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Sample records for 24-hour urine sodium

  1. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a day, such as: Creatinine Sodium Potassium Nitrogen Protein This test may also be done if ... disease Potassium urine test Sodium urine test Urea nitrogen urine test Urination - excessive amount Urine output - decreased ...

  2. Estimation of Daily Sodium and Potassium Excretion Using Spot Urine and 24-Hour Urine Samples in a Black Population (Benin).

    PubMed

    Mizéhoun-Adissoda, Carmelle; Houehanou, Corine; Chianéa, Thierry; Dalmay, François; Bigot, André; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Bovet, Pascal; Houinato, Dismand; Desport, Jean-Claude

    2016-07-01

    The 24-hour urine collection method is considered the gold standard for the estimation of ingested potassium and sodium. Because of the impracticalities of collecting all urine over a 24-hour period, spot urine is often used for epidemiological investigations. This study aims to assess the agreement between spot urine and 24-hour urine measurements to determine sodium and potassium intake. A total of 402 participants aged 25 to 64 years were randomly selected in South Benin. Spot urine was taken during the second urination of the day. Twenty-four-hour urine was also collected. Samples (2-mL) were taken and then stored at -20°C. The analysis was carried out using potentiometric dosage. The agreement between spot urine and 24-hour urine measurements was established using Bland-Altman plots. A total of 354 results were analyzed. Daily sodium chloride and potassium chloride urinary excretion means were 10.2±4.9 g/24 h and 2.9±1.4 g/24 h, respectively. Estimated daily sodium chloride and potassium chloride means from the spot urine were 10.7±7.0 g/24 h and 3.9±2.1 g/24 h, respectively. Concordance coefficients were 0.61 at d=-0.5 g, (d±2SD=-11 g and 10.1 g) for sodium chloride and 0.61 at d=-1 g, (d±2SD=-3.8 g and 1.8 g) for potassium chloride. Spot urine method is acceptable for estimating 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion to assess sodium and potassium intake in a black population. However, the confidence interval for the mean difference, which is too large, makes the sodium chloride results inadmissible at a clinical level.

  3. The Impact of Using Different Methods to Assess Completeness of 24-Hour Urine Collection on Estimating Dietary Sodium.

    PubMed

    Wielgosz, Andreas; Robinson, Christopher; Mao, Yang; Jiang, Ying; Campbell, Norm R C; Muthuri, Stella; Morrison, Howard

    2016-06-01

    The standard for population-based surveillance of dietary sodium intake is 24-hour urine testing; however, this may be affected by incomplete urine collection. The impact of different indirect methods of assessing completeness of collection on estimated sodium ingestion has not been established. The authors enlisted 507 participants from an existing community study in 2009 to collect 24-hour urine samples. Several methods of assessing completeness of urine collection were tested. Mean sodium intake varied between 3648 mg/24 h and 7210 mg/24 h depending on the method used. Excluding urine samples collected for longer or shorter than 24 hours increased the estimated urine sodium excretion, even when corrections for the variation in timed collections were applied. Until an accurate method of indirectly assessing completeness of urine collection is identified, the gold standard of administering para-aminobenzoic acid is recommended. Efforts to ensure participants collect complete urine samples are also warranted.

  4. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... a blockage of blood vessels, or other causes Multiple myeloma Healthy people may have higher than normal urine ... Distal Hemolytic anemia Macroglobulinemia of Waldenstrom Microalbuminuria test Multiple myeloma Nephrotic syndrome Proximal Wilson disease Update Date 11/ ...

  5. Estimated amount of 24-hour urine sodium excretion is positively correlated with stomach and breast cancer prevalence in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yong Chul; Koo, Ho Seok; Oh, Se Won; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the association between the prevalence of cancer, particularly stomach cancer, and the amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion estimated from spot urine specimens. The study included 19,083 subjects who took part in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey between 2009 and 2011. The total amount of urine sodium excreted in a 24-hr period was estimated by using two equations based on the values for spot urine sodium and creatinine. In subjects who had an estimated 24-hr urine sodium excretion of more than two standard deviations above the mean (group 2), the prevalence of stomach cancer was higher than in subjects with lower 24-hr sodium excretion (group 1). By using the Tanaka equation to estimate it, the prevalence of stomach cancer was 0.6% (114/18,331) in group 1, whereas it was 1.6% (9/568) in group 2 (P=0.006). By using the Korean equation, the prevalence was 0.6% (115/18,392) in group 1, and 1.6% in group 2 (8/507) (P=0.010). By using the Tanaka equation, breast cancer in women is more prevalent in group 2 (1.9%, 6/324) than group 1 (0.8%, 78/9,985, P=0.039). Higher salt intake, as defined by the estimated amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion, is positively correlated with a higher prevalence of stomach or breast cancer in the Korean population.

  6. Estimating the Population Distribution of Usual 24-Hour Sodium Excretion from Timed Urine Void Specimens Using a Statistical Approach Accounting for Correlated Measurement Errors1234

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chia-Yih; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Chen, Te-Ching; Loria, Catherine M; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Liu, Kiang; Sempos, Christopher T; Perrine, Cria G; Cogswell, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Background: High US sodium intake and national reduction efforts necessitate developing a feasible and valid monitoring method across the distribution of low-to-high sodium intake. Objective: We examined a statistical approach using timed urine voids to estimate the population distribution of usual 24-h sodium excretion. Methods: A sample of 407 adults, aged 18–39 y (54% female, 48% black), collected each void in a separate container for 24 h; 133 repeated the procedure 4–11 d later. Four timed voids (morning, afternoon, evening, overnight) were selected from each 24-h collection. We developed gender-specific equations to calibrate total sodium excreted in each of the one-void (e.g., morning) and combined two-void (e.g., morning + afternoon) urines to 24-h sodium excretion. The calibrated sodium excretions were used to estimate the population distribution of usual 24-h sodium excretion. Participants were then randomly assigned to modeling (n = 160) or validation (n = 247) groups to examine the bias in estimated population percentiles. Results: Median bias in predicting selected percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th) of usual 24-h sodium excretion with one-void urines ranged from −367 to 284 mg (−7.7 to 12.2% of the observed usual excretions) for men and −604 to 486 mg (−14.6 to 23.7%) for women, and with two-void urines from −338 to 263 mg (−6.9 to 10.4%) and −166 to 153 mg (−4.1 to 8.1%), respectively. Four of the 6 two-void urine combinations produced no significant bias in predicting selected percentiles. Conclusions: Our approach to estimate the population usual 24-h sodium excretion, which uses calibrated timed-void sodium to account for day-to-day variation and covariance between measurement errors, produced percentile estimates with relatively low biases across low-to-high sodium excretions. This may provide a low-burden, low-cost alternative to 24-h collections in monitoring population sodium intake among healthy young adults and

  7. Comparison of Population Iodine Estimates from 24-Hour Urine and Timed-Spot Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Cogswell, Mary E.; Swanson, Christine A.; Sullivan, Kevin M.; Chen, Te-Ching; Carriquiry, Alicia L.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Wang, Chia-Yih

    2014-01-01

    Background: Median urine iodine concentration (UIC; μg/L) in spot urine samples is recommended for monitoring population iodine status. Other common measures are iodine:creatinine ratio (I/Cr; μg/g) and estimated 24-hour urine iodine excretion (UIE; I/Cr×predicted 24-hour Cr; μg/day). Despite different units, these measures are often used interchangeably, and it is unclear how they compare with the reference standard 24-hour UIE. Methods: Volunteers aged 18–39 years collected all their urine samples for 24 hours (n=400). Voids from morning, afternoon, evening, overnight, and a composite 24-hour sample were analyzed for iodine. We calculated median observed 24-hour UIE and 24-hour UIC, and spot UIC, I/Cr, and two measures of estimated UIE calculated using predicted 24-hour Cr from published estimates by Kesteloot and Joosens (varies by age and sex) and published equations by Mage et al. (varies by age, sex, race, and anthropometric measures). We examined mean differences and relative difference across iodine excretion levels using Bland–Altman plots. Results: Median 24-hour UIE was 173.6 μg/day and 24-hour UIC was 144.8 μg/L. From timed-spot urine samples, estimates were: UIC 147.3–156.2 μg/L; I/Cr 103.6–114.3 μg/g, estimated 24-hour UIE (Kesteloot and Joosens) 145.7–163.3 μg/day; and estimated 24-hour UIE (Mage) 176.5–187.7 μg/day. Iodine measures did not vary consistently by timing of spot urine collection. Compared with observed 24-hour UIE, on average, estimated (Mage) 24-hour UIE was not significantly different, while estimated 24-hour UIE (Kesteloot and Joosens) was significantly different for some ethnicity/sex groups. Compared with 24-hour UIC, on average, spot UIC did not differ. Conclusions: Estimates of UIC, I/Cr, and estimated 24-hour UIE (I/Cr×predicted 24-hour Cr) from spot urine samples should not be used interchangeably. Estimated 24-hour UIE, where predicted 24-hour Cr varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and

  8. Agreement between 24-hour salt ingestion and sodium excretion in a controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Lerchl, Kathrin; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Rauh, Manfred; Goller, Ulrike; Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F; Beck, Luis; Agureev, Alexander; Larina, Irina; Baranov, Victor; Morukov, Boris; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Vassilieva, Galina; Wabel, Peter; Vienken, Jörg; Kirsch, Karl; Johannes, Bernd; Krannich, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Accurately collected 24-hour urine collections are presumed to be valid for estimating salt intake in individuals. We performed 2 independent ultralong-term salt balance studies lasting 105 (4 men) and 205 (6 men) days in 10 men simulating a flight to Mars. We controlled dietary intake of all constituents for months at salt intakes of 12, 9, and 6 g/d and collected all urine. The subjects' daily menus consisted of 27 279 individual servings, of which 83.0% were completely consumed, 16.5% completely rejected, and 0.5% incompletely consumed. Urinary recovery of dietary salt was 92% of recorded intake, indicating long-term steady-state sodium balance in both studies. Even at fixed salt intake, 24-hour urine collection for sodium excretion (UNaV) showed infradian rhythmicity. We defined a ±25 mmol deviation from the average difference between recorded sodium intake and UNaV as the prediction interval to accurately classify a 3-g difference in salt intake. Because of the biological variability in UNaV, only every other daily urine sample correctly classified a 3-g difference in salt intake (49%). By increasing the observations to 3 consecutive 24-hour collections and sodium intakes, classification accuracy improved to 75%. Collecting seven 24-hour urines and sodium intake samples improved classification accuracy to 92%. We conclude that single 24-hour urine collections at intakes ranging from 6 to 12 g salt per day were not suitable to detect a 3-g difference in individual salt intake. Repeated measurements of 24-hour UNaV improve precision. This knowledge could be relevant to patient care and the conduct of intervention trials.

  9. Measurement error corrected sodium and potassium intake estimation using 24-hour urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Van Horn, Linda; Tinker, Lesley F; Neuhouser, Marian L; Carbone, Laura; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Thomas, Fridtjof; Prentice, Ross L

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological studies of the association of sodium and potassium intake with cardiovascular disease risk have almost exclusively relied on self-reported dietary data. Here, 24-hour urinary excretion assessments are used to correct the dietary self-report data for measurement error under the assumption that 24-hour urine recovery provides a biomarker that differs from usual intake according to a classical measurement model. Under this assumption, dietary self-reports underestimate sodium by 0% to 15%, overestimate potassium by 8% to 15%, and underestimate sodium/potassium ratio by ≈20% using food frequency questionnaires, 4-day food records, or three 24-hour dietary recalls in Women's Health Initiative studies. Calibration equations are developed by linear regression of log-transformed 24-hour urine assessments on corresponding log-transformed self-report assessments and several study subject characteristics. For each self-report method, the calibration equations turned out to depend on race and age and strongly on body mass index. After adjustment for temporal variation, calibration equations using food records or recalls explained 45% to 50% of the variation in (log-transformed) 24-hour urine assessments for sodium, 60% to 70% of the variation for potassium, and 55% to 60% of the variation for sodium/potassium ratio. These equations may be suitable for use in epidemiological disease association studies among postmenopausal women. The corresponding signals from food frequency questionnaire data were weak, but calibration equations for the ratios of sodium and potassium/total energy explained ≈35%, 50%, and 45% of log-biomarker variation for sodium, potassium, and their ratio, respectively, after the adjustment for temporal biomarker variation and may be suitable for cautious use in epidemiological studies. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000611.

  10. Effects of dietary interventions on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones.

    PubMed

    Kıraç, Mustafa; Küpeli, Bora; Irkilata, Lokman; Gülbahar, Ozlem; Aksakal, Nur; Karaoğlan, Ustünol; Bozkırlı, Ibrahim

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary factors on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones. A total of 108 of idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones were included in the study. A 24-hour urinalysis was performed and metabolic abnormalities were measured for all of the patients. All of the patients were given specialized diets for their 24-hour urine abnormalities. At the end of first month, the same parameters were examined in another 24-hour urinalysis. Hyperoxaluria, hypernatruria, and hypercalciuria were found in 84 (77%), 43 (39.8%), and 38 (35.5%) of the patients, respectively. The differences between the oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate parameters before and after the dietary intervention were significant (p < 0.05). The calcium parameters were not significantly different before and after the intervention. We found that oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate-but not calcium-abnormalities in patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones can be corrected by diet. The metabolic profiles of idiopathic calcium oxalate stone patients should be evaluated and the appropriate dietary interventions should be implemented to decrease stone recurrence.

  11. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286–4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the

  12. Self-Renewal and Differentiation Capacity of Urine-Derived Stem Cells after Urine Preservation for 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yingai; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Leng, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobo; Liu, Hong; Atala, Anthony; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite successful approaches to preserve organs, tissues, and isolated cells, the maintenance of stem cell viability and function in body fluids during storage for cell distribution and transportation remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize urine-derived stem cells (USCs) after optimal preservation of urine specimens for up to 24 hours. A total of 415 urine specimens were collected from 12 healthy men (age range 20–54 years old). About 6×104 cells shed off from the urinary tract system in 24 hours. At least 100 USC clones were obtained from the stored urine specimens after 24 hours and maintained similar biological features to fresh USCs. The stored USCs had a “rice grain” shape in primary culture, and expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, high telomerase activity, and normal karyotypes. Importantly, the preserved cells retained bipotent differentiation capacity. Differentiated USCs expressed myogenic specific proteins and contractile function when exposed to myogenic differentiation medium, and they expressed urothelial cell-specific markers and barrier function when exposed to urothelial differentiation medium. These data demonstrated that up to 75% of fresh USCs can be safely persevered in urine for 24 hours and that these cells stored in urine retain their original stem cell properties, indicating that preserved USCs could be available for potential use in cell-based therapy or clinical diagnosis. PMID:23349776

  13. Influence of Overweight on 24-Hour Urine Chemistry Studies and Recurrent Urolithiasis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Dong; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Myung, Soon Chul; Moon, Young Tae; Kim, Kyung Do

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the influence of overweight on 24-hour urine chemistry studies and recurrent urolithiasis (UL) in children. Materials and Methods A retrospective cohort study was designed to assess children who presented with UL at a pediatric institution between 1985 and 2010. We calculated body mass index percentile (BMIp) adjusted for gender and age according to the 2007 Korean Children and Adolescents Growth Chart and stratified the children into 3 BMI categories: lower body weight (LBW, BMIp≤10), normal BW (NBW, 10urine chemistry studies (urine volume, creatinine, calcium, oxalate, citrate, and pH) were compared between the 3 BMIp groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess independent risk factors for stone recurrence. Results A total of 125 patients were included. The age of the patients in the NBW group was older than that of patients in the LBW group, but 24-hour urine chemistry studies did not differ significantly between the three groups. Mean urine citrate levels were lower (0.273±0.218 mg/mg/d vs. 0.429±0.299 mg/mg/d, p<0.05) and the incidence of hypocitraturia was higher (81.5% vs. 45.7%, p<0.05)) in the recurrent stone former group. In the univariate analysis, hypocitraturia and acidic urinary pH were risk factors, but in the multivariate analysis, only hypocitraturia was a risk factor for stone recurrence (hazard ratio, 3.647; 95% confidence interval, 1.047 to 12.703). In the Kaplan-Meier curve, the hypocitraturia group showed higher recurrence than did the normocitraturia group (p<0.05). Conclusions Unlike in adults, in children, overweight adjusted for gender and age was not associated with 24-hour urine chemistry studies and was not a risk factor for recurrent UL. Hypocitraturia was the only risk factor for UL in children. PMID:22536471

  14. Dipstick Spot urine pH does not accurately represent 24 hour urine PH measured by an electrode

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Mohamed; Sarkissian, Carl; Jianbo, Li; Calle, Juan; Monga, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To determine whether spot urine pH measured by dipstick is an accurate representation of 24 hours urine pH measured by an electrode. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed urine pH results of patients who presented to the urology stone clinic. For each patient we recorded the most recent pH result measured by dipstick from a spot urine sample that preceded the result of a 24-hour urine pH measured by the use of a pH electrode. Patients were excluded if there was a change in medications or dietary recommendations or if the two samples were more than 4 months apart. A difference of more than 0.5 pH was considered an inaccurate result. Results A total 600 patients were retrospectively reviewed for the pH results. The mean difference in pH between spot urine value and the 24 hours collection values was 0.52±0.45 pH. Higher pH was associated with lower accuracy (p<0.001). The accuracy of spot urine samples to predict 24-hour pH values of <5.5 was 68.9%, 68.2% for 5.5 to 6.5 and 35% for >6.5. Samples taken more than 75 days apart had only 49% the accuracy of more recent samples (p<0.002). The overall accuracy is lower than 80% (p<0.001). Influence of diurnal variation was not significant (p=0.588). Conclusions Spot urine pH by dipstick is not an accurate method for evaluation of the patients with urolithiasis. Patients with alkaline urine are more prone to error with reliance on spot urine pH. PMID:27286119

  15. Insights about serum sodium behavior after 24 hours of continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Thiago Gomes; Martins, Cassia Pimenta Barufi; Mendes, Pedro Vitale; Besen, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro; Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Park, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratorial factors associated with serum sodium variation during continuous renal replacement therapy and to assess whether the perfect admixture formula could predict 24-hour sodium variation. Methods Thirty-six continuous renal replacement therapy sessions of 33 patients, in which the affluent prescription was unchanged during the first 24 hours, were retrieved from a prospective collected database and then analyzed. A mixed linear model was performed to investigate the factors associated with large serum sodium variations (≥ 8mEq/L), and a Bland-Altman plot was generated to assess the agreement between the predicted and observed variations. Results In continuous renal replacement therapy 24-hour sessions, SAPS 3 (p = 0.022) and baseline hypernatremia (p = 0.023) were statistically significant predictors of serum sodium variations ≥ 8mEq/L in univariate analysis, but only hypernatremia demonstrated an independent association (β = 0.429, p < 0.001). The perfect admixture formula for sodium prediction at 24 hours demonstrated poor agreement with the observed values. Conclusions Hypernatremia at the time of continuous renal replacement therapy initiation is an important factor associated with clinically significant serum sodium variation. The use of 4% citrate or acid citrate dextrose - formula A 2.2% as anticoagulants was not associated with higher serum sodium variations. A mathematical prediction for the serum sodium concentration after 24 hours was not feasible. PMID:27410407

  16. Association between Sleep Duration and 24-Hour Urine Free Cortisol in the MrOS Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Madhu N.; Blackwell, Terri; Redline, Susan; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Neylan, Thomas C.; Stone, Katie L.

    2013-01-01

    Context Short sleep duration is associated with adverse health outcomes, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. It has been postulated that short sleep duration may elevate cortisol levels, but studies have had conflicting results. It is unclear whether these differing findings may be due to methodological issues, such as assessment of sleep duration. Specifically, objective versus subjective methods of measuring habitual sleep duration may account for the conflicting results found in epidemiological studies. Objective Our goal was to determine whether habitual sleep duration, measured objectively (by actigraphy) and subjectively (by self-report), was associated with 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), a measure of integrated cortisol secretion. Our secondary goal was to determine whether slow wave sleep (SWS, determined by polysomnography) was associated with 24-hour UFC. Design/Setting Cross sectional study of community dwelling older men. Patients/Participants 325 men (mean age = 76.6 years, SD = 5.5) from the Portland site of the MrOS Sleep Study, who underwent 24-hour urine collection, polysomnography, actigraphy and sleep questionnaire. Primary Outcome 24-hour UFC. Results In this study of community dwelling older men, self-reported sleep duration was inversely related to 24-hour UFC levels. Participants reporting <5 hours of habitual sleep had an adjusted mean 24-hour UFC of 29.8 ug, compared to 28.0 ug in participants reporting >5 to <8 hours of sleep 25.5 ug in those reporting >8 hours of habitual sleep. However, sleep duration determined by actigraphy was not associated with 24-hour UFC in either univariable or multivariable regression models. SWS was not associated with 24-hour UFC. Conclusion Objectively measured (i.e., actigraphic) sleep duration is not associated with 24-hour UFC in these community dwelling older men. This finding, together with prior studies, suggests that elevated levels of integrated cortisol secretion is not the

  17. Measuring residual renal function in dialysis patients: can we dispense with 24-hour urine collections?

    PubMed

    Davenport, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Residual renal function is associated with improved survival and quality of life for dialysis patients. Whereas residual renal function is monitored in peritoneal dialysis patients, many hemodialysis centers simply concentrate on achieving dialyzer urea clearance targets. Accurately quantifying residual renal function from urine collections is arduous. Thus, there is a clinical need to develop alternative methods of assessing residual renal function based on serum testing, especially for patients receiving less than thrice weekly dialysis.

  18. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables

  19. Factors Associated With High Sodium Intake Based on Estimated 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion: The 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Although reducing dietary salt consumption is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, policy-based approaches to monitor sodium intake accurately and the understanding factors associated with excessive sodium intake for the improvement of public health are lacking. We investigated factors associated with high sodium intake based on the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, using data from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 21,199 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2009 to 2011 KNHANES, 18,000 participants (weighted n = 33,969,783) who completed urinary sodium and creatinine evaluations were analyzed in this study. The 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was estimated using Tanaka equation. The mean estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was 4349 (4286-4413) mg per day. Only 18.5% (weighted n = 6,298,481/3,396,973, unweighted n = 2898/18,000) of the study participants consumed less the 2000 mg sodium per day. Female gender (P < 0.001), older age (P < 0.001), total energy intake ≥50 percentile (P < 0.005), and obesity (P < 0.001) were associated with high sodium intake, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Senior high school/college graduation in education and managers/professionals in occupation were associated with lower sodium intake (P < 0.001). According to hypertension management status, those who had hypertension without medication consumed more sodium than those who were normotensive. However, those who receiving treatment for hypertension consumed less sodium than those who were normotensive (P < 0.001). The number of family members, household income, and alcohol drinking did not affect 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The logistic regression analysis for the highest estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion quartile (>6033 mg/day) using the abovementioned variables

  20. Jack Healy Remembers - Anecdotal Evidence for the Origin of the Approximate 24-hour Urine Sampling Protocol Used for Worker Bioassay Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2008-10-01

    The origin of the approximate 24-hour urine sampling protocol used at Hanford for routine bioassay is attributed to an informal study done in the mid-1940s. While the actual data were never published and have been lost, anecdotal recollections by staff involved in the initial bioassay program design and administration suggest that the sampling protocol had a solid scientific basis. Numerous alternate methods for normalizing partial day samples to represent a total 24-hour collection have since been proposed and used, but no one method is obviously preferred.

  1. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of Bisphenol A following ingestion in soup: Individual pharmacokinetic data and emographics

    SciTech Connect

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Churchwell, Mona I.; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Seryak, Liesel M.; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2015-09-01

    Here we present data to evaluate potential absorption of Bisphenol A through non-metabolizing tissues of the upper digestive tract. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24 h period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30 μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. The pharmacokinetic behavior of BPA and its metabolites in this cohort (rapid absorption, complete elimination, evidence against sublingual absorption) was reported. This Data in Brief article contains the corresponding individual pharmacokinetic data, reports the demographics of the cohort and provides additional details related to the analytical methods employed and is related to [4].

  2. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of Bisphenol A following ingestion in soup: Individual pharmacokinetic data and emographics

    DOE PAGES

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Churchwell, Mona I.; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Seryak, Liesel M.; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2015-09-01

    Here we present data to evaluate potential absorption of Bisphenol A through non-metabolizing tissues of the upper digestive tract. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24 h period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30 μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. The pharmacokinetic behavior of BPA and its metabolites in this cohort (rapid absorption, complete elimination, evidence against sublingual absorption) was reported. This Data in Brief article contains the corresponding individual pharmacokinetic data, reports the demographics of the cohort and provides additional details related to the analyticalmore » methods employed and is related to [4].« less

  3. Urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and chloride, but not iodine, varies by timing of collection in a 24-hour calibration study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Yih; Cogswell, Mary E; Loria, Catherine M; Chen, Te-Ching; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Swanson, Christine A; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Perrine, Cria G; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Liu, Kiang; Sempos, Christopher T; Gillespie, Cathleen D; Burt, Vicki L

    2013-08-01

    Because of the logistic complexity, excessive respondent burden, and high cost of conducting 24-h urine collections in a national survey, alternative strategies to monitor sodium intake at the population level need to be evaluated. We conducted a calibration study to assess the ability to characterize sodium intake from timed-spot urine samples calibrated to a 24-h urine collection. In this report, we described the overall design and basic results of the study. Adults aged 18-39 y were recruited to collect urine for a 24-h period, placing each void in a separate container. Four timed-spot specimens (morning, afternoon, evening, and overnight) and the 24-h collection were analyzed for sodium, potassium, chloride, creatinine, and iodine. Of 481 eligible persons, 407 (54% female, 48% black) completed a 24-h urine collection. A subsample (n = 133) collected a second 24-h urine 4-11 d later. Mean sodium excretion was 3.54 ± 1.51 g/d for males and 3.09 ± 1.26 g/d for females. Sensitivity analysis excluding those who did not meet the expected creatinine excretion criterion showed the same results. Day-to-day variability for sodium, potassium, chloride, and iodine was observed among those collecting two 24-h urine samples (CV = 16-29% for 24-h urine samples and 21-41% for timed-spot specimens). Among all race-gender groups, overnight specimens had larger volumes (P < 0.01) and lower sodium (P < 0.01 to P = 0.26), potassium (P < 0.01), and chloride (P < 0.01) concentrations compared with other timed-spot urine samples, although the differences were not always significant. Urine creatinine and iodine concentrations did not differ by the timing of collection. The observed day-to-day and diurnal variations in sodium excretion illustrate the importance of accounting for these factors when developing calibration equations from this study.

  4. Estimation of 24-hour thyroid uptake of I-131 sodium iodide using a 5-minute uptake of technetium-99m pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.J.; Croft, B.Y.; Brookeman, V.A.; Teates, C.D. )

    1990-02-01

    The authors have developed a method to estimate the 24-hour sodium iodide thyroid uptake based on a 5-minute Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake using the equation: Estimated Iodide Uptake = 17.72*In(Pertechnetate Uptake) + 30.40. This estimation has a correlation coefficient of 0.90. It is based on a data pool of 44 patients who underwent I-131 and Tc-99m studies within 2 weeks of each other from 1978-1988, with established diagnoses as follows: 12 euthyroid, 6 hyperthyroid with multinodular goiters, 15 hyperthyroid with diffuse goiters, 4 with subacute thyroiditis, and 7 unknown. The population consisted of 30 women and 14 men with a mean age of 52.0 +/- 17.5 years; this sample was screened for use of thyroid hormone, propylthiouracil, and radiographic contrast. The authors believe this estimation method is of value whenever a 24-hour iodide uptake is desired, and where speed and minimizing radiation dose are factors. This method is strongly recommended for thyroid uptake evaluation before I-131 therapy.

  5. Analysis of correlation between 24-hour urinary sodium and the degree of blood pressure control in patients with chronic kidney disease and non-chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ho Seok; Kim, Yong Chul; Ahn, Shin Young; Oh, Se Won; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the association between 24-hr urinary sodium (24UNA) and adequacy of blood pressure (BP) control in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and nonCKD. All data were collected retrospectively by accessing the electrical medical records in patients with 24-hr urine collection and serum creatinine. Enrolled 400 subjects were subgrouped by the amount of 24UNA, or CKD stage. The appropriate BP was defined as BP < 130/80 mmHg for subjects with proteinuria, and BP < 140/90 mmHg for subjects without proteinuria. The mean level of 24UNA was 166±76 mEq/day. The 24UNA group was an independently related factor to diastolic BP as a continuous variable. The rate of appropriate BP control in patients with proteinuria was highest in 24UNA <100 mEq/L (P=0.012). The odds to fail achievement of BP target in subjects with 24UNA≥90 mEq/day was 2.441 (1.249-4.772, P=0.009) higher than that of 24UNA <90 mEq/day among participants with proteinuria. There was difference in the amount of 24UNA between CKD and non-CKD except each stage of CKD group. In conclusion, salt intake estimated by 24-hr urine sodium excretion is a risk factor to achieve appropriate BP control.

  6. CT-determined canine kidney and urine iodine concentration following intravenous administration of sodium diatrizoate, metrizamide, iopamidol, and sodium ioxaglate.

    PubMed

    Brennan, R E; Rapoport, S; Weinberg, I; Pollack, H M; Curtis, J A

    1982-01-01

    Following 24-hour fasting and fluid deprivation, sequential changes in CT numbers of the canine kidney were determined in 4 dogs, each of whom received, at intervals, IV sodium diatrizoate, metrizamide, iopamidol, and sodium ioxaglate at a dose of 500 mgI/kg body weight. The urinary bladder was catheterized for baseline determination of urine osmolality and, subsequently, urine volume and CT number, CT number of the bladder urine from 0 to 10 minutes and from 10 to 20 minutes post-injection was obtained by scanning known dilutions of urine in vitro. Peak renal cortical enhancement occurred within 2 minutes of bolus injection and was not dependent on the chemical make-up of the contrast agent. Peak medullary enhancement occurred within 3 minutes of bolus injection. Peak medulla CT number following sodium diatrizoate was significantly less than that following metrizamide (P less than 0.025) or iopamidol (P less than 0.01). Peak medulla CT number was significantly less following sodium diatrizoate (P less than 0.01), metrizamide (P less than 0.01) and iopamidol (P less than 0.05) than following sodium ioxaglate. Urine iodine concentrations followed a similar pattern, with significant differences as follows: sodium diatrizoate less than metrizamide = iopamidol less than sodium ioxaglate. It was concluded that the investigational agents metrizamide, iopamidol, and sodium ioxaglate have theoretical advantage for excretory urography. Differences in renal handling of these agents are detectable, with CT scanning as differences in renal medullary enhancement and urine iodine concentration.

  7. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  8. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  9. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  10. Urinary {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, and retinol-binding protein levels in general populations in Japan with references to cadmium in urine, blood, and 24-hour food duplicates

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Moon, Chan-Seok; Zhang, Zuo-Wen

    1995-07-01

    Possible cadmium (Cd) exposure-associated changes in urinary levels of low-molecular-weight proteins were studied in nonsmoking and nondrinking female members of the general Japanese population (378 subjects with no known occupational heavy metal exposure) who lived at 19 study sites (all without any known environmental heavy metal pollution) in 13 prefectures throughout Japan. The external Cd dose was evaluated in terms of daily Cd intake via food (Cd-F), whereas Cd levels in blood (Cd-B) and urine (Cd-U) were taken as internal dose indicators. When the subjects were classified according to Cd-F into three groups with {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} (20.4 {mu}g/day as a geometric mean of 97 women), {open_quotes}middle{close_quotes} (35.0 {mu}g/day, 120 women) and {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} (67.0 {mu}g/day, 66 women) exposure, both Cd-B and Cd-U increased in parallel with the changes in Cd-F. However, there were no dose-dependent changes in {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin or retinol-binding protein levels in urine. {alpha}{sub 1}-Microglobulin levels appeared to increase, but the distribution of the cases above the two cutoff levels of 9.6 and 15.8 {mu}g/mg creatinine among the three Cd-F groups did not show any bias. Overall, it was concluded that there was no apparent Cd exposure-associated elevation in urinary low-molecular-weight protein levels in the study population. 41 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Collection of a 24-Hour Urine Specimen (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Licensed Materials from any location via the Internet. b. STANDALONE WORKSTATION: A standalone subscription permits multiple ... computer. A Standalone Workstation license does not include Internet access to the Licensed Materials. c. INSTITUTIONAL SUBSCRIPTION: ...

  12. Copper urine test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The copper urine test is performed by collecting urine at specific times for a 24-hour period. The urine is tested for the amount of copper present. The copper urine test is used to determine the presence of Wilson ...

  13. Metabolic and renal changes in two athletes during a world 24 hour relay record performance.

    PubMed Central

    Irving, R A; Noakes, T D; van Zyl Smit, R

    1989-01-01

    Metabolic parameters and renal function were studied in two subjects before, during and after they established a world two-man 24 hour relay record. During the race, the athletes expended an estimated 37.747 and 42.880 kJ running at 54 and 61 per cent of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max). Rectal temperatures reached maxima of 38.6 and 39.2 degrees C respectively during the race. Serum free fatty acid levels peaked at 2108 and 1875 mumol ml-1 after 24 hours; blood glucose levels varied from 4.3-6.5 and 4.9-8.5 mmol.l-1 respectively. Plasma insulin levels fell from 42.9 and 22.7 microU.ml-1 to 11.5 microU.ml-1. Plasma urea, creatinine, beta 2-microglobulin and C-reactive protein concentrations were elevated at the end of the race (to 9.0 and 8.0 mmol.l-1, 119 and 102 mumol.l-1, 3.508 and 3203 micrograms.l-1 and 2.7 and 3.9 mg per cent respectively). Plasma osmolality was altered from 293 and 304 to 302 and 280 mosmol.Kg-1 during the race but increased to 312 and 318 mosmol.Kg-1 the following day probably due to intercompartmental fluid shifts. Plasma creatinine concentration was increased by 38 and 26 per cent due to reduced urinary excretion. Urine flow rate increased 40 and 123 per cent respectively during the race, but creatinine clearance decreased by 38 and 40 per cent. Urine osmolality decreased by 38 and 65 per cent and osmolal clearance decreased by 15 and 16 per cent respectively. Urine sodium excretion was greatly reduced (85 and 90 per cent) on the post-race days (by 88 and 92 per cent on day 2). Both urine total protein and beta2-microglobulin excretion increased during the race (by 89 and 35 per cent and by 334 and 136 per cent respectively), but owing to the increased beta2-microglobulin production renal clearance was unaltered. The changes in renal function were temporary and some aspects of renal tubular function were enhanced during the post-race days. We conclude that, although C-reactive protein concentrations increased sooner and were higher

  14. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  15. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  16. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  17. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  18. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  19. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  20. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes...

  1. Comparative studies on 24-hour urinary excretion in Japanese and Chinese adults and children--need for nutritional education.

    PubMed

    Mori, Mari; Xu, Jin-Wen; Mori, Hideki; Ling, Cheng Feng; Wei, Guo Hong; Yamori, Yukio

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of nutritional education on the risk of developing lifestyle-related diseases, we measured taurine and isoflavone content in 24-hour urine samples (24-U) of 3rd grade Chinese children (CC) and of age-matched Japanese children (JC), as well as adult Chinese and Japanese (CA, JA) according to the WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison) Study protocol. There was a significantly higher prevalence of obesity and "thin" individuals in CC compared with JC. While K intake was not significantly different in the children, the sodium to potassium ratio (Na/ K) and the intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) were significantly higher in CC than in JC. Taurine excretion (24-U) was significantly higher in CC than in JC, but isoflavone excretion was significantly lower in CC than in JC. Taurine excretion was significantly lower in CA than in JA, while isoflavone excretion was almost the same in CA and JA. After nutritional education CC consumed more isoflavones than the control group that had been subjected to only environmental education. JC exhibited significantly higher 24-U taurine and isoflavone excretion after taking the nutritional class.

  2. 17-Ketosteroids urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 34. Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Metyrapone (cortisol) - 24-hour urine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . ...

  3. The 24 Hours before Hospitalization: Factors Related to Suicide Attempting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, John A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Psychiatric inpatients (N=59) were interviewd concerning psychological and environmental events that occurred in the 24 hours prior to their hospitalization. Suicide attempters were more likely to have used alcohol or marijuana and less likely to have contacted a health care professional than suicide ideators, even when past history of suicide…

  4. Effect of daily oral omeprazole on 24 hour intragastric acidity.

    PubMed Central

    Walt, R P; Gomes, M D; Wood, E C; Logan, L H; Pounder, R E

    1983-01-01

    Twenty four hour intragastric acidity was measured in nine patients with duodenal ulcer before and after one week of treatment with oral omeprazole 30 mg daily, a drug that inhibits gastric secretion by inhibition of parietal cell H+K+ adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase). Omeprazole virtually eliminated intragastric acidity in all patients: the median 24 hour intragastric pH rose from 1.4 to 5.3 and the mean hourly hydrogen ion activity fell from 38.50 to 1.95 mmol(mEq)/1 (p less than 0.001). This inhibition of 24 hour intragastric acidity is more profound than that previously reported with either cimetidine 1 g daily or ranitidine 300 mg daily. PMID:6407676

  5. [Gastroesophageal reflux during pregnancy: 24-hour esophageal ph monitoring].

    PubMed

    Anton, C; Anton, E; Drug, V; Stanciu, C

    2001-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) occurs in 30-50% of all pregnancies. The progressive rise in plasma progesterone has been suggested as a possible mediator of GER during pregnancy. Recent advances in technology have made it possible to detect GER through monitoring of esophageal pH for prolonged periods, including sleep. 24-hour pH monitoring is the proper method for diagnosing GER in pregnant women. If 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring is to be a useful diagnostic tool, it must reliably discriminate GER patients despite daily variations in distal esophageal acid exposure. To address this issue, we studied 62 women (30 healthy non-pregnant women without GER symptoms and 32 pregnant women with GER symptoms-heartburn, acid regurgitation) with 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Intrasubject reproducibility of three pH parameters to discriminate the presence of abnormal acid reflux was determined (DeMeester score, Kaye score, circadian one hour diagram for pH < 4). Each patient was interviewed, using a reliable questionnaire detailing individual habits, life style characteristics and symptoms, at four time points during the first, second, third trimesters of pregnancy and post-partum period. Symptoms of GER are common in pregnancy and although GER rarely endangers maternal or fetal health, it can significantly affect patient comfort and quality of life. We conclude: 1. GER is almost constantly present during pregnancy, increasing with gestational age. 2. The most important pH--parameter is DeMcester score. 3. Heartburn disappear after delivery. 4. 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring is the gold standard for measuring acid exposure and is a reproducible test for the diagnosis of GER in pregnancy.

  6. Efficacy of 1% sodium fluoride as a preservative in urine samples containing glucose and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Lough, P S; Fehn, R

    1993-03-01

    Whether urine samples used in forensic science DUI testing can be compromised by endogenous ethanol production is a recurrent and yet unresolved issue. This study first assessed unpreserved urine samples that were collected, processed, and analyzed repeatedly over 13 to 41 days using a standard gas chromatographic procedure for ethanol analysis. Despite extensive microbial growth, ethanol was not detected in any test sample. The extent of ethanol production in samples supplemented with glucose, Candida albicans, or both was determined to evaluate the potential for ethanol production in urine samples associated with pathological conditions such as urinary tract yeast infections and diabetes mellitus. Ethanol production under each of the above treatment conditions was assessed in the presence and absence of 1% sodium fluoride as a microbial suppressant. Mean ethanol concentrations were determined for unpreserved samples containing urine only (0.003 +/- 0.005 g%), urine plus yeast (0.006 +/- 0.009 g%) and urine plus glucose (0.067 +/- 0.070 g%). Unpreserved samples supplemented with both yeast and glucose attained mean ethanol concentrations of 0.164 +/- 0.057 g% (P < 0.01). Ethanol could not be detected in any corresponding duplicate samples, which were preserved with 1% sodium fluoride. A lack of ethanol production in any of the unpreserved urine samples indicates that false DUI convictions due to endogenous ethanol production are very unlikely. And while endogenous ethanol production is possible in the presence of both glucose and contaminating C. albicans, 1% sodium fluoride completely eliminated microbial fermentation.

  7. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in Victoria, Australia, using 24-hour urine collections. Secondary aims were to identify the dietary sources of sodium and potassium, examine the association between these electrolytes and cardiovascular risk factors, and assess children’s taste preferences and saltiness perception of manufactured foods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of schoolchildren attending primary schools in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed one 24-hour urine collection, which was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Completeness of collections was assessed using collection time, total volume, and urinary creatinine. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed to assess dietary intake. Other data collected included blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumference. Children were also presented with high and low sodium variants of food products and asked to discriminate salt level and choose their preferred variant. Parents provided demographic information and information on use of discretionary salt. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sodium and potassium intakes. Linear and logistic regression models with clustered robust standard errors will be used to assess the association between electrolyte intake and health outcomes (blood pressure and body mass index/BMI z-score and waist circumference) and to assess differences in taste preference and discrimination between high and low sodium foods, and correlations between

  8. Laparoscopic Colon Resections With Discharge Less Than 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Maedeh; Alam, Shaan E.; Kar, Pran M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A short hospital stay is one of the main advantages of laparoscopic surgery. Previous studies have shown that after a multimodal fast-track process, the hospital length of stay can be shortened to between 2 and 5 days. The objective of this review is to show that the hospital length of stay can, in some cases, be reduced to <24 hours. Methods: This study retrospectively reviews a surgeon's experience with laparoscopic surgery over a 12-month period. Seven patients were discharged home within 24 hours after minimally invasive laparoscopic surgical treatment, following a modified fast-track protocol that was adopted for perioperative care. Results: Of the 7 patients, 4 received laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for malignant disease and 3 underwent sigmoid colectomies for recurrent diverticulitis. The mean hospital stay was 21 hours, 47 minutes; the mean volume of intraoperative fluid (lactated Ringer) was 1850 mL; the mean surgical blood loss was only 74.3 mL; the mean duration of surgery was 118 minutes; and the patients were ambulated and fed a liquid diet after recovery from anesthesia. The reviewed patients had functional gastrointestinal tracts and were agreeable to the timing of discharge. On the follow-up visit, they showed no adverse consequences such as bleeding, infection, or anastomotic leak. Conclusion: Laparoscopic colon surgery that incorporated multimodal perioperative care allowed patients to be discharged within the first 24 hours. Careful postoperative outpatient follow-up is important in monitoring complications such as anastomotic leak, which may not present until postoperative day 5. PMID:23925012

  9. Correlation between sodium and potassium excretion in 24- and 12-h urine samples.

    PubMed

    Mill, J G; Silva, A B T da; Baldo, M P; Molina, M C B; Rodrigues, S L

    2012-09-01

    Low-sodium and high-potassium diets have been recommended as an adjunct to prevention and treatment of hypertension. Analysis of these nutrients in 24-h urine has been considered the reference method to estimate daily intake of these minerals. However, 24-h urine collection is difficult in epidemiological studies, since urine must be collected and stored in job environments. Therefore, strategies for shorter durations of urine collection at home have been proposed. We have previously reported that collecting urine during a 12-h period (overnight) is more feasible and that creatinine clearance correlated strongly with that detected in 24-h samples. In the present study, we collected urine for 24 h divided into two 12-h periods (from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm and from 7:00 pm to 7:00 am next day). A sample of 109 apparently healthy volunteers aged 30 to 74 years of both genders working in a University institution was investigated. Subjects with previous myocardial infarction, stroke, renal insufficiency, and pregnant women were not included. Significant (P < 0.001) Spearman correlation coefficients (r s) were found between the total amount of sodium and potassium excreted in the urine collected at night and in the 24-h period (r s = 0.76 and 0.74, respectively). Additionally, the 12-h sodium and potassium excretions (means ± SD, 95% confidence interval) corresponded to 47.3 ± 11.2%, 95%CI = 45.3-49.3, and 39.3 ± 4.6%, 95%CI = 37.3-41.3, respectively, of the 24-h excretion of these ions. Therefore, these findings support the assumption that 12-h urine collected at night can be used as a reliable tool to estimate 24-h intake/excretion of sodium and potassium.

  10. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work–social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns. PMID:23957268

  11. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation.

    PubMed

    Taber, Michael J; Hartley, Geoffrey L; McGarr, Gregory W; Zaharieva, Dessi; Basset, Fabien A; Hynes, Zach; Haman, Francois; Pinet, Bernard M; DuCharme, Michel B; Cheung, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (T c) and cognitive test battery (CTB) performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature). Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold) were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease T c after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5-1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance. PMID:27478839

  12. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Geoffrey L.; Zaharieva, Dessi; Basset, Fabien A.; Hynes, Zach

    2016-01-01

    Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (Tc) and cognitive test battery (CTB) performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature). Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold) were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease Tc after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5–1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance. PMID:27478839

  13. [Necessity of a 24-hour system of blood transfusion testing].

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    The preventive effects of a 24-hour system of blood transfusion testing on mistyping of transfused blood was examined. Blood transfusion tests have been performed by blood transfusion technologists during working hours and by physicians at other times. In March 2000, we introduced a system in which technologists perform blood transfusion tests after working hours. Technologists of the Blood Transfusion Unit and Central Clinical Laboratory perform the test jointly, and column agglutination technology was introduced as the test method. A computer system setup exclusively for the testing was also introduced to perform computer cross-matching. Since transfusion error is likely to occur during emergency blood transfusion, a manual was established to prioritize safety. After introduction of the system, mistyping that may have been caused by inaccurate blood test results markedly decreased, confirming the usefulness of this system for prevention of mistyping. In addition, transfusion errors also decreased in wards and the improved system increased the safety of the entire medical care system. The frequency of mistyping was about 1% when physicians performed blood typing, showing the importance of clinical technologists for blood transfusion tests. PMID:12652691

  14. Managing sleep and wakefulness in a 24-hour world.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on the sociology of sleep by exploring the sleeping practices and subjective sleep experiences of two social groups: shift workers and students. It draws on data, collected in the UK from 25 semi-structured interviews, to discuss the complex ways in which working patterns and social activities impact upon experiences and expectations of sleep in our wired awake world. The data show that, typically, sleep is valued and considered to be important for health, general wellbeing, appearance and physical and cognitive functioning. However, sleep time is often cut back on in favour of work demands and social activities. While shift workers described their efforts to fit in an adequate amount of sleep per 24-hour period, for students, the adoption of a flexible sleep routine was thought to be favourable for maintaining a work-social life balance. Collectively, respondents reported using a wide range of strategies, techniques, technologies and practices to encourage, overcome or delay sleep(iness) and boost, promote or enhance wakefulness/alertness at socially desirable times. The analysis demonstrates how social context impacts not only on how we come to think about sleep and understand it, but also how we manage or self-regulate our sleeping patterns.

  15. Metabolic changes in the urine of andrographolide sodium bisulfite-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, J D; Xing, W M; Yuan, T J; Chen, J; Lu, H

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, andrographolide sodium bisulfite (ASB) has been reported to cause acute renal failure frequently in clinical practice. We hypothesized that changes in metabolic profile could have occurred after administration of ASB. To investigate the metabolic changes caused by ASB-induced nephrotoxicity, metabonomics method was utilized to depict the urine metabolic characteristics and find the specific urine biomarkers associated with ASB-induced nephrotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three experimental groups. They received a single daily injection of vehicle (0.9% sodium chloride solution) or ASB at a dose of 100 or 600 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 7 days. Twelve-hour urine was collected after the last administration. The routine urinalysis was measured by a urine automatic analyzer while urinary metabolites were evaluated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The acquired data were processed by multivariate principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal PLS-DA. After 7-day administration of ASB, the positive urine samples in protein, occult blood, and ketones were increased, presenting dose dependence. The PCA and PLS-DA models were capable of distinguishing the difference between ASB-treated group and control. Biomarkers such as 1,5-anhydroglucitol, d-erythro-sphingosine, and 2-ketoadipate were identified as the most influential factors in ASB-induced nephrotoxicity.

  16. Coagulation abnormalities in diabetic coma before and 24 hours after treatment.

    PubMed

    McLaren, E H; Cullen, D R; Brown, M J

    1979-12-01

    A coagulation screen consisting of measurement of the prothrombin time, thrombin time, kaolin caphalin clotting time, platelet count, plasma fibrinogen level, fibrin degradation products and ethanol gelation test was performed on 24 patients with impairment of consciousness due to acute diabetic metabolic decompensation at the start of treatment and 24 hours later. 22 out of 24 patients showed at least one coagulation abnormality on admission of which the commonest were a prolonged prothrombin time, shortened kaolin cephalin clotting.time and raised plasma fibrinogen level. After 24 hours of treatment these values were more normal but 20 out of 22 patients still displayed some abnormality. 15 patients had two or more coagulation abnormalities on admission including 3 patients with haematological abnormalities suggestive of disseminated intravascular coagulation. This group was older and had higher blood ureas than those with fewer abnormalities, but plasma glucose, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate levels were similar in both groups of patients. All 5 patients with hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma and all 3 patients who died without recovering consciousness had two or more coagulation abnormalities on admission.

  17. Preparation and results of a 24-hour orbital flight.

    PubMed

    Titov, G S

    1963-01-01

    The space age presents man with unprecedented opportunities for discovery and for cooperative endeavors to benefit all mankind. My flight of August 6-7, 1961 was conducted for the purpose of determining whether man can stay and work effectively and whether all systems of the spaceship can operate successfully during a period of 24 hours in space. The flight of Vostok II represents an experimental step in a logical sequence which included the first earth orbiting flight of USSR citizen Yuri A. Gagarin. Preparation for the flight included the study of theoretical and applied subjects, testing in various kinds of apparatus which provide acceleration, heat and isolation experience, brief airborne weightless flights and parachute landings, in addition to extensive training in a real spacecraft having simulators for normal and emergency contingencies of space flight. The actual flight was therefore carried out with a sense of confidence and familiarity and with continuous close radio contact with ground centers from whom my fellow cosmonauts served as spokesmen. Sequential boosters totaling 600 000 kg thrust placed the 4731 kg spaceship into a perfect orbit varying in altitude from 178-246 km in a plane 64 degrees 58' inclined to the equator. The spaceship made 17 orbits around the earth landing 25 hours, 18 minutes after take-off. The cabin had full atmospheric pressure and a comfortable habitability which could be extended for 10 days. I was able to maneuver the spaceship and perform many other control functions, make observations and take pictures of the earth and its cloud cover, eat meals and sleep all with good efficiency. I experienced mild symptoms suggestive of seasickness which were aggravated by head turning, ameliorated by sleep and entirely relieved by resumption of g-loading during descent. Altogether analyses of the physical and structural performance of the spaceship and the continuously monitored physiological responses of the pilot indicate that all

  18. Flexibility of working hours in the 24-hour society.

    PubMed

    Costa, G

    2006-01-01

    The 24-hour Society undergoes an ineluctable process towards a social organisation where time constraints are no more restricting human life. The borders between working and social times are no more fixed and rigidly determined, and the value of working time changes according to the different economic and social effects you may consider. Shift and night work, irregular and flexible working hours, together with new technologies, are the milestone of this epochal passage. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual, the companies, and the society? What is the cost/benefit ratio in terms of health and social well-being? Coping properly with this process means avoiding a passive acceptance of it with consequent maladjustments at both individual and social level, but adopting effective preventive and compensative strategies aimed at building up a more sustainable society. Flexible working times now appear to be one of the best ways to cope with the demands of the modern life, but there are different points of view about labour and temporal 'flexibility" between employers and employees. For the former it means a prompt adaptation to market demands and technological innovations; for the latter it is a way to improve working and social life, by decreasing work constraints and increasing control and autonomy. Although it can be easily speculated that individual-based 'flexibility" should improve health and well-being, and especially satisfaction, whereas company-based flexibility" might interfere negatively, the effective consequences on health and well-being have still to be analysed properly. PMID:17017360

  19. The association between cognitive function and objective adherence to dietary sodium guidelines in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Dolansky, Mary A; Schaefer, Julie T; Hawkins, Misty AW; Gunstad, John; Basuray, Anup; Redle, Joseph D; Fang, James C; Josephson, Richard A; Moore, Shirley M; Hughes, Joel W

    2016-01-01

    Background Although cognitive impairment is common in heart failure (HF) patients, its effects on sodium adherence recommendations are unknown. Purpose Our aim is to examine if cognitive function is associated with patient sodium adherence. Methods Sodium collection/excretion and cognitive function were assessed for 339 HF patients over a 5–8-week period. Neuropsychological testing was performed at baseline (Visit 1), whereas two 24-hour urine samples were collected within 7 weeks postbaseline. The ability to collect two 24-hour urine samples and the estimation of sodium excretion levels from these samples were used to estimate sodium adherence recommendations. Results Nearly half (47%) of the study participants (n=159) were unable to give two valid 24-hour urine samples. Participants who were unable to adhere to two valid 24-hour urine samples had significantly poorer attention and global cognition tests (P<0.044), with a trend for poorer executive function (P=0.064). Among those with valid samples, urine sodium level was not associated with global cognitive function, attention, executive function, or memory after adjusting for covariates. Female sex was associated with lower sodium excretion (all P<0.01); individuals with knowledge of sodium guidelines had less intake of sodium, resulting in excretion of less sodium (all P≤0.03). Conversely, higher socioeconomic status (SES) and body mass index (BMI) were associated with greater sodium (all P≤0.02 and P≤0.01). Conclusion Adherence to urine sodium collection was poor, especially among those with poorer cognitive function. Sodium consumption exceeded recommended amounts and was unrelated to cognitive function. Interventions for improving sodium adherence should focus on at-risk groups (high SES and BMI) and at improving knowledge of recommended salt intake. PMID:27042017

  20. Effects of anesthetics pentobarbital sodium and chloral hydrate on urine proteome

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mindi; Li, Xundou; Li, Menglin

    2015-01-01

    Urine can be a better source than blood for biomarker discovery since it accumulates many changes. The urine proteome is susceptible to many factors, including anesthesia. Pentobarbital sodium and chloral hydrate are commonly used anesthetics in animal experiments. This study demonstrated the effects of these two anesthetics on the rat urine proteome using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). With anesthesia, the urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio of all rats increased twofold. The relative abundance of 22 and 23 urinary proteins were changed with pentobarbital sodium or chloral hydrate anesthesia, respectively, as determined by label-free quantification. Among these changed proteins, fifteen had been considered as candidate biomarkers such as uromodulin, and sixteen had been considered stable in healthy human urine, which are more likely to be considered as potential biomarkers when changed, such as transferrin. The pattern of changed urinary proteins provides clues to the discovery of urinary proteins regulatory mechanisms. When determining a candidate biomarker, anesthetic-related effects can be excluded from future biomarker discovery studies. Since anesthetics take effects via nervous system, this study is the first to provide clues that the protein handling function of the kidney may possibly be regulated by the nervous system. PMID:25789206

  1. 24 hour blood pressure monitoring in healthy and hypertensive children.

    PubMed Central

    Reusz, G S; Hóbor, M; Tulassay, T; Sallay, P; Miltényi, M

    1994-01-01

    24 Hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed to provide data on the normal daily blood pressure of healthy schoolchildren and on patients with hypertension. The subjects studied were 123 healthy schoolchildren with a mean (SD) age of 12.5 (1.6) years (range 9.5-14.5 years), 24 children with borderline or mild hypertension, 17 with renal hypertension and normal renal function, 10 with chronic renal failure, and six with a renal allograft. In eight children with definite renal disease a second measurement was performed after treatment modification. The monitor used for ABPM was validated with a mercury column manometer. The mean (SD) of the signed differences of the blood pressure measured by the two methods was -0.19 (1.75) mmHg for the systolic and -0.21 (2.11) mmHg for the diastolic blood pressure (n = 60). Normal values for daytime and night time blood pressure were determined for those aged 10-14 years. The mean (SD) blood pressure of the 123 children was 109 (7)/66 (8) mmHg (systolic/diastolic) for the daytime and 96 (8)/52 (7) mmHg at night time. Of the 24 children with borderline or mild hypertension 14 had a raised blood pressure on ABPM. The circadian rhythm was disturbed in three children of this group. Even children with normal daytime blood pressure had significantly higher systolic blood pressure in the night when compared with the controls. The incidence of disturbed circadian rhythm was higher in the groups with renal hypertension (4/17 in the subgroup with normal renal function, 5/16 in the group with renal failure and/or transplantation). All children undergoing a second ABPM measurement had a lower average blood pressure after treatment adjustment. ABPM measurements were reproducible and accurate. The method provided new data on the physiological circadian variation of blood pressure in healthy children. It proved to be a helpful tool in the diagnosis of hypertension, particularly in the detection of cases of disturbance of the

  2. Agreement between twenty-four hour salt ingestion and sodium excretion in a controlled environment

    PubMed Central

    Lerchl, Kathrin; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Rauh, Manfred; Goller, Ulrike; Basner, Mathias; Dinges, David F.; Beck, Luis; Agureev, Alexander; Larina, Irina; Baranov, Victor; Morukov, Boris; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Vassilieva, Galina; Wabel, Peter; Vienken, Jörg; Kirsch, Karl; Johannes, Bernd; Krannich, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C.; Titze, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Accurately collected 24-hour urine collections are presumed to be valid for estimating salt intake in individuals. We performed two independent ultra-long-term salt balance studies lasting 105 (4 men) and 205 (6 men) days in 10 men simulating a flight to Mars. We controlled dietary intake of all constituents for months at salt intakes of 12, 9, and 6 grams per day and collected all urine. The subjects’ daily menus consisted of 27,279 individual servings, out of which 83.0% were completely consumed, 16.5% completely rejected, and 0.5% incompletely consumed. Urinary recovery of dietary salt was 92% of recorded intake, indicating long-term steady state sodium balance in both studies. Even at fixed salt intake, 24-hour sodium excretion (UNaV) showed infradian rhythmicity. We defined a ±25 mmol deviation from the average difference between recorded sodium intake and UNaV as the prediction interval to accurately classify a 3-gram difference in salt intake. Due to the biological variability in UNaV, only every-other daily urine sample correctly classified a 3-gram difference in salt intake (49%). By increasing the observations to three consecutive 24-hour collections and sodium intakes, classification accuracy improved to 75%. Collecting seven 24-hour urines and sodium intake samples improved classification accuracy to 92%. We conclude that single 24-hour urine collections at intakes ranging from 6–12 grams salt per day were not suitable to detect a 3-gram difference in individual salt intake. Repeated measurements of 24-hour UNaV improve precision. This knowledge could be relevant to patient care and the conduct of intervention trials. PMID:26259596

  3. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Chen, Hui; Bo, Jian; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    24-h urinary sodium excretion is the gold standard for evaluating dietary sodium intake, but it is often not feasible in large epidemiological studies due to high participant burden and cost. Three methods—Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka—have been proposed to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these methods have not been validated in the general Chinese population. This aim of this study was to assess the validity of three methods for estimating 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples against measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion in a Chinese sample population. Data are from a substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study that enrolled 120 participants aged 35 to 70 years and collected their morning fasting urine and 24-h urine specimens. Bias calculations (estimated values minus measured values) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity of the three estimation methods. 116 participants were included in the final analysis. Mean bias for the Kawasaki method was -740 mg/day (95% CI: -1219, 262 mg/day), and was the lowest among the three methods. Mean bias for the Tanaka method was -2305 mg/day (95% CI: -2735, 1875 mg/day). Mean bias for the INTERSALT method was -2797 mg/day (95% CI: -3245, 2349 mg/day), and was the highest of the three methods. Bland-Altman plots indicated that all three methods underestimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urines all underestimated true 24-h urinary sodium excretion in this sample of Chinese adults. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was least biased, but was still relatively inaccurate. A more accurate method is needed to estimate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine for assessment of dietary sodium intake in China. PMID:26895296

  4. High energy deficit in an ultraendurance athlete in a 24-hour ultracycling race

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ferran A.; Iglesias, Xavier; Benítez, Adolfo; Marina, Míchel; Padullés, Josep M.; Torrado, Priscila; Vázquez, Jairo; Knechtle, Beat

    2012-01-01

    This case study examined the nutritional behavior and energy balance in an official finisher of a 24-hour ultracycling race. The food and beverages consumed by the cyclist were continuously weighed and recorded to estimate intake of energy, macronutrients, sodium, and caffeine. In addition, during the race, heart rate was continuously monitored. Energy expenditure was assessed using a heart rate–oxygen uptake regression equation obtained previously from a laboratory test. The athlete (39 years, 175.6 cm, 84.2 kg, maximum oxygen uptake, 64 mL/kg/min) cycled during 22 h 22 min, in which he completed 557.3 km with 8760 m of altitude at an average speed of 25.1 km/h. The average heart rate was 131 beats/min. Carbohydrates were the main macronutrient intake (1102 g, 13.1 g/kg); however, intake was below current recommendations. The consumption of protein and fat was 86 g and 91 g, respectively. He ingested 20.7 L (862 mL/h) of fluids, with sport drinks the main fluid used for hydration. Sodium concentration in relation to total fluid intake was 34.0 mmol/L. Caffeine consumption over the race was 231 mg (2.7 mg/kg). During the race, he expended 15,533 kcal. Total energy intake was 5571 kcal, with 4058 (73%) and 1513 (27%) kcal derived from solids and fluids, respectively. The energy balance resulted in an energy deficit of 9915 kcal. PMID:22481841

  5. Establishing normal plasma and 24-hour urinary biochemistry ranges in C3H, BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice following acclimatization in metabolic cages.

    PubMed

    Stechman, Michael J; Ahmad, Bushra N; Loh, Nellie Y; Reed, Anita A C; Stewart, Michelle; Wells, Sara; Hough, Tertius; Bentley, Liz; Cox, Roger D; Brown, Steve D M; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2010-07-01

    Physiological studies of mice are facilitated by normal plasma and 24-hour urinary reference ranges, but variability of these parameters may increase due to stress that is induced by housing in metabolic cages. We assessed daily weight, food and water intake, urine volume and final day measurements of the following: plasma sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, cholesterol and glucose; and urinary sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, glucose and protein in 24- to 30-week-old C3H/HeH, BALB/cAnNCrl and C57BL/6J mice. Between 15 and 20 mice of each sex from all three strains were individually housed in metabolic cages with ad libitum feeding for up to seven days. Acclimatization was evaluated using general linear modelling for repeated measures and comparison of biochemical data was by unpaired t-test and analysis of variance (SPSS version 12.0.1). Following an initial 5-10% fall in body weight, daily dietary intake, urinary output and weight in all three strains reached stable values after 3-4 days of confinement. Significant differences in plasma glucose, cholesterol, urea, chloride, calcium and albumin, and urinary glucose, sodium, phosphate, calcium and protein were observed between strains and genders. Thus, these results provide normal reference values for plasma and urinary biochemistry in three strains housed in metabolic cages and demonstrate that 3-4 days are required to reach equilibrium in metabolic cage studies. These variations due to strain and gender have significant implications for selecting the appropriate strain upon which to breed genetically-altered models of metabolic and renal disease.

  6. Tolvaptan Prolongs Blockage of the Vasopressin Type II Receptor Over 24 Hours in Responders With Stage D Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Komuro, Issei

    2016-01-01

    The urine aquaporin-2 (U-AQP2) level relative to the plasma arginine vasopressin (P-AVP) level is a novel predictor of the responsiveness to the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) antagonist tolvaptan (TLV). However, little has been reported about the concentration-time profile of U-AQP2 after TLV treatment. We evaluated 24 patients with decompensated stage D heart failure (HF) who had received 3.75 mg/day of TLV on a de novo basis for > 7 days to treat congestion refractory to conventional diuretics. Seventeen patients were TLV-responders, whose 24-hour urine volume (UV) increased after TLV initiation; the other 7 patients were TLV-non-responders. The U-AQP2 of the TLV-responders, corrected for the urine creatinine concentration, decreased significantly at 4 hours after TLV administration without returning to the day-1 morning level on the morning of day-7. The TLV-non-responder U-AQP2 levels remained low even before the TLV treatment. On the morning of day-7, the TLV-responder U-AQP2/P-AVP ratio was comparable to that of the TLV-non-responders. Among 18 patients (11 responders and 7 non-responders), the day-7 TLV trough concentration was 64 ± 62 ng/mL and was negatively correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). TLV has antagonistic effects on the V2R over 24 hours in TLV-responders with advanced heart failure and chronic kidney disease, probably due to persistently elevated blood TLV concentration. The unresponsiveness to TLV in the TLV-non-responders is not attributable to malabsorption. PMID:26742881

  7. Removal of sodium chloride from human urine via batch recirculation electrodialysis at constant applied voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordils-Striker, Nilda E.; Colon, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    The removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) from human urine using a six-compartment electrodialysis cell with batch recirculation mode of operation for use in advanced life support systems (ALSS) was studied. From the results obtained, batch recirculation at constant applied voltage yields high values (approximately 94% of NaCl removal. Based on the results, the initial rate of NaCl removal was correlated to a power function of the applied voltage: -r=2.0 x 10(-4)E(3.8). With impedance spectroscopy methods, it was also found that the anion membranes were more affected by fouling with an increase of the ohmic resistance of almost 11% compared with 7.4% for the cationic ones.

  8. Spectrophotometric and chemometric methods for determination of imipenem, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, dexamethasone sodium phosphate, paracetamol and cilastatin sodium in human urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kosasy, A. M.; Abdel-Aziz, Omar; Magdy, N.; El Zahar, N. M.

    2016-03-01

    New accurate, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric and chemometric methods were developed and subsequently validated for determination of Imipenem (IMP), ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIPRO), dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DEX), paracetamol (PAR) and cilastatin sodium (CIL) in human urine. These methods include a new derivative ratio method, namely extended derivative ratio (EDR), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares (PLS) methods. A novel EDR method was developed for the determination of these drugs, where each component in the mixture was determined by using a mixture of the other four components as divisor. Peak amplitudes were recorded at 293.0 nm, 284.0 nm, 276.0 nm, 257.0 nm and 221.0 nm within linear concentration ranges 3.00-45.00, 1.00-15.00, 4.00-40.00, 1.50-25.00 and 4.00-50.00 μg mL- 1 for IMP, CIPRO, DEX, PAR and CIL, respectively. PCR and PLS-2 models were established for simultaneous determination of the studied drugs in the range of 3.00-15.00, 1.00-13.00, 4.00-12.00, 1.50-9.50, and 4.00-12.00 μg mL- 1 for IMP, CIPRO, DEX, PAR and CIL, respectively, by using eighteen mixtures as calibration set and seven mixtures as validation set. The suggested methods were validated according to the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the results revealed that they were accurate, precise and reproducible. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the published methods and there was no significant difference.

  9. Estimation of 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure Peak Timing and Variation Using a Contact Lens Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, John H. K.; Mansouri, Kaweh; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare estimates of 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) peak timing and variation obtained using a contact lens sensor (CLS) and using a pneumatonometer. Methods Laboratory data collected from 30 healthy volunteers (ages, 20-66 years) in a randomized, controlled clinical trial were analyzed. Participants were housed for 24 hours in a sleep laboratory. One randomly selected right or left eye was fitted with a CLS that monitored circumferential curvature in the corneoscleral region related to the change of IOP. Electronic output signals of 30 seconds were averaged and recorded every 5 minutes. In the contralateral eye, habitual IOP measurements were taken using a pneumatonometer once every two hours. Simulated 24-hour rhythms in both eyes were determined by cosinor fitting. Simulated peak timings (acrophases) and simulated data variations (amplitudes) were compared between the paired eyes. Results Bilateral change patterns of average 24-hour data for the group were in parallel. The simulated peak timing in the CLS fitted eye occurred at 4:44 AM ± 210 min (mean ± SD) and the IOP peak timing in the contralateral eye at 4:11 AM ± 120 min (P=0.256, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). There was no significant correlation between the simulated data variations in the paired eyes (P=0.820, linear regression). Conclusions The 24-hour CLS data showed a simulated peak timing close to the 24-hour IOP peak timing obtained using the pneumatonometer. However, the simulated variations of 24-hour data in the paired eyes were not correlated. Estimated 24-hour IOP rhythms using the two devices should not be considered interchangeable. PMID:26076472

  10. 24-Hour ICH Score Is a Better Predictor of Outcome than Admission ICH Score

    PubMed Central

    Aysenne, Aimee M.; Albright, Karen C.; Mathias, Tiffany; Chang, Tiffany R.; Boehme, Amelia K.; Beasley, T. Mark; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    Background The ICH score is a validated tool for predicting 30-day morbidity and mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Aims and/or Hypothesis The aim of this study is to determine if the ICH score calculated 24 hours after admission is a better predictor of mortality than the ICH score calculated on admission. Methods Patients presenting to our center with ICH from 7/08-12/10 were retrospectively identified from our prospective stroke registry. ICH scores were calculated based on initial Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and emergent head computed tomography (CT) on initial presentation and were recalculated after 24 hours. Results A total of 91 patients out of 121 had complete data for admission and 24-hour ICH score. The ICH score changed in 38% from baseline to 24 hours. After adjusting for age, NIHSS on admission, and glucose, ICH score at 24 hours was a significant, independent predictor of mortality (OR = 2.71, 95% CI 1–19–6.20, and P = 0.018), but ICH score on admission was not (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 0.88-5.24, and P = 0.095). Conclusion Early determination of the ICH score may incorrectly estimate the severity and expected outcome after ICH. Calculations of the ICH score 24 hours after admission will better predict early outcomes.

  11. Dissociated 24-hour patterns of somatotropin and prolactin in fatal familial insomnia.

    PubMed

    Portaluppi, F; Cortelli, P; Avoni, P; Vergnani, L; Maltoni, P; Pavani, A; Sforza, E; Manfredini, R; Montagna, P; Roiter, I

    1995-06-01

    To assess the changes in the 24-hour profiles of serum somatotropin and prolactin levels during total disruption of the sleep/wake cycle sustained over several months, we studied 2 subjects affected by fatal familial insomnia, a rare disease characterized by selective thalamic degeneration that causes chronic sleep loss. Under standardized conditions and polysomnographic control, the patients underwent repeated 24-hour study sessions covering the entire clinical course of the disease. Hormones were assayed at 30-min intervals. Four healthy volunteers were used as controls. A sleep/wake cycle was always absent in fatal familial insomnia. Serum somatotropin and prolactin concentrations never exceeded the normal range of variation. The nocturnal elevation of somatotropin disappeared simultaneously with sleep loss, whereas a significant 24-hour component of variations in serum prolactin levels was present for months after total disruption of the sleep/wake cycle, with normally placed nocturnal acrophases. Complete obliteration of the 24-hour component was achieved for prolactin only in the advanced stages, through a progressive decrease in 24-hour amplitude of variation. Selective and progressive degeneration of the mediodorsal and anterior ventral nuclei of the thalamus causes an early obliteration of the 24-hour rhythm of somatotropin and a later disappearance of circadian prolactin rhythmicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Aldosterone-to-Renin Ratio Is Associated With Reduced 24-Hour Heart Rate Variability and QTc Prolongation in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grübler, Martin R.; Kienreich, Katharina; Gaksch, Martin; Verheyen, Nicolas; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó.; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; März, Winfried; Schmid, Johannes; Oberreither, Eva-Maria; Wetzel, Julia; Catena, Cristiana; Sechi, Leonardo A.; Pieske, Burkert; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pilz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aldosterone is considered to exert direct effects on the myocardium and the sympathetic nervous system. Both QT time and heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) are considered to be markers of arrhythmic risk and autonomous dysregulation. In this study, we investigated the associations between aldosterone, QT time, and HRV in patients with arterial hypertension. We recruited 477 hypertensive patients (age: 60.2 ± 10.2 years; 52.3% females) with a mean systolic/diastolic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) value of 128 ± 12.8/77.1 ± 9.2 mmHg and with a median of 2 (IQR: 1–3) antihypertensive agents. Patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Department of Internal Medicine of the Medical University of Graz, Austria. Blood samples, 24-hour HRV derived from 24-hour blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and ECG's were obtained. Plasma aldosterone and plasma renin concentrations were measured by means of a radioimmunoassay. Twenty-four-hour urine specimens were collected in parallel with ABPM. Mean QTc was 423.3 ± 42.0 milliseconds for males and 434.7 ± 38.3 milliseconds for females. Mean 24H-HR and 24H-HRV was 71.9 ± 9.8 and 10.0 ± 3.6 bpm, respectively. In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, ABPM, and current medication, aldosterone to active renin ratio (AARR) was significantly associated with the QTc interval, a marker for cardiac repolarization abnormalities (mean = 426 ± 42.4 milliseconds; β-coefficient = 0.121; P = 0.03) as well as with the 24-hour heart rate variability a surrogate for autonomic dysfunction (median = 9.67 [IQR = 7.38–12.22 bpm]; β-coefficient = −0.133; P = 0.01). In hypertensive patients, AARR is significantly related to QTc prolongation as well as HRV. Further studies investigating the effects of mineralocorticoid receptor blocker and aldosterone synthase inhibitors on QTc and HRV are warranted

  13. 24-hour central blood pressure and intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes in untreated subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bednarek, Agnieszka; Jankowski, Piotr; Olszanecka, Agnieszka; Windak, Adam; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recently, 24-hour monitoring of central systolic blood pressure (SBP) has become available. However, the relation between end-organ damage and the 24-hour central SBP profile and variability has not so far been analyzed. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relation between 24-hour central SBP, 24-hour central SBP profile as well as central SBP short-term variability and parameters of cardiac and vascular intermediate phenotypes. Methods: The study group consisted of 50 patients with newly diagnosed, untreated hypertension (age 40.4 ± 11.5 years, 35 men) and 50 normotensive subjects (age 38.3 ± 12.0 years, 35 men). Applanation tonometry of the radial artery and the “n-point forward moving average” method were used to determine 24-hour central SBP. Each study participant underwent echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography. Results: 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime central SBP was related to left ventricle end-diastole diameter (p < 0.05), left ventricular mass index (p < 0.001), relative wall thickness (p < 0.05), E/E’ ratio (p < 0.01), and left atrium volume (p < 0.01). The nocturnal central SBP fall was not related to any of the mentioned parameters, whereas parameters of short-term variability were related to IMT in hypertensives only (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The present study showed that 24-hour central SBP is related to intermediate cardiac phenotypes as assessed by echocardiography whereas short-term central SBP variability is mainly related to vascular phenotype as determined by IMT. PMID:25628959

  14. Microtensile bond strength of resin-resin interfaces after 24-hour and 2-month soaking.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Curry; Boberick, Kenneth G; Winkler, Sheldon

    2007-01-01

    Evaluate the bond strengths of denture base-repair materials to minimize recurrent failure rate. Use microtensile bond strength (muTBS) testing to evaluate the interfacial bonding strength of 6 commercial denture repair materials after 24-hour and 12-month soaking. Blocks of poly(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) and Triad were fabricated, fractured, and repaired. Twenty bars (1 x 1 x 30 mm) per group were sectioned from each block parallel to the long axis and approximately 90 degrees to the resin-resin repair interface and stored before muTBS testing in a servo-hydraulic tensile-testing machine. Intact PMMA and Triad bars that had been soaked for 24 hours and 12 months were tested for reference. The 24-hour repair strengths for PMMA ranged from 52% to 84% of original strength. Soaking for 12 months resulted in a 20% decrease in strength for the PMMA control. The 12-month repair strengths for PMMA ranged from 43% to 74% of the 12-month soaked material strength. Triad repair tested 35% of original strength after soaking for 24 hours. Permabond (cyanoacrylate) to PMMA tested 47% of original strength after 24 hours of soaking and 26% of the 12-month soaked material strength. Permabond to Triad tested 30% of original strength after 24 hours of soaking. Permabond and Triad showed a 100% adhesive mode of failure. All other materials tested exhibited either an adhesive mode of failure at the denture base-repair-material interface or a complex cohesive failure within the repair-material interface. The muTBS approach can be used to analyze the resin-resin interface of repaired acrylics. The relatively small standard deviations make the muTBS approach attractive. In this study, muTBS was used to evaluate the repair strength of 6 denture repair materials enabling clinicians to make clinical judgments regarding the strongest repair bond available. PMID:17987865

  15. Mood-Dependent Cognitive Change in a Man with Bipolar Disorder Who Cycles Every 24 Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Dominic; Mansell, Warren

    2008-01-01

    A case study of a bipolar patient whose mood changes every 24 hours is described to illustrate the changes in cognitive processing and content during different phases of bipolar disorder. The participant completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks on 4 separate occasions: twice when depressed and twice when manic. Depression tended to be…

  16. Leg skinfold thicknesses and race performance in male 24-hour ultra-marathoners.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    The association of skinfold thicknesses with race performance has been investigated in runners competing over distances of ≤50 km. This study investigated a potential relation between skinfold thicknesses and race performance in male ultra-marathoners completing >50 km in 24 hours. Variables of anthropometry, training, and previous performance were related to race performance in 63 male ultra-marathoners aged 46.9 (standard deviation [SD] 10.3) years, standing 1.78 (SD 0.07) m in height, and weighing 73.3 (SD 7.6) kg. The runners clocked 146.1 (SD 43.1) km during the 24 hours. In the bivariate analysis, several variables were associated with race performance: body mass (r = -0.25); skinfold thickness at axilla (r = -0.37), subscapula (r = -0.28), abdomen (r = -0.31), and suprailiaca (r = -0.30); the sum of skinfold thicknesses (r = -0.32); percentage body fat (r = -0.32); weekly kilometers run (r = 0.31); personal best time in a marathon (r = -0.58); personal best time in a 100-km ultra-run (r = -0.31); and personal best performance in a 24-hour run (r = 0.46). In the multivariate analysis, no anthropometric or training variable was related to race performance. In conclusion, in contrast to runners up to distances of 50 km, skinfold thicknesses of the lower limbs were not related to race performance in 24-hour ultra-marathoners.

  17. The Three-Continent, 24-Hour Help Desk: An Academic First?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Describes Follow the Sun, a computer help-desk service that takes advantage of time differences around the world to permit four universities (University of Colorado Boulder, Australia's Macquarie and Newcastle universities, and the London School of Economics) to share services and provide 24-hour support to users. (EV)

  18. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  19. Oropharyngeal 24-Hour pH Monitoring in Children With Airway-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Mesallam, Tamer A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diagnosis and clinical presentation of pediatric laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is still controversial. The aims of this work were to study the possibility of performing 24-hour oropharyngeal pH monitoring for children in the outpatient clinic setup and to explore the results of this test in correlation to airway-related problems. Methods In this descriptive qualitative study, 26 children suffering from airway-related problems were included. Oropharyngeal 24-hour pH monitoring was performed for all subjects in the outpatient clinic setting. The distribution of airway diagnoses among the study group was studied versus the results of the pH monitoring. Results There were 16 males and 10 females participated in the study with a mean age of 6.88 (SD, ±5.77) years. Thirty-five percent of the patients were under the age of 3 years (range, 11 months to 3 years). Eight-five percent of the patients tolerated the pH probe insertion and completed 24-hour of pH recording. Laryngomalacia and subglottic stenosis (SGS) were more frequently reported in the positive LPR patients (77%). Conclusion Oropharyngeal 24-hour pH monitoring can be conducted for children in the outpatient setup even in young age children below 3 years old. Among the positive LPR group, SGS and laryngomalacia were the most commonly reported airway findings. PMID:27090271

  20. Seasonal changes of 24-hour intraocular pressure rhythm in healthy Shanghai population

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jingyi; Xiao, Ming; Xu, Huan; Fang, Shaobin; Chen, Xu; Kong, Xiangmei; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythms in winter and summer in the healthy population of Shanghai, China. This is a cross-sectional study in which 24-hour IOP measurements were taken for all eligible healthy volunteers in winter and summer, respectively, and the temperature, hours of sunlight (sunlight time), and circulatory parameters, including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, were also recorded. The 24-hour IOP curves and IOP parameters (mean, peak, trough, and fluctuation of IOP together with the diurnal-to-nocturnal IOP change) in winter and summer were obtained and compared. The magnitude of IOP changes from summer to winter was also calculated. A total of 29 participants (58 eyes), 14 (48.28%) male and 15 (51.72%) female, aged 43.66 ± 12.20 (19–61) years, were considered eligible for this study. Generally, IOP decreased progressively before noon, increased notably in the nocturnal period, and peaked at 12:00 am in winter and at 2:00 am in summer. The pattern of 24-hour IOP in winter and summer was significantly different (P = 0.002). The average IOPs from 4:00 pm to 8:00 am, except for 6:00 am, were significantly higher in winter (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were shown after adjusting for temperature and/or sunlight time. From summer to winter, the extent of IOP increase was mostly around 0 to 3 mm Hg, and the IOPs increased more significantly in the nocturnal period than in the diurnal period (P = 0.05). The 24-hour IOP rhythms were different in winter and summer, with higher IOP level in winter. Temperature and sunlight time, which are independent of heart rate and blood pressure, affected the 24-hour IOP rhythms in healthy people in Shanghai, China. Further investigations are expected for the rhythm of some endogenous substance secretion and the inner mechanism of regulation of IOP. PMID:27495076

  1. [Identification of paroxysmal, transient arrhythmias: Intermittent registration more efficient than the 24-hour Holter monitoring].

    PubMed

    Hendrikx, Tijn; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Sandström, Herbert; Persson, Mats; Hörnsten, Rolf

    2015-01-06

    Many patients suffer from palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. These patients are often referred for Holter ECG (24 hour), although the sensitivity for detecting arrhythmias is low. A new method, short intermittent regular and symptomatic ECG registrations at home, might be a convenient and more sensitive alternative also suitable for primary health care. In this case report we present a patient who had contacted health care several times during a seven year period for paroxysmal palpitations. Routine examination with 24 hour Holter ECG and event recorder did not result in a diagnosis. Using intermittent handheld ECG registration at home, a paroxysmal supraventricular arrhythmia was diagnosed. Further investigation revealed that the patient had a concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome.

  2. Pulmonary function in mechanically-ventilated patients during 24-hour use of a hygroscopic condensor humidifier.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, N R; Anderson, H R; Silver, R M; Schuler, F R; Coleman, R E

    1983-11-01

    Hygroscopic condensor humidifiers (HCH) are reportedly capable of humidifying even the driest of ventilator source gases with at least 30 mg H2O/liter of ventilation. To assess the adequacy of the HCH during mechanical ventilation, we studied 26 patients over a 72-hour period (alternating 24-hour periods of humidification by a conventional cascade and the HCH). In these patients, we found no significant difference in static lung compliance, airway resistance, PaO2, and PaCO2 on either system. Additionally, estimates of sputum volume (over a four-hour collection period) and clearance of aerosolized 99mTc labelled DTPA (in five of these patients) also showed no significant differences between the two systems. We conclude that the HCH is capable of supplying necessary heat and moisture to most mechanically-ventilated patients for at least a period of 24 hours.

  3. Demonstration that thiazole-orange-positive platelets in the dog are less than 24 hours old.

    PubMed

    Dale, G L; Friese, P; Hynes, L A; Burstein, S A

    1995-04-01

    Approximately 6% of dog platelets are positive for staining with thiazole orange, a dye frequently used to stain ribonucleic acid. In this report, thiazole-orange positivity is shown to mark platelets that are less than 24 hours old. Dog platelets were derivatized in vivo with N-hydroxysuccinimido biotin such that greater than 95% of all platelets were biotinylated. Newly synthesized, nonbiotinylated platelets were then monitored by flow cytometry for their ability to bind thiazole orange. After biotinylation, the percentage of biotin-negative, thiazole-orange-positive platelets increased gradually from 0.72% at 30 minutes to 5.44% at 24 hours. These data indicate that thiazole-orange staining does label newly synthesized platelets.

  4. [Contraceptive effect of spermicide on cervical mucus in vivo after 24 hours (authors transl)].

    PubMed

    Batallan, L; Brissi, J; Commerot, J

    1980-10-01

    Efficacy of Alpagelle, a vaginal contraceptive jelly containing benzalkonium chlorohydrate, was tested on 34 women who had been using it for some. The testing was conducted using fresh human spermatozoa, and measuring the penetration into the cervical mucus 24 hours after instillation of 2 ml. of Alpagelle. Maximum penetration of spermatozoa before immobilization and death was 2/10 mm., while it is 2mm. a minute under normal conditions. Alpagelle has no contraindications, and only 1 application every 24 hours will provide contraceptive protection; such method could be ideal for women presenting temporary or permanent contraindications to the IUD, or to the pill, or to those who wish to opt for a method free of side effects. PMID:12262152

  5. Circadian Polymorphisms in Night Owls, in Bipolars, and in Non-24-Hour Sleep Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Klimecki, Walter T.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Rex, Katharine M.; Murray, Sarah S.; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J.; Loving, Richard T.; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F.; Poceta, J. Steven; Jamil, Shazia M.; Kline, Lawrence E.; Kelsoe, John R.

    2014-01-01

    People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression. PMID:25395965

  6. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deitrick, Ronald W.; Hillman, Angela R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK: 19172 ± 4542 kJ versus NoBK: 15312 ± 4513 kJ; p < 0.001) and evening (BK: 12265 ± 4278 kJ versus NoBK: 10833 ± 4065; p = 0.039) energy intake and RQ (BK: 0.90 ± 0.03 versus NoBK: 0.86 ± 0.03; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise (5.2 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L; p = 0.025). Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management. PMID:27738523

  7. Assessing variability of the 24-hour pad weight test in men with post-prostatectomy incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Rena D.; Cohn, Joshua A.; Fedunok, Pauline A.; Chung, Doreen E.; Bales, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Decision-making regarding surgery for post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI) is challenging. The 24-hour pad weight test is commonly used to objectively quantify PPI. However, pad weight may vary based upon activity level. We aimed to quantify variability in pad weights based upon patient-reported activity. Materials and Methods: 25 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were prospectively enrolled. All patients demonstrated clinical stress urinary incontinence without clinical urgency urinary incontinence. On three consecutive alternating days, patients submitted 24-hour pad weights along with a short survey documenting activity level and number of pads used. Results: Pad weights collected across the three days were well correlated to the individual (ICC 0.85 (95% CI 0.74–0.93), p<0.001). The mean difference between the minimum pad weight leakage and maximum leakage per patient was 133.4g (95% CI 80.4–186.5). The mean increase in 24-hour leakage for a one-point increase in self-reported activity level was 118.0g (95% CI 74.3–161.7, p<0.001). Pad weights also varied significantly when self-reported activity levels did not differ (mean difference 51.2g (95% CI 30.3–72.1), p<0.001). Conclusions: 24-hour pad weight leakage may vary significantly on different days of collection. This variation is more pronounced with changes in activity level. Taking into account patient activity level may enhance the predictive value of pad weight testing. PMID:27256187

  8. Circadian polymorphisms in night owls, in bipolars, and in non-24-hour sleep cycles.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F; Klimecki, Walter T; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Rex, Katharine M; Murray, Sarah S; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Tranah, Gregory J; Loving, Richard T; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Rhee, Min Kyu; Shadan, Farhad F; Poceta, J Steven; Jamil, Shazia M; Kline, Lawrence E; Kelsoe, John R

    2014-10-01

    People called night owls habitually have late bedtimes and late times of arising, sometimes suffering a heritable circadian disturbance called delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). Those with DSPS, those with more severe progressively-late non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and those with bipolar disorder may share genetic tendencies for slowed or delayed circadian cycles. We searched for polymorphisms associated with DSPS in a case-control study of DSPS research participants and a separate study of Sleep Center patients undergoing polysomnography. In 45 participants, we resequenced portions of 15 circadian genes to identify unknown polymorphisms that might be associated with DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, or bipolar comorbidities. We then genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both larger samples, using Illumina Golden Gate assays. Associations of SNPs with the DSPS phenotype and with the morningness-eveningness parametric phenotype were computed for both samples, then combined for meta-analyses. Delayed sleep and "eveningness" were inversely associated with loci in circadian genes NFIL3 (rs2482705) and RORC (rs3828057). A group of haplotypes overlapping BHLHE40 was associated with non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles, and less robustly, with delayed sleep and bipolar disorder (e.g., rs34883305, rs34870629, rs74439275, and rs3750275 were associated with n=37, p=4.58E-09, Bonferroni p=2.95E-06). Bright light and melatonin can palliate circadian disorders, and genetics may clarify the underlying circadian photoperiodic mechanisms. After further replication and identification of the causal polymorphisms, these findings may point to future treatments for DSPS, non-24-hour rhythms, and possibly bipolar disorder or depression. PMID:25395965

  9. Impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) drop within 24 hours after cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joshua Kuang-Chao; Chuang, Ann Yi-Chiun; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Li, Lieber Po-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Previous animal study revealed that post-implantation electrical detection levels significantly declined within days. The impact of cochlear implant (CI) insertion on human auditory pathway in terms of impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) variation within hours after surgery remains unclear, since at this time frequency mapping can only commence weeks after implantation due to factors associated with wound conditions. The study presented our experiences with regards to initial switch-on within 24 hours, and thus the findings about the milieus inside cochlea within the first few hours after cochlear implantation in terms of impedance/ECAP fluctuations. The charts of fifty-four subjects with profound hearing impairment were studied. A minimal invasive approach was used for cochlear implantation, characterized by a small skin incision (≈ 2.5 cm) and soft techniques for cochleostomy. Impedance/ECAP was measured intro-operatively and within 24 hours post-operatively. Initial mapping within 24 hours post-operatively was performed in all patients without major complications. Impedance/ECAP became significantly lower measured within 24 hours post-operatively as compared with intra-operatively (p<0.001). There were no differences between pre-operative and post-operative threshold for air-conduction hearing. A significant drop of impedance/ECAP in one day after cochlear implantation was revealed for the first time in human beings. Mechanisms could be related to the restoration of neuronal sensitivity to the electrical stimulation, and/or the interaction between the matrix enveloping the electrodes and the electrical stimulation of the initial switch-on. Less wound pain/swelling and soft techniques both contributed to the success of immediate initial mapping, which implied a stable micro-environment inside the cochlea despite electrodes insertion. Our research invites further studies to correlate initial impedance/ECAP changes with long

  10. Impedance and Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential (ECAP) Drop within 24 Hours after Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joshua Kuang-Chao; Chuang, Ann Yi-Chiun; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Li, Lieber Po-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Previous animal study revealed that post-implantation electrical detection levels significantly declined within days. The impact of cochlear implant (CI) insertion on human auditory pathway in terms of impedance and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) variation within hours after surgery remains unclear, since at this time frequency mapping can only commence weeks after implantation due to factors associated with wound conditions. The study presented our experiences with regards to initial switch-on within 24 hours, and thus the findings about the milieus inside cochlea within the first few hours after cochlear implantation in terms of impedance/ECAP fluctuations. The charts of fifty-four subjects with profound hearing impairment were studied. A minimal invasive approach was used for cochlear implantation, characterized by a small skin incision (≈2.5 cm) and soft techniques for cochleostomy. Impedance/ECAP was measured intro-operatively and within 24 hours post-operatively. Initial mapping within 24 hours post-operatively was performed in all patients without major complications. Impedance/ECAP became significantly lower measured within 24 hours post-operatively as compared with intra-operatively (p<0.001). There were no differences between pre-operative and post-operative threshold for air-conduction hearing. A significant drop of impedance/ECAP in one day after cochlear implantation was revealed for the first time in human beings. Mechanisms could be related to the restoration of neuronal sensitivity to the electrical stimulation, and/or the interaction between the matrix enveloping the electrodes and the electrical stimulation of the initial switch-on. Less wound pain/swelling and soft techniques both contributed to the success of immediate initial mapping, which implied a stable micro-environment inside the cochlea despite electrodes insertion. Our research invites further studies to correlate initial impedance/ECAP changes with long

  11. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  12. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders.

  13. 24-hour-restraint stress induces long-term depressive-like phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xixia; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Zhiqiang; Lou, Jingyu; Song, Wei; Li, Jing; Liang, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Song, Jinjing; Dong, Yujie; Chen, Shiqing; He, Lin; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing risk of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among survivors who were trapped in rubble during earthquake. Such long-term impaction of a single acute restraint stress has not been extensively explored. In this study, we subjected mice to 24-hour-restraint to simulate the trapping episode, and investigated the acute (2 days after the restraint) and long-term (35 days after the restraint) impacts. Surprisingly, we found that the mice displayed depression-like behaviors, decreased glucose uptake in brain and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis 35 days after the restraint. Differential expression profiling based on microarrays suggested that genes and pathways related to depression and other mental disorders were differentially expressed in both PFC and hippocampus. Furthermore, the depression-like phenotypes induced by 24-hour-restraint could be reversed by fluoxetine, a type of antidepressant drug. These findings demonstrated that a single severe stressful event could produce long-term depressive-like phenotypes. Moreover, the 24-hour-restraint stress mice could also be used for further studies on mood disorders. PMID:27609090

  14. Continuous 24-hour intraocular pressure monitoring for glaucoma--time for a paradigm change.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, K; Weinreb, R

    2012-01-01

    Glaucoma is the main cause of irreversible blindness and intraocular pressure (IOP) is its only modifiable risk factor. The importance of robust lowering of IOP for prevention of glaucoma onset and progression is well established. Although IOP is a dynamic parameter with individual circadian rhythms, current management usually relies on single IOP measurements during regular clinic hours performed a few times a year. Recent technological advances have provided clinicians with tools for continuous IOP monitoring during a 24 hour period in an ambulatory setting. There are two approaches being investigated. The first is permanent IOP monitoring through an implantable sensor and the other is temporary monitoring through a contact lens sensor. In this article, we discuss the shortcomings of the current gold standard for tonometry (Goldmann Applanation Tonometry) and the current experience with the first commercially available continuous 24 hour IOP monitoring technology (SENSIMED Triggerfish®); a telemetric contact lens sensor produced by a Swiss start-up company (Sensimed AG, Lausanne, Switzerland). Recent studies suggest that 24 hour continuous monitoring of IOP can be integrated into clinical practice and have the potential to contribute to the reduction of glaucoma-related vision loss.

  15. Changes in platelet morphology and function during 24 hours of storage.

    PubMed

    Braune, S; Walter, M; Schulze, F; Lendlein, A; Jung, F

    2014-01-01

    aggregates could be visualized microscopically. After four hours, first debris and very small aggregates occurred. After 24 hours, platelet aggregates and also debris progressively increased. In accordance to this, the CASY system revealed an increase of platelet aggregates (up to 90 μm diameter) with increasing storage time. The percentage of CD62P positive platelets and PF4 increased significantly with storage time in resting PRP. When soluble ADP was added to stored PRP samples, the number of activatable platelets decreased significantly over storage time. The present study reveals the importance of a consequent standardization in the preparation of WB and PRP. Platelet morphology and function, particularly platelet reactivity to adherent or soluble agonists in their surrounding milieu, changed rapidly outside the vascular system. This knowledge is of crucial interest, particularly in the field of biomaterial development for cardiovascular applications, and may help to define common standards in the in vitro hemocompatibility testing of biomaterials.

  16. Validation of triple pass 24-hour dietary recall in Ugandan children by simultaneous weighed food assessment

    PubMed Central

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Amorut, Denis; Nakuya, Margaret; Arimi, Margaret; Frost, Gary; Maitland, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition remains highly prevalent in African children, highlighting the need for accurately assessing dietary intake. In order to do so, the assessment method must be validated in the target population. A triple pass 24 hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation has been described but not previously validated in African children. This study aimed to establish the relative validity of 24-hour dietary recalls of daily food consumption in healthy African children living in Mbale and Soroti, eastern Uganda compared to simultaneous weighed food records. Methods Quantitative assessment of daily food consumption by weighed food records followed by two independent assessments using triple pass 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. In conjunction with household measures and standard food sizes, volumes of liquid, dry rice, or play dough were used to aid portion size estimation. Inter-assessor agreement, and agreement with weighed food records was conducted primarily by Bland-Altman analysis and secondly by intraclass correlation coefficients and quartile cross-classification. Results 19 healthy children aged 6 months to 12 years were included in the study. Bland-Altman analysis showed 24-hour recall only marginally under-estimated energy (mean difference of 149kJ or 2.8%; limits of agreement -1618 to 1321kJ), protein (2.9g or 9.4%; -12.6 to 6.7g), and iron (0.43mg or 8.3%; -3.1 to 2.3mg). Quartile cross-classification was correct in 79% of cases for energy intake, and 89% for both protein and iron. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the separate dietary recalls for energy was 0.801 (95% CI, 0.429-0.933), indicating acceptable inter-observer agreement. Conclusions Dietary assessment using 24-hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation resulted in similar and acceptable estimates of dietary intake compared with weighed food records and thus is considered a valid method for daily dietary intake assessment of

  17. Static stretching can impair explosive performance for at least 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Monoem; Dridi, Amir; Chtara, Moktar; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Behm, David; Chamari, Karim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static vs. dynamic stretching (DS) on explosive performances and repeated sprint ability (RSA) after a 24-hour delay. Sixteen young male soccer players performed 15 minutes of static stretching (SS), DS, or a no-stretch control condition (CC) 24 hours before performing explosive performances and RSA tests. This was a within-subject repeated measures study with SS, DS, and CC being counterbalanced. Stretching protocols included 2 sets of 7 minutes 30 seconds (2 repetitions of 30 seconds with a 15-second passive recovery) for 5 muscle groups (quadriceps, hamstring, calves, adductors, and hip flexors). Twenty-four hours later (without any kind of stretching in warm-up), the players were tested for the 30-m sprint test (with 10- and 20-m lap times), 5 jump test (5JT), and RSA test. Significant differences were observed between CC, SS, and DS with 5JT (F = 9.99, p < 0.00, effect size [ES] = 0.40), 10-m sprint time (F = 46.52, p < 0.00, ES = 0.76), 20-m sprint time (F = 18.44, p < 0.000, ES = 0.55), and 30-m sprint time (F = 34.25, p < 0.000, ES = 0.70). The significantly better performance (p < 0.05) was observed after DS as compared with that after CC and SS in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. In contrast, significantly worse performance (p < 0.05) was observed after SS as compared with that after CC in 5JT, and sprint times for 10, 20, and 30 m. With RSA, no significant difference was observed between different stretching protocols in the total time (F = 1.55, p > 0.05), average time (F = 1.53, p > 0.05), and fastest time (F = 2.30, p > 0.05), except for the decline index (F = 3.54, p < 0.04, ES = 0.19). Therefore, the SS of the lower limbs and hip muscles had a negative effect on explosive performances up to 24 hours poststretching with no major effects on the RSA. Conversely, the DS of the same muscle groups are highly recommended 24 hours before performing sprint and long-jump performances. In

  18. Reliable Quantification of the Potential for Equations Based on Spot Urine Samples to Estimate Population Salt Intake: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liping; Crino, Michelle; Wu, Jason HY; Woodward, Mark; Land, Mary-Anne; McLean, Rachael; Webster, Jacqui; Enkhtungalag, Batsaikhan; Nowson, Caryl A; Elliott, Paul; Cogswell, Mary; Toft, Ulla; Mill, Jose G; Furlanetto, Tania W; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Hong, Yet Hoi; Cohall, Damian; Luzardo, Leonella; Noboa, Oscar; Holm, Ellen; Gerbes, Alexander L; Senousy, Bahaa; Pinar Kara, Sonat; Brewster, Lizzy M; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Subramanian, Srinivas; Teo, Boon Wee; Allen, Norrina; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Polonia, Jorge; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Campbell, Norm RC; Neal, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Background Methods based on spot urine samples (a single sample at one time-point) have been identified as a possible alternative approach to 24-hour urine samples for determining mean population salt intake. Objective The aim of this study is to identify a reliable method for estimating mean population salt intake from spot urine samples. This will be done by comparing the performance of existing equations against one other and against estimates derived from 24-hour urine samples. The effects of factors such as ethnicity, sex, age, body mass index, antihypertensive drug use, health status, and timing of spot urine collection will be explored. The capacity of spot urine samples to measure change in salt intake over time will also be determined. Finally, we aim to develop a novel equation (or equations) that performs better than existing equations to estimate mean population salt intake. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data will be conducted. A search has been conducted to identify human studies that report salt (or sodium) excretion based upon 24-hour urine samples and spot urine samples. There were no restrictions on language, study sample size, or characteristics of the study population. MEDLINE via OvidSP (1946-present), Premedline via OvidSP, EMBASE, Global Health via OvidSP (1910-present), and the Cochrane Library were searched, and two reviewers identified eligible studies. The authors of these studies will be invited to contribute data according to a standard format. Individual participant records will be compiled and a series of analyses will be completed to: (1) compare existing equations for estimating 24-hour salt intake from spot urine samples with 24-hour urine samples, and assess the degree of bias according to key demographic and clinical characteristics; (2) assess the reliability of using spot urine samples to measure population changes in salt intake overtime; and (3) develop a novel equation that performs

  19. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared to the written-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared to the written-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written-assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared to the current written record based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared to either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

  20. [Electrocardiographic recording of long duration (Holter) of 24 hours during idiopathic cardiomyopathy of the peripartum].

    PubMed

    Diao, M; Diop, I B; Kane, A; Camara, S; Kane, Ad; Sarr, M; Ba, S A; Diouf, S M

    2004-01-01

    The idiopathic myocardiopathy of the peripartum (IMPP) is a frequent disease in the Soudano-Sahelian zone of Africa whose evolution is loaded with many complications hemodynamic, thrombo-embolic and rhythmic. The prevalence and the meaning of the rhythm disorders are unknown. The aims of this prospective study are to measure and to describe the prevalence of the anomalies observed in Holter ECG of 24 hours. It's about a description cross-sectional study realized at the Cardiology Department (CHU Dakar) and 19 patients with IMPP were included, from October 2000 to July 2002. A recording ECG of 24 hours (Holter) was realized on all the patients. The average age was 29.4+/-6.9 years with a low socio-economic level (100%). The diagnosis of IMPP done before childbirth in 4 cases (21%) and the post partum on 15 patients (78.9%). The dyspnea was constant, the chest pain in 12 cases (63.1%) and palpitations in 8 cases (42%). The average rate of hemoglobin was of 10.85+/-2.05 g/dL. The standard electrocardiogram recorded a sinusal tachycardia (68.4%), a cavitary hypertrophy (78.8%), and disorders of the repolarization (47.3%). The cardiac echo-Doppler noted a cavitary dilatation (84.2%), a constant alteration of the left ventricular systolic function with a fraction of average ejection of 29.7+/-10.3%. The anatomy of the valves was normal. The recording Holter ECG of 24 hours recorded a sinusal tachycardia in 17 cases (89.4%), ventricular extrasystoles on 7 patients (36.8%), 4 cases of ventricular tachycardia non-sustained and double ventricular extrasystole on 1 patient, auricular extrasystoles in 4 cases (21%) and 1 case of auriculo-ventricular block of the first degree. The study of heart rate variability founded a mean value of 106 ms.

  1. Development of an artificial placenta IV: 24 hour venovenous extracorporeal life support in premature lambs.

    PubMed

    Gray, Brian W; El-Sabbagh, Ahmed; Rojas-Pena, Alvaro; Kim, Anne C; Gadepali, Samir; Koch, Kely L; Capizzani, Tony R; Bartlet, Robert H; Mychaliska, George B

    2012-01-01

    An extracorporeal artificial placenta would change the paradigm of treating extremely premature infants. We hypothesized that a venovenous extracorporeal life support (VV-ECLS) artificial placenta would maintain fetal circulation, hemodynamic stability, and adequate gas exchange for 24 hours. A near-term neonatal lamb model (130 days; term = 145 days) was used (n = 9). The right jugular vein was cannulated for VV-ECLS outflow, and an umbilical vein was used for inflow. The circuit included a peristaltic roller pump and a 0.5 m(2) hollow fiber oxygenator. Lambs were maintained on VV-ECLS in an "amniotic bath" for up to 24 hours. Five of nine fetuses survived for 24 hours. In the survivors, average mean arterial pressure was 69 ± 10 mm Hg for the first 4 hours and 36 ± 8 mm Hg for the remaining 20 hours. The mean fetal heart rate was 202 ± 30. Mean VV-ECLS flow was 94 ± 20 ml/kg/min. Using a gas mixture of 50% O(2)/3% CO(2) and sweep flow of 1-2 L/min, the mean pH was 7.27 ± 0.09, with Po(2) of 35 ± 12 mm Hg and Pco(2) of 48 ± 12 mm Hg. Necropsy revealed a patent ductus arteriosus in all cases, and there was no gross or microscopic intracranial hemorrhage. Complications in failed attempts included technically difficult cannulation and multisystem organ failure. Future studies will enhance stability and address the factors necessary for long-term support.

  2. Treating allergic conjunctivitis: A once-daily medication that provides 24-hour symptom relief

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Jack; Donnenfeld, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is a common ocular inflammatory manifestation of allergen exposure in sensitized individuals. Signs and symptoms of AC can decrease quality of life, interfere with productivity, and lead to considerable economic burden. Consistent suppression of conjunctival inflammation is necessary for managing AC, but currently available medications require frequent administration and exhibit limited duration of action. Methods: In this review, we summarized AC pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment options as well as their limitations. Findings from the literature were discussed in the context of the unmet need for a once-daily medication with sustained 24-hour effectiveness. Results: Topical pharmacologic treatments are the most common approach for managing extant AC; however, most available medications require multiple daily instillations. Dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizing agents are currently considered first-line therapeutics for AC because they provide acute relief of signs and symptoms and block persistent inflammation to promote regression of AC. Recent studies of a newly-developed, higher-concentration formulation of a dual-acting antihistamine-mast cell stabilizer have demonstrated that this formulation provides a 24-hour duration of action with once-daily dosing. Conclusions: Dual-acting AC medications exhibit a high degree of overall effectiveness and are well tolerated for chronic use. A newly available once-daily medication that manages signs and symptoms of AC for a full 24 hours may be considered a treatment of choice for patients experiencing seasonal or perennial AC. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01743027 and NCT01479374 PMID:27466061

  3. Evaluation of Intradermal and Subcutaneous Infusion Set Performance Under 24-Hour Basal and Bolus Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McVey, Elaine; Keith, Steven; Herr, Joshua K.; Sutter, Diane; Pettis, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study sought to assess the function and delivery reliability of intradermal (ID) infusion sets used with commercial insulin pumps. Method: Healthy subjects (n = 43) were randomized to either ID or subcutaneous (SC) arms, and received basal/bolus placebo delivery for 24 hours. Subjects received 4 of 8 infusion set combinations (ID: microneedle design A or B, with 2 pump brands [Animas or MiniMed]; SC: Teflon Quickset or steel Rapid-D, Animas pump only, with or without overtaping) and were evaluated for pump occlusion alarms, fluid leakage, pain, and tissue tolerability. A novel algorithm was developed to determine flow consistency based on fluid pressure, and the duration and occurrence rate for periods of unalarmed but interrupted flow (“silent occlusions’”) were compared. Results: ID delivery was successfully maintained over the 24-hour infusion period. The number of silent occlusions was lower for ID microneedle cannula design B than A (P < .01) and lower for Rapid-D SC device compared to Quick-set (P = .03). There was no significant difference in the number of occlusion alarms between the ID and SC devices with the Animas pump. However, the pumps tested with ID devices had significantly different alarm rates (MiniMed 29.5%, Animas 0%, P < .001). Leakage and tissue tolerability were comparable across devices. Conclusion: The ID infusion set reliably delivered diluent for an extended 24-hour period in healthy subjects and was well tolerated. Silent occlusion flow interruptions could be detected in both ID and SC infusion sets using a proprietary algorithm. This algorithm is a promising method for quantitatively evaluating infusion set flow performance. PMID:26319228

  4. Fluid and electrolyte balance during 24-hour fluid and/or energy restriction.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2013-12-01

    Weight categorized athletes use a variety of techniques to induce rapid weight loss (RWL) in the days leading up to weigh in. This study examined the fluid and electrolyte balance responses to 24-hr fluid restriction (FR), energy restriction (ER) and fluid and energy restriction (F+ER) compared with a control trial (C), which are commonly used techniques to induce RWL in weight category sports. Twelve subjects (six male, six female) received adequate energy and water (C) intake, adequate energy and restricted water (~10% of C; FR) intake, restricted energy (~25% of C) and adequate water (ER) intake or restricted energy (~25% of C) and restricted (~10% of C) water intake (F+ER) in a randomized counterbalanced order. Subjects visited the laboratory at 0 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr for blood and urine sample collection. Total body mass loss was 0.33% (C), 1.88% (FR), 1.97% (ER), and 2.44% (F+ER). Plasma volume was reduced at 24 hr during FR, ER, and F+ER, while serum osmolality was increased at 24 hr for FR and F+ER and was greater at 24 hr for FR compared with all other trials. Negative balances of sodium, potassium, and chloride developed during ER and F+ER but not during C and FR. These results demonstrate that 24 hr fluid and/ or energy restriction significantly reduces body mass and plasma volume, but has a disparate effect on serum osmolality, resulting in hypertonic hypohydration during FR and isotonic hypohydration during ER. These findings might be explained by the difference in electrolyte balance between the trials.

  5. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... the 2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' 74 FR 58688... Federal Regulations DC District of Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR... EPA finalized designations for the 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS (74 FR 58688, November 13, 2009), the...

  6. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire Versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Kelly, Michael J; Parsons, Susan K; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE × 100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors.

  7. Intermittent short ECG recording is more effective than 24-hour Holter ECG in detection of arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patients report symptoms of palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. These patients are often referred for 24-hour Holter ECG, although the sensitivity for detecting relevant arrhythmias is comparatively low. Intermittent short ECG recording over a longer time period might be a convenient and more sensitive alternative. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of 24-hour Holter ECG with intermittent short ECG recording over four weeks to detect relevant arrhythmias in patients with palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. Methods Design: prospective, observational, cross-sectional study. Setting: Clinical Physiology, University Hospital. Patients: 108 consecutive patients referred for ambiguous palpitations or dizziness/presyncope. Interventions: All individuals underwent a 24-hour Holter ECG and additionally registered 30-second handheld ECG (Zenicor EKG® thumb) recordings at home, twice daily and when having cardiac symptoms, during 28 days. Main outcome measures: Significant arrhythmias: atrial fibrillation (AF), paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), atrioventricular (AV) block II–III, sinus arrest (SA), wide complex tachycardia (WCT). Results 95 patients, 42 men and 53 women with a mean age of 54.1 years, completed registrations. Analysis of Holter registrations showed atrial fibrillation (AF) in two patients and atrioventricular (AV) block II in one patient (= 3.2% relevant arrhythmias [95% CI 1.1–8.9]). Intermittent handheld ECG detected nine patients with AF, three with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) and one with AV-block-II (= 13.7% relevant arrhythmias [95% CI 8.2–22.0]). There was a significant difference between the two methods in favour of intermittent ECG with regard to the ability to detect relevant arrhythmias (P = 0.0094). With Holter ECG, no symptoms were registered during any of the detected arrhythmias. With intermittent ECG, symptoms were registered during half of the arrhythmia

  8. Nutritional behavior of cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race: a field study report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information about behavior of energy intake in ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race is scarce. The nutritional strategy during such an event is an important factor which athletes should plan carefully before the race. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the nutritional intake of ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race with the current nutritional guidelines for endurance events. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship among the nutritional and performance variables. Methods Using a observational design, nutritional intake of eight males (mean ± SD: 36.7 ± 4.7 years; 71.6 ± 4.9 kg; 174.6 ± 7.3 cm; BMI 23.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2) participating in a 24-hour team relay cycling race was assessed. All food and fluid intake by athletes were weighed and recorded. Additionally, distance and speed performed by each rider were also recorded. Furthermore, before to the race, all subjects carried out an incremental exercise test to determine two heart rate-VO2 regression equations which were used to estimate the energy expenditure. Results The mean ingestion of macronutrients during the event was 943 ± 245 g (13.1 ± 4.0 g/kg) of carbohydrates, 174 ± 146 g (2.4 ± 1.9 g/kg) of proteins and 107 ± 56 g (1.5 ± 0.7 g/kg) of lipids, respectively. This amount of nutrients reported an average nutrient intake of 22.8 ± 8.9 MJ which were significantly lower compared with energy expenditure 42.9 ± 6.8 MJ (P = 0.012). Average fluid consumption corresponded to 10497 ± 2654 mL. Mean caffeine ingestion was 142 ± 76 mg. Additionally, there was no relationship between the main nutritional variables (i.e. energy intake, carbohydrates, proteins, fluids and caffeine ingestion) and the main performance variables (i.e. distance and speed). Conclusions A 24-hour hours cycling competition in a team relay format elicited high energy demands which were not compensated by energy intake of the athletes despite that dietary

  9. Assessing Dietary Intake in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Food Frequency Questionnaire versus 24-Hour Diet Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B.; Must, Aviva; Wong, William W.; Gilhooly, Cheryl H.; Kelly, Michael J.; Parsons, lkSusan K.; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet recalls (24HRs) against total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water method in 16 childhood cancer survivors. Dietary underreporting, assessed by (EI-TEE)/TEE ×100%, was 22% for FFQ and 1% for repeated 24HRs. FFQ significantly underestimates dietary intake and should not be used to assess the absolute intake of foods and nutrients in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:25883059

  10. Assessing U.S. sodium intake through dietary data and urine biomarkers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium intake is directly related to blood pressure, a primary risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Reducing intake is estimated to save billions in U.S. health care dollars annually. Current public health recommendations and efforts targeting sodium reductions make accurate monitoring of pop...

  11. Dietary quality varies according to data collection instrument: a comparison between a food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; de Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes; De Cnop, Mara Lima; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Coura, Camila Pinheiro; Brito, Alessandra Page; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the agreement between the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R), estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and multiple 24-hour recalls (24h-R). The Wilcoxon paired test, partial correlations (PC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman method were used. The total BHEI-R scores and its components ("total fruits", "whole fruits", "total vegetables", "integral cereals", "saturated fat", "sodium", and "energy intake derived from solid fat, added sugar, and alcoholic beverages") were statistically different, with the ICC and PC indicating poor concordance and correlation. The mean concordance estimated for the total BHEI-R and its components varied from 68% for "integral cereals" to 147% for "whole fruits". The suitable concordance limits were violated for most of the components of the BHEI-R. Poor concordance was observed between the BHEI-R estimated by the FFQ and by multiple 24h-R, which indicated a strong reliability of the BHEI-R on the instrument used to collect information on food consumption. PMID:26910251

  12. Regional Neurodegeneration and Gliosis Are Amplified by Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Repeated at 24-Hour Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Amanda Nicholle; Saatman, Kathryn Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Most traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) that occur every year are classified as ‘mild’. Individuals involved in high-risk activities may sustain multiple mild TBIs. We evaluated the acute physiological and histopathological consequences of mild TBI in a mouse model, comparing sham injury, single impact, or 5 impacts at a 24- or 48-hour inter-injury interval. A single closed skull impact resulted in bilateral gliosis in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex that was proportional to impact depth. Midline impact, at a depth just above the threshold to induce transient unconsciousness, produced occasional axonal injury and degenerating neurons accompanied by astrogliosis in the entorhinal cortex and cerebellum. Mild TBI repeated every 24 hours resulted in bilateral hemorrhagic lesions in the entorhinal cortex along with significantly increased neurodegeneration and microglial activation despite diminished durations of apnea and unconsciousness with subsequent impacts. Astrogliosis and diffusely distributed axonal injury were also observed bilaterally in the cerebellum and the brainstem. When the interval between mild TBIs was increased to 48 hours, the pathological consequences were comparable to a single TBI. Together, these data suggest that in mice the brain remains at increased risk for damage for 24 hours after mild TBI despite reduced acute physiological responses to subsequent mild impacts. PMID:25232942

  13. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. PMID:27525110

  14. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m(2), had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab(®) device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens(®) algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for "24-hour", "awake", and "asleep" periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects.

  15. A Compute Perspective: Delivering Decision Support Products in 24 Hours from the Airborne Snow Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, P.; Mattmann, C. A.; Painter, T. H.; Seidel, F. C.; Trangsrud, A.; Hart, A. F.; Goodale, C. E.; Boardman, J. W.; Heneghan, C.; Verma, R.; Khudikyan, S.; Boustani, M.; Zimdars, P. A.; Horn, J.; Neely, S.

    2013-12-01

    The JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) must process 100s of GB of raw data to 100s of Terabytes of derived data in 24 hour Near Real Time (NRT) latency in a geographically distributed mobile compute and data-intensive processing setting. ASO provides meaningful information to water resource managers in the Western US letting them know how much water to maintain; or release, and what the prospectus of the current snow season is in the Sierra Nevadas. Providing decision support products processed from airborne data in a 24 hour timeframe is an emergent field and required the team to develop a novel solution as this process is typically done over months. We've constructed a system that combines Apache OODT; with Apache Tika; with the Interactive Data Analysis (IDL)/ENVI programming environment to rapidly and unobtrusively generate, distribute and archive ASO data as soon as the plane lands near Mammoth Lakes, CA. Our system is flexible, underwent several redeployments and reconfigurations, and delivered this critical information to stakeholders during the recent "Snow On" campaign March 2013 - June 2013. This talk will take you through a day in the life of the compute team from data acquisition, delivery, processing, and dissemination. Within this context, we will discuss the architecture of ASO; the open source software we used; the data we stored; and how it was delivered to its users. Moreover we will discuss the logistics, system engineering, and staffing that went into the developing, deployment, and operation of the mobile compute system.

  16. Deviation of innate circadian period from 24 hours reduces longevity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Libert, Sergiy; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Pointer, Kelli; Pletcher, Scott D.; Guarente, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Summary The variation of individual lifespans, even in highly inbred cohorts of animals and under strictly controlled environmental conditions, is substantial and not well understood. This variation in part could be due to epigenetic variation, which later affects the animal’s physiology and ultimately longevity. Identification of the physiological properties that impact health and lifespan is crucial for longevity research and the development of anti-aging therapies. Here we measured individual circadian and metabolic characteristics in a cohort of inbred F1 hybrid mice and correlated these parameters to their lifespans. We found that mice with innate circadian periods close to 24 hours (revealed during 30 days of housing in total darkness) enjoyed nearly 20% longer lifespans than their littermates, which had shorter or longer innate circadian periods. These findings show that maintenance of a 24 hour intrinsic circadian period is a positive predictor of longevity. Our data suggest that circadian period may be used to predict individual longevity and that processes that control innate circadian period affect aging. PMID:22702406

  17. Sleep in healthy elderly subjects: a 24-hour ambulatory polysomnographic study.

    PubMed

    Gigli, G L; Placidi, F; Diomedi, M; Maschio, M; Silvestri, G; Scalise, A; Marciani, M G

    1996-04-01

    It is still debated whether the deterioration of the sleep pattern, frequently reported by elderly subjects, is due only to aging per se. Other factors associated with aging or modifications of biological rhythms could also be involved. Elderly subjects frequently complain of daytime sleepiness, but it is not clear whether this actually represents a return to a polyphasic structure of sleep, or only a consequence of a disturbed night sleep. Ten healthy, independent and active elderly subjects (age > 72 years) were elevated by means of 24-hour ambulatory polysomnography. Findings of nocturnal sleep were compared with sleep of the same group in the 24-hour period and with sleep of young healthy controls. We observed a fragmentation of nocturnal sleep, but a fairly good representation of stages and a preservation of cyclicity. Except for three cases, with early or late times of sleep onset and wake-up, sleep disruption did not seem to be related to modification of circadian rhythms. Only three subjects presented undesired daytime naps, whereas the others either did not show daytime sleep at all, or were used to having their siesta after lunch since their young adulthood. In normal aging, daytime sleep does not constitute a social problem. Ambulatory polysomnography is a valid alternative to laboratory recordings in the identification of daytime sleep. PMID:8734563

  18. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sarah C; Gauthier, Angela C; Liu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. PMID:27525110

  19. PHYSICIAN-PHARMACIST CO-MANAGEMENT AND 24-HOUR BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ziqian; Ernst, Michael E.; Ardery, Gail; Xu, Yinghui; Carter, Barry L.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: to compare indices of 24-hour BP following a physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention and to describe the associated changes in antihypertensive medications. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective, cluster-randomized clinical trial conducted in 6 family medicine clinics randomized to co-managed (n=3 clinics, 176 subjects) or control (n=3 clinics, 198 subjects) groups. Mean ambulatory systolic BP was significantly lower in the co-managed versus the control group: daytime SBP 122.8 mm Hg versus 134.4 mm Hg (p<0.001); nighttime SBP 114.8 mm Hg versus 123.7 mm Hg (p<0.001); and 24-hour SBP 120.4 mm Hg versus 131.8 mm Hg (p<0.001), respectively. Significantly more drug changes were made in the co-managed than in the control group (2.7 versus 1.1 changes/subject, p<0.001), and there was greater diuretic use in co-managed subjects (79.6% versus 62.6%, p<0.001). Ambulatory BPs were significantly lower for the subjects who had a diuretic added during the first month compared with those who never had a diuretic added (p<0.01). Physician-pharmacist co-management significantly improved ambulatory BP compared with a control group. Anti-hypertensive drug therapy was intensified much more for subjects in the co-managed group. PMID:23614849

  20. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m(2), had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab(®) device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens(®) algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for "24-hour", "awake", and "asleep" periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects. PMID:24812515

  1. Identification of Methylated Dithioarsenicals in the Urine of Rats Fed with Sodium Arsenite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baowei; Lu, Xiufen; Arnold, Lora L; Cohen, Samuel M; Le, X Chris

    2016-09-19

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic results in the formation of methylarsenicals of both oxygen and sulfur analogues. Aiming to improve our understanding of metabolism of inorganic arsenic in animals, we conducted an animal feeding study with an emphasis on identifying new arsenic metabolites. Female F344 rats were given 0, 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μg/g of arsenite (iAs(III)) in the diet. Arsenic species in rat urine were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI MS/MS) detection. Nine arsenic species were detected in the urine of the iAs(III)-dosed rats. Seven of these arsenic species were consistent with previous reports, including iAs(III), arsenate, monomethyarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, trimethylarsine oxide, monomethylmonothioarsonic acid, and dimethylmonothioarsinic acid. Two new methyldithioarsencals, monomethyldithioarsonic acid (MMDTA(V)) and dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTA(V)), were identified for the first time in the urine of rats treated with iAs(III). The concentrations of both MMDTA(V) and DMDTA(V) in rat urine were dependent on the dosage of iAs(III) in diet. The concentration of DMDTA(V) was approximately 5 times higher than that of MMDTA(V). MMDTA(V) has not been identified in any biological samples of animals, and DMDTA(V) has not been reported as a metabolite of inorganic arsenic in the rats. The identification of novel methylated dithioarsenicals as metabolites of inorganic arsenic in the rat urine provided further insights into the understanding of the metabolism of arsenic. PMID:27463804

  2. Identification of Methylated Dithioarsenicals in the Urine of Rats Fed with Sodium Arsenite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baowei; Lu, Xiufen; Arnold, Lora L; Cohen, Samuel M; Le, X Chris

    2016-09-19

    Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic results in the formation of methylarsenicals of both oxygen and sulfur analogues. Aiming to improve our understanding of metabolism of inorganic arsenic in animals, we conducted an animal feeding study with an emphasis on identifying new arsenic metabolites. Female F344 rats were given 0, 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μg/g of arsenite (iAs(III)) in the diet. Arsenic species in rat urine were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI MS/MS) detection. Nine arsenic species were detected in the urine of the iAs(III)-dosed rats. Seven of these arsenic species were consistent with previous reports, including iAs(III), arsenate, monomethyarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, trimethylarsine oxide, monomethylmonothioarsonic acid, and dimethylmonothioarsinic acid. Two new methyldithioarsencals, monomethyldithioarsonic acid (MMDTA(V)) and dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTA(V)), were identified for the first time in the urine of rats treated with iAs(III). The concentrations of both MMDTA(V) and DMDTA(V) in rat urine were dependent on the dosage of iAs(III) in diet. The concentration of DMDTA(V) was approximately 5 times higher than that of MMDTA(V). MMDTA(V) has not been identified in any biological samples of animals, and DMDTA(V) has not been reported as a metabolite of inorganic arsenic in the rats. The identification of novel methylated dithioarsenicals as metabolites of inorganic arsenic in the rat urine provided further insights into the understanding of the metabolism of arsenic.

  3. Turbulent diffusion on the solar photosphere through 24-hour continuous observations of magnetic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannattasio, F.; Berrilli, F.; Del Moro, D.; Bellot Rubio, L.; Orozco Suarez, D.; Gosic, M.

    2012-12-01

    Solar atmosphere is a unique laboratory for the study of turbulent flows under extreme conditions (e.g. very high Reynolds numbers). The turbulent nature of the flow may be approached by determining how magnetic flux elements are transported on the solar surface, and measuring the spatio-temporal scales on which these small magnetic structures are organized. The process involved is diffusion. Several works explored this topic, both by simulations and observations, and the results are often contradictory, ranging from fully-developed turbulent scenarios to normal-diffusive motions. We analyze 24-hour continuous Hinode SOT observations of a supergranular region (for the first time these long scales are explored), studying the evolution of the mutual distance between magnetic element pairs and its scaling laws, in order to investigate the diffusion process. We find a super-diffusive behavior, with a gamma index depending on the spatial scale selected.

  4. After 24-hour scrub, another tower rollback for the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    As tower rollback begins, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for the second launch attempt at 4:04 p.m. EST. The original launch was scrubbed on Feb. 6 for 24 hours. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  5. Chest physiotherapy in preterm infants with RDS in the first 24 hours of life.

    PubMed

    Raval, D; Yeh, T F; Mora, A; Cuevas, D; Pyati, S; Pildes, R S

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate if chest physiotherapy is beneficial to premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) during the first 24 hours of life, 20 infants were randomly assigned to two groups; 10 infants in Group I received routine chest physiotherapy and suction, and 10 infants in Group II received suction only. The birth weight, gestational age, postnatal age, Apgar scores, blood gases, acid-base status, and ventilatory requirements prior to study were comparable between the two groups. There were no significant differences between the groups in the amount of endotracheal secretions removed, the PO2/FIO2 ratio, blood gases, and pH during the study. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), Grade I and II intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and mortality was comparable. However, five of 10 Group I and zero of 10 Group II infants developed Grade III or IV IVH (P less than 0.05).

  6. [Development of direct and indirect ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure monitoring].

    PubMed

    Krönig, B

    1991-01-01

    The direct ambulatory 24-hour blood-pressure monitoring has been applied in two ways. With the so called "Oxford-system", blood pressure is recorded via a cannula in the brachial artery which is connected to a perfusion unit that is worn around the neck, on the front of the chest, with a tape recorder carried in a pouch on the patient's belt. Using the micro-catheter blood-pressure telemetry recording is done in the same way, but transmission of the data to a stationary-receiving unit is managed by telemetry. The usage of the latter method is limited by the weight and complexity of the patient-sited equipment. Compared to the Oxford-system there is the advantage of continuously observing the patients blood-pressure "on-line" during the recording. The invasive character of both methods limits the application to special, scientific investigations. In recent years the indirect recording machines for 24-hour blood-pressure monitoring has been developed further. They are now accurate, easy to apply and simple to work out. Beside the auscultatory way of recording, with or without ECG-gating, the oscillometry recording machines have been improved. There should be automatically-operated intervals with recordings in day-time every 15-20 minutes and during the night every 30 minutes. The recorded data should be analysed by computer, calculating mean values with standard deviations in day-time and night-time separately. Further more, there should be a listing of reading-errors and probably corrected measurements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index derived from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang; Dolan, Eamon; Gao, Ping-Jin; Guo, Hui-Feng; Nawrot, Tim; Stanton, Alice V; Zhu, Ding-Liang; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2006-03-01

    We hypothesized that 1 minus the slope of diastolic on systolic pressure during 24-hour ambulatory monitoring (ambulatory arterial stiffness index [AASI]) might reflect arterial stiffness. We compared AASI with established measures of arterial stiffness and studied its distribution in Chinese and European populations. We used 90207 SpaceLabs monitors and the SphygmoCor device to measure AASI, central and peripheral pulse pressures, the central (CAIx) and peripheral (PAIx) systolic augmentation indexes, and aortic pulse wave velocity. In 166 volunteers, the correlation coefficient between AASI and pulse wave velocity was 0.51 (P<0.0001). In 348 randomly recruited Chinese subjects, AASI correlated (P<0.0001) with CAIx (r=0.48), PAIx (r=0.50), and central pulse pressure (r=0.50). AASI increased with age and mean arterial pressure but decreased with body height. Both before and after adjustment for arterial wave reflections by considering height and heart rate as covariates, AASI correlated more (P<0.0001) closely with CAIx and PAIx than 24-hour pulse pressure. Among normotensive subjects, the 95th percentile of AASI was 0.55 in Chinese and 0.57 in 1617 Europeans enrolled in the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring. The upper boundary of the 95% prediction interval of AASI in relation to age ranged from 0.53 at 20 years to 0.72 at 80 years. In conclusion, AASI is a new index of arterial stiffness that can be easily measured under ambulatory conditions. Pending additional validation in outcome studies, normal values of AASI are probably <0.50 and 0.70 in young and older subjects, respectively. PMID:16432048

  8. A 24-Hour Study of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary Axes in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nambron, Rajasree; Costelloe, Seán J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hill, Nathan R.; Frost, Chris; Watt, Hilary C.; Hindmarsh, Peter; Björkqvist, Maria; Warner, Thomas T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Huntington’s disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Patients exhibit other symptoms including sleep and mood disturbances, muscle atrophy and weight loss which may be linked to hypothalamic pathology and dysfunction of hypothalamo-pituitary axes. Methods We studied neuroendocrine profiles of corticotropic, somatotropic and gonadotropic hypothalamo-pituitary axes hormones over a 24-hour period in controlled environment in 15 healthy controls, 14 premanifest and 13 stage II/III Huntington’s disease subjects. We also quantified fasting levels of vasopressin, oestradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free total thyroxine, prolactin, adrenaline and noradrenaline. Somatotropic axis hormones, growth hormone releasing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like factor binding protein-3 were quantified at 06:00 (fasting), 15:00 and 23:00. A battery of clinical tests, including neurological rating and function scales were performed. Results 24-hour concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone did not differ significantly between the Huntington’s disease group and controls. Daytime growth hormone secretion was similar in control and Huntington’s disease subjects. Stage II/III Huntington’s disease subjects had lower concentration of post-sleep growth hormone pulse and higher insulin-like growth factor-1:growth hormone ratio which did not reach significance. In Huntington’s disease subjects, baseline levels of hypothalamo-pituitary axis hormones measured did not significantly differ from those of healthy controls. Conclusions The relatively small subject group means that the study may not detect subtle perturbations in hormone concentrations. A targeted study of the somatotropic axis in larger cohorts may be warranted. However, the lack

  9. Low correlation between visit-to-visit variability and 24-hour variability of blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi; Diaz, Keith M.; Newman, Jonathan; Sloan, Richard P.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of clinic systolic blood pressure (SBP) has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Given the need for obtaining blood pressure (BP) at multiple visits to calculate VVV, substituting BP variability from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) may be a practical alternative. We assessed the correlation between VVV of BP and BP variability from ABPM using data from 146 untreated, mostly normotensive participants (mean age 47.9 years) in a substudy of the ongoing Masked Hypertension Study. VVV of SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was estimated by the standard deviation (SDvvv) and average real variability (ARVvvv) from 6 study visits over a median of 216 days. ABPM data were used to calculate the day-night SD (SDdn) and the ARV of SBP and DBP over 24 hours (ARV24). For SBP, the mean SDvvv and SDdn were 6.3 (SD=2.5) and 8.8 (SD=1.8) mmHg, respectively, and mean ARVvvv and ARV24 were 7.2 (SD=3.2) and 8.4 (SD=2.1) mmHg, respectively. The Spearman correlation coefficient between SDvvv and SDdn of SBP was rs=0.25 and between ARVvvv and ARV24 was rs=0.17. Participants in the highest quartile of SDdn of SBP were 1.66 (95% CI: 0.93 – 2.75) times more likely to be in the highest quartile of SDvvv of SBP. The observed-to-expected ratio between the highest quartiles of ARVvvv and ARV24 of SBP was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.41 – 1.69). The correlations for SDvvv and SDdn and ARVvvv and ARV24 of DBP were minimal. These data suggest VVV and 24-hour variability are weakly correlated and not interchangeable. PMID:23784506

  10. Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours Maps and Data of Model-Based Small Area Estimates - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    Attempt Quit Smoking 24+ Hours is defined as a person 18 years of age or older who must have reported smoking at least 100 cigarettes in his/her life, and now does not smoke at all but it has been less than 365 days since completely stopped smoking cigarettes, or now smoke everyday or some days but reported that have made attempt of quitting for more than 24 hours in the past 12 months.

  11. Sodium-induced hyperhydration decreases urine output and improves fluid balance compared with glycerol- and water-induced hyperhydration.

    PubMed

    Savoie, Félix A; Dion, Tommy; Asselin, Audrey; Goulet, Eric D B

    2015-01-01

    Before 2010, which is the year the World Anti-Doping Agency banned its use, glycerol was commonly used by athletes for hyperhydration purposes. Through its effect on osmoreceptors, we believe that sodium could prove a viable alternative to glycerol as a hyperhydrating agent. Therefore, this study compared the effects of sodium-induced hyperhydration (SIH), glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) and water-induced hyperhydration (WIH) on fluid balance responses. Using a randomized, double-blind and counterbalanced protocol, 17 men (21 ± 3 years, 64 ± 6 kg fat-free mass (FFM)) underwent three 3-h hyperhydration protocols during which they ingested, over the first 60-min period, 30 mL/kg FFM of water with (i) an artificial sweetener (WIH); (ii) an artificial sweetener + 7.45 g/L of table salt (SIH); or (iii) an artificial sweetener + 1.4 g glycerol/kg FFM (GIH). Changes in body weight (BW), urine production, fluid retention, hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma volume, and perceptual variables were monitored throughout the 3-h trials. After 3 h, SIH was associated with significantly (p < 0.05) lower hemoglobin, hematocrit (SIH: 43.1% ± 2.8%; GIH: 44.9% ± 2.4%), and urine production, as well as greater BW, fluid retention (SIH: 1144 ± 294 mL; GIH: 795 ± 337 mL), and plasma volume (SIH: 11.9% ± 12.0%; GIH: 4.0% ± 6.0%) gains, compared with GIH and WIH. No significant differences in heart rate or abdominal discomfort were observed between treatments. In conclusion, our results indicate that SIH is a superior hyperhydrating technique than, and proves to be a worthwhile alternative to, GIH.

  12. Quantification of andrographolide sodium bisulphite in urine after intravenous injection to rats by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang-Qing; Chen, Xiang-Hong; Yu, Min; Sun, Xu; Li, Zuo-Gang

    2012-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of andrographolide sodium bisulphite (ASB) in rat urine was established and validated. To our knowledge, the analytical method is the first developed assay for the determination of ASB in urine samples. Dehydroandrographolide (DAG) was used as an internal standard. ASB and DAG were separated on a C(18) column and detected at negative ion mode using the mass transitions of m/z 413.2→287.2 and m/z 331.2→303.3, respectively. Good linearity was obtained over the range of 50-5000 ng/mL and the correlation coefficient was better than 0.99. The intra- and inter-day accuracy at all levels fell in the ranges of 85.8-101.4% and 87.9-97.5%, and the intra- and inter-day precision (RSD) were in the ranges of 4.3-11.2% and 8.4-13.3%, respectively. The recovery ranged from 96.1% to 98.3% and the matrix effects from 96.2% to 98.1%. Good stability was found under tested conditions. The method was successfully applied to a urinary excretion study of ASB in rats following intravenous administration of 80 mg/kg ASB.

  13. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    PubMed

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  14. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited - A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light-dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus ("master clock") of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli ("zeitgebers"), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5-0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy might have

  15. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  16. Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder Revisited – A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Garbazza, Corrado; Bromundt, Vivien; Eckert, Anne; Brunner, Daniel P.; Meier, Fides; Hackethal, Sandra; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by two major factors: a homeostatic hourglass process (process S), which rises linearly during the day, and a circadian process C, which determines the timing of sleep in a ~24-h rhythm in accordance to the external light–dark (LD) cycle. While both individual processes are fairly well characterized, the exact nature of their interaction remains unclear. The circadian rhythm is generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (“master clock”) of the anterior hypothalamus, through cell-autonomous feedback loops of DNA transcription and translation. While the phase length (tau) of the cycle is relatively stable and genetically determined, the phase of the clock is reset by external stimuli (“zeitgebers”), the most important being the LD cycle. Misalignments of the internal rhythm with the LD cycle can lead to various somatic complaints and to the development of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD). Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) is a CRSD affecting up to 50% of totally blind patients and characterized by the inability to maintain a stable entrainment of the typically long circadian rhythm (tau > 24.5 h) to the LD cycle. The disease is rare in sighted individuals and the pathophysiology less well understood. Here, we present the case of a 40-year-old sighted male, who developed a misalignment of the internal clock with the external LD cycle following the treatment for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (ABVD regimen, four cycles and AVD regimen, four cycles). A thorough clinical assessment, including actigraphy, melatonin profiles and polysomnography led to the diagnosis of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders (N24HSWD) with a free-running rhythm of tau = 25.27 h. A therapeutic intervention with bright light therapy (30 min, 10,000 lux) in the morning and melatonin administration (0.5–0.75 mg) in the evening failed to entrain the free-running rhythm, although a longer treatment duration and more intense therapy

  17. What and how much do we eat? 24-hour dietary recall method.

    PubMed

    Salvador Castell, Gemma; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes

    2015-02-26

    Diet, along with lifestyle factors, is an important determinant of the health status of an individual and of a community. Dietary assessment at the population level provides us with key information on the frequency and distribution of possible inadequate diets and/or nutritional status. It is also useful as input into the elaboration of food and nutrition policies aiming to improve dietary habits and the health status of a community. This article reviews the characteristics, advantages and limitations of the 24-hour dietary recall method (24hDR), which is one of the most widely used tools in nutrition epidemiology to identify food, energy and nutrient intake in national nutrition surveys, cross-sectional studies, clinical trials and cohort studies as well as in the evaluation of individual dietary intake and Total Diet assessment. To reduce the key factors associated with bias, the importance of previously trained interviewers is highlighted, as well as the role of support materials and the contribution of novel technologies.

  18. Severe community-acquired pneumonia: timely management measures in the first 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Phua, Jason; Dean, Nathan C; Guo, Qi; Kuan, Win Sen; Lim, Hui Fang; Lim, Tow Keang

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) range from 17 to 48 % in published studies.In this review, we searched PubMed for relevant papers published between 1981 and June 2016 and relevant files. We explored how early and aggressive management measures, implemented within 24 hours of recognition of severe CAP and carried out both in the emergency department and in the ICU, decrease mortality in severe CAP.These measures begin with the use of severity assessment tools and the application of care bundles via clinical decision support tools. The bundles include early guideline-concordant antibiotics including macrolides, early haemodynamic support (lactate measurement, intravenous fluids, and vasopressors), and early respiratory support (high-flow nasal cannulae, lung-protective ventilation, prone positioning, and neuromuscular blockade for acute respiratory distress syndrome).While the proposed interventions appear straightforward, multiple barriers to their implementation exist. To successfully decrease mortality for severe CAP, early and close collaboration between emergency medicine and respiratory and critical care medicine teams is required. We propose a workflow incorporating these interventions. PMID:27567896

  19. Sudden cardiac arrest risk stratification based on 24-hour Holter ECG statistics.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Keisuke; Shiobara, Masahito; Nakamura, Saya; Yamashiro, Koichiro; Yana, Kazuo; Ono, Takuya

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using indices obtained from a long term Holter ECG record for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) risk stratification. The ndices tested were the QT-RR interval co-variability and the alternans ratio percentile (ARP(θ)) which is defined as the θ(th) percentile of alternans ratios over a 24 hour period. The QT-RR interval co-variabilities are evaluated by the serial correlation coefficient between QT and RR trend sequences (QTRC). Previously reported Kalman filter technique and a simple smoothing spline method for the trend estimation are compared. Parameter θ in the alternans ratio percentile index was optimized to achieve the best classification accuracy. These indices were estimated from 26 cardiovascular outpatients for Holter ECG record. Patients were classified into high and low risk groups according to their clinical diagnosis, and the obtained indices were compared with those of 25 control subjects. A risk stratification using the two indices QTRC and ARP(θ) yielded an average sensitivity of 0.812 and a specificity of 0.925. The sensitivities and specificities of all three categories exceeded 0.8 except for the sensitivity to detect the high-risk patient group. Other short-term ECG parameters may need to be incorporated in order to improve the sensitivity.

  20. 24 Hours in the Life of HIV-1 in a T Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Pejman; Desfarges, Sébastien; Bartha, István; Joos, Beda; Zangger, Nadine; Muñoz, Miguel; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Telenti, Amalio; Ciuffi, Angela

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 infects CD4+ T cells and completes its replication cycle in approximately 24 hours. We employed repeated measurements in a standardized cell system and rigorous mathematical modeling to characterize the emergence of the viral replication intermediates and their impact on the cellular transcriptional response with high temporal resolution. We observed 7,991 (73%) of the 10,958 expressed genes to be modulated in concordance with key steps of viral replication. Fifty-two percent of the overall variability in the host transcriptome was explained by linear regression on the viral life cycle. This profound perturbation of cellular physiology was investigated in the light of several regulatory mechanisms, including transcription factors, miRNAs, host-pathogen interaction, and proviral integration. Key features were validated in primary CD4+ T cells, and with viral constructs using alternative entry strategies. We propose a model of early massive cellular shutdown and progressive upregulation of the cellular machinery to complete the viral life cycle. PMID:23382686

  1. Age and individual sleep characteristics affect cognitive performance in anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift.

    PubMed

    Tadinac, Meri; Sekulić, Ante; Hromatko, Ivana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Ivancić, Romina

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown that both shift work and sleep deprivation have an adverse influence on various aspects of human cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to explore changes in cognitive functioning and subjective sleepiness of anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift. Twenty-six anesthesiology residents completed a set of psychological instruments at the beginning and at the end of the shift, as well as a questionnaire regarding information about the shift, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and Circadian Type Questionnaire. There was a significant decline in cognitive performance measured by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test after the shift. The effect was stronger in older participants and in those with high scores on rigidity of sleep scale and low scores on the ability to overcome sleepiness scale. There were no differences in the digits forward test (a measure of concentration), while digits backward test (a measure of working memory) even showed an improved performance after the shift. Although participants reported being significantly sleepier after the shift, the subjective sleepiness did not correlate with any of the objective measures of cognitive performance. In conclusion, the performance in short tasks involving concentration and working memory was not impaired, while performance in long-term and monotone tasks declined after sleep deprivation, and the magnitude of this decline depended on the specific individual characteristics of sleep and on age Surprisingly, age seemed to have an important impact on cognitive functions after shift work even in the relatively age-homogeneous population of young anesthesiology residents.

  2. Obtaining liver tridimensional scaffold through the decellularization of rabbit whole liver in 24 hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Schliamser; Ayelen, Rinaldi; Romina, Comin; Alba Nelly, Borchert; Adrian, Nari Gustavo; Alicia, Salvatierra Nancy; Mariana Paula, Cid

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, we development a new protocol for liver decellularization in which the hole decellularization was reached over 24 h. Introduction: the availability of transplantable livers is not sufficient to fulfill the current demand for grafts, with the search for therapeutic alternatives having generated different lines of research, one of which is the use of decellularized three-dimensional biological matrices and subsequent cell seeding to obtain a functional organ. Objective: to produce a decellularization protocol from rabbit liver to generate a three-dimensional matrixin which the time period involved didn't pass 24 h. Methods: The decellularization is obtained through the use of water and SDS (0,1-0,3 %), after freezing at -80 degrees, is the best alternative of different physical and/or chemical mechanisms to break down organ cells and leave only the extracellular matriz. After 24 h of retrograde perfusion, a decellularized translucent matrix was generated. To evaluate if the decellularization protocol was successful, with the extracellular matrix being preserved, we carried out histological (light microscopy) and biochemical (DNA quantification) studies. Results: the decellularization process was verified by macroscopic observation of the organ using microscopic observation corroborated the macroscopic results, with the hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining showing no cells or nuclear material. In addition, the DNA quantification was less than 10% in the decellularized liver compared to control. Finally,the time taken to develop the decellularization protocol was less than 24 hours.

  3. Electrodes for 24 hours pH monitoring--a comparative study.

    PubMed Central

    McLauchlan, G; Rawlings, J M; Lucas, M L; McCloy, R F; Crean, G P; McColl, K E

    1987-01-01

    Three pH electrodes in clinical use were examined--(1) antimony electrode with remote reference electrode (Synectics 0011), (2) glass electrode with remote reference electrode (Microelectrodes Inc. MI 506) and (3) combined glass electrode with integral reference electrode (Radiometer GK2801C). In vitro studies showed that both glass electrodes were similar and superior to the antimony electrode with respect to response time, drift, and sensitivity. The effect of the siting of the reference electrode on the recorded pH was examined in five human volunteers. The pH reading using a remote skin reference electrode was higher by a mean of 0.3 pH units (range 0.0-0.6) in the stomach, lower by 0.65 pH units (0.5-0.8) in the duodenum and lower by 0.3 pH units (0.0-0.6) in the oesophagus than that simultaneously obtained with an intraluminal reference electrode. Buccal reference electrodes gave similar readings to skin. Combined reference and glass pH electrodes are recommended for 24-hour ambulatory pH monitoring. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3666560

  4. Depressive Symptoms and 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans: The SABPA Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Lespérance, François; Harvey, Brian H.; Malan, Nico T.; Malan, Leoné

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances in circadian rhythm might play a central role in the neurobiology of depression. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and 24-hour ambulatory BP in a sample of 405 (197 black and 208 Caucasian) urbanized African teachers aged 25 to 60 yrs (mean 44.6 ± 9.6 yrs). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the self-administered 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). After adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, participants with severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15) had higher odds of hypertension defined from ambulatory BP and/or use of antihypertensive medication (odds ratio = 2.19, 95% CI, 1.00–4.90) in comparison to participants with no symptoms. Compared to Caucasians with no depressive symptoms, those with severe symptoms had blunted nocturnal systolic BP drop of 4.7 mmHg (95% CI, −0.5 to 10.0, P = 0.07). In summary, depressive symptoms were associated with the circadian BP profile in black and Caucasian Africans. PMID:22028954

  5. Neonatal family care for 24 hours per day: effects on maternal confidence and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Wataker, Heidi; Meberg, Alf; Nestaas, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    In family care (FC) program for neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), parents are encouraged to reside together with their infant for 24 hours a day to actively be involved in the care. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of FC on maternal confidence and breast-feeding. Maternal confidence and rate of breast-feeding were assessed in 31 mothers offered FC that included special family rooms in the NICU, and in 30 mothers from a comparable NICU providing traditional care without such facilities. One week prior to hospital discharge, mothers in the FC group felt better informed regarding nursing issues and had more confidence in interpretation of the infants regarding feeding issues and in caregiving without staff attendance (P < .05). They also reported a higher level of empowerment (P < .05). Three months after discharge, the mothers in the FC group had a higher self-reported skill level for interpretation of the infant's signals and knowledge about breast-feeding (P < .05). Despite similar rate of breast-feeding at discharge, more infants in the FC group were breastfed 3 months after discharge (P < .05). An FC program in the NICU promoted better maternal confidence during the hospital stay and 3 months after discharge compared with traditional care.

  6. Importance of all movement behaviors in a 24 hour period for overall health.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Carson, Valerie; Gray, Casey E; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-12-01

    Physical inactivity and childhood obesity are well-recognized public health concerns that are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes. Historically, the benefits of physical activity (e.g., moderate-to-vigorous physical activity-MVPA) to overall health have dominated discussions and emerging evidence indicates that a broader, more integrated approach is needed to better understand and address current public health crises. Existing guidelines for children and youth around the world only focus on MVPA, and recently sedentary behavior, despite an accumulating body of evidence showing that light-intensity physical activity (LPA) such as walking can provide important health benefits. Furthermore, there is accumulating support for the importance of adequate sleep and that these behaviors moderate the health impact of each other. Ignoring the other components of the movement continuum (i.e., sleep, sedentary time, LPA) while focusing efforts exclusively on MVPA (accounting for <5% of the time in a 24 h period) limits the potential to optimize the health benefits of movement behaviors. In order to address this limitation, experts in Canada are currently developing the world's first Integrated 24 Hour Movement Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth to help advance an integrated healthy active living agenda that has the potential to significantly improve the overall health and well-being of children and youth. PMID:25485978

  7. Storage of specimens at 4 degrees C or addition of sodium fluoride (1%) prevents formation of ethanol in urine inoculated with Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W; Hylén, L; Svensson, E; Helander, A

    1999-09-01

    The microbial synthesis of ethanol was investigated in urine specimens containing 0.5% or 1.0% (w/v) glucose and inoculated with the yeast Candida albicans (100 cfu/mL). Aliquots (10 mL) of urine were dispensed into plastic tubes containing enough sodium fluoride to give final concentrations of 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1%, and 2% (w/v), and C. albicans was added. The tubes were tightly stoppered and allowed to stand either at room temperature (22 degrees C) or in a refrigerator (4 degrees C) for up to 34 days before concentrations of ethanol were determined by headspace gas chromatography. Urine samples stored at 22 degrees C without sodium fluoride produced 0.25 g/L ethanol after two days, and the concentration increased to 2.10 g/L and 4.50 g/L after eight days for specimens containing 0.5% (w/v) and 1% (w/v) glucose, respectively. The ratio of the serotonin metabolites 5-hydroxytryptophol/5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HTOL/5HIAA) in urine remained within the reference range (< 15 pmol/nmol) despite high concentrations of ethanol being produced. Urine samples kept at 4 degrees C did not produce any ethanol (< 0.01 g/L) even without sodium fluoride present as a preservative. The production of ethanol by C. albicans was stopped completely by adding 1% or 2% (w/v) sodium fluoride but not by concentrations of 0.75% (w/v) or less. The microbial synthesis of ethanol in urine samples initially stored at room temperature without sodium fluoride was slowed down considerably by moving them into a refrigerator at 4 degrees C. In conclusion, the production of ethanol in urine by C. albicans can be prevented by storage of samples in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C or by adding sodium fluoride > or = 1% (w/v). Measuring the ratio of 5HTOL/5HIAA can help to distinguish postsampling production of ethanol from metabolism and excretion processes.

  8. A 24-HOUR AMBULATORY ECG MONITORING IN ASSESSMENT OF QT INTERVAL DURATION AND DISPERSION IN ROWERS WITH PHYSIOLOGICAL MYOCARDIAL HYPERTROPHY

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Z.F.; Bilalova, R.R.; Tsibulkin, N.A.; Almetova, R.R.; Mudarisova, R.R.; Ahmetov, I.I.

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial hypertrophy (MH) due to cardiac pathology is characterized by an increase in QT interval duration and dispersion, while the findings for exercise-induced myocardial hypertrophy are contradictory. The majority of published research findings have not explored this relationship, but there have only been a few conducted studies using 24-hour ECG monitoring. The aim of the study was to determine the QT interval duration and dispersion in short-term and 24-hour ECG in endurance athletes with myocardial hypertrophy and without it. Methods: A total of 26 well-trained rowers underwent a resting 12-lead ECG, 24-hour ECG monitoring and echocardiography. Results: Athletes with MH (n = 7) at rest did not show any increase in QTc interval duration and dispersion, or mean and maximal QTc duration in Holter monitoring compared to athletes without MH (n = 19). Left ventricular mass was not significantly correlated with any QTc characteristics. Furthermore, athletes with MH had significantly longer mean QT (P = 0.01) and maximal QT (P = 0.018) intervals in Holter monitoring and higher 24-hour heart rate variability indexes due to stronger vagal effects. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that athlete's heart syndrome with myocardial hypertrophy as a benign phenomenon does not lead to an increase in QT interval duration, or increases in maximal and mean duration in a 24-hour ECG. An increase in QT interval duration in athletes may have an autonomic nature. PMID:24744494

  9. Comparison of 24-hour Holter Monitoring with 14-day Novel Adhesive Patch Electrocardiographic Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Paddy M.; Komatireddy, Ravi; Haaser, Sharon; Topol, Sarah; Sheard, Judith; Encinas, Jackie; Fought, Angela J.; Topol, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiac arrhythmias are remarkably common and routinely go undiagnosed because they are often transient and asymptomatic. Effective diagnosis and treatment can substantially reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac arrhythmias. The Zio Patch (iRhythm Technologies, Inc, San Francisco, Calif) is a novel, single-lead electrocardiographic (ECG), lightweight, Food and Drug Administration–cleared, continuously recording ambulatory adhesive patch monitor suitable for detecting cardiac arrhythmias in patients referred for ambulatory ECG monitoring. METHODS A total of 146 patients referred for evaluation of cardiac arrhythmia underwent simultaneous ambulatory ECG recording with a conventional 24-hour Holter monitor and a 14-day adhesive patch monitor. The primary outcome of the study was to compare the detection arrhythmia events over total wear time for both devices. Arrhythmia events were defined as detection of any 1 of 6 arrhythmias, including supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation/flutter, pause greater than 3 seconds, atrioventricular block, ventricular tachycardia, or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. McNemar’s tests were used to compare the matched pairs of data from the Holter and the adhesive patch monitor. RESULTS Over the total wear time of both devices, the adhesive patch monitor detected 96 arrhythmia events compared with 61 arrhythmia events by the Holter monitor (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS Over the total wear time of both devices, the adhesive patch monitor detected more events than the Holter monitor. Prolonged duration monitoring for detection of arrhythmia events using single-lead, less-obtrusive, adhesive-patch monitoring platforms could replace conventional Holter monitoring in patients referred for ambulatory ECG monitoring. PMID:24384108

  10. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and 24-Hour Blood Pressure Pattern Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    White, William B.; Kutner, Michael; Ouslander, Joseph G.; Bliwise, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Background To examine the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and 24-hour blood pressure (BP) pattern among community-dwelling older adults. Methods A convenience sample of 70 community-dwelling older adults, recruited from senior housing, community centers, and learning centers, were admitted to General Clinical Research Center, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Ga. Information regarding demographic and clinical history was obtained using questionnaires. Twenty-four–hour BP monitoring in supine position was performed using Spacelabs model 20207. Breathing during sleep was monitored with the use of a modified sleep recording system (Embletta, PDS), which monitors nasal and oral airflow, chest and abdominal movements, and pulse oximetry. Night time–daytime (night-day) BP ratio (average night-time BP divided by daytime BP) was calculated both for systolic and diastolic BPs. Results Sixty-nine participants, mean age 74.9 ± 6.4 years (41 [57%] women), completed the study. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 13 ± 13 per hour of sleep, and 20 participants (29%) had AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep, indicating moderate to severe SDB. Moderate to severe SDB (AHI ≥15 per hour of sleep) was significantly associated with nocturnal hypertension, whereas there was no statistically significant difference in wake-time BP between those with and without moderate to severe SDB. Stepwise multiple regressions showed that AHI independently predicted increased night-day systolic and night-day diastolic BP ratio, even after controlling for nocturia frequency. Conclusions The results indicate increased BP load associated with increased AHI in this group of older adults. This increased BP load may contribute to increased hypertension-related morbidity and disease burden. PMID:19196901

  11. Methodology for adding glycemic index and glycemic load values to 24-hour dietary recall database

    PubMed Central

    Olendzki, Barbara C.; Ma, Yunsheng; Culver, Annie L.; Ockene, Ira S.; Griffith, Jennifer A.; Hafner, Andrea R.; Hebert, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives We describe a method of adding the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values to the nutrient database of the 24-hour dietary recall interview (24HR), a widely used dietary assessment. We also calculated daily GI and GL values from the 24HR. Methods Subjects were 641 healthy adults from central Massachusetts who completed 9067 24HRs. The 24HR-derived food data were matched to the International Table of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Values. The GI values for specific foods not in the table were estimated against similar foods according to physical and chemical factors that determine GI. Mixed foods were disaggregated into individual ingredients. Results Of 1261 carbohydrate-containing foods in the database, GI values of 602 foods were obtained from a direct match (47.7%), accounting for 22.36% of dietary carbohydrate. GI values from 656 foods (52.1%) were estimated, contributing to 77.64% of dietary carbohydrate. The GI values from three unknown foods (0.2%) could not be assigned. The average daily GI was 84 (SD 5.1, white bread as referent) and the average GL was 196 (SD 63). Conclusion Using this methodology for adding GI and GL values to nutrient databases, it is possible to assess associations between GI and/or GL and body weight and chronic disease outcomes (diabetes, cancer, heart disease). This method can be used in clinical and survey research settings where 24HRs are a practical means for assessing diet. The implications for using this methodology compel a broader evaluation of diet with disease outcomes. PMID:17029903

  12. Usability of a smartphone food picture app for assisting 24-hour dietary recall: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Benjamin T.; Bilgiç, Pelin; Orr, Barron J.; Suzuki, Asuka; Kim, Angela Sarah; Merchant, Nirav C.; Roe, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The Recaller app was developed to help individuals record their food intakes. This pilot study evaluated the usability of this new food picture application (app), which operates on a smartphone with an embedded camera and Internet capability. SUBJECTS/METHODS Adults aged 19 to 28 years (23 males and 22 females) were assigned to use the Recaller app on six designated, nonconsecutive days in order to capture an image of each meal and snack before and after eating. The images were automatically time-stamped and uploaded by the app to the Recaller website. A trained nutritionist administered a 24-hour dietary recall interview 1 day after food images were taken. Participants' opinions of the Recaller app and its usability were determined by a follow-up survey. As an evaluation indicator of usability, the number of images taken was analyzed and multivariate Poisson regression used to model the factors determining the number of images sent. RESULTS A total of 3,315 food images were uploaded throughout the study period. The median number of images taken per day was nine for males and 13 for females. The survey showed that the Recaller app was easy to use, and 50% of the participants would consider using the app daily. Predictors of a higher number of images were as follows: greater interval (hours) between the first and last food images sent, weekend, and female. CONCLUSIONS The results of this pilot study provide valuable information for understanding the usability of the Recaller smartphone food picture app as well as other similarly designed apps. This study provides a model for assisting nutrition educators in their collection of food intake information by using tools available on smartphones. This innovative approach has the potential to improve recall of foods eaten and monitoring of dietary intake in nutritional studies. PMID:25861429

  13. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. Results: The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. Conclusion: The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses

  14. Sex differences in 24-hour ultra-marathon performance - A retrospective data analysis from 1977 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Laura; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the changes in running performance and the sex differences between women and men in 24-hour ultra-marathons held worldwide from 1977 to 2012. METHOD: Changes in running speed and ages of the fastest 24-hour ultra-marathoners were determined using single- and multi-level regression analyses. RESULTS: From 1977 to 2012, the sex differences in 24-hour ultra-marathon performance were 4.6±0.5% for all women and men, 13.3% for the annual fastest finishers, 12.9±0.8% for the top 10 and 12.2±0.4% for the top 100 finishers. Over time, the sex differences decreased for the annual fastest finishers to 17%, for the annual 10 fastest finishers to 11.3±2.2% and for the annual 100 fastest finishers to 14.2±1.8%. For the annual fastest men, the age of peak running speed increased from 23 years (1977) to 53 years (2012). For the annual 10 and 100 fastest men, the ages of peak running speed were unchanged at 40.9±2.5 and 44.4±1.1 years, respectively. For women, the ages of the annual fastest, the annual 10 fastest and the annual 100 fastest remained unchanged at 43.0±6.1, 43.2±2.6 and 43.8±0.8 years, respectively. CONCLUSION: The gap between the annual top, annual top 10 and annual top 100 female and male 24-hour ultra-marathoners decreased over the last 35 years; however, it seems unlikely that women will outrun men in 24-hour ultra-marathons in the near future. The fastest 24-hour ultra-marathoners worldwide achieved their peak performance at the age of master athletes (>35 years). PMID:24473558

  15. Circadian (about 24-hour) variation in malondialdehyde content and catalase activity of mouse erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sani, Mamane; Sebai, Hichem; Ghanem-Boughanmi, Néziha; Boughattas, Naceur A; Ben-Attia, Mossadok

    2015-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation is a part of normal metabolism that may cause biological molecule damage leading to the formation of several specific metabolites that include aldehydes of variable chains, such as malondialdehyde (MDA). These biological effects are controlled in vivo by a wide spectrum of enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense mechanisms among which catalase (CAT) is considered as an important regulator of oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between the temporal patterns of the formation of MDA and the activity of CAT in the erythrocytes of mice. Twenty-four-hour studies were performed on male Swiss albino mice, 12 weeks old, synchronized to a 12:12 light: dark cycle for 3 weeks. Different and comparable groups of animals (n = 10) were sacrificed at an interval of 4 hours (1, 5, 9, 13, 17, and 21 hours after light onset (HALO)). The levels of erythrocyte MDA concentration and CAT activity both significantly (analysis of variance: F = 6.4, P < 0.002) varied according to the time of sampling under non-stressed conditions. The characteristics of the waveform describing the temporal patterns differed between the two studied variables, e.g. MDA content showing one peak (≅21 HALO) and CAT activity showing three peaks (≅9, 17, and 21 HALO). Cosinor analysis revealed a significant (adjusted Cosinor: P ≤ 0.018) circadian (τ ≅ 24 hours) rhythm in MDA level and no statistically significant rhythmicity in CAT activity. The differences and the absence of correlation between the curve patterns of erythrocyte MDA content and CAT activity under physiological conditions are hypothesized to explain that variation in lipid peroxidation may depend on several factors. Moreover, the identification of peak/trough levels of MDA accumulation in erythrocytes may reflect the degree of oxidative stress in these blood cells. In addition, the observed significant time-of-day effect suggests that, in both clinical and scientific

  16. Characterisation of sleep in intensive care using 24-hour polysomnography: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many intensive care patients experience sleep disruption potentially related to noise, light and treatment interventions. The purpose of this study was to characterise, in terms of quantity and quality, the sleep of intensive care patients, taking into account the impact of environmental factors. Methods This observational study was conducted in the adult ICU of a tertiary referral hospital in Australia, enrolling 57 patients. Polysomnography (PSG) was performed over a 24-hour period to assess the quantity (total sleep time: hh:mm) and quality (percentage per stage, duration of sleep episode) of patients' sleep while in ICU. Rechtschaffen and Kales criteria were used to categorise sleep. Interrater checks were performed. Sound pressure and illuminance levels and care events were simultaneously recorded. Patients reported on their sleep quality in ICU using the Richards Campbell Sleep Questionnaire and the Sleep in Intensive Care Questionnaire. Data were summarised using frequencies and proportions or measures of central tendency and dispersion as appropriate and Cohen's Kappa statistic was used for interrater reliability of the sleep data analysis. Results Patients' median total sleep time was 05:00 (IQR: 02:52 to 07:14). The majority of sleep was stage 1 and 2 (medians: 19 and 73%) with scant slow wave and REM sleep. The median duration of sleep without waking was 00:03. Sound levels were high (mean Leq 53.95 dB(A) during the day and 50.20 dB(A) at night) and illuminance levels were appropriate at night (median <2 lux) but low during the day (median: 74.20 lux). There was a median 1.7 care events/h. Patients' mean self-reported sleep quality was poor. Interrater reliability of sleep staging was highest for slow wave sleep and lowest for stage 1 sleep. Conclusions The quantity and quality of sleep in intensive care patients are poor and may be related to noise, critical illness itself and treatment events that disturb sleep. The study highlights the

  17. Analysis of 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kun-Tai; Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Weng, Wen-Chin; Lee, Pei-Lin; Hsu, Wei-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, we aimed to verify associations between ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a hospital-based population. This was a cross-sectional observational study on children aged 4 to 16 years with OSA-related symptoms from a tertiary referral medical center. All children received overnight polysomnography and 24-hour recording of ABP. Severity of the disease was classified as primary snoring (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI <1), mild OSA (AHI 1–5), and moderate-to-severe OSA (AHI >5). For 195 children enrolled in this study (mean age, 7.8 ± 3.4 years; 69% boy), ABP increased as severity of OSA increased. During daytime, children with moderate-to-severe OSA had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (BP) (117.0 ± 12.7 vs 110.5 ± 9.3 mmHg), mean arterial pressure (MAP) (85.6 ± 8.1 vs 81.6 ± 6.8 mmHg), and diastolic BP load (12.0 ± 9.6 vs 8.4 ± 10.9 mmHg) compared with children with primary snoring. During nighttime, children with moderate-to-severe OSA had significantly higher systolic BP (108.6 ± 15.0 vs 100.0 ± 9.4 mmHg), MAP (75.9 ± 9.6 vs 71.1 ± 7.0 mmHg), systolic BP load (44.0 ± 32.6 vs 26.8 ± 24.5 mmHg), systolic BP index (0.5 ± 13.1 vs −6.8 ± 8.5 mmHg), and higher prevalence of systolic hypertension (47.6% vs 14.7 %) compared with children with primary snoring. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed an independent association between AHI and nighttime systolic BP and MAP after adjusting for adiposity variables. This large hospital-based study showed that children with moderate-to-severe OSA had a higher ABP compared with children who were primary snorers. As elevated BP in childhood predicts future cardiovascular risks, children with severe OSA should be treated properly to prevent further adverse cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:26448004

  18. Value of 24-hour Delayed Film of Barium Enema for Evaluation of Colon Transit Function in Young Children with Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ha Yeong; Son, Jae Sung; Park, Hye Won; Kwak, Byung Ok; Kim, Hyeong Su; Bae, Sun Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims A colon transit time test using radio-opaque markers (CTTRM) is considered the gold standard for evaluating colon transit function. A 24-hour delayed film of barium enema (BE) has been used as a supplementary method in structural evaluations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a 24-hour delayed BE film for assessing colon transit function in young children with constipation. Methods In total, 93 children with constipation who performed both single-contrast BE and CTTRM were enrolled in this study. Of these, the data from 70 children were analyzed (males 33, females 37; mean age [range], 5.63 ± 2.94 [2–14] years). The basic principle of the study is “velocity = distance/time”. Time values were identified in both studies, and the colon length and distance of barium movement were measured on the 24-hour delayed BE film. Thus, colon transit velocity values could be calculated using both methods. The correlation between colon transit velocity using a 24-hour delayed BE film versus CTTRM was analyzed statistically. Results Median value (interquartile range) of colon transit velocity using CTTRM was 1.57 (1.07–2.89) cm/hr, and that using BE of that was 1.58 (0.94–2.07) cm/hr. The Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.438 (P < 0.001) for the overall group. The correlation was strongest in children younger than 4 years (r = 0.537, P = 0.032). Conclusions Although the correlation between BE and CTTRM was not very strong, the 24-hour delayed BE film could provide broad information about colon transit function in young children, especially those under 4 years who usually cannot undergo CTTRM. PMID:26979249

  19. Microleakage of Two Self-Adhesive Cements in the Enamel and Dentin After 24 Hours and Two Months

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Kalantar Motamedi, Mojdeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Microleakage is a main cause of restorative treatment failure. In this study, we compared occlusal and cervical microleakage of two self-adhesive cements after 24 hours and two months. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, class II inlay cavities were prepared on 60 sound human third molars. Composite inlays were fabricated with Z100 composite resin. The teeth were randomly assigned to six groups. RelyX-Arc (control), RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem were used for the first three groups and specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The same cements were used for the remaining three groups, but the specimens were stored for 2 months. The teeth were subjected to 500 thermal cycles (5°C and 55°C) and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and then sectioned mesiodistally and dye penetration was evaluated in a class II cavity with occlusal and cervical margins using X20 magnification stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: After 24 hours, cements had significant differences only in cervical margin microleakage (P=0.0001) and microleakage of RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was significantly more than that of RelyX-Arc (both P=0.0001). Cervical microleakage in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem was greater than occlusal (P=0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively). Microleakage was not significantly different between the occlusal and cervical margins after 2 months. Conclusion: Cervical microleakage was greater than occlusal in RelyX-Unicem and Maxcem after 24h. The greatest microleakage was reported for the cervical margin of RelyX-Unicem after 24 hours. PMID:25584053

  20. Sensitive and cost-effective LC-MS/MS method for quantitation of CVT-6883 in human urine using sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate additive to eliminate adsorptive losses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chungwen; Bajpai, Lakshmikant; Mollova, Nevena; Leung, Kwan

    2009-04-01

    CVT-6883, a novel selective A(2B) adenosine receptor antagonist currently under clinical development, is highly lipophilic and exhibits high affinity for non-specific binding to container surfaces, resulting in very low recovery in urine assays. Our study showed the use of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), a low-cost additive, eliminated non-specific binding problems in the analysis of CVT-6883 in human urine without compromising sensitivity. A new sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method for quantitation of CVT-6883 in the range of 0.200-80.0ng/mL using SDBS additive was therefore developed and validated for the analysis of human urine samples. The recoveries during sample collection, handling and extraction for the analyte and internal standard (d(5)-CVT-6883) were higher than 87%. CVT-6883 was found stable under the following conditions: in extract - at ambient temperature for 3 days, under refrigeration (5 degrees C) for 6 days; in human urine (containing 4mM SDBS) - after three freeze/thaw cycles, at ambient temperature for 26h, under refrigeration (5 degrees C) for 94h, and in a freezer set to -20 degrees C for at least 2 months. The results demonstrated that the validated method is sufficiently sensitive, specific, and cost-effective for the analysis of CVT-6883 in human urine and will provide a powerful tool to support the clinical programs for CVT-6883.

  1. Urine as an important source of sodium increases decomposition in an inland but not coastal tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Clay, Natalie A; Donoso, David A; Kaspari, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Nutrient pulses can profoundly impact ecosystem processes and urine is a frequently deposited source of N and K, and Na. Na is unimportant to plants, but its addition can increase decomposition and change invertebrate community structure in Na-poor tropical forests. Here we used synthetic urine to separate the effects of Na from urine's other nutrients and contrasted their roles in promoting decomposition and detritivore recruitment in both a Na-poor inland Ecuadorian and Na-rich coastal Panamanian tropical forest. After 2 days, invertebrate communities did not vary among +Na, H2O, Urine+Na, and Urine-Na treatments. But after 2 weeks, Ecuador wood, but not cellulose, decomposition was twofold higher on Urine+Na and +Na plots compared to H2O and Urine-Na plots accompanied by >20-fold increases in termite abundance on these plots. Panama, in contrast, showed no effect of Na on decomposition. In both forests, plots fertilized with urine had nearly twofold decrease in detritivores after 2 weeks that was likely a shock effect from ammonification. Moreover, the non-Na nutrients in urine did not enhance decomposition at this time scale. On control plots, Panama had higher decomposition rates for both cellulose and wood than Ecuador, but the addition of Na in Ecuador alleviated these differences. These results support the hypothesis that in Na-poor tropical forests, urine can enhance wood decomposition and generate an important source of heterogeneity in the abundance and activity of brown food webs.

  2. HOW RELIABLE IS 24 HOUR SERUM LITHIUM LEVEL AFTER A TEST DOSE OF LITHIUM IN PREDICTING OPTIMAL LITHIUM DOSE?

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, K.; Shaji, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY 57% of a group of 35 patients treated with Lithium Carbonate at dosages predicted by the nomogram suggested by Cooper et al (1973) failed to reach therapeutic levels of serum lithium. This finding casts serious doubts on the usefulness of the claim by Cooper et al (1973 & 1976) that 24 hour serum lithium level after a test dose of 600 mg. lithium can predict the daily lithium dose. PMID:21927360

  3. Increased energy density of the home-delivered lunch meal improves 24-hour nutrient intakes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Silver, Heidi J; Dietrich, Mary S; Castellanos, Victoria H

    2008-12-01

    As food intake declines with aging, older adults develop energy and nutrient inadequacies. It is important to design practical approaches to combat insufficient dietary intakes to decrease risk for acute and chronic diseases, illness, and injury. Manipulating the energy density of meals has improved energy intakes in institutional settings, but the effects on community-residing older adults who are at nutrition risk have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether enhancing the energy density of food items regularly served in a home-delivered meals program would increase lunch and 24-hour energy and nutrient intakes. In a randomized crossover counterbalanced design, 45 older adult Older American Act Nutrition Program participants received a regular and enhanced version of a lunch meal on alternate weeks. The types of foods, portion sizes (gram weight), and appearance of the lunch meal was held constant. Consumption of the enhanced meal increased average lunch energy intakes by 86% (P<0.001) and 24-hour energy intakes by 453 kcal (from 1,423.1+/-62.2 to 1,876.2+/-78.3 kcal, P<0.001). The 24-hour intakes of several key macronutrients and micronutrients also improved. These data suggest that altering the energy density of regularly served menu items is an effective strategy to improve dietary intakes of free-living older adults.

  4. Assessment of 24-hours Aldosterone Administration on Protein Abundances in Fluorescence-Sorted Mouse Distal Renal Tubules by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas B; Pisitkun, Trairak; Hoffert, Jason D; Jensen, Uffe B; Fenton, Robert A; Praetorius, Helle A; Knepper, Mark A; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Aldosterone exerts multiple long-term effects in the distal renal tubules. The aim of this study was to establish a method for identifying proteins in these tubules that change in abundance by only 24-hours aldosterone administration. Methods Mice endogenously expressing green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in the connecting tubule and cortical collecting ducts were treated with a subcutaneous injection of 2.0 mg/kg aldosterone or vehicle (n=5), and sacrificed 24 hours later. Suspensions of single cells were obtained enzymatically, and eGFP positive cells were isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Samples of 100 μg proteins were digested with trypsin and labeled with 8-plex iTRAQ reagents and processed for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results FACS yielded 1.4 million cells per mouse. The LC-MS/MS spectra were matched to peptides by the SEQUEST search algorithm, which identified 3002 peptides corresponding to 506 unique proteins of which 20 significantly changed abundance 24-hours after aldosterone injection. Conclusion We find the method suitable and useful for studying hormonal effects on protein abundance in distal tubular segments. PMID:23428628

  5. Sodium urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as glaucoma or stomach ulcers) Water pills (diuretics) DO NOT stop taking any medicine before talking ... due to: Certain medicines, such as water pills (diuretics) Low function of the adrenal glands Inflammation of ...

  6. Association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and hypertension subtypes in untreated Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Ting-Yan; Ding, Feng-Hua; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and ambulatory hypertension subtypes has not yet been examined in untreated Chinese patients. We measured left ventricular mass index by echocardiography (n=619), the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (n=1047), and aortic pulse wave velocity by tonometry (n=1013) in 1047 untreated subjects (mean age, 50.6 years; 48.9% women). Normotension was a 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure <130/<80 mm Hg. Hypertension subtypes were isolated diastolic hypertension and mixed systolic plus diastolic hypertension. We assessed associations of interest by multivariable-adjusted linear models. Using normotension as reference, mixed hypertension was associated with higher (P≤0.003) left ventricular mass index (+4.31 g/m(2)), urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.63 mg/mmol), and pulse wave velocity (+0.76 m/s); and isolated diastolic hypertension was associated with similar left ventricular mass index and pulse wave velocity (P≥0.39), but higher urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.24 mg/mmol; P=0.002). In younger participants (<55 years), the mutually independent effect sizes associated with 1 SD increases in 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure were +3.31/-0.36 g/m(2) (P=0.009/0.79) for left ventricular mass index, +1.15/+1.14 mg/mmol (P=0.02/0.04) for the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, and +0.54/-0.05 m/s (P<0.001/0.54) for pulse wave velocity. In older participants, these estimates were +3.58/+0.30 g/m(2) (P=0.045/0.88), +1.23/+1.05 mg/mmol (P=0.002/0.54), and +0.76/-0.49 m/s (P<0.001/<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, 24-hour systolic blood pressure and mixed hypertension are major determinants of target organ damage irrespective of age and target organ, whereas 24-hour diastolic blood pressure and isolated diastolic hypertension only relate to the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio below middle age.

  7. [Urine protein analysis with the sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in healthy cats and cats with kidney diseases].

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Wohlsein, P; Trautwein, G; Nolte, I

    1997-03-01

    In this investigation, the value of urine protein analysis by means of molecular-weight related sodium dodecyl-polyacryl gradient gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was examined with regard to its applicability and diagnostic significance in nephropathy in the cat. A total of 87 cats was included in the study, 30 of them that were clinically healthy served as the control group. The urine protein pattern of this group had, besides the band representing the market albumin, and additional broad band within the size of the marker transferrin. In some cases, weak bands were present within the range of the Tamm-Horsfall-protein and immunoglobulin G. Micromolecular protein bands were not demonstrable. The remaining 57 animals had a histologically proven nephropathy. Thirty-eight cats had elevated urea and/or creatinine values in the plasma (group 1), and 19 animals had values within the reference range (group 2). The urine protein pattern as evidenced by SDS-urine electrophoresis was altered in all cats with histologically proven nephropathy, and it is thus concluded that with this technique a nephropathy can be diagnosed very early and prior to changes of plasma urea and creatinine (group 2). Moreover, in most of the cases, the nephrological changes can be classified as glomerular or tubulo-interstitial (group 1 and group 2). However, it is not possible to draw exact conclusions concerning the underlying morphological changes, nor can the severity of the disease be correctly assessed. PMID:9123982

  8. Albumin infusion in humans does not model exercise induced hypervolaemia after 24 hours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, A.; Gillen, C. M.; Mack, G. W.; Nadel, E. R.

    1998-01-01

    We rapidly infused 234 +/- 3 mL of 5% human serum albumin in eight men while measuring haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, plasma volume (PV), albumin concentration, total protein concentration, osmolality, sodium concentration, renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and atrial natriuretic peptide concentration to test the hypotheses that plasma volume expansion and plasma albumin content expansion will not persist for 24 h. Plasma volume and albumin content were expanded for the first 6 h after infusion (44.3 +/- 1.9-47.2 +/- 2.0 mL kg-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.1-2.1 +/- 0.1 g kg-1 at pre-infusion and 1 h, respectively, P < 0.05), but by 24 h plasma volume and albumin content decreased significantly from 1 h post-infusion and were not different from pre-infusion (44.8 +/- 1.9 mL kg-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.1 g kg-1, respectively). Plasma aldosterone concentration showed a significant effect of time over the 24 h after infusion (P < 0.05), and showed a trend to decrease at 2 h after infusion (167.6 +/- 32.5(-1) 06.2 +/- 13.4 pg mL-1, P = 0.07). These data demonstrate that a 6.8% expansion of plasma volume and 10.5% expansion of plasma albumin content by infusion does not remain in the vascular space for 24 h and suggest a redistribution occurs between the intravascular space and interstitial fluid space.

  9. Central Systolic Augmentation Indexes and Urinary Sodium in a White Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Ping; Thijs, Lutgarde; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Gu, Yu-Mei; Asayama, Kei; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Jin, Yu; Verhamme, Peter; Struijker-Boudier, Harry A.J.; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The association between cardiovascular health and salt intake remains controversial. The objective of our study was to assess the association between arterial stiffness and urinary sodium, both cross-sectionally and prospectively. METHODS In 630 participants (mean age 40.6 years; 51% women), randomly recruited from a Flemish population, we measured sodium and creatinine in 24-hour urine samples at baseline and follow-up (median, 9.7 years) and the carotid and aortic augmentation indexes (AIs) standardized to heart rate at follow-up only. RESULTS From baseline to follow-up, the urinary sodium concentration decreased (117.1 vs. 105.2 mmol/L; P < 0.0001), whereas 24-hour urinary sodium did not change significantly (166.5 vs. 171.5 mmol/L; P = 0.12). In multivariable-adjusted longitudinal analyses, a 40 mmol/L (~1 SD) increase in the urinary sodium concentration was independently and inversely associated with the carotid AI (effect size, −1.38 ± 0.66%; P = 0.04) and aortic AI (−1.54 ± 0.72%; P = 0.02). In cross-sectional analyses of follow-up data, these estimates were −1.26 ± 0.70% (P = 0.07) and −1.52 ± 0.76% (P = 0.04), respectively. In the longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses, the carotid and aortic AIs were unrelated to the 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed an inverse association between the central arterial AIs and the urinary sodium concentration. Further research is required to consolidate our findings, to unravel the underlying mechanism, and to establish the role of renal vasodilatation in the maintenance of sodium balance. PMID:23382332

  10. Use of sodium information on the nutrition facts label in New York City adults with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Elfassy, Tali; Yi, Stella; Eisenhower, Donna; Lederer, Ashley; Curtis, Christine J

    2015-02-01

    The Nutrition Facts (NF) label was established to help individuals monitor their nutrient intake and select healthier foods. This tool is particularly useful for individuals for whom dietary improvements are recommended, such as those with hypertension. Study objectives were to examine the independent association between hypertension and frequency of use of the NF label for sodium information and determine whether frequent use in individuals with hypertension was associated with differences in mean sodium intake assessed through 24-hour urine samples. Data came from the New York City Community Health Survey Heart Follow-Up Study, a cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 in a representative sample of New York City adults (n=1,656). Participants were asked questions regarding frequency of checking the NF label and also had 24-hour urine samples collected to assess actual sodium intake. Results indicated that hypertension was associated with frequent use of the NF label for sodium information (adjusted odds ratio 1.71, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.73). In individuals with hypertension, sodium intake did not differ between frequent vs nonfrequent use of the NF label for sodium information (3,084 mg/day vs 3,059 mg/day; P=0.92). Although individuals with hypertension compared to those with no hypertension had 71% higher odds of frequently using the NF label for sodium information, suggesting they may be interested in decreasing sodium intake, sodium intake did not differ by frequency of NF label use among those with hypertension. Future research should explore strategies to ensure that when nutrition information is used, it is translated into meaningful results, especially in individuals with health concerns such as hypertension. PMID:25441962

  11. Meal-induced 24-hour profile of circulating glycated insulin in type 2 diabetic subjects measured by a novel radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John R; McKillop, Aine M; Mooney, Mark H; Flatt, Peter R; Bell, Patrick M; O'harte, Finbarr P M

    2003-05-01

    Increasing evidence supports a role for glycated insulin in the insulin-resistant state of type 2 diabetes. We measured 24-hour profiles of plasma glycated insulin, using a novel radioimmunoassay (RIA), to evaluate the effects of meal stimulation and intermittent fasting on circulating concentrations of plasma glycated insulin in type 2 diabetes. Patients (n = 6; hemoglobin A(1c) [HbA(1c)], 7.2% +/- 0.6%; fasting plasma glucose, 7.4 +/- 0.7 mmol/L; body mass index [BMI], 35.7 +/- 3.5 kg/m(2); age, 56.3 +/- 4.4 years) were admitted for 24 hours and received a standardized meal regimen. Half-hourly venous samples were taken for plasma glycated insulin, glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations between 8 am and midnight and 2-hourly overnight. The mean plasma glycated insulin concentration over 24 hours was 27.8 +/- 1.2 pmol/L with a mean ratio of insulin:glycated insulin of 11:1. Circulating glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glycated insulin followed a basal and meal-related pattern with most prominent increments following breakfast, lunch, and evening meal, respectively. The mean concentrations of glycated insulin during the morning, afternoon, evening, and night-time periods were 24.4 +/- 2.5, 28.7 +/- 2.3, 31.1 +/- 2.1, and 26.2 +/- 1.5 pmol/L, respectively, giving significantly higher molar ratios of insulin:glycated insulin of 18.0:1, 14.2:1, and 12.7:1 compared with 7.0:1 at night (P <.01 to P <.001). These data demonstrate that glycated insulin circulates at relatively high concentrations in type 2 diabetes with a diurnal pattern of basal and meal-stimulated release. A higher proportion of glycated insulin circulates at night suggestive of differences in metabolic clearance compared with native insulin.

  12. Effects of Fibrinogen Concentrate on Thrombin Generation, Thromboelastometry Parameters, and Laboratory Coagulation Testing in a 24-Hour Porcine Trauma Model

    PubMed Central

    Zentai, Christian; Solomon, Cristina; van der Meijden, Paola E. J.; Spronk, Henri M. H.; Schnabel, Jonas; Rossaint, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In a 24-hour porcine model of liver injury, we showed that fibrinogen supplementation does not downregulate endogenous fibrinogen synthesis. Here we report data from the same study showing the impact of fibrinogen on coagulation variables. Materials and Methods: Coagulopathy was induced in 20 German land race pigs by hemodilution and blunt liver injury. Animals randomly received fibrinogen concentrate (100 mg/kg) or saline. Coagulation parameters were assessed and thromboelastometry (ROTEM) was performed. Results: Fibrinogen concentrate significantly reduced the prolongations of EXTEM clotting time, EXTEM clot formation time, and prothrombin time induced by hemodilution and liver injury. A decrease in clot strength was also ameliorated. Endogenous thrombin potential was significantly higher in the fibrinogen group than in the control group, 20 minutes (353 ± 24 vs 289 ± 22 nmol/L·min; P < .05) and 100 minutes (315 ± 40 vs 263 ± 38 nmol/L·min; P < .05) after the start of infusion. However, no significant between-group differences were seen in other thrombin generation parameters or in d-dimer or thrombin–antithrombin levels. Fibrinogen–platelet binding was reduced following liver injury, with no significant differences between groups. No significant between-group differences were observed in any parameter at ∼12 and ∼24 hours. Conclusion: This study suggests that, in trauma, fibrinogen supplementation may shorten some measurements of the speed of coagulation initiation and produce a short-lived increase in endogenous thrombin potential, potentially through increased clotting substrate availability. Approximately 12 and 24 hours after starting fibrinogen concentrate/saline infusion, all parameters measured in this study were comparable in the 2 study groups. PMID:25948634

  13. The Relationship Between 24-Hour Symptoms and COPD Exacerbations and Healthcare Resource Use: Results from an Observational Study (ASSESS).

    PubMed

    Miravitlles, Marc; Worth, Heinrich; Soler-Cataluña, Juan José; Price, David; De Benedetto, Fernando; Roche, Nicolas; Godtfredsen, Nina S; van der Molen, Thys; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Padullés, Laura; Ribera, Anna

    2016-10-01

    This observational study assessed the relationship between nighttime, early-morning and daytime chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms and exacerbations and healthcare resource use. COPD symptoms were assessed at baseline in patients with stable COPD using a standardised questionnaire during routine clinical visits. Information was recorded on exacerbations and healthcare resource use during the year before baseline and during a 6-month follow-up period. The main objective of the analysis was to determine the predictive nature of current symptoms for future exacerbations and healthcare resource use. 727 patients were eligible (65.8% male, mean age: 67.2 years, % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 52.8%); 698 patients (96.0%) provided information after 6 months. Symptoms in any part of the day were associated with a prior history of exacerbations (all p < 0.05) and nighttime and early-morning symptoms were associated with the frequency of primary care visits in the year before baseline (both p < 0.01). During follow-up, patients with baseline symptoms during any part of the 24-hour day had more exacerbations than patients with no symptoms in each period (all p < 0.05); there was also an association between 24-hour symptoms and the frequency of primary care visits (all p ≤ 0.01). Although there was a significant association between early-morning and daytime symptoms and exacerbations during follow-up (both p < 0.01), significance was not maintained when adjusted for potential confounders. Prior exacerbations were most strongly associated with future risk of exacerbation. The results suggest 24-hour COPD symptoms do not independently predict future exacerbation risk.

  14. Developing a Method to Test the Validity of 24 Hour Time Use Diaries Using Wearable Cameras: A Feasibility Pilot

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Paul; Thomas, Emma; Doherty, Aiden; Harms, Teresa; Burke, Órlaith; Gershuny, Jonathan; Foster, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Self-report time use diaries collect a continuous sequenced record of daily activities but the validity of the data they produce is uncertain. This study tests the feasibility of using wearable cameras to generate, through image prompted interview, reconstructed 'near-objective' data to assess their validity. 16 volunteers completed the Harmonised European Time Use Survey (HETUS) diary and used an Autographer wearable camera (recording images at approximately 15 second intervals) for the waking hours of the same 24-hour period. Participants then completed an interview in which visual images were used as prompts to reconstruct a record of activities for comparison with the diary record. 14 participants complied with the full collection protocol. We compared time use and number of discrete activities from the diary and camera records (using 10 classifications of activity). In terms of aggregate totals of daily time use we found no significant difference between the diary and camera data. In terms of number of discrete activities, participants reported a mean of 19.2 activities per day in the diaries, while image prompted interviews revealed 41.1 activities per day. The visualisations of the individual activity sequences reveal some potentially important differences between the two record types, which will be explored at the next project stage. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using wearable cameras to reconstruct time use through image prompted interview in order to test the concurrent validity of 24-hour activity time-use budgets. In future we need a suitably powered study to assess the validity and reliability of 24-hour time use diaries. PMID:26633807

  15. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 version, for youth aged 9 to 11 Years: A validation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites using a quasiexperimental design. In one s...

  16. A Plaque Disruption Index Identifies Patients with Non-STE-Type 1 Myocardial Infarction within 24 Hours of Troponin Positivity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mohaissen, Maha A.; Carere, Ronald G.; Mancini, G. B. John; Humphries, Karin H.; Whalen, Beth A.; Lee, Terry; Scheuermeyer, Frank X.; Ignaszewski, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Markers of plaque destabilization and disruption may have a role in identifying non-STE- type 1 Myocardial Infarction in patients presenting with troponin elevation. We hypothesized that a plaque disruption index (PDI) derived from multiple biomarkers and measured within 24 hours from the first detectable troponin in patients with acute non-STE- type 1 MI (NSTEMI-A) will confirm the diagnosis and identify these patients with higher specificity when compared to individual markers and coronary angiography. Methods We examined 4 biomarkers of plaque destabilization and disruption: myeloperoxidase (MPO), high-sensitivity interleukin-6, myeloid-related protein 8/14 (MRP8/14) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in 83 consecutive patients in 4 groups: stable non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), stable obstructive CAD, NSTEMI-A (enrolled within 24 hours of troponin positivity), and NSTEMI-L (Late presentation NSTEMI, enrolled beyond the 24 hour limit). The PDI was calculated and the patients’ coronary angiograms were reviewed for evidence of plaque disruption. The diagnostic performance of the PDI and angiography were compared. Results Compared to other biomarkers, MPO had the highest specificity (83%) for NSTEMI-A diagnosis (P<0.05). The PDI computed from PAPP-A, MRP8/14 and MPO was higher in NSTEMI-A patients compared to the other three groups (p<0.001) and had the highest diagnostic specificity (87%) with 79% sensitivity and 86% accuracy, which were higher compared to those obtained with MPO, but did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05 for all comparisons). The PDI had higher specificity and accuracy for NSTEMI-A diagnosis compared to coronary angiography (P<0.05). Conclusions A PDI measured within 24 hour of troponin positivity has potential to identify subjects with acute Non-ST-elevation type 1 MI. Additional evidence using other marker combinations and investigation in a sufficiently large non-selected cohort is warranted

  17. Estimates of Dietary Sodium Consumption in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Colin-Ramirez, Eloisa; Arcand, JoAnne; Ezekowitz, Justin A

    2015-12-01

    Estimating dietary sodium intake is a key component of dietary assessment in the clinical setting of HF to effectively implement appropriate dietary interventions for sodium reduction and monitor adherence to the dietary treatment. In a research setting, assessment of sodium intake is crucial to an essential methodology to evaluate outcomes after a dietary or behavioral intervention. Current available sodium intake assessment methods include 24-hour urine collection, spot urine collections, multiple day food records, food recalls, and food frequency questionnaires. However, these methods have inherent limitations that make assessment of sodium intake challenging, and the utility of traditional methods may be questionable for estimating sodium intake in patients with HF. Thus, there are remaining questions about how to best assess dietary sodium intake in this patient population, and there is a need to identify a reliable method to assess and monitor sodium intake in the research and clinical setting of HF. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current methods for sodium intake assessment, addresses the challenges for its accurate evaluation, and highlights the relevance of applying the highest-quality measurement methods in the research setting to minimize the risk of biased data.

  18. Urinary sodium is a potent correlate of proteinuria: Lessons from the CRIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Matthew R.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Teal, Valerie; Sozio, Stephen M.; Anderson, Cheryl A.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Turban, Sharon; Chen, Jing; He, Jiang; Litbarg, Natasha; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Rosen, Leigh; Steigerwalt, Susan; Strauss, Louise; Joffe, Marshall M.

    2013-01-01

    Background While higher blood pressure is known to increase proteinuria, whether increased dietary sodium as estimated from 24-hour urinary excretion correlates with increased proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well studied. Methods We measured 24-hour urine sodium, potassium, and protein excretion in 3,680 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, to determine the relationship between urinary sodium and potassium and urinary protein excretion in patients with CKD. We stratified our data based on the presence or absence of diabetes given the absence of any data on this relationship, and evidence that diabetics had greater urinary protein excretion at nearly every level of urinary sodium excretion. Multiple linear regressions were used with a stepwise inclusion of covariates such as systolic blood pressure (SBP), demographics, hemoglobin A1C, and type of antihypertensive medications to evaluate the relationship between urinary electrolyte excretion and proteinuria. Results Our data demonstrated that urinary sodium (+1SD above the mean), as a univariate variable, explained 12% of the variation in proteinuria (β=0.29, p<.0001) with rising urinary sodium excretion associated with increasing proteinuria. The significance of that relationship was only partially attenuated with adjustment for demographic and clinical factors and the addition of 24-hour urinary potassium to the model (β=0.13, R2=0.35, p<.0001). Conclusions An understanding of the relationship between these clinical factors and dietary sodium may allow a more tailored approach for dietary salt restriction in patients with CKD. PMID:23076013

  19. DNA stability of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urine.

    PubMed

    Le Guern, Rémi; Miaux, Brigitte; Pischedda, Patricia; Herwegh, Stéphanie; Courcol, René

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the DNA stability of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 55 urine samples. Crossing threshold (Ct) values were highly similar after 3 to 14 days at room temperature (+0.002, P = 0.99). Consequently, it does not seem necessary to transfer urine specimens into a transport medium in less than 24 hours as recommended by manufacturers. PMID:27130478

  20. The impact of kidney transplantation on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Min; Ahn, Seung Won; Bae, Myoung Nam; Choi, Bum Soon; Park, Cheol Whee; Kim, Yong-Soo; Yang, Chul Woo; Chung, Byung Ha

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we prospectively investigated the impact of kidney transplantation (KT) on the status of hypertension, including circadian rhythm in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and office BP measurement in 48 patients before and 1 year after KT. According to the nocturnal reduction in systolic BP (ΔSBP), the patients were divided into dippers, non-dippers, and reverse dippers. After KT, the mean BP value in office BP and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring did not change, but the proportion of patients taking anti-hypertensive drugs and the pill number significantly decreased. In contrast, the mean ΔSBP significantly decreased, and the proportion of non-dippers and reverse dippers did not decrease. Decrease in ΔSBP after KT was associated with inferior allograft function during follow-up. Our study suggests that KT improved the overall BP level, but it did not affect abnormal circadian rhythm in ESRD patients. PMID:26051924

  1. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Augments Perceptual Sensitivity and 24-Hour Retention in a Complex Threat Detection Task

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Brian; Coffman, Brian A.; Clark, Vincent P.; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improved performance of a complex visual perceptual learning task (Clark et al. 2012). However, it is not known whether tDCS can enhance perceptual sensitivity independently of non-specific, arousal-linked changes in response bias, nor whether any such sensitivity benefit can be retained over time. We examined the influence of stimulation of the right inferior frontal cortex using tDCS on perceptual learning and retention in 37 healthy participants, using signal detection theory to distinguish effects on perceptual sensitivity (d′) from response bias (ß). Anodal stimulation with 2 mA increased d′, compared to a 0.1 mA sham stimulation control, with no effect on ß. On completion of training, participants in the active stimulation group had more than double the perceptual sensitivity of the control group. Furthermore, the performance enhancement was maintained for 24 hours. The results show that tDCS augments both skill acquisition and retention in a complex detection task and that the benefits are rooted in an improvement in sensitivity (d′), rather than changes in response bias (ß). Stimulation-driven acceleration of learning and its retention over 24 hours may result from increased activation of prefrontal cortical regions that provide top-down attentional control signals to object recognition areas. PMID:22511978

  2. Enhanced carotid-cardiac baroreflex response and elimination of orthostatic hypotension 24 hours after acute exercise in paraplegics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelke, K. A.; Shea, J. D.; Doerr, D. F.; Convertino, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that an acute bout of maximal exercise can ameliorate orthostatic hypotension consequent to prolonged wheelchair confinement, we evaluated heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure responses during 15 minutes of 70 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) in 10 paraplegic subjects 24 hours after arm crank exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, and during a control (no exercise) conditions. Additionally, the carotid baroreceptor stimulus-cardiac response relationship was determined by measurement of R-R interval during external application of graded pressures to the carotid sinuses. One week separated the treatment conditions. The maximum slope of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response was increased (p = 0.049) by exercise (6.2 +/- 1.7 msec/mmHg) compared to control (3.3 +/- 0.6). During control HUT, HR increased from 61 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 7 bpm (p = 0.001) while SBP decreased from 118 +/- 5 to 106 +/- 9 mmHg (p = 0.025). During HUT 24 hours after exercise, HR increased from 60 +/- 2 to 90 +/- 4 bpm (p = 0.001), but the reduction in SBP was essentially eliminated (116 +/- 5 to 113 +/- 5 mmHg).

  3. Transcranial direct current stimulation augments perceptual sensitivity and 24-hour retention in a complex threat detection task.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Brian; Coffman, Brian A; Clark, Vincent P; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improved performance of a complex visual perceptual learning task (Clark et al. 2012). However, it is not known whether tDCS can enhance perceptual sensitivity independently of non-specific, arousal-linked changes in response bias, nor whether any such sensitivity benefit can be retained over time. We examined the influence of stimulation of the right inferior frontal cortex using tDCS on perceptual learning and retention in 37 healthy participants, using signal detection theory to distinguish effects on perceptual sensitivity (d') from response bias (ß). Anodal stimulation with 2 mA increased d', compared to a 0.1 mA sham stimulation control, with no effect on ß. On completion of training, participants in the active stimulation group had more than double the perceptual sensitivity of the control group. Furthermore, the performance enhancement was maintained for 24 hours. The results show that tDCS augments both skill acquisition and retention in a complex detection task and that the benefits are rooted in an improvement in sensitivity (d'), rather than changes in response bias (ß). Stimulation-driven acceleration of learning and its retention over 24 hours may result from increased activation of prefrontal cortical regions that provide top-down attentional control signals to object recognition areas.

  4. Comparison of Interviewer-Administered and Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recalls in 3 Diverse Integrated Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Frances E; Dixit-Joshi, Sujata; Potischman, Nancy; Dodd, Kevin W; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Kushi, Lawrence H; Alexander, Gwen L; Coleman, Laura A; Zimmerman, Thea P; Sundaram, Maria E; Clancy, Heather A; Groesbeck, Michelle; Douglass, Deirdre; George, Stephanie M; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Subar, Amy F

    2015-06-15

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls provide high-quality intake data but have been prohibitively expensive for large epidemiologic studies. This study's goal was to assess whether the web-based Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24) performs similarly enough to the standard interviewer-administered, Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) 24-hour dietary recall to be considered a viable alternative. In 2010-2011, 1,081 adults from 3 integrated health systems in Detroit, Michigan; Marshfield, Wisconsin; and Kaiser-Permanente Northern California participated in a field trial. A quota design ensured a diverse sample by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Each participant was asked to complete 2 recalls and was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 protocols differing by type of recall and administration order. For energy, the mean intakes were 2,425 versus 2,374 kcal for men and 1,876 versus 1,906 kcal for women by AMPM and ASA24, respectively. Of 20 nutrients/food groups analyzed and controlling for false discovery rate, 87% were judged equivalent at the 20% bound. ASA24 was preferred over AMPM by 70% of the respondents. Attrition was lower in the ASA24/AMPM study group than in the AMPM/ASA24 group, and it was lower in the ASA24/ASA24 group than in the AMPM/AMPM group. ASA24 offers the potential to collect high-quality dietary intake information at low cost with less attrition.

  5. Predictors of poor blood pressure control assessed by 24 hour monitoring in patients with type B acute aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Delsart, Pascal; Midulla, Marco; Sobocinski, Jonathan; Achere, Charles; Haulon, Stephan; Claisse, Gonzague; Mounier-Vehier, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The chronic management of post-acute aortic dissection (AD) of the descending aorta (Type B) is based on optimal control of blood pressure (BP), with a target BP < 135/80 mmHg. The aim of our study was to determine and verify effective blood pressure control with an objective measurement method and to identify predicting factors. Methods We collected data from 26 patients hospitalized in the acute phase of a Type B AD between 2006 and 2009. Two groups were defined according to 24 hour BP monitoring results at follow-up. Group 1 consisted of patients with a controlled BP (<130/80 mmHg), and Group 2 consisted of patients with an uncontrolled BP. Results Thirty four percent of patients showed an uncontrolled BP at checkup. Vascular history before AD (P = 0.06), high baseline BP trend (P = 0.01 for systolic and P = 0.08 for diastolic), and greater diameter of the descending aorta (P = 0.02) were associated with poor BP control. Conclusion Prognosis after AD is associated with BP control. Therefore, 24 hour BP monitoring can be made. PMID:22272072

  6. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - urine; Gamma globulin electrophoresis - urine; Urine immunoglobulin electrophoresis; IEP - urine ... is used to measure the amounts of various immunoglobulins in urine. Most often, it is done after ...

  7. Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance is associated with Lower CD4 Count and 24-Hour Urinary Dopamine Levels in Ethnic Minority Women Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Seay, Julia S.; McIntosh, Roger; Fekete, Erin M.; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Kumar, Mahendra; Schneiderman, Neil; Antoni, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbance is associated with dopamine dysregulation, which can negatively impact immune status. Individuals living with HIV experience more sleep difficulties, and poor sleep may compound immune decrements associated with HIV infection. Little research has examined associations between sleep, dopamine, and immune status (CD4 count) in individuals with HIV. As ethnic minority women living with HIV (WLWH) are at heightened risk for HIV disease progression, we related sleep reports to both CD4 count and dopamine levels in a cohort of ethnic minority WLWH. Methods Participants were 139 low-income WLWH (ages 20–62; 78.3% African-American or Caribbean) who reported both overall sleep quality and sleep disturbance on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). CD4 count and HIV viral load were measured via morning peripheral venous blood samples, and concentrations of dopamine were measured via 24-hour urine collection. Covariates included HIV viral load, length of time since HIV diagnosis, HAART adherence, perceived stress and depression. Results After controlling for all covariates, greater sleep disturbance was associated with significantly lower CD4 count (β = −.20, p = .03) and lower levels of dopamine (β = −.25, p = .04). Poorer overall sleep quality was marginally associated with lower CD4 count (β = −.16, p = .08), and was not associated with dopamine. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that sleep disturbance is independently related with immune status and dopamine levels in WLWH. Lower levels of dopamine may indicate neuroendocrine dysregulation and may impact immune and health status. Results highlight sleep disturbance rather than overall sleep quality as potentially salient to neuroendocrine and immune status in ethnic minority WLWH. PMID:23850225

  8. Ultra-Rapid dUT1 Measurements on Japan-Fennoscandian Baselines - Application to 24-hour Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuzaka, Shigeru; Kurihara, Shinobu; Sekido, Mamoru; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rudiger; Ritakari, Jouko; Wagner, Jan

    2010-01-01

    GSI, NICT, OSO, and MRO have been engaged in Ultra-rapid dUT1 experiments since 2007 aiming at the technological possibility of real-time dUT1 results using the e-VLBI technique. We have already successfully determined dUT1 in less than four minutes after the end of an experimental Intensive session in 2008, and at present we routinely get the results within 30 minutes for regular Intensives. In 2009 we applied the technique to 24-hour sessions and continuously obtained dUT1 values by processing and analyzing Tsukuba Onsala data in near real-time. It showed a detailed behavior of UT1 variations, which could be very valuable for scientific study as well as for precise prediction of UT1-UTC.

  9. Prognostic Value of the 24-Hour Neurological Examination in Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke: A post hoc Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled Stroke Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Frankel, Michael; Jovin, Tudor G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early prognostication of long-term outcomes following ischemic stroke can facilitate medical decision-making. We hypothesized that the 24-hour National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) predicts 3-month clinical outcomes in anterior circulation stroke. Methods Secondary analyses of the Interventional Management of Stroke 3 (IMS3) and intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) for acute ischemic stroke [National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) IV tPA] trials were performed. In participants with documented 24-hour NIHSS and 3-month Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), the predictive power of the 24-hour NIHSS and 24-hour NIHSS improvement for 3-month outcomes [mRS 0-2 and Barthel Index (BI) ≥95] was assessed. Percentages of good outcome (mRS 0-2 or BI ≥95) at 3, 6, and 12 months and mean quality of life (EQ5D™) index at 3 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were compared. Results The majority of the study participants were included (IMS3 n = 587/656, NINDS IV tPA n = 619/624). The 24-hour NIHSS was correlated with 3-month mRS (R = 0.73) with excellent predictive power for mRS 0-2 [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.91] and BI ≥95 (AUC = 0.9) in both cohorts. A model with the 24-hour NIHSS alone correctly classified 82-84% of patients in both cohorts. The percentages of good outcomes at 3-12 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were similar in both cohorts. mRS 0-2 was achieved by 75.6-77.7% of patients with 24-hour NIHSS ≤11 but by only 1.4-3.6% with 24-hour NIHSS ≥20. The EQ5D index at 3 months varied among NIHSS 0-4 (mean 0.86 ± 0.16), 5-11 (0.77 ± 0.18), and 12-19 (0.59 ± 0.26) quartiles. Conclusions The 24-hour NIHSS strongly predicts long-term stroke outcomes and is associated with quality of life. Its easy availability, reliability, and validity support its use as an early prognostic marker and surrogate of clinical outcome in ischemic stroke. PMID:27051408

  10. A practical approach to using spot urine protein/creatinine ratios for assessing proteinuria in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Marnoch, Catherine A; Larson, Lucia; Weitzen, Sherry; Phipps, Maureen G; Sung, C James; Powrie, Raymond O

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the spot urine protein/creatinine ratio compared with the 24-hour urine protein in pregnancy. Study Design: In this prospective cohort study of inpatient pregnant women, the protein/creatinine ratio and dipstick protein were assessed from a single urine sample collected at the start of the 24-hour urine. Both tests were compared with the 24-hour urine protein for correlation and test characteristics. Results: In the 196 specimens analysed, we found a strong correlation between the spot urine protein/creatinine ratio and 24-hour urine protein (r 2 = 0.78, P < 0.01). A protein/creatinine ratio <0.1 ruled out significant proteinuria (≥300 mg/day) with sensitivity and negative predictive value 100%. A protein/creatinine ratio ≥0.4 detected significant proteinuria (specificity and positive predictive value of 100%). A protein/creatinine ratio ≥4.6 had a specificity and positive predictive value of 100% for detecting severe proteinuria (≥5000 mg/day). Urine dipsticks correlated poorly with the 24-hour urine protein (r 2 = 0.40, P = 0.826). Nineteen percent of dipsticks reading nil or trace were false-negative results. Conclusion: The spot urine protein/creatinine ratio correlated well with the 24-hour urine protein and performed better than the urine dipsticks. Significant proteinuria in pregnancy was excluded if the protein/creatinine ratio was <0.1 and identified when it was ≥0.4. PMID:27630741

  11. Sodium

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than 2.4 grams per day. That equals about 1 teaspoon of table salt a day. Reading food labels can help you see how much sodium is in prepared foods. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  12. Analytical method for the quantitative determination of cyanuric acid as the degradation product of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in urine by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Patel, Katan; Jones, Kate

    2007-06-15

    A simple and selective analytical method for the quantitative determination of cyanuric acid, the degradation product of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), in human urine is reported herein. The sample preparation involved the use of diatomaceous earth extraction columns. Quantification was achieved by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using negative ion electrospray with a cyano (CN) column. Between day relative standard deviation less than 10% (n=6) was obtained at the 5 mg L(-1) level. The assay was linear over the investigated range 0-20 mg L(-1) and the limit of detection (LOD) was confirmed to be 0.1 mg L(-1). The method was applied to monitoring levels of cyanuric acid in healthcare workers using disinfectants products containing NaDCC. PMID:17409034

  13. Prediction of Cortical Defect Using C-Reactive Protein and Urine Sodium to Potassium Ratio in Infants with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated whether C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, urine protein-creatinine ratio (uProt/Cr), and urine electrolytes can be useful for discriminating acute pyelonephritis (APN) from other febrile illnesses or the presence of a cortical defect on 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scanning (true APN) from its absence in infants with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Materials and Methods We examined 150 infants experiencing their first febrile UTI and 100 controls with other febrile illnesses consecutively admitted to our hospital from January 2010 to December 2012. Blood (CRP, electrolytes, Cr) and urine tests [uProt/Cr, electrolytes, and sodium-potassium ratio (uNa/K)] were performed upon admission. All infants with UTI underwent DMSA scans during admission. All data were compared between infants with UTI and controls and between infants with or without a cortical defect on DMSA scans. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, the ability of the parameters to predict true APN was analyzed. Results CRP levels and uProt/Cr were significantly higher in infants with true APN than in controls. uNa levels and uNa/K were significantly lower in infants with true APN than in controls. CRP levels and uNa/K were relevant factors for predicting true APN. The method using CRP levels, u-Prot/Cr, u-Na levels, and uNa/K had a sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 65%, positive predictive value of 60%, and negative predictive value of 95% for predicting true APN. Conclusion We conclude that these parameters are useful for discriminating APN from other febrile illnesses or discriminating true APN in infants with febrile UTI. PMID:26632389

  14. Porphyrins - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... results may be due to: Liver cancer Hepatitis Lead poisoning Porphyria (several types) Alternative Names Urine uroporphyrin; Urine ... More Delta-ALA urine test Enzyme Hemoglobin Hepatitis Lead poisoning Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma PBG urine test Porphyria ...

  15. Label-free mass spectrometry proteome quantification of human embryonic kidney cells following 24 hours of sialic acid overproduction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cell surface glycoprotein sialylation is one of the most ubiquitous glycan modifications found on higher eukaryotes. The surface sialylation pattern of cells is influenced by the cellular environment but also by the Golgi sialyltransferase activity and flux of metabolites through sialic acid producing pathways. Altered cell surface sialic acid patterns have been observed in several cancers and other pathological conditions. In this experiment we examined the cellular proteomic changes that occur in human embryonic kidney cells after 24 hours of sialic acid overproduction using N-Acetylmannosamine. We utilized high resolution mass spectrometry and label free protein quantification to characterize the relative changes in protein abundance as well as multiple reaction monitoring to quantify the cellular sialic acid levels. Results Using N-Acetylmannosamine we were able to induce sialic acid production to almost 70-fold compared to non-induced control cells. Mass spectrometric analysis of cellular proteome of control and induced cells identified 1802 proteins of which 105 displayed significant changes in abundance. Functional analysis of the resulting relative changes in protein abundance revealed regulation of several cellular pathways including protein transport, metabolic and signaling pathways and remodeling of epithelial adherens junctions. We also identified several physically interacting co-regulated proteins in the set of changed proteins. Conclusions In this experiment we show that increased metabolic flux through sialic acid producing pathway affects the abundance of several protein transport, epithelial adherens junction, signaling and metabolic pathway related proteins. PMID:23915316

  16. Once- and twice-daily bevantolol for systemic hypertension using 24-hour ambulatory intraarterial blood pressure recording.

    PubMed

    Al-Khawaja, I M; Caruana, M P; Prince, H; Whittington, J; Raftery, E B

    1986-11-26

    The antihypertensive efficacy of bevantolol, a selective beta 1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, was evaluated in 17 patients with essential hypertension, using continuous ambulatory intraarterial blood pressure (BP) monitoring. The study compared a twice-daily regimen (titrated dose of 200 to 600 mg/day) with the same amount given in a single daily dose. Within-patient comparisons of mean hourly systolic and diastolic BPs and heart rate showed a highly significant effect with twice-daily therapy (p less than 0.001) for all of the 24 hours. Similar significant results were obtained with a single morning dose. There was no difference between the pattern or extent of BP reduction with the 2 regimens. The decrease in BP after bevantolol persisted during the physiologic tests (rest, tilt, isometric and dynamic exercise). Four patients developed minor side effects with the single morning dose, and only 1 patient with the twice-daily regimen. These effects included tiredness, fatigue and dizziness. Unlike pure beta-blocking agents, bevantolol controlled the early morning increase in BP, lending support to the belief that it possesses vasodilatory properties in addition to beta blockade. These results suggest that bevantolol may be useful as first-line therapy in a once-daily dosage for the treatment of essential hypertension.

  17. A comparison of regression and Bayesian change point analysis for extreme 24hours rainfall in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamruzzaman, M.; Beecham, S.; Metcalfe, A.

    2013-12-01

    We consider monthly extremes rainfall, aggregated over 24 hours, at 24 rainfall station in South Australia (SA). A self-organizing map (SOM) technique is used to draw contours of extreme for this area for each month. The possibility of change in extreme rainfall is investigated in two ways. The first is a multiple regression with time, month, station and their interaction as predictor variables. A confidence interval and for the linear and quadratic effects of time series are given. We have developed a strategy to possible improve prediction of extreme rainfall as a linear combination of original prediction. The dramatic improvement is a consequence of introducing squares and cross product of predictor variables is given in calibration, validation and re-calibration model. The similarity between fitted to the calibration and validation periods suggests that the hydrological process have been relatively stable over the period. The modeling strategy is empirical and will valid for different time period; although, in general, estimated coefficients could change substantially. The second analysis is a Bayesian change's point (BCP) analysis based on deseasonalised extreme data. A univariate BCP is applied in the data averaged over stations and compared with a multivariate BCP applied to the individual station records. The BCP is applied to investigate the possibility of sudden change rather than a smooth trend.

  18. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support. PMID:27398166

  19. Relative prognostic value of rest thallium-201 imaging, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; Nestico, P.F.; Heo, J.; Unwala, A.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-07-01

    Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.

  20. Adrenal catecholamine synthesis rate changes induced by combined thermal and immobilization stress in fed and 24 hour fasted rats.

    PubMed

    Bargiel, Z; Nowicka, H

    1989-01-01

    The combined stress of acute immobilization (IM) at high and low ambient temperature has been used to determine its influence on adrenal catecholamine (CA) content assassed histofluorimetrically in fed and 24 hour fasted rats. The general course of changes obtained after the arrangement of adrenal strips deriving from the adrenals of rats exposed to cold and IM stress (CIMS) at +10 degrees C to -25 degrees C during the different time fragments presented the adrenal CA depletion events followed sometimes by the adrenal CA content increase after the longer stress exposure or/and stronger CIMS and WIMS conditions. It was found that this depletion-stimulated increase of adrenal Ca synthesis rate had been accelerated in 24 h fasted rats compared to satiated ones exposed to the same stress conditions, especially after the CIMS exposure. Moreover the survival time duration at first lethal temperature (-5 degrees C and +45 degrees C) was significantly higher in fasted rats. The possible hypothalamic regulation of adrenal CA synthesis rate accordingly to the actual metabolism needs and beta-adrenoceptor sensitivity changes depending on satiety state have been discussed and the necessity of further investigations concerning the specificity of stress-induced metabolism changes in 24 h starved rats has been suggested.

  1. Hourly thermal load prediction for the next 24 hours by ARIMA, EWMA, LR and an artificial neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Kawashima, Minoru; Dorgan, C.E.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Predicting the thermal load for the next 24 hours is essential for optimal control of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems that use thermal cool storage. It can be useful in minimizing costs and energy in nonstorage systems. A cooperative research project between a US. university and a Japanese corporation investigated four generally used prediction methods to examine the basic models with variations and to compare the accuracy of each model. A cooling and heating seasonal data set with known next-day weather was used to evaluate the accuracy of each prediction method. The results indicate that an artificial neural network (ANN) model produces the most accurate thermal load predictions. After the initial comparisons with a computer-generated data set, the ANN model was applied to two measured building loads from another research project. These sets included typical measurement noise related to continuous field monitoring. The predictions of the next-day cooling load using the ANN prediction model were close to the actual data, even when the next-day weather was forecast. This confirms that the ANN model has sufficient accuracy and is the correct method for practical utilization in HVAC system control, thermal storage optimal control, and load/demand management.

  2. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support. PMID:27398166

  3. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improves survival in a novel 24-hour pig model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Araos, Joaquín; Alegría, Leyla; García, Patricio; Damiani, Felipe; Tapia, Pablo; Soto, Dagoberto; Salomon, Tatiana; Rodriguez, Felipe; Amthauer, Macarena; Erranz, Benjamín; Castro, Gabriel; Carreño, Pamela; Medina, Tania; Retamal, Jaime; Cruces, Pablo; Bugedo, Guillermo; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used to treat severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited clinical evidence about how to optimize the technique. Experimental research can provide an alternative to fill the actual knowledge gap. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) which resembled severe ARDS, and which could be successfully supported with ECMO. Eighteen pigs were randomly allocated into three groups: sham, ALI, and ALI + ECMO. ALI was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavage followed by a 2-hour period of injurious ventilation. All animals were followed up to 24 hours while being ventilated with conventional ventilation (tidal volume 10 ml/kg). The lung injury model resulted in severe hypoxemia, increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and altered alveolar membrane barrier function, as indicated by an increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar fluid, and increased wet/dry lung weight ratio. Histologic examination revealed severe diffuse alveolar damage, characteristic of ARDS. Veno-venous ECMO was started at the end of lung injury induction with a flow > 60 ml/kg/min resulting in rapid reversal of hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension. Mortality was 0, 66.6 and 16.6% in the SHAM, ALI and ALI + ECMO groups, respectively (p < 0.05). This is a novel clinically relevant animal model that can be used to optimize the approach to ECMO and foster translational research in extracorporeal lung support.

  4. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  5. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  6. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Carson, Valerie; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dinh, Thy; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Gray, Casey E; Gruber, Reut; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; LeBlanc, Claire; Okely, Anthony D; Olds, Timothy; Pate, Russell R; Phillips, Andrea; Poitras, Veronica J; Rodenburg, Sophie; Sampson, Margaret; Saunders, Travis J; Stone, James A; Stratton, Gareth; Weiss, Shelly K; Zehr, Lori

    2016-06-01

    Leaders from the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, content experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children and youth aged 5-17 years respect the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period). The development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and systematic reviews of evidence informing the guidelines were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Four systematic reviews (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, integrated behaviours) examining the relationships between and among movement behaviours and several health indicators were completed and interpreted by expert consensus. Complementary compositional analyses were performed using Canadian Health Measures Survey data to examine the relationships between movement behaviours and health indicators. A stakeholder survey was employed (n = 590) and 28 focus groups/stakeholder interviews (n = 104) were completed to gather feedback on draft guidelines. Following an introductory preamble, the guidelines provide evidence-informed recommendations for a healthy day (24 h), comprising a combination of sleep, sedentary behaviours, light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Proactive dissemination, promotion, implementation, and evaluation plans have been prepared in an effort to optimize uptake and activation of the new guidelines. Future research should consider the integrated relationships among movement behaviours, and similar integrated guidelines for other age groups should be developed. PMID:27306437

  7. Risk Stratification by 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in 5322 Subjects From 11 Populations

    PubMed Central

    Boggia, José; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Hansen, Tine W.; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Schwedt, Emma; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Filipovský, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; Wang, Jiguang; Ibsen, Hans; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    No previous study addressed whether in the general population estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR [Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula]) adds to the prediction of cardiovascular outcome over and beyond ambulatory blood pressure. We recorded health outcomes in 5322 subjects (median age, 51.8 years; 43.1% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations, who had baseline measurements of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP24) and eGFR. We computed hazard ratios using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Median follow-up was 9.3 years. In fully adjusted models, which included both ABP24 and eGFR, ABP24 predicted (P≤0.008) both total (513 deaths) and cardiovascular (206) mortality; eGFR only predicted cardiovascular mortality (P=0.012). Furthermore, ABP24 predicted (P≤0.0056) fatal combined with nonfatal events as a result of all cardiovascular causes (555 events), cardiac disease (335 events), or stroke (218 events), whereas eGFR only predicted the composite cardiovascular end point and stroke (P≤0.035). The interaction terms between ABP24 and eGFR were all nonsignificant (P≥0.082). For cardiovascular mortality, the composite cardiovascular end point, and stroke, ABP24 added 0.35%, 1.17%, and 1.00% to the risk already explained by cohort, sex, age, body mass index, smoking and drinking, previous cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive drug treatment. Adding eGFR explained an additional 0.13%, 0.09%, and 0.14%, respectively. Sensitivity analyses stratified for ethnicity, sex, and the presence of hypertension or chronic kidney disease (eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2) were confirmatory. In conclusion, in the general population, eGFR predicts fewer end points than ABP24. Relative to ABP24, eGFR is as an additive, not a multiplicative, risk factor and refines risk stratification 2- to 14-fold less. PMID:23172928

  8. Prevalence of Masked Hypertension: a Population-Based Survey in a Large City by Using 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Woong; Choi, Eun-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Nah, Deuk-Young; Shin, Sung-Joon; Gu, Namyi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We estimated the prevalence of hypertension and hypertension subtypes in a large semi-urban city in Korea, using 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a randomly selected sample population. Subjects and Methods A random sample (aged 20-65 years) from a city with an adult population of approximately 600000 was selected by using a list-assisted random digit dialing method. The 24-hour ABPM and conventional blood pressure measurement (CBPM) of these individuals were obtained. Results Among the 496 participants, valid 24-hour ABPM and CBPM were obtained from 462 (93%) individuals. The estimated prevalence of hypertension in Goyang was 17.54% by CBPM and 32.70% by 24-hour ABPM (p<0.01). In the age stratified analysis, both CBPM and 24-hour ABPM showed increased prevalence of hypertension with age. The estimated prevalence of masked hypertension was 16.22% and that of white-coat hypertension was 1.08%. Men had a higher prevalence of masked hypertension than women (20.79% vs. 11.86%, p=0.0295). The estimated prevalence of masked hypertension was 17.5%, 20.58%, 24.34%, and 13.29% in the age categories of 30s, 40s, 50s, and 60s, respectively. The estimated prevalence of masked uncontrolled hypertension was 26.79% in patients with hypertension who were taking antihypertensive medications. Conclusion The estimated prevalence of hypertension by 24-hour ABPM was higher than that by CBPM, revealing high prevalence of masked hypertension. The high prevalence of masked hypertension supports the adoption of ABPM in the national population survey and clinical practice to improve public health and reduce health care costs. PMID:27721860

  9. Accuracy of children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-hour dietary recalls) differs by retention interval

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Guinn, Caroline H.; Royer, Julie A.; Hardin, James W.; Mackelprang, Alyssa J.; Smith, Albert F.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objectives Validation-study data were analyzed to investigate the effect of retention interval (time between the to-be-reported meal and interview) on accuracy of children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports in 24-hour recalls, and to compare accuracy of children's school-breakfast reports for two breakfast locations (classroom; cafeteria). Subjects/Methods Each of 374 fourth-grade children was interviewed to obtain a 24-hour recall using one of six conditions from crossing two target periods (prior 24 hours; previous day) with three interview times (morning; afternoon; evening). Each condition had 62 or 64 children (half boys). A recall's target period included one school breakfast and one school lunch, for which the child had been observed. Food-item variables (observed number; reported number; omission rate; intrusion rate) and energy variables (observed; reported; report rate; correspondence rate; inflation ratio) were calculated for each child for school breakfast and school lunch separately. Results Accuracy for school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports was inversely related to retention interval. Specifically, as indicated by smaller omission rates, smaller intrusion rates, larger correspondence rates, and smaller inflation ratios, accuracy for school-breakfast reports was best for prior-24-hour recalls in the morning, and accuracy for school-lunch reports was best for prior-24-hour recalls in the afternoon. For neither school meal was a significant sex effect found for any variable. For school-breakfast reports, there was no significant school-breakfast location effect for any variable. Conclusions By shortening the retention interval, accuracy can be improved for school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports in children's 24-hour recalls. PMID:19756033

  10. Computerized portion-size estimation compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls for measurement of fat, fruit, and vegetable intake in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Toobert, Deborah J; Strycker, Lisa A; Hampson, Sarah E; Westling, Erika; Christiansen, Steven M; Hurley, Thomas G; Hébert, James R

    2011-10-01

    Validated self-report methods of dietary assessment exist and might be improved in terms of both accuracy and cost-efficiency with computer technology. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop an initial version of an interactive CD-ROM program to estimate fruit, vegetable, and fat intake, and to compare it to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (averaged over 3 days). In 2009, overweight male and female adults (n=205) from Lane County, OR, completed computerized and paper versions of fruit, vegetable, and fat screening instruments, and multiple 24-hour dietary recalls. Summary scores from the 10-item National Cancer Institute Fruit and Vegetable Scan and the 18-item Block Fat Screener were compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake estimates (criterion measures). Measurement models were used to derive deattenuated correlations with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls of paper and CD-ROM administrations of Fruit and Vegetable Scan fruit intake, vegetable intake, and fruit and vegetable intake, and Block Fat Screener fat intake. The computerized assessment and paper surveys were related to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 to 0.73 (all P≤0.0001). The CD-ROM-derived estimate of fruit intake was more closely associated with 24-hour dietary recall (r=0.73) than the paper-derived estimate (r=0.54; P<0.05), but the other comparisons did not differ significantly. Findings from this preliminary study with overweight adults indicate the need for additional enhancements to the CD-ROM assessment and more extensive validation studies.

  11. Computerized portion-size estimation compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls for measurement of fat, fruit, and vegetable intake in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Toobert, Deborah J; Strycker, Lisa A; Hampson, Sarah E; Westling, Erika; Christiansen, Steven M; Hurley, Thomas G; Hébert, James R

    2011-10-01

    Validated self-report methods of dietary assessment exist and might be improved in terms of both accuracy and cost-efficiency with computer technology. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop an initial version of an interactive CD-ROM program to estimate fruit, vegetable, and fat intake, and to compare it to multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (averaged over 3 days). In 2009, overweight male and female adults (n=205) from Lane County, OR, completed computerized and paper versions of fruit, vegetable, and fat screening instruments, and multiple 24-hour dietary recalls. Summary scores from the 10-item National Cancer Institute Fruit and Vegetable Scan and the 18-item Block Fat Screener were compared to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake estimates (criterion measures). Measurement models were used to derive deattenuated correlations with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls of paper and CD-ROM administrations of Fruit and Vegetable Scan fruit intake, vegetable intake, and fruit and vegetable intake, and Block Fat Screener fat intake. The computerized assessment and paper surveys were related to multiple 24-hour dietary recall-derived fruit/vegetable and fat intake. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 to 0.73 (all P≤0.0001). The CD-ROM-derived estimate of fruit intake was more closely associated with 24-hour dietary recall (r=0.73) than the paper-derived estimate (r=0.54; P<0.05), but the other comparisons did not differ significantly. Findings from this preliminary study with overweight adults indicate the need for additional enhancements to the CD-ROM assessment and more extensive validation studies. PMID:21963026

  12. Regulation of urine reprocessing in the maintenance of sodium and water balance in the terrestrial Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis investigated under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Morris, Stephen; Ahern, Mark D

    2003-08-01

    Land crabs produce isosmotic urine but reduce salt loss by reabsorbing salt via the gills to produce a dilute excretory fluid (P). This branchial salt reclamation is regulated in response to changes in dietary salt availability. The regulation of branchial Na reabsorption and osmotic status was investigated in the terrestrial crab Gecarcoidea natalis on Christmas Island. Confinement within field enclosures had no general effect on salt and water balance compared with crabs free in the rainforest but there were seasonal effects. Extracellular fluid volume was 27.9% body mass during the wet season but only 22.7% in the dry season. Urine production was 53 ml kg(-1) day(-1) in the dry season but 111 ml kg(-1) day(-1) in the wet season, while water flux rates were 140 ml kg(-1) day(-1) and 280 ml kg(-1) day(-1), respectively. Serotonin but not dopamine increased urine production by at least 16% but only during the dry season when rates were seasonally lowered. Crabs acclimated to drinking 50% seawater increased haemolymph osmotic pressure and downregulated branchial reabsorption of salt. Net Na flux (J(net)) and unidirectional Na influx (J(in)) were investigated in branchial perfusion experiments. In red crabs acclimated to drinking freshwater, J(in), J(net) and the activity of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were increased by serotonin, indicating that the increase of sodium absorption was due to a stimulation of the ATPase. Red crabs drinking 50% seawater reduced J(net) primarily due to increased passive loss (J(out)), since both J(in) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were unchanged. Serotonin and dopamine abolished the increased diffusive loss and re-established J(net) with no change in J(in). G. natalis exhibits different regulatory systems. Branchial salt uptake can be adjusted via the leak component when adequate salt is available but also by stimulated active uptake under diluting conditions. The gills are important sites of ion pumping in euryhaline aquatic crabs, and the

  13. Estimation of sodium and potassium intakes assessed by two 24 h urine collections in healthy Japanese adults: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Keiko; Uechi, Ken; Sasaki, Yuki; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2014-10-14

    Excess Na intake and insufficient K intake are well-known risk factors for CVD. International comparative studies have reported that Japan has the highest intake of Na and the lowest intake of K in the world. However, no recent study has precisely assessed Na and K intakes in Japanese adults. In the present study, Na and K intakes were estimated from two 24 h urine collections implemented in twenty-three out of forty-seven prefectures in Japan. Apparently healthy men (n 384) and women (n 376), aged 20 to 69 years, who had been working in welfare facilities were recruited, with data collection conducted in February and March 2013. The mean Na excretion was 206·0 mmol/d in men and 173·9 mmol/d in women. The respective values of K excretion were 51·6 and 47·2 mmol/d. The excretion of both Na and K varied considerably among the prefectures, and was higher in subjects with a higher BMI. In contrast, only K excretion was associated with age. After estimating the usual intakes of Na and K, it was found that none of the male subjects met the recommended Na intake values of the WHO, and that only 3·2 % met those of the Japanese government. The respective values for females were 0·1 and 5·0 %. For K intake, 7·5 % of the total subjects met the recommended values of the WHO and 21·7 % met those of the Japanese government. These findings suggest that there is an urgent need for the development of an effective intervention programme to reduce Na intake and promote K intake in the Japanese population.

  14. Comparison of gastric body and antral pH: a 24 hour ambulatory study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    McLauchlan, G; Fullarton, G M; Crean, G P; McColl, K E

    1989-05-01

    Simultaneous ambulatory records of gastric antral and body pH were made over 24 hours in nine healthy volunteers by means of endoscopically positioned and anchored glass electrodes. Intragastric pH was temporarily raised after the endoscopy with the median pH value 30 minutes after the procedure being 3.9 (range 1.5-7.0) for the antrum and 4.1 (range 1.5-7.0) for the body. Daytime pH (median pH value between 12 00 h and 23 00 h) was lower in the antrum (median = 1.9, range 1.6-2.6) than in the body (median = 2.7, range 1.8-4.5) (p less than 0.05) and this was because of the rise in pH on eating being less marked in the antrum than in the body. The median peak pH recorded during the evening meal was only 4.1 (range 2.4-6.2) in the antrum compared with 6.3 (range 4.4-6.7) in the body (p less than 0.01). Preprandial pH (median value over the hour prior to the evening meal) was similar in the antrum (median = 1.9, range 1.2-2.5) and body (median = 1.9, range 1.3-2.8). Night-time pH (median pH value between 23 00 h and 05 00 h) in six subjects remained low and was similar in the antrum (median = 1.4, range 1.2-1.7) and body (median = 1.3, range 1.1-1.7). In two subjects, however, there were episodes of raised night-time pH which were more marked in the antrum than in the body. Antral biopsies showed gastritis in four of the nine normal volunteers, which in three was associated with the presence of campylobacter-like organisms. This study shows the significant regional variations in day and night-time intragastric pH.

  15. Perfusion-CT - Can We Predict Acute Pancreatitis Outcome within the First 24 Hours from the Onset of Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Pieńkowska, Joanna; Gwoździewicz, Katarzyna; Skrobisz-Balandowska, Katarzyna; Marek, Iwona; Kostro, Justyna; Szurowska, Edyta; Studniarek, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is still a significant clinical problem which is associated with a highly mortality. The aim of this study was the evaluation of prognostic value of CT regional perfusion measurement performed on the first day of onset of symptoms of AP, in assessing the risk of developing severe form of acute pancreatitis. Material and Methods 79 patients with clinical symptoms and biochemical criteria indicative of acute pancreatitis (acute upper abdominal pain, elevated levels of serum amylase and lipase) underwent perfusion CT within 24 hours after onset of symptoms. The follow-up examinations were performed after 4–6 days to detect progression of the disease. Perfusion parameters were compared in 41 people who developed severe form of AP (pancreatic and/or peripancreatic tissue necrosis) with parameters in 38 consecutive patients in whom course of AP was mild. Blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time and permeability surface area product were calculated in the three anatomic pancreatic subdivisions (head, body and tail). At the same time the patient's clinical status was assessed by APACHE II score and laboratory parameters such as CRP, serum lipase and amylase, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP and bilirubin were compared. Results Statistical differences in the perfusion parameters between the group of patients with mild and severe AP were shown. Blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time were significantly lower and permeability surface area product was significantly higher in patients who develop severe acute pancreatitis and presence of pancreatic and/or peripancreatic necrosis due to pancreatic ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of evaluated on admission severity of pancreatitis assessed using APACHE II score and laboratory tests. Conclusions CT perfusion is a very useful indicator for prediction and selection patients in early stages of acute pancreatitis who are at risk of

  16. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  17. Identifying nutrients that are under-reported by an automated 24-hour dietary recall method in overweight and obese women after weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underreporting of energy intake by 15-50% is a common problem in dietary assessment. Evidence suggests overweight/obese respondents are more likely to under-report than normal weight. This study compared Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall (ASA24)-reported dietary intake to true intake in ove...

  18. The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24): A resource for researchers, clinicians, and educators from the National Cancer Institute

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) provide high-quality dietary intake data with minimal bias, making them the preferred tool for monitoring the diets of populations and, increasingly, for studying diet and disease associations. Traditional 24HDRs, however, are...

  19. Heart rate variability parameters of myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs with and without heart failure obtained using 24-hour Holter electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M S; Muzzi, R A L; Araújo, R B; Muzzi, L A L; Ferreira, D F; Nogueira, R; Silva, E F

    2012-06-16

    Time-domain heart rate variability (HRV) parameters and the correlation between echocardiography and Holter examinations in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) were determined. Holter examination was also performed at different time frames: an entire 24-hour period, a four-hour period during sleep, and a four-hour period while awake. Ten healthy (control group) and 28 MMVD dogs, 15 with and 13 without heart failure, were evaluated. The SDANN (sd of the mean normal RR intervals for all five-minute segments during 24-hour Holter) and pNN(50) (percentage of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals that are >50 ms computed over 24-hour Holter) variables were significantly lower in the dogs with MMVD heart failure. The differences in HRV between the groups were only detected during the 24-hour evaluation period (P<0.05). There were high correlations (canonical analysis) between Holter and echocardiography examinations when considering pNN(50), SDANN, and LA/AO (left atrial to aortic root ratio) (r=0.92; P<0.05), indicating that both are important in evaluating MMVD dogs. SDANN and pNN(50) are measures of parasympathetic control of the heart, and thus, it is possible to infer that the MMVD dogs exhibit parasympathetic withdrawal during the development of heart failure.

  20. Validation of the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall for children (ASA24-Kids) among 9- to 11-year-old youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty-nine children in two sites participated in the study. In one site, trained staff observed and recorded types and portions of foods and drinks consumed by ...

  1. Ambulatory 24 hour intraoesophageal pH and pressure recordings v provocation tests in the diagnosis of chest pain of oesophageal origin.

    PubMed Central

    Ghillebert, G; Janssens, J; Vantrappen, G; Nevens, F; Piessens, J

    1990-01-01

    Fifty patients with non-cardiac chest pain underwent 24 hour intraoesophageal pH and pressure recording and provocation tests to determine the relative value of both techniques in establishing the oesophageal origin of the chest pain. Twenty six patients (52%) had at least one positive provocation test: the acid perfusion test was positive related in 18 patients (36%), the edrophonium test in 16 patients (32%), the vasopressin test in five patients (10%), and the balloon distension test (performed in only 20 patients) in one (5%). The 24 hour pH and pressure recording correlated spontaneous chest pain attacks with abnormal motility or gastro-oesophageal reflux in 19 patients (38%). Fourteen of these patients also had at least one positive provocation test. Therefore, 24 hour pH and pressure recordings are only slightly better than a set of provocation tests in identifying the oesophagus as the cause of chest pain (10% diagnostic gain). In the case of oesophageal chest pain, however, 24 hour recording appeared to be the only way to identify the nature of the underlying oesophageal abnormality that caused the spontaneous pain attacks--for example, gastro-oesophageal reflux, motility disorders, or irritability of the oesophagus. PMID:2370009

  2. Bath water contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria in 24-hour home baths, hot springs, and public bathhouses of Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bath water samples were collected from 116 hot springs, 197 public bathhouses, and 38 24-hour home baths in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, during the period of April 2009 to November 2011, for determining the presence and extent of contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Cultures positive for Legionella were observed in 123 of the 3,314 bath water samples examined. The distribution and abundance of Legionella and/or combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria were investigated to clarify the contamination levels. The abundance of Legionella was demonstrated to correlate considerably with the levels of combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Legionella spp. were obtained from 61% of the water samples from 24-hour home baths, but only from 3% of the samples from public bathhouses and hot springs. This is despite the fact that a few outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Nagano Prefecture as well as other regions of Japan have been traced to bath water contamination. The comparatively higher rate of contamination of the 24-hour home baths is a matter of concern. It is therefore advisable to routinely implement good maintenance of the water basins, particularly of the 24-hour home baths.

  3. The effect of low level radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in operators during 24-hour shifts.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, K; Israel, M; Mihaylov, S

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long term exposure to low level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in satellite station operators during 24-hour shifts. Twelve male operators at a satellite station for TV communications and space research were studied during 24-hour shifts. Dosimetric evaluation of the exposure was carried out and showed low level exposure with specific absorption of 0.1127 J.kg-1. A control group of 12 unexposed male operators with similar job task and the same shift system were studied, too. The 11-oxycorticosteroids (11-OCS), adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed by spectrofluorimetric methods on 3-hour intervals during the 24-hour shifts. The data were analyzed by tests for interindividual analysis, Cosinor analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant increase in the 24-hour excretion of 11-OCS and disorders in its circadian rhythm, manifested by increase in the mesor, decrease in the amplitude and shift in the acrophase were found in the exposed operators. The changes in the excretion rates of the catecholamines were significant and showed greater variability of both variables. The long term effect of the exposure to low-level RF EM radiation evoked pronounced stress reaction with changes in the circadian rhythm of 11-OCS and increased variability of catecholamines secretion. The possible health hazards associated with observed alteration in the stress system need to be clarified by identification of their significance and prognostic relevance.

  4. Characterization of pulmonary protein profiles in response to zinc oxide nanoparticles in mice: a 24-hour and 28-day follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Jen-Kun; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Lai, Ching-Huang; Jones, Tim P; BéruBé, Kelly A; Hong, Gui-Bing; Ho, Kin-Fai; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are recognized to cause systemic disorders, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the time-dependent differences that occur after exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanistic differences at 24 hours and 28 days after the exposure of BALB/c mice to ZnONPs via intratracheal instillation. An isobaric tag for the relative and absolute quantitation coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the differential protein expression, biological processes, molecular functions, and pathways. A total of 18 and 14 proteins displayed significant changes in the lung tissues at 24 hours and 28 days after exposure, respectively, with the most striking changes being observed for S100-A9 protein. Metabolic processes and catalytic activity were the main biological processes and molecular functions, respectively, in the responses at the 24-hour and 28-day follow-up times. The glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway was continuously downregulated from 24 hours to 28 days, whereas detoxification pathways were activated at the 28-day time-point after exposure. A comprehensive understanding of the potential time-dependent effects of exposure to ZnONPs was provided, which highlights the metabolic mechanisms that may be important in the responses to ZnONP. PMID:26251593

  5. 24-HOUR DIFFUSIVE SAMPLING OF 1,3-BUTADIENE IN AIR ONTO CARBONPAK X SOLID ADSORBENT WITH THEMAL DESORPTION/GC/MS ANALYSIS - FEASIBILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diffusive sampling of 1,3-butadiene for 24 hours onto the graphitic adsorbent Carbopack X contained in a stainless steel tube badge (6.3 mm OD, 5 mm ID, and 90 mm in length) with analysis by thermal desorption/GC/MS has been evaluated in controlled tests. A test matrix of 42 tr...

  6. Sodium reduction in New Zealand requires major behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Lofthouse, Catherine; Te Morenga, Lisa; McLean, Rachael

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility of adherence to a low sodium diet in a sample of healthy New Zealand adults. It also addressed whether following a low sodium diet was accompanied by changes in intakes of other nutrients that influence cardiovascular risk. Eleven healthy adults provided dietary intake data and a 24-hour urine collection at baseline and follow-up. They then received nutritional counselling based on the World Health Organization recommendation for sodium intake (<2000 mg/day) and received ongoing nutritional support while undertaking a low sodium diet for four weeks. At the end of the four-week period, participants completed a semi-structured interview that elicited participants' opinions on barriers and facilitators to following a low sodium diet and explored changes in participants' dietary habits and behaviours. Thematic analysis revealed that adherence to a low sodium diet required substantial changes to participants' usual food purchasing and preparation habits. Participants reported that lack of control over the sodium content of meals eaten away from the home, the complex and time-consuming nature of interpreting nutrition information labels, and difficulty identifying suitable snacks were barriers to adherence. Detailed meal planning and cooking from scratch, using flavour replacements, reading food labels to identify low sodium foods, receiving support from other people and receiving tailored nutrition advice were facilitators. Mean sodium intake reduced over the period, accompanied by a decrease in mean intake of total fat. These factors suggest that sodium reduction in New Zealand adults was feasible. However, considerable changes to eating behaviours were required.

  7. Sodium reduction in New Zealand requires major behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Lofthouse, Catherine; Te Morenga, Lisa; McLean, Rachael

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility of adherence to a low sodium diet in a sample of healthy New Zealand adults. It also addressed whether following a low sodium diet was accompanied by changes in intakes of other nutrients that influence cardiovascular risk. Eleven healthy adults provided dietary intake data and a 24-hour urine collection at baseline and follow-up. They then received nutritional counselling based on the World Health Organization recommendation for sodium intake (<2000 mg/day) and received ongoing nutritional support while undertaking a low sodium diet for four weeks. At the end of the four-week period, participants completed a semi-structured interview that elicited participants' opinions on barriers and facilitators to following a low sodium diet and explored changes in participants' dietary habits and behaviours. Thematic analysis revealed that adherence to a low sodium diet required substantial changes to participants' usual food purchasing and preparation habits. Participants reported that lack of control over the sodium content of meals eaten away from the home, the complex and time-consuming nature of interpreting nutrition information labels, and difficulty identifying suitable snacks were barriers to adherence. Detailed meal planning and cooking from scratch, using flavour replacements, reading food labels to identify low sodium foods, receiving support from other people and receiving tailored nutrition advice were facilitators. Mean sodium intake reduced over the period, accompanied by a decrease in mean intake of total fat. These factors suggest that sodium reduction in New Zealand adults was feasible. However, considerable changes to eating behaviours were required. PMID:27395412

  8. Sodium and Potassium Intake of Urban Dwellers: Nothing Changed in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Masoud; Namayandeh, Mahdieh; GharahiGhehi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    To assess the daily salt intake of people aged 20-74 years based on the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion in urban population of Yazd, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted. This is a substudy of Yazd Healthy Heart Project in Iran. From 2004 to 2005, two thousand people of the urban population of Yazd city, aged 20-74 years, were enrolled in the main study. Overall, 219 volunteer participants of 20-70 years were enrolled in this substudy. Sample frame was the household numbers according to the database of Yazd City Health Services. Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and creatinine were measured in the urine samples collected from the participants over a 24-hour period. Sodium content in urine over 24 hours was 171.7±82.9 mmol/day in males and 127.8±56.1 mmol/day in females (p<0.0001) while potassium content was 49.4±23.2 mmol/day in males and 41.5±25.1 mmol/day in females (p=0.2). Estimated average daily salt (NaCl) intake was 10.0±4.8 g/day in males and 7.5±3.3 g/day in females (p<0.0001). Only one participant had the ideal Na/K ratio of less than one. Na/K ratios greater than one and less than two were seen in 11.3% (n=24), and a ratio equal to or greater than 2 was observed in 82.3% (n=118) of the participants. The average Na/K ratio was 3.69±1.58. Unlike many developed countries where sodium intake declined over the past few decades, the daily sodium intake in Yazd is high, and daily potassium intake is low. This is similar to what was observed four decades ago in an area not far from Yazd. Efforts must be directed towards health promotion interventions to increase public awareness to reduce sodium intake and increase potassium intake. PMID:24847600

  9. Sodium and potassium intake of urban dwellers: nothing changed in Yazd, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Masoud; Soltaniz, Mohammadhossien; Namayandeh, Mahdieh; GharahiGhehi, Neda

    2014-03-01

    To assess the daily salt intake of people aged 20-74 years based on the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion in urban population of Yazd, a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted. This is a substudy of Yazd Healthy Heart Project in Iran. From 2004 to 2005, two thousand people of the urban population of Yazd city, aged 20-74 years, were enrolled in the main study. Overall, 219 volunteer participants of 20-70 years were enrolled in this substudy. Sample frame was the household numbers according to the database of Yazd City Health Services. Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and creatinine were measured in the urine samples collected from the participants over a 24-hour period. Sodium content in urine over 24 hours was 171.7 +/- 82.9 mmol/day in males and 127.8 +/- 56.1 mmol/day in females (p < 0.0001) while potassium content was 49.4 +/- 23.2 mmol/day in males and 41.5 +/- 25.1 mmol/day in females (p = 0.2). Estimated average daily salt (NaCl) intake was 10.0 +/- 4.8 g/day in males and 7.5 +/- 3.3 g/day in females (p < 0.0001). Only one participant had the ideal Na/K ratio of less than one. Na/K ratios greater than one and less than two were seen in 11.3% (n = 24), and a ratio equal to or greater than 2 was observed in 82.3% (n = 118) of the participants. The average Na/K ratio was 3.69 +/- 1.58. Unlike many developed countries where sodium intake declined over the past few decades, the daily sodium intake in Yazd is high, and daily potassium intake is low. This is similar to what was observed four decades ago in an area not far from Yazd. Efforts must be directed towards health promotion interventions to increase public awareness to reduce sodium intake and increase potassium intake.

  10. Reductions in Mean 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure After 6-Week Treatment With Canagliflozin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Raymond R; Machin, Israel; Ren, Jimmy; Trujillo, Angelina; Kawaguchi, Masato; Vijapurkar, Ujjwala; Damaraju, Chandrasekharrao V; Pfeifer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the early effects of canagliflozin on blood pressure (BP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension. Patients were randomized to canagliflozin 300 mg, canagliflozin 100 mg, or placebo for 6 weeks and underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring before randomization, on day 1 of treatment, and after 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in mean 24-hour systolic BP (SBP) from baseline to week 6. Overall, 169 patients were included (mean age, 58.6 years; glycated hemoglobin, 8.1%; seated BP 138.5/82.7 mm Hg). At week 6, canagliflozin 300 mg provided greater reductions in mean 24-hour SBP than placebo (least squares mean -6.2 vs -1.2 mm Hg, respectively; P=.006). Numerical reductions in SBP were observed with canagliflozin 100 mg. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated, with side effects similar to those reported in previous studies. These results suggest that canagliflozin rapidly reduces BP in patients with T2DM and hypertension.

  11. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    High levels of urine calcium (above 300 mg/day) may be due to: Chronic kidney disease High vitamin D levels Leaking of calcium from the kidneys into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking ...

  12. Decreased striatal dopamine release underlies increased expression of long-term synaptic potentiation at corticostriatal synapses 24 hours after 3-nitropropionic acid induced chemical hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Akopian, Garnik; Crawford, Cynthia; Beal, M. Flint; Cappelletti, Maurand; Jakowec, Michael W.; Petzinger, Giselle M.; Zheng, Ling; Gheorghe, Stacey L.; Reichel, Carmela M.; Chow, Robert; Walsh, John P

    2008-01-01

    The striatum is particularly sensitive to the irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehyrdrogenase 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP). In the present study we examined early changes in behavior and dopamine and glutamate synaptic physiology created by a single systemic injection of 3-NP in Fischer 344 rats. Hind limb dystonia was seen 2 hours after 3-NP injections and rats performed poorly on balance beam and rota-rod motor tests 24 hours later. Systemic 3-NP increased NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at corticostriatal synapses over the same time period. The 3-NP induced corticostriatal LTP was not due to increased NMDA receptor number or function, since 3-NP did not change MK-801 binding or NMDA/AMPA receptor current ratios. The LTP seen 24 hours after 3-NP was D1 receptor-dependent and reversed by exogenous addition of dopamine or a D2 receptor agonist to brain slices. High performance liquid chromatography and fast scan cyclic voltammetry revealed a decrease in dopamine content and release in rats injected 24 hours earlier with 3-NP, and much like the enhanced LTP, dopamine changes were reversed by 48 hours. Tyrosine hydroxylase expression was not changed and there was no evidence of striatal cell loss at 24–48 hours after 3-NP exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats showed similar physiological responses to systemic 3-NP, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Thus, 3-NP causes significant changes in motor behavior marked by parallel changes in striatal dopamine release and corticostriatal synaptic plasticity. PMID:18799690

  13. Identifying predictors of high sodium excretion in patients with heart failure: A mixed effect analysis of longitudinal data

    PubMed Central

    Creber, Ruth Masterson; Topaz, Maxim; Lennie, Terry A.; Lee, Christopher S.; Puzantian, Houry; Riegel, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background A low-sodium diet is a core component of heart failure self-care but patients have difficulty following the diet. Aim The aim of this study was to identify predictors of higher than recommended sodium excretion among patients with heart failure. Methods The World Health Organization Five Dimensions of Adherence model was used to guide analysis of existing data collected from a prospective, longitudinal study of 280 community-dwelling adults with previously or currently symptomatic heart failure. Sodium excretion was measured objectively using 24-hour urine sodium measured at three time points over six months. A mixed effect logistic model identified predictors of higher than recommended sodium excretion. Results The adjusted odds of higher sodium excretion were 2.90, (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15–4.25, p<0.001) for patients who were obese; 2.80 (95% CI: 1.33–5.89, p=0.007) for patients with diabetes; and 2.22 (95% CI: 1.09–4.53, p=0.028) for patients who were cognitively intact. Conclusion Three factors were associated with excess sodium excretion and two factors, obesity and diabetes, are modifiable by changing dietary food patterns. PMID:24366985

  14. [The normalisation of blood sugar using a non-miniaturised artifical pancreas. Application for 24 hours in 7 insulin-dependent diabetics (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Slama, G; Klein, J C; Tardieu, M C; Tchobroutsky, G

    1977-06-25

    Seven insulin-dependent diabetic were treated for 24 to 36 hours by intravenous injections of insulin adapted to variations in blood glucose using a fairly voluminous automatic regulation device. This artificial pancreas consists of a modified Technicon blood sugar apparatus which provides continuous estimation of blood glucose using non-haemolysed whole blood by a glucose oxidase method with an inertia time of 6 minutes, a table calculator and a newly developed interpretation and command electronic unit (GlucostatR). Normalisation of blood glucose was obtained for at least 24 hours, during and between meals, during a period following an oral glucose load and throughout the night.

  15. Italian society of hypertension guidelines for conventional and automated blood pressure measurement in the office, at home and over 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Parati, Gianfranco; Omboni, Stefano; Palatini, Paolo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Bilo, Grzegorz; Valentini, Mariaconsuelo; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2008-10-01

    This article offers instructions and recommendations on how to perform blood pressure measurements in the doctor's office, in the patient's home and in ambulatory conditions over 24 hours. Great attention is paid to some of the general aspects of blood pressure measurement, including the accuracy of blood pressure measuring devices, the importance of a 'white-coat effect', and the need for patient education. This article also deals with a number of practical details, such as the importance of patient's relaxation and position, arm position and support, arm selection and cuff selection and application. Recommendations are provided on the observer's position and performance, and on the need to pay attention to specific factors affecting the blood pressure measurement in different patient populations, namely in children, elderly and obese people, pregnant women, patients with arrhythmias and patients on treatment. This article then separately focuses on the characteristics of auscultatory and automated measurements, the latter performed either in the office, at home or over 24 hours in ambulatory settings. Home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) is becoming increasingly important in the diagnosis and management of arterial hypertension. The importance of HBPM in cardiovascular prevention, related to a deeper involvement of patients in their long-term management, and the wide diffusion of this approach in populations, is not always accompanied by adequate knowledge of how to make proper use of this technique, which emphasizes the need for more precise recommendations. This article summarizes the available evidence and provides recommendations on the use of home blood pressure monitoring in clinical practice and in research. It updates the previous recommendations on the same topic issued in 2000. The main topics addressed include the methodology of HBPM, focusing on measurement conditions and procedures, ranging from patient/subject position, to arm selection, arm

  16. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and CKD Progression.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Mills, Katherine T; Appel, Lawrence J; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Lee, Belinda T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Porter, Anna; Makos, Gail; Weir, Matthew R; Hamm, L Lee; Kusek, John W

    2016-04-01

    CKD is a major risk factor for ESRD, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Whether dietary sodium and potassium intake affect CKD progression remains unclear. We prospectively studied the association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with CKD progression and all-cause mortality among 3939 patients with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured using three 24-hour urine specimens, and CKD progression was defined as incident ESRD or halving of eGFR. During follow-up, 939 CKD progression events and 540 deaths occurred. Compared with the lowest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (<116.8 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (≥194.6 mmol/24 h) were 1.54 (1.23 to 1.92) for CKD progression, 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for all-cause mortality, and 1.43 (1.18 to 1.73) for the composite outcome of CKD progression and all-cause mortality after adjusting for multiple covariates, including baseline eGFR. Additionally, compared with the lowest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (<39.4 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios for the highest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (≥67.1 mmol/24 h) were 1.59 (1.25 to 2.03) for CKD progression, 0.98 (0.71 to 1.35) for all-cause mortality, and 1.42 (1.15 to 1.74) for the composite outcome. These data indicate that high urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with increased risk of CKD progression. Clinical trials are warranted to test the effect of sodium and potassium reduction on CKD progression.

  17. Liquid-containing Refluxes and Acid Refluxes May Be Less Frequent in the Japanese Population Than in Other Populations: Normal Values of 24-hour Esophageal Impedance and pH Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Osamu; Kohata, Yukie; Kawami, Noriyuki; Iida, Hiroshi; Kawada, Akiyo; Hosaka, Hiroko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko; Inamori, Masahiko; Kusano, Motoyasu; Hongo, Micho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Twenty-four-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring allows detection of all types of reflux episodes and is considered the best technique for identifying gastroesophageal refluxes. However, normative data for the Japanese population are lacking. This multicenter study aimed to establish the normal range of 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH data both in the distal and the proximal esophagus in Japanese subjects. Methods Forty-two healthy volunteers (25 men and 17 women) with a mean ± standard deviation age of 33.3 ± 12.4 years (range: 22–72 years) underwent a combined 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. According to the physical and pH properties, distal or proximal esophageal reflux events were categorized. Results Median 45 reflux events occurred in 24 hours, and the 95th percentile was 85 events. Unlike previous reports, liquid-containing reflux events are median 25/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 62/24 hours. Acidic reflux events were median 11/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Non-acidic gas reflux events were median 15/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Proximal reflux events accounted for 80% of the total reflux events and were mainly non-acidic gas refluxes. About 19% of liquid and mixed refluxes reached the proximal esophagus. Conclusions Unlike previous studies, liquid-containing and acidic reflux events may be less frequent in the Japanese population. Non-acidic gas reflux events may be frequent and a cause of frequent proximal reflux events. This study provides important normative data for 24-hour impedance and pH monitoring in both the distal and the proximal esophagus in the Japanese population. PMID:27247103

  18. Relationship of nutrition knowledge and self-reported dietary behaviors with urinary excretion of sodium and potassium: comparison between dietitians and nondietitians.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Minami; Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of better nutrition knowledge and dietary behavior on healthier dietary intake is still controversial. We hypothesized that nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior are associated with sodium and potassium intake in adult women. A cross-sectional study was conducted at welfare facilities located in 20 areas of Japan. Ninety-nine female dietitians and 117 nondietitians aged 20 to 69 years participated. Sodium and potassium intake were assessed with two 24-hour urine collections and 4-day semiweighed diet records. Nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior were accessed with 3 questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to compare sodium and potassium excretion and selected nutrition and food intake between dietitians and nondietitians. After adjustment for age and smoking habit, sodium and potassium excretion did not significantly differ between the 2 groups (3857 vs 3959 mg/d, P = .57, and 2016 vs 1886 mg/d, P = .10, respectively). Sodium/potassium ratio was significantly lower in the dietitians (P = .044). The dietitians used food labels for sodium contents more often than the nondietitians and consumed more fruits and vegetables (P = .048 and P < .0001, respectively) and less sugar and confectionaries and fat and oils (P = .016 and P = .010, respectively). In conclusion, the higher level of nutritional knowledge and better dietary behavior were not associated with either sodium or potassium excretion but were moderately associated with sodium/potassium ratio.

  19. Relationship of nutrition knowledge and self-reported dietary behaviors with urinary excretion of sodium and potassium: comparison between dietitians and nondietitians.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Minami; Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of better nutrition knowledge and dietary behavior on healthier dietary intake is still controversial. We hypothesized that nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior are associated with sodium and potassium intake in adult women. A cross-sectional study was conducted at welfare facilities located in 20 areas of Japan. Ninety-nine female dietitians and 117 nondietitians aged 20 to 69 years participated. Sodium and potassium intake were assessed with two 24-hour urine collections and 4-day semiweighed diet records. Nutritional knowledge and dietary behavior were accessed with 3 questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to compare sodium and potassium excretion and selected nutrition and food intake between dietitians and nondietitians. After adjustment for age and smoking habit, sodium and potassium excretion did not significantly differ between the 2 groups (3857 vs 3959 mg/d, P = .57, and 2016 vs 1886 mg/d, P = .10, respectively). Sodium/potassium ratio was significantly lower in the dietitians (P = .044). The dietitians used food labels for sodium contents more often than the nondietitians and consumed more fruits and vegetables (P = .048 and P < .0001, respectively) and less sugar and confectionaries and fat and oils (P = .016 and P = .010, respectively). In conclusion, the higher level of nutritional knowledge and better dietary behavior were not associated with either sodium or potassium excretion but were moderately associated with sodium/potassium ratio. PMID:27101762

  20. Treatment of burns in the first 24 hours: simple and practical guide by answering 10 questions in a step-by-step form

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose. PMID:22583548

  1. Self-Perception of Swallowing-Related Problems in Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Patients Diagnosed with 24-Hour Oropharyngeal pH Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Mesallam, Tamer A.; Farahat, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Swallowing difficulty is considered one of the nonspecific symptoms that many patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux complain of. However, the relationship between laryngopharyngeal reflux and swallowing problems is not clear. The purpose of this work is to explore correlation between swallowing-related problems and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) in a group of patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal pH monitoring and to study the effect of laryngopharyngeal reflux on the patients' self-perception of swallowing problems. Methods. 44 patients complaining of reflux-related problems were included in the study. Patients underwent 24-hour oropharyngeal pH monitoring and were divided into positive and negative LPR groups based on the pH monitoring results. All patient filled out the Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) and Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) questionnaires. Comparison was made between the positive and negative LPR groups regarding the results of the DHI and RSI ratings. Also, correlation between DHI scores, RSI scores, and pH monitoring results was studied. Results. Significant difference was reported between positive and negative LPR groups regarding DHI scores, RSI scores, and overall rating of swallowing difficulty. There was significant correlation demonstrated between DHI scores, RSI scores, and 24-hour oropharyngeal pH results. Conclusion. Laryngopharyngeal reflux appears to have a significant impact on patients' self-perception of swallowing problems as measured by DHI. PMID:26966689

  2. Prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients receiving CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery

    PubMed Central

    Siriphuwanun, Visith; Punjasawadwong, Yodying; Lapisatepun, Worawut; Charuluxananan, Somrat; Uerpairojkit, Ketchada

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) within 24 hours of receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery. Patients and methods A retrospective cohort study approved by the Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai University Hospital Ethical Committee. Data used were taken from records of 751 cardiac arrest patients who received their first CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery between January 1, 2003 and October 31, 2011. The reviewed data included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical status classification, anesthesia information, the timing of cardiac arrest, CPR details, and outcomes at 24 hours after CPR. Univariate and polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to determine prognostic factors associated with the outcome variable. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results The outcomes at 24 hours were death (638/751, 85.0%), survival with complications (73/751, 9.7%), and survival without complications (40/751, 5.3%). The prognostic factors associated with death were: age between 13–34 years (OR =3.08, 95% CI =1.03–9.19); ASA physical status three and higher (OR =6.60, 95% CI =2.17–20.13); precardiopulmonary comorbidity (OR =3.28, 95% CI =1.09–9.90); the condition of patients who were on mechanical ventilation prior to receiving anesthesia (OR =4.11, 95% CI =1.17–14.38); surgery in the upper abdominal site (OR =14.64, 95% CI =2.83–75.82); shock prior to cardiac arrest (OR =6.24, 95% CI =2.53–15.36); nonshockable electrocardiography (EKG) rhythm (OR =5.67, 95% CI =1.93–16.62); cardiac arrest occurring in postoperative period (OR =7.35, 95% CI =2.89–18.74); and duration of CPR more than 30 minutes (OR =4.32, 95% CI =1.39–13.45). The prognostic factors associated with survival with complications were being greater

  3. [How to express results of 24-hour gastric pH measurement? Choice of a mode of expression in 27 healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Vallot, T; Elouaer-Blanc, L; Garcia del Risco, F; Mignon, M; Vatier, J; Bonfils, S

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four hour intragastric acidity was studied in 27 healthy subjects (mean age = 29 yrs) by continuous recording in standardized conditions. Data obtained were expressed according to several analytical methods as used extensively elsewhere. In our study, there was a wide discrepancy in results from one subject to another. The use of median values of pH was more appropriate than mean values to express half-hour acidity levels for 24 hours. The median value of H+ concentration is recommended as well. The median value of pH varied from 1 to 4.8 with a slight rise during the second half of the night. During the postprandial period, increase of pH values was prolonged over 2 h 30 in 50 p. 100 of subjects. Profile of pH allowed to demonstrate the distribution of pH value without excluding the extreme values. Both periodicity of pH measurement (30 or 60 min) and parameters used to quantify acidity (percentage of time or pH value at or below threshold values) did not modify results. As measured over a 24 hours period, the percentage of time (mean +/- SEM) at or below pH 1.5 and 3.5 was 54 +/- 3 p. 100 and 85 +/- 2 p. 100, respectively. Daytime and night-time profiles were similar. Mean 24 h H+ concentration (mean +/- SEM) was 47 +/- 35 mmol/l, with, once again, similarity between day and night-time values. The mean 24 h pH values underestimated true acidity with respect to median values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Demand and characteristics of a psychiatric 24-hour emergency service performed by mandatory rotation of licensed psychiatrists in Swiss primary care

    PubMed Central

    Chmiel, Corinne; Rosemann, Thomas; Senn, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate characteristics of and satisfaction with psychiatric 24-hour emergency primary care performed by mandatory rotation of licensed psychiatrists as a viable baseline for possible reorganizational measures. Methods This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study (November 2010–April 2011). The number of patient–psychiatrist encounters, modes of contact, and patient and psychiatrist characteristics were assessed. Diagnoses were coded with ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, version 10). Results From 167 duty episodes, 74 (44%) were recorded. Of the psychiatrists (n=44), 52% were female, and mean age (standard deviation) was 49.9 (5.2) years. The median number of encounters per episode was 4 (interquartile range 0–8), mainly in the evenings. Demand for “face-to-face” (direct) patient visits was significantly more common (64.0%) than practice (1.3%) or telephone consultations (34.7%). In 83.8%, psychiatrists judged the encounter as adequate at the patient’s location. A total of 43 different diagnoses were recorded: mainly schizophrenic disorders (23.9%), suicidal behavior (15.2%), and acute stress reactions (10.3%). Psychiatrists felt burdened by services (62.5%): in 39.2%, they felt threatened; and in 6.8%, violence occurred. In 32.4%, bills were not paid for. If services were optional, 45.2% would participate. Conclusion Our findings indicate justified demand for direct mobile patient visits, suggesting that emergency care should be multifaceted, and sole provision of psychiatric care at stationed emergency facilities may not always be appropriate. Reorganization of 24-hour emergency services should carefully evaluate patient and provider’s needs before changing established structures. PMID:24707172

  5. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): Comparison of a Mobile Phone Digital Entry App for Dietary Data Collection With 24-Hour Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Sarah; Giannelli, Valentina; Yap, Megan LH; Tang, Lie Ming; Roy, Rajshri; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Hebden, Lana; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background The electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA), a digital entry food record mobile phone app, was developed to measure energy and nutrient intake prospectively. This can be used in monitoring population intakes or intervention studies in young adults. Objective The objective was to assess the relative validity of e-DIA as a dietary assessment tool for energy and nutrient intakes using the 24-hour dietary recall as a reference method. Methods University students aged 19 to 24 years recorded their food and drink intake on the e-DIA for five days consecutively and completed 24-hour dietary recalls on three random days during this 5-day study period. Mean differences in energy, macro-, and micronutrient intakes were evaluated between the methods using paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and correlation coefficients were calculated on unadjusted, energy-adjusted, and deattenuated values. Bland-Altman plots and cross-classification into quartiles were used to assess agreement between the two methods. Results Eighty participants completed the study (38% male). No significant differences were found between the two methods for mean intakes of energy or nutrients. Deattenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.79 (mean 0.68). Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement between the methods but without obvious bias. Cross-classification into same or adjacent quartiles ranged from 75% to 93% (mean 85%). Conclusions The e-DIA shows potential as a dietary intake assessment tool at a group level with good ranking agreement for energy and all nutrients. PMID:26508282

  6. The relationship between sodium intake and some bone minerals and osteoporosis risk assessment instrument in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Vafa, Mohammadreza; Soltani, Sepideh; Zayeri, Farid; Niroomand, Mahtab; Najarzadeh, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The results of the studies on the effects of sodium on bone metabolism have been inconsistent. There is no definitive answer to the question of whether sodium restriction can be associated with a lower incidence of osteoporosis. What reinforces the necessity of designing this study is the lack of findings with the approach of examining the effects of sodium on bone in our country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 185 retired female teachers aged 45 to 70. Sodium intake was evaluated using two methods: A 24-hour recall and a 12-hour urine sample. To assess bone health, ORAI index was calculated for each individual. Urinary calcium, phosphorus, potassium and serum vitamin D and PTH were measured as laboratory variables. To compare the general characteristics of the participants across tertiles of urinary sodium, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for quantitative variables and the Chi-square test for categorical variables. Results: Phosphorous, calcium and potassium urinary excretion rate increased with the increase in urinary sodium (p<0.05). However, the changes in serum vitamin D, and PTH levels across tertiles of urinary sodium were not significant. Changes in urinary sodium levels were not significant (p=0.933) in ORAI groups (sorted by rating). The relationship between urinary calcium and sodium was apparent in low calcium intake (r=0.415, p<0.001), but not in higher calcium intake (r=0.144, p=0.177). Conclusion: Although urinary calcium and potassium increased with the increase in sodium intake, no relationship was found between sodium and ORAI. PMID:27493921

  7. Variations of nickel in plasma and urine during the work period.

    PubMed

    Høgetveit, A C; Barton, R T; Andersen, I

    1980-09-01

    One of the basic problems in monitoring exposure of nickel refining workers has been the unclear correlation between plasma nickel, urine nickel, and airborne nickel during the eight-hour work period or throughout the 24-hour day. In previous studies the authors have demonstrated the value of biological sampling in an occupational health program in the nickel processing industry. Whether a single plasma or single urine sample is an adequate gauge of exposure or whether 24-hour urine specimens or a three-day average plasma level are more accurate indices remained to be determined. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of studies of diurnal variations which affect the significance of single biological samples. In addition, data gathered on the correlation of plasma and urine nickel levels with soluble and insoluble nickel compounds in the atmosphere are presented. PMID:7192730

  8. Urine melanin

    MedlinePlus

    Normally, melanin is not present in urine. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.

  9. Urination Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Urination ...

  10. Catecholamines - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... can increase catacholamines in your urine. You may need to avoid the follow foods for several days before the test: Coffee Tea Bananas Chocolate Cocoa Citrus fruits Vanilla Many medicines can interfere with test results. ...

  11. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  12. Urine - bloody

    MedlinePlus

    ... movement The urine can also turn a red color from certain drugs, beets, or other foods. ... surgery or an injury? Have you recently eaten foods that may cause a change in color, like beets, berries, or rhubarb? Tests that may ...

  13. Bilirubin - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... or gallbladder Considerations Bilirubin can break down in light. That is why babies with jaundice are sometimes placed under blue fluorescent lamps. Alternative Names Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - ...

  14. Ketones urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  15. Ambulatory Hypertension Subtypes and 24-Hour Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure as Distinct Outcome Predictors in 8341 Untreated People Recruited From 12 Populations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Wei, Fang-Fei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José; Asayama, Kei; Hansen, Tine W.; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Gu, Yu-Mei; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Liu, Yan-Ping; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Mena, Luis; Maestre, Gladys E.; Filipovský, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; O’Brien, Eoin; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on risk associated with 24-hour ambulatory diastolic (DBP24) versus systolic (SBP24) blood pressure are scarce. Methods and Results We recorded 24-hour blood pressure and health outcomes in 8341 untreated people (mean age, 50.8 years; 46.6% women) randomly recruited from 12 populations. We computed hazard ratios (HRs) using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Over 11.2 years (median), 927 (11.1%) participants died, 356 (4.3%) from cardiovascular causes, and 744 (8.9%) experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event. Isolated diastolic hypertension (DBP24≥80 mm Hg) did not increase the risk of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or stroke (HRs≤1.54; P≥0.18), but was associated with a higher risk of fatal combined with nonfatal cardiovascular, cardiac, or coronary events (HRs≥1.75; P≤0.0054). Isolated systolic hypertension (SBP24≥130 mm Hg) and mixed diastolic plus systolic hypertension were associated with increased risks of all aforementioned end points (P≤0.0012). Below age 50, DBP24 was the main driver of risk, reaching significance for total (HR for 1-SD increase, 2.05; P=0.0039) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 4.07; P=0.0032) and for all cardiovascular end points combined (HR, 1.74; P=0.039) with a nonsignificant contribution of SBP24 (HR≤0.92; P≥0.068); above age 50, SBP24 predicted all end points (HR≥1.19; P≤0.0002) with a nonsignificant contribution of DBP24 (0.96≤HR≤1.14; P≥0.10). The interactions of age with SBP24 and DBP24 were significant for all cardiovascular and coronary events (P≤0.043). Conclusions The risks conferred by DBP24 and SBP24 are age dependent. DBP24 and isolated diastolic hypertension drive coronary complications below age 50, whereas above age 50 SBP24 and isolated systolic and mixed hypertension are the predominant risk factors. PMID:24906822

  16. Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

    2014-03-11

    This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for

  17. Prediction of Appropriate Shocks Using 24-Hour Holter Variables and T-Wave Alternans After First Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation in Patients With Ischemic or Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Seegers, Joachim; Bergau, Leonard; Expósito, Pascal Muñoz; Bauer, Axel; Fischer, Thomas H; Lüthje, Lars; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Friede, Tim; Zabel, Markus

    2016-07-01

    In patients treated with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), prediction of both overall survival and occurrence of shocks is important if improved patient selection is desired. We prospectively studied the predictive value of biomarkers and indexes of cardiac and renal function and spectral microvolt T-wave alternans testing and 24-hour Holter variables in a population who underwent first ICD implantation. Consecutive patients in sinus rhythm with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy scheduled for primary or secondary prophylactic ICD implantation were enrolled. Exercise microvolt T-wave alternans and 24-hour Holter for number of ventricular premature contractions (VPCs), deceleration capacity, heart rate variability, and heart rate turbulence were done. Death of any cause and first appropriate ICD shock were defined as end points. Over 33 ± 15 months of follow-up, 36 of 253 patients (14%) received appropriate shocks and 39 of 253 patients (15%) died. Only 3 of 253 patients (1%) died after receiving at least 1 appropriate shock. In univariate analyses, New York Heart Association class, ejection fraction, N-terminal pro brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), renal function, ICD indication, deceleration capacity, heart rate variability, and heart rate turbulence were predictive of all-cause mortality and VPC number and deceleration capacity predicted first appropriate shock. NT-proBNP (≥1,600 pg/ml) was identified as the only independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.0, confidence interval 1.3 to 7.3, p = 0.014). In contrast, VPC number predicted appropriate shocks (hazard ratio 2.3, confidence interval 1.0 to 5.5, p = 0.047) as the only independent risk marker. In conclusion, NT-proBNP is a strong independent predictor of mortality in a typical prospective cohort of newly implanted patients with ICD, among many electrocardiographic and clinical variables studied. Number of VPCs was identified as a predictor of appropriate shocks

  18. Nighttime sleep duration, 24-hour sleep duration and risk of all-cause mortality among adults: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoli; Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2016-01-01

    A dose-response meta-analysis was conducted to summarize evidence from prospective cohort studies about the association of nighttime sleep duration and 24-hour sleep duration with risk of all-cause mortality among adults. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed databases to March 2015. A two-stage random-effects dose–response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific relative risks and 95% confidence intervals [RRs (95% CIs)]. Thirty-five articles were included. Compared with 7 hours/day, the RRs (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality were 1.07 (1.03–1.13), 1.04 (1.01–1.07), 1.01 (1.00–1.02), 1.07 (1.06–1.09), 1.21 (1.18–1.24), 1.37 (1.32–1.42) and 1.55 (1.47–1.63) for 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 and 11 hours/day of nighttime sleep, respectively (146,830 death cases among 1,526,609 participants), and the risks were 1.09 (1.04–1.14), 1.05 (1.02–1.09), 1.02 (1.00–1.03), 1.08 (1.05–1.10), 1.27 (1.20–1.36), 1.53 (1.38–1.70) and 1.84 (1.59–2.13) for 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 and 11 hours/day of 24-hour sleep, respectively (101,641 death cases among 903,727 participants). The above relationships were also found in subjects without cardiovascular diseases and cancer at baseline, and other covariates did not influence the relationships substantially. The results suggested that 7 hours/day of sleep duration should be recommended to prevent premature death among adults. PMID:26900147

  19. Control of bleeding by silk ligation and diathermy coagulation during tonsillectomy: A comparison of efficacy of the two techniques in the first 24 hours after surgery

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Khurshid; Ahmad, Rafiq; Khan, Muneeb

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the relative efficacy of silk ligation and diathermy coagulation techniques in controlling bleeding during tonsillectomy in the first 24 hours. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Department of ENT, Khalifa Gul Nawaz Teaching Hospital, Bannu and this department related consultants’ private clinics from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. The study included 180 cases. All patients included were having history of recurrent, acute tonsillitis, with more than 6–7 episodes in one year, five episodes per year for two years, or three episodes per year for three years. All the surgeries were performed by dissection method. Haemostasis during the procedure was secured by either ligation with silk 1 or using diathermy. The results were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 for windows. Results: A total of180 cases were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 5 to 40 years with the mean age of 15.56 years and a std.deviation of +/- 8.24. The male to female ratio was 1.25:1. The number of hemorrhages occurring was greater in the ‘diathermy coagulation’ group as compared to the ‘silk ligation’ group. However, the observed difference was statistically insignificant (p >.05). Conclusion: Primary haemorrhage occurring during tonsillectomy is a serious threat and control of bleeding during the procedure should therefore be meticulous. Both suture ligation and coagulation diathermy for control of bleeders during the procedure by dissection method are equally effective. PMID:26430438

  20. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Exploring the perceptions of stakeholders regarding their acceptability, barriers to uptake, and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Guy; White, Lauren; Riazi, Negin; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    Engaging stakeholders in the development of guidelines and plans for implementation is vital. The purpose of this study was to examine stakeholders' (parents, teachers, exercise professionals, paediatricians, and youth) perceptions of the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth ("Movement Guidelines"). Stakeholders (n = 104) engaged in semi-structured focus groups or interviews to discuss the perceived acceptability of the guidelines, potential barriers to implementation, and preferred methods and messengers of dissemination. A thematic analysis was conducted. Overall, there was consistent support across all stakeholder groups, with the exception of youth participants, for the Movement Guidelines. Stakeholders identified a range of barriers to the uptake of the guidelines including concerns with accurately defining key terms such as "recreational" screen time; everyday challenges such as financial and time constraints; and the possibility of the Movement Guidelines becoming just another source of stress and guilt for already busy and overwhelmed parents. Participants identified a range of recommended methods and messengers for future dissemination. School and medical settings were the most commonly recommended settings through which dissemination efforts should be delivered. Overall, participants representing a range of stakeholder groups were receptive to the new Movement Guidelines and endorsed their value. In complementing the Movement Guidelines, messaging and resources will need to be developed that address common concerns participants had regarding their dissemination and implementation. PMID:27306436

  1. A Day in the Life of Millisecond Pulsar J1713+0747: Limits on Timing Precision Over 24 Hours and Implications for Gravitational Wave Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolch, Timothy; Bailes, M.; Bassa, C.; Bhat, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Champion, D.; Chatterjee, S.; Cognard, I.; Cordes, J. M.; Crowter, K.; Demorest, P.; Finn, L. S.; Fonseca, E.; Hessels, J.; Hobbs, G.; Janssen, G.; Jones, G.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Keith, M.; Kramer, M.; Kraus, A.; Lam, M. T.; Lazarus, P.; Lazio, J.; Lee, K.; Levin, L.; Liu, K.; Lorimer, D.; Manchester, R. N.; McLaughlin, M.; Palliyaguru, N.; Perrodin, D.; Petroff, E.; Rajwade, K.; Rankin, J. M.; Ransom, S. M.; Rosenblum, J.; Roy, J.; Shannon, R.; Stappers, B.; Stinebring, D.; Stovall, K.; Teixeira, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; van Straten, W.; Verbiest, J.; Zhu, W.

    2014-01-01

    A 24-hour global observation of millisecond radio pulsar J1713+0747 was undertaken by the International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA) collaboration as an effort to better quantify sources of noise in this object, which is regularly timed for the purpose of detecting gravitational waves (GWs). Given an 8-year timing RMS of 30ns, it is regarded as one of the best precision clocks in the PTA. However, sources of timing noise visible on timescales longer than the usual 20-30min biweekly observation may nonetheless be present. Data from the campaign were taken contiguously with the Parkes, Arecibo, Green Bank, GMRT, LOFAR, Effelsberg, WSRT, Lovell, and Nancay radio telescopes. The combined pulse times-of-arrival provide an estimate of the absolute noise floor, in other words, what unaccounted sources of timing noise impede an otherwise simple sqrt(N) improvement in timing precision, where N is the number of pulses in a single observing session. We present first results of specific phenomena probed on the unusual timescale of tens of hours, in particular interstellar scattering (ISS), and discuss the degree to which ISS affects precision timing. Finally, we examine single pulse information during selected portions of the observation and determine the degree to which the pulse jitter of J1713+0747 varies throughout the course of the day-long dataset.

  2. Age-dependent changes in 24-hour rhythms of catecholamine content and turnover in hypothalamus, corpus striatum and pituitary gland of rats injected with Freund's adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Pilar; Cardinali, Daniel P; Chacon, Fernando; Castrillón, Patricia O; Reyes Toso, Carlos A; Esquifino, Ana I

    2001-01-01

    Background Little information is available on the circadian sequela of an immune challenge in the brain of aged rats. To assess them, we studied 24-hour rhythms in hypothalamic and striatal norepinephrine (NE) content, hypothalamic and striatal dopamine (DA) turnover and hypophysial NE and DA content, in young (2 months) and aged (18–20 months) rats killed at 6 different time intervals, on day 18th after Freund's adjuvant or adjuvant's vehicle administration. Results Aging decreased anterior and medial hypothalamic NE content, medial and posterior hypothalamic DA turnover, and striatal NE concentration and DA turnover. Aging also decreased NE and DA content in pituitary neurointermediate lobe and augmented DA content in the anterior pituitary lobe. Immunization by Freund's adjuvant injection caused: (i) reduction of DA turnover in anterior hypothalamus and corpus striatum; (ii) acrophase delay of medial hypothalamic DA turnover in old rats, and of striatal NE content in young rats; (iii) abolition of 24-h rhythm in NE and DA content of neurointermediate pituitary lobe, and in DA content of anterior lobe, of old rats. Conclusions The decline in catecholamine neurotransmission with aging could contribute to the decrease of gonadotropin and increase of prolactin release reported in similar groups of rats. Some circadian responses to immunization, e.g. suppression of 24-h rhythms of neurointermediate lobe NE and DA and of anterior lobe DA were seen only in aged rats. PMID:11741510

  3. Computer simulation of the effect of dDAVP with saline loading on fluid balance after 24-hour head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R. S.; Simanonok, K. E.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid loading (FL) before Shuttle reentry is a countermeasure currently in use by NASA to improve the orthostatic tolerance of astronauts during reentry and postflight. The fluid load consists of water and salt tablets equivalent to 32 oz (946 ml) of isotonic saline. However, the effectiveness of this countermeasure has been observed to decrease with the duration of spaceflight. The countermeasure's effectiveness may be improved by enhancing fluid retention using analogs of vasopressin such as lypressin (LVP) and desmopressin (dDAVP). In a computer simulation study reported previously, we attempted to assess the improvement in fluid retention obtained by the use of LVP administered before FL. The present study is concerned with the use of dDAVP. In a recent 24-hour, 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) study involving seven men, dDAVP was found to improve orthostatic tolerance as assessed by both lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and stand tests. The treatment restored Luft's cumulative stress index (cumulative product of magnitude and duration of LBNP) to nearly pre-bedrest level. The heart rate was lower and stroke volume was marginally higher at the same LBNP levels with administration of dDAVP compared to placebo. Lower heart rates were also observed with dDAVP during stand test, despite the lower level of cardiovascular stress. These improvements were seen with only a small but significant increase in plasma volume of approximately 3 percent. This paper presents a computer simulation analysis of some of the results of this HDT study.

  4. Gastroesophageal and pharyngeal reflux detection using impedance and 24-hour pH monitoring in asymptomatic subjects: defining the normal environment.

    PubMed

    Oelschlager, Brant K; Quiroga, Elina; Isch, John A; Cuenca-Abente, Federico

    2006-01-01

    Airway symptoms are often caused by aspiration of refluxed materials into the larynx. In this study we sought to define the frequency, character, and proximal extent of refluxed contents - including nonacid reflux-in normal subjects using intraluminal impedance to improve our understanding of the relationship between reflux and aspiration. Ten subjects, who had no symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease or airway disease, underwent impedance/pH monitoring with a catheter that allowed simultaneous esophageal and pharyngeal monitoring. Impedance detected 496 gastroesophageal reflux episodes in the 10 subjects during 240 hours of study. The majority, 399 (81% of the total) were acid reflux episodes (pH < 4). Ninety-seven were nonacid (pH > 4). Most reflux episodes (348 of 496) reached the mid esophagus (9 cm above lower esophageal sphincter). There were 51 reflux episodes that reached the pharynx (PR). Only 13 (25%) of PR were acidic (pH < 4), while 38 were nonacid. Twenty-six PR episodes were liquid and 25 were mixed (liquid and gas). The median number of PR episodes measured with impedance was 5 (0-10). In asymptomatic subjects, most episodes of gastroesophageal reflux are acidic and reach the midesophagus. Reflux into the PR appears to be more common than previously believed, and most of these episodes are not acidic. Thus, traditional 24-hour pH monitoring may underestimate the presence of pharyngeal reflux. The combination of impedance with pH monitoring markedly enhances our ability to accurately detect potential microaspiration.

  5. Pink urine.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, E; Capron, A; Hantson, P

    2014-11-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal intubation. After correction of hypoxemia, the patient became agitated and propofol was administered by continuous infusion. In addition, the patient passed pink urine staining the urine collection bag. The presence of an unidentified toxic substance was suspected. PMID:25233954

  6. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  7. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePlus

    Difficulty starting or maintaining a urine stream is called urinary hesitancy. ... men have some trouble with dribbling, weak urine stream, and starting urination. Another common cause is infection ...

  8. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited--The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    1998-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, "high leverage" technologies--liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Ironrich volcanic glass, or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way, LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging front the engine's choked sonic throat--essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased

  9. 2001: A Space Odyssey Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2003-01-01

    The prospects for 24 hour commuter flights to the Moon, similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale, are examined using two near term, high leverage technologies: liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and lunar-derived oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass, or orange soil, discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow, has produced a 4 percent oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an afterburner into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat, essentially scramjet propulsion in reverse. By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that big engine performance can be obtained using smaller, more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or in-line Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an expendable mode initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased payload is

  10. "2001: A Space Odyssey" Revisited: The Feasibility of 24 Hour Commuter Flights to the Moon Using NTR Propulsion with LUNOX Afterburners. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2001-01-01

    The prospects for "24 hour" commuter flights to the Moon. similar to that portrayed in 2001: A Space Odyssey but on a more Spartan scale. are examined using two near term. "high leverage" technologies-liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion and "lunar-derived" oxygen (LUNOX) production. Iron-rich volcanic glass. or "orange soil," discovered during the Apollo 17 mission to Taurus-Littrow. has produced a 4% oxygen yield in recent NASA experiments using hydrogen reduction. LUNOX development and utilization would eliminate the need to transport oxygen supplies from Earth and is expected to dramatically reduce the size, cost and complexity of space transportation systems. The LOX-augmented NTR concept (LANTR) exploits the high performance capability of the conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and the mission leverage provided by LUNOX in a unique way. LANTR utilizes the large divergent section of its nozzle as an "afterburner" into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the engine's choked sonic throat-essentially "scramjet propulsion in reverse." By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio, the LANTR engine can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. The thrust augmentation feature of LANTR means that "big engine" performance can be obtained using smaller. more affordable. easier to test NTR engines. The use of high-density LOX in place of low-density LH2 also reduces hydrogen mass and tank volume resulting in smaller space vehicles. An implementation strategy and evolutionary lunar mission architecture is outlined which requires only Shuttle C or "in-line" Shuttle-derived launch vehicles, and utilizes conventional NTR-powered lunar transfer vehicles (LTVs), operating in an "expendable mode" initially, to maximize delivered surface payload on each mission. The increased

  11. Epidemiology of Urban Traffic Accident Victims Hospitalized More Than 24 Hours in a Level III Trauma Center, Kashan County, Iran, During 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Mahdian, Mehrdad; Sehat, Mojtaba; Fazel, Mohammad Reza; Moraveji, Alireza; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urban traffic accidents are an extensively significant problem in small and busy towns in Iran. This study tried to explore the epidemiological pattern of urban traffic accidents in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to assess various epidemiological factors affecting victims of trauma admitted to a main trauma center in Iran. Patients and Methods: During a retrospective study, data including age, sex, injury type and pattern, outcome, hospital stay and treatment expenditures regarding urban Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) for one year (March 2012-March 2013) were obtained from the registry of trauma research center, emergency medical services and deputy of health of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. One-way ANOVA and chi-square tests were used to analyze data using SPSS version 16.0. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 1723 victims (82.6% male, sex ratio of almost 5:1) were considered in this study. Mortality rate in trauma cases hospitalized more than 24 hours during our study was 0.8%. Young motorcyclist men with the rate of more than 103 per 10000 were the most vulnerable group. The most common injury was head injury (73.6%) followed by lower limb injury (33.2%). A significant association was found between mechanism of injury and head, lower limb, multiple injuries and high risk age group. Conclusions: Urban RTAs are one of the most important problems in Kashan and Aran-Bidgol cities, which impose a great economic burden on health system. Motorcyclists are the most vulnerable victims and multiple trauma and head injury are seen among them extensively. PMID:26101765

  12. Evaluation of the indications and arrhythmic patterns of 24 hour Holter electrocardiography among hypertensive and diabetic patients seen at OAUTHC, Ile-Ife Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Ikwu, Amanze N; Balogun, Michael O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Mene-Afejuku, Tuoyo O; Adeyeye, Victor O; Bamikole, Olaniyi J; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Ajayi, Olufemi E; Ogunyemi, Suraj A; Oketona, Omolola A

    2014-01-01

    Background There are very limited published studies in Nigeria on the use of 24 hour Holter electrocardiogram (Holter ECG) in the arrhythmic evaluation of hypertensive and diabetic patients. Objective To evaluate indications, arrhythmic pattern of Holter ECG, and heart rate variability (HRV) among patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD) with or without heart failure and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) seen in our cardiac care unit. Methods Seventy-nine patients (32 males and 47 females) were studied consecutively over a year using Schiller type (MT-101) Holter ECG machine. Results Out of the 79 patients, 17 (21.5%) had HHD without heart failure, 33 (41.8%) had HHD with hypertensive heart failure (HHF), while 29 (36.7%) were T2DM patients. The mean (standard deviation) ages of HHD without heart failure, HHF and T2DM patients were 59.65 (±14.38), 65.15 (±14.30), and 54.66 (±8.88) respectively. The commonest indication for Holter ECG was palpitation (38%), followed by syncope (20.3%). Premature ventricular contraction was the commonest arrhythmic pattern among the 79 patients, especially among HHF patients. The HRV using standard deviation of all normal-normal intervals was significantly reduced in T2DM patients (81.03±26.33, confidence interval [CI] =71.02–91.05) compared to the HHD without heart failure (119.65±29.86, CI =104.30–135.00) and HHF (107.03±62.50, CI =84.00–129.19). There was a negative correlation between the duration of T2DM and HRV (r=−0.613). Conclusion Palpitation was the commonest Holter ECG indication and premature ventricular contractions were the commonest arrhythmic pattern among our patients. HRV was reduced in T2DM patients compared with hypertensive patients. PMID:25473303

  13. Effects of Potassium Magnesium Citrate Supplementation on 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Oxidative Stress Marker in Prehypertensive and Hypertensive Subjects.

    PubMed

    Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Peri-Okonny, Poghni; Velasco, Alejandro; Arbique, Debbie; Wang, Zhongyun; Ravikumar, Priya; Adams-Huet, Beverly; Moe, Orson W; Pak, Charles Y C

    2016-09-15

    Diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, known as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, is known to reduce blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients. More recently, the DASH diet was shown to reduce oxidative stress in hypertensive and nonhypertensive humans. However, the main nutritional components responsible for these beneficial effects of the DASH diet remain unknown. Because the DASH diet is rich in potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and alkali, we performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to compare effects of potassium magnesium citrate (KMgCit), potassium chloride (KCl), and potassium citrate (KCit) to allow dissociation of the three components of K, Mg, and citrate on 24-hour ambulatory BP and urinary 8-isoprostane in hypertensive and prehypertensive subjects, using a randomized crossover design. We found that KCl supplementation for 4 weeks induced a significant reduction in nighttime SBP compared with placebo (116 ± 12 vs 121 ± 15 mm Hg, respectively, p <0.01 vs placebo), whereas KMgCit and KCit had no significant effect in the same subjects (118 ± 11 and 119 ± 13 mm Hg, respectively, p >0.1 vs placebo). In contrast, urinary 8-isoprostane was significantly reduced with KMgCit powder compared with placebo (13.5 ± 5.7 vs 21.1 ± 10.5 ng/mgCr, respectively, p <0.001), whereas KCl and KCit had no effect (21.4 ± 9.1 and 18.3 ± 8.4, respectively, p >0.1 vs placebo). In conclusion, our study demonstrated differential effects of KCl and KMgCit supplementation on BP and the oxidative stress marker in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects. Clinical significance of the antioxidative effect of KMgCit remains to be determined in future studies. PMID:27448942

  14. Evidence for Long-period (14-30 Days) and Against Short-period (12-24 Hours) Tidal Modulation of Volcanic Tremor at Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagerty, M. T.; Schwartz, S.; Revenaugh, J.

    2008-12-01

    Many studies have sought a correlation between the occurrence of earthquakes or volcanic activity and various Earth tide components, which would provide evidence for external tidal modulation of these geophysical phenomena. Several studies of short duration seismic experiments at Arenal Volcano in Costa Rica have found evidence of diurnal and semi-diurnal tidal periodicities in the seismic record. However, studies at other volcanoes, using longer time series, with improved spectral resolution, do not find tidal peaks in the seismic spectrum, but rather solar peaks (at exactly 12 and/or 24 hours), suggesting that the modulation is caused not by tidal stresses, but by weather related parameters - temperature, barometric pressure, rainfall. In contrast, recent studies of nonvolcanic tremor in the subduction zones of Japan and Cascadia do find evidence for tidal modulation of tremor activity with a period of 12.4 hours. Thus, the questions of whether or not earthquakes and volcanoes are triggered by external forces, and if so, whether these forces are related to elastic tides or to weather, are still highly relevant. We examine a continuous, 302-day long recording of ground motion at Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica, for potential solar and lunar periodicities in the volcanic seismicity. No evidence is found for significant energy in the semidiurnal (near 12 hr) or diurnal (near 24 hr) frequency bands, in contrast to previous, lower- resolution studies at Arenal. However, analysis with multi-taper method (MTM) and singular spectrum analysis (SSA) reveals significant low-frequency (f < .005 cycles/hr) energy in the tremor and explosivity series, including 14 and 30-day quasi-periodic components, relative to a red noise hypothesis. We attempt to fit the data to long-period tidal frequencies in order to verify potential tidal modulation of the long-period seismic energy at Arenal.

  15. Effect of melatonin on 24-hour rhythms of ornithine decarboxylase activity and norepinephrine and acetylcholine synthesis in submaxillary lymph nodes and spleen of young and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, D P; Brusco, L I; García Bonacho, M; Esquifìno, A I

    1998-05-01

    Young (50 days old) and old (18 months old) Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with mycobacterial Freund's adjuvant to produce an inflammatory disease of the joints and were studied the day before, and on days 6, 12 and 18 after injection. At every postinjection interval examined, old rats had significantly lower circadian amplitudes of pineal melatonin content. On day 18 of arthritis development, decreased levels of pineal melatonin were also seen in young rats. A second study, carried out 18 days after the injection of Freund's complete adjuvant and after 17 daily injections of 10 or 100 microg of melatonin in the evening, indicated that melatonin treatment restored the inflammatory response in old rats (assessed plethysmographically in hind paws) to the level found in young animals. In young rats, an inflammation-promoting effect of 100 microg melatonin could be demonstrated. As a consequence of the immune reaction, submaxillary lymph node and splenic ornithine decarboxylase activity (an index of lymph cell proliferation) augmented significantly, with acrophases of 24-hour rhythms in the afternoon for lymph nodes or in the morning for spleen. Mesor and amplitude of ornithine decarboxylase rhythm were lowest in old rats, while melatonin injection generally augmented its amplitude. Lymph node and splenic tyrosine hydroxylase activity (a presynaptic adrenergic marker) reached maximal values during early night hours while maximal values of [3H]acetylcholine synthesis (a presynaptic cholinergic marker) occurred during the afternoon in lymph nodes. Amplitude and mesor of these rhythms were lowest in old rats, an effect generally counteracted by melatonin treatment. The results suggest that inflammation is accompanied by an age-dependent, significant depression of pineal melatonin synthesis during adjuvant-induced arthritis and a decreased amplitude of the circadian rhythm of immune cell proliferation and autonomic activity in lymph nodes and spleen. These effects are

  16. 17-hydroxycorticosteroid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder that occurs when the body has a high level of cortisol. ... 2 to 12 mg per 24 hours Normal value ranges may vary slightly ... your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.

  17. Sex and age-related differences in performance in a 24-hour ultra-cycling draft-legal event – a cross-sectional data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the sex and age-related differences in performance in a draft-legal ultra-cycling event. Methods Age-related changes in performance across years were investigated in the 24-hour draft-legal cycling event held in Schötz, Switzerland, between 2000 and 2011 using multi-level regression analyses including age, repeated participation and environmental temperatures as co-variables. Results For all finishers, the age of peak cycling performance decreased significantly (β = −0.273, p = 0.036) from 38 ± 10 to 35 ± 6 years in females but remained unchanged (β = −0.035, p = 0.906) at 41.0 ± 10.3 years in males. For the annual fastest females and males, the age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged at 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years, respectively. For all female and male finishers, males improved significantly (β = 7.010, p = 0.006) the cycling distance from 497.8 ± 219.6 km to 546.7 ± 205.0 km whereas females (β = −0.085, p = 0.987) showed an unchanged performance of 593.7 ± 132.3 km. The mean cycling distance achieved by the male winners of 960.5 ± 51.9 km was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the distance covered by the female winners with 769.7 ± 65.7 km but was not different between the sexes (p > 0.05). The sex difference in performance for the annual winners of 19.7 ± 7.8% remained unchanged across years (p > 0.05). The achieved cycling distance decreased in a curvilinear manner with advancing age. There was a significant age effect (F = 28.4, p < 0.0001) for cycling performance where the fastest cyclists were in age group 35–39 years. Conclusion In this 24-h cycling draft-legal event, performance in females remained unchanged while their age of peak cycling performance decreased and performance in males improved while their age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged. The annual fastest females and males were 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years old, respectively. The sex

  18. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion is increased in rats after 24 hours of exposure to vertical 50 Hz, 100 {micro}T magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, J.; Nagy, N.; Thuroczy, G.; Szabo, L.D.

    1997-05-01

    The effect of exposure to a 50 Hz, vertical magnetic field on the excretion of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) of rats was studied in a self-controlled experiment. Ten male Wistar rats were kept under 9:15 h light:dark conditions in metabolic cages. The rats were exposed to 1.0 or 100 {micro}T flux density for 24 h. The excretion of aMT6s, which is the primary metabolite of melatonin in the urine, did not show a statistically significant decrease, as measured by {sup 125}I radioimmunoassay, during or after magnetic field exposure of rats to either flux density. At 100 {micro}T flux density, the increase of aMT6s excretion on the day after exposure was statistically significant (P < .02), compared with the value under exposure, but was not significant compared with the baseline values before exposure.

  19. Validity Testing of the Stopwatch Urine Stream Interruption Test in Radical Prostatectomy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Joanne P.; Burrell, Sherry A.; Avi-Itzhak, Tamara; McCorkle, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess convergent validity of the stopwatch urine stream interruption test (UST). Specific aims were to describe relationships among stopwatch UST scores and four common clinical indices of pelvic floor muscle strength: 24-hour urine leakage, confidence in performing pelvic muscle exercise, 24-hour pad count, and daily pelvic muscle exercise count. Design Secondary analysis; instrumentation study. Methods The final sample consisted of baseline stopwatch UST scores and measurements of comparison variables from 47 participants in a randomized clinical trial of three approaches to pelvic floor training for patients with urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy. The sample size provided 80% power to detect correlations of moderate strength or higher. The stopwatch UST was conducted in an examination room at the study site by trained study personnel. Measurements of comparison variables were obtained from three instruments: 24-hour pad test, Broome Pelvic Muscle Self-Efficacy Scale, and 3-day bladder diary. Relationships among study variables were evaluated with Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results Stopwatch UST scores were moderately correlated with 24-hour urine leakage on the 24-hour pad test (r = .35, p < .05), the most robust comparison measure. Correlations between stopwatch UST scores and all other comparison measures were in the appropriate direction, although weak and did not reach statistical significance Conclusion Findings suggest the stopwatch UST may be a valid index of pelvic floor muscle strength in men following radical prostatectomy. With further testing, the stopwatch UST could become a valuable clinical tool for assessing pelvic floor muscle strength in radical prostatectomy patients with urinary incontinence. PMID:22825573

  20. Renin-Angiotensin System Genes and Exercise Training-Induced Changes in Sodium Excretion in African American Hypertensives

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jennifer M.; Park, Jung-Jun; Johnson, Jennifer; Vizcaino, Dave; Hand, Brian; Ferrell, Robert; Weir, Matthew; Dowling, Thomas; Obisesan, Thomas; Brown, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genotypes could predict changes in urinary sodium excretion in response to short-term aerobic exercise training (AEX). Design Longitudinal intervention. Setting The study was conducted at the University of Maryland at College Park and at Baltimore, and the University of Pittsburgh General Clinical Research Center. Participants 31 (age 53 ± 2 years) sedentary, hypertensive (146 ± 2/88 ± 2 mm Hg) African Americans. Intervention Aerobic exercise training (AEX) consisted of seven or eight consecutive days, 50 minutes per day, at 65% of heart rate reserve. Participants underwent a 24-hour period of ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and urine collection at baseline and 14–18 hours after the last exercise session. Main Outcome Measures Angiotensiongen (AGT) M235T and ACE I/D genotype and sodium excretion and ambulatory BP. Results Average sodium excretion for the entire group independent of genotype increased after AEX (108 ± 9 vs 143 ± 12 mEq/day, P=.003). Sodium excretion significantly increased after exercise training in the ACE II (114 ± 22 vs 169 ± 39 mEq/day, P=.04), but not in the ID (100 ± 8 vs 133 ± 17 mEq/day, P=.12) or DD (113 ± 18 vs 138 ± 11 mEq/day, P=.13) genotype groups. In the II genotype group, the increase in sodium excretion was significantly and inversely correlated with decreases in 24-hour diastolic (r=−.88, P=.02) and mean (r=−.95, P=.004) BP. The AGT TT and MT+MM genotype groups similarly increased their sodium excretion by 34 ± 16 (P=.05) and 37 ± 17 (P=.05) mEq/day respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that African American hypertensives with the ACE II genotype may be more susceptible to sodium balance and BP changes with exercise training compared with those with the ID and DD genotypes. PMID:16937603

  1. Estimation by a 24-hour study of the daily dose of intra-oral mercury vapor inhaled after release from dental amalgam

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, A. )

    1990-10-01

    The difficulties associated with estimations of daily doses of inhaled mercury vapor released from dental amalgam are considerable. Existing data are often unreliable, especially if they are based on a single or a small series of samples of intra-oral concentrations of mercury vapor before, during, and after chewing stimulation. In the present paper, the aim was to obtain a more representative estimation of the daily dose of mercury vapor inhaled from amalgam fillings by measurement of amounts of mercury vapor released in the oral cavity during 24 h, under conditions that were as normal as possible. A series of measurements was carried out on each of 15 subjects, with at least nine occlusal surfaces restored with dental amalgam, and on five subjects without any amalgam restorations. The subjects had to follow a standardized schedule for 24 h, whereby they ate, drank, and brushed their teeth at pre-determined time periods. The amount of mercury vapor released per time unit was measured at intervals of 30-45 min by means of a measuring system based on atomic absorption spectrophotometry. None of the subjects was professionally exposed to mercury, and all of their amalgam fillings were more than one year old. Study casts were made for each subject, and the area of the amalgam surfaces was measured. Samples of urine and saliva were analyzed so that values for the mercury concentrations and the rate of release of mercury into saliva could be obtained. The average frequency of fish meals per month was noted.

  2. Osmolality urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and urine concentration. Osmolality is a more exact measurement of urine concentration than the urine specific gravity ... slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider ...

  3. Clean catch urine sample

    MedlinePlus

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  4. Concentration of marijuana metabolites in the urine after ingestion of hemp seed tea.

    PubMed

    Steinagle, G C; Upfal, M

    1999-06-01

    To determine whether ingestion of hemp seed tea could result in positive urine drug screens for cannabinoids, volunteers were recruited to donate urine after consuming hemp seed or placebo tea. Among the 22 participants, 10 ingested 12 ounces of hemp seed tea, 10 ingested 24 ounces, and 2 ingested 12 ounces of placebo tea. Urine cannabinoid specimens were obtained at baseline and at 4, 8, and 24 hours after ingestion. A total of 10 specimens had trace quantities of cannabinoids detected in 7 subjects on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry testing, all below the Department of Transportation cutoff level of 15 ng/mL. These results demonstrate that under the conditions of this study, hemp seed tea consumption can result in detectable urine cannabinoids but would not trigger a positive EMIT or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry urine drug test for cannabinoids.

  5. Quantitation of products from riboflavin in rat urine

    SciTech Connect

    Chastain, J.L.; McCormick, D.B.

    1986-03-05

    When (2-/sup 14/C) riboflavin is injected i.p. into rats, the excreted vitamin in urine and feces has been shown to be the intact vitamin with trace amounts of lumichrome and lumiflavin. Recent findings with /sup 14/C-riboflavin fed to rats indicated higher levels of riboflavin catabolites in urine, e.g., 7- and 8-carboxylumichromes. The authors have determined catabolites in urine from male rats fed 0, 2, and 6 ..mu..g riboflavin/g diet/day for six weeks. Two rats from each group were placed weekly in metabolic cages, and urine was collected for 24 hours. On the fourth week, a third animal from each group received an i.p. injection of /sup 14/C-riboflavin and the urine was collected for 48 hours. Urine samples were extracted with phenol for flavin components and with chloroform for derivatives of lumichrome and lumiflavin. Riboflavin was the predominant flavin excreted by all diet groups with trace amounts of coenzymes and 7- and 8-hydroxymethylriboflavin. Riboflavin accounted for 85% of all the radioactivity recovered from the deficient and sufficient rats and 90% in rats fed excess. Lumichrome-type compounds including carboxylumichromes accounted for only a few % of recovered radioactivity. Thus, these components are primarily a product of intestinal microfloral degradation rather than significant tissue catabolites of riboflavin.

  6. Folate Catabolites in Spot Urine as Non-Invasive Biomarkers of Folate Status during Habitual Intake and Folic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Niesser, Mareile; Demmelmair, Hans; Weith, Thea; Moretti, Diego; Rauh-Pfeiffer, Astrid; van Lipzig, Marola; Vaes, Wouter; Koletzko, Berthold; Peissner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Background Folate status, as reflected by red blood cell (RCF) and plasma folates (PF), is related to health and disease risk. Folate degradation products para-aminobenzoylglutamate (pABG) and para-acetamidobenzoylglutamate (apABG) in 24 hour urine have recently been shown to correlate with blood folate. Aim Since blood sampling and collection of 24 hour urine are cumbersome, we investigated whether the determination of urinary folate catabolites in fasted spot urine is a suitable non-invasive biomarker for folate status in subjects before and during folic acid supplementation. Study Design and Methods Immediate effects of oral folic acid bolus intake on urinary folate catabolites were assessed in a short-term pre-study. In the main study we included 53 healthy men. Of these, 29 were selected for a 12 week folic acid supplementation (400 µg). Blood, 24 hour and spot urine were collected at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks and PF, RCF, urinary apABG and pABG were determined. Results Intake of a 400 µg folic acid bolus resulted in immediate increase of urinary catabolites. In the main study pABG and apABG concentrations in spot urine correlated well with their excretion in 24 hour urine. In healthy men consuming habitual diet, pABG showed closer correlation with PF (rs = 0.676) and RCF (rs = 0.649) than apABG (rs = 0.264, ns and 0.543). Supplementation led to significantly increased folate in plasma and red cells as well as elevated urinary folate catabolites, while only pABG correlated significantly with PF (rs = 0.574) after 12 weeks. Conclusion Quantification of folate catabolites in fasted spot urine seems suitable as a non-invasive alternative to blood or 24 hour urine analysis for evaluation of folate status in populations consuming habitual diet. In non-steady-state conditions (folic acid supplementation) correlations between folate marker (RCF, PF, urinary catabolites) decrease due to differing kinetics. PMID:23457526

  7. Sodium intake among U.S. school-age children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying current major dietary sources of sodium can enhance strategies to reduce excess sodium intake which occurs among 90% of U.S. school-aged children. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data from a nationally representative sample of 2,142 U.S. children aged 6...

  8. High Sodium and Low Potassium Intake among Italian Children: Relationship with Age, Body Mass and Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Campanozzi, Angelo; Avallone, Sonia; Barbato, Antonio; Iacone, Roberto; Russo, Ornella; De Filippo, Gianpaolo; D’Angelo, Giuseppina; Pensabene, Licia; Malamisura, Basilio; Cecere, Gaetano; Micillo, Maria; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Tetro, Anna; Lombardi, Giuliano; Tonelli, Lisa; Castellucci, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Luigi; Di Biase, Rita; Lezo, Antonella; Salvatore, Silvia; Paoletti, Silvia; Siani, Alfonso; Galeone, Daniela; Strazzullo, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the leading cause of death in developed countries and reduction of salt intake is recommended as a key preventive measure. Objective To assess the dietary sodium and potassium intakes in a national sample of Italian children and adolescents and to examine their relationships with BMI and blood pressure (BP) in the framework of the MINISAL survey, a program supported by the Italian Ministry of Health. Population and Methods The study population included 1424 healthy subjects (766 boys, 658 girls) aged 6-18 years (mean age: 10.1±2.9) who were consecutively recruited in participating National Health Service centers in 10 Italian regions. Electrolyte intake was estimated from 24 hour urine collections tested for completeness by the concomitant measurement of creatinine content. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured with standardized procedures. Results The average estimated sodium intake was 129 mmol (7.4 g of salt) per day among boys and 117 mmol (6.7 g of salt) among girls. Ninety-three percent of the boys and 89% of the girls had a consumption higher than the recommended age-specific standard dietary target. The estimated average daily potassium intakes were 39 mmol (1.53 g) and 36 mmol (1.40 g), respectively, over 96% of the boys and 98% of the girls having a potassium intake lower than the recommended adequate intake. The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively) and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level. Sodium intake was directly related to age, body mass and BP in the whole population. Conclusions The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake. These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention. PMID:25853242

  9. Renal nerves affect rate of achieving sodium balance in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, S G; Enders, C; Osborn, J L

    1993-07-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has an elevated efferent sympathetic nerve activity, suggesting that the renal handling of sodium and water may be altered. This study evaluated the renal neurogenic influence on the rate of achieving sodium balance in adult SHRs and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats after either a step increase or step decrease in fixed sodium intake. Conscious, unrestrained rats with either innervated or denervated kidneys were initially placed on a low-sodium (0.3 mEq/d) or high-sodium (5.0 mEq/d) intake by intravenous infusion. Hourly urinary sodium excretion was determined 24 hours before and 72 hours after sodium intake had been increased from low to high or decreased from high to low. After either step change in fixed sodium intake, both innervated SHRs and innervated WKY rats achieved sodium balance within 24 hours. Similarly, the time course of achieving sodium balance was nearly identical between WKY rats with innervated and denervated kidneys after either switch in sodium intake. In SHRs receiving a step increase in sodium intake, both innervated and denervated kidneys increased urinary sodium excretion equally for 9 hours; however, at this time, innervated SHRs continued to increase sodium excretion rapidly, whereas denervated rats were delayed in a further response. Thus, innervated SHRs achieved sodium balance approximately 18 hours sooner than denervated SHRs. Differences in urinary sodium excretion did not result from concomitant changes in plasma renin activity or mean arterial pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio is a reliable indicator for evaluating complications of chronic kidney disease and progression in IgA nephropathy in China

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Lu; Yuezhong, Luo; Chao, Wang; HaiTao, Tu

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the correlation between the albumin-to-creatinine ratio in the urine and 24-hour urine proteinuria and whether the ratio can predict chronic kidney disease progression even more reliably than 24-hour proteinuria can, particularly in primary IgA nephropathy. METHODS: A total of 182 patients with primary IgA nephropathy were evaluated. Their mean urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour proteinuria were determined during hospitalization. Blood samples were also analyzed. Follow-up data were recorded for 44 patients. A cross-sectional study was then conducted to test the correlation between these parameters and their associations with chronic kidney disease complications. Subsequently, a canonical correlation analysis was employed to assess the correlation between baseline proteinuria and parameters of the Oxford classification. Finally, a prospective observational study was performed to evaluate the association between proteinuria and clinical outcomes. Our study is registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, and the registration number is ChiCTR-OCH-14005137. RESULTS: A strong correlation (r=0.81, p<0.001) was found between the ratio and 24-hour proteinuria except in chronic kidney disease stage 5. First-morning urine albumin-to-creatinine ratios of ≥125.15, 154.44 and 760.31 mg/g reliably predicted equivalent 24-hour proteinuria ‘thresholds’ of ≥0.15, 0.3 and 1.0 g/24 h, respectively. In continuous analyses, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio was significantly associated with anemia, acidosis, hypoalbuminemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, hypercholesterolemia and higher serum cystatin C. However, higher 24-hour proteinuria was only associated with hypoalbuminemia and hypercholesterolemia. Higher tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis scores were also associated with a greater albumin-to-creatinine ratio, as observed in the canonical correlation analysis. Finally, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour

  11. Urination - excessive amount

    MedlinePlus

    ... done include: Blood sugar (glucose) test Blood urea nitrogen test Creatinine (serum) Electrolytes (serum) Fluid deprivation test (limiting fluids to see if the urine volume decreases) Osmolality blood test Urinalysis Urine osmolality test

  12. RBC urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 red blood cells per high power field (RBC/HPF) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above ...

  13. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePlus

    ... catheter and urine drainage bag because you have urinary incontinence (leakage), urinary retention (not being able to urinate), ... wall repair Inflatable artificial sphincter Radical prostatectomy Stress urinary incontinence Urge incontinence Urinary incontinence Urinary incontinence - injectable implant ...

  14. Investigation of cattle methane production and emission over a 24-hour period using measurements of δ13C and δD of emitted CH4 and rumen water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, R. S.; Tyler, S. C.; Kurihara, M.; Yagi, K.

    2001-07-01

    We have conducted a series of experiments to determine the effects different diets, including the addition of unsaturated fatty acids, had on isotopic signatures of CH4 emissions from dairy cattle. Measurements of emitted δ13CH4, δ13CO2, and δD-CH4 were made on gases collected over a 24-hour period from animal chambers containing individual Holstein cows. Some measurements of δD-H2O from samples collected directly from the rumen were also made. We observed variation in δ13CH4 values with time after feeding and a correlation in δ13C between emitted gases and diet. The average δ13CH4 value, which includes all samples of emitted gases, was -70.6±4.9‰ (n = 57). Measurements of δD-CH4 over the 24-hour sampling period had an average value of -357.8±15.0‰ (n = 56). These δD measurements are among the lightest reported for CH4 produced by cattle. Our cattle data indicate that hydrogen incorporated into the CH4 produced by CO2 reduction in high H2 concentration environments is fractionated to a greater degree than that incorporated in systems with relatively low H2 conditions, such as wetlands. Our results support bacterial studies that have demonstrated large hydrogen fractionation in high H2 concentration systems during methanogenesis.

  15. Urine sample (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. A small amount of urine ...

  16. Use of urine in snow to indicate condition of wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; DelGiudice, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Urine deposited in snow by wild gray wolves (Canis lupus) and by fed and fasted captive wolves was analyzed for urea nitrogen, calcium, sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Ratios of the elements with creatinine were considerably higher for fed than for fasted animals, and ratios for fed wolves compared favorably with ratios from wolf urine in snow along trails leading from kills. Thus, wolf urine in the snow can indicate whether wolves have fed recently, and a series of such urine collections from any given pack can indicate relative nutritional state.

  17. 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion test

    MedlinePlus

    Gruber HA, Farag AF. Evaluation of endocrine function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 24.

  18. Toys Remain Viral Playground for 24 Hours

    MedlinePlus

    ... a toy's surface at typical indoor temperatures and humidity levels. Specifically, they tested the ability of so- ... East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). At 60 percent relative humidity, 1 percent of the virus remained infectious on ...

  19. Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control and Sodium Intake in Shandong Province, China: Baseline Results From Shandong–Ministry of Health Action on Salt Reduction and Hypertension (SMASH), 2011

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Zhenqiang; Liang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Aiqiang; Wang, Linghong; Shi, Xiaoming; Zhao, Wenhua; Ma, Jixiang; Guo, Xiaolei; Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Jiyu; Ren, Jie; Yan, Liuxia; Lu, Zilong; Wang, Huicheng; Tang, Junli; Cai, Xiaoning; Dong, Jing; Zhang, Juan; Chu, Jie; Engelgau, Michael; Yang, Quanhe; Hong, Yuling

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In China, population-based blood pressure levels and prevalence of hypertension are increasing. Meanwhile, sodium intake, a major risk factor for hypertension, is high. In 2011, to develop intervention priorities for a salt reduction and hypertension control project in Shandong Province (population 96 million), a cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect information on sodium intake and hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. Methods Complex, multistage sampling methods were used to select a provincial-representative adult sample. Blood pressure was measured and a survey conducted among all participants; condiments were weighed in the household, a 24-hour dietary recall was conducted, and urine was collected. Hypertension was determined by blood pressure measured on a single occasion and self-reported use of antihypertension medications. Results Overall, 23.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20.9%–26.0%) of adults in Shandong were estimated to have hypertension. Among those classified as having hypertension, approximately one-third (34.5%) reported having hypertension, approximately one-fourth (27.5%) reported taking medications, and one-seventh (14.9%) had their blood pressure controlled (<140/<90 mm Hg). Estimated total average daily dietary sodium intake was 5,745 mg (95% CI, 5,428 mg–6,063 mg). Most dietary sodium (80.8%) came from salt and high-salt condiments added during cooking: a sodium intake of 4,640 mg (95% CI, 4,360 mg–4,920 mg). The average daily urinary sodium excretion was 5,398 mg (95% CI, 5,112 mg–5,683 mg). Conclusion Hypertension and excessive sodium intake in adults are major public health problems in Shandong Province, China. PMID:24854239

  20. Urine pH test

    MedlinePlus

    A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products, or cheese can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your urine acid levels. It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).

  1. Acute cyanide intoxication treated with a combination of hydroxycobalamin, sodium nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate.

    PubMed

    Mannaioni, Guido; Vannacci, Alfredo; Marzocca, Cosimo; Zorn, Anna Monica; Peruzzi, Sandro; Moroni, Flavio

    2002-01-01

    An 80-year-old diabetic patient was admitted to the hospital because of sudden unconsciousness and severe metabolic acidosis. His son reported the possibility of cyanide poisoning. Clinical data and the detection of cyanide in blood and gastric material confirmed this possibility. Supportive therapy and the following antidotes--sodium nitrite two doses 300 mg i.v., sodium thiosulfate 3 g i.v., and hydroxocobalamin 4 g in 24 hours--were administered immediately and the patient completely recovered in 48 hours. Our observations suggest that timely and appropriate use of antidotes for cyanide intoxication may prevent death, even in aged diabetic patients. PMID:12126191

  2. Urine fingerprinting: detection of sample tampering in an opiate dependency program.

    PubMed

    Kapur, B; Hershkop, S; Koren, G; Gaughan, V

    1999-04-01

    Methadone treatment programs commonly monitor patient compliance by screening urine samples for drugs of abuse. Our experience suggests that re-submission of urine samples (for example, providing a urine sample that is either not that of the patient or was previously submitted) is often used as a method of sample tampering. We have developed an algorithm that combines urine sodium, chloride, creatinine and pH values with urine drug screening results to effectively detect resubmitted samples. Given the widespread use of urine drug screening in drug and alcohol rehabilitation programs, we believe this technique has significant practical benefits. This technique may also have an application in forensic identification of duplicate samples.

  3. Novel description of the 24-hour circadian rhythms of brachial versus central aortic blood pressure and the impact of blood pressure treatment in a randomized controlled clinical trial: The Ambulatory Central Aortic Pressure (AmCAP) Study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bryan; Lacy, Peter S; Baschiera, Fabio; Brunel, Patrick; Düsing, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    Elevated brachial blood pressure (BP) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and predicts morbidity and mortality in humans. Recently, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and assessment of central aortic BP have been introduced to improve BP phenotyping. The Ambulatory Central Aortic Pressure (AmCAP) study combines these approaches and describes, for the first time, the diurnal patterns of simultaneously measured 24-hour ambulatory brachial and central pressures in a prespecified substudy embedded within a clinical trial of BP lowering in patients with hypertension. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory brachial and central pressure measurements were acquired using a tonometer mounted into the articulating strap of a wristwatch-like device (BPro) in 171 participants with hypertension recruited into the ASSERTIVE (AliSkiren Study of profound antihypERtensive efficacy in hyperTensIVE patients) trial. Participants were randomly assigned to BP lowering with either aliskiren 300 mg QD or telmisartan 80 mg QD for 12 weeks. Ambulatory brachial and central BP was measured in all participants both at baseline and at study end. Brachial and central BP both demonstrated typical diurnal patterns with lower pressures at night. However, night time was associated with smaller reductions in central relative to brachial pressure and decreased pulse pressure amplification (P<0.0001 for both). These effects were not modulated after BP lowering and were maintained after adjustment for day and night-time BP and heart rate (P=0.02). This study demonstrates that brachial and central pressure show different diurnal patterns, which are not modulated by BP-lowering therapy, with relatively higher night-time central pressures. These novel data indicate that night-time central BP may provide prognostic importance and warrants further investigation. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00865020. PMID:23630950

  4. The urine osmolal gap: a clue to estimate urine ammonium in "hybrid" types of metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Halperin, M L; Margolis, B L; Robinson, L A; Halperin, R M; West, M L; Bear, R A

    1988-06-01

    The urine osmolal gap is defined as the difference between measured urine osmolality and the sum of the concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, urea and glucose. Normally, this gap is 80-100 mosmol/kg H2O. A determination of the urine osmolal gap may be useful to ascertain the etiology of metabolic acidosis which is of the mixed wide and normal plasma anion gap type ("hybrid" metabolic acidosis). For example, with "hybrid" metabolic acidosis, a low urine osmolal gap will suggest the absence of excessive organic aciduria (ketoacidosis) and the basis of the normal anion gap type of acidosis will be determined by the urine anion gap or "net charge". Where "hybrid" metabolic acidosis has occurred due to wide anion gap metabolic acidosis with loss of organic acid anion in the urine, the urine osmolal gap will be high and can be used in a semi-quantitative fashion to estimate the sum of urinary ammonium plus ketone body anion concentrations.

  5. Effects of dietary sodium reduction on blood pressure in subjects with resistant hypertension: results from a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Eduardo; Gaddam, Krishna K; Oparil, Suzanne; Aban, Inmaculada; Husain, Saima; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Calhoun, David A

    2009-09-01

    Observational studies indicate a significant relation between dietary sodium and level of blood pressure. However, the role of salt sensitivity in the development of resistant hypertension is unknown. The present study examined the effects of dietary salt restriction on office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in subjects with resistant hypertension. Twelve subjects with resistant hypertension entered into a randomized crossover evaluation of low (50 mmol/24 hours x 7 days) and high sodium diets (250 mmol/24 hours x 7 days) separated by a 2-week washout period. Brain natriuretic peptide; plasma renin activity; 24-hour urinary aldosterone, sodium, and potassium; 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; aortic pulse wave velocity; and augmentation index were compared between dietary treatment periods. At baseline, subjects were on an average of 3.4+/-0.5 antihypertensive medications with a mean office BP of 145.8+/-10.8/83.9+/-11.2 mm Hg. Mean urinary sodium excretion was 46.1+/-26.8 versus 252.2+/-64.6 mmol/24 hours during low- versus high-salt intake. Low- compared to high-salt diet decreased office systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 22.7 and 9.1 mm Hg, respectively. Plasma renin activity increased whereas brain natriuretic peptide and creatinine clearance decreased during low-salt intake, indicative of intravascular volume reduction. These results indicate that excessive dietary sodium ingestion contributes importantly to resistance to antihypertensive treatment. Strategies to substantially reduce dietary salt intake should be part of the overall treatment of resistant hypertension.

  6. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  7. Taurine in morning spot urine for the useful assessment of dietary seafood intake in Japanese children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since our previous report on WHO CARDIAC Study data demonstrated that 24-hour urinary (24U) taurine (Tau) excretion was a useful biomarker of seafood (SF) intake and inversely related to the mortality rates of stroke and coronary heart diseases in the world, we determined that SF is important in the risk reduction of lifestyle related-diseases. The amounts of dietary SF intake are so far estimated from a nutritional survey or 24U Tau excretion. The sodium/potassium ratio of spot urine (SU) and the 24U ratio were reported to be significantly correlated with. Therefore, we presently examined the relationship of Tau excretion in the morning SU with 24U Tau for simplifying the population comparison and the follow-up of SF intake changes in the process of food education program (FEP). Methods After informed consent was obtained, 54 children aged 6-11 years (Children) and 193 adolescents aged 13-18 years (Adolescents) participated in collecting precisely 24U and SU of the first urination on the same day and answered the questionnaire including age and height and weight measurements. The urine samples were measured for creatinine (Cre) and Tau, and the association of these between 24U and SU were analyzed. Results The success rates of 24U sampling were very high in Children and Adolescents, 96.4% and 82.4%, respectively. From the result of the multiple regression analysis of SU Tau/Cre and weight we obtained formulas for predicting 24U Tau excretion in Children and Adolescents as follows: Children: 24U Tau = 16.3 (weight) + 314.3 (SU Tau/Cre) -175.2; and Adolescents: 24U Tau = 20.2 (weight) + 644.7 (SU Tau/Cre) - 569.4. Conclusions The present study established the regression equation to estimate 24U Tau excretion from SU Tau/Cre and weight. These formulas are expected to contribute to the estimation of fish and SF intake and the follow-up of the change of the dietary behavior by FEP in Children and Adolescents. PMID:20804620

  8. The influence of moderate reduction in dietary sodium on human salivary sodium concentration.

    PubMed

    Christensen, C M; Bertino, M; Beauchamp, G K; Navazesh, M; Engelman, K

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four healthy subjects were placed for 12-13 weeks on diets that reduced average sodium intake from 145 to 74 m-equiv. Na+/day as determined by multiple 24-h urine collections before and during the diet. Whole-mouth resting and stimulated saliva was collected and analysed for flow rate and sodium concentration several times before and during the low-sodium period. Sodium restriction did not influence salivary flow rates but salivary sodium levels fell 25 per cent for resting and 17 per cent for stimulated saliva. Thus moderate reductions in sodium intake are accompanied by significantly lower salivary sodium levels.

  9. Osmolality urine - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... midstream) urine sample. To obtain a clean-catch sample, men or boys should wipe clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. As you start to urinate, ...

  10. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePlus

    ... placed in a room where you have no access to your personal items or water. This is so you cannot dilute the sample, or use someone else's urine for the test. This test involves collecting a "clean-catch" (midstream) urine sample: Wash your hands with ...

  11. The Relationship of the Increase in the 'Time of the Earth Day,' from 18 Hours to 24 Hours, to the Increase in the Size of the Earth, Using the Laws of the Conservation of Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimorelli, S. A.; Samuels, C.

    2010-12-01

    There are three articles, by others, which discuss the increase in the Earth's day, from 18 hours to 24 hours, over a period of time of about a billion years. One article refers to Striations in the Substructure of Coral, C.T. Scrutton, et al, 1965. Another article refers to the Laws of the Conservation of Momentum, as related to the relationship of the Earth and the Moon, the lunar tides, the reduction of the Earth year from 481 days to our present 365.25 days, and an increase in the lunar orbit time from 20 days to 28 days. The third article is based on the dates of tidal sediment deposits, tidalites, C. P. Sonett, et al, in the late 1980's. In this paper, we explain how the Earth's Day could have increased from 18 hours to 24 hours, as related to the Laws of Conservation of Momentum (L). Wherein we use the simple formulation from the Law of the Conservation of Angular Momentum, L=Iω, in which I=Moment of Inertia and ω=Angular Velocity; for which we assume the earth to be a perfect sphere, for which I=0.4MR2, where M and R are the Mass and radius of the earth, respectively. We evaluate the radius of the earth over a time period of several billion years, during which time the earth's angular momentum, L=Iω, is conserved. In this formulation, we show a growth in the size of the earth; and present a curve, using just three points in time, which indicates that the rate of growth is increasing over time. The first point is from about 4.5 billion years ago, the second point is from about 1 billion years ago, and the third point represents present day, with an average growth of about 1mm per year. Although evidence has been presented, by others, showing circumferential growth at the Red Sea and in the Atlantic Ocean, at about 1.5cm per year, total. However, no proof of reduction in the size of the Earth has been shown to occur in the Pacific, or anywhere else, including in references to subduction. Some might say that the subduction is occurring at the rim of the

  12. Urine Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

  13. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  14. Effective cross-over to granisetron after failure to ondansetron, a randomized double blind study in patients failing ondansetron plus dexamethasone during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, R; de Boer, A C; vd Linden, G H M; Stoter, G; Sparreboom, A; Verweij, J

    2001-01-01

    In view of the similarity in chemical structure of the available 5HT3-receptor antagonists it is assumed, whilst these agents all act at the same receptor, that failure to one agent would predict subsequent failure to all 5HT3-receptor antagonists. We conducted a randomized double blind trial of granisetron 3 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg versus continued treatment with ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg in patients with protection failure on ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Of 40 eligible patients, 21 received ondansetron + dexamethasone and 19 received granisetron + dexamethasone. We found a significant benefit from crossing-over to granisetron after failure on ondansetron. Of the 19 patients who crossed over to granisetron, 9 patients obtained complete protection, whereas this was observed in 1 of the 21 patients continuing ondansetron, P = 0.005. These results indicate that there is no complete cross-resistance between 5HT3-receptor antagonists, and that patients who have acute protection failure on one 5HT3-receptor antagonist should be offered cross-over to another 5HT3-receptor antagonist. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11710819

  15. Diagnosis and effects of urine contamination in cooled-extended stallion semen.

    PubMed

    Ellerbrock, R; Canisso, I; Feijo, L; Lima, F; Shipley, C; Kline, K

    2016-04-15

    Urospermia is known to affect semen quality in many mammals, including stallions. Determinations of semen pH and creatinine and urea concentrations have been used to diagnose urine contamination in raw stallion semen. Unfortunately, practitioners suspecting urine contamination in cooled-shipped samples have no proven means to confirm the presence of urine. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to assess the effects of urine contamination on sperm motility of extended fresh and cooled-stored stallion semen, (2) to evaluate the usefulness of semen color, odor, pH, and creatinine and urea concentrations for urospermia diagnosis, and (3) to evaluate the accuracy of a commercial blood urea nitrogen test strip in diagnosing urine contamination in extended-cooled stallion semen. Thirty-seven ejaculates were obtained from 11 stallions with no history of urospermia before division into 5 mL aliquots, and contamination with stallion urine. Each resulting sample was assessed for sperm motility, color, odor, pH, creatinine, and urea nitrogen concentration using both a semiquantitative test strip (Azostix), and a quantitative automated analyzer before and after cooling for 24 hour. Sperm motility parameters, pH, and creatinine and urea concentrations were analyzed using mixed models. Urine contamination decreased total and progressive motility in all samples before and after cooling (P < 0.05). Mean control total motility was 80% at 0 hour and 67% at 24 hours, whereas urine-contaminated samples ranged from 30% to 71% at 0 hour and 27% to 61% at 24 hours. Control mean urea (29 mg/dL) and creatinine (0.6 mg/dL) concentrations were significantly different (P < 0.05) from all urine-contaminated samples (158 mg/dL and 11.6 mg/dL, respectively) at 0 hour. Similarly, control mean urea (8 mg/dL) and creatinine (0.9 mg/dL) concentrations were significantly different than all urine-contaminated samples at 24 hours. Odor assessment presented moderate sensitivity (65

  16. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  17. Gonadotropin determinations in times 3-hour urine collections during the menstrual cycle and LHRH testing.

    PubMed

    Beitins, I Z; O'Loughlin, K; Ostrea, T; McArthur, J W

    1976-07-01

    The usefulness of timed 3-hour urine collections as a substitute for serum gonadotropin (LH and FSH) determinations during the menstrual cycle and during LHRH testing was examined. The timing of the 3-hour urine collection is not important in mature individuals, since no significant temporal trend was found when aliquots were collected every 3 hours throughout two 24-hour periods in one mature woman. Good correlation was found between serum LH and FSH concentrations and the quantity of LH and FSH in timed 3-hour urine specimens throughout normal, ovulatory menstrual cycles in two women. Studies before and during 51 LHRH stimulation tests in normal men, children, and women during different phases of the menstrual cycle and in patients with a variety of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis disorders were performed. There was good correlation between the quantity of the gonadotropins in time 3-hour urine collections and the mean serum LH and FSH concentrations before and during the LHRH test. The "response area" for serum LH and FSH also correlated well with the amounts of LH and FSH in the urine collected during this period. Therefore, the timed 3-hour urine collection for gonadotropin estimation provides a simple, accurate method for the integration of fluctuating serum concentrations of LH and FSH during such instances of physiologic variability as the menstrual cycle and LHRH stimulation tests.

  18. Urine output - decreased

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Abdominal ultrasound Blood tests for electrolytes , kidney function, and blood count CT scan of the abdomen (done without contrast dye if your kidney function is impaired) Renal scan Urine tests, including tests ...

  19. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the past? Do you have a family history of diabetes ? Does nighttime urination interfere with your sleep? Tests that may be performed include: Blood sugar (glucose) Blood urea nitrogen Fluid deprivation Osmolality , blood Serum creatinine or creatinine ...

  20. PBG urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Porphobilinogen test ... temporarily stop taking medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... This test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

  1. Pooled results from five validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for potassium and sodium intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have pooled data from five large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as referents to assess food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. We reported on total potassium and sodium intakes, their densities, and their ratio. Results were...

  2. Effects of Verapamil SR and Atenolol on 24-Hour Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Hypertension Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: An International Verapamil SR-Trandolapril Ambulatory Monitoring Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Denardo, Scott J.; Gong, Yan; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Farsang, Csaba; Keltai, Matyas; Szirmai, László; Messerli, Franz H.; Bavry, Anthony A.; Handberg, Eileen M.; Mancia, Giuseppe; Pepine, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated nighttime blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), increased BP and HR variability, and altered diurnal variations of BP and HR (nighttime dipping and morning surge) in patients with systemic hypertension are each associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events. However, there are no reports on the effect of hypertension treatment on these important hemodynamic parameters in the growing population of hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). This was a pre-specified subgroup analysis of the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST), which involved 22,576 clinically stable patients aged ≥50 years with hypertension and CAD randomized to either verapamil SR- or atenolol-based hypertension treatment strategies. The subgroup consisted of 117 patients undergoing 24-hour ambulatory monitoring at baseline and after 1 year of treatment. Hourly systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) decreased after 1 year for both verapamil SR- and atenolol-based treatment strategies compared with baseline (P<0.0001). Atenolol also decreased hourly HR (P<0.0001). Both treatment strategies decreased SBP variability (weighted standard deviation: P = 0.012 and 0.021, respectively). Compared with verapamil SR, atenolol also increased the prevalence of BP and HR nighttime dipping among prior non-dippers (BP: OR = 3.37; 95% CI: 1.26 – 8.97; P = 0.015; HR: OR = 4.06; 95% CI: 1.35-12.17; P = 0.012) and blunted HR morning surge (+2.8 vs. +4.5 beats/min/hr; P = 0.019). Both verapamil SR- and especially atenolol-based strategies resulted in favorable changes in ambulatory monitoring parameters that have been previously associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00133692 PMID:25835002

  3. Comparison of validity of food group intake by food frequency questionnaire between pre- and post- adjustment estimates derived from 2-day 24-hour recalls in combination with the probability of consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Woo; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Kim, Jeongseon

    2012-01-01

    Validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) utilising a short-term measurement method is challenging when the reference method does not accurately reflect the usual food intake. In addition, food group intake that is not consumed on daily basis is more critical when episodically consumed foods are related and compared. To overcome these challenges, several statistical approaches have been developed to determine usual food intake distributions. The Multiple Source Method (MSM) can calculate the usual food intake by combining the frequency questions of an FFQ with the short-term food intake amount data. In this study, we applied the MSM to estimate the usual food group intake and evaluate the validity of an FFQ with a group of 333 Korean children (aged 3-6 y) who completed two 24-hour recalls (24HR) and one FFQ in 2010. After adjusting the data using the MSM procedure, the true rate of non-consumption for all food groups was less than 1% except for the beans group. The median Spearman correlation coefficients against FFQ of the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and the MSM-adjusted data were 0.20 (range: 0.11 to 0.40) and 0.35 (range: 0.14 to 0.60), respectively. The weighted kappa values against FFQ ranged from 0.08 to 0.25 for the mean of 2-d 24HRs data and from 0.10 to 0.41 for the MSM-adjusted data. For most food groups, the MSM-adjusted data showed relatively stronger correlations against FFQ than raw 2-d 24HRs data, from 0.03 (beverages) to 0.34 (mushrooms). The results of this study indicated that the application of the MSM, which was a better estimate of the usual intake, could be worth considering in FFQ validation studies among Korean children.

  4. Sodium Bicarbonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking sodium bicarbonate, call your doctor. ... your body. If you are on a sodium-restricted diet, check with your doctor before taking sodium bicarbonate.

  5. [Position statement. Protein/creatinine in a randomly obtained urine sample in the diagnosis of proteinuria in pregnant patients with arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Leaños Miranda and collaborators published that the measurement of protein/creatinine ratio in a single random urine sample is a reliable indicator of significant proteinuria and may be reasonably used as alternative to the 24-hours urine collection method as a diagnostic criteria for urinary protein, and it is also a criterion for identifying the disease severity. This leads us to present this successful result of the investigation as a position statement in the care of pregnant women with hypertension.

  6. Simple Method for Assaying Colistin Methanesulfonate in Plasma and Urine Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Milne, Robert W.; Nation, Roger L.; Turnidge, John D.; Coulthard, Kingsley; Valentine, Jason

    2002-01-01

    A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination of colistimethate sodium in plasma and urine. The accuracy and reproducibility was within 10.1 and 11.2% with rat plasma and urine, respectively. Several commonly coadministered antibacterial agents do not interfere with the assay. PMID:12234867

  7. The otolaryngologic manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): a clinical investigation of 225 patients using ambulatory 24-hour pH monitoring and an experimental investigation of the role of acid and pepsin in the development of laryngeal injury.

    PubMed

    Koufman, J A

    1991-04-01

    Occult (silent) gastroesophageal reflux disease (GER, GERD) is believed to be an important etiologic factor in the development of many inflammatory and neoplastic disorders of the upper aerodigestive tract. In order ot test this hypothesis, a human study and an animal study were performed. The human study consisted primarily of applying a new diagnostic technique (double-probe pH monitoring) to a population of otolaryngology patients with GERD to determine the incidence of overt and occult GERD. The animal study consisted of experiments to evaluate the potential damaging effects of intermittent GER on the larynx. Two hundred twenty-five consecutive patients with otolaryngologic disorders having suspected GERD evaluated from 1985 through 1988 are reported. Ambulatory 24-hour intraesophageal pH monitoring was performed in 197; of those, 81% underwent double-probe pH monitoring, with the second pH probe being placed in the hypopharynx at the laryngeal inlet. Seventy percent of the patients also underwent barium esophagography with videofluoroscopy. The patient population was divided into seven diagnostic subgroups: carcinoma of the larynx (n = 31), laryngeal and tracheal stenosis (n = 33), reflux laryngitis (n = 61), globus pharyngeus (n = 27), dysphagia (n = 25), chronic cough (n = 30), and a group with miscellaneous disorders (n = 18). The most common symptoms were hoarseness (71%), cough (51%), globus (47%), and throat clearing (42%). Only 43% of the patients had gastrointestinal symptoms (heartburn or acid regurgitation). Thus, by traditional symptomatology, GER was occult or silent in the majority of the study population. Twenty-eight patients (12%) refused or could not tolerate pH monitoring. Of the patients undergoing diagnostic pH monitoring, 62% had abnormal esophageal pH studies, and 30% demonstrated reflux into the pharynx. The results of diagnostic pH monitoring for each of the subgroups were as follows (percentage with abnormal studies): carcinoma (71

  8. Gonadotropin determinations in timed 3-hour urine collections during the menstrual cycle and LHRH testing.

    PubMed

    Beitins, I Z; O'loughlin, K; Ostrea, T; Mcarthur, J W

    1976-07-01

    Gonadotropin determinations in timed 3-hour urine collections during the menstrual cycle and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) testing are reported. No marked temporal trend was seen when urine aliquots were collected every 3 hours throughout 2 24-hour periods in 1 mature woman. A good correlation (p less than .001) was seen between serum LH and follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) concentrations and the quantity ovulatory menstrual cycles in 2 women. A good correlation (p less than .001) was also seen between the quantity of the gonadotropins in timed 3-hour urine collections and serum LH and FSH concentrations before and during the LHRH test in 51 normal men, women, and children and in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis disorders. The "response area" for serum LH and FSH also correlated well (p less than .001) with the LH and FSH in the urine collected. It is concluded that the timed 3-hour urine collection for gonadotropin estimation provides a simple, accurate method for the integration of fluctuating serum concentrations of LH and FSH during such instances of physiologic variability as the menstrual cycle and LHRH stimulation tests.

  9. The Human Urine Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing

  10. The Protective Effect of Beraprost Sodium on Diabetic Nephropathy by Inhibiting Inflammation and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway in High-Fat Diet/Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Li; Li, Jie; Xu, Yixing; Wang, Yangtian; Du, Hong; Shao, Jiaqing; Liu, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Background. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays a crucial role in regulating signaling pathways implicated in inflammatory processes leading to diabetic nephropathy (DN). This study aimed to examine p38 MAPK activation in DN and determine whether beraprost sodium (BPS) ameliorates DN by inhibiting inflammation and p38 MAPK signaling pathway in diabetic rats. Methods. Forty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, type 2 diabetic group, and BPS treatment group. At the end of the 8-week experiment, we measured renal pathological changes and the activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and inflammation. Result. After BPS treatment, renal function, 24-hour urine protein, lipid profiles, and blood glucose level were improved significantly; meanwhile, inflammation and the expression of p38 MAPK signaling pathway in the diabetic kidney were attenuated. Conclusions. BPS significantly prevented type 2 diabetes induced kidney injury characterized by renal dysfunction and pathological changes. The protective mechanisms are complicated but may be mainly attributed to the inhibition of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and inflammation in the diabetic kidney. PMID:27212945

  11. False positivity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase measurement in urine.

    PubMed

    Crivellenti, Leandro Zuccolotto; Mesa, Javier Sousa; Meirelles, Adriana Érica Wilkes Burton; Borin Crivellenti, Sofia; Mireya, Edna Gomes; Canola, Julio Carlos; Hatayde, Mário Roberto; Santana, Aureo Evangelista; Dantas, Márcio; Silva, Gyl Eanes Barros

    2014-05-01

    Although enzymuria tends to be associated to renal injury, there are no studies that have evaluated the presence of the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) spectrophotometry in the urine using a non-nephrotoxic agent (Nerium oleander) in order to evaluate the possibility of false positive results. The urinary GGT/urinary creatinine concentration ratio (uGGT/uCr) of 10 healthy dogs was calculated and posteriorly confronted with data from clinical evaluation, hematological and serum biochemical profiles, creatinine clearance (CrC), urinalysis, urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPC), electrocardiogram, systemic blood pressure (SBP) and light and electron microscopy. The results for kidney histology, SBP, UPC and CrC were not significantly different in any of the time-points analyzed. However, uGGT/uCr was significantly higher when measured 4 hours and 24 hours after administration of N. oleander. The measurement of the urinary GGT enzyme, as performed in many studies, yielded false positive results in dogs poisoned by a non-nephrotoxic agent.

  12. Advanced urine toxicology testing.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Peter L

    2010-10-01

    Urine toxicology screening testing is an important standard of care in the addiction and pain treatment setting, offering a reproducible, unbiased, and accurate laboratory test to monitor patients and provide objective support for clinical observations. It has been shown that physicians do not have proficiency in the ordering or interpretation of these tests. This article is an attempt to respond to that need. Current antibody-based enzymatic immunoassays (EIAs) used for urine toxicology screening are useful to detect classes of drugs (ex., opiate) but cannot determine which specific drug (ex., morphine) is present. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy can determine exactly which drugs are present, allowing prescribed (or illicit) opiates and benzodiazepines to be identified. This article will discuss principles and details of opiate and benzodiazepine EIA and gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy urine toxicology testing. The approach to detecting patients attributing positive opiate EIAs to prescription opiates who are using heroin or other opioids will be reviewed. Cases of controlled prescription drugs that do not produce the expected positive urine tests (ex., oxycodone producing negative opiate screening tests) will be discussed. How to differentiate codeine from heroin and the role of poppy seeds in toxicology will be examined. The case of an anti-depressant drug that produces false-positive benzodiazepine results and antibiotics that cause positive opiate urine toxicology results will be reviewed. Common benzodiazepines (ex., clonazepam and lorazepam) that do not reliably produce positive benzodiazepine EIAs will be discussed. The approach to detection and management of all these types of toxicology cases will be reviewed, and it is hoped that the analyses presented will impart an adequate information base to medical providers and staff members of drug treatment and pain centers, enabling them to order and interpret these tests in the clinic more

  13. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePlus

    ... process starts in the kidneys , which remove excess fluids and waste from the blood and turn them into urine. The urine then flows through tubes called ureters into the bladder, where it's stored ...

  14. Intra-tubular deposits, urine and stone composition are divergent in patients with ileostomy.

    PubMed

    Evan, Andrew P; Lingeman, James E; Coe, Fredric L; Bledsoe, Sharon B; Sommer, Andre J; Williams, James C; Krambeck, Amy E; Worcester, Elaine M

    2009-11-01

    Patients with ileostomy typically have recurrent renal stones and produce scanty, acidic, sodium-poor urine because of abnormally large enteric losses of water and sodium bicarbonate. Here we used a combination of intra-operative digital photography and biopsy of the renal papilla and cortex to measure changes associated with stone formation in seven patients with ileostomy. Papillary deformity was present in four patients and was associated with decreased estimated glomerular filtration rates. All patients had interstitial apatite plaque, as predicted from their generally acid, low-volume urine. Two patients had stones attached to plaque; however, all patients had crystal deposits that plugged the ducts of Bellini and inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs). Despite acid urine, all crystal deposits contained apatite, and five patients had deposits of sodium and ammonium acid urates. Stones were either uric acid or calcium oxalate as predicted by supersaturation, however, there was a general lack of supersaturation for calcium phosphate as brushite, sodium, or ammonium acid urate because of the overall low urine pH. This suggests that local tubular pH exceeds that of bulk urine. Despite low urine pH, patients with an ileostomy resemble those with obesity bypass, in whom IMCD apatite crystal plugs are found. They are, however, unlike these bypass patients in having interstitial apatite plaque. IMCD plugging with sodium and ammonium acid urate has not been found previously and appears to correlate with formation of uric acid stones. PMID:19710630

  15. Stability of Ampicillin Sodium, Nafcillin Sodium, And Oxacillin Sodium in AutoDose Infusion System Bags.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanping; Trissel, Lawrence A

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of ampicillin sodium 1g/100mL, nafcillin sodium 1g/100mL, and oxacillin sodium 1g/100mL, each of which was admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and packaged in an AutoDose Infusion System bag. Triplicate test samples were prepared by reconstituting the penicillin antibiotics and bringing the required amount of each drug to a final volume of 100 mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The test solutions were packaged in AutoDose Bags, which are ethylene vinyl acetate plastic containers designed for use in the AutoDose Infusion System. Samples were stored protected from light and were evaluated at appropriate intervals for up to 7 days at 23 deg C and up to 30 days at 4 deg C. Physical stability was assessed by means of a multistep evaluation procedure that included both turbidimetric and particulate measurement as well as visual inspection. Chemical stability was assesed with stability-indicating high-perofrmance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analytical techniques based on the determination of drug concentrations initially and at appropriate intervals over the study periods. All the penicillin admixtures were initially clear when viewed in normal fluorescent room light. When the admixtures were viewed with a Tyndall beam, a trace haze was observed with the ampicillin sodium and nafcillin sodium mixtures but not with the oxacillin sodium mixture. Measured turbidity and particulate content were low and exhibited little change in the ampicillin sodium and oxacillin sodium samples throughout the study. The nafcillin sodium samples stored at room temperature remained clear, but a microprecipitate developed in the refrigerated samples between 14 and 21 days of storage. All samples were essentially colorless throughout the study. HPLC analysis indicated some decomposition in the samples. Ampicillin sodium, which was the least stable, exhibited a 10% loss after 24 hours at 23 deg C. In the

  16. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  17. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  18. Effects of nedocromil sodium on antigen-induced conjunctivitis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, L; Norris, A; Vargaftig, B B

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated nedocromil sodium in a guinea pig model of allergic conjunctivitis. Ten days after the animals were passively sensitized to ovalbumin, nedocromil sodium (2 mg) or normal saline was instilled into the conjunctival sac, followed by antigen challenge with ovalbumin (100 micrograms or 300 micrograms/10 microL). Conjunctival hyperemia, edema, and eyelid edema were evaluated at 10 minutes and 4 hours in the 100-microgram ovalbumin group. Eyes with nedocromil sodium exhibited fewer early and late clinical signs of allergic conjunctivitis than control eyes. Infiltrating eosinophils were counted at 24 hours in the 300-microgram ovalbumin group. Nedocromil sodium inhibited antigen-induced eosinophil infiltration into the limbus, fornix, and eyelids by 77%, 66%, and 74%, compared with controls. Nedocromil sodium can effectively suppress early- and late-phase conjunctival hyperemia, conjunctival edema, eyelid edema, and eosinophil infiltration in the guinea pig passive-sensitization model. Nedocromil sodium may represent a versatile option for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis.

  19. Adulterants in Urine Drug Testing.

    PubMed

    Fu, S

    2016-01-01

    Urine drug testing plays an important role in monitoring licit and illicit drug use for both medico-legal and clinical purposes. One of the major challenges of urine drug testing is adulteration, a practice involving manipulation of a urine specimen with chemical adulterants to produce a false negative test result. This problem is compounded by the number of easily obtained chemicals that can effectively adulterate a urine specimen. Common adulterants include some household chemicals such as hypochlorite bleach, laundry detergent, table salt, and toilet bowl cleaner and many commercial products such as UrinAid (glutaraldehyde), Stealth® (containing peroxidase and peroxide), Urine Luck (pyridinium chlorochromate, PCC), and Klear® (potassium nitrite) available through the Internet. These adulterants can invalidate a screening test result, a confirmatory test result, or both. To counteract urine adulteration, drug testing laboratories have developed a number of analytical methods to detect adulterants in a urine specimen. While these methods are useful in detecting urine adulteration when such activities are suspected, they do not reveal what types of drugs are being concealed. This is particularly the case when oxidizing urine adulterants are involved as these oxidants are capable of destroying drugs and their metabolites in urine, rendering the drug analytes undetectable by any testing technology. One promising approach to address this current limitation has been the use of unique oxidation products formed from reaction of drug analytes with oxidizing adulterants as markers for monitoring drug misuse and urine adulteration. This novel approach will ultimately improve the effectiveness of the current urine drug testing programs. PMID:27645818

  20. Adulterants in Urine Drug Testing.

    PubMed

    Fu, S

    2016-01-01

    Urine drug testing plays an important role in monitoring licit and illicit drug use for both medico-legal and clinical purposes. One of the major challenges of urine drug testing is adulteration, a practice involving manipulation of a urine specimen with chemical adulterants to produce a false negative test result. This problem is compounded by the number of easily obtained chemicals that can effectively adulterate a urine specimen. Common adulterants include some household chemicals such as hypochlorite bleach, laundry detergent, table salt, and toilet bowl cleaner and many commercial products such as UrinAid (glutaraldehyde), Stealth® (containing peroxidase and peroxide), Urine Luck (pyridinium chlorochromate, PCC), and Klear® (potassium nitrite) available through the Internet. These adulterants can invalidate a screening test result, a confirmatory test result, or both. To counteract urine adulteration, drug testing laboratories have developed a number of analytical methods to detect adulterants in a urine specimen. While these methods are useful in detecting urine adulteration when such activities are suspected, they do not reveal what types of drugs are being concealed. This is particularly the case when oxidizing urine adulterants are involved as these oxidants are capable of destroying drugs and their metabolites in urine, rendering the drug analytes undetectable by any testing technology. One promising approach to address this current limitation has been the use of unique oxidation products formed from reaction of drug analytes with oxidizing adulterants as markers for monitoring drug misuse and urine adulteration. This novel approach will ultimately improve the effectiveness of the current urine drug testing programs.

  1. Advances in Urine Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Becker, Gavin J; Garigali, Giuseppe; Fogazzi, Giovanni B

    2016-06-01

    Urine microscopy is an important tool for the diagnosis and management of several conditions affecting the kidneys and urinary tract. In this review, we describe the automated instruments, based either on flow cytometry or digitized microscopy, that are currently in use in large clinical laboratories. These tools allow the examination of large numbers of samples in short periods. We also discuss manual urinary microscopy commonly performed by nephrologists, which we encourage. After discussing the advantages of phase contrast microscopy over bright field microscopy, we describe the advancements of urine microscopy in various clinical conditions. These include persistent isolated microscopic hematuria (which can be classified as glomerular or nonglomerular on the basis of urinary erythrocyte morphology), drug- and toxin-related cystalluria (which can be a clue for the diagnosis of acute kidney injury associated with intrarenal crystal precipitation), and some inherited conditions (eg, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, which is associated with 2,8-dihydroxyadenine crystalluria, and Fabry disease, which is characterized by unique urinary lamellated fatty particles). Finally, we describe the utility of identifying "decoy cells" and atypical malignant cells, which can be easily done with phase contrast microscopy in unfixed samples. PMID:26806004

  2. Urinary sodium excretion and kidney failure in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Fan, Li; Tighiouart, Hocine; Levey, Andrew S; Beck, Gerald J; Sarnak, Mark J

    2014-09-01

    Current guidelines recommend under 2 g/day sodium intake in chronic kidney disease, but there are a few studies relating sodium intake to long-term outcomes. Here we evaluated the association of mean baseline 24-h urinary sodium excretion with kidney failure and a composite outcome of kidney failure or all-cause mortality using Cox regression in 840 participants enrolled in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. Mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 3.46 g/day. Kidney failure developed in 617 participants, and the composite outcome was reached in 723. In the primary analyses, there was no association between 24-h urine sodium and kidney failure (HR 0.99 (95% CI 0.91-1.08)) nor on the composite outcome (HR 1.01 (95% CI 0.93-1.09)), each per 1 g/day higher urine sodium. In exploratory analyses, there was a significant interaction of baseline proteinuria and sodium excretion with kidney failure. Using a two-slope model, when urine sodium was under 3 g/day, higher urine sodium was associated with increased risk of kidney failure in those with baseline proteinuria under 1 g/day and with lower risk of kidney failure in those with baseline proteinuria of ⩾ 1 g/day. There was no association between urine sodium and kidney failure when urine sodium was ⩾ 3 g/day. Results were consistent using first baseline and time-dependent urinary sodium excretion. Thus, we noted no association of urine sodium with kidney failure. Results of the exploratory analyses need to be verified in additional studies and the mechanism explored.

  3. Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles.

    PubMed

    Mattelaer, J J

    1999-06-01

    In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for daily use was developed. We give a short description of the materials used, including clay, pewter, copper, and silver, but more sophisticated receptacles made of china, such as the bourdaloue, and of glass, such as the Kuttrolf, were also developed for use during long church ceremonies. Less known are the wooden "pipes" from Turkestan, used to keep babies dry. In the long history of mankind, urinals sometimes became very original objects.

  4. Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles.

    PubMed

    Mattelaer, J J

    1999-06-01

    In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for daily use was developed. We give a short description of the materials used, including clay, pewter, copper, and silver, but more sophisticated receptacles made of china, such as the bourdaloue, and of glass, such as the Kuttrolf, were also developed for use during long church ceremonies. Less known are the wooden "pipes" from Turkestan, used to keep babies dry. In the long history of mankind, urinals sometimes became very original objects. PMID:10418087

  5. Effect of injected rotenone on the production and composition of urine from the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, D.A.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Renal function was evaluated in adult rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) dosed i.a. with rotenone at 225 and 275 μg/kg. The chemical composition of urine samples and urine flow rates collected over a 5-h pretreatment period were compared with hourly urine samples collected over a 5-h posttreatment period. Significant increases in osmolality and in concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, and total protein were observed in the urine of treated fish. Urine solute concentrations reached maximum values within 1 to 3 h after treatment and decreased thereafter, indicating that the effects were reversible. Concentrations of sodium and chloride were highly correlated in 2-h posttreatment urine samples at the low (r = 0.922) and high (r = 0.981) rotenone treatments. Urine flow rates were reduced in trout at each dose of rotenone but the decrease in volume of urine voided was not dose-dependent. In a separate study, [14C]polyethylene glycol was used as a filtration marker to determine the effect of rotenone treatment (225 &mu:g/kg) on urine flow rate, glomerular filtration rate, and renal water reabsorption. We showed that posttreatment urine flow rates were reduced partly by reduced glomerular filtration and partly by increased water reabsorption. Transient increases in plasma osmolality and hematocrit also were observed 0.5 h after rotenone treatment.

  6. Effects of nebivolol versus metoprolol on sodium sensitivity and renal sodium handling in hypertensive Hispanic postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Preston, Richard A; Afshartous, David; Materson, Barry J; Rodco, Rolando; Alonso, Alberto B

    2014-08-01

    Several consistent lines of evidence indicate an association between sodium sensitivity and impaired nitric oxide bioactivity. Nevertheless, whether restoring nitric oxide in humans by pharmacological means can ameliorate sodium sensitivity has not been investigated. Because nebivolol has been demonstrated to increase nitric oxide bioactivity in both laboratory and clinical investigations, we hypothesized that nebivolol might ameliorate sodium sensitivity and improve renal sodium handling in comparison to metoprolol. We therefore conducted a randomized, 2-treatment-period crossover trial in 19 Hispanic postmenopausal women with hypertension to determine the comparative effects of nebivolol versus metoprolol on (1) 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure response to an increase in dietary sodium from 5 days of low sodium to 5 days of high sodium, (2) renal natriuretic response to a 1-L saline challenge, and (3) asymmetrical dimethylarginine. Clinic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly reduced after 4 weeks of treatment with both nebivolol and metoprolol. Twenty-four–hour mean systolic blood pressure increased sharply from low sodium to high sodium for both nebivolol and metoprolol. Nevertheless, the increases in blood pressure did not differ between the 2 drugs: 7.7 (3.1, 12.3) mm Hg with metoprolol and 9.3 (4.6, 13.9) mm Hg with nebivolol (P=0.63). Furthermore, we observed no differences between the drugs in natriuretic response to saline challenge or asymmetrical dimethylarginine. In a sodium-sensitive population, at doses sufficient to produce reductions in blood pressure and heart rate, nebivolol did not demonstrate a significant effect on sodium sensitivity or sodium handling compared with metoprolol. PMID:24842917

  7. [Determination of dimethylbenzoic acid isomers in urine by gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Kostrzewski, P; Wiaderna-Brycht, A; Czerski, B

    1994-01-01

    Trimethylobenzene (TMB) is a main ingredient of many organic solvents used in industry. In Farbasol (Polish trade name of the solvent) TMB occurs as a mixture of three isomers: pseudocumene (1, 2, 4-TMB) 30%; mesitylene (1, 3, 5-TMB) 15%; hemimellitene (1,2,3-TMB) 5%. As it is known in human organism, TMB is metabolized mainly to dimethylbenzoic (DMBA) and dimethylhippuric (DMHA) acids, and some authors suggest, that the acids excreted in urine can be biological indicators of exposure to TMB. This study was aimed at developing the method of determination of DMBA isomers in urine. Biological material was hydrolyzed with sodium hydroxide and next extracted with diethyl ether. DMBA concentration in urine was determined by gas chromatography using a variant of quantitative analysis with internal standard (5-methyl-2-isopropylphenol, thymol). Analytical parameters of the developed method of determination of DMBA isomers in urine such as linearity, precision, reproducibility, stability (192 days, when urine samples stored at-18 degrees C), detectability limit (400 micrograms/dm3) have been fully compatible with the requirements of biological monitoring. In order to confirm the presence of DMBA isomers in urine, four volunteers were exposed (8 hours) to Farbasol in toxicological chamber. The TMB concentration in the air, determined by means of gas chromatograph (HP 5890), amounted to 100 mg/m3 (MAC value in Poland). In urine samples collected 2,3-; 2,4-; 2,5-; 2,6-; 3,4-; 3,5-dimethylbenzoic acids were identified by means of GC/MSD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8170375

  8. The effect of low-sodium dialysate on ambulatory blood pressure measurement parameters in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Akdag, Serkan; Akyol, Aytac; Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Tosu, Aydin Rodi; Asker, Muntecep; Yaman, Mehmet; Babat, Naci; Soyoral, Yasemin; Cegin, Muhammed Bilal; Gur, Ali Kemal; Gumrukcuoglu, Hasan Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background End stage renal disease is related to increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disorder among hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-sodium dialysate on the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels detected by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) in patients undergoing sustained HD treatment. Patients and methods The study included 46 patients who had creatinine clearance levels less than 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 and had been on chronic HD treatment for at least 1 year. After the enrollment stage, the patients were allocated low-sodium dialysate or standard sodium dialysate for 6 months via computer-generated randomization. Results Twenty-four hour SBP, daytime SBP, nighttime SBP, and nighttime DBP were significantly decreased in the low-sodium dialysate group (P<0.05). No significant reduction was observed in both groups in terms of 24-hour DBP and daytime DBP (P=NS). No difference was found in the standard sodium dialysate group in terms of ABPM. Furthermore, IDWG was found to be significantly decreased in the low-sodium dialysate group after 6 months (P<0.001). Conclusion The study revealed that low-sodium dialysate leads to a decrease in ABPM parameters including 24-hour SBP, daytime SBP, nighttime SBP, and nighttime DBP and it also reduces the number of antihypertensive drugs used and IDWG. PMID:26715849

  9. The Use of Chlorhexidine/n-Propyl Gallate (CPG) as an Ambient-Temperature Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nillen, Jeannie L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2003-01-01

    A safe, effective ambient temperature urine preservative, chlorhexidine/n-propyl gallate (CPG), has been formulated for use during spacefli ght that reduces the effects of oxidation and bacterial contamination on sample integrity while maintaining urine pH. The ability of this preservative to maintain stability of nine key analytes was evaluated for a period of one year. CPG effectively maintained stability of a mmonia, total nitrogen, 3-methylhistidine, chloride, sodium, potassiu m, and urea; however, creatinine and osmolality were not preserved by CPG. These data indicate that CPG offers prolonged room-temperature storage for multiple urine analytes, reducing the requirements for f rozen urine storage on future spaceflights. Iii medical applications on Earth, this technology can allow urine samples to be collected in remote settings and eliminate the need to ship frozen samples.

  10. Permeation profiles of potential urine-borne biomarkers of human presence over brick and concrete.

    PubMed

    Mochalski, Paweł; Agapiou, Agapios; Statheropoulos, Milt; Amann, Anton

    2012-07-21

    Headspace solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) analysis was performed over an in-house made filling chamber loaded with brick or concrete, mimicking a potential entrapment scene of building collapse following natural or man-made disasters. Permeation profiles of 22 volatile species, released by human urine samples, were quantitatively monitored over the selected debris materials for a time period of 24 hours (LODs ranged from 0.05-0.8 ppb, R(2) varied from 0.991-0.999 and RSDs 3-9%). Ketones were the most abundant constituents of urine vapor with eleven representatives followed by five aldehydes, two furans, two sulphur-containing compounds, one nitrile and one heterocyclic compound. The majority of the detected compounds were found below 10 ppb, with the exception of some ketones including acetone, 2-butanone and 2-pentanone. The influence of debris materials on the permeation profiles of analytes under study depended on their fundamental physicochemical properties. Less volatile and more soluble compounds in urine (ketones and aldehydes) were found to be present for longer time periods in the surroundings of the urine samples than the more volatile and poorly soluble ones (furans, sulphur-containing compounds). More specifically, ketones exhibited longer residence times in the filling chamber and strongly interacted with the debris materials as their molecular masses were increased; their profiles were found to be significantly modified in the presence of concrete. In general, concrete demonstrated a stronger interaction with urine species than brick, affecting the observed concentrations and residence times of released volatiles in the chamber. PMID:22662321

  11. Permeation profiles of potential urine-borne biomarkers of human presence over brick and concrete.

    PubMed

    Mochalski, Paweł; Agapiou, Agapios; Statheropoulos, Milt; Amann, Anton

    2012-07-21

    Headspace solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) analysis was performed over an in-house made filling chamber loaded with brick or concrete, mimicking a potential entrapment scene of building collapse following natural or man-made disasters. Permeation profiles of 22 volatile species, released by human urine samples, were quantitatively monitored over the selected debris materials for a time period of 24 hours (LODs ranged from 0.05-0.8 ppb, R(2) varied from 0.991-0.999 and RSDs 3-9%). Ketones were the most abundant constituents of urine vapor with eleven representatives followed by five aldehydes, two furans, two sulphur-containing compounds, one nitrile and one heterocyclic compound. The majority of the detected compounds were found below 10 ppb, with the exception of some ketones including acetone, 2-butanone and 2-pentanone. The influence of debris materials on the permeation profiles of analytes under study depended on their fundamental physicochemical properties. Less volatile and more soluble compounds in urine (ketones and aldehydes) were found to be present for longer time periods in the surroundings of the urine samples than the more volatile and poorly soluble ones (furans, sulphur-containing compounds). More specifically, ketones exhibited longer residence times in the filling chamber and strongly interacted with the debris materials as their molecular masses were increased; their profiles were found to be significantly modified in the presence of concrete. In general, concrete demonstrated a stronger interaction with urine species than brick, affecting the observed concentrations and residence times of released volatiles in the chamber.

  12. Rapid Changes in the Sodium Atmosphere of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.; Morgan, T. H.

    1998-09-01

    We imaged Mercury in sodium D1 and D2 emission for six days during the period November 13-20, 1997 using a 10x10 arcsec aperture image slicer coupled to a high-resolution spectrograph. During the period of observation, large daily changes took place in both the total amount of sodium and its distribution over the planet. In 24 hours, from November 13 to November 14, the total amount of sodium on Mercury doubled. By November 20, the total sodium amount had tripled relative to that of November 13. We corrected the sodium images for atmospheric smearing by computing the actual seeing function from surface reflection images, and using this function to correct the sodium images. The resulting images showed sodium emission to be brightest at longitudes near the subsolar longitude at about 140 degrees. There are no obviously outstanding geologic features at this longitude. On November 15, sodium was excess at southern latitudes. On November 16, the excess moved to northern latitudes, and then changed back to southern latitudes by November 18. In order to explain the large and rapid changes in the amount of sodium, and the shift of excess sodium from southern latitudes to northern latitudes, and back again, we suggest that sodium is released from the surface by magnetospheric processes, perhaps initiated by CME events that expose the planet's surface to solar particles (Luhmann, et al., 1998). CME activity was high during this period of observation. References: Luhmann, et al. (1998), Disturbances in Mercury's magnetosphere: Are the Mariner 10 `substorms' simply driven?, JGR 103 9113

  13. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    PubMed

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively.

  14. Sodium Excretion and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katherine T.; Chen, Jing; Yang, Wei; Appel, Lawrence J.; Kusek, John W.; Alper, Arnold; Delafontaine, Patrice; Keane, Martin G.; Mohler, Emile; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Ricardo, Ana C.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Steigerwalt, Susan; Townsend, Raymond; He, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. Prior studies have produced contradictory results on the association of dietary sodium intake with risk of CVD, and this relationship has not been investigated in patients with CKD. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between urinary sodium excretion and clinical CVD events among patients with CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study of patients with CKD from 7 locations in the United States enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study and followed up from May 2003 to March 2013. EXPOSURES The cumulative mean of urinary sodium excretion from three 24-hour urinary measurements and calibrated to sex-specific mean 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES A composite of CVD events defined as congestive heart failure, stroke, ormyocardial infarction. Events were reported every 6 months and confirmed by medical record adjudication. RESULTS Among 3757 participants (mean age, 58 years; 45% women), 804 composite CVD events (575 heart failure, 305 myocardial infarction, and 148 stroke) occurred during a median 6.8 years of follow-up. From lowest (<2894 mg/24 hours) to highest (≥4548 mg/24 hours) quartile of calibrated sodium excretion, 174, 159, 198, and 273 composite CVD events occurred, and the cumulative incidence was 18.4%, 16.5%, 20.6%, and 29.8% at median follow-up. In addition, the cumulative incidence of CVD events in the highest quartile of calibrated sodium excretion compared with the lowest was 23.2% vs 13.3% for heart failure, 10.9% vs 7.8% for myocardial infarction, and 6.4% vs 2.7% for stroke at median follow-up. Hazard ratios of the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.09–1.70; P = .007) for composite CVD events, 1.34 (95% CI, 1.03–1.74; P = .03) for heart failure, and 1.81 (95% CI, 1.08–3.02; P = .02) for

  15. Sodium Oxybate

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and last for a ... of your body that you cannot control, sweating, muscle cramps, and fast heartbeat.Sodium oxybate may help ...

  16. Treating urine by Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

    In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

  17. Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

  18. Identification of Putative Natriuretic Hormones Isolated from Human Urine.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Herbert J

    2015-01-01

    This brief review describes some representative methodological approaches to the isolation of putative endogenous inhibitors of epithelial sodium transport - i.e., as ouabain-like factors (OLF) that inhibit the sodium transport enzyme Na-K-ATPase or inhibit the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Gel chromatography and reverse-phase (RP)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of lyophilized and reconstituted 24 h-urine from salt-loaded healthy humans led to two active fractions, a hydrophilic OLF-1 and a lipophilic OLF-2, whose mass (Ms)-spectroscopic data indicate a Mr of 391 (1, 2). Further identification was attempted by Ms-, infrared (IR)-, ultraviolet (UV)-, and (1)H-NMR-spectroscopy. OLF-1 and OLF-2 may be closely related if not identical to (di)ascorbic acid or its salts such as vanadium (V)-V(v)-diascorbate with Mr 403 (3) and V(IV)-diascorbate. OLF-1 and V(v)-diascorbate are about 10-fold stronger inhibitors of Na-K-ATPase than OLF-2 and V(IV)-diascorbate, respectively. In conscious rats, i.v. infusion of OLF-1 and OLF-2 resulted in a strong natriuresis. In a similar study, Cain et al. (4) isolated a sodium transport inhibitor from the urine of uremic patients by gel chromatography and RP-HPLC. In uremic rats, a natriuretic response to the injection of the active material was found. Xanthurenic acid 8-O-β-d-glucoside (Mr 368) and xanthurenic acid 8-O-sulfate (Mr 284) were identified as endogenous inhibitors of sodium transport acting, e.g., by ENaC blockade. No definite relation to blood pressure, body fluid volume, or sodium balance has been reported for any of these above factors, and further studies to identify the natriuretic and/or ouabain-like compound(s) or hormone(s) will be needed. PMID:26052310

  19. A urine volume measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

  20. Uncertainties of Mayak urine data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Guthrie; Vostrotin, Vadim; Vvdensky, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    For internal dose calculations for the Mayak worker epidemiological study, quantitative estimates of uncertainty of the urine measurements are necessary. Some of the data consist of measurements of 24h urine excretion on successive days (e.g. 3 or 4 days). In a recent publication, dose calculations were done where the uncertainty of the urine measurements was estimated starting from the statistical standard deviation of these replicate mesurements. This approach is straightforward and accurate when the number of replicate measurements is large, however, a Monte Carlo study showed it to be problematic for the actual number of replicate measurements (median from 3 to 4). Also, it is sometimes important to characterize the uncertainty of a single urine measurement. Therefore this alternate method has been developed. A method of parameterizing the uncertainty of Mayak urine bioassay measmements is described. The Poisson lognormal model is assumed and data from 63 cases (1099 urine measurements in all) are used to empirically determine the lognormal normalization uncertainty, given the measurement uncertainties obtained from count quantities. The natural logarithm of the geometric standard deviation of the normalization uncertainty is found to be in the range 0.31 to 0.35 including a measurement component estimated to be 0.2.

  1. Daytime lidar measurements of tidal winds in the mesospheric sodium layer at Urbana, Illinois

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, K. H.; Senft, D. C.; Gardner, C. S.; Voelz, D. G.; Sechrist, C. F., Jr.; Roesler, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    For more than 15 years lidar systems have been used to study the chemistry and dynamics of the mesospheric sodium layer. Because the layer is an excellent tracer of atmospheric wave motions, sodium lidar has proven to be particularly useful for studying the influence of gravity waves and tides on mesospheric dynamics. These waves, which originate in the troposphere and stratosphere, propagate through the mesosphere and dissipate their energy near the mesopause making important contributions to the momentum and turbulence budget in this region of the atmosphere. Recently, the sodium lidar was modified for daytime operation so that wave phenomena and chemical effects could be monitored throughout the complete diurnal cycle. The results of continuous 24 hour lidar observations of the sodium layer structure are presented alond with measurement of the semidiurnal tidal winds.

  2. Impaired Urine Dilution Capability in HIV Stable Patients

    PubMed Central

    Belloso, Waldo H.; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Navarro, Matilde; Sanchez, Marisa L.; Perelsztein, Ariel G.; Musso, Carlos G.

    2014-01-01

    Renal disease is a well-recognized complication among patients with HIV infection. Viral infection itself and the use of some antiretroviral drugs contribute to this condition. The thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH) is the tubule segment where free water clearance is generated, determining along with glomerular filtration rate the kidney's ability to dilute urine. Objective. We analyzed the function of the proximal tubule and TALH in patients with HIV infection receiving or not tenofovir-containing antiretroviral treatment in comparison with healthy seronegative controls, by applying a tubular physiological test, hyposaline infusion test (Chaimowitz' test). Material & Methods. Chaimowitz' test was performed on 20 HIV positive volunteers who had normal renal functional parameters. The control group included 10 healthy volunteers. Results. After the test, both HIV groups had a significant reduction of serum sodium and osmolarity compared with the control group. Free water clearance was lower and urine osmolarity was higher in both HIV+ groups. Proximal tubular function was normal in both studied groups. Conclusion. The present study documented that proximal tubule sodium reabsorption was preserved while free water clearance and maximal urine dilution capability were reduced in stable HIV patients treated or not with tenofovir. PMID:24800076

  3. Relative density of urine: methods and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Pradella, M; Dorizzi, R M; Rigolin, F

    1988-01-01

    The physical properties and chemical composition of urine are highly variable and are determined in large measure by the quantity and the type of food consumed. The specific gravity is the ratio of the density to that of water, and it is dependent on the number and weight of solute particles and on the temperature of the sample. The weight of solute particles is constituted mainly of urea (73%), chloride (5.4%), sodium (5.1%), potassium (2.4%), phosphate (2.0%), uric acid (1.7%), and sulfate (1.3%). Nevertheless, urine osmolality depends only on the number of solute particles. The renal production of maximally concentrated urine and formation of dilute urine may be reduced to two basic elements: (1) generation and maintenance of a renal medullary solute concentration hypertonic to plasma and (2) a mechanism for osmotic equilibration between the inner medulla and the collecting duct fluid. The interaction of the renal medullary countercurrent system, circulating levels of antidiuretic hormone, and thirst regulates water metabolism. Renin, aldosterone, prostaglandins, and kinins also play a role. Clinical estimation of the concentrating and diluting capacity can be performed by relatively simple provocative tests. However, urinary specific gravity after taking no fluids for 12 h overnight should be 1.025 or more, so that the second urine in the morning is a useful sample for screening purposes. Many preservation procedures affect specific gravity measurements. The concentration of solids (or water) in urine can be measured by weighing, hydrometer, refractometry, surface tension, osmolality, a reagent strip, or oscillations of a capillary tube. These measurements are interrelated, not identical. Urinary density measurement is useful to assess the disorders of water balance and to discriminate between prerenal azotemia and acute tubular necrosis. The water balance regulates the serum sodium concentration, therefore disorders are revealed by hypo- and hypernatremia. The

  4. Relative density of urine: methods and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Pradella, M; Dorizzi, R M; Rigolin, F

    1988-01-01

    The physical properties and chemical composition of urine are highly variable and are determined in large measure by the quantity and the type of food consumed. The specific gravity is the ratio of the density to that of water, and it is dependent on the number and weight of solute particles and on the temperature of the sample. The weight of solute particles is constituted mainly of urea (73%), chloride (5.4%), sodium (5.1%), potassium (2.4%), phosphate (2.0%), uric acid (1.7%), and sulfate (1.3%). Nevertheless, urine osmolality depends only on the number of solute particles. The renal production of maximally concentrated urine and formation of dilute urine may be reduced to two basic elements: (1) generation and maintenance of a renal medullary solute concentration hypertonic to plasma and (2) a mechanism for osmotic equilibration between the inner medulla and the collecting duct fluid. The interaction of the renal medullary countercurrent system, circulating levels of antidiuretic hormone, and thirst regulates water metabolism. Renin, aldosterone, prostaglandins, and kinins also play a role. Clinical estimation of the concentrating and diluting capacity can be performed by relatively simple provocative tests. However, urinary specific gravity after taking no fluids for 12 h overnight should be 1.025 or more, so that the second urine in the morning is a useful sample for screening purposes. Many preservation procedures affect specific gravity measurements. The concentration of solids (or water) in urine can be measured by weighing, hydrometer, refractometry, surface tension, osmolality, a reagent strip, or oscillations of a capillary tube. These measurements are interrelated, not identical. Urinary density measurement is useful to assess the disorders of water balance and to discriminate between prerenal azotemia and acute tubular necrosis. The water balance regulates the serum sodium concentration, therefore disorders are revealed by hypo- and hypernatremia. The

  5. To Bind or to Let Loose: Effectiveness of Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate in Decreasing Serum Potassium

    PubMed Central

    Sandal, Shaifali; Karachiwala, Hatim; Noviasky, John; Wang, Dongliang; Elliott, William C.; Lehmann, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in decreasing serum potassium has recently been questioned due to the lack of documented effectiveness. Methods. A retrospective cohort analysis of all hospitalized patients who received sodium polystyrene sulfonate over four months was performed. The change in serum potassium was noted over a period of 24 hours. Patients who received any other form of potassium-altering drug or treatment were excluded. Results. The administration of sodium polystyrene sulfonate reduced serum potassium by 16.7% (P < 0.001) as compared to the baseline serum potassium over a period of 24 hours. During this same time, no change in serum creatinine was identified (P = 0.73). In addition, there was no correlation between potassium and creatinine change (r2 = 0.0004 and P = 0.99). Patients with higher initial serum potassium (≥5.6 mEq/L) reduced their potassium concentration 4% more than those with initial serum potassium of <5.6 mEq/L; however, this reduction did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.32). There was no significant difference in the effectiveness of 15 gm and 30 gm resin preparation (P = 0.54). Thirteen deaths were noted in our cohort, of which one death was due to ischemic colitis. Conclusion. We conclude that sodium polystyrene sulfonate is effective in lowering serum potassium. PMID:23476770

  6. Determination of urine ionic composition with potentiometric multisensor system.

    PubMed

    Yaroshenko, Irina; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Lyudmila; Sidorova, Alla; Borisova, Irina; Legin, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    The ionic composition of urine is a good indicator of patient's general condition and allows for diagnostics of certain medical problems such as e.g., urolithiasis. Due to environmental factors and malnutrition the number of registered urinary tract cases continuously increases. Most of the methods currently used for urine analysis are expensive, quite laborious and require skilled personnel. The present work deals with feasibility study of potentiometric multisensor system of 18 ion-selective and cross-sensitive sensors as an analytical tool for determination of urine ionic composition. In total 136 samples from patients of Urolithiasis Laboratory and healthy people were analyzed by the multisensor system as well as by capillary electrophoresis as a reference method. Various chemometric approaches were implemented to relate the data from electrochemical measurements with the reference data. Logistic regression (LR) was applied for classification of samples into healthy and unhealthy producing reasonable misclassification rates. Projection on Latent Structures (PLS) regression was applied for quantitative analysis of ionic composition from potentiometric data. Mean relative errors of simultaneous prediction of sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, urate and creatinine from multisensor system response were in the range 3-13% for independent test sets. This shows a good promise for development of a fast and inexpensive alternative method for urine analysis. PMID:25281140

  7. Rethinking the Youth Weight Debate: The 24 Hour Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Graham; Biggs, Sarah; Agley, Daniel; Dollman, James; Lushington, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Approaches to weight management have traditionally focussed on caloric intake versus caloric expenditure. Despite a range of interventions based on these approaches, the proportion of overweight children and adolescents continues to rise. There are increasing indications that other factors, such as sleep duration, may be at play. This commentary…

  8. Sun Blasts 6 CMEs in 24 Hour Period

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie from the chronograph on board the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), shows the sun's atmosphere – the corona – from September 17 to September 20. The sun let loose with at ...

  9. Boerhaave's syndrome: Experience with patients presenting later than 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Amit; Porwal, Manish; Khandeparkar, Jagdish

    2015-01-01

    Boerhaave's syndrome is the most sinister cause of esophageal perforation. Clinical presentation is vague. Diagnostic delays are frequent. As condition is rare therefore no consensus exists on management. A wide variety of management options are described in literature, each with its advantages and disadvantages. We present our experience of managing these cases which presented after 24 hr. Of onset of symptoms with emphasis on primary reinforced repair as first line surgical option. PMID:27522739

  10. Attenuated sympathetic nerve responses after 24 hours of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Mazhar H.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Leuenberger, Urs A.; Davidson, William R Jr; Ray, Chester A.; Gray, Kristen S.; Hogeman, Cynthia S.; Sinoway, Lawrence I.

    2002-01-01

    Bed rest reduces orthostatic tolerance. Despite decades of study, the cause of this phenomenon remains unclear. In this report we examined hemodynamic and sympathetic nerve responses to graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) before and after 24 h of bed rest. LBNP allows for baroreceptor disengagement in a graded fashion. We measured heart rate (HR), cardiac output (HR x stroke volume obtained by echo Doppler), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during a progressive and graded LBNP paradigm. Negative pressure was increased by 10 mmHg every 3 min until presyncope or completion of -60 mmHg. After bed rest, LBNP tolerance was reduced in 11 of 13 subjects (P <.023), HR was greater (P <.002), cardiac output was unchanged, and the ability to augment MSNA at high levels of LBNP was reduced (rate of rise for 30- to 60-mmHg LBNP before bed rest 0.073 bursts x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); after bed rest 0.035 bursts x min(-1) x mmHg(-1); P < 0.016). These findings suggest that 24 h of bed rest reduces sympathetic nerve responses to LBNP.

  11. A 24-hour remote surveillance system for terrestrial wildlife studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W.; Ryman, W.E.; Kepler, C.B.; Hardy, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The configuration, components, specifications and costs of a state-of-the-art closed-circuit television system with wide application for wildlife research and management are described. The principal system components consist of color CCTV camera with zoom lens, pan/tilt system, infrared illuminator, heavy duty tripod, coaxial cable, coaxitron system, half-duplex equalizing video/control amplifier, timelapse video cassette recorder, color video monitor, VHS video cassettes, portable generator, fuel tank and power cable. This system was developed and used in a study of Mississippi sandhiIl Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) behaviors during incubation, hatching and fledging. The main advantages of the system are minimal downtime where a complete record of every event, its time of occurrence and duration, are permanently recorded and can be replayed as many times as necessary thereafter to retrieve the data. The system is particularly applicable for studies of behavior and predation, for counting individuals, or recording difficult to observe activities. The system can be run continuously for several weeks by two people, reducing personnel costs. This paper is intended to provide biologists who have litte knowledge of electronics with a system that might be useful to their specific needs. The disadvantages of this system are the initial costs (about $9800 basic, 1990-1991 U.S. dollars) and the time required to playback video cassette tapes for data retrieval, but the playback can be sped up when litte or no activity of interest is taking place. In our study, the positive aspects of the system far outweighed the negative.

  12. Decreased 24-hour urinary MHPG in childhood autism.

    PubMed

    Young, J G; Cohen, D J; Caparulo, B K; Brown, S L; Maas, J W

    1979-08-01

    The authors compared a group of boys with childhood autism and a group of normal boys of similar age and found a decrease in urinary 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenethylene glycol (MHPG) in the autistic group. They hypothesize that autistic children might have an alteration in central and peripheral noradrenergic function, which might be related to impaired regulation of attention, arousal, and anxiety.

  13. Inaccuracy of Self-reported Low Sodium Diet among Chinese: Findings from Baseline Survey for Shandong & Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) Project.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Guo, Xiao Lei; Seo, Dong Chul; Xu, Ai Qiang; Xun, Peng Cheng; Ma, Ji Xiang; Shi, Xiao Ming; Li, Nicole; Yan, Liu Xia; Li, Yuan; Lu, Zi Long; Zhang, Ji Yu; Tang, Jun Li; Ren, Jie; Zhao, Wen Hua; Liang, Xiao Feng

    2015-02-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the agreement between the self-reported sodium intake level and 24-h urine sodium excretion level in Chinese. The 24-h urine collection was conducted among 2112 adults aged 18-69 years randomly selected in Shandong Province, China. The subjects were asked whether their sodium intake was low, moderate, or high. The weighted kappa statistics was calculated to assess the agreement between 24-h urine sodium excretion level and self-reported sodium intake level. One third of the subjects reported low sodium intake level. About 70% of the subjects had mean 24-h sodium excretion>9 g/d, but reported low or moderate sodium intake. The agreement between self-reported sodium intake level and 24-h urine sodium excretion level was low in both normotensive subjects and hypertensive subjects. These findings suggested that many subjects who reported low sodium intake had actual urine sodium excretion>9 g/d. Sodium intake is often underestimated in both hypertensive and normotensive participants in China.

  14. Inaccuracy of Self-reported Low Sodium Diet among Chinese: Findings from Baseline Survey for Shandong & Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) Project.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Guo, Xiao Lei; Seo, Dong Chul; Xu, Ai Qiang; Xun, Peng Cheng; Ma, Ji Xiang; Shi, Xiao Ming; Li, Nicole; Yan, Liu Xia; Li, Yuan; Lu, Zi Long; Zhang, Ji Yu; Tang, Jun Li; Ren, Jie; Zhao, Wen Hua; Liang, Xiao Feng

    2015-02-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the agreement between the self-reported sodium intake level and 24-h urine sodium excretion level in Chinese. The 24-h urine collection was conducted among 2112 adults aged 18-69 years randomly selected in Shandong Province, China. The subjects were asked whether their sodium intake was low, moderate, or high. The weighted kappa statistics was calculated to assess the agreement between 24-h urine sodium excretion level and self-reported sodium intake level. One third of the subjects reported low sodium intake level. About 70% of the subjects had mean 24-h sodium excretion>9 g/d, but reported low or moderate sodium intake. The agreement between self-reported sodium intake level and 24-h urine sodium excretion level was low in both normotensive subjects and hypertensive subjects. These findings suggested that many subjects who reported low sodium intake had actual urine sodium excretion>9 g/d. Sodium intake is often underestimated in both hypertensive and normotensive participants in China. PMID:25716570

  15. The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur

    2010-12-01

    The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236±0.677 kBq/L and 1.704±0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO4 addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 μSv/year and 0.532 μSv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 μSv/year.

  16. The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur

    2010-12-23

    The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236{+-}0.677 kBq/L and 1.704{+-}0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO{sub 4} addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 {mu}Sv/year and 0.532 {mu}Sv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 {mu}Sv/year.

  17. Creating a urine black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Randy; Pan, Zhao; Meritt, Andrew; Belden, Jesse; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    Since the mid-nineteenth century, both enlisted and fashion-conscious owners of khaki trousers have been plagued by undesired speckle patterns resulting from splash-back while urinating. In recent years, industrial designers and hygiene-driven entrepreneurs have sought to limit this splashing by creating urinal inserts, with the effectiveness of their inventions varying drastically. From this large assortment of inserts, designs consisting of macroscopic pillar arrays seem to be the most effective splash suppressers. Interestingly this design partially mimics the geometry of the water capturing moss Syntrichia caninervis, which exhibits a notable ability to suppress splash and quickly absorb water from impacting rain droplets. With this natural splash suppressor in mind, we search for the ideal urine black hole by performing experiments of simulated urine streams (water droplet streams) impacting macroscopic pillar arrays with varying parameters including pillar height and spacing, draining and material properties. We propose improved urinal insert designs based on our experimental data in hopes of reducing potential embarrassment inherent in wearing khakis.

  18. Solar thermal evaporation of human urine for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Samantha; Nguyen, Phong Thanh; Arnold, Ute; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    A No Mix sanitation system was installed in a dormitory at the University of Can Tho in Vietnam, with the objective of recycling nutrients from source separated urine. This paper presents a pilot scale evaporation technology, and investigates the feasibility of recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from human urine by solar still for use as fertilizer. After 26 days of sun exposure, 360 g of solid fertilizer material was recovered from 50 L undiluted urine. This urine-derived fertilizer was mainly composed of sodium chloride, and had phosphorus and nitrogen contents of almost 2%. When tested with maize and ryegrass, the urine fertilizer led to biomass yields and phosphorus and nitrogen uptakes comparable to those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Urine acidification with sulfuric or phosphoric acid prior treatment reduced nitrogen losses, improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers, and induced higher biomass yields and nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes than the commercial mineral fertilizer. However, acidification is not recommended in developing countries due to additional costs and handling risks. The fate of micropollutants and the possibility of separating sodium chloride from other beneficial nutrients require further investigation. PMID:22172663

  19. Reproducibility of blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions: the GenSalt study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dongfeng; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Jing; Chen, Ji-Chun; Huang, Jianfeng; Bazzano, Lydia A; Lu, Fanghong; Mu, Jianjun; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Mills, Katherine; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Rice, Treva; Hamm, L Lee; He, Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions vary among individuals. We studied the long-term reproducibility of blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium intake. We repeated the dietary sodium and potassium interventions among 487 Chinese adults 4.5 years after the original dietary intervention. The identical dietary intervention protocol, which included a 7-day low-sodium feeding (51.3 mmol/d), a 7-day high-sodium feeding (307.8 mmol/d), and a 7-day high-sodium feeding with oral potassium supplementation (60.0 mmol/d), was applied in both the initial and repeated studies. Three blood pressure measurements were obtained during each of the 3 days of baseline observation and on days 5, 6, and 7 of each intervention period. The results from the 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium showed excellent compliance with the study diet. Blood pressure responses to dietary intervention in the original and repeated studies were highly correlated. For example, the correlation coefficients (95% confidence interval) for systolic blood pressure levels were 0.77 (0.73-0.80) at baseline, 0.79 (0.75-0.82) during low sodium, 0.80 (0.77-0.83) during high sodium, and 0.82 (0.79-0.85) during high sodium and potassium supplementation interventions (all P<0.0001). The correlation coefficients for systolic blood pressure changes were 0.37 (0.29-0.44) from baseline to low sodium, 0.37 (0.29-0.44) from low to high sodium, and 0.28 (0.20-0.36) from high sodium to high sodium plus potassium supplementation (all P<0.0001). These data indicate that blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions have long-term reproducibility and stable characteristics in the general population.

  20. The impact of fertilization on the chicken egg yolk plasma and granule proteome 24 hours post-lay at room temperature: capitalizing on high-pH/low-pH reverse phase chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass tag (TMT) technology.

    PubMed

    Padliya, Neerav D; Qian, Meiqian; Mimi Roy, Sushmita; Chu, Patrick; Zheng, Haiyan; Tess, Alex; Dariani, Maghsoud; Hariri, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Chicken egg yolk is a rich source of nutrients providing high quality proteins, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids and antioxidants. Chicken egg yolk, recovered from whole egg within 24 hours post-lay has been utilized as a starting material in the preparation of a dietary supplement that has been demonstrated to lead to gains in muscle mass in a human clinical study. Further, an oil derived from chicken egg yolk has been utilized as a topical agent to treat third degree burn injury. The molecular changes that take place in fertilized, chicken egg yolk during the first 24 hours post-lay are not well understood. By studying how the protein composition of egg yolk varies with fertility status, one can utilize this knowledge to develop egg yolk-based products that have been optimized for specific applications. In this study, a direct quantitative comparison was made between the proteome of fertilized chicken egg yolk and the proteome of unfertilized chicken egg yolk, both maintained at 20 °C and analyzed within 24 hours post-lay. Egg yolk proteins from each fertility state were digested with trypsin, labeled with distinct chemical labels (tandem mass tag reagents) and then combined in a 1 : 1 ratio. A TMT-labeled tryptic digest derived from chicken egg yolk proteins (fertilized and unfertilized) was separated using high-pH/low-pH reverse-phase chromatography and analyzed using mass spectrometry. 225 protein identifications were made from this TMT-labeled tryptic digest based on a minimum of 2 unique peptides observed per protein. 9 proteins increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk and 9 proteins decreased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk relative to unfertilized egg yolk. Some proteins that increased in abundance in fertilized egg yolk play an important role in angiogenesis (pleiotrophin, histidine rich glycoprotein) and defense against pathogens (mannose-binding lectin, β-defensin 11, serum amyloid P-component, ovostatin

  1. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  2. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  3. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  4. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  5. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  6. Relationship Between the Urine Flow Rate and Risk of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy After Emergent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Lin, Lixia; Li, Yun; Li, Hualong; Wu, Deng-Xuan; Zhao, Jian-bin; Lian, Dan; Zhou, Yingling; Liu, Yuanhui; Ye, Piao; Ran, Peng; Duan, Chongyang; Chen, Shiqun; Chen, Pingyan; Xian, Ying; Chen, Jiyan; Tan, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A low urine flow rate is a marker of acute kidney injury. However, it is unclear whether a high urine flow rate is associated with a reduced risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in high-risk patients. We conducted this study to evaluate the predictive value of the urine flow rate for the risk of CIN following emergent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We prospectively examined 308 patients undergoing emergent PCI who provided consent. The predictive value of the 24-hour postprocedural urine flow rate, adjusted by weight (UR/W, mL/kg/h) and divided into quartiles, for the risk of CIN was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The cumulative incidence of CIN was 24.4%. In particular, CIN was observed in 29.5%, 19.5%, 16.7%, and 32.0% of cases in the UR/W quartile (Q)-1 (≤0.94 mL/kg/h), Q2 (0.94–1.30 mL/kg/h), Q3 (1.30–1.71 mL/kg/h), and Q4 (≥1.71 mL/kg/h), respectively. Moreover, in-hospital death was noted in 7.7%, 3.9%, 5.1%, and 5.3% of patients in Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounding predictors, multivariate analysis indicated that compared with the moderate urine flow rate quartiles (Q2 + Q3), a high urine flow rate (Q4) (odds ratio [OR], 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–5.68; P = 0.010) and low urine flow rate (Q1) (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.03–4.82; P = 0.041) were significantly associated with an increased risk of CIN. Moreover, a moderate urine flow rate (0.94–1.71 mL/kg/h) was significantly associated with a decreased risk of mortality. Our data suggest that higher and lower urine flow rates were significantly associated with an increased risk of CIN after emergent PCI, and a moderate urine flow rate (0.94–1.71 mL/kg/h) may be associated with a decreased risk of CIN with a good long-term prognosis after emergent PCI. PMID:26683946

  7. Human intoxication with paralytic shellfish toxins: clinical parameters and toxin analysis in plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos; Lagos, Marcelo; Truan, Dominique; Lattes, Karinna; Véjar, Omar; Chamorro, Beatriz; Iglesias, Verónica; Andrinolo, Darío; Lagos, Néstor

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the data recorded from four patients intoxicated with shellfish during the summer 2002, after consuming ribbed mussels (Aulacomya ater) with paralytic shellfish toxin contents of 8,066 +/- 61.37 microg/100 gr of tissue. Data associated with clinical variables and paralytic shellfish toxins analysis in plasma and urine of the intoxicated patients are shown. For this purpose, the evolution of respiratory frequency, arterial blood pressure and heart rate of the poisoned patients were followed and recorded. The clinical treatment to reach a clinically stable condition and return to normal physiological parameters was a combination of hydration with saline solution supplemented with Dobutamine (vasoactive drug), Furosemide (diuretic) and Ranitidine (inhibitor of acid secretion). The physiological condition of patients began to improve after four hours of clinical treatment, and a stable condition was reached between 12 to 24 hours. The HPLC-FLD analysis showed only the GTX3/GTX2 epimers in the blood and urine samples. Also, these epimers were the only paralytic shellfish toxins found in the shellfish extract sample. PMID:16238098

  8. Effects of guanabenz on sodium and water homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Braden, G; Alvis, R; Walker, B R; Cox, M

    1987-12-01

    Sodium retention may partially offset the therapeutic action of some antihypertensive agents. To assess the effects of guanabenz on sodium balance, six men with mild to moderate hypertension were placed on diets with constant sodium intake (120 mEq/day) for approximately 4 weeks. After achieving sodium balance, the subjects received guanabenz (16-24 mg daily) for approximately 2 weeks. Mean supine blood pressure decreased from 144/93 to 133/86 mmHg during guanabenz treatment (p less than 0.001). Guanabenz therapy was associated with a decrease in body weight (mean +/- SE) from 85.4 +/- 7.0 to 84.4 +/- 6.8 kg (p less than 0.01). Sodium balance, glomerular filtration rate, plasma renin activity, mean maximal urine osmolality, fluid intake, urine volume, and serum sodium concentration were unchanged during guanabenz therapy. Three additional balance studies were performed during a period of greater sodium intake (180 mEq/day). Although higher doses of guanabenz were required to achieve blood pressure control, sodium balance still was not affected by the drug. Thus, an effective therapeutic dose of guanabenz administered for 2 weeks had no clinically significant effects on sodium or water homeostasis in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. PMID:3453382

  9. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  10. Low Response of Renin–Angiotensin System to Sodium Intake Intervention in Chinese Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Weijing; Cai, Qingqing; Yuan, Woliang; Liu, Yu; Bardeesi, Adham Sameer A.; Wang, Jingfeng; Chen, Jie; Huang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The interactions of sodium balance and response of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system are important for maintaining the hemodynamic stability in physiological conditions. However, the influence of short-term sodium intake intervention in the response of renin–angiotensin system (RAS) on hypertensive patients is still unclear. Thus, we conducted a clinical trial to investigate the effects of short-term sodium intake intervention on the response of RAS in hypertensive patients. One hundred twenty-five primary Chinese hypertensive patients were divided into high, moderate, and low sodium groups by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (UNa+). All the patients received a 10-day dietary sodium intake intervention with standardized sodium (173.91mmol/day) and potassium (61.53mmol/day). Blood pressure, urinary sodium, urinary potassium, plasma sodium, potassium, creatinine, the levels of plasma renin activity, plasma angiotensin II concentrations (AT-II), and plasma aldosterone concentrations were detected before and after the intervention. Before the intervention, no differences were found in blood pressure and RAS among 3 groups. After standardized dietary sodium intake intervention, both UNa+ excretion and systolic pressure decreased in high-sodium group, while they increased in moderate and low-sodium groups. Intriguingly, there were no changes in the levels of plasma renin activity, AT-II, and plasma aldosterone concentrations among 3 groups during the intervention. The present study demonstrated that the influenced sodium excretion and blood pressure by short-term sodium intake intervention were independent of RAS quick response in Chinese hypertensive patients. PMID:26871780

  11. Chemical measurement of urine volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical method of measuring volume of urine samples using lithium chloride dilution technique, does not interfere with analysis, is faster, and more accurate than standard volumetric of specific gravity/weight techniques. Adaptation of procedure to urinalysis could prove generally practical for hospital mineral balance and catechoamine determinations.

  12. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  13. Urinary sodium excretion and ambulatory blood pressure findings in patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Afsar, Baris; Elsurer, Rengin; Kirkpantur, Alper; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2015-03-01

    Use of ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) allows for identification of dipping, nondipping, extreme dipping, and reverse dipping of BP. Using office BP and ABPM, hypertension subtypes can be identified: sustained normotension (SNT), white-coat hypertension, masked hypertension, and sustained hypertension. The comparison of hemodynamic parameters and salt intake has not been investigated among these patient groups. Office BP, ABPM, augmentation index (AIx), pulse wave velocity (PWV), cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were automatically measured. Estimation of salt intake was assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Urinary sodium excretion was not different among groups. AIx, PWV, CO, and TPR were lowest in patients with SNT. CO was lowest while AIx adjusted for a heart rate of 75 beats per minute, PWV, and TPR were highest in the extreme dipper group. No relationship was detected between hypertension subtypes and urinary sodium excretion.

  14. Variation of Lunar Sodium During Passage of the Moon through the Earth's Magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Andrew E.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Morgan, Thomas H.

    2000-01-01

    We measured sodium emission above the lunar equator over a range of lunar altitudes from 100 to 4000 km. The measurements were repeated approximately every 24 hours from June 7 to 16, 1998, covering the period during which the Moon passed through the Earth's magnetotail. Sodium temperatures derived from the altitude dependence of emission intensity ranged from 1200 to 2900 K. This result supports the view that photodesorption is a primary source of sodium in the exosphere since the most probable temperature of sodium form this source is in this range. Passage of the Moon through the Earth's magnetotail (where solar wind is essentially absent) affected the sodium density, such that it was higher before the Moon entered the Earth's magnetotail than after the Moon left it. This suggests that the solar wind plays a role in production of lunar sodium. We propose that its function is to mobilize sodium and bring it to the surface, where photodesorption can eject it into the exosphere. A two-step process such as this could help to explain the latitude dependence of sodium density, which varies as the second or higher power of cosine latitude.

  15. Detection of Zika Virus in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Gourinat, Ann-Claire; O’Connor, Olivia; Calvez, Elodie; Goarant, Cyrille

    2015-01-01

    We describe the kinetics of Zika virus (ZIKV) detection in serum and urine samples of 6 patients. Urine samples were positive for ZIKV >10 days after onset of disease, which was a notably longer period than for serum samples. This finding supports the conclusion that urine samples are useful for diagnosis of ZIKV infections. PMID:25530324

  16. Detection of Zika virus in urine.

    PubMed

    Gourinat, Ann-Claire; O'Connor, Olivia; Calvez, Elodie; Goarant, Cyrille; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle

    2015-01-01

    We describe the kinetics of Zika virus (ZIKV) detection in serum and urine samples of 6 patients. Urine samples were positive for ZIKV >10 days after onset of disease, which was a notably longer period than for serum samples. This finding supports the conclusion that urine samples are useful for diagnosis of ZIKV infections.

  17. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Urination Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... nurse if you have any of these changes: l A strong urge to urinate more often l Urine that is cloudy, or is a different ... such as orange, red, green, or dark yellow l Urine that has a strong smell l Trouble ...

  18. Pharmacodynamic Effects of Canagliflozin, a Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor, from a Randomized Study in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Sue; Devineni, Damayanthi; Ghosh, Atalanta; Polidori, David; Hompesch, Marcus; Arnolds, Sabine; Morrow, Linda; Spitzer, Heike; Demarest, Keith; Rothenberg, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending-dose study evaluated the pharmacodynamic effects and safety/tolerability of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients (N = 116) discontinued their antihyperglycemic medications 2 weeks before randomization. Patients received canagliflozin 30, 100, 200, or 400 mg once daily or 300 mg twice daily, or placebo at 2 study centers in the United States and Germany, or canagliflozin 30 mg once daily or placebo at 1 study center in Korea, while maintaining an isocaloric diet for 2 weeks. On Days –1, 1, and 16, urinary glucose excretion (UGE), plasma glucose (PG), fasting PG (FPG), and insulin were measured. The renal threshold for glucose (RTG) was calculated from UGE, PG, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Safety was evaluated based on adverse event (AE) reports, vital signs, electrocardiograms, clinical laboratory tests, and physical examinations. Results Canagliflozin increased UGE dose-dependently (∼80–120 g/day with canagliflozin ≥100 mg), with increases maintained over the 14-day dosing period with each dose. Canagliflozin dose-dependently decreased RTG, with maximal reductions to ∼4–5 mM (72–90 mg/dL). Canagliflozin also reduced FPG and 24-hour mean PG; glucose reductions were seen on Day 1 and maintained over 2 weeks. Plasma insulin reductions with canagliflozin were consistent with observed PG reductions. Canagliflozin also reduced body weight. AEs were transient, mild to moderate in intensity, and balanced across groups; 1 canagliflozin-treated female reported an episode of vaginal candidiasis. Canagliflozin did not cause hypoglycemia, consistent with the RTG values remaining above the hypoglycemia threshold. At Day 16, there were no clinically meaningful changes in urine volume, urine electrolyte excretion, renal function, or routine laboratory test values. Conclusions

  19. The effectiveness of BD Vacutainer® Plus Urinalysis Preservative Tubes in preservation of urine for chemical strip analysis and particle counting

    PubMed Central

    Ekşioğlu, Merve Kaymak; Madenci, Özlem Çakır; Yücel, Nihal; Elçi, Abdullah; Turhan, Bülent; Orhan, Gani; Orçun, Asuman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of urine collected in preservative tubes for chemistry strip analyses and particle counting to determine whether the transport of urine samples with all of their constituents is possible. Materials and methods 275 pathologic urine specimens were included. Each urine sample was evaluated after 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours of storage in BD Vacutainer® Plus Urinalysis Preservative (BD UAP) tubes and compared with refrigeration at 4 °C. All analyses were peformed on H-800 and FUS-200 automatic modular urine analyzers (Dirui Industry, Changchun, China). The kappa coefficients (κ), false positive (FP) and false negative (FN) rates were evaluated. κ > 0.8 was accepted as good agreement. Results Haemoglobin (Hb), leucocyte esterase (LE), and protein (Pro) analyses should be performed within 4 hours, whereas glucose (Glc) was stable until the end of 48 hours in both storage conditions. Nitrite (Nit) was well preserved in BD UAP tubes for 24 hours but was stable only up to 8 hours at 4 °C. Bilirubin (Bil) had very high FN rates even at 4 hours in both conditions. The particle counting showed high FN rates for white blood cells (WBC) and red blood cells (RBC), whereas squamous epithelial cells (EC) were stable up to 8 hours in both conditions. Conclusions Preanalytical requirements for both urine chemical strip analyses and particle counting in a unique sample were not met in either condition. Thus, the transfer of urine samples for centralization of urinalysis is not yet feasible. PMID:27346967

  20. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  1. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography of benzodiazepines in human urine.

    PubMed

    Schafroth, M; Thormann, W; Allemann, D

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the major urinary compounds of eight common benzodiazepines, flunitrazepam, diazepam, midazolam, clonazepam, bromazepam, temazepam, oxazepam, and lorazepam, by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) is shown to be a simple and attractive approach for confirmation testing of these drugs in human urine. After enzymatic hydrolysis and extraction using mixed-mode solid-phase cartridges and a two-step elution protocol, fractions were analyzed in a phosphate/borate buffer (pH 9.3) containing 75 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and small amounts of isopropanol, methanol and/or acetonitrile using an instrument with on- column multi-wavelength detection. The presence of these compounds could unambiguously be confirmed in patient urines which tested positive for benzodiazepines using a commercial enzyme multiplied immunoassay screening technique (EMIT). The sensitivity of the MECC assay is demonstrated to be better than that of EMIT. MECC analysis of one patient urine which tested negatively employing EMIT revealed the presence of lorazepam, this demonstrating that false-negative results from the initial immunological screening process can be recognized using MECC. For one example, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, the MECC data are shown to agree well with those obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  2. Urine markers of interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R

    2001-06-01

    This article describes the current state of the art with regard to urine markers of interstitial cystitis (IC), and describes the areas that need continuing research. Articles referenced in MEDLINE that describe urine alterations in IC were reviewed. Additional articles were identified by cross-referencing. The different marker alterations were tabulated. The relevant articles were discussed, considering different purposes for urine markers including: (1) diagnosing IC; (2) confirming a specific pathophysiology for IC; and (3) predicting or following response to a specific treatment. Currently, 2 markers (glycoprotein-51 and antiproliferative factor [APF]) clearly separate IC and control subjects, with minimal overlap. Markers that correlate with specific bladder biopsy features include 1,4-methylimidazole acetic acid and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), which correlate with mast cell density, and interleukin (IL)-6, which correlates with mononuclear inflammation. Markers that changed after treatment were as follows: (1) nitric oxide synthase and cyclic guanosine monophosphate increased with oral L-arginine; (2) ECP decreased with subcutaneous heparin; (3) prostaglandin E(2) and kallikrein decreased after bladder distention; (4) neutrophil chemotactic activity decreased after dimethyl sulfoxide; (5) IL-2 inhibitor decreased after oral nifedipine; (6) IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 decreased after bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine; and (7) APF and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor changed to or toward normal levels after bladder distention or sacral nerve stimulation. A larger number of urine alterations have been reported, and a few are being pursued further by correlating with bladder biopsy findings or treatment responses. Further research is needed.

  3. Preservation of urine samples for metabolic evaluation of stone-forming patients.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Renato Ribeiro Nogueira; Baxmann, Alessandra Calábria; Ferreira, Larissa Gorayb; Nishiura, José Luiz; Siliano, Priscila Reina; Gomes, Samirah Abreu; Moreira, Silvia Regina Silva; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2006-10-01

    Metabolic evaluation of stone-forming (SF) patients is based on the determination of calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid and other parameters in 24-h urine samples under a random diet. A reliable measurement of urinary oxalate requires the collection of urine in a receptacle containing acid preservative. However, urinary uric acid cannot be determined in the same sample under this condition. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the addition of preservatives (acid or alkali) after urine collection would not modify the results of those lithogenic parameters. Thirty-four healthy subjects (HS) were submitted to two non-consecutive collections of 24-h urine. The first sample was collected in a receptacle containing hydrochloric acid (HCl 6 N) and the second in a dry plastic container, with HCl being added as soon as the urine sample was received at the laboratory. Additionally, 34 HS and 34 SF patients collected a spot urine sample that was divided into four aliquots, one containing HCl, another containing sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3 )5 g/l), and two others in which these two preservative agents were added 24 h later. Urinary oxalate, calcium, magnesium, citrate, creatinine and uric acid were determined. Urinary parameters were also evaluated in the presence of calcium oxalate or uric acid crystals. Mean values of all urinary parameters obtained from previously acidified 24-h urine samples did not differ from those where acid was added after urine collection. The same was true for spot urine samples, with the exception of urinary citrate that presented a slight albeit significant change of 5.9% between samples in HS and 3.1% in SF. Uric acid was also not different between pre- and post-alkalinized spot urine samples. The presence of crystals did not alter these results. We concluded that post-delivery acidification or alkalinization of urine samples does not modify the measured levels of urinary oxalate, calcium, magnesium, creatinine and uric acid, and that the

  4. Antimicrobial activity of tetraacetylethylenediamine-sodium perborate versus sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Shakouie, Sahar; Salem Milani, Amin; Eskandarnejad, Mahsa; Rahimi, Saeed; Froughreyhani, Mohammad; Galedar, Saeede; Ranjbar, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Tetraacetylethylenediamine-sodium perborate (TAED-SP) in comparison to 2.5% and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis. Methods. A standard suspension of E. faecalis was inoculated on 60 plates containing Mueller-Hinton agar culture medium. Four sterile disks of Beckman filtration paper were placed on each plate. TAED-SP, 5% and 2.5% NaOCl were placed on three disks. Sterile physiologic saline was placed on the fourth disk as negative control. After 24-hour incubation, the diameter of the inhibition zone around the disks was measured using a transparent ruler. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the mean zone of microbial growth in the groups. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. There was a significant difference in the diameter of the inhibition zones between groups (P < 0.05). The Tukey post hoc test showed a higher diameter of the inhibitory zone with TAED-SP than that of 2.5% NaOCl. However, there were no significant differences between the inhibitory zones of TAED-SP and 5% NaOCl. Conclusion. TAED-SP and 5% NaOCl have similar antibacterial activity against E. faecalis; however, TAED-SP has a greater antibacterial effect compared to 2.5% NaOCl. PMID:27092214

  5. Urine bag as a modern day matula.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid.

  6. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  7. Crystallization processes derived from the interaction of urine and dolostone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    (these 3 sections, a) b) c) represent the first one centimeter of the specimen from the bottom); d) and the fourth and top section, which shows no influence by the effect of urine capillary absorption. The obtained results showed, from bottom to top, the following crystallized salts: a) abundant prismatic crystals enriched in P and Ca (calcium phosphate); b) amorphous round-shaped potassium sulfate crystals and cubic sodium chloride crystals embedded in an organic matrix; d) cubic sodium chloride crystals are dominant. In the unaffected area, no other crystals were detected different from the carbonate minerals forming the rock. These results are in accordance to which has already been published by the authors in granitic materials (Cámara et al 2014). Acknowledgements: to Geomateriales 2 programme (S2013/MIT-2914) funded by the Community of Madrid. Cámara B., Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.; Ascaso, C. de los Rios, A.; Gomez-Heras, M. 2014. Another source of soluble salts in urban environments due to recent social behaviour pattern in historical centres. In: Science, Technology and Cultural Heritage (edited by M.A. Rogerio-Candelera), 89-94. CRC Press-Balkema, Taylor and Francis. ISBN 9781138027442 - CAT# K25502

  8. Strategy for NMR metabolomic analysis of urine in mouse models of obesity--from sample collection to interpretation of acquired data.

    PubMed

    Pelantová, Helena; Bugáňová, Martina; Anýž, Jiří; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka; Novák, Daniel; Haluzík, Martin; Kuzma, Marek

    2015-11-10

    The mouse model of monosodium glutamate induced obesity was used to examine and consequently optimize the strategy for analysis of urine samples by NMR spectroscopy. A set of nineteen easily detectable metabolites typical in obesity-related studies was selected. The impact of urine collection protocol, choice of (1)H NMR pulse sequence, and finally the impact of the normalization method on the detected concentration of selected metabolites were investigated. We demonstrated the crucial effect of food intake and diurnal rhythms resulting in the choice of a 24-hour fasting collection protocol as the most convenient for tracking obesity-induced increased sensitivity to fasting. It was shown that the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiment is a better alternative to one-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (1D-NOESY) for NMR analysis of mouse urine due to its ability to filter undesirable signals of proteins naturally present in rodent urine. Normalization to total spectral area provided comparable outcomes as did normalization to creatinine or probabilistic quotient normalization in the CPMG-based model. The optimized approach was found to be beneficial mainly for low abundant metabolites rarely monitored due to their overlap by strong protein signals. PMID:26263053

  9. Crystallisation properties in stone forming and normal subjects' urine diluted using a standardised procedure to match the composition of urine in the distal part of the distal tubule and the middle part of the collecting duct.

    PubMed

    Tiselius, H G; Hallin, A; Lindbäck, B

    2001-04-01

    Using a standardised procedure, we assessed the crystallisation properties of calcium phosphate in urine with a composition matching that in the distal part of the distal tubules (DTd) and of calcium oxalate in urine with a composition matching that in the mid-collecting duct (CDm). We used 8-h urine samples collected between 2200 h and 0600 h with sodium azide as preservative. Urine from ten patients with recurrent CaOx stone formation and from ten normal subjects was used for the measurements. The DTd and CDm samples were obtained by diluting the voided 8-h urine to 3000 ml and 1750 ml per 1.73 m2 body surface area, respectively. The nucleation was studied in DTd urine following supersaturation with CaP. The crystal size distribution was assessed with a Coulter counter both following supersaturation of DTd urine with CaP and of CDm urine with CaOx. The crystallisation of CaP in DTd urine as well as that of CaOx in CDm urine, in the presence of CaP crystals that had been precipitated in DTd urine, was measured with the isotope technique. The inhibition of CaOx and brushite crystal aggregation in standardised diluted aliquots of DTd and CDm urine was assessed spectrophotometrically as the rate of sedimentation. There was a slightly increased sedimentation rate and a lower initial absorbance in DTd urine from stone formers supersaturated with CaP. Although these findings might reflect a state of increased crystal aggregation in stone formers' urine, this could not be confirmed by crystal size measurements in the Coulter counter. The inhibition of brushite crystal aggregation in DTd urine was significantly in stone formers' urine than in normal subjects' urine (P < 0.001). Moreover, all inhibition values in DTd samples from stone formers were negative, suggesting a promoter effect on crystal aggregation. The inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation in CDm urine also was significantly higher in CDm urine from normal subjects than in CDm urine from stone formers (P < 0

  10. Regulation of intramembranous absorption and amniotic fluid volume by constituents in fetal sheep urine.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Debra F; Jonker, Sonnet S; Louey, Samantha; Cheung, Cecilia Y; Brace, Robert A

    2013-09-01

    Our objective was to test the hypothesis that fetal urine contains a substance(s) that regulates amniotic fluid volume by altering the rate of intramembranous absorption of amniotic fluid. In late gestation ovine fetuses, amniotic fluid volumes, urine, and lung liquid production rates, swallowed volumes and intramembranous volume and solute absorption rates were measured over 2-day periods under control conditions and when urine was removed and continuously replaced at an equal rate with exogenous fluid. Intramembranous volume absorption rate decreased by 40% when urine was replaced with lactated Ringer solution or lactated Ringer solution diluted 50% with water. Amniotic fluid volume doubled under both conditions. Analysis of the intramembranous sodium and chloride fluxes suggests that the active but not passive component of intramembranous volume absorption was altered by urine replacement, whereas both active and passive components of solute fluxes were altered. We conclude that fetal urine contains an unidentified substance(s) that stimulates active intramembranous transport of amniotic fluid across the amnion into the underlying fetal vasculature and thereby functions as a regulator of amniotic fluid volume.

  11. Determination of monomethylarsonous acid, a key arsenic methylation intermediate, in human urine.

    PubMed Central

    Le, X C; Ma, M; Cullen, W R; Aposhian, H V; Lu, X; Zheng, B

    2000-01-01

    In this study we report on the finding of monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] in human urine. This newly identified arsenic species is a key intermediate in the metabolic pathway of arsenic biomethylation, which involves stepwise reduction of pentavalent to trivalent arsenic species followed by oxidative addition of a methyl group. Arsenic speciation was carried out using ion-pair chromatographic separation of arsenic compounds with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. Speciation of the inorganic arsenite [As(III)], inorganic arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)], dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)], and MMA(III) in a urine sample was complete in 5 min. Urine samples collected from humans before and after a single oral administration of 300 mg sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate (DMPS) were analyzed for arsenic species. MMA(III) was found in 51 out of 123 urine samples collected from 41 people in inner Mongolia 0-6 hr after the administration of DMPS. MMA(III )in urine samples did not arise from the reduction of MMA(V) by DMPS. DMPS probably assisted the release of MMA(III) that was formed in the body. Along with the presence of MMA(III), there was an increase in the relative concentration of MMA(V) and a decrease in DMA(V) in the urine samples collected after the DMPS ingestion. PMID:11102289

  12. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Intrinsic Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders: Advanced Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (ASWPD), Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD), Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (N24SWD), and Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (ISWRD). An Update for 2015

    PubMed Central

    Auger, R. Robert; Burgess, Helen J.; Emens, Jonathan S.; Deriy, Ludmila V.; Thomas, Sherene M.; Sharkey, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review and meta-analyses (where appropriate) were performed and the GRADE approach was used to update the previous American Academy of Sleep Medicine Practice Parameters on the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders. Available data allowed for positive endorsement (at a second-tier degree of confidence) of strategically timed melatonin (for the treatment of DSWPD, blind adults with N24SWD, and children/ adolescents with ISWRD and comorbid neurological disorders), and light therapy with or without accompanying behavioral interventions (adults with ASWPD, children/adolescents with DSWPD, and elderly with dementia). Recommendations against the use of melatonin and discrete sleep-promoting medications are provided for demented elderly patients, at a second- and first-tier degree of confidence, respectively. No recommendations were provided for remaining treatments/ populations, due to either insufficient or absent data. Areas where further research is needed are discussed. Citation: Auger RR, Burgess HJ, Emens JS, Deriy LV, Thomas SM, Sharkey KM. Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: advanced sleep-wake phase disorder (ASWPD), delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD), non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD), and irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder (ISWRD). An update for 2015. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1199–1236. PMID:26414986

  13. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. The ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  14. Measuring population sodium intake: a review of methods.

    PubMed

    McLean, Rachael M

    2014-11-01

    Reduction of population sodium intake has been identified as a key initiative for reduction of Non-Communicable Disease. Monitoring of population sodium intake must accompany public health initiatives aimed at sodium reduction. A number of different methods for estimating dietary sodium intake are currently in use. Dietary assessment is time consuming and often under-estimates intake due to under-reporting and difficulties quantifying sodium concentration in recipes, and discretionary salt. Twenty-four hour urinary collection (widely considered to be the most accurate method) is also burdensome and is limited by under-collection and lack of suitable methodology to accurately identify incomplete samples. Spot urine sampling has recently been identified as a convenient and affordable alternative, but remains highly controversial as a means of monitoring population intake. Studies suggest that while spot urinary sodium is a poor predictor of 24-h excretion in individuals, it may provide population estimates adequate for monitoring. Further research is needed into the accuracy and suitability of spot urine collection in different populations as a means of monitoring sodium intake.

  15. Elevated formic acid concentrations in putrefied post-mortem blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Viinamäki, Jenni; Rasanen, Ilpo; Vuori, Erkki; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2011-05-20

    Formic acid (FA) concentration was measured in post-mortem blood and urine samples as methyl formate using a headspace in-tube extraction gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry method. A total of 113 cases were analyzed, each including a blood and urine sample fortified with 1% sodium fluoride. The cases were divided into three groups: regular (n=59), putrefied (n=30), and methanol-positive (n=22) cases. There was no evidence of ante-mortem methanol consumption in the regular and putrefied cases. In regular cases, the mean (and median) FA concentrations were 0.04 g/l (0.04 g/l) and 0.06 g/l (0.04 g/l) in blood and urine, respectively. In putrefied cases, the mean (and median) FA concentrations were substantially higher, 0.24 g/l (0.22 g/l) and 0.25 g/l (0.15 g/l) in blood and urine, respectively. In three putrefied cases, FA concentration in blood exceeded 0.5 g/l, a level associated with fatal methanol poisoning. Ten putrefied cases were reanalyzed after 3-4 months storage, and no significant changes in FA concentrations were seen. These observations suggest that FA was formed by putrefaction during the post-mortem period, not during sample storage when sodium fluoride was added as a preservative. In methanol-positive cases, the mean (and median) FA concentrations were 0.80 g/l (0.88 g/l) and 3.4 g/l (3.3 g/l) in blood and urine, respectively, and the concentrations ranged from 0.19 to 1.0 g/l in blood and from 1.7 to 5.6 g/l in urine. The mean (and median) methanol concentrations in methanol-positive cases were 3.0 g/l (3.0 g/l) and 4.4 g/l (4.7 g/l) in blood and in urine, respectively. The highest methanol concentrations were 6.0 g/l and 8.7 g/l in blood and urine, respectively. No ethyl alcohol was found in the methanol-positive blood samples. Poor correlation was shown between blood and urine concentrations of FA. Poor correlations were also shown, in both blood and urine, between methanol and FA concentrations. PMID:21112705

  16. A history of urine microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J Stewart

    2015-11-01

    The naked-eye appearance of the urine must have been studied by shamans and healers since the Stone Age, and an elaborate interpretation of so-called Uroscopy began around 600 AD as a form of divination. A 1000 years later, the first primitive monocular and compound microscopes appeared in the Netherlands, and along with many other objects and liquids, urine was studied from around 1680 onwards as the enlightenment evolved. However, the crude early instruments did not permit fine study because of chromatic and linear/spherical blurring. Only after complex multi-glass lenses which avoided these problems had been made and used in the 1820s in London by Lister, and in Paris by Chevalier and Amici, could urinary microscopy become a practical, clinically useful tool in the 1830s. Clinical urinary microscopy was pioneered by Rayer and his pupils in Paris (especially Vigla), in the late 1830s, and spread to UK and Germany in the 1840s, with detailed descriptions and interpretations of cells and formed elements of the urinary sediment by Nasse, Henle, Robinson and Golding Bird. Classes were held, most notably by Donné in Paris. After another 50 years, optical microscopy had reached its apogee, with magnifications of over 1000 times obtainable free of aberration, using immersion techniques. Atlases of the urinary sediment were published in all major European countries and in the US. Polarised light and phase contrast was used also after 1900 to study urine, and by the early 20th century, photomicroscopy (pioneered by Donné and Daguerre 50 years previously, but then ignored) became usual for teaching and recording. In the 1940s electron microscopy began, followed by detection of specific proteins and cells using immunofluorescent antibodies. All this had been using handheld methodology. Around 1980, machine-assisted observations began, and have dominated progress since.

  17. A history of urine microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J Stewart

    2015-11-01

    The naked-eye appearance of the urine must have been studied by shamans and healers since the Stone Age, and an elaborate interpretation of so-called Uroscopy began around 600 AD as a form of divination. A 1000 years later, the first primitive monocular and compound microscopes appeared in the Netherlands, and along with many other objects and liquids, urine was studied from around 1680 onwards as the enlightenment evolved. However, the crude early instruments did not permit fine study because of chromatic and linear/spherical blurring. Only after complex multi-glass lenses which avoided these problems had been made and used in the 1820s in London by Lister, and in Paris by Chevalier and Amici, could urinary microscopy become a practical, clinically useful tool in the 1830s. Clinical urinary microscopy was pioneered by Rayer and his pupils in Paris (especially Vigla), in the late 1830s, and spread to UK and Germany in the 1840s, with detailed descriptions and interpretations of cells and formed elements of the urinary sediment by Nasse, Henle, Robinson and Golding Bird. Classes were held, most notably by Donné in Paris. After another 50 years, optical microscopy had reached its apogee, with magnifications of over 1000 times obtainable free of aberration, using immersion techniques. Atlases of the urinary sediment were published in all major European countries and in the US. Polarised light and phase contrast was used also after 1900 to study urine, and by the early 20th century, photomicroscopy (pioneered by Donné and Daguerre 50 years previously, but then ignored) became usual for teaching and recording. In the 1940s electron microscopy began, followed by detection of specific proteins and cells using immunofluorescent antibodies. All this had been using handheld methodology. Around 1980, machine-assisted observations began, and have dominated progress since. PMID:26079823

  18. Seasonal variation in natural abundance of 2H and 18O in urine samples from rural Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Lara R.; Brieger, William; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Alabi, Tunrayo; Schoeller, Dale A.; Luke, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is used to measure free-living energy expenditure in humans. Inherent to this technique is the assumption that natural abundances of stable isotopes 2H and 18O in body water remain constant over the course of the measurement period and after elimination of the loading dose of DLW will return to the same predose level. To determine variability in the natural abundances of 2H and 18O in humans living in a region with seasonal shifts in rain patterns and sources of drinking water, over the course of 12 mo we collected weekly urine samples from four individuals living in southwest Nigeria as well as samples of their drinking water. From ongoing regional studies of hypertension, obesity, and energy expenditure, we estimated average water turnover rate, urine volumes, and sodium and potassium excretion. Results suggest that 2H and 18O in urine, mean concentrations of urinary sodium and potassium, urine volume, and total body turnover differed significantly from dry to rainy season. Additionally, seasonal weather variables (mean monthly maximum temperatures, total monthly rainfall, and minimum relative humidity) were all significantly associated with natural abundances in urine. No seasonal difference was observed in drinking water samples. Findings suggest that natural abundances in urine may not remain constant as assumed, and studies incorporating DLW measurements across the transition of seasons should interpret results with caution unless appropriate doses of the tracers are used. PMID:25977450

  19. Seasonal variation in natural abundance of 2H and 18O in urine samples from rural Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Justin E; Dugas, Lara R; Brieger, William; Tayo, Bamidele O; Alabi, Tunrayo; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2015-07-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is used to measure free-living energy expenditure in humans. Inherent to this technique is the assumption that natural abundances of stable isotopes (2)H and (18)O in body water remain constant over the course of the measurement period and after elimination of the loading dose of DLW will return to the same predose level. To determine variability in the natural abundances of (2)H and (18)O in humans living in a region with seasonal shifts in rain patterns and sources of drinking water, over the course of 12 mo we collected weekly urine samples from four individuals living in southwest Nigeria as well as samples of their drinking water. From ongoing regional studies of hypertension, obesity, and energy expenditure, we estimated average water turnover rate, urine volumes, and sodium and potassium excretion. Results suggest that (2)H and (18)O in urine, mean concentrations of urinary sodium and potassium, urine volume, and total body turnover differed significantly from dry to rainy season. Additionally, seasonal weather variables (mean monthly maximum temperatures, total monthly rainfall, and minimum relative humidity) were all significantly associated with natural abundances in urine. No seasonal difference was observed in drinking water samples. Findings suggest that natural abundances in urine may not remain constant as assumed, and studies incorporating DLW measurements across the transition of seasons should interpret results with caution unless appropriate doses of the tracers are used.

  20. A randomized trial of dietary sodium restriction in CKD.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Emma J; Bauer, Judith D; Hawley, Carmel M; Isbel, Nicole M; Stowasser, Michael; Johnson, David W; Campbell, Katrina L

    2013-12-01

    There is a paucity of quality evidence regarding the effects of sodium restriction in patients with CKD, particularly in patients with pre-end stage CKD, where controlling modifiable risk factors may be especially important for delaying CKD progression and cardiovascular events. We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized crossover trial assessing the effects of high versus low sodium intake on ambulatory BP, 24-hour protein and albumin excretion, fluid status (body composition monitor), renin and aldosterone levels, and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) in 20 adult patients with hypertensive stage 3-4 CKD as phase 1 of the LowSALT CKD study. Overall, salt restriction resulted in statistically significant and clinically important reductions in BP (mean reduction of systolic/diastolic BP, 10/4 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 5 to 15 /1 to 6 mm Hg), extracellular fluid volume, albuminuria, and proteinuria in patients with moderate-to-severe CKD. The magnitude of change was more pronounced than the magnitude reported in patients without CKD, suggesting that patients with CKD are particularly salt sensitive. Although studies with longer intervention times and larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these benefits, this study indicates that sodium restriction should be emphasized in the management of patients with CKD as a means to reduce cardiovascular risk and risk for CKD progression.

  1. Danaparoid sodium.

    PubMed

    Acostamadiedo, J M; Iyer, U G; Owen, J

    2000-05-01

    Danaparoid sodium (Orgaran, Organon) is a heparinoid glycosamino-glycuronan antithrombotic agent approved for the prophylaxis of post-operative deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients undergoing elective hip replacement surgery. Danaparoid is a low molecular weight heparinoid consisting of a mixture of heparan sulphate (84%), dermatan sulphate (12%) and small amounts of chondroitin sulphate (4%), whose antithrombotic activity has been well established. Its pharmacological effect is exerted primarily by inhibiting Factors Xa (FXa) and IIa (FIIa) at a ratio greater than heparin, with a minimal effect on platelet function. Danaparoid exhibits low cross-reactivity with heparin-induced antibodies when compared with heparin or low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), thereby making it an excellent choice for the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). It has excellent bioavailability following s.c. injection. Danaparoid has little effect on routine coagulation tests (activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], prothrombin time [PT], and thrombin time [TT]). Patients with elevated serum creatinine should be monitored carefully. For its FDA approved indication (DVT prophylaxis during hip replacement surgery), its cost per day is approximately eight times more than LMWH. Even though monitoring is not routinely necessary according to the manufacturer for its approved indication, monitoring is frequently necessary when it is used in other clinical scenarios. Its higher cost than comparable therapies for DVT prophylaxis and the low availability of the FXa assay in most non-tertiary care hospitals has limited the widespread use of danaparoid. Danaparoid has been found to be effective in the treatment of HIT although this is an off label use, despite being the most frequent reason why danaparoid is used. PMID:11249517

  2. Deoxypyridinoline in the Urine of Rats with Unloaded Hindlimbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Navidi, M.; Wren, J.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline (U-Dpd), a nonreducible collagen crosslink in bone released by osteoclastic activity, is thought to be an accurate marker of bone resorption. The role of increased resorption in the osteopenia of a space flight model which unloads the hindlimbs by suspending the tail is controversial. To assess skeletal resorption in the model we measured U-Dpd (Pyrilinks-D, Metro Biosystems, Inc.) in serial 24 hour urine specimens collected from 250 a (Y) and 450 a (M) male rats with unloaded hindlimbs for four weeks. Both groups of rats were fed AIN76 diets with calcium restricted to 0.2% in Y and to 0.1 % in M. Blood was obtained after 28 days for parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-D) and alkaline phosphatase (Alkptase). Basal U-Dpd was higher and more variable in Y than M (475+/-200 vs 67+/-9, nM/mM creatinine, p<.001). Repeated measures ANOVA in Y revealed decreases in U-Dpd, 36% in control (C) and 24% in unloaded (S) rats (p<.005). There was a nadir in YS on the 14th day not observed in YC (p<.05). U-Dpd in MC showed no change, but increased in MS by the 14th day and remained elevated. At the end of the experiment, body weights in both Y and M were less in S than C (337+/-16 vs 306+/-12g and 485+/-10 vs 461+/-6g, p=.002). Bill was inversely related to U-Dpd only in M (r=0.699, p=.024). PTH, similar in C and S in Y (52+/-15 vs 42+/-7pg/ml, NS) and M (68+/-13 vs 61+/-12, NS), was unrelated to U-Dpd. 1,25-D tended toward higher values in YC than YS (197+/-103 vs 119+/-30, NS) and correlated with U-Dpd (0.773, p=.015). Alkptase, 1.3 times higher in Y than M, was similar in C and S at the end of unloading. These findings indicate that bone resorption, as reflected by U-Dpd, is suppressed in young and stimulated in mature rats exposed to a space flight model. U-Dpd reflects reduced growth from the diet change in young control and experimental rats and loss of Bill in mature animals exposed to the space flight model, 2

  3. The neuronal channel NALCN contributes resting sodium permeability and is required for normal respiratory rhythm.

    PubMed

    Lu, Boxun; Su, Yanhua; Das, Sudipto; Liu, Jin; Xia, Jingsheng; Ren, Dejian

    2007-04-20

    Sodium plays a key role in determining the basal excitability of the nervous systems through the resting "leak" Na(+) permeabilities, but the molecular identities of the TTX- and Cs(+)-resistant Na(+) leak conductance are totally unknown. Here we show that this conductance is formed by the protein NALCN, a substantially uncharacterized member of the sodium/calcium channel family. Unlike any of the other 20 family members, NALCN forms a voltage-independent, nonselective cation channel. NALCN mutant mice have a severely disrupted respiratory rhythm and die within 24 hours of birth. Brain stem-spinal cord recordings reveal reduced neuronal firing. The TTX- and Cs(+)-resistant background Na(+) leak current is absent in the mutant hippocampal neurons. The resting membrane potentials of the mutant neurons are relatively insensitive to changes in extracellular Na(+) concentration. Thus, NALCN, a nonselective cation channel, forms the background Na(+) leak conductance and controls neuronal excitability. PMID:17448995

  4. Effects of Gentle Human Touch and Field Massage on Urine Cortisol Level in Premature Infants: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Asadollahi, Malihe; Jabraeili, Mahnaz; Mahallei, Majid; Asgari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Sakine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit may leads to many stresses for premature infants. Since premature infants cannot properly process stressors, identifying interventions that reduce the stress level for them is seems necessary. The aim of present study was to compare the effects of Field massage and Gentle Human Touch (GHT) techniques on the urine level of cortisol, as an indicator of stress in preterm infants. Methods: This randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. A total of 84 premature infants were randomly assigned into three groups. First groups were touched by their mothers three times a day (15 minutes in each session) for 5 days by GHT technique. The second group was received 15 minutes Field massage with sunflower oil three times a day by their mothers for 5 days. The third group received routine care. In all groups, 24-hours urine samples were collected in the first and sixth day after the intervention and analyzed for cortisol level. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: There were significant differences between mean of changes in cortisol level between GHT and control groups and Field massage and control groups (0.026). Conclusion: Although the massage with Field technique resulted in a significant reduction in blood cortisol level, but the GHT technique have also a similar effect. So, both methods are recommended for decreasing of stress in preterm infants. PMID:27752484

  5. Nedocromil sodium (Tilade).

    PubMed

    Bartels, L A; Farrington, E

    1994-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium is a well-tolerated antiasthmatic agent for initial therapy in patients with mild or moderate asthma not well controlled with inhaled beta-2 agonists and/or where methylxanthines are indicated. Like cromolyn sodium, nedocromil sodium offers a potential alternative to inhaled corticosteroids as maintenance therapy in patients with mild or moderate asthma not adequately controlled by bronchodilators. Furthermore, cromolyn sodium and nedocromil sodium may also reduce the usage of corticosteroids and provide some additional symptom control in patients whose asthma is not suitably controlled by optimal doses of inhaled corticosteroids. Both nedocromil sodium and cromolyn sodium are more efficacious than placebo for controlling of asthma, however, few studies have compared the effectiveness of cromolyn versus nedocromil at this time. Further experience and comparison studies of nedocromil sodium with cromolyn sodium in children are required before the role of nedocromil sodium as maintenance treatment in young asthmatic patients can be defined.

  6. [Analysis of protein ratios based on the studies of human urine proteome in an experiment with 105-day isolation].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the work was to study urine proteome of healthy human subjects during 105-day isolation in controlled environment of the IBMP chamber with a self-sustained life support system. The parameters under study were diurnal rhythm, physical activity, water intake, as well as consumption of sodium, protein and some other basic nutrients. Urine was sampled by 6 male subjects at the age of 25 to 40 years admitted to the experiment by the medical certification commission. The studies were performed with the use of proteome data acquisition technologies; the cutting-edge bio-information analysis techniques including reconstruction of associative gene networks were applied to investigate the urine proteome profile, to structure experimental data in light of the existing physiological concepts and to formulate viable hypotheses for ensuing experimental verification. Proteins of different origin were identified in urine; appearance or disappearance of proteins was in tight correlation with salt consumption.

  7. Effects of metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on sodium and calcium transport in the dog kidney.

    PubMed

    Sutton, R A; Wong, N L; Dirks, J H

    1979-05-01

    Clearance and micropuncture studies have been performed in dogs to examine the effects of acute and chronic metabolic acidosis and acute alkalosis on tubular sodium and calcium transport. Acute metabolic acidosis, induced by the infusion of hydrochloric acid, decreased proximal fluid reabsorption and increased the fractional delivery of sodium and calcium to the distal tubule, but not to the final urine. In comparison with normal dogs, dogs with chronic metabolic acidosis (induced by feeding ammonium chloride) showed an increase in proximal fluid reabsorption and a dissociation of calcium from sodium reabsorption more distally, leading to an increased delivery of calcium relative to sodium at the distal tubule and in the final urine. The infusion of sodium bicarbonate to correct chronic metabolic acidosis, both in intact and thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) dogs, reduced proximal fluid reabsorption and caused a selective enhancement of calcium reabsorption relative to sodium in the more distal nephron, resulting in a reversal of the dissociation observed in acidosis, both at the distal tubule and in the final urine. By contrastin fusion of sodium chloride in parathyroid-intact acidotic dogs did not reduce proximal fluid reabsorption or enhance tubular calcium reabsorption. In nonacidotic dogs, both intact and TPTX, infusion of sodium bicarconate to induce acute alkalosis resulted in selhese data demonstrate the presence of a component of tubular calcium reabsorption situated beyond the proximal tubule, which is inhibited by chronic (but not acute) metabolic acidosis and enhanced by metabolic alkalosis (or bicarbonate infusion) independently of parathyroid hormone. PMID:480784

  8. Toxicological studies on cefuroxime sodium.

    PubMed

    Capel-Edwards, K; Atkinson, R M; Pratt, D A

    1979-05-01

    The intravenous LD50 of cefuroxime sodium for mice was 10.4 g/kg. The maximum dosage administered in other acute toxicity tests was well tolerated by mice (10 g/kg, subcutaneous), by rats (4 g/kg, intravenous, 5 g/kg, subcutaneous) and by cats, dogs and monkeys (2 g/kg, intramuscularly). Cefuroxime sodium was administered subcutaneously (s.c.) or intramuscularly (i.m.) for 3 months to rats (100, 300 or 900 mg/kg/day) followed by a recovery period, and also for 6 months to rats and dogs (50, 150 or 450 mg/kg/day) and for 1 month to monkeys (150 or 450 mg/kg/day). In all these tests there were no serious toxic effects. Minor haematological changes were attributable in part if not entirely to haemorrhage and tissue reaction at the site of injection of large doses. In rats large doses caused some increase in urine volume and electrolyte excretion, and slightly aggravated an age related nephropathy. Administration to rats intravenously (i.v.) for1 month of up to 400 mg/kg/day had no toxic effects. In reproduction studies on mice and rabbits there were no adverse effects on fertility, organogenesis or the rearing of young.

  9. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41...

  10. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41...

  11. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41...

  12. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41...

  13. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41...

  14. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... White House Lunch Recipes Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) A A A en español Obtención de un análisis de orina (video) It may seem gross and embarrassing to pee ...

  15. Radioscintigraphic demonstration of unsuspected urine extravasation

    SciTech Connect

    Bocchini, T.; Williams, W.; Patton, D.

    1989-06-01

    Three cases of unsuspected urine extravasation first detected by radionuclide scintigraphy are presented with subsequent confirmation by CT and, retrograde pyelograms. A renal study done to rule out acute transplant rejection demonstrates gallbladder uptake which was initially thought to be consistent with urine extravasation.

  16. Postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: intraperitoneal sodium bicarbonate versus normal saline

    PubMed Central

    Saadati, Karim; Razavi, Mohammad Reza; Nazemi Salman, Daryoush; Izadi, Shahrzad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate irrigation versus normal saline irrigation in patients undergoing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Background: Pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most common complaint, especially in the abdomen, back, and shoulder region. Patients and methods: In a double blind randomized clinical trial, 150 patients were assigned to the three groups (50 patients in each group). Group A received intraperitoneal irrigation normal saline (NS). Groups B and C received irrigation sodium bicarbonate and none irrigation, respectively. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) for 6, 18 and 24 hours postoperatively, as well as one week after the surgery. Data analysis was performed using SPSS ver18 and chi-square, Fisher’s Exact Test, on-way ANOVA and repeated measure ANOVA tests. Results: Patients in groups showed no significant difference in terms of age, gender, past medical history and smoking history (p>0.05). Left shoulder tip pain was significantly lower only between the sodium bicarbonate group and non-washing group at 6, 18, and 24 hours postoperatively (P=0.04, P=0.02 and P=0.009 respectively). There was no significant difference between the three treatment groups in right shoulder tip pain, back pain and port site incisional pain. Conclusion: In laparoscopic cholecystectomy, peritoneal irrigation with sodium bicarbonate may reduce the intensity of postoperative shoulder tip pain and is an effective method for improving the quality of life within the early recovery period. PMID:27458511

  17. Family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Valman, H. B.; Patrick, A. D.; Seakins, J. W. T.; Platt, J. W.; Gompertz, D.

    1973-01-01

    A family is described in which the 3 children presented with episodes of severe metabolic acidosis secondary to minor infections. 2 of them died, and 1 of these was severely retarded. The sole surviving child is 6 years old and is normal with respect to physical and mental development. Gas chromatography of the urine obtained during episodes of ketoacidosis showed the keto and hydroxy acids characteristic of maple syrup urine disease, and thin layer chromatography of the plasma and urine showed greatly increased concentrations of the branched chain amino acids. The urine and plasma of the surviving child was chromatographically normal between episodes. The leucocyte branched chain keto acid decarboxylase activity in this patient and her father was reduced. The range of features in this family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease illustrates the necessity for prompt and careful investigation of metabolic acidosis of unknown aetiology. PMID:4693464

  18. Automated spectrophotometric assay for urine p-aminophenol by an oxidative coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Fen; Tseng, Yung-Te; Tseng, Hsiu-Kuei; Liu, Tsan-Zon

    2004-01-01

    Urine p-aminophenol (PAP) concentration serves as a biological marker for occupational exposures to aniline. We report the development of a rapid, simple spectrophotometric method for quantification of urine PAP concentration using a chemical autoanalyzer (Olympus Reply). The method involves oxidative coupling of PAP with an aromatic compound, xylenol, that contains an electron-donating group, based on an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction catalyzed by sodium periodate. A calibration curve is constructed in the same matrix, urine, as the unknown samples to be analyzed. In this way, potential matrix interferences are largely avoided. The linearity range of the method is 20 to 400 mg/L. Time-course studies show that the color formation by reaction of PAP with xylenol is rapid and essentially complete within 5 min. Within-run and day-to-day reproducibility data at medium (50 mg/L) and high (200 mg/L) concentrations yield CV's <5.0%. Several prescription drugs and drugs of abuse, as well as related compounds, gave negative tests for interference in the procedure. Clinical applications of the method are illustrated by data for (a) PAP concentrations in 255 urine samples from workers at a rubber plant, and (b) PAP elimination in serial urine samples from 5 volunteers after an oral dose (500 mg) of acetaminophen. In summary, the new method has the advantages of automation, operational simplicity, and suitability for monitoring workers for exposures to aniline.

  19. Estimation of arsenic intake from drinking water and food (raw and cooked) in a rural village of northern Chile. Urine as a biomarker of recent exposure.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam

    2015-05-22

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8-92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day⁻¹) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL⁻¹. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas.

  20. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked) in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas. PMID:26006131

  1. Changes in urinary water and electrolyte excretion in sodium-loaded sheep in response to intravenous infusion of arginine vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Scott, D; Morton, J J

    1976-01-01

    Mature sheep receiving supplements of sodium chloride into the rumen were given intravenous infusions of arginine vasopressin at rates varying from 4-6-23 pmol/min (2-10 mU/min). Infusion of the hormone led to an increase in urine flow and to increases in the amounts of sodium and chloride excreted, the effect on flow was, however, the greater so that the osmolality of the urine fell during the infusions. In sheep given intravenous infusions of a hypertonic sodium chloride solution addition of vasopressin to the infusate led to the formation of a larger volume of urine containing a higher proportion of the infused salt load compared to when the salt solution alone was given. As before the effect on flow was the greater and hence the osmolality of the urine was lower when the hormone was given. In other experiments intravenous infusion of a hypertonic sodium chloride solution at rates providing 2-8 mmol NaCl/min led to increases in urine flow and increases in sodium and chloride excretion, the size of these increases being proportional to infusion rate. Plasma vasopressin levels markedly increased during these infusions, the levels seen being similar to those seen in sheep given vasopressin in amounts which increased both urine flow and electrolyte excretion. This suggests that during hypertonic salt loading vasopressin probably contributes directly to the increases in urine flow and the increases in electrolyte excretion which are seen. Further evidence in support of this was obtained in experiments in which a greater natriuretic response was seen in sheep given a hypertonic sodium chloride solution into the carotid artery as opposed to the given a hypertonic sodium chloride solution into the carotid artery as opposed to the jugular vein and where it was shown that plasma vasopressin levels were indeed higher when the solution was given into the artery.

  2. Relationship between urinary sodium and potassium, and arterial blood pressure: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Miller, G D

    1984-01-01

    An epidemiologic study was conducted to ascertain the relationship between urinary sodium and potassium, and arterial blood pressure in normal, nonhospitalized adults. Random samples of 1,939 adult residents, 35 to 54 years of age, of Savannah, Georgia; Hagerstown, Maryland; and Pueblo, Colorado, were interviewed and examined. Arterial blood pressures were taken with a standardized zero-muddler in a standard fashion by a specially trained, experienced nurse. Casual urine specimens were collected and analyzed for their sodium and potassium content. The relationship between urinary sodium potassium and the sodium-to-potassium ratio and arterial blood pressure was calculated. Systolic and diastolic pressure increased with increasing levels of urinary sodium and the sodium-to-potassium ratio, and decreased with increasing levels of urinary potassium. The data suggest that dietary potassium provides some protection against the hypertensive effects of dietary sodium in humans as in animals.

  3. Levetiracetam: Probably Associated Diurnal Frequent Urination.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jun; Zou, Li-Ping; Shi, Xiu-Yu; Hu, Lin-Yan; Pang, Ling-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Diurnal frequent urination is a common condition in elementary school children who are especially at risk for associated somatic and behavioral problems. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug that has been used in both partial and generalized seizures and less commonly adverse effects including psychiatric and behavioral problems. Diurnal frequent urination is not a well-known adverse effect of LEV. Here, we reported 2 pediatric cases with epilepsy that developed diurnal frequent urination after LEV administration. Case 1 was a 6-year-old male patient who presented urinary frequency and urgency in the daytime since the third day after LEV was given as adjunctive therapy. Symptoms increased accompanied by the raised dosage of LEV. Laboratory tests and auxiliary examinations did not found evidence of organic disease. Diurnal frequent urination due to LEV was suspected, and then the drug was discontinued. As expected, his frequency of urination returned to normal levels. Another 13-year-old female patient got similar clinical manifestations after oral LEV monotherapy and the symptoms became aggravated while in stress state. Since the most common causes of frequent micturition had been ruled out, the patient was considered to be diagnosed with LEV-associated psychogenic frequent urination. The dosage of LEV was reduced to one-third, and the frequency of urination was reduced by 60%. Both patients got the Naranjo score of 6, which indicated that LEV was a "probable" cause of diurnal frequent urination. Although a definite causal link between LEV and diurnal urinary frequency in the 2 cases remains to be established, we argue that diurnal frequent urination associated with LEV deserves clinician's attention. PMID:26938751

  4. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  5. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  6. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  7. Fractional excretion of sodium

    MedlinePlus

    FE sodium; FENa ... to a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... your normal foods with a normal amount of salt, unless otherwise instructed by your health care provider. ...

  8. Effects of preoperative ibuprofen and naproxen sodium on orthodontic pain.

    PubMed

    Polat, Omur; Karaman, Ali Ihya; Durmus, Ercan

    2005-09-01

    Three experimental groups of 20 patients each, all of whom were to undergo fixed orthodontic treatment, were enrolled in this prospective study. Group 1 was given a placebo, group 2 was given 400 mg ibuprofen, and group 3 was given 550 mg naproxen sodium. All the patients received only one dose that was given one hour before archwire placement. All patients were asked to complete a questionnaire concerning the pain perceived after archwire placement. The questionnaire was in the form of a seven-page booklet that contained 100-mm horizontal Visual Analogue Scale on which the patient marked the degree of discomfort at the indicated time periods. The patients were instructed to make a check on the scale at each time interval to represent the perceived severity of pain during each of four activities, ie, chewing, biting, fitting back teeth together, and fitting front teeth together. Incidence and severity of pain were recorded by the patient at two hours, six hours, nighttime on the day of appointment, 24 hours after the appointment, and two days, three days, and seven days after bonding. The results revealed that patients taking 550 mg naproxen sodium one hour before archwire placement had significantly lower levels of pain at two hours, six hours, and nighttime after adjustment than patients taking placebo or ibuprofen. However, the use of additional postoperative doses was recommended to control orthodontic pain completely.

  9. A clinical experience with dantrolene sodium for external urinary sphincter hypertonicity in spinal cord injured patients.

    PubMed

    Hackler, R H; Broecker, B H; Klein, F A; Brady, S M

    1980-07-01

    Significant bladder residual urine is secondary to pelvic floor skeletal muscle hypertonicity in some spinal cord injury patients with suprasacral or mixed lesions. Fifteen patients with residual urine volumes greater than 150 cc were treated with dantrolene sodium because of its ability to decrease skeletal muscle contractibility. All of the patients had urethral closure pressures greater than 100 cm. water. Of the 15 patients 8 benefited from dantrolene sodium therapy and were maintained on external condom urinary drainage. Five of these 8 patients required up to 600 mg. dantrolene sodium daily to affect this result. The residual urine volume decreased to less than 100 cc and the post-therapy decrease in urethral pressure averaged 77 cm. water (49 per cent). The patients in the failure group (residual urine greater than 150 cc) had an average decrease in urethral pressure of 21 cm. water (16 per cent). Detrusor hyporeflexia possibly contributed to the failure rate. In summary, dantrolene sodium seems to be beneficial in some patients with external urinary sphincter hypertonicity. However, it will not supplant external sphincterotomy in the more complete male spinal cord injury patient in whom reflex incontinence is of minimal concern. Dantrolene sodium could be an ideal treatment of patients with incomplete neurologic lesions in whom continence might be preserved. The drug will have to be effective at low doses to obviate the major side effect of over-all muscle weakness.

  10. Vitamin A in the urine of carnivores.

    PubMed

    Schweigert, F J; Thomann, E; Zucker, H

    1991-01-01

    Vitamin A levels (retinol equivalents) in the urine of canines were between 423 ng/ml (dog) and 6304 ng/ml (silver fox). Neither vitamin A nor vitamin E was found in the urine of herbivores, omnivorous and rodents. No vitamin A but low levels of vitamin E were detected in cats. Vitamin A in the urine was present as retinol and retinyl esters (basically retinyl palmitate/oleate). The total excretion of vitamin A represented 15 to 63% of the daily uptake in dogs, while less than 4% of vitamin E was excreted. Results after precipitation and ultracentrifugation indicate that similar carrier proteins may exist for retinol, retinyl esters and alpha-tocopherol in the urine. The biological significance of this phenomenon is discussed with regard to the high concentrations of retinyl esters in the blood plasma of carnivores bound to lipoproteins. PMID:1917346

  11. Pooled results from 5 validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for potassium and sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Laurence S; Commins, John M; Moler, James E; Willett, Walter; Tinker, Lesley F; Subar, Amy F; Spiegelman, Donna; Rhodes, Donna; Potischman, Nancy; Neuhouser, Marian L; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Kipnis, Victor; Arab, Lenore; Prentice, Ross L

    2015-04-01

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies (1999-2009) of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as referents, to assess food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls (24HRs). Here we report on total potassium and sodium intakes, their densities, and their ratio. Results were similar by sex but were heterogeneous across studies. For potassium, potassium density, sodium, sodium density, and sodium:potassium ratio, average correlation coefficients for the correlation of reported intake with true intake on the FFQs were 0.37, 0.47, 0.16, 0.32, and 0.49, respectively. For the same nutrients measured with a single 24HR, they were 0.47, 0.46, 0.32, 0.31, and 0.46, respectively, rising to 0.56, 0.53, 0.41, 0.38, and 0.60 for the average of three 24HRs. Average underreporting was 5%-6% with an FFQ and 0%-4% with a single 24HR for potassium but was 28%-39% and 4%-13%, respectively, for sodium. Higher body mass index was related to underreporting of sodium. Calibration equations for true intake that included personal characteristics provided improved prediction, except for sodium density. In summary, self-reports capture potassium intake quite well but sodium intake less well. Using densities improves the measurement of potassium and sodium on an FFQ. Sodium:potassium ratio is measured much better than sodium itself on both FFQs and 24HRs.

  12. Chemical Method of Urine Volume Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrack, P.

    1967-01-01

    A system has been developed and qualified as flight hardware for the measurement of micturition volumes voided by crewmen during Gemini missions. This Chemical Urine Volume Measurement System (CUVMS) is used for obtaining samples of each micturition for post-flight volume determination and laboratory analysis for chemical constituents of physiological interest. The system is versatile with respect to volumes measured, with a capacity beyond the largest micturition expected to be encountered, and with respect to mission duration of inherently indefinite length. The urine sample is used for the measurement of total micturition volume by a tracer dilution technique, in which a fixed, predetermined amount of tritiated water is introduced and mixed into the voided urine, and the resulting concentration of the tracer in the sample is determined with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The tracer employed does not interfere with the analysis for the chemical constituents of the urine. The CUVMS hardware consists of a four-way selector valve in which an automatically operated tracer metering pump is incorporated, a collection/mixing bag, and tracer storage accumulators. The assembled system interfaces with a urine receiver at the selector valve inlet, sample bags which connect to the side of the selector valve, and a flexible hose which carries the excess urine to the overboard drain connection. Results of testing have demonstrated system volume measurement accuracy within the specification limits of +/-5%, and operating reliability suitable for system use aboard the GT-7 mission, in which it was first used.

  13. Serum, Saliva, and Urine Irisin with and Without Acute Appendicitis and Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bakal, Unal; Aydin, Suleyman; Sarac, Mehmet; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Kalayci, Mehmet; Artas, Gokhan; Yardim, Meltem; Kazez, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    A 112-amino-acid protein irisin (IRI) is widely expressed in many organs, but we currently do not know whether appendix tissue and blood cells express it. If appendix tissue and neutrophil cells express IRI, measuring its concentration in biological fluids might be helpful in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA), since neutrophil cells are the currently gold-standard laboratory parameters for the diagnosis of AA. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based measurements of the proposed myokine IRI for the discrimination of patients with AA from those with acute abdominal pain (AP) and healthy controls. Moreover, immunoreactivity to IRI was investigated in appendix tissues and blood cells. Samples were collected on admission (T1), 24 hours (T2), and 72 hours (T3) postoperatively from patients with suspected AA and from patients with AP corresponding to T1–T3, whereas control subject blood was once corresponding to T1. IRI was measured in serum, saliva, and urine by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas in appendix tissue and blood cells, IRI was detected by immunohistohcemistry. Appendix tissue and blood cells (except for erythrocytes) are new sources of IRI. Basal saliva, urine, and serum levels were higher in children with AA compared with postoperative levels (T2) that start to decline after surgery. This is in line with the finding that IRI levels are higher in children with AA when compared with those with AP or control subject levels, most likely due to a large infiltration of neutrophil cells in AA that release its IRI into body fluids. Measurement of IRI in children with AA parallels the increase or decrease in the neutrophil count. This new finding shows that the measurement of IRI and neutrophil count can together improve the diagnosis of AA, and it can distinguish it from AP. IRI can be a candidate marker for the diagnosis of AA and offers an additional parameter to

  14. Sodium regulation in the larvae of Chironomus dorsalis (Meig.) and Camptochironomus tentans (Fabr.): the effect of slat depletion and some observations on temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Wright, D A

    1975-02-01

    Sodium regulation was studied in fourth instar larvae of Chironomus dorsalis and Camptochironomus tentans. Both maintain a body sodium level well above that of the surrounding medium. The haemolymph contains approximately 90% of total body sodium and approximates to a single compartment freely exchanging sodium with the external medium. The anal papillae play a primary role in sodium regulation, the gut being in secondary importance. Sodium regulation in both species is comparatively insensitive to alterations in acclimatization temperature. C. dorsalis and C. tentans are capable of maintaining sodium balance in media containing 10 mumole Na and 25 mumole Na respectively. When exposed to several changes of distilled water, C. tentansis capable of reducing sodium loss by elaboration of a more dilute urine. This is apparently,supplemented by a reduction in the permeability of the body surface. Activation of sodium uptake in both species is comparatively sluggish, with influx reaching a maximum only after the loss of greater than 30% body sodium.

  15. Neuroprotective Effects of Isosteviol Sodium Injection on Acute Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hui; Sun, Xiao ou; Tian, Fang; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Qing; Tan, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Previous report has indicated that isosteviol has neuroprotective effects. However, isosteviol was administered preventively before ischemia and the inclusion criteria were limited. In the present study, a more soluble and injectable form of isosteviol sodium (STVNA) was administered intravenously hours after transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO or pMCAO) to investigate its neuroprotective effects in rats. The rats were assessed for neurobehavioral deficits 24 hours after ischemia and sacrificed for infarct volume quantification and histology evaluation. STVNA 10 mg·kg−1 can significantly reduce the infarct volumes compared with vehicle in animals subjected to tMCAO and is twice as potent as previously reported. Additionally, the therapeutic window study showed that STVNA could reduce the infarct volume compared with the vehicle group when administered 4 hours after reperfusion. A similar effect was also observed in animals treated 4 hours after pMCAO. Assessment of neurobehavioral deficits after 24 hours showed that STVNA treatment significantly reduced neurobehavioral impairments. The number of restored NeuN-labeled neurons was increased and the number of TUNEL positive cells was reduced in animals that received STVNA treatment compared with vehicle group. All of these findings suggest that STVNA might provide therapeutic benefits against cerebral ischemia-induced injury. PMID:27047634

  16. The effect of chronic kidney disease on the urine proteome in the domestic cat (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Ferlizza, E; Campos, A; Neagu, A; Cuoghi, A; Bellei, E; Monari, E; Dondi, F; Almeida, A M; Isani, G

    2015-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major cause of mortality in cats, but sensitive and specific biomarkers for early prediction and monitoring of CKD are currently lacking. The present study aimed to apply proteomic techniques to map the urine proteome of the healthy cat and compare it with the proteome of cats with CKD. Urine samples were collected by cystocentesis from 23 healthy young cats and 17 cats with CKD. One-dimensional sodium-dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D-SDS-PAGE) was conducted on 4-12% gels. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) was applied to pooled urine samples from healthy cats (n = 4) and cats with CKD (n = 4), respectively. Sixteen protein bands and 36 spots were cut, trypsin-digested and identified by mass spectrometry. 1D-SDS-PAGE yielded an overall view of the protein profile and the separation of 32 ± 6 protein bands in the urine of healthy cats, while CKD cats showed significantly fewer bands (P < 0.01). 2-DE was essential in fractionation of the complex urine proteome, producing a reference map that included 20 proteins. Cauxin was the most abundant protein in urine of healthy cats. Several protease inhibitors and transport proteins that derive from plasma were also identified, including alpha-2-macroglobulin, albumin, transferrin, haemopexin and haptoglobin. There was differential expression of 27 spots between healthy and CKD samples (P < 0.05) and 13 proteins were unambiguously identified. In particular, increased expression of retinol-binding protein, cystatin M and apolipoprotein-H associated with decreased expression of uromodulin and cauxin confirmed tubular damage in CKD cats suggesting that these proteins are candidate biomarkers.

  17. Microbiological test results using three urine pretreatment regimes with 316L stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    1993-01-01

    Three urine pretreatments, (1) Oxone (Dupont) and sulfuric acid, (2) sodium hypochlorite and sulfuric acid, (3) and ozone, were studied for their ability to reduce microbial levels in urine and minimize surface attachment to 316L stainless steel coupons. Urine samples inoculated with Bacillus insolitus and a filamentous mold, organisms previously recovered from the vapor compression distillation subsystem of NASA Space Station Freedom water recovery test were tested in glass corrosion cells containing base or weld metal coupons. Microbial levels, changes in pH, color, turbidity, and odor of the fluid were monitored over the course of the 21-day test. Specimen surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy at completion of the test for microbial attachment. Ozonated urine samples were less turbid and had lower microbial levels than controls or samples receiving other pretreatments. Base metal coupons receiving pretreatment were relatively free of attached bacteria. However, well-developed biofilms were found in the heat-affected regions of welded coupons receiving Oxone and hypochlorite pretreatments. Few bacteria were observed in the same regions of the ozone pretreatment sample.

  18. Urine β 2-Microglobolin in the Patients with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Noori, Noor Mohammad; Sadeghi, Simin; Shahramian, Iraj; Keshavarz, Kambiz

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the renal tubular function in the patients with congenital heart disease using β2-microglobulin. Methods In this case-control study, based on oxymetry, the patients with congenital heart disease were divided into two groups of cyanotic (n=20) and acyanotic (n=20). Congenital heart disease was diagnosed by echocardiography. Healthy individuals within the same age and sex groups were used as controls. Na+, β2-micro globulin, creatinine (Cr), and β2-microglobulin/Cr ratio were measured in random urine samples and the results were compared to the same parameters in the control group using Tukey, One-Way ANOVA, and X2 tests. Results Based on the study results, urine sodium in the patients with cyanotic heart disease was significantly different from that of the controls (P=0.023). The results also revealed a significant difference between the two groups with congenital heart disease regarding urine β2-microglobulin (P=0.045). In addition, the patients with cyanotic heart disease were significantly different from those with acyanotic heart disease and the controls regarding urine β2-micro globulin/Cr ratio (P=0.012 and P=0.026, respectively). Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that renal tubular dysfunction began in the patients with congenital heart disease, especially in those with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Besides, early diagnosis before cardiac surgery leads to better control of renal tubular disease. PMID:24757623

  19. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

  20. DNA single strand breakage, DNA adducts, and sister chromatid exchange in lymphocytes and phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine of coke oven workers.

    PubMed Central

    Popp, W; Vahrenholz, C; Schell, C; Grimmer, G; Dettbarn, G; Kraus, R; Brauksiepe, A; Schmeling, B; Gutzeit, T; von Bülow, J; Norpoth, K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the specificity of biological monitoring variables (excretion of phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine) and the usefulness of some biomarkers of effect (alkaline filter elution, 32P postlabelling assay, measurement of sister chromatid exchange) in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). METHODS: 29 coke oven workers and a standardised control group were investigated for frequencies of DNA single strand breakage, DNA protein cross links (alkaline filter elution assay), sister chromatid exchange, and DNA adducts (32P postlabelling assay) in lymphocytes. Phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites were measured in 24 hour urine samples. 19 different PAHs (including benzo(a)pyrene, pyrene, and phenanthrene) were measured at the workplace by personal air monitoring. The GSTT1 activity in erythrocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in blood was also measured. RESULTS: Concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in air correlated well with the concentration of total PAHs in air; they could be used for comparisons of different workplaces if the emission compositions were known. The measurement of phenanthrene metabolites in urine proved to be a better biological monitoring variable than the measurement of 1-hydroxypyrene. Significantly more DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes of coke oven workers were found (alkaline filter elution assay); the DNA adduct rate was not significantly increased in workers, but correlated with exposure to PAHs in a semiquantitative manner. The number of sister chromatid exchanges was lower in coke oven workers but this was not significant; thus counting sister chromatid exchanges was not a good variable for biomonitoring of coke oven workers. Also, indications for immunotoxic influences (changes in lymphocyte subpopulations) were found. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of phenanthrene metabolites in urine seems to be a better biological monitoring variable for exposure to PAHs than

  1. Urine Proteome Biomarkers in Kidney Diseases. I. Limits, Perspectives, and First Focus on Normal Urine

    PubMed Central

    Santucci, Laura; Bruschi, Maurizio; Candiano, Giovanni; Lugani, Francesca; Petretto, Andrea; Bonanni, Alice; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Urine proteome is a potential source of information in renal diseases, and it is considered a natural area of investigation for biomarkers. Technology developments have markedly increased the power analysis on urinary proteins, and it is time to confront methodologies and results of major studies on the topics. This is a first part of a series of reviews that will focus on the urine proteome as a site for detecting biomarkers of renal diseases; the theme of the first review concerns methodological aspects applied to normal urine. Main issues are techniques for urine pretreatment, separation of exosomes, use of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries, mass spectrometry approaches, and analysis of data sets. Available studies show important differences, suggesting a major confounding effect of the technologies utilized for analysis. The objective is to obtain consensus about which approaches should be utilized for studying urine proteome in renal diseases. PMID:26997865

  2. Cancer detection by native fluorescence of urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masilamani, Vadivel; Vijmasi, Trinka; Al Salhi, Mohammad; Govindaraj, Kanagaraj; Vijaya-Raghavan, Ayanam Parthasarathy; Antonisamy, Belavendra

    2010-09-01

    Because cancer is a dreaded disease, a number of techniques such as biomarker evaluation, mammograms, colposcopy, and computed tomography scan are currently employed for early diagnosis. Many of these are specific to a particular site, invasive, and often expensive. Hence, there is a definite need for a simple, generic, noninvasive protocol for cancer detection, comparable to blood and urine tests for diabetes. Our objective is to show the results of a novel study in the diagnosis of several cancer types from the native or intrinsic fluorescence of urine. We use fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and stokes shift spectra (SSS) to analyze the native fluorescence of the first voided urine samples of healthy controls (N=100) and those of cancer patients (N=50) of different etiology. We show that flavoproteins and porphyrins released into urine can act as generic biomarkers of cancer with a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 76%, and an overall accuracy of 86.7%. We employ FES and SSS for rapid and cost-effective quantification of certain intrinsic biomarkers in urine for screening and diagnosis of most common cancer types with an overall accuracy of 86.7%.

  3. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on Candida albicans adherence to thermally activated acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de; Paradella, Thaís Cachuté; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 5% sodium bicarbonate on the adherence of Candida albicans to thermally activated acrylic resin. Fifty 4 mm(2) specimens of acrylic resin were obtained using a metallic matrix. The specimens received chemical polishing, were sterilized and then immersed in Sabouraud broth, inoculated with Candida albicans standardized suspension. After 24 hours of incubation at 37 degrees Celsius, the specimens were divided into four groups according to the substance used for disinfection (5% sodium bicarbonate, 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine, vinegar and Corega Tabs). A control group was included, in which distilled water was used. The adhered microorganisms were dispersed, diluted and plated onto culture media to determine the number of colony-forming units (cfu/mL). The results were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney statistical test at the 5% level of significance. Only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine and 5% sodium bicarbonate presented a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0156, respectively) compared to the control group, decreasing the number of cfu/mL. However, when the different disinfecting solutions were compared with each other, only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine presented a statistically significant difference in the reduction of cfu/mL. It was concluded that although 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine was more effective in the reduction of Candida albicans adherence values to thermally activated acrylic resin, 5% sodium bicarbonate also proved to be a viable alternative. PMID:20027444

  4. Reversibility of gastric mucosal lesions induced by sodium phosphate tablets and characterized by probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Coron, Emmanuel; Dewitte, Marie; Aubert, Philippe; Musquer, Nicolas; Neunlist, Michel; Bruley des Varannes, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Adequate bowel preparation is key for the optimal quality of colonoscopy. The sodium phosphate laxatives used for preparation may induce gastric injuries. However, in vivo studies monitoring the effects of sodium phosphate on the gastric mucosa are currently lacking. We aimed to characterize the effects of sodium phosphate tablets (Colokit®; Mayoly Spindler, Chatou, France) on the gastric mucosa in a large-animal model. Methods: Fourteen anesthetized pigs were used for this study. Fundic mucosal sites were analyzed at 1.5, 24, and 72 hours after the endoscopically guided application of sodium phosphate tablets (NaPT) and placebo tablets (PlaT) and were compared with unexposed sites. Different mucosal parameters were assessed with white light endoscopy, probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE), histology, and ex vivo permeability measurements. Results: At 90 minutes after the application of NaPT, significant increases in epithelial irregularity and crypt pit intensity were observed with pCLE. These microscopic lesions persisted at 24 hours but were resolved at 72 hours. In addition, white light endoscopy revealed local exanthema in 57 % of the animals at 1.5 hours after NaPT application. Such lesions were observed in 22 % of the pigs at 24 hours and disappeared at 72 hours after application. After 1.5 hours, PlaT induced a slight but significant increase in epithelial irregularity, as well as architectural scores that were significantly lower than the ones induced by NaPT and that disappeared after 72 hours. Conclusions: The direct and prolonged gastric application of NaPT in pigs can induce acute superficial macroscopic and microscopic injuries that are reversible within 72 hours. PMID:26134776

  5. Sodium remote from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. A.; Schneider, N. M.

    1981-12-01

    Measurements of sodium emission lines originating in the middle Jupiter magnetosphere are measured, confirming the wide dispersal of neutral sodium in the Jovian system in at least two distinct manifestations. Candidate neutral transport processes in the context of the observed kinematical signatures are discussed. It is argued that the normal emission feature is produced by sodium atoms on bound elliptical orbits originating in the Io sodium cloud but with apojove in the field of view. Observations of the fast sodium feature indicate that atoms episodically acquire a broad range of line-of-sight velocities above the Jupiter gravitational escape speed and far above the speeds characteristic of surface-sputtered atoms. Three suggested reactions are distinguished according to (1) production rates based on estimated plasmaspheric properties, (2) kinematical signature, and (3) the timing of occurrences of the fast sodium feature.

  6. Rapid oxalate determination in blood and synthetic urine using a newly developed oxometer.

    PubMed

    Canales, Benjamin K; Richards, Nigel G; Peck, Ammon B

    2013-02-01

    Blood and urine oxalate determinations have been limited to the laboratory setting because of complex sample storage and processing methods as well as the need for color spectrophotometry and ion chromatography. We hypothesized that glucometer test strips, impregnated with glucose oxidase and dyes that measure secondary hydrogen peroxide production, could be infused with oxalate oxidase and produce enhanced color changes in the presence of oxalate. By increasing the amount of sodium oxalate in fresh blood, we found that glucometer-measured oxalate increased on a linear scale. In addition, oxalate levels in synthetic urine could be measured using a visual scale, suggesting that strip dwell time or oxalate/oxalate oxidase concentrations could be manipulated to enhance optimal sensitivity. Although further testing is necessary, this simple, first-generation oxometer may eventually allow point of care testing in the home or office, empowering patients with oxalate-based medical conditions and giving healthcare providers real-time oxalate feedback.

  7. Development of a sensitive radioreceptor assay for oxyphenonium in plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Ensing, K; Kluivingh, F; Gerding, T K; De Zeeuw, R A

    1984-04-01

    A radioreceptor assay (RRA) for oxyphenonium has been developed. It is based on competition between [3H]dexetimide and oxyphenonium for binding to muscarinic receptors from calf striata. The RRA is optimized towards incubation medium and to extraction by ion pair formation with sodium picrate. At least 4 X 10(-10) M of oxyphenonium is necessary to permit a reliable assay. This corresponds to a detection limit of drug of 2 ng ml-1 urine. After extraction, drug at 100 pg ml-1 of plasma can be estimated using 4 ml samples. The method is applicable to monitoring the drug and to the determination of its pharmacokinetics after therapeutic dosing. Urine levels can also be monitored. PMID:6144769

  8. The preservation of urine samples for determination of renal stone risk factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicar, M. J.; Hsu, M. C.; Johnson, T.; Pak, C. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A preservation technique for urine specimens before determination of stone risk factors was evaluated. The purpose of these experiments was to prove the effectiveness of the preservatives used to prevent changes in the concentrations of those constituents measured. Measured concentrations in fresh specimens were compared with those in the same specimens after storage with the preservatives. Refrigeration at 4 degrees C up to five days was appropriate in a laboratory setting, as no significant changes in urinary concentrations occurred. Refrigeration, however, did not offer a convenient method for shipping. Chemical preservation was found to be an effective alternative to refrigeration. Thymol prevented changes in concentration of pH, citrate, uric acid, sulfate, sodium, potassium, and cyclic AMP, while a mixture of hydrochloric (HCl) acid and boric acid prevented changes in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, oxalate, ammonium, and creatinine. Thus, the addition of thymol or HCl/boric acid to urine specimens will prevent significant changes in the concentrations of stone risk factors.

  9. Color recognition system for urine analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lianqing; Wang, Zicai; Lin, Qian; Dong, Mingli

    2010-08-01

    In order to increase the speed of photoelectric conversion, a linear CCD is applied as the photoelectric converter instead of the traditional photodiode. A white LED is used as the light source of the system. The color information of the urine test strip is transferred into the CCD through a reflecting optical system. It is then converted to digital signals by an A/D converter. The test results of urine analysis are obtained by a data processing system. An ARM microprocessor is selected as the CPU of the system and a CPLD is employed to provide a driving timing for the CCD drive and the A/D converter. Active HDL7.2 and Verilog HDL are used to simulate the driving timing of the CPLD. Experimental results show that the correctness rate of the test results is better than 90%. The system satisfies the requirements of the color information collection of urine analyzer.

  10. Optimization of a pre-MEKC separation SPE procedure for steroid molecules in human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Olędzka, Ilona; Kowalski, Piotr; Dziomba, Szymon; Szmudanowski, Piotr; Bączek, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Many steroid hormones can be considered as potential biomarkers and their determination in body fluids can create opportunities for the rapid diagnosis of many diseases and disorders of the human body. Most existing methods for the determination of steroids are usually time- and labor-consuming and quite costly. Therefore, the aim of analytical laboratories is to develop a new, relatively low-cost and rapid implementation methodology for their determination in biological samples. Due to the fact that there is little literature data on concentrations of steroid hormones in urine samples, we have made attempts at the electrophoretic determination of these compounds. For this purpose, an extraction procedure for the optimized separation and simultaneous determination of seven steroid hormones in urine samples has been investigated. The isolation of analytes from biological samples was performed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with dichloromethane and compared to solid phase extraction (SPE) with C18 and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) columns. To separate all the analytes a micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECK) technique was employed. For full separation of all the analytes a running buffer (pH 9.2), composed of 10 mM sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax), 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 10% methanol was selected. The methodology developed in this work for the determination of steroid hormones meets all the requirements of analytical methods. The applicability of the method has been confirmed for the analysis of urine samples collected from volunteers--both men and women (students, amateur bodybuilders, using and not applying steroid doping). The data obtained during this work can be successfully used for further research on the determination of steroid hormones in urine samples. PMID:24232737

  11. Dietary sodium bicarbonate as a treatment for exertional rhabdomyolysis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Robb, E J; Kronfeld, D S

    1986-03-15

    A 3-year-old mare repeatedly had clinical signs of rhabdomyolysis on mild exertion. Serum creatine kinase and aspartate transaminase activities were high at rest. Responses to dietary sodium bicarbonate were tested through 7 alternating periods of supplementation of a basal ration of timothy hay and oats. Physical signs; venous blood pH and gases; blood glucose and lactate; serum electrolytes, enzymes, and creatinine; and urine pH were monitored before and after exercise. Dietary sodium bicarbonate raised resting venous blood pH and bicarbonate slightly and significantly increased urine pH from pH 7.46 to 8.2 (P less than 0.001). An exercise test included 5 minutes at the walk followed by 20 minutes at the trot. The exercise induced gait stiffness, muscle fasciculations, and muscle induration when the diet was not supplemented, but not when it was supplemented with sodium bicarbonate. Myoglobin was present in 16 of 21 urine samples after exercise during nonsupplemented periods, but only in 3 of 28 urine samples during supplemented periods (P less than 0.0001). Bicarbonate supplementation significantly decreased the responses of blood lactic acid, serum creatine kinase, and aspartate transaminase to exercise. Supplementation of the diet was associated with higher venous blood pH and bicarbonate ion concentrations throughout exercise. Dietary sodium bicarbonate apparently mitigated or prevented physical, chemical, and enzymatic characteristics of exertional rhabdomyolysis in this mare, possibly through its enhancement of buffering capacity in muscle tissue fluids.

  12. Sodium nitroprusside: low price and safe drug to control BP during thrombolysis in AIS.

    PubMed

    Koslyk, Jessyca L; Ducci, Renata D; Nóvak, Edison M; Zétola, Viviane F; Lange, Marcos C

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzes the use of sodium nitroprusside (SN) as an option to reduce blood pressure (BP) below 180/105 mmHg during the management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in patients submitted to intravenous thrombolysis.Method The sample was composed by 60 patients who had AIS and were submitted to intravenous rtPA, split in two groups: half in the control group (CG) with BP < 180/105 mmHg and half in SN group with BP > 180/105 mmHg. Outcome variables were any hemorrhagic transformation (HT); the presence of symptomatic HT, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) after 24 hours of treatment; the independence on discharge and death until three months after stroke onset.Results There were no statistical differences between both groups to any of the outcome variables analyzed.Conclusion The SN might be safe for BP control during thrombolysis to AIS. PMID:26352493

  13. Fluoride and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) release from fluoride varnishes supplemented with TMP.

    PubMed

    Manarelli, Michele Mauricio; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Percinoto, Célio; Pessan, Juliano Pelim

    2016-05-20

    This study assessed fluoride (F) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) release into artificial saliva from varnishes containing 0%, 2.5%, and 5% NaF, supplemented or not with 5% TMP. The varnishes were applied on polyester sheets (n = 8/group), and F and TMP released into artificial saliva were measured for up to 24 hours. The amount of F and TMP released were directly related to NaF and TMP concentrations in the varnishes. The highest F release was seen for 5% NaF and 5% NaF + 5% TMP, whereas 5% TMP released the highest amount of TMP. However, the simultaneous addition of NaF and TMP to varnishes significantly reduced the amount of F and TMP released from the products. PMID:27223137

  14. Daily salt intake estimated by overnight urine collections indicates a high cardiovascular disease risk in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Nedsuwan, Supalert; Moolphate, Saiyud; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Tsutomu; Minematsu, Kazuo; Tanimura, Susumu; Marui, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study (February 2012 to March 2013) was conducted to estimate daily salt intake and basic characteristics among 793 community-dwelling participants at high risk of cardiovascular disease (Framingham risk score >15%), who had visited diabetes or hypertension clinics at health centres in the Muang district, Chiang Rai, Thailand. We performed descriptive analysis of baseline data and used an automated analyser to estimate the average of 24-hour salt intake estimated from 3 days overnight urine collection. Participants were divided into two groups based on median estimated daily salt intake. Mean age and proportion of males were 65.2 years and 37.6% in the higher salt intake group (>=10.0 g/day, n=362), and 67.5 years and 42.7% in the lower salt intake group (<10.0 g/day, n=431), respectively (p=0.01, p<0.01). The higher salt intake group comprised more patients with a family history of hypertension, antihypertensive drug use, less ideal body mass index (18.5-24.9), higher exercise frequency (>=2 times weekly) and lower awareness of high salt intake. Among higher salt intake participants, those with lower awareness of high salt intake were younger and more often had a family history of hypertension, relative to those with more awareness. Our data indicated that families often share lifestyles involving high salt intake, and discrepancies between actual salt intake and awareness of high salt intake may represent a need for salt reduction intervention aiming at family level. Awareness of actual salt intake should be improved for each family. PMID:26965760

  15. Voluntary sodium intake during effort in hot environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohar, E.; Adar, R.; Hershco, A.

    1982-01-01

    The factors that influence the amount of salt that a person adds to his food at mealtime, and the part played by the general requirement for salt in the daily diet stemming from the coluntary input of salt are studied. Careful measurements of salt intake and outflow were performed on ten marchers in a high temperature environment who were given individual salt shakers that were weighed before and after each meal. Some marchers were told to add salt to their meals on specific days. No parallelity was found between the voluntary sodium intake and the general sodium intake, the excretion of sodium in the urine or the environmental heat stress. Individual food habit was found to be the most important factor.

  16. Metabolism and Excretion Rates of Parent and Hydroxy-PAHs in Urine Collected after Consumption of Traditionally Smoked Salmon for Native American Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Motorykin, Oleksii; Santiago-Delgado, Lisandra; Rohlman, Diana; Schrlau, Jill E.; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Harding, Anna; Kile, Molly L.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have been published on the excretion rates of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) following oral exposure. This study investigated metabolism and excretion rates of 4 parent PAHs and 10 OH-PAHs after the consumption of smoked salmon. Nine members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation consumed 50 g of traditionally smoked salmon with breakfast and five urine samples were collected during the following 24 hours. The concentrations of OH-PAHs increased from 43.9 μg/g creatinine for 2-OH-Nap to 349 ng/g creatinine for 1-OH-Pyr, 3 to 6 hr post-consumption. Despite volunteers following a restricted diet, there appeared to be a secondary source of naphthalene and fluorene, which led to excretion efficiencies greater than 100%. For the parent PAHs that were detected in urine, the excretion efficiencies ranged from 13% for phenanthrene (and its metabolite) to 240% for naphthalene (and its metabolites). The half-lives for PAHs ranged from 1.4 hr for retene to 3.3 hr for pyrene. The half-lives for OH-PAHs were higher and ranged from 1.7 hr for 9-OH-fluorene to 7.0 hr for 3-OH-fluorene. The concentrations of most parent PAHs, and their metabolites, returned to the background levels 24 hr post-consumption. PMID:25659315

  17. Low urine pH and acid excretion do not predict bone fractures or the loss of bone mineral density: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The acid-ash hypothesis, the alkaline diet, and related products are marketed to the general public. Websites, lay literature, and direct mail marketing encourage people to measure their urine pH to assess their health status and their risk of osteoporosis. The objectives of this study were to determine whether 1) low urine pH, or 2) acid excretion in urine [sulfate + chloride + 1.8x phosphate + organic acids] minus [sodium + potassium + 2x calcium + 2x magnesium mEq] in fasting morning urine predict: a) fragility fractures; and b) five-year change of bone mineral density (BMD) in adults. Methods Design: Cohort study: the prospective population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between acid excretion (urine pH and urine acid excretion) in fasting morning with the incidence of fractures (6804 person years). Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between acid excretion with changes in BMD over 5-years at three sites: lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip (n = 651). Potential confounders controlled included: age, gender, family history of osteoporosis, physical activity, smoking, calcium intake, vitamin D status, estrogen status, medications, renal function, urine creatinine, body mass index, and change of body mass index. Results There were no associations between either urine pH or acid excretion and either the incidence of fractures or change of BMD after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion Urine pH and urine acid excretion do not predict osteoporosis risk. PMID:20459740

  18. Physiological assessment of deer populations by analysis of urine in snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1989-01-01

    We compared the nutritional status of free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 3 natural yards and 1 yard where deer were supplementally fed from 1 January to 31 March 1985 in northeastern Minnesota. We monitored deer nutritonal status by sequential collection and chemical analysis of urine in snow (snow-urine) for urea nitrogen (U), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P). Dilution of urine by snow was corrected by comparing these data as ratios to creatinine (C). All deer remained in an early phase of undernutrition; however, declining trends of U:C, Na:C, and K:C in 2 natural yards indicated increasingly inadequate nutrition as winter progressed. Unaltered values of these ratios and P.C in snow-urine collected from the third natural yard reflected stable levels of nutrient availability. Significant (P < 0.05) elevations of Na:C, K:C, and P:C in 2 natural yards with similar snow regimes suggested initiation of nutritional recovery in deer during late March. In contrast, deep snow in the third natural yard restricted feeding activity and was associated with ratios that remained diminished. Elevated U:C, Na:C, and K:C provided physiological evidence of the higher nutritional status of supplementally fed deer throughout winter and their ability to increase nutrient intake during late March despite prolonged deep snow cover. Frequent and quantitative assessments of the physiological status of deer by snow-urine analysis provided an improved understanding of the relationship between snow cover and the nutritional well-being of these deer.

  19. CHROMagar Orientation Medium Reduces Urine Culture Workload

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, Kanchana; Karlowsky, James A.; Adam, Heather; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R. S.; Rendina, Assunta; Pang, Paulette; Murray, Brenda-Lee

    2013-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories continually strive to streamline and improve their urine culture algorithms because of the high volumes of urine specimens they receive and the modest numbers of those specimens that are ultimately considered clinically significant. In the current study, we quantitatively measured the impact of the introduction of CHROMagar Orientation (CO) medium into routine use in two hospital laboratories and compared it to conventional culture on blood and MacConkey agars. Based on data extracted from our Laboratory Information System from 2006 to 2011, the use of CO medium resulted in a 28% reduction in workload for additional procedures such as Gram stains, subcultures, identification panels, agglutination tests, and biochemical tests. The average number of workload units (one workload unit equals 1 min of hands-on labor) per urine specimen was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5326 to 1.047) from 2.67 in 2006 (preimplementation of CO medium) to 1.88 in 2011 (postimplementation of CO medium). We conclude that the use of CO medium streamlined the urine culture process and increased bench throughput by reducing both workload and turnaround time in our laboratories. PMID:23363839

  20. Automated detection of bacteria in urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleig, A. J.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Kelbaugh, B. N.

    1972-01-01

    A method for detecting the presence of bacteria in urine was developed which utilizes the bioluminescent reaction of adenosine triphosphate with luciferin and luciferase derived from the tails of fireflies. The method was derived from work on extraterrestrial life detection. A device was developed which completely automates the assay process.

  1. Ophthalmoplegia in Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, David S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reported is the case of a female infant whose early symptom of ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of one or more motor nerves in the eye) led to eventual diagnosis and treatment for maple syrup urine disease, a condition in which early dietary restrictions can prevent severe mental retardation and neurologic disability. (DB)

  2. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers urine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks. Also, the workers urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group. Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks. Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors.

  3. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  4. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to surface trapping of neutrals and ions and depletion of the sodium available for ejection from the surfaces of grains. The change in the sodium exosphere is calculated during one Mercury year taking into account the variations in the solar radiation pressure, the photo-ionization frequency, the solar wind density, the photon and meteoroid flux intensities, and the surface temperature. Line-of-sight column densities at different phase angles, the supply rate of new sodium, average neutral and ion losses over a Mercury year, surface density distribution and the importance of the different processes of ejection are discussed in this paper. The sodium surface density distribution is found to become significantly nonuniform from day to night sides, from low to high latitudes and from morning to afternoon because of rapid depletion of sodium atoms in the surfaces of grains mainly driven by thermal depletion. The shape of the exosphere, as it would be seen from the Earth, changes drastically with respect to Mercury's heliocentric position. High latitude column density maxima are related to maxima in the sodium surface concentration at high latitudes in Mercury's surface and are not necessarily due to solar wind sputtering. The ratio between the sodium column density on the morning side of Mercury's exosphere and the sodium column density on the afternoon side is consistent with the conclusions of Sprague et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 506-527). The model, which has no fitting parameters, shows surprisingly good agreement with recent observations of Potter et

  5. Chronic Arsenicosis of Cattle in West Bengal and It's Possible Mitigation by Sodium Thiosulfate.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Choton K; Datta, Bakul K; Biswas, Suman; Maji, Chinmoy; Sarkar, Samar; Mandal, Tapan K; Majumder, Debasish; Chakraborty, Animesh K

    2011-07-01

    Thirty milch cows having arsenic concentration in hair varying from 3 to 4 mg/kg from Dakhin Panchpota village of Nadia district, West Bengal, were divided into three equal groups where high amount of arsenic is reported to be present in soil and ground water. Groups II and III received, respectively, sodium thiosulfate 20 and 40 g to each animal for 30 days as a pilot study, whereas group I served as untreated control. Arsenic content of milk, feces, hair, and urine was estimated before and after administration of sodium thiosulfate orally at two dose level once daily for 1 month. Paddy straw, mustard oil cake, and water fed by animals were also assayed. Sodium thiosulfate significantly decreased arsenic load in milk, urine, and hair after 1 month. In milk, arsenic concentration was decreased significantly which may be beneficial for animal and human beings. PMID:21976819

  6. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  7. Mutagenicity studies with urine concentrates from coke plant workers

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, M.; Dybing, E.

    1980-01-01

    Urine from coke plant workers, collected before and after work, were tested for the content of mutagenic substances in the Salmonella test system. Urine extracts from exposed smokers showed mutagenic activity, whereas urine from exposed nonsmokers did not. The mutagenicity of exposed smoker's urine was not significantly different from that of urine from nonexposed smokers. Mutagenicity of smokers' urine was only evident in the presence of a rat liver metabolic activation system. The addition of beta-glucuronidase did not enhance the mutagenic effect. The facts that coke plant workers are exposed to very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and that there is no observed enhanced mutagenicity of their urine in