and 30 office workers, as indicators of airborne exposure. The last day, subjects collected their 24 hours urine. Genotoxicity of urinary extracts was assessed by comet and micronucleus assays on a HepG2 cell line. Using competitive enzymatic immunoassay we evaluated the 24 hours urinary 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion. Benzo(a)pyrene toxicity equivalent factors and inhalation unit risk for Benzo(a)pyrene and benzene were used to give an estimate of cancer risk levels. Results Workplace air concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. 23.7 [range 2.4-104.6] ng.m-3 for fluoranthene) and volatile organic compounds (e.g. 19.1 ± 2.9 [standard error] μ.m-3 for benzene) were elevated in sewage compared to office workplaces (P < 0.01) and corresponded to an increased lifetime cancer risk. The urinary extracts of sewage workers showed higher genotoxicity (P < 0.001) than office workers. Conclusions The integrated and non-specific urinary biomarkers of exposure showed that sewage workers experience exposure to mixtures of genotoxicants in the workplace. PMID:21435260

  3. Sodium Bicarbonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking sodium bicarbonate, call your doctor. ... your body. If you are on a sodium-restricted diet, check with your doctor before taking sodium bicarbonate.

  4. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... RR, Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  5. Preventive Effect of Tamsulosin on Postoperative Urinary Retention

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi-Fallah, Mohammadreza; Tayyebi-Azar, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the prophylactic effect of Tamsulosin, a super-selective alpha-1a adrenergic blocking agent, on the development of urinary retention in men undergoing elective inguinal herniorrhaphy. Materials and Methods From May 2010 through November 2011, a total of 80 males who underwent elective inguinal herniorrhaphy in a university hospital were included in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In group one (control), the patients were given two doses of placebo orally, 6 hours before surgery and 6 to 12 hours after surgery. Patients in group two were given 0.4 mg of Tamsulosin orally in the same manner as the placebo. All patients were closely followed for 24 hours post-operatively, and any voiding difficulties or urinary retention was recorded. Results There were 40 patients in group one (control group) and 40 patients in group two (Tamsulosin group). The patients' mean age was 64 years. In group one, 6 patients and in group two, 1 patient required catheterization. Thus, 15% of patients in group I and 2.5% of patients in group II had urinary retention. The difference in the requirement for catheterization was statistically significant (p=0.04). The technique of herniorrhaphy, the side of the body in which the hernia was located, the type of anesthesia, the duration of the surgery, and the severity of pre-operative urinary symptoms had no significant effect on the incidence of urinary retention. Conclusions The use of perioperative Tamsulosin represents an effective strategy to reduce the risk of post-operative urinary retention following inguinal herniorrhaphy. PMID:22741052

  6. [Infection and urinary lithiasis].

    PubMed

    Bruyere, F; Traxer, O; Saussine, C; Lechevallier, E

    2008-12-01

    Urinary infection is a risk factor for lithiasis. Urinary tract infection is a factor of gravity of urinary stone. The stone can exist before the infection which colonizes the stone, infected stone. The infection can be the cause of the stone, infectious stone (struvite stone). Infectious stones can be secondary to a non urinary infectious agent, oxalobacter formigenes (OF) and nanobacteria. The first-line treatment of struvite stone is percutaneous surgery. Perioperative antibiotics, renal urines and stone cultures are obligatory. PMID:19033073

  7. Pilot survey of urinary porphyrins from persons transiently exposed to a PCB transformer fire

    SciTech Connect

    Osterloh, J.; Cone, J.; Harrison, R.; Wade, R.; Becker, C.

    1987-01-01

    In rats and humans chronically exposed to large amounts of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and PCDF (polychlorinated dibenzofurans), the urinary excretion of uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin are altered. However, porphyrin excretion in humans after acute transient low level exposure has not been evaluated. Following such an exposure in which bystanders and firefighters were in contact with smoke from a PCB transformer fire, we surveyed 90 self-referred individuals by questionnaire and by determining single 24 hour urinary excretion of uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin 2-4 weeks after the fire. Questionnaire variables that assessed exposure were not associated with the magnitude of either uroporphyrin or coproporphyrin excretion. Uroporphyrin excretion was slightly elevated in nine subjects (range 66-106 micrograms/24 hours, normal less than 60), which is much less than in clinical cases of porphyria cutanea tarda. Uroporphyrin excretion was inversely correlated with coproporphyrin excretion (r = -0.3844, p = 0.0002). For 5 subjects (3 with elevated initial uroporphyrin excretion) retested at 3-4 weeks after the fire, all 5 showed increases in uroporphyrin and decreases in coproporphyrin excretion when compared to initial determinations. These two reciprocal relationships would be the expected result from inhibition of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase, a known experimental effect of PCB and PCDF in mice. Overall, urinary porphyrin excretions were not altered or sensitive measures of exposure.

  8. The otolaryngologic manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): a clinical investigation of 225 patients using ambulatory 24-hour pH monitoring and an experimental investigation of the role of acid and pepsin in the development of laryngeal injury.

    PubMed

    Koufman, J A

    1991-04-01

    Occult (silent) gastroesophageal reflux disease (GER, GERD) is believed to be an important etiologic factor in the development of many inflammatory and neoplastic disorders of the upper aerodigestive tract. In order ot test this hypothesis, a human study and an animal study were performed. The human study consisted primarily of applying a new diagnostic technique (double-probe pH monitoring) to a population of otolaryngology patients with GERD to determine the incidence of overt and occult GERD. The animal study consisted of experiments to evaluate the potential damaging effects of intermittent GER on the larynx. Two hundred twenty-five consecutive patients with otolaryngologic disorders having suspected GERD evaluated from 1985 through 1988 are reported. Ambulatory 24-hour intraesophageal pH monitoring was performed in 197; of those, 81% underwent double-probe pH monitoring, with the second pH probe being placed in the hypopharynx at the laryngeal inlet. Seventy percent of the patients also underwent barium esophagography with videofluoroscopy. The patient population was divided into seven diagnostic subgroups: carcinoma of the larynx (n = 31), laryngeal and tracheal stenosis (n = 33), reflux laryngitis (n = 61), globus pharyngeus (n = 27), dysphagia (n = 25), chronic cough (n = 30), and a group with miscellaneous disorders (n = 18). The most common symptoms were hoarseness (71%), cough (51%), globus (47%), and throat clearing (42%). Only 43% of the patients had gastrointestinal symptoms (heartburn or acid regurgitation). Thus, by traditional symptomatology, GER was occult or silent in the majority of the study population. Twenty-eight patients (12%) refused or could not tolerate pH monitoring. Of the patients undergoing diagnostic pH monitoring, 62% had abnormal esophageal pH studies, and 30% demonstrated reflux into the pharynx. The results of diagnostic pH monitoring for each of the subgroups were as follows (percentage with abnormal studies): carcinoma (71

  9. [Antibacterial activity of essential oils on microorganisms isolated from urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rogério Santos; Sumita, Tânia Cristina; Furlan, Marcos Roberto; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Ueno, Mariko

    2004-04-01

    The antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC) Stapf., and Salvia officinalis, L.) was assessed on bacterial strains derived from 100 urine samples. Samples were taken from subjects diagnosed with urinary tract infection living in the community. Microorganisms were plated on Müller Hinton agar. Plant extracts were applied using a Steers replicator and petri dishes were incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Salvia officinalis, L. showed enhanced inhibitory activity compared to the other two herbs, with 100% efficiency against Klebsiella and Enterobacter species, 96% against Escherichia coli, 83% against Proteus mirabilis, and 75% against Morganella morganii. PMID:15122392

  10. Efficacy of physiotherapy for urinary incontinence following prostate cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Rajkowska-Labon, Elżbieta; Bakuła, Stanisław; Kucharzewski, Marek; Sliwiński, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    The study enrolled 81 with urinary incontinence following radical prostate-only prostatectomy for prostatic carcinoma. The patients were divided into two groups. The patients in Group I were additionally subdivided into two subgroups with respect to the physiotherapeutic method used. The patients of subgroup IA received a rehabilitation program consisting of three parts. The patients of subgroup IB rehabilitation program consist of two parts. Group II, a control group, had reported for therapy for persistent urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy but had not entered therapy for personal reasons. For estimating the level of incontinence, a 1-hour and 24-hour urinary pad tests, the miction diary, and incontinence questionnaire were used, and for recording the measurements of pelvic floor muscles tension, the sEMG (surface electromyography) was applied. The therapy duration depended on the level of incontinence and it continued for not longer than 12 months. Superior continence outcomes were obtained in Group I versus Group II and the difference was statistically significant. The odds ratio for regaining continence was greater in the rehabilitated Group I and smaller in the group II without the rehabilitation. A comparison of continence outcomes revealed a statistically significant difference between Subgroups IA versus IB. The physiotherapeutic procedures applied on patients with urine incontinence after prostatectomy, for most of them, proved to be an effective way of acting, which is supported by the obtained results.

  11. Efficacy of Physiotherapy for Urinary Incontinence following Prostate Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bakuła, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    The study enrolled 81 with urinary incontinence following radical prostate-only prostatectomy for prostatic carcinoma. The patients were divided into two groups. The patients in Group I were additionally subdivided into two subgroups with respect to the physiotherapeutic method used. The patients of subgroup IA received a rehabilitation program consisting of three parts. The patients of subgroup IB rehabilitation program consist of two parts. Group II, a control group, had reported for therapy for persistent urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy but had not entered therapy for personal reasons. For estimating the level of incontinence, a 1-hour and 24-hour urinary pad tests, the miction diary, and incontinence questionnaire were used, and for recording the measurements of pelvic floor muscles tension, the sEMG (surface electromyography) was applied. The therapy duration depended on the level of incontinence and it continued for not longer than 12 months. Superior continence outcomes were obtained in Group I versus Group II and the difference was statistically significant. The odds ratio for regaining continence was greater in the rehabilitated Group I and smaller in the group II without the rehabilitation. A comparison of continence outcomes revealed a statistically significant difference between Subgroups IA versus IB. The physiotherapeutic procedures applied on patients with urine incontinence after prostatectomy, for most of them, proved to be an effective way of acting, which is supported by the obtained results. PMID:24868546

  12. Local and systemic effects of orally applied sodium salts.

    PubMed

    Herrin, J R; Rubright, W C; Squier, C A; Lawton, W J; Osborn, M O; Stumbo, P J; Grigsby, W R

    1986-10-01

    This study determines whether the oral application of a baking soda-3% hydrogen peroxide dentifrice and a nearly saturated sodium chloride mouthwash, as a home care method for treating periodontal disease, creates a sodium burden for human subjects. The dietary intake and urinary excretion of sodium and potassium were monitored in participating subjects. Urinary sodium did not increase in subjects using the method. Desquamative gingival lesions, however, were seen in all treated subjects. Further study is needed to determine safe salt concentrations for this home care regimen. PMID:3021830

  13. Urinary 1-methylhistidine is a marker of meat consumption in Black and in White California Seventh-day Adventists.

    PubMed

    Myint, T; Fraser, G E; Lindsted, K D; Knutsen, S F; Hubbard, R W; Bennett, H W

    2000-10-15

    Meat consumption predicts risk of several chronic diseases. The authors validate the accuracy of meat consumption reported by food frequency questionnaires and the mean of eight 24-hour recalls, using urinary methylhistidine excretion, in 55 Black and 71 White Adventist subjects in Los Angeles and San Diego, California, in 1994-1997. 1-Methylhistidine excretion predicts vegetarian status in Black (p = 0.02) and in White (p = 0.005) subjects. Spearman's correlation coefficients between 1-methylhistidine and estimated meat consumption were usually between 0.4 and 0.6 for both food frequency questionnaires and 24-hour recall data. This is despite the chance collection of dietary recalls and urines from omnivores on meatless days.

  14. Contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. P.; Goodman, H. O.; Assimos, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate excreted in urine has a significant impact on calcium oxalate supersaturation and stone formation. Dietary oxalate is believed to make only a minor (10 to 20%) contribution to the amount of oxalate excreted in urine, but the validity of the experimental observations that support this conclusion can be questioned. An understanding of the actual contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion is important, as it is potentially modifiable. METHODS: We varied the amount of dietary oxalate consumed by a group of adult individuals using formula diets and controlled, solid-food diets with a known oxalate content, determined by a recently developed analytical procedure. Controlled solid-food diets were consumed containing 10, 50, and 250 mg of oxalate/2500 kcal, as well as formula diets containing 0 and 180 mg oxalate/2500 kcal. Changes in the content of oxalate and other ions were assessed in 24-hour urine collections. RESULTS: Urinary oxalate excretion increased as dietary oxalate intake increased. With oxalate-containing diets, the mean contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion ranged from 24.4 +/- 15.5% on the 10 mg/2500 kcal/day diet to 41.5 +/- 9.1% on the 250 mg/2500 kcal/day diet, much higher than previously estimated. When the calcium content of a diet containing 250 mg of oxalate was reduced from 1002 mg to 391 mg, urinary oxalate excretion increased by a mean of 28.2 +/- 4.8%, and the mean dietary contribution increased to 52.6 +/- 8.6%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that dietary oxalate makes a much greater contribution to urinary oxalate excretion than previously recognized, that dietary calcium influences the bioavailability of ingested oxalate, and that the absorption of dietary oxalate may be an important factor in calcium oxalate stone formation.

  15. Stability of Ampicillin Sodium, Nafcillin Sodium, And Oxacillin Sodium in AutoDose Infusion System Bags.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanping; Trissel, Lawrence A

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of ampicillin sodium 1g/100mL, nafcillin sodium 1g/100mL, and oxacillin sodium 1g/100mL, each of which was admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and packaged in an AutoDose Infusion System bag. Triplicate test samples were prepared by reconstituting the penicillin antibiotics and bringing the required amount of each drug to a final volume of 100 mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The test solutions were packaged in AutoDose Bags, which are ethylene vinyl acetate plastic containers designed for use in the AutoDose Infusion System. Samples were stored protected from light and were evaluated at appropriate intervals for up to 7 days at 23 deg C and up to 30 days at 4 deg C. Physical stability was assessed by means of a multistep evaluation procedure that included both turbidimetric and particulate measurement as well as visual inspection. Chemical stability was assesed with stability-indicating high-perofrmance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analytical techniques based on the determination of drug concentrations initially and at appropriate intervals over the study periods. All the penicillin admixtures were initially clear when viewed in normal fluorescent room light. When the admixtures were viewed with a Tyndall beam, a trace haze was observed with the ampicillin sodium and nafcillin sodium mixtures but not with the oxacillin sodium mixture. Measured turbidity and particulate content were low and exhibited little change in the ampicillin sodium and oxacillin sodium samples throughout the study. The nafcillin sodium samples stored at room temperature remained clear, but a microprecipitate developed in the refrigerated samples between 14 and 21 days of storage. All samples were essentially colorless throughout the study. HPLC analysis indicated some decomposition in the samples. Ampicillin sodium, which was the least stable, exhibited a 10% loss after 24 hours at 23 deg C. In the

  16. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  17. [Handling of Foley catheter regarding urinary retention syndrome following vaginal surgery].

    PubMed

    Guzmán, S; Israel, E; Puente, R; Iglesias, R; Rosa, G; Ulloa, C

    1994-01-01

    The post surgical urinary retention syndrome is a frequent problem after vaginal surgery. In many medical centers it is used a transurethral vesical drainage for three to five days with or without vesical reeducation to prevent it. In order to determine the importance of the time of drainage and vesical reeducation in the presence of this syndrome 106 patients submitted to vaginal surgery were studied at random and prospectively, in our service. Patients were distributed in three groups: the first one, with 37 women in which the drainage was withdrawn at 24 hours; in the second group it was retired at 72 hours and in the third group the drainage was removed at 72 hours with previous vesical reeducation. The results show that those patients who were less time under vesical drainage presented a minor frequency of urinary retention after surgery (24.3% vs 30.7% and 43.7%).

  18. A Novel Urinary Biomarker Profile to Identify Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in Critically Ill Neonates - A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Suma Bhat; Massaro, An N.; Soler-García, Ángel A.; Perazzo, Sofia; Ray, Patricio E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to assess the value of a urinary biomarker profile comprised of Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL), Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2), and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), to detect acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill neonates. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort pilot study of at-risk neonates treated in a level IIIC neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with therapeutic hypothermia (HT) (n = 25) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (n=10). Urine was collected at baseline, 48 hours of illness, and > 24 hours post recovery of their corresponding treatments. Control samples were collected from 27 healthy newborns. The data were expressed as urinary concentrations and values normalized for urinary creatinine. AKI was defined as the presence of oliguria >24 hours and/or elevated serum creatinine (SCr), or the failure to improve the estimated creatinine clearance (eCCL) by >50% post recovery. Non-parametric statistical tests and ROC analyses were used to interpret the data. Results Fifteen at risk newborns had AKI. In the first 48 hours of illness, the urinary levels of NGAL and FGF-2 had high sensitivity but poor specificity to identify neonates with AKI. At recovery, low urinary EGF levels identified neonates with AKI with a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 84%. Overall, in the early stages of a critical illness, the urinary levels of NGAL and FGF-2 were sensitive, but not specific, to identify neonates at risk of AKI. Low EGF levels post-recovery, identified critically ill neonates with AKI. Conclusions These findings require validation in larger prospective studies. PMID:23783654

  19. Effects of nedocromil sodium on antigen-induced conjunctivitis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, L; Norris, A; Vargaftig, B B

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated nedocromil sodium in a guinea pig model of allergic conjunctivitis. Ten days after the animals were passively sensitized to ovalbumin, nedocromil sodium (2 mg) or normal saline was instilled into the conjunctival sac, followed by antigen challenge with ovalbumin (100 micrograms or 300 micrograms/10 microL). Conjunctival hyperemia, edema, and eyelid edema were evaluated at 10 minutes and 4 hours in the 100-microgram ovalbumin group. Eyes with nedocromil sodium exhibited fewer early and late clinical signs of allergic conjunctivitis than control eyes. Infiltrating eosinophils were counted at 24 hours in the 300-microgram ovalbumin group. Nedocromil sodium inhibited antigen-induced eosinophil infiltration into the limbus, fornix, and eyelids by 77%, 66%, and 74%, compared with controls. Nedocromil sodium can effectively suppress early- and late-phase conjunctival hyperemia, conjunctival edema, eyelid edema, and eosinophil infiltration in the guinea pig passive-sensitization model. Nedocromil sodium may represent a versatile option for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis.

  20. Measured versus modeled dietary arsenic and relation to urinary arsenic excretion and total exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Hartz, Vern; Harris, Robin B.; Burgess, Jefferey L.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) in food and water is a significant public health problem. Person-specific aggregate exposure is difficult to collect, and modeling based on limited food As residue databases is of uncertain reliability. Two, cross-sectional, population exposure studies—the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS)-Arizona and the Arizona Border Survey (ABS)— had a total of 252 subjects with diet, water, and urinary As data. Total As was measured in 24-hour duplicate diet samples and modeled using 24-hour diet diaries in conjunction with several published food surveys of As. Two-stage regression was used to assess the effects of dietary As on urinary total As (uAs): 1) generalized linear mixed models of uAs above versus below the limit of detection (LOD); and 2) restricted models limited to those subjects with uAs > LOD, using bootstrap sampling and mixed models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, ethnicity, current smoking, and As intake from drinking and cooking water. In restricted models, measured and modeled estimates were significant predictors of uAs. Modeled dietary As based on Total Diet Study mean residues greatly underestimated dietary intake. In households with tap water As ≤ 10 ppb, over 93% of total As exposure was attributable to diet. PMID:23321855

  1. Technical note: variation in muscle mass in wild chimpanzees: application of a modified urinary creatinine method.

    PubMed

    Emery Thompson, Melissa; Muller, Martin N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2012-12-01

    Individual body size and composition are important variables for a variety of questions about the behavioral ecology and life histories of non-human primates. Standard methodologies for obtaining body mass involve either capture, which poses risks to the subject, or provisioning, which can disrupt the processes being studied. There are no methods currently available to assess body composition from living animals in the wild. Because of its derivation in muscle, the amount of creatinine that an individual excretes in 24 hours is a reliable and frequently used indicator of relative muscle mass in humans and laboratory animals. Although it is not feasible to collect 24-hour urine samples from wild primates, we apply here a simple method to approximate muscle mass variation from collections of spot urine samples. Specific gravity (SG), an alternative method for assessing urinary water content, is both highly correlated to creatinine and free of mass-dependent effects. Individuals with greater muscle mass should excrete more creatinine for a given SG. We examine this relationship in a dataset of 12,598 urine samples from wild chimpanzees in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. As expected from known differences in body composition, the slope of the relationship between SG and creatinine is significantly greater in adult males than adult females and in adults versus immature individuals. Growth curves generated through this method closely approximate published weight curves for wild chimpanzees. Consistent with the role of testosterone in muscle anabolism, urinary testosterone predicted relative creatinine excretion among adult male chimpanzees. PMID:23077085

  2. Urinary Levoglucosan as a Biomarker for Wood Smoke: Results of Human Exposure Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bergauff, Megan A.; Ward, Tony J.; Noonan, Curtis W.; Migliaccio, Christopher T.; Simpson, Christopher D.; Evanoski, Ashley R.; Palmer, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary levoglucosan was investigated as a potential biomarker for wood smoke exposure in two different controlled experimental settings. Nine subjects were exposed to smoke from a campfire in a controlled setting and four were exposed to smoke from an older model wood stove. All subjects were asked to provide urine samples before and after exposure, and to wear personal PM2.5 monitors during the exposure. Urinary levoglucosan measurements from both studies showed no consistent response to the smoke exposure. A third experiment was conducted to assess the contribution of dietary factors to urinary levoglucosan levels. Nine subjects were asked to consume caramel and provide urine samples before and after consumption. Urinary levoglucosan levels increased within 2 hours of caramel consumption and returned to pre-exposure levels within 24 hours. These studies suggest that diet is a major factor in determining urinary levoglucosan levels and recent dietary history needs to be taken into account for future work involving levoglucosan as a biomarker of wood smoke exposure. PMID:19707249

  3. Is there an association between fibromyalgia and below-normal levels of urinary cortisol?

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo–Álvarez, Silvia; Bocos–Terraz, Julia Pilar; Bancalero–Flores, Jose Luis; Pavón–Romero, Lenin; Serrano–Ostariz, Enrique; de Miquel, Cayetano Alegre

    2008-01-01

    Background Adynamia in fibromyalgia (FM) may be an expression of a functional deficit of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and be associated with below-normal levels of urinary cortisol. Our aim was to demonstrate that urinary cortisol was lower in patients with FM than in healthy subjects. Findings We measured urinary cortisol levels for a sample of 47 women aged 29 to 64 years (mean age 53 years), diagnosed with FM 2–3 years previously, and compared the results with those for a control sample of 58 healthy women of a similar age. Samples of 24-hour urine were appropriately collected and levels of urinary cortisol were measured using the fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The mean cortisol value for the women with FM was 65.40 ± 27.10 μg/L, significantly lower than the mean cortisol level for the control group, at 90.83 ± 38.17 μg/L (p < 0.001). Conclusion Our study confirms that women with FM have significantly lower urinary cortisol levels than healthy women. PMID:19102778

  4. Drugs, food additives and natural products as promoters in rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ito, N; Fukushima, S; Shirai, T; Hagiwara, A; Imaida, K

    1984-01-01

    The promoting effects of various chemicals on urinary bladder carcinogenesis in rats initiated with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) were studied. Male Fischer 344 rats were given BBN at 0.01% or 0.05% in their drinking-water for four weeks. One of the following chemicals was then administered in the diet for 32 or 34 weeks: acetazolamide, allopurinol, phenobarbital, phenacetin, ortho-phenylphenol, sodium ortho-phenylphenate, diphenyl, sodium L-ascorbate, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, sodium saccharin, aspartame, sodium cyclamate, stevioside, DL-tryptophan, quercetin, caffeine, nicotine and hippuric acid. Phenacetin, sodium ortho-phenylphenate, sodium L-ascorbate and butylated hydroxyanisole were significant promoters of urinary bladder neoplasia in rats initiated with BBN. Sodium saccharin, diphenyl, butylated hydroxytoluene, allopurinol, and DL-tryptophan caused moderate or slight promotion of neoplastic changes in the experimental animals. No change in tumour yield was observed after administration of the other chemicals.

  5. [Clinical significance of urinary enzymes in diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Morita, E; Kaizu, K; Uriu, K; Eto, S

    1990-06-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of urinary enzyme activity in patients with diabetes mellitus. Patients were divided into two groups: group A - 102 outpatients, group B-23 inpatients. Spot urine samples before breakfast from group A and aliquots of 24-hours urine collections at 4 degrees C from group B were used. Urinary enzyme activities (N-acetyl- beta-D-glucosaminidase: NAG, alkaline phosphatase: ALP, leucine aminopeptidase: LAP, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase: gamma-GTP) were determined by spectrophotometric assay, rate assay, Tuppy method and Orlowski method, respectively. 1) In group A, the percentage of the cases which showed higher than the normal range (NAG: 1.3-8.7, ALP: 4.2-17.7, LAP: 0-22.9 U/g. cer.) was 42.2% in NAG, 21.6% in ALP, and 8.8% in LAP. In a multiple regression analysis, the predictor variables which contributed to NAG were HbA1c, age, urinary protein and the one that contributed to ALP, LAP, gamma-GTP was urinary beta 2-microglobulin. 2) In group B, 87% of NAG was above the normal range (Mean +/- 2 SD; 4.8 +/- 3.9 U/day). There was no difference in the NAG activity between patients with and without nephropathy. The percent of high activities of ALP, LAP and gamma-GTP were 17%, 17%, 4%, respectively. Most of them were patients with nephropathy. There were correlations among ALP, LAP and gamma-GTP, though no correlation existed between NAG and the other three enzymes. These results suggested: 1) NAG reflects lysosomal dysfunction of both glomerular and proximal tubular epithelial cells which may be caused by poor glycemic control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1975116

  6. Early predictors of acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis and bacterial infection: urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and cardiac output as reliable tools

    PubMed Central

    Ximenes, Rafael O.; Farias, Alberto Q.; Helou, Claudia M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hemodynamic abnormalities and acute kidney injury (AKI) are often present in infected cirrhotic patients. Hence, an early diagnosis of AKI is necessary, which might require the validation of new predictors as the determinations of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and cardiac output. Methods We evaluated 18 infected cirrhotic patients subdivided into two groups at admission (0 hours). In Group I, we collected urine samples at 0 hours, 6 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours for uNGAL and fractional excretion of sodium determinations. In Group II, we measured cardiac output using echocardiography. Results The age of patients was 55.0±1.9 years, and 11 patients were males. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was 21±1, whereas the Child–Pugh score was C in 11 patients and B in 7 patients. Both patients in Group I and Group II showed similar baseline characteristics. In Group I, we diagnosed AKI in 5 of 9 patients, and the mean time to this diagnosis by measuring serum creatinine was 5.4 days. Patients with AKI showed higher uNGAL levels than those without AKI from 6 hours to 48 hours. The best accuracy using the cutoff values of 68 ng uNGAL/mg creatinine was achieved at 48 hours when we distinguished patients with and without AKI in all cases. In Group II, we diagnosed AKI in 4 of 9 patients, and cardiac output was significantly higher in patients who developed AKI at 0 hours. Conclusion Both uNGAL and cardiac output determinations allow the prediction of AKI in infected cirrhotic patients earlier than increments in serum creatinine. PMID:26484038

  7. Comparative trials of antimonial drugs in urinary schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A.

    1968-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic trials in urinary schistosomiasis are described and discussed. Their design and conduct were based on recommended statistical techniques, now generally accepted as the most appropriate approach to the assessment of antischistosomal drugs. Randomization produced comparable host groups in whom multiple parasitic infection and radiological urinary tract damage were common. Treatment was with one of three antimonial compounds given at equivalent metallic dosage daily. Antimony sodium tartrate (AST) and antimony dimercaptosuccinate (TWSb) were equally efficient curatively but both produced many side-effects. Sodium antimonylgluconate (TSAG) was four-fifths as effective but tolerance was superior. Estimations of urinary antimony excretion showed that tissue retention of the metal was related to cure-rates and side-effects. It was concluded that none of the drugs were suitable for mass chemotherapy. More new non-toxic schistosomicides are urgently needed and for their assessment, the setting-up of multicentre trials, following international agreement on technical methods, is suggested. PMID:5302298

  8. Formulas for fixing serum sodium: curb your enthusiasm

    PubMed Central

    Sterns, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of formulas have been proposed to predict changes in serum sodium concentration. All are based on an experiment done over 50 years ago by Edelman, who derived a formula relating the plasma sodium concentration to isotopically measured body sodium, potassium, and water. Some of these formulas fail because they do not include urinary losses of electrolytes and water. Even those that include these essential variables are not accurate enough for clinical use because it is impractical to adjust calculations to rapid changes in urinary composition, and because the formulas do not account for changes in serum sodium caused by internal exchanges between soluble and bound sodium stores or shifts of water into or out of cells resulting from changes in intracellular organic osmolytes. Nephrologists should curb their enthusiasm for predictive formulas and rely instead on frequent measurements of the serum sodium when correcting hyponatremia and hypernatremia. PMID:27478590

  9. Percutaneous urinary procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lingeman JE. Surgical management of upper urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et ... CC, Nakada SY. Treatment selection and outcomes: renal calculi. Urol Clin North Am . 2007;34(3):409- ...

  10. Ability of self-reported estimates of dietary sodium, potassium and protein to detect an association with general and abdominal obesity: comparison with the estimates derived from 24 h urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-28

    As under-reporting of dietary intake, particularly by overweight and obese subjects, is common in dietary surveys, biases inherent in the use of self-reported dietary information may distort true diet-obesity relationships or even create spurious ones. However, empirical evidence of this possibility is limited. The present cross-sectional study compared the relationships of 24 h urine-derived and self-reported intakes of Na, K and protein with obesity. A total of 1043 Japanese women aged 18-22 years completed a 24 h urine collection and a self-administered diet history questionnaire. After adjustment for potential confounders, 24 h urine-derived Na intake was associated with a higher risk of general obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference≥80 cm; both P for trend=0·04). For 24 h urine-derived protein intake, positive associations with general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·02 and 0·053, respectively). For 24 h urine-derived K intake, there was an inverse association with abdominal obesity (P for trend=0·01). Conversely, when self-reported dietary information was used, only inverse associations between K intake and general and abdominal obesity were observed (P for trend=0·04 and 0·02, respectively), with no associations of Na or protein intake. In conclusion, we found positive associations of Na and protein intakes and inverse associations of K intake with obesity when using 24 h urinary excretion for estimating dietary intakes. However, no association was observed based on using self-reported dietary intakes, except for inverse association of K intake, suggesting that the ability of self-reported dietary information using the diet history questionnaire for investigating diet-obesity relationships is limited.

  11. Effects of nebivolol versus metoprolol on sodium sensitivity and renal sodium handling in hypertensive Hispanic postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Preston, Richard A; Afshartous, David; Materson, Barry J; Rodco, Rolando; Alonso, Alberto B

    2014-08-01

    Several consistent lines of evidence indicate an association between sodium sensitivity and impaired nitric oxide bioactivity. Nevertheless, whether restoring nitric oxide in humans by pharmacological means can ameliorate sodium sensitivity has not been investigated. Because nebivolol has been demonstrated to increase nitric oxide bioactivity in both laboratory and clinical investigations, we hypothesized that nebivolol might ameliorate sodium sensitivity and improve renal sodium handling in comparison to metoprolol. We therefore conducted a randomized, 2-treatment-period crossover trial in 19 Hispanic postmenopausal women with hypertension to determine the comparative effects of nebivolol versus metoprolol on (1) 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure response to an increase in dietary sodium from 5 days of low sodium to 5 days of high sodium, (2) renal natriuretic response to a 1-L saline challenge, and (3) asymmetrical dimethylarginine. Clinic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly reduced after 4 weeks of treatment with both nebivolol and metoprolol. Twenty-four–hour mean systolic blood pressure increased sharply from low sodium to high sodium for both nebivolol and metoprolol. Nevertheless, the increases in blood pressure did not differ between the 2 drugs: 7.7 (3.1, 12.3) mm Hg with metoprolol and 9.3 (4.6, 13.9) mm Hg with nebivolol (P=0.63). Furthermore, we observed no differences between the drugs in natriuretic response to saline challenge or asymmetrical dimethylarginine. In a sodium-sensitive population, at doses sufficient to produce reductions in blood pressure and heart rate, nebivolol did not demonstrate a significant effect on sodium sensitivity or sodium handling compared with metoprolol. PMID:24842917

  12. The effect of low-sodium dialysate on ambulatory blood pressure measurement parameters in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Akdag, Serkan; Akyol, Aytac; Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Tosu, Aydin Rodi; Asker, Muntecep; Yaman, Mehmet; Babat, Naci; Soyoral, Yasemin; Cegin, Muhammed Bilal; Gur, Ali Kemal; Gumrukcuoglu, Hasan Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background End stage renal disease is related to increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disorder among hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-sodium dialysate on the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels detected by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) in patients undergoing sustained HD treatment. Patients and methods The study included 46 patients who had creatinine clearance levels less than 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 and had been on chronic HD treatment for at least 1 year. After the enrollment stage, the patients were allocated low-sodium dialysate or standard sodium dialysate for 6 months via computer-generated randomization. Results Twenty-four hour SBP, daytime SBP, nighttime SBP, and nighttime DBP were significantly decreased in the low-sodium dialysate group (P<0.05). No significant reduction was observed in both groups in terms of 24-hour DBP and daytime DBP (P=NS). No difference was found in the standard sodium dialysate group in terms of ABPM. Furthermore, IDWG was found to be significantly decreased in the low-sodium dialysate group after 6 months (P<0.001). Conclusion The study revealed that low-sodium dialysate leads to a decrease in ABPM parameters including 24-hour SBP, daytime SBP, nighttime SBP, and nighttime DBP and it also reduces the number of antihypertensive drugs used and IDWG. PMID:26715849

  13. Rapid Changes in the Sodium Atmosphere of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.; Morgan, T. H.

    1998-09-01

    We imaged Mercury in sodium D1 and D2 emission for six days during the period November 13-20, 1997 using a 10x10 arcsec aperture image slicer coupled to a high-resolution spectrograph. During the period of observation, large daily changes took place in both the total amount of sodium and its distribution over the planet. In 24 hours, from November 13 to November 14, the total amount of sodium on Mercury doubled. By November 20, the total sodium amount had tripled relative to that of November 13. We corrected the sodium images for atmospheric smearing by computing the actual seeing function from surface reflection images, and using this function to correct the sodium images. The resulting images showed sodium emission to be brightest at longitudes near the subsolar longitude at about 140 degrees. There are no obviously outstanding geologic features at this longitude. On November 15, sodium was excess at southern latitudes. On November 16, the excess moved to northern latitudes, and then changed back to southern latitudes by November 18. In order to explain the large and rapid changes in the amount of sodium, and the shift of excess sodium from southern latitudes to northern latitudes, and back again, we suggest that sodium is released from the surface by magnetospheric processes, perhaps initiated by CME events that expose the planet's surface to solar particles (Luhmann, et al., 1998). CME activity was high during this period of observation. References: Luhmann, et al. (1998), Disturbances in Mercury's magnetosphere: Are the Mariner 10 `substorms' simply driven?, JGR 103 9113

  14. Direct radioimmunoassay of urinary estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronides during the menstrual cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Stanczyk, F.Z.; Miyakawa, I.; Goebelsmann, U.

    1980-06-15

    Assays measuring immunoreactive estrone glucuronide (E/sub 1/G), estradiol-3-glucuronide (E/sub 2/-3G), estradiol-17..beta..-glucuronide (E/sub 2/-17G), estriol-3-glucuronide (E/sub 3/-3G), estriol-16..cap alpha..-glucuronide (E/sub 3/-16G), and pregnanediol-3..cap alpha..-glucuronide (Pd-3G) directly in diluted urine were developed and validated. These estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronide fractions were measured in aliquots of 24-hour and overnight samples of urine collected daily from seven women for one menstrual cycle. Urinary hormone excretion was correlated with daily serum estradiol (E/sub 2/), progesterone (P), and lutenizing hormonee (LH) levels. A sharp midcycle LH peak preceded by a preovulatory rise in serum E/sub 2/ and followed by luteal phase serum P levels were noted in each of the seven apparently ovulatory cycles. Twenty-four-hour and overnight urinary excretion patterns of estrogen glucuronides were similar to those of serum E/sub 2/. Of the five estrogen glucuronide fractions tested, excretion of E/sub 2/-17G exhibited the earliest and steepest ascending slope of the preovulatory estrogen surge and correlated best with serum E/sub 2/ levels. Urinary excretion of E/sub 1/-G, E/sub 2/-3G, and E/sub 3/-16G also showed an early and steep preovulatory rise and preceded that of E/sub 3/-3G, whereas urinary excretion of E/sub 3/-3G exhibited the poorest correlation with serum E/sub 2/ concentrations. The urinary excretion of Pd-3G rose parallel to serum P levels and was markedly elevated 2 to 3 days after the midcycle LH peak in both 24-hour and overnight collections of urine. These results indicate that among the urinary estrogen conjugate fractions tested, E/sub 2/-17G is the one that most suitably predicts ovulation.

  15. Sodium Oxybate

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and last for a ... of your body that you cannot control, sweating, muscle cramps, and fast heartbeat.Sodium oxybate may help ...

  16. Use of sodium information on the nutrition facts label in New York City adults with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Elfassy, Tali; Yi, Stella; Eisenhower, Donna; Lederer, Ashley; Curtis, Christine J

    2015-02-01

    The Nutrition Facts (NF) label was established to help individuals monitor their nutrient intake and select healthier foods. This tool is particularly useful for individuals for whom dietary improvements are recommended, such as those with hypertension. Study objectives were to examine the independent association between hypertension and frequency of use of the NF label for sodium information and determine whether frequent use in individuals with hypertension was associated with differences in mean sodium intake assessed through 24-hour urine samples. Data came from the New York City Community Health Survey Heart Follow-Up Study, a cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 in a representative sample of New York City adults (n=1,656). Participants were asked questions regarding frequency of checking the NF label and also had 24-hour urine samples collected to assess actual sodium intake. Results indicated that hypertension was associated with frequent use of the NF label for sodium information (adjusted odds ratio 1.71, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.73). In individuals with hypertension, sodium intake did not differ between frequent vs nonfrequent use of the NF label for sodium information (3,084 mg/day vs 3,059 mg/day; P=0.92). Although individuals with hypertension compared to those with no hypertension had 71% higher odds of frequently using the NF label for sodium information, suggesting they may be interested in decreasing sodium intake, sodium intake did not differ by frequency of NF label use among those with hypertension. Future research should explore strategies to ensure that when nutrition information is used, it is translated into meaningful results, especially in individuals with health concerns such as hypertension. PMID:25441962

  17. Urinary Adiponectin Excretion

    PubMed Central

    von Eynatten, Maximilian; Liu, Dan; Hock, Cornelia; Oikonomou, Dimitrios; Baumann, Marcus; Allolio, Bruno; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Morcos, Michael; Campean, Valentina; Amann, Kerstin; Lutz, Jens; Heemann, Uwe; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bierhaus, Angelika; Humpert, Per M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Markers reliably identifying vascular damage and risk in diabetic patients are rare, and reports on associations of serum adiponectin with macrovascular disease have been inconsistent. In contrast to existing data on serum adiponectin, this study assesses whether urinary adiponectin excretion might represent a more consistent vascular damage marker in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adiponectin distribution in human kidney biopsies was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and urinary adiponectin isoforms were characterized by Western blot analysis. Total urinary adiponectin excretion rate was measured in 156 patients with type 2 diabetes who had a history of diabetic nephropathy and 40 healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Atherosclerotic burden was assessed by common carotid artery intima-media-thickness (IMT). RESULTS A homogenous staining of adiponectin was found on the endothelial surface of glomerular capillaries and intrarenal arterioles in nondiabetic kidneys, whereas staining was decreased in diabetic nephropathy. Low-molecular adiponectin isoforms (∼30–70 kDa) were detected in urine by Western blot analysis. Urinary adiponectin was significantly increased in type 2 diabetes (7.68 ± 14.26 vs. control subjects: 2.91 ± 3.85 μg/g creatinine, P = 0.008). Among type 2 diabetic patients, adiponectinuria was associated with IMT (r = 0.479, P < 0.001) and proved to be a powerful independent predictor of IMT (β = 0.360, P < 0.001) in multivariable regression analyses. In a risk prediction model including variables of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study coronary heart disease risk engine urinary adiponectin, but not the albumin excretion rate, added significant value for the prediction of increased IMT (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS Quantification of urinary adiponectin excretion appears to be an independent indicator of vascular damage potentially identifying an increased risk for vascular events. PMID:19509019

  18. Stem Cell Homing Factor, CCL7, Expression in Mouse Models of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Hijaz, Adonis K.; Grimberg, Kerry O.; Tao, Mingfang; Schmotzer, Brian; Sadeghi, Zhina; Lin, Yi-Hao; Kavran, Michael; Ozer, Ahmet; Xiao, Nan; Daneshgari, Firouz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Animal models of vaginal distention (VD) have demonstrated increased expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7). In this study, we investigated the expression of CCL7 in mice models of simulated birth trauma-induced urinary incontinence utilizing VD and pudendal nerve transection (PNT). Methods Forty-nine mice were divided into 6 groups: VD, sham VD, PNT, sham PNT anesthesia, and age-matched controls. The urethra, vagina, and rectum were harvested for the expression of CCL7 immediately or 24 hours after assigned procedure. Venous sampling for quantification of serum CCL7 was also performed. An ANOVA model was used to compare the relative expression of CCL7 in each group. Results Urethral CCL7 expression in the VD group was significantly higher than control group after 24 hours (p<0.01). There was no difference in the urethral CCL7 expression in PNT, sham PNT, sham VD or anesthesia groups compared with controls. No statistically significant difference was noted in the vaginal and rectal expression of CCL7 between any of the groups except for sham PNT. Statistically significant differences were noted in the serum CCL7 expression in VD, PNT and sham PNT (p<0.01 in all) groups after 24 hours compared with the control group. Conclusions This study demonstrates over-expression of urethral CCL7 after VD but not PNT. This suggests that nerve injury does not contribute to the CCL7 over-expression. The over-expression of CCL7 in the serum of mice after VD suggests a translational potential where CCL7 measurement could be used as a surrogate for injury after delivery. PMID:24165450

  19. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education FAQs Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence FAQ166, July 2014 ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  20. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland) can cause lower urinary tract disease in cats. Although they are much less common causes, FLUTD ... your veterinarian about the best diet for your cat. Many commercial diets are acceptable, but some urinary ...

  1. Urinary trimethylselenonium excretion by the rat: effect of level and source of /sup 75/Se

    SciTech Connect

    Nahapetian, A.T.; Janghorbani, M.; Young, V.R.

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore in rats the urinary metabolites of selenium (Se), by using (/sup 75/Se)selenomethionine, (/sup 75/Se)selenocystine, and (/sup 75/Se)selenite, and to assess the effects of low and high levels of Se intake on trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) excretion in urine. Male adult rats were adapted for 6 weeks to a commercial rat laboratory stock diet (0.25 ppm Se). They were then starved for 24 hours and given an oral dose of either low (16 micrograms Se/kg body weight) or high (1500 micrograms Se/kg body weight) Se as the test Se compounds. Appearance of radioactivity in TMSe and non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine was monitored for 48 hours. About 40% of the /sup 75/Se dose was excreted in urine. TMSe was the major urinary Se metabolite (57-69% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 16-25% of oral /sup 75/Se dose) at high, and a minor urinary Se metabolite (10% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 3-4% of oral /sup 75/Se dose) at low dose levels of Se and for all three Se test compounds. At least 80% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 26-42% of the orally administered /sup 75/Se were excreted as non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine under the latter condition. It is hypothesized that at a requirement intake of Se either a trace or no TMSe is excreted in urine, and it becomes a major excretory metabolite of Se when the dietary trace mineral intake exceeds a requirement level, probably serving as a means of detoxification.

  2. Urinary tract endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Koszczuk, J C; Foglietti, M; Perez, J F; Dono, F V; Thomas, R J

    1989-01-01

    Although endometriosis is a common gynecologic pathologic phenomenon, involvement of the urinary tract is relatively rare. The clinical presentation and course of urinary system disease is extremely variable, as illustrated by the seven cases presented in this report. Therapy primarily is surgical, but a thorough understanding of the disease process and a complete knowledge of the patient's history and desires for fertility conservation are necessary to plot the most appropriate treatment course. Bladder involvement is more common, and usually less devastating, than either ureteral or kidney involvement. No signs, symptoms, or physical findings are pathognomonic, and the clinician must maintain a high index of suspicion in all cases of advanced pelvic endometriosis.

  3. Ammonia control in children with urea cycle disorders (UCDs); Phase 2 comparison of sodium phenylbutyrate and glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    PubMed Central

    Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Diaz, G.A.; Merritt, J.L.; Feigenbaum, A.; Jomphe, C.; Marier, J.F.; Beliveau, M.; Mauney, J.; Dickinson, K.; Martinez, A.; Mokhtarani, M.; Scharschmidt, B.; Rhead, W.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty four hour ammonia profiles and correlates of drug effect were examined in a phase 2 comparison of sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) and glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB or HPN-100), an investigational drug being developed for urea cycle disorders (UCDs). Study Design Protocol HPN-100-005 involved open label fixed-sequence switch-over from the prescribed NaPBA dose to a PBA-equimolar GPB dose with controlled diet. After 7 days on NaPBA or GPB, subjects underwent 24-hour blood sampling for ammonia and drug metabolite levels as well as measurement of 24-hour urinary phenyacetylglutamine (PAGN). Adverse events (AEs), safety labs and triplicate ECGs were monitored. Results Eleven subjects (9 OTC, 1 ASS, 1 ASL) enrolled and completed the switch-over from NaPBA (mean dose=12.4 g/d or 322 mg/kg/d; range=198–476 mg/kg/d) to GPB (mean dose=10.8 mL or 0.284 mL/kg/d or 313 mg/kg/d; range = 192–449 mg/kg/d). Possibly-related AEs were reported in 2 subjects on NaPBA and 4 subjects on GPB. All were mild, except for one moderate AE of vomiting on GPB related to an intercurrent illness. No clinically significant laboratory or ECG changes were observed. Ammonia was lowest after overnight fast, peaked postprandially in the afternoon to early evening and varied widely over 24 h with occasional values >100 μmol/L without symptoms. Ammonia values were ~25% lower on GPB vs. NaPBA (p ≥ 0.1 for ITT and p<0.05 for per protocol population). The upper 95% confidence interval for the difference between ammonia on GPB vs. NaPBA in the ITT population (95% CI 0.575, 1.061; p = 0.102) was less than the predefined non-inferiority margin of 1.25 and less than 1.0 in the pre-defined per-protocol population (95% CI 0.516, 0.958; p<0.05). No statistically significant differences were observed in plasma phenylacetic acid and PAGN exposure during dosing with GPB vs. NaPBA, and the percentage of orally administered PBA excreted as PAGN (66% for GPB vs. 69% for NaPBA) was very similar. GPB and Na

  4. Urinary albumin in space missions.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina; Norsk, Peter; Elmann-Larsen, Benny; Bellini, Luigi; Stellato, Davide; Drummer, Christian

    2002-07-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity).

  5. Sodium reduction in New Zealand requires major behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Lofthouse, Catherine; Te Morenga, Lisa; McLean, Rachael

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility of adherence to a low sodium diet in a sample of healthy New Zealand adults. It also addressed whether following a low sodium diet was accompanied by changes in intakes of other nutrients that influence cardiovascular risk. Eleven healthy adults provided dietary intake data and a 24-hour urine collection at baseline and follow-up. They then received nutritional counselling based on the World Health Organization recommendation for sodium intake (<2000 mg/day) and received ongoing nutritional support while undertaking a low sodium diet for four weeks. At the end of the four-week period, participants completed a semi-structured interview that elicited participants' opinions on barriers and facilitators to following a low sodium diet and explored changes in participants' dietary habits and behaviours. Thematic analysis revealed that adherence to a low sodium diet required substantial changes to participants' usual food purchasing and preparation habits. Participants reported that lack of control over the sodium content of meals eaten away from the home, the complex and time-consuming nature of interpreting nutrition information labels, and difficulty identifying suitable snacks were barriers to adherence. Detailed meal planning and cooking from scratch, using flavour replacements, reading food labels to identify low sodium foods, receiving support from other people and receiving tailored nutrition advice were facilitators. Mean sodium intake reduced over the period, accompanied by a decrease in mean intake of total fat. These factors suggest that sodium reduction in New Zealand adults was feasible. However, considerable changes to eating behaviours were required.

  6. Sodium reduction in New Zealand requires major behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Lofthouse, Catherine; Te Morenga, Lisa; McLean, Rachael

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility of adherence to a low sodium diet in a sample of healthy New Zealand adults. It also addressed whether following a low sodium diet was accompanied by changes in intakes of other nutrients that influence cardiovascular risk. Eleven healthy adults provided dietary intake data and a 24-hour urine collection at baseline and follow-up. They then received nutritional counselling based on the World Health Organization recommendation for sodium intake (<2000 mg/day) and received ongoing nutritional support while undertaking a low sodium diet for four weeks. At the end of the four-week period, participants completed a semi-structured interview that elicited participants' opinions on barriers and facilitators to following a low sodium diet and explored changes in participants' dietary habits and behaviours. Thematic analysis revealed that adherence to a low sodium diet required substantial changes to participants' usual food purchasing and preparation habits. Participants reported that lack of control over the sodium content of meals eaten away from the home, the complex and time-consuming nature of interpreting nutrition information labels, and difficulty identifying suitable snacks were barriers to adherence. Detailed meal planning and cooking from scratch, using flavour replacements, reading food labels to identify low sodium foods, receiving support from other people and receiving tailored nutrition advice were facilitators. Mean sodium intake reduced over the period, accompanied by a decrease in mean intake of total fat. These factors suggest that sodium reduction in New Zealand adults was feasible. However, considerable changes to eating behaviours were required. PMID:27395412

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... time. And when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ...

  8. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2013-09-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl) intake separately, and their interaction, on MUN and UUN, on the relationship between UUN and MUN, on renal recycling of urea, and on urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract. Twelve second-parity cows (body weight of 645±37 kg, 146±29 d in milk, and a milk production of 34.0±3.28 kg/d), of which 8 were previously fitted with a rumen cannula, were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein. The experiment had a split-plot arrangement with dietary crude protein (CP) content as the main plot factor [116 and 154 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)] and dietary NaCl content as the subplot factor (3.1 and 13.5 g of Na/kg of DM). Cows were fed at 95% of the average ad libitum feed intake of cows receiving the low protein diets. Average MUN and UUN were, respectively, 3.90 mg of N/dL and 45 g of N/d higher for the high protein diets compared with the low protein diets. Compared with the low NaCl diets, MUN was, on average, 1.74 mg of N/dL lower for the high NaCl diets, whereas UUN was unaffected. We found no interaction between dietary content of protein and NaCl on performance characteristics or on MUN, UUN, urine production, and renal clearance characteristics. The creatinine clearance rate was not affected by dietary content of protein and NaCl. Urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract, expressed as a fraction of plasma urea entry rate, was negatively related to dietary protein, whereas it was not affected by dietary NaCl content. We found no interaction between dietary protein and NaCl content on plasma urea entry rate and gastrointestinal urea entry rate or their ratio. The relationship between MUN and UUN was significantly affected by the class variable

  9. Daytime lidar measurements of tidal winds in the mesospheric sodium layer at Urbana, Illinois

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, K. H.; Senft, D. C.; Gardner, C. S.; Voelz, D. G.; Sechrist, C. F., Jr.; Roesler, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    For more than 15 years lidar systems have been used to study the chemistry and dynamics of the mesospheric sodium layer. Because the layer is an excellent tracer of atmospheric wave motions, sodium lidar has proven to be particularly useful for studying the influence of gravity waves and tides on mesospheric dynamics. These waves, which originate in the troposphere and stratosphere, propagate through the mesosphere and dissipate their energy near the mesopause making important contributions to the momentum and turbulence budget in this region of the atmosphere. Recently, the sodium lidar was modified for daytime operation so that wave phenomena and chemical effects could be monitored throughout the complete diurnal cycle. The results of continuous 24 hour lidar observations of the sodium layer structure are presented alond with measurement of the semidiurnal tidal winds.

  10. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... body's drainage system for removing wastes and extra water. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. You may have a UTI if you notice ...

  11. [Urinary catheter biofilm infections].

    PubMed

    Holá, V; Růzicka, F

    2008-04-01

    Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient.

  12. To Bind or to Let Loose: Effectiveness of Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate in Decreasing Serum Potassium

    PubMed Central

    Sandal, Shaifali; Karachiwala, Hatim; Noviasky, John; Wang, Dongliang; Elliott, William C.; Lehmann, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in decreasing serum potassium has recently been questioned due to the lack of documented effectiveness. Methods. A retrospective cohort analysis of all hospitalized patients who received sodium polystyrene sulfonate over four months was performed. The change in serum potassium was noted over a period of 24 hours. Patients who received any other form of potassium-altering drug or treatment were excluded. Results. The administration of sodium polystyrene sulfonate reduced serum potassium by 16.7% (P < 0.001) as compared to the baseline serum potassium over a period of 24 hours. During this same time, no change in serum creatinine was identified (P = 0.73). In addition, there was no correlation between potassium and creatinine change (r2 = 0.0004 and P = 0.99). Patients with higher initial serum potassium (≥5.6 mEq/L) reduced their potassium concentration 4% more than those with initial serum potassium of <5.6 mEq/L; however, this reduction did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.32). There was no significant difference in the effectiveness of 15 gm and 30 gm resin preparation (P = 0.54). Thirteen deaths were noted in our cohort, of which one death was due to ischemic colitis. Conclusion. We conclude that sodium polystyrene sulfonate is effective in lowering serum potassium. PMID:23476770

  13. Rethinking the Youth Weight Debate: The 24 Hour Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Graham; Biggs, Sarah; Agley, Daniel; Dollman, James; Lushington, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Approaches to weight management have traditionally focussed on caloric intake versus caloric expenditure. Despite a range of interventions based on these approaches, the proportion of overweight children and adolescents continues to rise. There are increasing indications that other factors, such as sleep duration, may be at play. This commentary…

  14. Collection of a 24-Hour Urine Specimen (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Licensed Materials from any location via the Internet. b. STANDALONE WORKSTATION: A standalone subscription permits multiple ... computer. A Standalone Workstation license does not include Internet access to the Licensed Materials. c. INSTITUTIONAL SUBSCRIPTION: ...

  15. Sun Blasts 6 CMEs in 24 Hour Period

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie from the chronograph on board the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), shows the sun's atmosphere – the corona – from September 17 to September 20. The sun let loose with at ...

  16. Boerhaave's syndrome: Experience with patients presenting later than 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Amit; Porwal, Manish; Khandeparkar, Jagdish

    2015-01-01

    Boerhaave's syndrome is the most sinister cause of esophageal perforation. Clinical presentation is vague. Diagnostic delays are frequent. As condition is rare therefore no consensus exists on management. A wide variety of management options are described in literature, each with its advantages and disadvantages. We present our experience of managing these cases which presented after 24 hr. Of onset of symptoms with emphasis on primary reinforced repair as first line surgical option. PMID:27522739

  17. Attenuated sympathetic nerve responses after 24 hours of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Mazhar H.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Leuenberger, Urs A.; Davidson, William R Jr; Ray, Chester A.; Gray, Kristen S.; Hogeman, Cynthia S.; Sinoway, Lawrence I.

    2002-01-01

    Bed rest reduces orthostatic tolerance. Despite decades of study, the cause of this phenomenon remains unclear. In this report we examined hemodynamic and sympathetic nerve responses to graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) before and after 24 h of bed rest. LBNP allows for baroreceptor disengagement in a graded fashion. We measured heart rate (HR), cardiac output (HR x stroke volume obtained by echo Doppler), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during a progressive and graded LBNP paradigm. Negative pressure was increased by 10 mmHg every 3 min until presyncope or completion of -60 mmHg. After bed rest, LBNP tolerance was reduced in 11 of 13 subjects (P <.023), HR was greater (P <.002), cardiac output was unchanged, and the ability to augment MSNA at high levels of LBNP was reduced (rate of rise for 30- to 60-mmHg LBNP before bed rest 0.073 bursts x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); after bed rest 0.035 bursts x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); P < 0.016). These findings suggest that 24 h of bed rest reduces sympathetic nerve responses to LBNP.

  18. A 24-hour remote surveillance system for terrestrial wildlife studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W.; Ryman, W.E.; Kepler, C.B.; Hardy, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The configuration, components, specifications and costs of a state-of-the-art closed-circuit television system with wide application for wildlife research and management are described. The principal system components consist of color CCTV camera with zoom lens, pan/tilt system, infrared illuminator, heavy duty tripod, coaxial cable, coaxitron system, half-duplex equalizing video/control amplifier, timelapse video cassette recorder, color video monitor, VHS video cassettes, portable generator, fuel tank and power cable. This system was developed and used in a study of Mississippi sandhiIl Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) behaviors during incubation, hatching and fledging. The main advantages of the system are minimal downtime where a complete record of every event, its time of occurrence and duration, are permanently recorded and can be replayed as many times as necessary thereafter to retrieve the data. The system is particularly applicable for studies of behavior and predation, for counting individuals, or recording difficult to observe activities. The system can be run continuously for several weeks by two people, reducing personnel costs. This paper is intended to provide biologists who have litte knowledge of electronics with a system that might be useful to their specific needs. The disadvantages of this system are the initial costs (about $9800 basic, 1990-1991 U.S. dollars) and the time required to playback video cassette tapes for data retrieval, but the playback can be sped up when litte or no activity of interest is taking place. In our study, the positive aspects of the system far outweighed the negative.

  19. Dietary sodium intake and arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Dumler, Francis

    2009-01-01

    We sought to summarize major recent studies in the field of dietary sodium intake and arterial blood pressure, and discuss the following trials. INTERSALT: Sodium intake correlates with the rise in blood pressure with age, but not with the prevalence of hypertension. The population study identified a minimal impact of sodium intake on blood pressure (0.9 mm Hg/10 mmol difference in salt intake). DASH: This diet induced significant reductions in blood pressure compared with the control diet. Further decreases were observed with DASH and a 50 mmol/day sodium intake. VANGUARD: Blood pressure was inversely related to urinary potassium, calcium and magnesium but not to sodium excretion. TONE: Cardiovascular events were highest in the usual care group (83%) and lowest in the sodium reduction-plus-weight loss group (56%). META-ANALYSIS: A systematic review of 11 long-term controlled randomized trials reported a small decrease (1.1 mm Hg) in median systolic but not diastolic blood pressure with a reduced dietary sodium intake. In conclusion, (1) sodium restriction in hypertensive patients reduces blood pressure, and (2) the long-term impact of reduced salt intake on blood pressure, mortality, and morbidity remains to be defined.

  20. The impact of fertilization on the chicken egg yolk plasma and granule proteome 24 hours post-lay at room temperature: capitalizing on high-pH/low-pH reverse phase chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass tag (TMT) technology.

    PubMed

    Padliya, Neerav D; Qian, Meiqian; Mimi Roy, Sushmita; Chu, Patrick; Zheng, Haiyan; Tess, Alex; Dariani, Maghsoud; Hariri, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Chicken egg yolk is a rich source of nutrients providing high quality proteins, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids and antioxidants. Chicken egg yolk, recovered from whole egg within 24 hours post-lay has been utilized as a starting material in the preparation of a dietary supplement that has been demonstrated to lead to gains in muscle mass in a human clinical study. Further, an oil derived from chicken egg yolk has been utilized as a topical agent to treat third degree burn injury. The molecular changes that take place in fertilized, chicken egg yolk during the first 24 hours post-lay are not well understood. By studying how the protein composition of egg yolk varies with fertility status, one can utilize this knowledge to develop egg yolk-based products that have been optimized for specific applications. In this study, a direct quantitative comparison was made between the proteome of fertilized chicken egg yolk and the proteome of unfertilized chicken egg yolk, both maintained at 20 °C and analyzed within 24 hours post-lay. Egg yolk proteins from each fertility state were digested with trypsin, labeled with distinct chemical labels (tandem mass tag reagents) and then combined in a 1 : 1 ratio. A TMT-labeled tryptic digest derived from chicken egg yolk proteins (fertilized and unfertilized) was separated using high-pH/low-pH reverse-phase chromatography and analyzed using mass spectrometry. 225 protein identifications were made from this TMT-labeled tryptic digest based on a minimum of 2 unique peptides observed per protein. 9 proteins increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk and 9 proteins decreased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk. Some proteins that increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk play an important role in angiogenesis (pleiotrophin, histidine rich glycoprotein) and defense against pathogens (mannose-binding lectin, β-defensin 11, serum amyloid P-component, ovostatin

  1. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  2. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  3. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  4. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  5. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  6. Effect of atenolol treatment on urinary prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rathaus, M; Magen, A; Rath-Wolfson, L; Shapira, J; Bernheim, J

    1983-12-01

    The urinary excretion of prostaglandins (PG) E2 and F2 alpha was measured by radioimmunoassay in 15 patients with essential hypertension, before and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment with the selective beta 1-adrenergic blocker, atenolol. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate and plasma renin activity decreased significantly during the treatment. No change was observed in renal function and electrolyte balance. The 24-hour excretion of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha was also unaffected by the antihypertensive treatment. The above findings, in contrast with those previously observed with another beta-blocker, propranolol, suggest that tubular beta-receptors are not involved in the synthesis of PGs. The different hemodynamic effects of the two drugs are the most likely explanation for the different responses in prostaglandin excretion.

  7. Usefulness of urinary growth hormone (GH) measurement for evaluating endogenous GH secretion in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Mauri, M; Picó, A M; Alfayate, R; Dominguez, J R; Cámara, R; Miralles, C

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between urinary growth hormone (u-GH) and spontaneous 24-hour plasma GH secretion in 15 acromegalic patients. To measure u-GH, we have developed a method based on concentrating the sample by centrifugal ultrafiltration and then performing an immunoradiometric assay using commercially available reagents. u-GH correlated well with the integrated concentration of plasma GH (r = 0.66, p < 0.02). Additionally, u-GH excretion in acromegalic patients was significantly higher than in the control group (190 +/- 100 vs. 3.89 +/- 0.56 pg/min, mean +/- SEM, p < 0.001). Immunoreactive u-GH showed the same elution pattern in Sephadex G-75 as standard or labeled hGH, proving that the substance measured in urine is authentic GH. In conclusion, u-GH appears to be a simple, noninvasive and inexpensive test for evaluating GH secretion in active acromegaly.

  8. Dietary Predictors of Urinary Environmental Biomarkers in young girls, BCERP, 2004–7

    PubMed Central

    Mervish, Nancy; McGovern, Kathleen J.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Pinney, Susan M.; Windham, Gayle C.; Biro, Frank M.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Silva, Manori J.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposures of children to phthalates, parabens, and bisphenol-A (BPA) are of concern because of their hormonal potential. These agents are found in a wide range of foods and packaging. We investigated whether intake of certain foods predict exposures to these chemicals in young girls. Methods Among 1101 girls (6–8 years at enrollment) from the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Program (BCERP) study, we measured urinary exposure biomarkers for phthalates, parabens, and BPA and assessed dietary intake using 24-hour recall 2–4 times. We examined the average daily servings of major and minor food groups categorized as 0- <0.5, 0.5 – < 1 and ≥ 1 servings per day. Items included dairy, eggs, fats, fish, fruit, single grains, meat, non-poultry meats, pasta, poultry and vegetables. Covariate-adjusted least squares geometric means and 95% confidence intervals of creatinine-corrected phthalate and phenol metabolite concentrations in urine were calculated in relation to food intake. Results Grains, flour and dry mixes and total fish consumption were positively associated with BPA and the sum of four di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) urinary metabolite concentrations. Non-fresh vegetables and poultry were both positively associated with BPA and paraben urinary concentrations. Fats, oils and poultry consumption were positively associated with BPA. Whole-fat dairy consumption was associated with ΣDEHP. Conclusions Some foods may contribute to child exposures to certain chemicals, and this may constitute modifiable means to reduce these environmental exposures. PMID:24906063

  9. Postcircumcision urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Cohen, H A; Drucker, M M; Vainer, S; Ashkenasi, A; Amir, J; Frydman, M; Varsano, I

    1992-06-01

    The possible association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with ritual circumcision on the eighth day of life was studied by analyzing the epidemiology of urinary tract infections during the first year of life in 169 children with UTI (56 males and 113 females) born in Israel from 1979 to 1984. Forty-eight percent of the episodes of UTI occurring in males appeared during the 12 days following circumcision, and the increased incidence during that period was highly significant. The median age of the males at the time of the UTI was 16 days, compared with seven months in females. Ritual Jewish circumcision as practiced in Israel may be a predisposing factor for UTI during the 12-day period following that procedure.

  10. Urinary Tract Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Kołodziej, Anna; Krajewski, Wojciech; Dołowy, Łukasz; Hirnle, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Recently, occurrence of urinary tract endometriosis (UTE) is more frequently diagnosed. According to literature, it refers to approximately 0.3 to even 12% of all women with endometriosis. The pathogenesis of UTE has not been clearly explained so far. The actually proposed hypotheses include embryonic, migration, transplantation, and iatrogenic theory. Most frequently UTE affects bladder, less often ureters and kidneys. One-third of patients remains asymptomatic or exhibits only minor manifestations. In symptomatic patients main complaints include dysuria, urinary urgency, and/or frequency, painful micturition, and burning sensation in the urethra and discomfort in the retropubic area. Treatment of UTE is challenging and can be pharmacological, surgical or can be a combination of both methods. In this paper we present a review of the literature concerning the UTE, its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26341760

  11. Estimates of Dietary Sodium Consumption in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Colin-Ramirez, Eloisa; Arcand, JoAnne; Ezekowitz, Justin A

    2015-12-01

    Estimating dietary sodium intake is a key component of dietary assessment in the clinical setting of HF to effectively implement appropriate dietary interventions for sodium reduction and monitor adherence to the dietary treatment. In a research setting, assessment of sodium intake is crucial to an essential methodology to evaluate outcomes after a dietary or behavioral intervention. Current available sodium intake assessment methods include 24-hour urine collection, spot urine collections, multiple day food records, food recalls, and food frequency questionnaires. However, these methods have inherent limitations that make assessment of sodium intake challenging, and the utility of traditional methods may be questionable for estimating sodium intake in patients with HF. Thus, there are remaining questions about how to best assess dietary sodium intake in this patient population, and there is a need to identify a reliable method to assess and monitor sodium intake in the research and clinical setting of HF. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current methods for sodium intake assessment, addresses the challenges for its accurate evaluation, and highlights the relevance of applying the highest-quality measurement methods in the research setting to minimize the risk of biased data.

  12. Monitoring of urinary L-type fatty acid-binding protein predicts histological severity of acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Kousuke; Noiri, Eisei; Doi, Kent; Maeda-Mamiya, Rui; Sugaya, Takeshi; Portilla, Didier; Fujita, Toshiro

    2009-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate whether levels of urinary L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) could be used to monitor histological injury in acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by cis-platinum (CP) injection and ischemia reperfusion (IR). Different degrees of AKI severity were induced by several renal insults (CP dose and ischemia time) in human L-FABP transgenic mice. Renal histological injury scores increased with both CP dose and ischemic time. In CP-induced AKI, urinary L-FABP levels increased exponentially even in the lowest dose group as early as 2 hours, whereas blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels increased at 48 hours. In IR-induced AKI, BUN levels increased only in the 30-minute ischemia group 24 hours after reperfusion; however, urinary L-FABP levels increased more than 100-fold, even in the 5-minute ischemia group after 1 hour. In both AKI models, urinary L-FABP levels showed a better correlation with final histological injury scores and glomerular filtration rates measured by fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled inulin injection than with levels of BUN and urinary N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase, especially at earlier time points. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that urinary L-FABP was superior to other biomarkers for the detection of significant histological injuries and functional declines. In conclusion, urinary L-FABP levels are better suited to allow the accurate and earlier detection of both histological and functional insults in ischemic and nephrotoxin-induced AKI compared with conventional renal markers.

  13. Treatment of urinary incontinence in women in general practice: observational study.

    PubMed Central

    Seim, A.; Sivertsen, B.; Eriksen, B. C.; Hunskaar, S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine what is attainable when treating urinary incontinence in women in general practice. DESIGN--Observational study with 12 months' follow up. Interview and clinical examination before, during, and after treatment of women seeking help for urinary incontinence in general practice. SETTING--General practice in the rural district of Rissa, Norway. SUBJECTS--105 women aged 20 or more with urinary incontinence. INTERVENTIONS--Treatment with pelvic floor exercises, electrostimulation, oestrogen, anticholinergic drugs, bladder training, and protective pads. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Subjective and objective measures of urinary incontinence; number of patients referred to a specialist. RESULTS--After 12 months' follow up 70% (69/99) of the women were cured or much better; the mean score on a 100 mm visual analogue scale decreased from 37 to 20 mm; and the proportion of women who were greatly bothered by their incontinence decreased by 62%. 20% (20/98) of women became continent, and the percentage of women with severe incontinence decreased from 64% (63/99) to 28% (27/98). Mean leakage per 24 hours measured by a pad test decreased from 28 g at the start of treatment to 13 g after 12 months. The number of light weight pads or sanitary towels decreased from 1.6 to 0.6 a day. In all, 17/105 (16%) patients were referred to a specialist. CONCLUSIONS--Urinary incontinence in women can be effectively managed in general practice with fairly simple treatment. Most women will be satisfied with the results. PMID:8664627

  14. Urinary podocalyxin as a marker of preeclampsia in a Hispanic population

    PubMed Central

    Palacios de Franco, Ylbe; Velazquez, Karina; Segovia, Natalia; Acosta, Carolina; Yanosky, Deborah; Franco Palacios, Ylbe V; Ramos, Amanda; Franco Palacios, Carlos R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is associated with significant materno-fetal morbidity and mortality. Podocyturia due to podocyte damage seems to be associated with the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of urinary podocalyxin as a marker of preeclampsia in a Hispanic population. Methods: 63 patients were studied. 25 patients had preeclampsia/eclampsia (PE-E). 38 patients had normal pregnancies and served as control group. 24 hour proteinuria, urine protein/creatinine (UPC), urinary podocalyxin and perinatal outcomes were measured. A Podocalyxin ELISA test was used to detect podocyturia. Results: Mean age (years), mean±SD was 30.5±5.4 in normal patients vs 30.6±5.8 in PE-E, p=0.98. Median gestational age (weeks) was, 38 (range 21-42) for normal pregnancies and 36 (range 24-40) for patients with PE-E, <0.001. Urine podocalyxin/creatinine on admission (ng/mg), median [IQR] in normal patients was 55.9 [29.4, 74.9] vs 109.7 [63.8, 234.1] in PE-E, p=0.001. After adjusting for admission proteinuria, urinary podocalyxin remained independently associated with preeclampsia: OR=1.0040 (95% CI 1.0003-1.0078), p=0.03. There was low to moderate correlation between UPC and urinary podocalyxin, Spearman’s =0.31, p=0.01. In PE-E, post-partum urine podocalyxin was lower, median [IQR]: 69.7 [32.7, 184.8] p=0.19 vs admission. There was a trend towards more podocyturia and proteinuria in patients with eclampsia, comparing to those with preeclampsia. There was no association observed between podocyturia and neonatal mortality, IUGR or Apgar scores. Conclusions: Significantly higher levels of urinary podocalyxin are seen in preeclampsia/eclampsia. They tend to normalize after delivery. PMID:25057338

  15. Effect of chloroquine on the urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Ilo, Cajetan E; Ezejiofor, Ndidi A; Agbakoba, Nneka; Brown, Sinye A; Maduagwuna, Chinonye A; Agbasi, Patrick U; Orisakwe, Orish E; Orisakweph, Orish E

    2008-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is an inexpensive antibacterial, whereas chloroquine is an inexpensive antimalarial. The coadministration of chloroquine and ciprofloxacin is easily encountered because both drugs are commonly prescribed to patients in the tropics. Five healthy male volunteers aged 19 to 31 years who were not taking any of the prescribed medications and who had no sensitivity to either ciprofloxacin or chloroquine each received 500 mg ciprofloxacin orally with 250 mL of water, and after a 2-week washout period, 500 mg ciprofloxacin plus 600 mg chloroquine was administered orally with 250 mL of water after providing informed consent. A urine sample (7 mL) was collected just before taking the drug at 8:00 AM representing 0 hour and continued afterward at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours the next day. The samples were stored at -20 degrees C until analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentrations by diffusion through agar technique were used for the assay of urine ciprofloxacin. The rate of ciprofloxacin excretion and cumulative urine ciprofloxacin were significantly increased. The coadministration of chloroquine increased the cumulative urinary concentration and excretion rate of ciprofloxacin.

  16. Effect of chloroquine on the urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Ilo, Cajetan E; Ezejiofor, Ndidi A; Agbakoba, Nneka; Brown, Sinye A; Maduagwuna, Chinonye A; Agbasi, Patrick U; Orisakwe, Orish E; Orisakweph, Orish E

    2008-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is an inexpensive antibacterial, whereas chloroquine is an inexpensive antimalarial. The coadministration of chloroquine and ciprofloxacin is easily encountered because both drugs are commonly prescribed to patients in the tropics. Five healthy male volunteers aged 19 to 31 years who were not taking any of the prescribed medications and who had no sensitivity to either ciprofloxacin or chloroquine each received 500 mg ciprofloxacin orally with 250 mL of water, and after a 2-week washout period, 500 mg ciprofloxacin plus 600 mg chloroquine was administered orally with 250 mL of water after providing informed consent. A urine sample (7 mL) was collected just before taking the drug at 8:00 AM representing 0 hour and continued afterward at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours the next day. The samples were stored at -20 degrees C until analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentrations by diffusion through agar technique were used for the assay of urine ciprofloxacin. The rate of ciprofloxacin excretion and cumulative urine ciprofloxacin were significantly increased. The coadministration of chloroquine increased the cumulative urinary concentration and excretion rate of ciprofloxacin. PMID:18806516

  17. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  18. [Urinary calculi and infection].

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete

  19. Geriatric urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Ouslander, J G

    1992-02-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is now recognized as a prevalent, physically and emotionally disruptive, and costly health problem in the geriatric population. Because incontinence may be a manifestation of a subacute or reversible process within or outside of the lower urinary tract, and because effective treatment is available, it is important for primary care physicians to identify and appropriately assess incontinence in their geriatric patients. The initial evaluation of an incontinent geriatric patients. The initial evaluation of an incontinent geriatric patient includes a targeted history and physical examination, urinalysis, and simple tests of lower urinary tract function. Potentially reversible conditions that may be causing or contributing to the incontinence, such as delirium and urinary tract infection (UTI), should be identified and managed. Patients who may benefit from further testing, including urologic or gynecologic examination and/or complex urodynamic tests, should be identified and referred. Several therapeutic modalities can be used to treat geriatric UI. Behavioral therapies are noninvasive and effective, both in functional community-dwelling geriatric patients and in functionally impaired nursing home residents. Behavioral therapies include bladder training, pelvic muscle exercises, biofeedback, scheduled toileting, habit training, and prompted voiding. Pharmacologic therapy is often used in conjunction with behavioral therapy. For stress incontinence, alpha-adrenergic drugs are used and can be combined with topical or oral estrogen therapy in women. For urge incontinence, pharmacologic treatment involves drugs with anticholinergic and direct bladder muscle relaxant properties. Pharmacologic therapy for overflow incontinence is generally not effective on a long-term basis. Surgical treatment is indicated when a pathologic lesion such as a tumor is diagnosed, or when anatomic obstruction is believed to be the cause of the patient's symptoms

  20. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. PMID:26177232

  1. [Urinary complications after anorectal surgery].

    PubMed

    Iusuf, T; Sârbu, V; Cristache, C; Popescu, R; Botea, F; Panait, L

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of urinary complications after various anorectal operations was studied in a group of 273 patients. The overall prevalence of urinary complications was 26.7%; most of these complications affected men between 41 and 50, mainly after hemorrhoidectomy. In 10.6% of patients, bladder catheterization was needed. These urinary complications result from nervous reflexes originating from the anus and determined by the operative trauma and/or rectal distinction. In the treatment of these urinary complications, the role of the muses is essential for reassuring the patients. Parasympathomimetic drugs are often efficient. Urinary catheterization must be delayed until the 18th hour. Fluid restriction may be useful to prevent urinary retention. PMID:14870531

  2. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  3. Effect of drinking parsley leaf tea on urinary composition and urinary stones' risk factors.

    PubMed

    Alyami, Fahad A; Rabah, Danny M

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the effect of parsley leaf tea on urine composition and the inhibitors of urinary tract stones formation, we studied 20 healthy volunteers who were divided into two groups: the first group of 10 subjects drank daily 1,200 mL of parsley leaf tea for 2 weeks, while the second group drank at least 1,200 mL daily of bottled water for the same period. This was followed by a 2-week "washout" period before the two groups were crossed over for another 2 weeks. During the experimental phase, 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline, on day 14, and at the end of the 6-week period and different urinary parameters were measured and analyzed statistically. We found no significant difference in the urine volume, pH, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, phosphorus, magnesium, uric acid, cystine, or citric acid. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of parsley leaf tea on urinary parameters in healthy and stone-forming patients.

  4. Urinary excretions of 34 dietary polyphenols and their associations with lifestyle factors in the EPIC cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Achaintre, David; Rothwell, Joseph A.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Leitzmann, Michael; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Auffret, Aurélie; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin

    2016-01-01

    Urinary excretion of 34 dietary polyphenols and their variations according to diet and other lifestyle factors were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 475 adult participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study. A single 24-hour urine sample was analysed for each subject from 4 European countries. The highest median levels were observed for phenolic acids such as 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (157 μmol/24 h), followed by 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, ferulic, vanillic and homovanillic acids (20–50 μmol/24 h). The lowest concentrations were observed for equol, apigenin and resveratrol (<0.1 μmol/24 h). Urinary polyphenols significantly varied by centre, followed by alcohol intake, sex, educational level, and energy intake. This variability is largely explained by geographical variations in the diet, as suggested by the high correlations (r > 0.5) observed between urinary polyphenols and the intake of their main food sources (e.g., resveratrol and gallic acid ethyl ester with red wine intake; caffeic, protocatechuic and ferulic acids with coffee consumption; and hesperetin and naringenin with citrus fruit intake). The large variations in urinary polyphenols observed are largely determined by food preferences. These polyphenol biomarkers should allow more accurate evaluation of the relationships between polyphenol exposure and the risk of chronic diseases in large epidemiological studies. PMID:27273479

  5. Urinary excretions of 34 dietary polyphenols and their associations with lifestyle factors in the EPIC cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Achaintre, David; Rothwell, Joseph A; Rinaldi, Sabina; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Leitzmann, Michael; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Auffret, Aurélie; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin

    2016-01-01

    Urinary excretion of 34 dietary polyphenols and their variations according to diet and other lifestyle factors were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 475 adult participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study. A single 24-hour urine sample was analysed for each subject from 4 European countries. The highest median levels were observed for phenolic acids such as 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (157 μmol/24 h), followed by 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, ferulic, vanillic and homovanillic acids (20-50 μmol/24 h). The lowest concentrations were observed for equol, apigenin and resveratrol (<0.1 μmol/24 h). Urinary polyphenols significantly varied by centre, followed by alcohol intake, sex, educational level, and energy intake. This variability is largely explained by geographical variations in the diet, as suggested by the high correlations (r > 0.5) observed between urinary polyphenols and the intake of their main food sources (e.g., resveratrol and gallic acid ethyl ester with red wine intake; caffeic, protocatechuic and ferulic acids with coffee consumption; and hesperetin and naringenin with citrus fruit intake). The large variations in urinary polyphenols observed are largely determined by food preferences. These polyphenol biomarkers should allow more accurate evaluation of the relationships between polyphenol exposure and the risk of chronic diseases in large epidemiological studies. PMID:27273479

  6. [Ultrasound of the urinary system].

    PubMed

    Segura-Grau, A; Herzog, R; Díaz-Rodriguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound techniques are able to provide a fairly complete examination of the urinary system, achieving a high sensitivity in relevant-pathology detection, especially in the kidney, bladder and prostate. Early detection of pathologies such as tumors or urinary tract obstructions, sometimes even before their clinical manifestation, has improved their management and prognosis in many cases. This, added to its low cost and harmlessness, makes ultrasound ideal for early approaches and follow-up of a wide number of urinary system pathologies. In this article, the ultrasound characteristics of the main urinary system pathologies that can be diagnosed by this technique, are reviewed.

  7. [Ultrasound of the urinary system].

    PubMed

    Segura-Grau, A; Herzog, R; Díaz-Rodriguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound techniques are able to provide a fairly complete examination of the urinary system, achieving a high sensitivity in relevant-pathology detection, especially in the kidney, bladder and prostate. Early detection of pathologies such as tumors or urinary tract obstructions, sometimes even before their clinical manifestation, has improved their management and prognosis in many cases. This, added to its low cost and harmlessness, makes ultrasound ideal for early approaches and follow-up of a wide number of urinary system pathologies. In this article, the ultrasound characteristics of the main urinary system pathologies that can be diagnosed by this technique, are reviewed. PMID:25982474

  8. Urinary dopamine and noradrenaline outputs during large acute changes in oral salt intake in healthy Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Chan, T Y; Critchley, J A; Ho, C S; Chan, J C; Wong, W K; Swaminathan, R; Tomlinson, B

    1994-10-01

    1. In order to investigate the role of renal dopamine and sympathetic activity in the natriuretic response to oral sodium loading in Chinese subjects, we studied the effects of two different sodium intakes (20 followed by 220 mmol day-1 each given for 5 days) on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the urinary excretion of sodium, dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) in eight healthy subjects. 2. MAP did not change. There was an eight- to ninefold increase in sodium excretion (P < 0.01). An 8-17% increase in urinary DA (P < 0.05) over the first 3 days, and a 22% decrease in urine NA (P < 0.05) on the last day of the high sodium intake were seen. 3. The relatively small increase in urinary DA, despite an eleven-fold increase in sodium intake from a state of marked sodium deprivation, may suggest that, in healthy Chinese subjects, the renal DA mechanism only contributes partly to the acute natriuretic response. Furthermore, the renal DA response appeared to be attenuated during the period of high sodium intake. 4. There is no evidence from the present study that a reduction in sympathetic activity plays an important role in the acute natriuretic response to sodium loading in this group of subjects.

  9. Variation of Lunar Sodium During Passage of the Moon through the Earth's Magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Andrew E.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Morgan, Thomas H.

    2000-01-01

    We measured sodium emission above the lunar equator over a range of lunar altitudes from 100 to 4000 km. The measurements were repeated approximately every 24 hours from June 7 to 16, 1998, covering the period during which the Moon passed through the Earth's magnetotail. Sodium temperatures derived from the altitude dependence of emission intensity ranged from 1200 to 2900 K. This result supports the view that photodesorption is a primary source of sodium in the exosphere since the most probable temperature of sodium form this source is in this range. Passage of the Moon through the Earth's magnetotail (where solar wind is essentially absent) affected the sodium density, such that it was higher before the Moon entered the Earth's magnetotail than after the Moon left it. This suggests that the solar wind plays a role in production of lunar sodium. We propose that its function is to mobilize sodium and bring it to the surface, where photodesorption can eject it into the exosphere. A two-step process such as this could help to explain the latitude dependence of sodium density, which varies as the second or higher power of cosine latitude.

  10. Prosthetic urinary sphincter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, C. R.; Smyly, H. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A pump/valve unit for controlling the inflation and deflation of a urethral collar in a prosthetic urinary sphincter device is described. A compressible bulb pump defining a reservoir was integrated with a valve unit for implantation. The valve unit includes a movable valve member operable by depression of a flexible portion of the valve unit housing for controlling fluid flow between the reservoir and collar; and a pressure sensing means which operates the valve member to relieve an excess pressure in the collar should too much pressure be applied by the patient.

  11. Urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Wang, Alina; Nizran, Parminder; Malone, Michael A; Riley, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Clinical presentation helps differentiate between upper and lower urinary tract infections (UTIs). UTIs are classified as either complicated or uncomplicated. A complicated UTI is associated with an underlying condition that increases the risk of failing therapy. Primary laboratory tests for UTIs consist of urinalysis and urine culture. The most common pathogen for uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis is Escherichia coli. Nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are first-line therapies for acute uncomplicated cystitis. Decisions regarding antibiotic agents should be individualized based on patients' allergies, tolerability, community resistance rates, cost, and availability.

  12. Urinary incontinence: the basics.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, K L; Steidle, C P; Letizia, T M

    1995-08-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a widely prevalent problem that affects people of all ages and levels of physical health, both in healthcare settings and in the community. Contributing to the problem are that many practitioners remain uneducated about this condition, individuals are often too ashamed or embarrassed to seek professional help, and there are significant variations in diagnostic and treatment practices. Five types of UI are stress, urge, overflow, functional and manufactured incontinence. Stress, urge and overflow are caused by factors within the urinary tract and will be concentrated on in this article. To diagnose UI a three-part assessment should be conducted, including the patient history, physical examination, and urinalysis. A behavioral program should be designed which incorporates identification and education for both patient and clinician. Treatment options include pelvic floor exercises (Kegel), vaginal cones, bladder training (retraining), habit training (timed voiding), electrostimulation and biofeedback, clean intermittent catheterization, indwelling catheters, medications, collagen injections, surgery, and absorption products. Most patients can be helped dramatically or cured with the appropriate treatment.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of tetraacetylethylenediamine-sodium perborate versus sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Shakouie, Sahar; Salem Milani, Amin; Eskandarnejad, Mahsa; Rahimi, Saeed; Froughreyhani, Mohammad; Galedar, Saeede; Ranjbar, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Tetraacetylethylenediamine-sodium perborate (TAED-SP) in comparison to 2.5% and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis. Methods. A standard suspension of E. faecalis was inoculated on 60 plates containing Mueller-Hinton agar culture medium. Four sterile disks of Beckman filtration paper were placed on each plate. TAED-SP, 5% and 2.5% NaOCl were placed on three disks. Sterile physiologic saline was placed on the fourth disk as negative control. After 24-hour incubation, the diameter of the inhibition zone around the disks was measured using a transparent ruler. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the mean zone of microbial growth in the groups. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. There was a significant difference in the diameter of the inhibition zones between groups (P < 0.05). The Tukey post hoc test showed a higher diameter of the inhibitory zone with TAED-SP than that of 2.5% NaOCl. However, there were no significant differences between the inhibitory zones of TAED-SP and 5% NaOCl. Conclusion. TAED-SP and 5% NaOCl have similar antibacterial activity against E. faecalis; however, TAED-SP has a greater antibacterial effect compared to 2.5% NaOCl. PMID:27092214

  14. Urinary Aminopeptidase Activities as Early and Predictive Biomarkers of Renal Dysfunction in Cisplatin-Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, Andrés; Vargas, Félix; Montoro-Molina, Sebastián; O'Valle, Francisco; Rodríguez-Martínez, María Dolores; Osuna, Antonio; Prieto, Isabel; Ramírez, Manuel; Wangensteen, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the fluorimetric determination of alanyl- (Ala), glutamyl- (Glu), leucyl-cystinyl- (Cys) and aspartyl-aminopeptidase (AspAp) urinary enzymatic activities as early and predictive biomarkers of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 8 each group) received a single subcutaneous injection of either saline or cisplatin 3.5 or 7 mg/kg, and urine samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 14 days after treatment. In urine samples we determined Ala, Glu, Cys and AspAp activities, proteinuria, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), albumin, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and renal morphological variables were measured at the end of the experiment. CysAp, NAG and albumin were increased 48 hours after treatment in the cisplatin 3.5 mg/kg treated group. At 24 hours, all urinary aminopeptidase activities and albuminuria were significantly increased in the cisplatin 7 mg/kg treated group. Aminopeptidase urinary activities correlated (p<0.011; r2>0.259) with plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and/or kidney weight/body weight ratio at the end of the experiment and they could be considered as predictive biomarkers of renal injury severity. ROC-AUC analysis was made to study their sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between treated and untreated rats at day 1. All aminopeptidase activities showed an AUC>0.633. We conclude that Ala, Cys, Glu and AspAp enzymatic activities are early and predictive urinary biomarkers of the renal dysfunction induced by cisplatin. These determinations can be very useful in the prognostic and diagnostic of renal dysfunction in preclinical research and clinical practice. PMID:22792302

  15. Dietary sodium: a therapeutic target in the treatment of hypertension and CKD.

    PubMed

    Sanghavi, Sarah; Vassalotti, Joseph A

    2013-05-01

    Interventional trials of dietary sodium reduction have demonstrated improvements in blood pressure, cardiovascular events, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Furthermore, public health initiatives to reduce population sodium intake in Finland and Japan have shown similar benefit in blood pressure and stroke reduction. Recent follow-up data from large cohort trials that suggest increased mortality among individuals with lower urinary sodium excretion have generated controversy regarding the optimal sodium intake. This paper reviews the evidence for the reduction of dietary sodium to prevent and manage chronic diseases, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and CKD.

  16. Urinary Kallikrein Excretion in Essential and Mineralocorticoid Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Holland, O. Bryan; Chud, James M.; Braunstein, Helen

    1980-01-01

    Urinary kallikrein excretion has been reported to be decreased in patients with essential hypertension and elevated in patients with primary aldosteronism as a reflection of mineralocorticoid activity. Low renin essential hypertension (LREH) has been postulated to result from excess production of an unknown mineralocorticoid(s). Urinary kallikrein excretion was compared in outpatients with essential hypertension, mineralocorticoid hypertension (primary aldosteronism and 17α-hydroxylase deficiency), and in normal subjects of the same race. No significant difference in urinary kallikrein excretion of patients with LREH vs. normal renin essential hypertension (NREH) was found for either black (4.1±0.4 vs. 4.8±0.5 esterase units (EU)/24 h, mean±SE, for 27 LREH and 38 NREH, respectively) or white patients (12.2±2.3 vs. 11.7±1.4 EU/24 h for 13 LREH and 25 NREH, respectively). Urinary kallikrein was decreased in black vs. white hypertensive patients and normal subjects. However, in patients with normal renal function (creatinine clearance ≥80 ml/min) urinary kallikrein was not significantly decreased in either black hypertensive vs. black normal subjects (4.3±0.3 vs. 5.4±0.6 EU/24 h) or in white hypertensive vs. white normal subjects (11.9±1.2 vs. 8.4±0.9 EU/24 h). In contrast, hypertensive patients with mild renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance of 41.8±78.5 ml/min) had reduced (P < 0.05) urinary kallikrein (3.3 EU/24 h with creatinine clearance of 63.6±2.0 for 24 black patients and 4.2±0.7 EU/24 h with creatinine clearance of 67.0±3.5 for 6 white patients). These results suggest that a reduction in urinary kallikrein excretion rate is an early accompaniment of hypertensive renal injury. Urinary kallikrein excretion in response to a 6-d 10-meq sodium diet and a 3-d Florinef (0.5 mg b.i.d.) administration was compared in hypertensive patients with normal renal function vs. race and age-matched normal subjects. Stimulation of urinary kallikrein

  17. Measuring population sodium intake: a review of methods.

    PubMed

    McLean, Rachael M

    2014-11-01

    Reduction of population sodium intake has been identified as a key initiative for reduction of Non-Communicable Disease. Monitoring of population sodium intake must accompany public health initiatives aimed at sodium reduction. A number of different methods for estimating dietary sodium intake are currently in use. Dietary assessment is time consuming and often under-estimates intake due to under-reporting and difficulties quantifying sodium concentration in recipes, and discretionary salt. Twenty-four hour urinary collection (widely considered to be the most accurate method) is also burdensome and is limited by under-collection and lack of suitable methodology to accurately identify incomplete samples. Spot urine sampling has recently been identified as a convenient and affordable alternative, but remains highly controversial as a means of monitoring population intake. Studies suggest that while spot urinary sodium is a poor predictor of 24-h excretion in individuals, it may provide population estimates adequate for monitoring. Further research is needed into the accuracy and suitability of spot urine collection in different populations as a means of monitoring sodium intake.

  18. [Nosocomial urinary infections].

    PubMed

    Butreau-Lemaire, M; Botto, H

    1997-09-01

    The concept of nosocomial urinary tract infection now corresponds to a precise definition. It is generally related to bladder catheterization, constitutes the most frequent form of nosocomial infection (30 to 50% of infections), and represents the third most frequent portal of entry of bacteraemia. The organism most frequently isolated is Escherichia coli; but the flora is changing and the ecological distribution is continually modified. Despite their usually benign nature, these nosocomial infections can nevertheless influence hospital mortality; they increase the hospital stay by an average of 2.5 days and their treatment represents a large share of the antibiotic budget. Prevention of these infections is therefore essential, with particular emphasis on simple and universally accessible measures: very precise indications for vesical catheterization, use of closed circuit drainage, maximal asepsis when handling catheters, after washing the hands.

  19. [Female urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Jundt, K; Friese, K

    2005-06-01

    Several million women suffer from urinary incontinence in Germany. Stress and urge incontinence are especially clinically relevant. Training of the pelvic floor muscles (vaginal cones, electrical stimulation, biofeedback, and so forth) plays a central role in the conservative therapy of stress incontinence. The use of devices such as incontinence tampons and urethral pessaries is also common. A medication for the therapy of stress incontinence, which improves the closure of the urethral sphincter, has been on the market since 2004. In the operative area,the insertion of a tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) has gained acceptance in recent years. Anticholinergics are the primary medication used in the treatment of urge incontinence. Local estrogens, low frequency electrical stimulation, phytotherapeutics and the like have supportive effects.

  20. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Intrinsic Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders: Advanced Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (ASWPD), Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD), Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (N24SWD), and Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (ISWRD). An Update for 2015

    PubMed Central

    Auger, R. Robert; Burgess, Helen J.; Emens, Jonathan S.; Deriy, Ludmila V.; Thomas, Sherene M.; Sharkey, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review and meta-analyses (where appropriate) were performed and the GRADE approach was used to update the previous American Academy of Sleep Medicine Practice Parameters on the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders. Available data allowed for positive endorsement (at a second-tier degree of confidence) of strategically timed melatonin (for the treatment of DSWPD, blind adults with N24SWD, and children/ adolescents with ISWRD and comorbid neurological disorders), and light therapy with or without accompanying behavioral interventions (adults with ASWPD, children/adolescents with DSWPD, and elderly with dementia). Recommendations against the use of melatonin and discrete sleep-promoting medications are provided for demented elderly patients, at a second- and first-tier degree of confidence, respectively. No recommendations were provided for remaining treatments/ populations, due to either insufficient or absent data. Areas where further research is needed are discussed. Citation: Auger RR, Burgess HJ, Emens JS, Deriy LV, Thomas SM, Sharkey KM. Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: advanced sleep-wake phase disorder (ASWPD), delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD), non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD), and irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder (ISWRD). An update for 2015. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1199–1236. PMID:26414986

  1. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. The ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  2. What Determines Human Sodium Intake: Policy or Physiology?12345

    PubMed Central

    McCarron, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Past and current U.S. sodium and health policy focused on population-wide reductions in sodium intake. Underlying that policy are a number of assumptions that recent scientific publications challenged. The assumptions include the following: 1) that current intakes are excessive; 2) that the “healthy range” must be below current intakes; 3) that sodium intake can be substantially reduced by public policy; 4) that human intake is dictated by the sodium content of the food supply; and 5) that, unlike all other essential nutrients in which a healthy range is defined by a Gaussian distribution, lower sodium intake is always better. Drawing on the most current published evidence, this review addresses each of these long-standing assumptions. Based on worldwide surveys that assessed sodium intake by 24-h urinary sodium measurements, it is now evident that, across 45 societies and 5 decades, humans consume a reproducible, narrow range of sodium: ∼2600–4800 mg/d. This range is independent of the food supply, verifiable in randomized controlled trials, consistent with the physiologic regulators of sodium intake and is not modifiable by public policy interventions. These findings indicate that human sodium intake is controlled by physiology and cannot be modified by public health policies. PMID:25469402

  3. Different techniques for urinary protein analysis of normal and lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tantipaiboonwong, Payungsak; Sinchaikul, Supachok; Sriyam, Supawadee; Phutrakul, Suree; Chen, Shui-Tein

    2005-03-01

    Many components in urine are useful in clinical diagnosis and urinary proteins are known as important components to define many diseases such as proteinuria, kidney, bladder and urinary tract diseases. In this study, we focused on the comparison of different sample preparation methods for isolating urinary proteins prior to protein analysis of pooled healthy and lung cancer patient samples. Selective method was used for preliminary investigation of some putative urinary protein markers. Urine samples were passed first through a gel filtration column (PD-10 desalting column) to remove high salts and subsequently concentrated. Remaining interferences were removed by ultrafiltration or four precipitation methods. The analysis of urinary proteins by high-performance liquid chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed many similarities in profiles among preparation methods and a few profiles were different between normal and lung cancer patients. In contrast, the results of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) showed more distinctly different protein patterns. Our finding showed that the sequential preparation of urinary proteins by gel filtration and ultrafiltration could retain most urinary proteins which demonstrated the highest protein spots on 2-D gels and able to identify preliminary urinary protein markers related to cancer. Although sequential preparation of urine samples by gel filtration and protein precipitation resulted in low amounts of proteins on 2-D gels, high Mr proteins were easily detected. Therefore, there are alternative choices for urine sample preparation for studying the urinary proteome and identifying urinary protein markers important for further preclinical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:15693063

  4. Cyp2c44 epoxygenase is essential for preventing the renal sodium absorption during increasing dietary potassium intake.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Antoun, Joseph; Lin, Dao-Hong; Yue, Peng; Gotlinger, Katherine H; Capdevila, Jorge; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study is to test whether the Cyp2c44 epoxygenase-dependent metabolism of arachidonic acid prevents the hypertensive effect of a high K (HK) intake by inhibiting the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity. A HK intake elevated Cyp2c44 mRNA expression and 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid levels in the cortical collecting duct in Cyp2c44(+/+) mice (wild-type [wt]). However, an HK intake failed to increase 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid formation in the cortical collecting ducts of Cyp2c44(-/-) mice. Moreover, increasing K intake enhanced arachidonic acid-induced inhibition of ENaC in the wt but not in Cyp2c44(-/-) mice. In contrast, 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, a Cyp2c44 metabolite, inhibited ENaC in the wt and Cyp2c44(-/-) mice. The notion that Cyp2c44 is the epoxygenase responsible for mediating the inhibitory effects of arachidonic acid on ENaC is further suggested by the observation that inhibiting Cyp-epoxygenase increased the whole-cell Na currents in principal cells of wt but not in Cyp2c44(-/-) mice. Feeding mice with an HK diet raised the systemic blood pressures of Cyp2c44(-/-) mice but was without an effect on wt mice. Moreover, application of amiloride abolished the HK-induced hypertension in Cyp2c44(-/-) mice. The HK-induced hypertension of Cyp2c44(-/-) mice was accompanied by decreasing 24-hour urinary Na excretion and increasing the plasma Na concentration, and the effects were absent in wt mice. In contrast, disruption of the Cyp2c44 gene did not alter K excretion. We conclude that Cyp2c44 epoxygenase mediates the inhibitory effect of arachidonic acid on ENaC and that Cyp2c44 functions as an HK-inducible antihypertensive enzyme responsible for inhibiting ENaC activity and Na absorption in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron.

  5. Incidence of urinary tract infection in patients without bacteriuria undergoing SWL: comparison of stone types.

    PubMed

    Dinçel, C; Ozdiler, E; Ozenci, H; Tazici, N; Koşar, A

    1998-02-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) currently is accepted as the preferred treatment for most renal and upper ureteral calculi. However, little is known about the infection risks of SWL. In this study, the incidence and severity of urinary tract infection in 117 patients with renal calculi undergoing SWL were evaluated and the stone characteristics of those with and without infection were compared. The patients were followed clinically and bacteriologically 1 and 14 days after the procedure. Bacteriuria was noted in six patients within 24 hours after SWL. No bacteriuria was noted 2 weeks later. Of these patients, three were symptomatic (including dysuria, burning, and fever >38 degrees C). No patient was hospitalized. We found no significant correlation between the occurrence of bacteriuria and the number or size of the stones (P > 0.05), nor was there any correlation between bacteriuria and the stone-free rate or the location of the calculi (P > 0.05). However, there was a significantly higher risk of urinary tract infection in patients with struvite stones than in those with other types of stones (17.3% v 2.1%). In patients with infection stones, prophylactic antimicrobial chemotherapy is necessary even if bacteriuria is not present before SWL.

  6. Dapagliflozin twice daily or once daily: effect on pharmacokinetics and urinary glucose excretion in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Tang, W; Reele, S; Hamer-Maansson, J E; Parikh, S; de Bruin, T W A

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this single-centre, open-label crossover study (NCT01072578) was to assess the effect of dapagliflozin on the amount of glucose in the blood and urine in healthy volunteers when dapagliflozin was administered once a day (10 mg) versus twice a day (5 mg every 12 h) after 5 days of dosing. At steady state, the AUC(ss)₀₋₂₄ (area under the dapagliflozin curve (0-24 hours) at steady state), C(ss,av) (average concentration at steady state) between dapagliflozin 5 mg twice daily and 10 mg once daily were similar AUC(ss)₀₋₂₄ [5 mg bid, (458.0 (28.7)) and 10 mg qd, (470.0 (28.5))] and C(ss,av) [5 mg bid 18.8 (28.9)) and 10 mg qd, (19.6(28.5))], but minimum and maximum plasma levels of dapagliflozin differed significantly. Percent inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption (%IRGRA) and total urinary glucose excretion over 24 h were similar for both doses. The relationship between the mean dapagliflozin concentration and %IRGRA and the total urinary glucose excreted was well described by a maximum effect model. The results indicate that dapagliflozin may be used for either once daily or twice daily administration.

  7. Decrease of plasma and urinary oxidative metabolites of acetaminophen after consumption of watercress by human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Mohr, S N; Yang, C S

    1996-12-01

    To investigate the effect of the consumption of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), a cruciferous vegetable, on acetaminophen metabolism, the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen and its metabolites were studied in a crossover trial of human volunteers. A single oral dose of acetaminophen (1 gm) was given 10 hours after ingestion of watercress homogenates (50 gm). In comparison with acetaminophen only, the ingestion of watercress resulted in a significant reduction in the area under the plasma cysteine acetaminophen (Cys-acetaminophen) concentration-time curve and in the peak plasma Cys-acetaminophen concentration by 28% +/- 3% and by 21% +/- 4% (mean +/- SE; n = 7; p < 0.005), respectively. Correspondingly, the Cys-acetaminophen formation rate constant and Cys-acetaminophen formation fraction were decreased by 55% +/- 9% and 52% +/- 7% (p < 0.01), respectively. Consistent with the results obtained from the plasma, the total urinary excretion of Cys-acetaminophen in 24 hours was also reduced. A decrease of mercapturate acetaminophen, a Cys-acetaminophen metabolite, was also shown in the plasma and urine samples. However, the plasma pharmacokinetic processes and the urinary excretions of acetaminophen, acetaminophen glucuronide, and acetaminophen sulfate were not altered significantly by the watercress treatment. These results suggest that the consumption of watercress causes a decrease in the levels of oxidative metabolites of acetaminophen, probably due to inhibition of oxidative metabolism of this drug.

  8. Cystine urinary lithiasis in Thailand: a report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Chaimuangraj, Suchart; Jamavan, Kamolkant; Mokkhavesa, Chintana; Timvipak, Chuchart; Junvimalaung, Narumon; Stitchantrakul, Wasana; Kochakarn, Wachira; Gojaseni, Phaitun

    2003-06-01

    Cystine urinary stone is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease, frequently recurring and resisting fragmentation by Shockwave lithotripsy. As cases have never been reported before in Thailand, five cases of renal cystine stones at Ramathibodi Hospital were reported. Two were in the same family. In all cases the stones were removed by open surgery or percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Postoperatively, all the stones were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy for cystine. In two cases, cystine stones were also identified by scanning electron microscopy. Urine was analyzed for cystine by sodium cyanide-nitroprusside test, its concentration by spectrophotometry and cystine crystals were identified by the new crystal induction technique under light microscopy. By high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) test, urinary dibasic amino acids (ornithine, lysine, arginine) in these cases were also found to be significantly elevated. Clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cystine stones are reviewed.

  9. Elemental analysis of urinary calculi by laser induced plasma spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiao; Ahmad, S Rafi; Mayo, Mike; Iqbal, Syed

    2005-12-01

    Laser induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS) has been applied to analyse and identify elemental constituents of urinary calculi. Measurements on seven different urinary stone samples were conducted and the concentrations of some key elemental species were estimated. The elements detected with the present system were: Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Samarium, Potassium and Lead. Absolute concentrations of the species were derived from pre-calibration of the system for each element. Their concentrations were found to be widely different in different samples. It was observed that the samples containing a significant amount of lead have large proportion of calcium. It has been established that LIPS would allow real time clinic measurements of elemental contents and the concentrations in the biomaterials without sample preparation. The technique has the potential for routine clinic applications in urological disorder diagnosis.

  10. Urinary Mineral Concentrations in European Pre-Adolescent Children and Their Association with Calcaneal Bone Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements †

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bussche, Karen; Herrmann, Diana; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kourides, Yiannis A.; Lauria, Fabio; Marild, Staffan; Molnár, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A.; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Sioen, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates differences and associations between urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal bone measures assessed by quantitative ultrasonography (QUS) in 4322 children (3.1–11.9 years, 50.6% boys) from seven European countries. Urinary mineral concentrations and calcaneal QUS parameters differed significantly across countries. Clustering revealed a lower stiffness index (SI) in children with low and medium urinary mineral concentrations, and a higher SI in children with high urinary mineral concentrations. Urinary sodium (uNa) was positively correlated with urinary calcium (uCa), and was positively associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation and SI after adjustment for age, sex and fat-free mass. Urinary potassium (uK) was negatively correlated with uCa but positively associated with speed of sound after adjustment. No association was found between uCa and QUS parameters after adjustment, but when additionally adjusting for uNa, uCa was negatively associated with SI. Our findings suggest that urinary mineral concentrations are associated with calcaneal QUS parameters and may therefore implicate bone properties. These findings should be confirmed in longitudinal studies that include the food intake and repeated measurement of urinary mineral concentrations to better estimate usual intake and minimize bias. PMID:27164120

  11. Personal care product use and urinary phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations during pregnancy among women from a fertility clinic

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joe M.; Just, Allan C.; Williams, Paige L.; Smith, Kristen W.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Parabens and phthalates are potential endocrine disruptors frequently used in personal care/beauty products, and the developing fetus may be sensitive to these chemicals. We measured urinary butyl-paraben (BP), methyl-paraben (MP), propyl-paraben (PP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations up to three times in 177 pregnant women from a fertility clinic in Boston MA. Using linear mixed models, we examined the relationship between self-reported personal care product use in the previous 24 hours and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. Lotion, cosmetic, and cologne/perfume use were associated with the greatest increases in the molar sum of phthalate metabolite and paraben concentrations, although the magnitude of individual biomarker increases varied by product used. For example, women who used lotion had BP concentrations 111% higher (95% confidence interval [CI]:41%, 216%) than non-users, while their MBP concentrations were only 28% higher (CI:2%, 62%). Women using/cologne/perfume had MEP concentrations 167% (CI:98%, 261%) higher than non-users, but BP concentrations were similar. We observed a monotonic dose-response relationship between the total number of products used and urinary paraben and phthalate metabolite concentrations. These results suggest that questionnaire data may be useful for assessing exposure to a mixture of chemicals from personal care products during pregnancy. PMID:24149971

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... more serious infection that reaches the kidneys. continue Bacteria Are to Blame UTIs are usually caused by ... as soon as possible. previous continue Battling the Bacteria Only your health care provider can treat urinary ...

  13. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you laugh, cough, sneeze, lift ... these and are still having problems with urine leakage, surgery may be your best option.

  14. A randomized trial of dietary sodium restriction in CKD.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Emma J; Bauer, Judith D; Hawley, Carmel M; Isbel, Nicole M; Stowasser, Michael; Johnson, David W; Campbell, Katrina L

    2013-12-01

    There is a paucity of quality evidence regarding the effects of sodium restriction in patients with CKD, particularly in patients with pre-end stage CKD, where controlling modifiable risk factors may be especially important for delaying CKD progression and cardiovascular events. We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized crossover trial assessing the effects of high versus low sodium intake on ambulatory BP, 24-hour protein and albumin excretion, fluid status (body composition monitor), renin and aldosterone levels, and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) in 20 adult patients with hypertensive stage 3-4 CKD as phase 1 of the LowSALT CKD study. Overall, salt restriction resulted in statistically significant and clinically important reductions in BP (mean reduction of systolic/diastolic BP, 10/4 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 5 to 15 /1 to 6 mm Hg), extracellular fluid volume, albuminuria, and proteinuria in patients with moderate-to-severe CKD. The magnitude of change was more pronounced than the magnitude reported in patients without CKD, suggesting that patients with CKD are particularly salt sensitive. Although studies with longer intervention times and larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these benefits, this study indicates that sodium restriction should be emphasized in the management of patients with CKD as a means to reduce cardiovascular risk and risk for CKD progression.

  15. Argus T® versus Advance® Sling for postprostatectomy urinary incontinence: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Lima, João Paulo Cunha; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima; Bezerra, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To compare the results of two slings, Argus T® and Advance®, for the treatment of postprostatectomy urinary incontinence (PPUI). Material and Methods: From December 2010 to December 2011, 22 patients with PPUI were randomized as follows: 11 (mean age 62.09(±5.30)) underwent treatment with Advance® and 11 (mean age 62.55(±8.54)) with Argus T®. All patients were evaluated preoperatively with urodynamic testing, quality of life questionnaire (ICIQ-SF), voiding diary and 24-hour pad test. Exclusion criteria were: neurological diseases, severe detrusor overactivity and urethral stenosis. Evaluation was performed at 6, 12 and 18 months after the surgery. After implantation of the Argus T® sling, patients who experienced urine leakage equal to or greater than the initial volume underwent adjustment of the sling tension. Results were statistically analyzed using the Fisher’s test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Friedman’s non-parametric test or the Mann-Whitney test. Results Significant improvement of the 24-hour pad test was observed with the Argus T® sling (p=0.038) , With regard to the other parameters, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Removal of the Argus T® device due to perineal pain was performed in one patient (9%). Despite non uniform results, both devices were considered useful to improve quality of life (ICIQ-SF): Argus T® (p=0.018) and Advance® (p=0.017). Conclusions Better results were observed in the 24h pad test and in levels of satisfaction with the Argus T® device. Both slings contributed to improve quality of life (ICIQ-SF), with acceptable side effects. PMID:27286117

  16. Danaparoid sodium.

    PubMed

    Acostamadiedo, J M; Iyer, U G; Owen, J

    2000-05-01

    Danaparoid sodium (Orgaran, Organon) is a heparinoid glycosamino-glycuronan antithrombotic agent approved for the prophylaxis of post-operative deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients undergoing elective hip replacement surgery. Danaparoid is a low molecular weight heparinoid consisting of a mixture of heparan sulphate (84%), dermatan sulphate (12%) and small amounts of chondroitin sulphate (4%), whose antithrombotic activity has been well established. Its pharmacological effect is exerted primarily by inhibiting Factors Xa (FXa) and IIa (FIIa) at a ratio greater than heparin, with a minimal effect on platelet function. Danaparoid exhibits low cross-reactivity with heparin-induced antibodies when compared with heparin or low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), thereby making it an excellent choice for the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). It has excellent bioavailability following s.c. injection. Danaparoid has little effect on routine coagulation tests (activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], prothrombin time [PT], and thrombin time [TT]). Patients with elevated serum creatinine should be monitored carefully. For its FDA approved indication (DVT prophylaxis during hip replacement surgery), its cost per day is approximately eight times more than LMWH. Even though monitoring is not routinely necessary according to the manufacturer for its approved indication, monitoring is frequently necessary when it is used in other clinical scenarios. Its higher cost than comparable therapies for DVT prophylaxis and the low availability of the FXa assay in most non-tertiary care hospitals has limited the widespread use of danaparoid. Danaparoid has been found to be effective in the treatment of HIT although this is an off label use, despite being the most frequent reason why danaparoid is used. PMID:11249517

  17. Relationship between urinary and serum growth hormone and pubertal status.

    PubMed Central

    Crowne, E C; Wallace, W H; Shalet, S M; Addison, G M; Price, D A

    1992-01-01

    Urinary growth hormone (uGH) excretion and serum growth hormone concentrations have been compared in three groups of children. Group 1 consisted of 21 children who had had cranial irradiation as part of their treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; group 2, 18 normal children; and group 3, 12 boys with constitutional delay in growth and puberty who were in early puberty. Children in groups 1 and 2 each had a 24 hour serum growth hormone profile (sampling every 20 minutes) and concurrent urine collection. The 12 boys in group 3 had a total of 21 profiles (sampling every 15 minutes for 12 hours) and concurrent urine collections. In the prepubertal children (n = 17), in both groups 1 and 2, there was a significant correlation between mean serum growth hormone and total uGHng/g creatinine. There were also significant correlations between total uGHng/g creatinine and both peak serum growth hormone and mean amplitude of the pulses in the growth hormone profile. In the pubertal children (n = 22), in groups 1 and 2, whether combined or in separate groups, there was no significant correlation between total uGHng/g creatinine and mean serum growth hormone, peak serum growth hormone, or mean amplitude of the pulses in the growth hormone profile. In group 3 there were significant correlations between total uGHng/g creatinine and both the mean serum growth hormone and mean amplitude of the pulses in the profile. Therefore uGH estimations appear to correlate well with serum growth hormone profiles in children who are prepubertal or in early puberty, but not in those further advanced in pubertal development. These results may reflect a variation in the renal handling of growth hormone during pubertal development. uGH estimation may be an unreliable screening investigation for growth hormone sufficiency in mid to late puberty. PMID:1739346

  18. Urinary soluble urokinase receptor levels are elevated and pathogenic in patients with primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease. Recent studies have proposed that plasma soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) might be a causative circulating factor but this proposal has caused controversy. This study aimed to measure urinary suPAR levels in patients with primary FSGS and its significance in the pathogenesis of FSGS. Methods Sixty-two patients with primary FSGS, diagnosed between January 2006 and January 2012, with complete clinical and pathologic data were enrolled, together with disease and normal controls. Urinary suPAR levels were measured using commercial ELISA kits and were corrected by urinary creatinine (Cr). The associations between urinary suPAR levels and clinical data at presentation and during follow up were analyzed. Conditionally immortalized human podocytes were used to study the effect of urinary suPAR on activating β3 integrin detected by AP5 staining. Results The urinary suPAR level of patients with primary FSGS (500.56, IQR 262.78 to 1,059.44 pg/μmol Cr) was significantly higher than that of patients with minimal change disease (307.86, IQR 216.54 to 480.18 pg/μmol Cr, P = 0.033), membranous nephropathy (250.23, IQR 170.37 to 357.59 pg/μmol Cr, P <0.001), secondary FSGS (220.45, IQR 149.38 to 335.54 pg/μmol Cr, P <0.001) and normal subjects (183.59, IQR 103.92 to 228.78 pg/μmol Cr, P <0.001). The urinary suPAR level of patients with cellular variant was significantly higher than that of patients with tip variant. The urinary suPAR level in the patients with primary FSGS was positively correlated with 24-hour urine protein (r = 0.287, P = 0.024). During follow up, the urinary suPAR level of patients with complete remission decreased significantly (661.19, IQR 224.32 to 1,115.29 pg/μmol Cr versus 217.68, IQR 121.77 to 415.55 pg/μmol Cr, P = 0.017). The AP5 signal was strongly induced along the cell membrane when human differentiated podocytes were incubated

  19. Urinary fluoride excretion in children aged 3 to 5 years exposed to fluoridated salt at 60 to 90 mgF/Kg in two Venezuelan cities. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Ana M; Febres-Cordero, Carolina; Feldman, Sonia; Arasme, Marlene A; Pedauga, Daniel F; González, Henry; Rojas-Sánchez, Fátima

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to obtain information on the total urinary fluoride concentration and excretion of Venezuelan children at the age of 3 to 5 years, as part of a program to monitor fluoride ingestion. A 24 hour urine sample was collected from each of 63 children, between 3 and 5 years of age and analyzed for (i) total urinary volume (ml), (ii) urinary flow rate (ml/h), (iii) fluoride concentration (ppm) and (iv)fluoride excretion rate (microg/h). The group comprised 32 boys and 31 girls who resided in two different communities, 32 in Caracas, DC and 31 in San Juan de los Morros, Guarico state. Fluoride analyses were done with an ion-specific electrode. Age and gender did not affect total urine volume, urinary flow rate, or urinary fluoride concentration and excretion rate. The children from San Juan de los Morros had a significantly higher total urinary volume (426.45 +/- 36.31 ml) and flow rate (17.09 +/- 1.57ml/h) than children from Caracas (297.06 +/- 23.59 ml and 12.40 +/- 0.98, respectively) (p=0.0039). Significant differences were also observed when the urinary fluoride excretion rate of the two communities was compared. Mean urinary fluoride concentrations did not differ significantly (p < 0.05) between the two communities. These values were 0.67 +/- 0.40, 0.57 +/- 0.34, 0.76 +/- 0.27 ppmF in the 3, 4 and 5 year-old children of Caracas and 0.69 +/- 0.33, 0.65 +/- 0.20, 0.63 +/- 0.36 mgF in San Juan de los Morros children. The results showed low urinary fluoride concentration and excretion, indicating that children residing in the evaluated communities are receiving fluoride below the recommended optimal range.

  20. The neuronal channel NALCN contributes resting sodium permeability and is required for normal respiratory rhythm.

    PubMed

    Lu, Boxun; Su, Yanhua; Das, Sudipto; Liu, Jin; Xia, Jingsheng; Ren, Dejian

    2007-04-20

    Sodium plays a key role in determining the basal excitability of the nervous systems through the resting "leak" Na(+) permeabilities, but the molecular identities of the TTX- and Cs(+)-resistant Na(+) leak conductance are totally unknown. Here we show that this conductance is formed by the protein NALCN, a substantially uncharacterized member of the sodium/calcium channel family. Unlike any of the other 20 family members, NALCN forms a voltage-independent, nonselective cation channel. NALCN mutant mice have a severely disrupted respiratory rhythm and die within 24 hours of birth. Brain stem-spinal cord recordings reveal reduced neuronal firing. The TTX- and Cs(+)-resistant background Na(+) leak current is absent in the mutant hippocampal neurons. The resting membrane potentials of the mutant neurons are relatively insensitive to changes in extracellular Na(+) concentration. Thus, NALCN, a nonselective cation channel, forms the background Na(+) leak conductance and controls neuronal excitability. PMID:17448995

  1. Nedocromil sodium (Tilade).

    PubMed

    Bartels, L A; Farrington, E

    1994-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium is a well-tolerated antiasthmatic agent for initial therapy in patients with mild or moderate asthma not well controlled with inhaled beta-2 agonists and/or where methylxanthines are indicated. Like cromolyn sodium, nedocromil sodium offers a potential alternative to inhaled corticosteroids as maintenance therapy in patients with mild or moderate asthma not adequately controlled by bronchodilators. Furthermore, cromolyn sodium and nedocromil sodium may also reduce the usage of corticosteroids and provide some additional symptom control in patients whose asthma is not suitably controlled by optimal doses of inhaled corticosteroids. Both nedocromil sodium and cromolyn sodium are more efficacious than placebo for controlling of asthma, however, few studies have compared the effectiveness of cromolyn versus nedocromil at this time. Further experience and comparison studies of nedocromil sodium with cromolyn sodium in children are required before the role of nedocromil sodium as maintenance treatment in young asthmatic patients can be defined.

  2. Effect of octreotide acetate on the plasma concentration and urinary excretion of uridine and purine bases.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Moriwaki, Yuji; Takahashi, Sumio; Tsutsumi, Zenta; Ka, Tsuneyoshi; Hada, Toshikazu

    2002-04-01

    To determine the effect of octreotide acetate on urinary excretion of uric acid and plasma concentration of uridine, we subcutaneously administered octreotide acetate (1 microg/kg of body weight) to 5 healthy subjects. Ninety minutes after administration, octreotide acetate increased the plasma concentration of uridine by 15% and decreased the plasma concentration of glucagon by 24% and that of insulin to below the detection limits. In addition, octreotide acetate decreased the urinary excretion of uric acid, sodium, and chloride by 60%, 40%, and 38%, respectively, at 1 hour after administration. However, octreotide acetate did not affect the concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid, cyclic AMP in plasma, lactic acid and pyruvic acid in blood, urinary excretion of hypoxanthine and xanthine, or creatinine clearance. From these results, we speculated that octreotide acetate decreases the urinary excretion of uric acid by decreasing the concentration of glucagon and/or urinary excretion of sodium, and increases the plasma concentration of uridine via decreased concentrations of glucagon and insulin.

  3. Health information and interaction on the internet: a survey of female urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Hogne

    1999-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the internet as a source of information about urinary incontinence and to explore interactive facilities. Design Limited survey of internet resources. Subjects 75 websites providing information about incontinence and an opportunity for interactivity, 25 web doctors, and two news groups. Main outcome measures Quality scores according to predefined general and specific criteria. Internet popularity indexes according to number of links to websites. Correlation between quality scores and popularity indexes. Results Few sites provided comprehensive information, but the information actually provided was mostly correct. Internet popularity indexes did not correlate with quality scores. The most informative site was easily found with general internet search engines but was not found in any of the medical index sites investigated. Sixty six per cent of sites responded to an email request for advice from a fictitious incontinent woman, half of them within 24 hours. Twelve responders provided vital information that the woman might suffer from drug induced incontinence. Conclusions Excellent information about urinary incontinence was found on the internet, but the number of links to a site did not reflect quality of content. Patients may get valuable advice and comfort from using interactive services. Key messages The internet has become a major source for health information, but its usefulness is largely unknown In this study a fictitious story of an incontinent woman was used to evaluate the internet as a source of information about urinary incontinence and to explore interactive facilities Excellent information could be found on the web The number of links to a site was not an indication of the quality of its contents, and medical index sites had no record of the best quality site that was found by general search engines Useful medical advice was rapidly obtained through interactive services (email, news) PMID:10390457

  4. Increased urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in engine room personnel exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R; Moen, B; Ovrebo, S; Bleie, K; Skorve, A; Hollund, B; Tagesson, C

    2004-01-01

    Background: Previous investigations indicate that engine room personnel on ships are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from oil and oil products, with dermal uptake as the major route of exposure. Several PAH are known carcinogens and mutagens. Aims: To investigate the urinary excretion of a marker for oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxy-guanosine (8OHdG), in engine room personnel, and to study the association between 8OHdG and 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP), a biological marker for PAH exposure. Methods: Urine samples were collected from engine room personnel (n = 36) on 10 Swedish and Norwegian ships and from unexposed controls (n = 34) with similar age and smoking habits. The exposure to oils, engine exhaust, and tobacco smoke 24 hours prior to sampling was estimated from questionnaires. The urinary samples were frozen for later analyses of 8OHdG and 1OHP by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Excretion in urine of 8OHdG (adjusted to density 1.022) was similar for controls (mean 18.0 nmol/l, n = 33), and for those who had been in the engine room without skin contact with oils (mean 18.7 nmol/l, n = 15). Engine room personnel who reported skin contact with oil had increased excretion of 8OHdG (mean 23.2 nmol/l, n = 19). The difference between this group and the unexposed controls was significant. The urinary levels of ln 1OHP and ln 8OHdG were significantly correlated, and the association was still highly significant when the effects of smoking and age were accounted for in a multiple regression analysis. Conclusion: Results indicate that exposure to PAH or possibly other compounds from skin contact with oils in engine rooms may cause oxidative DNA damage. PMID:15258276

  5. Postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: intraperitoneal sodium bicarbonate versus normal saline

    PubMed Central

    Saadati, Karim; Razavi, Mohammad Reza; Nazemi Salman, Daryoush; Izadi, Shahrzad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate irrigation versus normal saline irrigation in patients undergoing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Background: Pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most common complaint, especially in the abdomen, back, and shoulder region. Patients and methods: In a double blind randomized clinical trial, 150 patients were assigned to the three groups (50 patients in each group). Group A received intraperitoneal irrigation normal saline (NS). Groups B and C received irrigation sodium bicarbonate and none irrigation, respectively. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) for 6, 18 and 24 hours postoperatively, as well as one week after the surgery. Data analysis was performed using SPSS ver18 and chi-square, Fisher’s Exact Test, on-way ANOVA and repeated measure ANOVA tests. Results: Patients in groups showed no significant difference in terms of age, gender, past medical history and smoking history (p>0.05). Left shoulder tip pain was significantly lower only between the sodium bicarbonate group and non-washing group at 6, 18, and 24 hours postoperatively (P=0.04, P=0.02 and P=0.009 respectively). There was no significant difference between the three treatment groups in right shoulder tip pain, back pain and port site incisional pain. Conclusion: In laparoscopic cholecystectomy, peritoneal irrigation with sodium bicarbonate may reduce the intensity of postoperative shoulder tip pain and is an effective method for improving the quality of life within the early recovery period. PMID:27458511

  6. [URINARY DISCOMFORTS IN PATIENTS AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY].

    PubMed

    Al'-Shukri, S Kh; Ananiĭ, I A; Amdiĭ, R E; Kuz'min, I V

    2015-01-01

    The authors showed the result of complication treatment of lower urinary tracts in 128 patients with localized prostate cancer. The patients underwent radical prostatectomy. Urinary discomforts included enuresis, urinary incontinence in postoperative period. Abnormalities of urine outflow due to urethral stricture were revealed in 6 (4,6%) patients by the 6 month after operation. These complications required surgical treatment. Urinary incontinence was noted in 20 (15,6%) patients in this period. It was stressful urinary incontinence in 16 (12,6%) and urgent - in 4 (3%). Patents with stressful urinary difficulty were advised to use the conservative treatment (pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation), but in case of inefficiency - surgical treatment.

  7. Urinary Vitamin D Binding Protein and KIM-1 Are Potent New Biomarkers of Major Adverse Renal Events in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Chaykovska, Lyubov; Heunisch, Fabian; von Einem, Gina; Alter, Markus L.; Hocher, Carl-Friedrich; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Dschietzig, Thomas; Kretschmer, Axel; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin-D-binding protein (VDBP) is a low molecular weight protein that is filtered through the glomerulus as a 25-(OH) vitamin D 3/VDBP complex. In the normal kidney VDBP is reabsorbed and catabolized by proximal tubule epithelial cells reducing the urinary excretion to trace amounts. Acute tubular injury is expected to result in urinary VDBP loss. The purpose of our study was to explore the potential role of urinary VDBP as a biomarker of an acute renal damage. Method We included 314 patients with diabetes mellitus or mild renal impairment undergoing coronary angiography and collected blood and urine before and 24 hours after the CM application. Patients were followed for 90 days for the composite endpoint major adverse renal events (MARE: need for dialysis, doubling of serum creatinine after 90 days, unplanned emergency rehospitalization or death). Results Increased urine VDBP concentration 24 hours after contrast media exposure was predictive for dialysis need (no dialysis: 113.06 ± 299.61ng/ml, n = 303; need for dialysis: 613.07 ± 700.45 ng/ml, n = 11, Mean ± SD, p<0.001), death (no death during follow-up: 121.41 ± 324.45 ng/ml, n = 306; death during follow-up: 522.01 ± 521.86 ng/ml, n = 8; Mean ± SD, p<0.003) and MARE (no MARE: 112.08 ± 302.00ng/ml, n = 298; MARE: 506.16 ± 624.61 ng/ml, n = 16, Mean ± SD, p<0.001) during the follow-up of 90 days after contrast media exposure. Correction of urine VDBP concentrations for creatinine excretion confirmed its predictive value and was consistent with increased levels of urinary Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) and baseline plasma creatinine in patients with above mentioned complications. The impact of urinary VDBP and KIM-1 on MARE was independent of known CIN risk factors such as anemia, preexisting renal failure, preexisting heart failure, and diabetes. Conclusions Urinary VDBP is a promising novel biomarker of major contrast induced nephropathy-associated events 90 days after contrast media

  8. Urinary Biomarkers of Oxidative Status

    PubMed Central

    Il’yasova, Dora; Scarbrough, Peter; Spasojevic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the etiology and pathology of many health conditions, including a large number of chronic diseases. Urinary biomarkers of oxidative status present a great opportunity to study redox balance in human populations. With urinary biomarkers, specimen collection is non-invasive and the organic/metal content is low, which minimizes the artifactual formation of oxidative damage to molecules in specimens. Also, urinary levels of the biomarkers present intergraded indices of redox balance over a longer period of time compared to blood levels. This review summarizes the criteria for evaluation of biomarkers applicable to epidemiological studies and evaluation of several classes of biomarkers that are formed non-enzymatically: oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, DNA, and allantoin, an oxidative product of uric acid. The review considers formation, metabolism, and exertion of each biomarker, available data on validation in animal and clinical models of oxidative stress, analytical approaches, and their intra- and inter-individual variation. The recommended biomarkers for monitoring oxidative status over time are F2-isoprostanes and 8-oxodG. For inter-individual comparisons, F2-isoprostanes are recommended, whereas urinary 8-oxodG levels may be confounded by differences in the DNA repair capacity. Promising urinary biomarkers include allantoin, acrolein-lysine, and dityrosine. PMID:22683781

  9. Urothelial Bladder Cancer Urinary Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Noon, Aidan P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Urothelial bladder cancer is the fourth most prevalent male malignancy in the United States and also one of the ten most lethal. Superficial or non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer has a high rate of recurrence and can progress to muscle invasive disease. Conventional surveillance requires regular cystoscopy and is used often with urinary cytology. Unfortunately, the cystoscopy procedure is invasive for patients and costly for health care providers. Urinary biomarkers have the potential to improve bladder cancer diagnosis, the efficiency and also the cost-effectiveness of follow up. It may also be possible for urinary biomarkers to help prognosticate particularly for patients with high-grade bladder cancer who may want enhanced assessment of their risk of disease progression. In this review the important historical urinary biomarkers and the newly emerging biomarkers are discussed. As will be presented, although many of the tests have good performance characteristics, unfortunately no single test can fulfill all the roles currently provided by cystoscopy and cytology. It is likely that in the future, urinary biomarker testing will be used selectively in a personalized manner to try and improve prognostication or reduce the necessity for invasive cystoscopy in patients understanding the limits of the test.

  10. [Infection-induced urinary stones].

    PubMed

    Bichler, K-H; Eipper, E; Naber, K

    2003-01-01

    Infection stones make up approximately 15% of urinary stone diseases and are thus an important group. These stones are composed of struvite and/or carbonate apatite. The basic precondition for the formation of infection stones is a urease-positive urinary tract infection. Urease is necessary to split urea into ammonia and CO(2). As a result, ammonia ions can form and at the same time alkaline urine develops, both being preconditions for the formation of struvite and carbonate apatite crystals. When these crystals are deposited infection stones form. Pathogenetically, various risk factors play a role: urinary obstruction, neurogenic bladder, dRTA, and MSK. If these infections are not treated and the stones are not removed, the kidney will be damaged. Modern methods are available for stone removal, e.g., ESWL and/or instrumental urinary stone removal. Here, especially less invasive methods are preferable. Any treatment must be adjusted to the patient individually. Patients should be examined frequently for recurrent urinary tract infections and stone recurrences, and new infections must be resolutely treated. Good therapy and prophylaxis are possible with present-day treatment modalities. PMID:12574884

  11. Drug-Induced Urinary Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Matlaga, Brian R; Shah, Ojas D; Assimos, Dean G

    2003-01-01

    Urinary calculi may be induced by a number of medications used to treat a variety of conditions. These medications may lead to metabolic abnormalities that facilitate the formation of stones. Drugs that induce metabolic calculi include loop diuretics; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; and laxatives, when abused. Correcting the metabolic abnormality may eliminate or dramatically attenuate stone activity. Urinary calculi can also be induced by medications when the drugs crystallize and become the primary component of the stones. In this case, urinary supersaturation of the agent may promote formation of the calculi. Drugs that induce calculi via this process include magnesium trisilicate; ciprofloxacin; sulfa medications; triamterene; indinavir; and ephedrine, alone or in combination with guaifenesin. When this situation occurs, discontinuation of the medication is usually necessary. PMID:16985842

  12. Effective management of urinary discomfort.

    PubMed

    Hassay, K A

    1995-02-01

    Urinary discomfort is the second most common physical complaint affecting women. Although urinary discomfort is commonly a result of inflammation due to bacterial invasion, there are also nonbacterial causes. The development of antimicrobial resistance to bacteria is frequent and costs the patient and the medical community unnecessary time and money. Antimicrobial intervention should be instituted only after the uropathogen is identified through a urine culture. While awaiting the results of the urine culture or other laboratory or radiological tests, the patient's symptoms can be relieved with the use of urinary analgesics or antispasmodics. This conservative approach meets the immediate concern of the patient and better ensures a proper diagnostic workup and successful cure. Along with a conservative diagnostic approach, the patient should be included in all aspects of health care management.

  13. Urinary catheters - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... 303:2172-2181. Payne CK. Conservative management of urinary incontinence: behavioral and pelvic floor therapy, urethral and pelvic ... review: randomized, controlled trials of nonsurgical treatments for urinary incontinence in women. Ann Intern Med . 2008;148:459- ...

  14. Urinary markers for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Zachary L.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer has the fifth highest incidence of all malignancies in the United States, with a propensity to recur, requiring lifelong surveillance after diagnosis. Urinary markers of disease have been of extreme interest in this field in an effort to simplify surveillance schedules and improve early detection of tumors. Many markers have been described, but most remain investigational. However, some markers have undergone clinical trials and are approved for clinical use. In this review, urinary markers and their application for screening and surveillance of bladder cancer are discussed. PMID:23864929

  15. Effect of two sports drinks on urinary lithogenicity.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jeffrey W; Asplin, John R; Goldfarb, David S

    2009-02-01

    The effect of commercial oral rehydration solutions ("sports drinks") relative to water on risk of nephrolithiasis has not been studied previously. We studied the effect of two sports drinks, Performance (Shaklee Corp., Pleasanton, CA, USA) and Gatorade (Gatorade, Chicago, IL, USA) on urinary chemistry and measures of lithogenicity in non-stone formers. Performance has a pH of 4.3, and contains 21 mmol/L of sodium, 5.3 mmol/L of potassium, 0.8 mmol/L of calcium, and 19.5 mmol/L of citrate. Gatorade pH ranges from 2.9 to 3.2, and contains 20 mmol/L of sodium, 3.2 mmol/L of potassium, negligible calcium, and 13.9 mmol/L of citrate. Subjects drank 946 ml (32 oz) of tap water daily for 3 days, and recorded diet history. This was followed by a second 3-day experimental period during which subjects drank 946 ml (32 oz) of sports drink daily, duplicating diets from part 1. In each 3-day period, urine was collected for 24 h during days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, and supersaturations of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and uric acid were calculated. Nine subjects completed the study using Performance, ten used Gatorade. Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not different during the control and experimental periods. Performance increased mean citrate excretion by 170 mg/day (95% CI 57-284 mg/day; P = 0.01) and increased urine pH by 0.31 (95% CI 0.03-0.59; P = 0.03). Gatorade did not significantly change urinary citrate excretion or pH. Neither drink caused significant differences in the excretion of sodium and calcium or any supersaturation value. Ingestion of Performance, but not Gatorade, led to an increase in mean urinary citrate excretion and pH as compared to water. The increase in citrate is likely to be a clinically significant effect. pH is an important determinant of alkali load in beverages containing organic anions. Performance, with more citrate and a higher pH than Gatorade, could represent a superior alternative to water for

  16. Interleukin-1 decreases renal sodium reabsorption: possible mechanism of endotoxin-induced natriuresis

    SciTech Connect

    Caverzasio, J.; Rizzoli, R.; Dayer, J.M.; Bonjour, J.P.

    1987-05-01

    Administration of pyrogen or endotoxins such as Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide can elicit a marked increase in urinary sodium excretion. This response occurs without any elevation in the filtered load of sodium and it does not appear to be prostaglandin mediated. The various effects produced by endotoxins appear to have interleukin-1 as a common mediator. In the present work, the authors have studied whether human recombinant interleukin-1..beta.. (hrIL-1) could affect the renal handling of sodium and thus, could be implicated in natriuretic response to pyrogens or endotoxins. They observed that hrIL-1 intravenously injected into conscious rats provokes a marked increase in sodium excretion. This natriuretic response was not associated with any increase in glomerular filtration rate (clearance of (/sup 3/H)inulin), nor was it accompanied by significant changes in the urinary excretion of potassium, calcium, or inorganic phosphate. The only concomitant alteration was a decrease in urinary pH. Pretreatment with indomethacin abolished the effect of hrIL-1 on urinary pH but did not modify the natriuretic response. In conclusion, hrIL-1 elicits a selective decrease in tubular sodium reabsorption, which does not appear to involve a change in prostaglandin synthesis. This observation strongly suggests that interleukin-1 could be a key mediator in endotoxin-induced natriuresis.

  17. Identifying predictors of high sodium excretion in patients with heart failure: A mixed effect analysis of longitudinal data

    PubMed Central

    Creber, Ruth Masterson; Topaz, Maxim; Lennie, Terry A.; Lee, Christopher S.; Puzantian, Houry; Riegel, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background A low-sodium diet is a core component of heart failure self-care but patients have difficulty following the diet. Aim The aim of this study was to identify predictors of higher than recommended sodium excretion among patients with heart failure. Methods The World Health Organization Five Dimensions of Adherence model was used to guide analysis of existing data collected from a prospective, longitudinal study of 280 community-dwelling adults with previously or currently symptomatic heart failure. Sodium excretion was measured objectively using 24-hour urine sodium measured at three time points over six months. A mixed effect logistic model identified predictors of higher than recommended sodium excretion. Results The adjusted odds of higher sodium excretion were 2.90, (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15–4.25, p<0.001) for patients who were obese; 2.80 (95% CI: 1.33–5.89, p=0.007) for patients with diabetes; and 2.22 (95% CI: 1.09–4.53, p=0.028) for patients who were cognitively intact. Conclusion Three factors were associated with excess sodium excretion and two factors, obesity and diabetes, are modifiable by changing dietary food patterns. PMID:24366985

  18. Does Urinary Bladder Shape Affect Urinary Flow Rate in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Ateşçi, Yusuf Ziya; Aydoğdu, Özgü; Karaköse, Ayhan; Karal, Ömer; Şentürk, Utku

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of urinary bladder shape which may potentially change with advancing age, increased waist circumference, pelvic ischemia, and loosening of the urachus on bladder emptying and UFR. We retrospectively investigated the medical records of 76 men. The patients were divided into two groups according to bladder shapes in MRI scan (cone and spheric shapes). There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of IPSS, Qmax, Qave, and waist circumference. A positive correlation has been demonstrated between mean peak urinary flow rate measured with UFM and mean flow rate calculated using the CP. There was a significant difference between mean urinary flow rates calculated with CP of cone and sphere bladder shapes. The change in the bladder shape might be a possible factor for LUTS in men and LUTS may be improved if modifiable factors including increased waist circumference and loosening of the urachus are corrected. PMID:24511301

  19. Transcorporal artificial urinary sphincter in radiated and non - radiated compromised urethra. Assessment with a minimum 2 year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Long, Erwann Le; Rebibo, John David; Nouhaud, Francois Xavier; Grise, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose to assess the efficacy of transcorporal artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) implantation on continence for male stress urinary incontinence in cases of prior surgical treatment or/and radiation failure, and as a first option in radiation patients. Materials and Methods From March 2007 to August 2012, 37 male patients were treated with transcorporal AUS AMS™ 800. Twelve patients had primary placement of transcorporal cuff, a surgical option due to a previous history of radiation and 25 patients had secondary procedure after failure of AUS or urinary incontinence surgery. Functional urinary outcomes were assessed by daily pad use, 24-hour Pad-test and ICIQ-SF questionnaire. Quality of life and satisfaction were assessed based on I-QoL and PGI-I questionnaires. Results After a median of 32 months, the continence rate (0 to 1 pad) was 69.7%. Median pad test was 17.5g (0-159), mean ICIQ-SF score was 7.3/21 (±5.4) and mean I-QoL score was 93.9/110. A total of 88% of the patients reported satisfaction with the AUS. The 5-year actuarial revision-free for AUS total device was 51%. Patients for primary implant for radiation were not more likely to experience revision than non-radiation patients. Preservation of erections was reported in half of the potent patients. Conclusions Transcorporal AUS cuff placement is a useful alternative procedure option for severe male UI treatment, especially in patients with a compromised urethra after prior surgery or radiation. A high continence rate was reported and implantation as first option in radiation patients should be considered. PMID:27286112

  20. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  1. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  2. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  3. Fractional excretion of sodium

    MedlinePlus

    FE sodium; FENa ... to a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... your normal foods with a normal amount of salt, unless otherwise instructed by your health care provider. ...

  4. The diabetic rat kidney mediates inosituria and selective urinary partitioning of D-chiro-inositol

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hao-Han; Choong, Bernard; Phillips, Anthony RJ

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus with a pressing need for effective metabolic markers to detect renal impairment. Of potential significance are the inositol compounds, myo-inositol (MI), and the less abundant stereoisomer, D-chiro-inositol (DCI), which are excreted at increased levels in the urine in diabetes mellitus, a phenomenon known as inosituria. There is also a selective urinary excretion of DCI compared to MI. As the biological origins of altered inositol metabolism in diabetes mellitus are unknown, the aim of this study was to determine whether the diabetic kidney was directly responsible. Kidneys isolated from four-week streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were characterized by a 3-fold reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared to matched non-diabetic kidneys. When perfused with fixed quantities of MI (50 µM) and DCI (5 µM) under normoglycemic conditions (5 mM glucose), GFR-normalized urinary excretion of MI was increased by 1.7-fold in diabetic vs. non-diabetic kidneys. By comparison, GFR-normalized urinary excretion of DCI was increased by 4-fold. Perfusion conditions replicating hyperglycemia (20 mM glucose) potentiated DCI but not MI urinary excretion in both non-diabetic and diabetic kidneys. Overall, there was a 2.4-fold increase in DCI urinary excretion compared to MI in diabetic kidneys that was independent of glucose ambience. This increased urinary excretion of DCI and MI in diabetic kidneys occurred despite increased renal expression of the inositol transporters, sodium myo-inositol transporter subtype 1 and 2 (SMIT1 and SMIT2). These findings show that the diabetic kidney primarily mediates inosituria and altered urinary partitioning of MI and DCI. Urinary inositol levels might therefore serve as an indicator of impaired renal function in diabetes mellitus with wider implications for monitoring chronic kidney disease. PMID:25060739

  5. The diabetic rat kidney mediates inosituria and selective urinary partitioning of D-chiro-inositol.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hao-Han; Choong, Bernard; Phillips, Anthony R J; Loomes, Kerry M

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus with a pressing need for effective metabolic markers to detect renal impairment. Of potential significance are the inositol compounds, myo-inositol (MI), and the less abundant stereoisomer, D-chiro-inositol (DCI), which are excreted at increased levels in the urine in diabetes mellitus, a phenomenon known as inosituria. There is also a selective urinary excretion of DCI compared to MI. As the biological origins of altered inositol metabolism in diabetes mellitus are unknown, the aim of this study was to determine whether the diabetic kidney was directly responsible. Kidneys isolated from four-week streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were characterized by a 3-fold reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared to matched non-diabetic kidneys. When perfused with fixed quantities of MI (50 µM) and DCI (5 µM) under normoglycemic conditions (5 mM glucose), GFR-normalized urinary excretion of MI was increased by 1.7-fold in diabetic vs. non-diabetic kidneys. By comparison, GFR-normalized urinary excretion of DCI was increased by 4-fold. Perfusion conditions replicating hyperglycemia (20 mM glucose) potentiated DCI but not MI urinary excretion in both non-diabetic and diabetic kidneys. Overall, there was a 2.4-fold increase in DCI urinary excretion compared to MI in diabetic kidneys that was independent of glucose ambience. This increased urinary excretion of DCI and MI in diabetic kidneys occurred despite increased renal expression of the inositol transporters, sodium myo-inositol transporter subtype 1 and 2 (SMIT1 and SMIT2). These findings show that the diabetic kidney primarily mediates inosituria and altered urinary partitioning of MI and DCI. Urinary inositol levels might therefore serve as an indicator of impaired renal function in diabetes mellitus with wider implications for monitoring chronic kidney disease.

  6. Effects of preoperative ibuprofen and naproxen sodium on orthodontic pain.

    PubMed

    Polat, Omur; Karaman, Ali Ihya; Durmus, Ercan

    2005-09-01

    Three experimental groups of 20 patients each, all of whom were to undergo fixed orthodontic treatment, were enrolled in this prospective study. Group 1 was given a placebo, group 2 was given 400 mg ibuprofen, and group 3 was given 550 mg naproxen sodium. All the patients received only one dose that was given one hour before archwire placement. All patients were asked to complete a questionnaire concerning the pain perceived after archwire placement. The questionnaire was in the form of a seven-page booklet that contained 100-mm horizontal Visual Analogue Scale on which the patient marked the degree of discomfort at the indicated time periods. The patients were instructed to make a check on the scale at each time interval to represent the perceived severity of pain during each of four activities, ie, chewing, biting, fitting back teeth together, and fitting front teeth together. Incidence and severity of pain were recorded by the patient at two hours, six hours, nighttime on the day of appointment, 24 hours after the appointment, and two days, three days, and seven days after bonding. The results revealed that patients taking 550 mg naproxen sodium one hour before archwire placement had significantly lower levels of pain at two hours, six hours, and nighttime after adjustment than patients taking placebo or ibuprofen. However, the use of additional postoperative doses was recommended to control orthodontic pain completely.

  7. Leptin blockade attenuates sodium excretion in saline-loaded normotensive rats.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Daniel; Reams, Garry; Freeman, Ronald; Spear, Robert; Tchoukina, Inna; Samar, Huma

    2006-02-01

    Previous investigations in normotensive animals have demonstrated a marked natriuretic and diuretic response following the acute administration of supraphysiologic doses of synthetic leptin. However, the importance of endogenous leptin in the regulation of renal sodi